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Sample records for pre-term mother-infant dyads

  1. Measles Antibodies in Mother-Infant Dyads in Tianjin, China.

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    Boulton, Matthew L; Wang, Xiexiu; Wagner, Abram L; Zhang, Ying; Carlson, Bradley F; Gillespie, Brenda W; Ding, Yaxing

    2017-11-27

    Many measles cases in Tianjin, China, occur in infants whose mothers were born after widespread vaccination programs. We assessed age-specific decreases in maternal measles antibodies in infants and examined maternal and infant characteristics in relation to infant antibody titers. Infant and mother dyads were enrolled from a sample of immunization clinics in all Tianjin districts. Participants' antibody titers were measured from dried blood spots. A multivariable log-linear model regressed infant antibody titers onto infant and mother characteristics. Among 551 infants aged ≤8 months, protective levels of measles antibodies were observed in infants whose mothers had measles titers ≥800 IU/mL (mean antibody titer, 542.5 IU/mL) or 400 to measles and an accordingly low efficiency of transplacental transmission to a fetus. Current vaccination programs, which target children aged 8 months through adolescence may be ineffective in controlling transmission of measles to infants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Chronic stress in the mother-infant dyad: Maternal hair cortisol, infant salivary cortisol and interactional synchrony.

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    Tarullo, Amanda R; St John, Ashley Moore; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-05-01

    Stress physiology is shaped by early experience, with enduring effects on health. The relation of chronic maternal physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol, to infants' stress systems and to mother-infant interaction quality has not been established. We examined maternal hair and salivary cortisol, six-month-old infants' salivary cortisol, and mother-infant interaction in 121 mother-infant dyads. High maternal hair cortisol was related to higher infant average salivary cortisol concentration. Maternal hair cortisol and bedtime salivary cortisol were both uniquely related to infant bedtime salivary cortisol. Mothers with higher hair cortisol were more intrusive and had lower positive engagement synchrony with their infants. Maternal intrusiveness moderated the association of maternal hair cortisol and infant salivary cortisol, such that maternal hair and infant average salivary cortisol were related only when mothers were more intrusive. Maternal chronic physiological stress may upregulate infants' developing stress systems, particularly in the context of lower mother-infant interaction quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PATTERNS OF EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-INFANT DYADS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH MULTIPLE LEVELS OF CONTEXT.

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    Mingo, M Verónica; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study explored emotional availability (EA)- an individual's emotional responsiveness and attunement to another's needs and goals (R.N. Emde, 1980)- among a high social risk group of 226 adolescent mothers and their infants (average = 12 months old). The aim was to identify dyadic patterns of EA and to examine their association with multiple indicators of the ecological context. Maternal sensitivity, maternal nonhostility, and child responsiveness were assessed with the Emotional Availability Scales, Third Edition (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 1998) during free play and teaching observations at home. Four EA patterns were identified using k-means cluster analysis: (a) "low functioning," (b) "high functioning," (c) "low functioning dyads with nonhostile mothers," and (d) "inconsistently sensitive mother and responsive child." These patterns had distinct associations with (a) mothers' parenting attitudes regarding children's power and independence and parent-child role reversal, (b) mothers' strategies in conflict resolution with their partners and their children, and (c) the dyads' living arrangements. This study makes a contribution to the understanding of the mother-child relationship from a systemic and relational perspective and explores the association of EA patterns with the dyads' relational context. Implications for programs and treatment approaches aimed at supporting dyads at social risk are discussed. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive mother-infant dyads.

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    Hartley, C; Pretorius, K; Mohamed, A; Laughton, B; Madhi, S; Cotton, M F; Steyn, B; Seedat, S

    2010-05-01

    Maternal postpartum depression poses significant risks for mother-child interaction and long-term infant outcomes. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status has also been implicated in the development of postpartum depression, but the association between maternal depression and infant social behavior in the context of HIV infection has not been fully investigated. First, we examined the relationship between maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal at 10-12 months of age in HIV-infected mothers and infants. Second, we ascertained whether infant social withdrawal could be significantly predicted by maternal postpartum depression. The sample consisted of 83 HIV-infected mother-infant dyads. Mothers were assessed for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and infant social withdrawal behavior was rated using the Modified Alarm Distress Baby Scale (m-ADBB). 42.2% of the mothers scored above the cut-off point for depression on the EPDS, and a third of infants (31%) were socially withdrawn. Notably, maternal depression did not predict infant social withdrawal as measured by the m-ADBB. Infant social withdrawal was also not significantly associated with failure to thrive or gender. These preliminary findings need further investigation with respect to the impact on long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes.

  5. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother-Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis.

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    Chebaya, Philip; Karakochuk, Crystal D; March, Kaitlin M; Chen, Nancy N; Stamm, Rosemary A; Kroeun, Hou; Sophonneary, Prak; Borath, Mam; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Houghton, Lisa A; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Tim J; Whitfield, Kyly C

    2017-03-12

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother-infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum) and in Cambodia (assessed between 3-27 weeks post-partum). Canadian mothers ( n = 124) consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers ( n = 69) were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI) in pmol/L) were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747), 452 (400, 504), and 506 (459, 552); in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687), 317 (256, 378), and 357 (312, 402). The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L): 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated ( p < 0.05); only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians ( p < 0.001).

  6. Breastfeeding, Bonding, and the Mother-Infant Relationship.

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    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 570 mother-infant pairs to test the bonding hypothesis and the good-enough caregiver hypothesis as they relate to breastfeeding with maternal bonding and the mother-infant relationship. Found that breastfeeding dyads tended to show higher-quality relationships at 12 months than did bottle-feeding dyads.…

  7. Care of the mother-infant dyad: a novel approach to conducting and evaluating neonatal resuscitation simulation training in Bihar, India.

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    Vail, Brennan; Spindler, Hilary; Morgan, Melissa C; Cohen, Susanna R; Christmas, Amelia; Sah, Pramod; Shah, Malay B; Das, Aritra; Walker, Dilys M

    2017-07-28

    demands for higher-level triage and management. Although further evaluation of the PRONTO methodology is necessary to understand the full scope of its impact, this analysis highlights the importance of conducting and evaluating simulation training in low-resource settings based on simultaneous care of the mother-infant dyad.

  8. Quantitative Methodologies Reveal a Diversity of Nutrition, Infection/Illness, and Psychosocial Stressors During Pregnancy and Lactation in Rural Mam-Mayan Mother-Infant Dyads From the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

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    Chomat, Anne Marie; Solomons, Noel W; Koski, Kristine G; Wren, Hilary M; Vossenaar, Marieke; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-12-01

    The nature and severity of 3 categories of maternal stressors (nutritional, infectious, and psychosocial) that may impact maternal health and early infant growth are not often considered together. To describe quantitative methodologies; assess construct validity of questionnaires; report variability in sociodemographic, obstetric, nutritional, infectious, and psychosocial characteristics; and compare characteristics between pregnancy and lactation and between study cohorts of Mam-Mayan mother-infant dyads. Grounded in participatory action research and a socioecological framework, this observational study enrolled a longitudinal cohort of 155 women, followed during pregnancy (6-9 months), early (0-6 weeks), and later (4-6 months) postpartum, and 2 cross-sectional cohorts (60 early and 56 later postpartum). Household and social factors; obstetric history; nutritional, infectious, and psychosocial stressors; and infant characteristics were explored. Diet diversity (3.4 ± 1.3) and adult food security (38%) were low. Urinary and gastrointestinal infections were rare (<5%), whereas experience of local idioms of distress was frequent (20%-50%). Participants reported low maternal autonomy (81%), high paternal support (70%), small social support networks (2.7 ± 1.3 individuals), and high trust in family (88%) and community-based institutions (61%-65%) but low trust in government services (6%). Domestic violence was commonly reported (22%). Infant stunting was common (36% early postpartum and 43% later postpartum) despite frequent antenatal care visits (7.5 ± 3.8). Participant engagement with the research team did not influence study outcomes based on comparisons between longitudinal and cross-sectional cohorts. The variability in sociodemographic, nutritional, and psychosocial variables, will allow exploration of factors that promote resilience or increase vulnerability of the mother-infant dyad. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

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    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  10. Breastfeeding in Depressed Mother-Infant Dyads.

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    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…

  11. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

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    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Longitudinal Associations between the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions and Brain Development across Infancy

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    Bernier, Annie; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if normative variations in parenting relate to brain development among typically developing children. A sample of 352 mother-infant dyads came to the laboratory when infants were 5, 10, and 24 months of age (final N = 215). At each visit, child resting electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded.…

  13. Early dyadic patterns of mother-infant interactions and outcomes of prematurity at 18 months.

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    Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Borghini, Ayala; Moessinger, Adrien; Muller-Nix, Carole

    2006-07-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental and socioemotional outcomes. The quality of the early mother-infant relationship has been noted as 1 of the factors that may exacerbate or soften the potentially adverse impact of preterm birth, particularly concerning the infant's later competencies and development. The first purpose of the study was to identify at 6 months of corrected age whether there were specific dyadic mother-infant patterns of interaction in preterm as compared with term mother-infant dyads. The second purpose was to examine the potential impact of these dyadic patterns on the infant's behavioral and developmental outcomes at 18 months of corrected age. During a 12-month period (January-December 1998), all preterm infants who were compliance, difficult, and passivity). At 18 months, behavioral outcomes of the children were assessed on the basis of a semistructured interview of the mother, the Symptom Check List. The Symptom Check List explores 4 groups of behavioral symptoms: sleeping problems, eating problems, psychosomatic symptoms, and behavioral and emotional disorders. At the same age, developmental outcomes were evaluated using the Griffiths Developmental Scales. Five areas were evaluated: locomotor, personal-social, hearing and speech, eye-hand coordination, and performance. Among the possible dyadic patterns of interaction, 2 patterns emerge recurrently in mother-infant preterm dyads: a "cooperative pattern" with a sensitive mother and a cooperative-responsive infant (28%) and a "controlling pattern" with a controlling mother and a compulsive-compliant infant (28%). The remaining 44% form a heterogeneous group that gathers all of the other preterm dyads and is composed of 1 sensitive mother-passive infant; 10 controlling mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant; and 10 unresponsive mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant. Among the term control

  14. Mother-Infant Attachment in Adoptive Families.

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    Singer, Leslie M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    No differences were found in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Suggests that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships…

  15. Mother-infant attachment and the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Egeland, Byron; Carlson, Elizabeth; Blood, Emily; Wright, Rosalind J

    2014-02-01

    Evidence for the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is documented in the literature, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for elucidating the ways in which maternal PTSD may increase offspring PTSD vulnerability. The current study utilized two independent prospective data sets to test the hypotheses that (a) maternal PTSD increases the probability of developing an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship and (b) an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship increases the risk of developing PTSD following trauma exposure in later life. In the first study of urban, primarily low-income ethnic/racial minority mothers and infants (N = 45 dyads), elevated maternal PTSD symptoms at 6 months were associated with increased risk for an insecure, particularly disorganized, mother-infant attachment relationship at 13 months. In the second birth cohort of urban, low-income mothers and children (N = 96 dyads), insecure (avoidant or resistant) attachment in infancy was associated in a dose-response manner with increased lifetime risk for a diagnosis of PTSD by adolescence. A history of disorganized attachment in infancy predicted severity of PTSD symptoms, including reexperiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal, and total symptoms, at 17.5 years. In both studies, associations between attachment and PTSD were not attributable to numerous co-occurring risk factors. The findings suggest that promoting positive mother-child relationships in early development, particularly in populations at high risk for trauma exposure, may reduce the incidence of PTSD.

  16. Estudio de la expresividad emocional y la regulación afectiva en díadas madre-bebé durante el primer año de vida y su relación con la autoestima materna Study of emotional expressivity and affective regulation in mother-infant dyads during the first year of life and its relation to maternal self esteem

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    Clara Raznoszczyk de Schejtman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo presenta una articulación entre resultados provenientes de la investigación empírica observacional en díadas madre-bebé y conceptualizaciones psicoanalíticas acerca de la estructuración psíquica. Se recorren conceptos freudianos acerca del rol del auxiliar externo en los primeros tiempos de la vida y especialmente en la constitución de yo. Estos conceptos se ligan a los aportes acerca de la regulación afectiva y el Modelo de Regulación Mutua producidos por los investigadores de infantes. Se filmaron 40 díadas madre bebé y se evaluó la regulación afectiva a través del microanálisis de 3 minutos de interacción cara a cara madre-bebé y 5 minutos de juego libre. Se estudió la autoestima materna a través de una entrevista y de instrumentos autoadministrados. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos acerca de las relaciones entre: la expresividad observada en la madre y el bebé, la expresividad y la autoestima materna y las diferencias obtenidas en las variables según el género de los bebés.The present paper deals with the overlapping between data obtained from observational mother-infant research and psychoanalytical conceptualizations on psychic structure. Freudian concepts, such as the function of the helping external object in the first time of life are presented and specially ego constitution is described. These concepts are linked to the contributions of infant researchers on affective regulation and Mutual Regulation Model. 40 mother-infant dyads were videotaped and affective regulation was studied through the microanalysis of 3 minutes face to face interaction and 5 minutes free play. Maternal self esteem was studied through an interview and self administered instruments offered to the mothers. Results are presented on: the relations obtained between the observed expressivity in the mother and the infant, the relations obtained between Maternal Self Esteem and expressivity and the relation obtained in

  17. Maternal Self-Critical and Dependent Personality Styles and Mother-Infant Communication.

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    Beebe, Beatrice; Lachmann, Frank

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated mother-infant communication in relation to Blatt's measures of adult personality organization, namely, interpersonal relatedness and self-definition, defining the higher ends of these two measures as dependency and self-criticism, respectively. A nonclinical sample of 126 mother-infant dyads provided the data. An evaluation of maternal self-criticism and dependency was made six weeks postpartum; four months postpartum, mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were studied and analyzed in conjunction with the earlier evaluation. Self- and interactive contingencies were defined by the predictability within, and between, the behaviors of each partner. This approach assesses the process of relating from moment to moment within a dyad. Self-contingency measures the degree of stability/variability of one person's ongoing rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency measures the likelihood that one person's behavior is influenced by the behavior of the partner. Infant and mother facial affect, gaze, and touch, and infant vocal affect, were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Maternal self-criticism and dependency had strikingly different effects on mother-infant communication. Self-critical mothers showed lowered attention and emotion coordination, staying more "separate" from infants in these realms, compromising infant interactive efficacy. This finding is consistent with Blatt and colleagues' descriptions of self-critical individuals as preoccupied with self-definition, compromising relatedness. Dependent mothers and their infants showed reciprocal emotional vigilance, consistent with Blatt and colleague's description of dependent individuals as "empty" and "needy" of emotional supplies from their partner. The study documents that the influence of the mother's personality organization operates through both infant and maternal contributions, a co-created process rather than a direct unilateral

  18. Long-term effects of mother-infant psychoanalysis

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    Winberg Salomonsson, Majlis

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a long-term follow-up study of mothers and infants with “baby worries” or mother-infant relational disturbances, who took part in a Randomized Controlled Trial when the children were, on average, five months of age. In that study, mother-infant psychoanalysis (MIP) yielded, compared with routine care (CHCC; Child health centre care), effects on maternal depression, mother-infant relationships, maternal sensitivity, and, on a marginally significant level, maternal...

  19. Breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, and mother-infant interactions over infants' first three months.

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    Bigelow, Ann E; Power, Michelle; Gillis, Doris E; Maclellan-Peters, Janis; Alex, Marion; McDonald, Claudette

    2014-01-01

    The effects of skin-to-skin contact (SSC) on the maintenance of mothers' decision to breastfeed, the effects of breastfeeding and SSC on mother-infant interactions, and whether maternal depressive symptoms mediate these effects were investigated over infants' first 3 months. When infants were 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months of age, mothers in the SSC and control groups reported the type of infant feeding provided and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; J.L. Cox, J.M. Holden, & R. Sagovsky, 1987); mother-infant interactions were coded on the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS; G. Summer & A. Spietz, 1994). Percentage of breastfeeding dyads in the SSC group was stable over the 3 months; yet, fewer dyads in the control group were breastfeeding at the 2- and 3-month visits than at the 1-week visit. Breastfeeding dyads had higher NCAFS Caregiver subscale scores, indicating more positive maternal interactions, at 1 week, 2 months, and 3 months. NCAFS scores did not differ for the SSC and control groups. EPDS scores did not mediate the effect of SSC on breastfeeding or breastfeeding on NCAFS Caregiver subscale scores. © 2013 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review

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    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  1. [A phenomenological study on mother-infant interacting behavior patterns relating to newborn infant feeding in Korea].

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    Han, K J

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe mother-infant interacting behavior patterns related to newborn infant feeding and to explore the mother's cultural belief about their infant. The data collection was conducted by observation and interview. Twenty-five mothers and their newborn infants who were normally delivered and were also planned to breastfeed were comprised as the subjects of this study. All subjects were interviewed and observed individually at 1 to 5 days after the delivery at the hospital, mid-wife's clinic, Maternal Child Health Center and their home throughout the country from remote area to big city. The observation data were recorded with symbolic letter on a recording sheet newly developed as a result of preliminary study. The interview data were tape recorded and then recorded in narrative form. Mother-infant interaction behaviors in early-feeding period were analyzed based on 19 analytic sub-categories and their composing elements. Unit of analysis were mother, infant and mother-infant dyad. 8 analytic categories draw from the data. Each were preparation, instrument, interaction inducing, evaluation referred to mother's behavior, preparation, instrument, interaction inducing referred to infant's behavior and synchronic behaviors referred to mother-infant dyad. Frequencies of behavior items based on the categories were converted to percent. The result showed that in mother's preparation behavior, the breast condition of Korean mother can be an affecting factor for mother-infant interaction during feeding, and vocalization behavior was observed most frequently in interaction inducing behavior while the least frequent behavior observed was contacting. Subcultural characteristics of mother-infant interaction behaviors were analyzed for their relationships between groups of mothers who have lived in remote area vs urban area, and who were multipara vs primipara. Using a chi-square test, there were statistically significant relationships in the

  2. Oxytocin and mutual communication in mother-infant bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eNagasawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a non-genomic transmission of maternal environment, even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships.

  3. Stability and transitions in mother-infant face-to-face communication during the first 6 months: a microhistorical approach.

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    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Fogel, Alan

    2003-11-01

    In this study the authors attempted to unravel the relational, dynamical, and historical nature of mother-infant communication during the first 6 months. Thirteen mothers and their infants were videotaped weekly from 4 to 24 weeks during face-to-face interactions. Three distinct patterns of mother-infant communication were identified: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and unilateral. Guided by a dynamic systems perspective, the authors explored the stability of and transitions between these communication patterns. Findings from event history analysis showed that (a) there are regularly recurring dyadic communication patterns in early infancy, (b) these recurring patterns show differential stabilities and likelihoods of transitions, (c) dynamic stability in dyadic communication is shaped not only by individual characteristics (e.g., infant sex and maternal parity) but also by the dyad's communication history, and (d) depending on their recency, communication histories varying in temporal proximity exert differential effects on the self-organization processes of a dyadic system. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

  4. Disentangling the Dyadic Dance: Theoretical, Methodological and Outcomes Systematic Review of Mother-Infant Dyadic Processes

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    Provenzi, Livio; Scotto di Minico, Giunia; Giusti, Lorenzo; Guida, Elena; Müller, Mitho

    2018-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, the research on mother-infant dyad has produced a great amount of data, methods and theories, which largely contributed to set a revolution in the way we look at developmental changes during infancy and childhood. Very different constructs depict the different aspects of the “dyadic dance” occurring between a mother and her infant; nonetheless, a comprehensive and consistent systematization of these concepts in a coherent theoretical landscape is still lacking. Aim: In the present work, we aim at disentangling the different theoretical and methodological definitions of 9 dyadic constructs and we highlight their effects on infants' and children developmental outcomes. Methods: A literature search has been conducted on three databases—PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science. Three different reviews are reported here: (1) a review on the theoretical definitions of dyadic constructs; (2) a review of operational definitions, settings and methods of dyadic processes; (3) a systematic review of dyadic processes' outcomes for infants' and children developmental trajectories. Results: Two constructs emerged as wide meta-theoretical concepts (reciprocity and mutuality) and seven described specific processes (attunement, contingency, coordination, matching, mirroring, reparation, synchrony). A global model resuming the relationships among different processes is reported, which highlights the emergence of two specific cycles of dyadic functioning (i.e., matching-mismatching-reparation-synchrony; contingency, coordination, attunement, mirroring). A comprehensive review of the adopted measures is also provided. Finally, all the processes provided significant contributions to infants' behavioral, cognitive, and socio-emotional development during the first 3 years of age, but limited research has been conducted on specific processes (e.g. reparation and mirroring). Conclusion: The present study provides an original research-grounded framework to

  5. A LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT: OUTCOMES ON MOTHERS AND INTERACTIONS.

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    Salomonsson, Majlis Winberg; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Salomonsson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    An earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared 80 mother-infant dyads in a Stockholm sample. One had received mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment [mother-infant psychoanalytic therapies (MIP) group], and the other received Child Health Center care (CHCC group). Effects were found on mother-reported depression and expert-rated mother-infant relationship qualities and maternal sensitivity. When the children were 412 years, the dyads were followed up with assessments of the children's attachment representations, social and emotional development, and global functioning, and the mothers' psychological well-being and representations of the child as well as the mother-child interactions. We gathered data from 66 cases approximately 312 years' posttreatment. All scores involving the mothers had now approached community levels. We found effects on maternal depression in favor of MIP, but no other between-group differences. The MIP treatments seemed to have helped the mothers to recover more quickly on personal well-being, to become more sensitive to their babies' suffering, and to better support and appreciate their children throughout infancy and toddlerhood. If so, this would explain why the MIP children had a better global functioning and were more often "OK" and less often "Troubled" at 412 years. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Tonal synchrony in mother-infant interaction based on harmonic and pentatonic series.

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    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Vanfleteren, Pol; Loots, Gerrit; Deschuyffeleer, Sara; Vinck, Bart; Jacquet, Wolfgang; Verhelst, Werner

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the occurrence of 'tonal synchrony' as a new dimension of early mother-infant interaction synchrony. The findings are based on a tonal and temporal analysis of vocal interactions between 15 mothers and their 3-month-old infants during 5 min of free-play in a laboratory setting. In total, 558 vocal exchanges were identified and analysed, of which 84% reflected harmonic or pentatonic series. Another 10% of the exchanges contained absolute and/or relative pitch and/or interval imitations. The total durations of dyads being in tonal synchrony were normally distributed (M=3.71, SD=2.44). Vocalisations based on harmonic series appeared organised around the major triad, containing significantly more simple frequency ratios (octave, fifth and third) than complex ones (non-major triad tones). Tonal synchrony and its characteristics are discussed in relation to infant-directed speech, communicative musicality, pre-reflective communication and its impact on the quality of early mother-infant interaction and child's development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THERAPISTS' EXPERIENCES OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT: A QUALITATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg Salomonsson, Majlis; Barimani, Mia

    2018-01-01

    As part of a larger research project in Sweden, a qualitative study investigated psychotherapists' experiences of mother-infant psychoanalysis (MIP). A randomized controlled trial compared two groups of mother-infant dyads with psychological problems. One had received Child Health Center care, and the other received MIP. Previous articles on long-term effects have found that mothers who had received MIP were less depressed throughout a posttreatment period of 3½ years, and their children showed better global functioning and psychological well-being. The present study's objectives were to describe the therapist's experiences of MIP and deepen the understanding of the MIP process. Six months after treatment began, all therapists were interviewed. Transcribed interviews with therapists from 10 (of 33 total) MIP treatments were randomly selected and analyzed in detail by thematic analysis. Therapists worked successfully with mother and infant together and found different ways of cooperation during MIP sessions. Therapists reported overall positive experiences; however, in cases where mothers needed more personal attention, it would be important to adapt the method to them. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

  9. Alterations of hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in mother-infant-dyads with maternal childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schury, K; Koenig, A M; Isele, D; Hulbert, A L; Krause, S; Umlauft, M; Kolassa, S; Ziegenhain, U; Karabatsiakis, A; Reister, F; Guendel, H; Fegert, J M; Kolassa, I-T

    2017-06-06

    Child maltreatment (CM) has severe effects on psychological and physical health. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major stress system of the body, is dysregulated after CM. The analysis of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in scalp hair presents a new and promising methodological approach to assess chronic HPA axis activity. This study investigated the effects of CM on HPA axis activity in the last trimester of pregnancy by measuring the two important signaling molecules, cortisol and DHEA in hair, shortly after parturition. In addition, we explored potential effects of maternal CM on her offspring's endocrine milieu during pregnancy by measuring cortisol and DHEA in newborns' hair. CM was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Cortisol and DHEA were measured in hair samples of 94 mothers and 30 newborns, collected within six days after delivery. Associations of maternal CM on her own and her newborn's cortisol as well as DHEA concentrations in hair were analyzed with heteroscedastic regression models. Higher CM was associated with significantly higher DHEA levels, but not cortisol concentrations in maternal hair. Moreover, maternal CM was positively, but only as a non-significant trend, associated with higher DHEA levels in the newborns' hair. Results suggest that the steroid milieu of the mother, at least on the level of DHEA, is altered after CM, possibly leading to non-genomic transgenerational effects on the developing fetus in utero. Indeed, we observed on an explorative level first hints that the endocrine milieu for the developing child might be altered in CM mothers. These results need extension and replication in future studies. The measurement of hair steroids in mothers and their newborns is promising, but more research is needed to better understand the effects of a maternal history of CM on the developing fetus.

  10. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Sensibilidade e aleitamento materno em díades com recém-nascidos de risco Breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity in dyads with infants born at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alfaya

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a relação entre o tipo de alimentação do bebê (aleitamento materno, fórmula e alimentação mista e os comportamentos de interação mãe-bebê, a partir do conceito de sensibilidade materna. Participaram 20 díades com bebês nascidos pré-termos (Grupo I que necessitaram de tratamento intensivo neonatal, 14 díades com bebês nascidos a termo (Grupo II que necessitaram de tratamento intensivo neonatal, e 24 díades com bebês nascidos a termo sadios (Grupo III. O risco do recém-nascido foi considerado a partir de sua necessidade de tratamento intensivo neonatal. A interação mãe-bebê foi filmada durante a situação de face-a-face, aos dois meses de idade do bebê, e avaliada conforme o Protocolo de Interação Mãe-Bebê (Schermann et al. 1994 que pontua itens referentes aos comportamentos interativos da mãe, do bebê e da díade mãe-bebê. Os resultados mostraram que a sensibilidade materna diferiu entre os três grupos investigados (p = 0,039, havendo maior incidência no Grupo III (grupo controle. A partir do estudo realizado, é possível inferir que a sensibilidade materna é mais favorável em mães de bebês nascidos a termo e sadios do que em mães de bebês nascidos com risco neonatal. O aleitamento materno é um importante fator que promove o estabelecimento de uma sensibilidade materna mais favorável, sendo fundamental o incentivo da amamentação mesmo para recém-nascidos pré-termo e a termo de risco.The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the kinds of infant's feeding (breastfeeding, complement and mixed and the mother-infant interactional behaviors. The participants included 20 dyads of pre-term infant (Group I who had needed intensive care, 14 dyads of full-term infant (Group II who had needed intensive care, and 24 dyads of full-term health infants (Group III. The risk was considered by the neonatal intensive care needed. The mother-infant interaction was

  12. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  13. Mother-Infant Interaction: a Process of Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Mônica Arpini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the first experiences to the psychological constitution and that such constitution is based on parental relationships, this study aimed to comprehend the aspects that indicate health and well-being in the mother-baby relationship, focusing on the moments of breastfeeding, cry, communication and interaction of the dyad. The study was grounded on observation and an interview with the mothers. Results emerged from content analysis and highlight the presence of indicators of the Child Development Risks Index (IRDIs in the relationship of the dyad, evidencing mothers hold knowledge about their babies. Final considerations emphasize the importance of the mother-baby relationship and suggest the inclusion of Clinical Indicators of Risk regarding Child Development in services of primary health care.

  14. Maternal postnatal psychiatric symptoms and infant temperament affect early mother-infant bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interdyad Differences in Early Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Real-Time Dynamics and Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads…

  16. Hepatitis c virus antibodies in mother-infant blood pair in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies in mother-infant pair, and risk factors for vertical transmission of HCV in ABUTH Zaria. Method: One hundred motherinfant pair had serological determination for HCV antibodies from birth to 28days and a repeat at 6weeks after delivery.

  17. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  18. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching…

  19. Depressed mothers' infants are less responsive to faces and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2009-06-01

    A review of our recent research suggests that infants of depressed mothers appeared to be less responsive to faces and voices as early as the neonatal period. At that time they have shown less orienting to the live face/voice stimulus of the Brazelton scale examiner and to their own and other infants' cry sounds. This lesser responsiveness has been attributed to higher arousal, less attentiveness and less "empathy." Their delayed heart rate decelerations to instrumental and vocal music sounds have also been ascribed to their delayed attention and/or slower processing. Later at 3-6 months they showed less negative responding to their mothers' non-contingent and still-face behavior, suggesting that they were more accustomed to this behavior in their mothers. The less responsive behavior of the depressed mothers was further compounded by their comorbid mood states of anger and anxiety and their difficult interaction styles including withdrawn or intrusive interaction styles and their later authoritarian parenting style. Pregnancy massage was effectively used to reduce prenatal depression and facilitate more optimal neonatal behavior. Interaction coaching was used during the postnatal period to help these dyads with their interactions and ultimately facilitate the infants' development.

  20. Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Waasdorp Hurtado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric cases of hepatitis C viral (HCV infection. In contrast to the adult population who develop persistent viremia in approximately 80% of cases following exposure, the rate of mother-to-child transmission (2-6% is strikingly low. Protection from vertical transmission likely requires the coordination of multiple components of the immune system. Placenta and decidua provide a direct connection between mother and infant. We hypothesized that innate immune responses would differ across the three compartments (decidua, placenta and cord blood and that hepatitis C exposure would modify innate immunity in these tissues. The study was comprised of HCV-infected and healthy control mother and infant pairs from whom cord blood, placenta and decidua were collected with isolation of mononuclear cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to assess the phenotype, intracellular cytokine production and cytotoxicity of the cells. In keeping with a model where the maternal-fetal interface provides antiviral protection, we found a gradient in proportional frequencies of NKT and gammadelta-T cells being higher in placenta than cord blood. Cytotoxicity of NK and NKT cells was enhanced in placenta and placental NKT cytotoxicity was further increased by HCV infection. HCV exposure had multiple effects on innate cells including a decrease in activation markers (CD69, TRAIL and NKp44 on NK cells and a decrease in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both placenta and cord blood of exposed infants. In summary, the placenta represents an active innate immunological organ that provides antiviral protection against HCV transmission in the majority of cases; the increased incidence in preterm labor previously described in HCV-seropositive mothers may be related to enhanced cytotoxicity of NKT cells.

  1. Mother-Infant Attachment and the Intergenerational Transmission of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Carlson, Elizabeth; Blood, Emily; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is documented in the literature, though the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for elucidating the ways in which maternal PTSD may increase offspring PTSD vulnerability. The current study utilized two independent prospective datasets to test the hypotheses that (a) maternal PTSD increases the probability of developing an insecure mother-infant attachment rel...

  2. MOTHERS' EXPERIENCES OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT-A QUALITATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg Salomonsson, Majlis; Barimani, Mia

    2017-07-01

    As part of a larger research project in Sweden, a qualitative study investigated mother-infant psychoanalysis (MIP). Earlier, a randomized controlled trial compared two mother-infant groups. One received MIP, and the other received standard child health center care. Previous articles have reported long-term effects: MIP-group mothers were less depressed throughout a 3-year posttreatment period, and their children demonstrated better global functioning and psychological well-being (Winberg Salomonsson, Sorjonen, & Salomonsson, ). The present study's objectives were to describe the mothers' experiences of MIP and deepen the understanding of the MIP process. Six months after treatment started, all mothers were interviewed. Transcribed interviews of 10 (of 33) MIP-group participants were randomly selected and analyzed in detail. Thematic analysis was used on the interview data. Two main themes emerged: (a) transition to motherhood and (b) relationships with the infant and family. MIP facilitated mother-infant relationship development and familial relationship development and clarified mothers' views of how their personal histories were connected with their motherhood experiences. Mothers reported that the analysts had succeeded in balancing the mothers' own needs and those of the infant. Their accounts of therapy matched the published descriptions of MIP. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Neurosonography of the pre-term neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a description of our present understanding of the premature brain as seen through the eyes of the sonogram. Neurosonography of the Pre-Term Neonate ties the pathophysiology, anatomy and the all important clinical follow-up data to the sonogram. The book is divided into five sections: Scanning Techniques and Normal Anatomy, Pathophysiology of Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage and Ischemia, Neurosonography - Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage - Periventricular Leukomalacia, Incidence and Outcome - Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage - Periventricular Leukomalacia and Comparison of Two Modalities: Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography

  4. 'Touchpoints' by nurses: impact on maternal representations, child development, quality of mother-infant interaction, and mothers' perception of the quality of relationships with nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Hélia

    2016-05-09

    To investigate the effect of implementing the Touchpoints methodology by nurses in the following variables: quality of mother-infant interaction; infant development; maternal representations of child temperament and mothers' perception of the quality of relationship with nurses. Quasi-experimental longitudinal study, including 86 child-mother dyads distributed equally for: Group with Intervention (GI) (n=43), Group without Intervention (GWI) (n=43). These groups belonged to paired samples according to the following criteria: maternal age; socio-economic class; family structure; child health; parents' physical or psychological health; twins; family's nationality; risk during pregnancy; baby APGAR. Paired samples with the same routine visits allowed comparing the impact of Touchpoints intervention on the above mentioned variables. The monitoring of the two groups took place in a period of between 11 and 24 months of children's life (four moments of assessment), being held two Touchpoints sessions in the GI at 12 and 18 months. Two Touchpoints interventions sessions were applied in the GI as follows: the first time, at 12 months; the second time, at 24 months, child age. The instruments used for data collection were: Schedule of Growing Skills II (SGS II); CARE-Index; Temperament Scale; Parent-Caregiver Relationship Scale - parents' version. Infant Locomotor development (p=.036) and maternal representations about the child and motherhood (Z=5.737; p=.019) improved in the GI. No significant results were found for mother-infant interaction in this direct comparison. Nevertheless, findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and infant cooperative behaviour increased from 12 to 24 months in the GI [t(41)=4.513; pEmotional [t(84)= 2.334; pChildren at risk for developmental problems in the GI and GWI improved their development in Speech and Language (Z=4.772; pSocial (Z=4.0; pchildren at risk' for developmental problems when compared to the dyads of 'children at risk

  5. Neural mechanisms of mother-infant bonding and pair bonding: Similarities, differences, and broader implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numan, Michael; Young, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Mother-infant bonding is a characteristic of virtually all mammals. The maternal neural system may have provided the scaffold upon which other types of social bonds in mammals have been built. For example, most mammals exhibit a polygamous mating system, but monogamy and pair bonding between mating partners occurs in ∼5% of mammalian species. In mammals, it is plausible that the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding have been modified by natural selection to establish the capacity to develop a selective bond with a mate during the evolution of monogamous mating strategies. Here we compare the details of the neural mechanisms that promote mother-infant bonding in rats and other mammals with those that underpin pair bond formation in the monogamous prairie vole. Although details remain to be resolved, remarkable similarities and a few differences between the mechanisms underlying these two types of bond formation are revealed. For example, amygdala and nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidum (NA-VP) circuits are involved in both types of bond formation, and dopamine and oxytocin action within NA appears to promote the synaptic plasticity that allows either infant or mating partner stimuli to persistently activate NA-VP attraction circuits, leading to an enduring social attraction and bonding. Further, although the medial preoptic area is essential for maternal behavior, its role in pair bonding remains to be determined. Our review concludes by examining the broader implications of this comparative analysis, and evidence is provided that the maternal care system may have also provided the basic neural foundation for other types of strong social relationships, beyond pair bonding, in mammals, including humans. PMID:26062432

  6. An international position paper on mother-infant (perinatal) mental health, with guidelines for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Ian; Butterworth, Ruth; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to set out informal, provisional and comprehensive but concise guidelines for mother-infant (perinatal) mental health (psychiatry), as an area of specialisation. It is informal in the sense that the authors are clinicians and researchers from many different nations, who share a common goal and vision, speaking on their own behalf and not with the backing of any authority or society. It is provisional in the expectation that it can be improved by criticism and new research findings. It is a comprehensive summary of the development of the specialty, its core knowledge and recommended investigations and interventions. It is concise (under 6,000 words, taking less than an hour to read) in order to increase readership and facilitate translation. No attempt has been made to parade the evidence for these suggestions, because the document would have been too long to translate, and for many to read. Instead, drafts were circulated for criticism by those included in the authorship, resulting in a consensus (finalised by the three principal authors), providing a framework to guide service provision, clinical practice and research. The full list of authors, from 33 nations, is given in the postscript. They include mother-infant (or parent-infant) and perinatal adult or child psychiatrists and those with a special interest; mother-infant, perinatal and forensic psychologists; psychiatric nurses; the founders of Postpartum Support International and the Association for Postnatal Illness; representatives of social work and obstetrics and the management of these services, and research scientists working in the field.

  7. Chimpanzee social intelligence: selfishness, altruism, and the mother-infant bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the human mind from an evolutionary perspective, a great deal of research has focused on the closest living relative of humans, the chimpanzee, using various approaches, including studies of social intelligence. Here, I review recent research related to several aspects of social intelligence, including deception, understanding of perception and intention, social learning, trading, cooperation, and regard for others. Many studies have demonstrated that chimpanzees are proficient in using their social intelligence for selfish motives to benefit from their interactions with others. In contrast, it is not yet clear whether chimpanzees engage in prosocial behaviors that benefit others; however, chimpanzee mother-infant interactions indicate the possibility of such behaviors. Therefore, I propose that chimpanzees possess rudimentary traits of human mental competence not only in terms of theory of mind in a broader sense but also in terms of prosociality involving regard for others. Mother-infant interactions appear to be particularly important to understanding the manifestation of social intelligence from an evolutionary perspective.

  8. The dynamics of nasopharyngeal streptococcus pneumoniae carriage among rural Gambian mother-infant pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secka Ousman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community acquired pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis and otitis media globally and has been incriminated as a major cause of serious childhood bacterial infections in The Gambia. Better understanding of the dynamics of transmission and carriage will inform control strategies. Methods This study was conducted among 196 mother-infant pairs recruited at birth from six villages in the West Kiang region of The Gambia. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from mother-infant pairs at birth (within 12 hours of delivery, 2, 5 and 12 months. Standard techniques of culture were used to identify carriage and serotype S. pneumoniae. Results Of 46 serotypes identified, the 6 most common, 6A, 6B, 14, 15, 19F and 23F, accounted for 67.3% of the isolates from infants. Carriage of any serotype among infants rose from 1.5% at birth to plateau at approximately 80% by 2 m (prevalence at 2 m = 77%; 5 m = 86%; 12 m = 78%. Likewise, maternal carriage almost doubled in the first 2 months post-partum and remained elevated for the next 10 m (prevalence at birth = 13%; 2 m = 24%; 5 m = 22%; 12 m = 21%. Carriage was significantly seasonal in both infants and mothers with a peak in December and lowest transmission in August. The total number of different serotypes we isolated from each infant varied and less than would be expected had the serotypes assorted independently. In contrast, this variability was much as expected among mothers. The half-life of a serotype colony was estimated to be 1.90 m (CI95%: 1.66-2.21 in infants and 0.75 m (CI95%: 0.55-1.19 in mothers. While the odds for a serotype to be isolated from an infant increased by 9-fold if it had also been isolated from the mother, the population attributable fraction (PAF of pneumococcal carriage in infants due to maternal carriage was only 9.5%. Some marked differences in dynamics were observed between vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes. Conclusions

  9. Modeling Dyadic Processes Using Hidden Markov Models: A Time Series Approach to Mother-Infant Interactions during Infant Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Rovine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at 2 and 6?months of age, used hidden Markov modelling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a…

  10. How does microanalysis of mother-infant communication inform maternal sensitivity and infant attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month infant-mother face-to-face communication operates like a "social microscope" and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues published in 2010 that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity.

  11. Mother-infant consultation during drug treatment: Research and innovative clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester Barry M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper details a model for consulting with mothers and infants, and drug treatment staff used in a residential drug treatment program and relevant to other treatment settings. The role of parent-infant consultation based on the Neonatal Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS was evaluated. Methods A sequential cohort model was used to assign participants to 1. NNNS consultation versus 2. standard care. The effects of NNNS consultation were evaluated using the Parenting Stress Index and NNNS summary scores. Results Participants in the NNNS consultation condition had significantly less stress overall, and less stress related to infant behavior than participants in standard care. There were no differences in infant behavior on the NNNS Summary scores. Conclusion The implications for NNNS consultation in drug treatment programs is outlined. The importance of prevention/intervention to establish satisfactory mother-infant interaction in recovery programs which include a central parenting component is indicated.

  12. Mass Equivalent Dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Bai, Shaoping; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how a general 2-DoF dyad can be designed mass equivalent to a general (1-DoF) link element. This is useful in the synthesis of balanced mechanisms, for instance to increase or reduce the number of DoFs of a balanced mechanism maintaining its balance. Also it can be used as

  13. Mother-infant sleep patterns and parental functioning of room-sharing and solitary sleeping families: a longitudinal study from 3 to 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, Ella; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Meiri, Gal; Tikotzky, Liat

    2017-12-16

    To examine longitudinally differences in (a) objective and subjective sleep patterns and (b) parenting functioning (i.e., maternal emotional distress, maternal separation anxiety and parental involvement in infant care( between room-sharing and solitary sleeping mother-infant dyads. Maternal and infant sleep, sleeping arrangements and parental functioning were assessed at three (N=146), six (N=141), twelve (N=135), and eighteen (N=130) months postpartum. Maternal and infant sleep were assessed with actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Questionnaires were used to assess sleeping arrangements, nighttime breastfeeding, and parental functioning. Persistent room-sharing mothers (i.e., sharing a room with the infant on at least three assessment points) had significantly lower actigraphy-based sleep percent, lower longest sleep periods and more night-wakings than persistent solitary sleeping mothers. For infants, differences in actigraphic sleep were found only in longest sleep period, although mothers of persistent room-sharing infants reported more infant night-wakings than mothers of persistent solitary sleeping infants. The trajectories of maternal and infant sleep in both room-sharing and solitary sleeping groups demonstrated that sleep became more consolidated with time. Group differences indicated higher maternal separation anxiety and lower paternal overall and nighttime involvement in infant caregiving in room-sharing families compared to solitary-sleeping families. The findings are discussed in light of the latest American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to room-share until 12 months postpartum. Although no causal effects can be inferred from this study, maternal sleep quality and certain parenting characteristics seem to be important factors to consider when parents consult about sleeping arrangements. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions

  14. Infant Massage and Quality of Early Mother-Infant Interactions: Are There Associations with Maternal Psychological Wellbeing, Marital Quality, and Social Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Alessio; Parolin, Micol; Bozza, Giusy; Freato, Susanna; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    , seem to sustain the usefulness of infant massage and the importance of focusing on early mother-infant interactions.

  15. Desenvolvimento e contexto sociocultural: a gênese da atividade mediada nas interações iniciais mãe-bebê Development and social-cultural context: the genesis of mediated activity in initial mother infant interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Seidl de Moura

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Questões relacionadas ao desenvolvimento humano no contexto sociocultural são discutidas, utilizando-se a noção de atividade mediada como unidade de análise dos processos psicológicos humanos que não dissocia o plano individual do social. A tendência de não se analisar suficientemente as implicações teóricas de um corpo crescente de evidências empíricas sobre as interações precoces mãe-bebê é questionada. A abordagem sócio cultural e um esboço de modelo de contexto sociocultural para estudos de desenvolvimento são apresentados como alternativa para integração de algumas dessas evidências. Argumenta-se que interações mãe-bebê constituem a matriz da atividade mediada e a gênese dos processos psicológicos. São interpretados alguns dados de um estudo observacional de 30 díades mãe-bebê. Acredita-se que esta articulação teórica e interpretação de dados empíricos pode ser fértil e contribuir para a compreensão do desenvolvimento infantil inicial.The present paper discusses issues related to development as embedded in its sociocultural context, using the notion of mediated activity as an unit of analysis of psychological processes which does not dissociate the individual and the social levels. The tendency of not fully analyzing the theoretical implications of a growing set of empirical evidences in the study of early mother-infant interactions is questioned. A sociocultural perspective and a model of sociocultural context of development are presented as alternatives for the interpretation of mother-infant interactions data. We argue that such interactions are the matrix of mediated activity and the genesis of psychological processes. The data from an observational study of 30 mother-infant dyads are interpreted using the proposed theoretical perspective. We believe that the attempt to relate a theoretical perspective and the interpretation of observational data can contribute to the comprehension of early

  16. Mother-Infant Emotion Regulation at Three Months: The Role of Maternal Anxiety, Depression and Parenting Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Ferro, Valentino; Gallucci, Marcello; Parodi, Cinzia; Astengo, Marina

    While the association between anxiety and postpartum depression is well known, few studies have investigated the relationship between these two states and parenting stress. Furthermore, a number of studies have found that postpartum depression affects mother-infant emotion regulation, but there has been only one study on anxiety and emotion regulation and no studies at all on parenting stress and emotion regulation. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to identify, in a community sample of 71 mothers, the relationship between maternal depression, anxiety, and parenting stress. The second aim is to examine the relationship between anxiety, postpartum depression, and parenting stress and mother-infant emotion regulation assessed at 3 months. Mother-infant interaction was coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver and Engagement Phases (ICEP) using a microanalytic approach. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were administered to the mothers to assess depression, anxiety, and parenting stress, respectively. Analysis revealed correlations between anxiety and depression, showing that parenting stress is associated with both states. In a laboratory observation, depression was correlated with both negative maternal states and negative dyadic matches as well as infant positive/mother negative mismatches; anxiety was correlated with both negative maternal states and infant negative states as well as mismatches involving one of the partners having a negative state. Multiple regression analysis showed that anxiety is a greater predictor than depression of less adequate styles of mother-infant emotion regulation. Parenting stress was not shown to predict such regulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The music of containment: Addressing the participants in mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, Björn

    2011-11-01

    The author discusses the psychoanalyst's approach in mother-infant treatments. Emphasis is given to the infant as an important, though often neglected, addressee. A clinical example is used in which a telephone call during a prior session triggered fretting in a 3-month-old girl and distress in her mother. It is suggested that in the session, nonverbal levels of the interventions reached the girl and contained her, and that this containment worked along similar lines as the communicative musicality between mother and baby. In the discussion, the psychoanalytic concept of containment (Bion, 1962) is linked with the concept of communicative musicality (Trevarthen & Aitken, 2001). The mother's need for containment also is emphasized, and the therapist must be on alert when it is essential to focus on either participant in the therapy room. This choice is guided both by explicit deliberations and by the unconscious countertransference. However, the therapist's wish to grasp the countertransference is countered by his or her unwillingness of being reminded of feelings of infantile helplessness. Similarly, when the mother's conscious and unconscious messages diverge, the baby's ability to receive her caretaking is compromised. In the article's clinical case, this happened when the mother tried to soothe her daughter while being preoccupied with anger at the therapist to an extent to which she was not fully aware. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  19. The Effect of Psychological Intervention on Mother-Infant Bonding and Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamak Shariat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The emotional bond that a mother feels towards her infant is critical to their social, emotional, and cognitive development. This concept has a major influence on an infant’s future health, and growth, so the assessment of parental-fetal attachment and related factors is of great importance. This study aimed to examine the effect of psychological intervention on attachment and persistency of lactation.Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 71 pregnant women who visited Milad and Vali-Asr hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The subjects were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly divided into control (n=36 and intervention (n=35 groups. In the intervention group, the subjects received three sessions of supportive group psychotherapy supplemented by training packages. Avant’s mother-infant attachment behavior questionnaire, Maternal Attachment Inventory, 28-item General Health Questionnaire, and the short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were used to evaluate attachment behaviors and related factors. Attachment of mothers was examined at six different times. Statistical data was analyzed using independent t-test, Fisher’s exact test.Results: The findings indicated that the intervention group had increased attachment and breastfeeding persistency (P˂0.001. Regression test also showed that maternal attachment was significantly influenced by psychological interventions, self-esteem, and depression (P˂0.001.Conclusion: According to the results, psychological interventions are suggested during pregnancy to increase attachment and breastfeeding persistency, and thereby, improve mental health of both mother and newborn.

  20. Mutual regulation between infant facial affect and maternal touch in depressed and nondepressed dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants’ affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants. We examined the affect......-regulating function of affectionate, caregiving and playful maternal touch in 24 PPD and 47 nonclinical mother-infant dyads when infants were four months old. In order to investigate the direction of effects and to account for repeated observations, the data were analysed using time-window sequential analysis...... and Generalized Estimating Equations. The results showed that mothers adapt their touching behaviors according to negative infant facial affect; thus, when the infant displays negative facial affect, the mothers were less likely to initiate playful touch and more likely to initiate caregiving touch. Unexpectedly...

  1. Correlations between maternal, breast milk, and infant vitamin B12 concentrations among mother-infant dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Pry Veng, Cambodia: an exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal a...

  2. Bordetella pertussis Infection in South African HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Mother-Infant Dyads: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marta C; Downs, Sarah; Jones, Stephanie; van Niekerk, Nadia; Cutland, Clare L; Madhi, Shabir A

    2016-12-01

     There is a paucity of data regarding the burden of Bordetella pertussis in African women and young infants, and particularly the impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection thereon. We performed a retrospective analysis of respiratory illness samples from longitudinal cohorts of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women and their infants to evaluate the burden of pertussis illness in a black-African community.  The women were followed up for respiratory illness from midpregnancy and together with their infants until 24 weeks postpartum. Respiratory samples obtained at the time of illness visits were tested for B. pertussis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).  The study included 194 HIV-infected and 1060 HIV-uninfected women, and 188 and 1028 infant offspring, respectively. There were 7 PCR-confirmed pertussis cases in the HIV-exposed infants and 30 in HIV-unexposed infants (7.4 vs 5.5 episodes per 1000 infant-months; P = .47), at a mean age of 70.9 days. All infant pertussis cases had a history of cough (mean duration, 6.3 days). Six of 17 (35.3%) pertussis-confirmed cases in infants pertussis detection, whereas none of the 20 cases ≥2 months of age required hospitalization. Ten PCR-positive pertussis-associated illnesses were detected in HIV-infected women compared with 32 in the HIV-uninfected women (6.8 vs 3.9 episodes per 1000 person-months; P = .12).  Bordetella pertussis identification was common among young infants with respiratory illness, most of whom were too young to be fully protected through direct vaccination. Vaccination of pregnant women might be a valuable strategy in a setting such us ours to prevent B. pertussis-associated illness in women and their young infants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Mothers of Pre-Term Infants in Neonate Intensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…

  4. Vertical transmission of X4-tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1 in five Ugandan mother-infant pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Eshleman, Susan H; Toma, Jonathan; Stawiski, Eric; Whitcomb, Jeannette M; Jackson, J Brooks; Guay, Laura; Musoke, Philippa; Parkin, Neil; Petropoulos, Christos J

    2009-09-10

    We previously reported the existence of CXCR4-using HIV-1 in 6-14 week-old Ugandan infants. Whether these viruses were transmitted from the mother perinatally or evolved after transmission is not known. In the current study, we investigated the origin of the CXCR4-using viruses in these infants by comparing HIV-1 envelope clones from the infants to those from their mothers at or near the time of delivery. Envelope clones were isolated from five Ugandan infant plasma samples that harbored CXCR4-using viruses, collected at the time of HIV diagnosis (four at birth, one at week 6), and from their mothers at delivery. Coreceptor usage and phylogenetic relatedness of HIV-1 populations in mother-infant pairs were analyzed in detail using the Trofile assay and sequence analysis of envelope clones, respectively. X4-tropic clones were identified in two mother-infant pairs and dual-tropic clones were found in three pairs, either alone or in combination with R5-tropic viruses. Dual-tropic clones varied in their ability to infect CXCR4-expressing cells. In each mother-infant pair, X4-tropic or dual-tropic clones shared similar phenotypic profiles and V3 sequence patterns; gp160 sequences of X4-tropic and dual-tropic clones from infants were phylogenetically indistinguishable from those of their mothers. The virus populations were phylogenetically homogenous in three infants and segregated according to coreceptor tropism in the remaining two infants. This study demonstrates that X4-tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1 can be transmitted from mother to infant, before, during or shortly after delivery, and establishes vertical transmission as an important source of CXCR4-using viruses in infants. 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  5. The Effects of Massage by Mothers on Mother-Infant Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghi, Mahnaz; Sohrabi, Soroor; Rasouli, Mahboobe

    2017-11-04

    Context • Transferring a newborn to the intensive care unit due to a premature birth is a major obstacle in the establishment of emotional attachment between a mother and her child. Researchers believe that the formation and continuation of such an attachment have a profound effect on the child's mental development and behavior in the coming years of life. Not all studies have agreed, however, that skin contact alone, such as massage provides, can improve attachment. Objective • The aim of this study was to determine the effects on maternal attachment behaviors of infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of massage provided by mothers for their premature neonates. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. Setting • The study took place at the Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital of the Iran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran). Participants • Participants were 40 mothers and 40 newborns admitted to the NICU at the hospital. Intervention • The study divided participants randomly into a massage (intervention) group and a control group receiving no massages. Mothers in the intervention group trained by watching educational videos and practicing the massage on infant manikins. Subsequently, the intervention group massaged its infants according to a 5-d program, in which each neonate received a 15-min massage session per day. Outcome Measures • Mother-infant attachment behaviors were assessed in both groups 4 times. The maternal attachment scale was used for data collection. Results • According to the statistical analyses, the between-groups difference was not significant at baseline (P > .05). The study showed a statistically significant difference between baseline and postintervention in the mean frequencies of maternal attachment behaviors for both groups (P attachment between the intervention and control groups (P = .000). Conclusion • Massage given to premature neonates by their mothers on a daily

  6. The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables, Social Support and Child Sex on Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Piccinini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the impact of family socioeconomic status (SES, of social support as perceived by mothers, and of their three-month-olds child's sex, on mother-infant and father-infant interaction. A total of 58 mothers and 52 fathers were observed interacting with their infants. Univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed several significant differences, particularly regarding maternal behaviors. Mothers from the highest SES level both talked to and interpreted their infants' behavior more than did lowest SES mothers. Social support perceived as unsatisfactory was associated with a greater amount of touch and stimulation during mother-infant interaction and also more infant vocalization. Mothers and fathers tended to talk more to their same-sex infants, and fathers tended to kiss and caress their sons more than they did their daughters. These results suggest particularities in the mother-infant and fatherinfant interaction when the infant was three months old.

  7. Longitudinal health outcome and wellbeing of mother-infant pairs after adolescent pregnancy in Reunion Island, Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobelli, Silvia; Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard; Nichols, Marine; Boukerrou, Malik; Barau, Georges; Bonsante, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate longitudinal care needs and health service access among mother-infant pairs after adolescent pregnancy. In a case-control study, data were analyzed from primiparous adolescent and adult mother-infant pairs who delivered at Reunion Island University Hospital, France, between January 2004 and December 2006, and were followed-up from maternity discharge until December 2011. Infant outcomes were hospitalization during the first 2 years of life, hospital access for "non-medical" reasons, and neuropsychiatric care. Maternal outcomes were number of pregnancies and childbirths, rapid repeat pregnancy (RRP) rate, pregnancy morbidities, and use of health services. Data from 476 cases and 476 controls were analyzed. Adolescent and control offspring did not differ in the measured outcomes. Adolescent and control mothers had, respectively, 2.4 ± 1.3 and 1.9 ± 1.1 pregnancies; 1.9 ± 0.8 and 1.6 ± 0.7 childbirths; and RRP rates of 7.6% and 2.7% (all Ppregnancy-related pathologies at the index pregnancy and more frequently had natural deliveries (Prisk among adolescent mothers. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Relationship between Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Mother-Infant Attachment Behaviors in Primiparous Women Referring to Mashhad Health Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Taffazoli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mother-infant bonding and interactions after childbirth are shaped by maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy. Although many studies have shown the positive correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors, some controversial studies have shown otherwise. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors in primiparous women. Methods:This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 100 primiparous women, referring to the selected heath care centers of Mashhad. Data were collected using Cranley's maternal–fetal attachment scale, Avant’s mother-infant attachment tool, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and a demographic/obstetric questionnaire including demographic data, obstetric information, delivery outcomes, and postpartum data. Pregnant women with a gestational age of 35-41 weeks, who met the inclusion criteria, completed Cranley's questionnaire, as well as the demographic/obstetric questionnaire. Four and eight weeks after delivery, the subjects were asked to complete the Edinburgh questionnaire and postpartum information; then, they were asked to breastfeed their infants on a chair in a quiet place for 15 minutes. The researcher observed the mothers’ behaviors toward their neonates. For data analysis, descriptive and analytical tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. Results: There was a direct positive relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ emotional behaviors toward infants four and eight weeks after delivery. However, four and eight weeks after childbirth, no significant correlation was found between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ caring behaviors. Conclusion: According to the findings, maternal-fetal attachment is one of the most important factors for mother-infant attachment. These findings could be applied for enriching mother-infant attachment

  9. Can Social Support in the Guise of an Oral Health Education Intervention Promote Mother-Infant Bonding in Chinese Immigrant Mothers and Their Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Si-Yang; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine if social support in the guise of a culturally sensitive, community-based oral health intervention could promote mother-infant bonding in socially-isolated immigrant mothers. Design: A quasi-experimental design. Participants: A convenience sample of 36 Chinese immigrant mothers with 8-week-old infants was divided into…

  10. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal nutritional status on, maternal measles antibodies of mother-infant pairs at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, U A; Ashir, G M; Mava, Y; Gimba, M S; Abubakar, R; Ambe, J P

    2013-12-01

    Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the systematic random sampling method. Means of maternal Hb and MMA of mother-infant pairs were compared using the Student t test. Correlation coefficients of maternal Hb and MMA of mother-infant pairs were also determined. Multivariate analysis of variable (MANOVA) and covariates (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of maternal Hb (fixed factor), gestational age, maternal age, birth weight (covariates) on combined MMA of mother-infant pairs (dependent factors). Benferroni adjusted Univariate linear regression was used to investigate the dependent variables separately. There were 78 (51%) males and 75 (49%) females. The (mean ± SD) MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth were 134.66 ± 93.31 (95% CI, 119.76 - 149.56) U/ml, and 187.49 ± 85.01 (95% CI, 173.91 - 201.07) U/ml, and their correlation was significant (p = 0.025). Ninety one (59.5 %) mothers had low Hb, 62 (40.5 %) had acceptable Hb levels. The overall mean maternal Hb was 11.01 ± 1.00 (95% CI, 10.85 - 11.17) g/dl . A positive significant correlation was observed between maternal Hb and MMA of the newborn-infant (p = 0.031). The MANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between maternal Hb on the combined dependent variables (p =0.033); however, results for the dependent variables using the Benferroni adjusted Univariate analysis was significant for only MMA of the infants, (p = 0.009). There was a significant association between aacceptable levels of maternal Hb and high MMA of the newborn-infants. Therefore, these newborn infants start out with higher MMA that could give them better protection

  11. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerine in idiopathic pre-term labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shahida; Shaikh, Abdul Hameed; Akhter, Saleem; Isran, Basma

    2012-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of transdermal Nitroglycerine patch in idiopathic pre-term labour and foetomaternal outcome. This quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Obstetrics Unit-II of Shaikh Zayed Hospital for Women, Chandka Medical College, Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University, Larkana, from Jan 1 to June 30, 2010. Sixtyfive pregnant women at 28-34 weeks of gestation were recruited after they met the selection criteria based on non-probability consecutive sampling. Initially, 73 patients were selected, but 65 of them completed the treatment, while 8 patients refused to continue. Patients diagnosed with pre-term labour were given glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 5 mg/12 hours transdermal patch which was applied on the anterior abdominal wall. The second patch of same dose was given after 12 hours. Arrest of labour, prolongation of pregnancy in days or weeks along with side effects of the agent were monitored. Patients were followed till delivery to know the foeto-maternal outcome. Dramatic effects were seen in around 60 (92.3%), of the total patients who had felt relief from premature labour pains within the first hour and only 5 (7.6%) patients could not go beyond 24 hours, as among them 3 (4.61%) had previous uterine scar and 2 (3.07%) developed ruptured membranes after 12 hours of admission and their babies also could not survive. Mean pregnancy prolongation was 15.35 +/- 9.45 days (min: 4 max: 35), so delivery was deferred up to 48 hours, 3 to 7 days and more than 7 days in 4 (6.15%), 6 (9.23%) and 50 (76.92%) respectively. Glyceryl trinitrate, trans dermal patch is effective and safe tocolytic in idiopathic preterm labour. By prolonging pregnancy it improves neonatal outcome.

  13. Dyads, a generalisation of monads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, M.M.

    The concept of dyad is defined as the least common generalisation of monads and co-monads. So, taking some of the ingredients to be the identity, the concept specialises to the concept of monad, and taking other ingredients to be the identity it specialises to co-monads. Except for one axiom, all

  14. Factors influencing the incidence of pre-term birth in Calabar, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women who had pre-term birth in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, over a 2 ½ year period were studied. The aim was to establish the factors influencing the incidence of pre-term birth in Calabar. Factors which significantly increase the incidence of pre-term delivery included: previous induced abortion ...

  15. Triphenylamine corrole dyads: Synthesis, characterization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physical properties. The quenched emission was attributed to intramolecular excitation energy transfer and the photoinduced electron transfer reactions contested in these dyads. Keywords. Triphenylamine; corrole; dyad; intramolecular energy transfer, time-resolved fluorescence. 1. Introduction. Natural photosynthesis is ...

  16. Effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding status: a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I.; Jamal, M.; Khan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding behavior of infants. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from November to December 2009. Methodology: Eligible mothers were assessed for the successful breast feeding by using IBFAT tool. The time to initiate the first feed, time to effective breast feeding, maternal satisfaction with the care provided, preference for the same care in future and level of exclusive breast feeding at the age of one month were also noted. The data was compared by using X2 and t-test. Significant p-value was taken as < 0.05. Results: A total of 183 mother-infant pairs (92 in skin-to-skin care [SSC] group and 91 in conventional care [CC] group) were analyzed for breast feeding behavior of the infants. The first breast feed was 26.25% more successful in SSC group (58.8% in SSC group as compared to 32.5% in CC group with p-value of 0.001). In SSC group, the mean time to initiate first breast feed was 61.6 minutes shorter than CC group (40.62 vs. 101.88; p < 0.001). Mean time to achieve effective breast feeding was 207 minutes earlier in SSC group (149.69 vs. 357.50; p < 0.001). The level of satisfaction in the mothers of SSC group was significantly high as compared to controls (56% vs. 6.2%). Similarly, 53.8% mothers of SSC group showed reference for similar care in future as compared to 5% in CC group. In SSC group 85.3% infants were exclusively breast fed at one month as compared to 65.7% in CC group (p=0.025). Conclusion: Maternal-infant early skin-to-skin contact significantly enhanced the success of first breast feed and continuation of exclusive breast feeding till one month of age. It also reduced the time to initiate first feed and time to effective breast feeding. (author)

  17. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hans; Hegaard, H K; Greisen, G

    2012-01-01

    Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies. A comprehe......Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies....... A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the PubMed database from their inceptions to 1 October, 2010 using the keywords 'magnesium sulphate, children/infant/pre-term/premature and cerebral palsy/mortality/morbidity/adverse effects/outcome' identified 11 reports of observational studies. Two...... authors working independently extracted the data. A meta-analysis of the data found an association between magnesium sulphate treatment and a significantly reduced risk of mortality (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.89) and cerebral palsy (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.89). Antenatal treatment with magnesium sulphate...

  18. A WEB-BASED SURVEY OF MOTHER-INFANT BOND, ATTACHMENT EXPERIENCES, AND METACOGNITION IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS FOLLOWING CHILDBIRTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charlotte; Patricia Taylor, Emily; Schwannauer, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal depression is linked to adverse outcomes for parent and child, with metacognition and parenting experiences key variables in the development and maintenance of depression. The attachment between mother and infant is especially vulnerable to the effects of untreated postnatal depression. Despite high levels of reported postnatal stress symptoms, less attention has been given the relationship between attachment, metacognition, and postnatal traumatic symptoms in the context of birth trauma. This study tested several hypotheses regarding the relationships between recalled parenting experiences, metacognition, postnatal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression and perceptions of the mother-infant bond, confirming and extending upon metacognitive and mentalization theories. A Web-based, cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire design was employed in an analog sample of new mothers. Participants were 502 women recruited via open-access Web sites associated with birth organizations. Structural equation modeling was employed for the principal analysis. Metacognition fully mediated the relationship between recalled parenting experiences and postnatal psychological outcomes. Posttraumatic stress was indirectly associated with maternal perceptions of the bond, with this relationship mediated by depression. Metacognition may have a key role in postnatal psychological distress. Where postnatal depression or traumatic birth experiences are identified, screening for posttraumatic stress is strongly indicated. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interaction: The Communicative Value of Infant-Directed Talking and Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diana; Peña, Marcela

    Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother. Behavioral response was analyzed from offline video coding, and brain response was estimated from the analysis of electrophysiological recordings. We found that during ID talking, infants displayed a significantly higher number of visual contacts, vocalizations, and body movements than during ID singing. Moreover, only during ID talking were the number of visual contacts and vocalizations positively correlated with the number of questions and pauses in the mother's speech. Our results suggest that ID talking provides infants with specific cues that allow them not only to react to mother stimulation, but also to act toward them, displaying a rudimentary version of turn-taking behavior. Brain activity partially supported that interpretation. The relevance of our results for bonding is discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: a comparison between full-term and preterm dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R A S; Hoffenkamp, H N; Tooten, A; Braeken, J; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother's representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and infant attachment. The participants were mothers of full-term (n = 75), moderately preterm (n = 68) and very preterm infants (n = 67). Maternal representations were assessed by the Working Model of the Child Interview at 6 months post-partum. Maternal interactive behavior was evaluated at 6 and 24 months post-partum, using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Care Research Network mother-infant observation scales. Infant attachment was observed at 24 months post-partum and was coded by the Attachment Q-Set. The results reveal that a premature childbirth does not necessarily generate disrupted maternal representations of the infant. Furthermore, maternal interactive behavior appears to be an important mechanism through which maternal representations influence the development of infant attachment in full-term and preterm infants. Early assessment of maternal representations can identify mother-infant dyads at risk, in full-term and preterm samples.

  1. Disposable diaper use promotes consolidated nighttime sleep and positive mother-infant interactions in Chinese 6-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Liu, Xicheng; Peirano, Patricio; Odio, Mauricio; Bauer, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of consolidated nighttime sleep and the formation and maintenance of parent-infant relationships are 2 primary developmental achievements of the infancy period. Despite the development of a transactional model that links parenting behaviors to infant sleep, limited attention has been devoted to examining experimental manipulations of infant sleep that may impact the discrete parent-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships. In the present study, infants were randomly assigned to wear high-absorbency disposable diapers or to continue using traditional low-absorbency cloth diapers that necessitate frequent changes and associated disruptions of nighttime sleep. Parents reported on infant sleep before and during the 6-week experimental manipulation; a subset of infants also wore actigraphs. Parents and infants also participated in a parent-infant interaction task both before and near the end of the experimental manipulation. Infants who wore cloth diapers experienced more frequent sleep disruptions overall as well as a greater number of disruptions that did and did not wake the infant from sleep. Infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as experiencing more engagement and positive affect near the end of the intervention relative to infants who wore cloth diapers; mothers of infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as more engaged and sensitive near the end of the intervention relative to mothers of infants who wore cloth diapers. These findings suggest that the disposable diaper manipulation was causally related to characteristics of mother-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Reasons for mother-infant bed-sharing: a systematic narrative synthesis of the literature and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Trina C Salm

    2015-03-01

    Mother-infant bed-sharing has been a common practice for centuries. Understanding the reasons parents choose to bed-share can help tailor safe sleep education. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the international literature on: (1) reasons parents bed-share, (2) the cultural context of bed-sharing, and (3) implications for interventions and future research. The search occurred August-September 2013 via PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyc INFO using the terms: "infant," "sleep," "bed shar*," "co sleep*," "sleep location," "sleep practices," and "sleep arrangements," alone or in combination. Google Scholar was searched using: "bed share," "bed sharing," "co sleep," and "co sleeping." Inclusion criteria were: (1) referenced bed-sharing with infants 12 months or younger; (2) provided reasons for bed-sharing; and (3) published between 1990 and 2013. Studies were excluded if they focused on disorders such as epilepsy, breathing disorders, or among multi-gestational infants. Narrative synthesis was used to summarize findings. Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria. The main themes around bed-sharing based on this synthesis included: (1) breastfeeding, (2) comforting, (3) better/more sleep, (4) monitoring, (5) bonding/attachment, (6) environmental, (7) crying, (8) tradition, (9) disagree with danger, and (10) maternal instinct. Findings suggest that future research should examine parents' decision-making process on infant sleep location, including how they weigh personal reasons and sources of advice. Public health interventions should incorporate the particular reasons of the population they are targeting. Clinicians should discuss infant sleep environment with each family, along with their motivations for choosing this environment, and work within that framework to address the safety of the sleep environment.

  3. Validation and factor analysis of mother-infant bonding questionnaire in pregnant and postpartum women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Masako; Okada, Takashi; Kubota, Chika; Nakamura, Yukako; Shiino, Tomoko; Aleksic, Branko; Morikawa, Mako; Yamauchi, Aya; Uno, Yota; Murase, Satomi; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2016-07-07

    The Mother-Infant Bonding Questionnaire (MIBQ) has been widely used to assess maternal emotional involvement with infants. Although the reliability and validity of the MIBQ in the postpartum period has been confirmed, it remains unclear whether the MIBQ is appropriate to assess maternal bonding in both pregnancy and the postpartum period over time. Our study were aimed to 1) examine the reliability and validity of the MIBQ for clinical use among pregnant and postpartum women; and 2) examine the factor structure of the items, create subscales, and confirm the stability of the MIBQ in the pregnancy and postpartum periods. Participants (n = 751, mean age 32.1 ± 4.4 years) completed the MIBQ and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in early pregnancy (before week 25), in late pregnancy (around week 36), 5 days after delivery, and 1 month after delivery. We randomly divided participants into two sample sets. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis of the nine MIBQ items using data from one group of mothers (Group 1; n = 376) in all four periods. The factor structure derived from the exploratory factor analysis was confirmed by a confirmatory factor analysis in the second group (Group 2; n = 375) of mothers in all four periods. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors: Lack of Affection (LA) and Anger and Rejection (AR). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that LA and AR factors existed for the MIBQ in all periods. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.879 and 0.584, respectively. The scores for LA and AR were significantly correlated over the four time periods. Mothers with higher AR scores on the MIBQ at any of the four periods had higher scores on the EPDS. The MIBQ has two subscales regardless of the timing of the assessment. The MIBQ is appropriate for pregnant as well as postpartum women to assess maternal bonding toward the fetus and infant.

  4. Maternal Obesity, 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Concentration, and Bone Density in Breastfeeding Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Penfield-Cyr, Annie; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and bone density in mother-infant pairs. The study was a secondary analysis of 234 exclusively breastfeeding dyads who were recruited in the first postpartum month for a randomized controlled trial of maternal vs infant vitamin D supplementation. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD) were compared by BMI group. The adjusted association between maternal BMI and 25(OH)D and bone density was examined at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum. Obese breastfeeding women had lower 25(OH)D concentrations and higher BMD than lean women at all 3 time points (P  <  .01). Higher maternal BMI was associated with lower maternal serum levels of 25(OH)D at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum (adjusted β = -0.45 ng/ml per kg/m 2 , 95% CI -.076, -0.14, at 1 month) and higher BMD at the same time points (β = 0.006 BMD z score; 95% CI 0.003, 0.01 at 1 month). Seventy-six percent of infants were vitamin D deficient at 1 month of age. Infants born to overweight and obese mothers had lower 25(OH)D concentrations than infants of lean mothers (P < .01). For infants in the maternal supplementation group, higher maternal BMI was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentrations at 4 months (β = -0.68; 95% CI -1.17, -0.20) and lower bone density at 7 months (β = -0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). In exclusively breastfeeding dyads, maternal obesity is associated with lower maternal and infant serum 25(OH)D concentrations, which may impact infant bone density. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00412074. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relational uncertainty in service dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    in service dyads and how they resolve it through suitable organisational responses to increase the level of service quality. Design/methodology/approach: We apply the overall logic of Organisational Information-Processing Theory (OIPT) and present empirical insights from two industrial case studies collected...... via semi-structured interviews and secondary data. Findings: The findings suggest that relational uncertainty is caused by the partner’s unresolved organisational uncertainty, i.e. their lacking capabilities to deliver or receive (parts of) the service. Furthermore, we found that resolving...... the relational uncertainty increased the functional quality while resolving the partner’s organisational uncertainty increased the technical quality of the delivered service. Originality: We make two contributions. First, we introduce relational uncertainty to the OM literature as the inability to predict...

  6. Medical students' perception of dyad practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Rasmussen, Maria Birkvad; Bjørck, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    . The students felt dyad practice improved their self-efficacy through social interaction with peers, provided useful insight through observation, and contributed with shared memory of what to do, when they forgot essential steps of the physical examination of the patient. However, some students were concerned......Training in pairs (dyad practice) has been shown to improve efficiency of clinical skills training compared with single practice but little is known about students' perception of dyad practice. The aim of this study was to explore the reactions and attitudes of medical students who were instructed...... about decreased hands-on practice and many students preferred to continue practising alone after completing the initial training. Dyad practice is well received by students during initial skills training and is associated with several benefits to learning through peer observation, feedback and cognitive...

  7. Pesticides exposure through environment and risk of pre-term birth: a study from Agra city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M; Singh, L; Agarwal, P; Saroj, R; Taneja, A

    2017-12-18

    Pre-term birth is an increasingly prevalent complex condition with multiple risk factors including environmental pollutants. Evidences linking organochlorine pesticides with adverse pregnancy outcomes are inconsistent for link between organochlorine pesticides and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a case-control study of 50 cases of full-term births and 40 cases of pre-term births in this study. Placental organochlorine pesticides like metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane that is, (p,p-DDE, p,p-DDT and o,p-DDD) and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (α, β, γ and δ HCH) were analyzed by gas chromatography. Although the mean levels of pesticide were found higher in the placenta of the women with pre-term delivery cases placentas, but only α-HCH, total-HCH, p,p-DDE and total-DDT were found statistically significant. It was observed that pesticide exposed women were approximately 1.7 times more likely to deliver pre-term baby as compare to pregnant women that were not exposed to any pesticides. We also observed that increasing maternal age reduced the risk of having pre-term birth (OR = 0.99). Among all pesticides, α-HCH was found to be strongest isomer to induce premature baby birth (p term births.

  8. Responses of free-ranging rhesus monkeys to a natural form of social separation. I. Parallels with mother-infant separation in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, C M; Rasmussen, K L; Suomi, S J

    1994-08-01

    Observations of 23 free-ranging rhesus monkey infants on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, indicated that mothers' first postpartum estrous periods were marked by large increases in the amount of time infants were separated from their mothers, by disturbances in mother-infant relationships, and by increases in infant distress behavior. When their mothers resumed mating, most infants showed signs of agitation; a few briefly showed indications of depression. Male infants responded to their mothers' resumption of mating by playing more, whereas females engaged in less play and more allogrooming. The results suggest (a) that basic parallels exist between the behavioral responses of rhesus infants to their mothers' resumption of mating in the field and to forcible separation from their mothers in captivity and (b) that early separation experiences may play a role in the normal development or manifestation of sex differences in behavior.

  9. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.

  10. Mutual touch during mother-infant face-to-face still-face interactions: influences of interaction period and infant birth status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantis, Irene; Stack, Dale M; Ng, Laura; Serbin, Lisa A; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2014-08-01

    Contact behaviours such as touch, have been shown to be influential channels of nonverbal communication between mothers and infants. While existing research has examined the communicative roles of maternal or infant touch in isolation, mutual touch, whereby touching behaviours occur simultaneously between mothers and their infants, has yet to be examined. The present study was designed to investigate mutual touch during face-to-face interactions between mothers and their 5½-month-old fullterm (n=40), very low birth weight/preterm (VLBW/preterm; n=40) infants, and infants at psychosocial risk (n=41). Objectives were to examine: (1) how the quantitative and qualitative aspects of touch employed by mothers and their infants varied across the normal periods of the still-face (SF) procedure, and (2) how these were associated with risk status. Mutual touch was systematically coded using the mother-infant touch scale. Interactions were found to largely consist of mutual touch and one-sided touch plus movement, highlighting that active touching is pervasive during mother-infant interactions. Consistent with the literature, while the SF period did not negatively affect the amount of mutual touch engaged in for mothers and their fullterm infants and mothers and their infants at psychosocial risk, it did for mothers and their VLBW/preterm infants. Together, results illuminate how both mothers and infants participate in shaping and co-regulating their interactions through the use of touch and underscore the contribution of examining the influence of birth status on mutual touch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Outcomes of Pre-Term Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Pre-term premature rupture of fetal membranes (pPROM) contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. These include chorioamnionitis, prematurity and still-births. Various microbial organisms have been implicated. Few studies have been done on pPROM in this environment. Objectives: To determine ...

  12. Triphenylamine corrole dyads: Synthesis, characterization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... its monomeric unit. The presence of either electron releasing or electron withdrawing group on corrole moiety has not much effect on the photophysicalproperties. The quenched emission was attributed to intramolecular excitation energy transfer and the photoinduced electron transfer reactions contested in these dyads.

  13. Relational demography in coach-athlete dyads | Zhang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used an adapted version of Zhang's (2004) trust questionnaire to examine perceived characteristic and trust differences between coach and athlete dyads that differ in gender or ethnicity as well as in dyads that were similar. The four different gender dyad groups were male athlete with male coach (MAMC), ...

  14. Radionuclide scintigraphy in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic and asymptomatic pre-term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morigeri, C.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Narang, A. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Chandigarh (India); Bhattacharya, A.; Mittal, B.R. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chandigarh (India)

    2008-09-15

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in pre-term infants. The diagnosis based on symptoms is always questionable. The incidence of GER in symptomatic babies varies from 22% to 85%, but literature regarding the incidence of reflux in asymptomatic pre-term infants is lacking. We used radionuclide scintigraphy to evaluate the incidence of GER in symptomatic as well as asymptomatic pre-term neonates and to assess whether symptoms have any relation with positive scintigraphy. We studied 106 pre-term infants (52 symptomatic, 54 asymptomatic) of less than 34 weeks of gestation, who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Babies were considered symptomatic in the presence of vomiting, regurgitation, apnea, de-saturations, unexplained bradycardia and recurrent lung collapses. Radionuclide scintigraphy was conducted at post-conceptional age of 32-34 weeks when they were clinically stable for 72 h. Feeding was avoided for 2 h preceding the study. {sup 99m}Tc sulphur colloid was administered in a dose of 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) in 1 ml, followed by milk (full feed) through an orogastric tube, prior to imaging under a gamma camera. Reflux was graded as low or high, and reflux episodes during the study were counted. The incidence of GER in the symptomatic group was 71.2% and in asymptomatic babies 61.1% (p=0.275). High-grade reflux was more common (71.4%) than low-grade (28.6%) in both groups (p=0.449). Mean number of reflux episodes in 20 min was 4.4{+-}2.4 in symptomatic babies and 4.9 {+-}2.2 in asymptomatic babies (p=0.321). Babies with positive scintigraphy were similar in birth weight, gestation, time to achieve full feeds, weight and age at discharge to those with negative scintigraphy. GER is common in pre-term infants of less than 34 weeks gestation. The incidence of positive scintigraphy and grade of reflux is not significantly different in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic babies. Though radionuclide scintigraphy is a simple, quick and non-invasive investigation in

  15. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  16. Analysis of primary resistance mutations to HIV-1 entry inhibitors in therapy naive subtype C HIV-1 infected mother-infant pairs from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Liu, Chang; Liu, Bin; Wood, Charles; Kong, Xiaohong

    2013-09-01

    Small molecular CCR5 inhibitors represent a new class of drugs for treating HIV-1 infection. The evaluation of the primary resistance mutations associated with entry inhibitors during HIV-1 perinatal transmission is required because they may have a profound impact on the clinical management in MTCT. To evaluate the primary resistance mutations to maraviroc and vicriviroc during perinatal transmission and analyze the sensitivity of Env derived from mother-infant pairs to maraviroc. Nine MIPs infected by subtype C HIV-1 were recruited to analyze the prevalence and transmission of primary resistance mutations to maraviroc and vicriviroc. Moreover, Env derived from six MIPs were employed to construct provirus clones and to analyze the sensitivity to maraviroc. Mutations A316T, conferring partial resistance to maraviroc, T307I and R315Q, both conferring partial resistance to vicriviroc are prevalent in mother and infant cohorts, indicating the transmission of primary resistance mutations during HIV-1 perinatal transmission. However, the mutations of acutely infected mothers seem to directly transmit to their corresponding infants, while some mutations at low frequency of chronically infected mothers would be lost during transmission. Moreover, provirus clones derived from acutely infected MIPs are less susceptible to maraviroc than those from chronically infected MIPs. Our study suggests that the transmission mode of primary resistance mutations and the sensitivity to maraviroc are dependent on infection status of MIPs either acutely or chronically infected. These results may indicate that higher dose of maraviroc could be needed for treatment of acutely infected MIPs compared to chronically infected MIPs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nephrocalcinosis in pre-term neonates: A study of incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal B Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis (NC in pre-term neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at the Al-Minya University, Egypt. The study included 97 pre-term neonates with a gestational age 34 weeks. Data on duration of hospitalization, sex, gestation, birth weight, family history of renal stone, need for respiratory support, intake of calcium and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN and nephrotoxic drugs were collected. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphate were measured within the first week of life and again at term. Blood gases, urinary pH, urinary calcium/creatinine (U Ca/Cr ratio and urinary oxalate/creatinine (U Ox/Cr ratio were measured once at term. Three renal ultrasound (US scans were performed; one before the first week of life, the second at term and the third at a corrected age of one year. Of the 97 infants studied, 14 (14.4% developed NC diagnosed by renal US at term. NC was bilateral in 11 infants. Factors significantly associated with NC were gestational age, need for respiratory support, high calcium intake, TPN, use of post-natal dexamethasone, furosemide, theophylline, and/or aminoglycosides and U Ca/Cr ratio and U Ox/Cr ratio (all P < 0.05. Low gestational age (P = 0.004, use of respiratory support (P = 0.005, furosemide therapy (P = 0.002 and increased U Ca/Cr ratio (P = 0.001 were the strongest independent risk factors after logistic regression analysis. Eight of the 14 infants (57.1% with NC had spontaneous resolution of calcification at a corrected age of one year. Screening at term with a renal US scan and long-term follow-up of renal function is needed for early diagnosis and better management of NC. Future research pertaining to prevention of NC in pre-term neonates is required.

  18. 3D MR ventricle segmentation in pre-term infants with post-hemorrhagic ventricle dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wu; Yuan, Jing; Kishimoto, Jessica; Chen, Yimin; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or bleed within the brain is a common condition among pre-term infants that occurs in very low birth weight preterm neonates. The prognosis is further worsened by the development of progressive ventricular dilatation, i.e., post-hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD), which occurs in 10-30% of IVH patients. In practice, predicting PHVD accurately and determining if that specific patient with ventricular dilatation requires the ability to measure accurately ventricular volume. While monitoring of PHVD in infants is typically done by repeated US and not MRI, once the patient has been treated, the follow-up over the lifetime of the patient is done by MRI. While manual segmentation is still seen as a gold standard, it is extremely time consuming, and therefore not feasible in a clinical context, and it also has a large inter- and intra-observer variability. This paper proposes a segmentation algorithm to extract the cerebral ventricles from 3D T1- weighted MR images of pre-term infants with PHVD. The proposed segmentation algorithm makes use of the convex optimization technique combined with the learned priors of image intensities and label probabilistic map, which is built from a multi-atlas registration scheme. The leave-one-out cross validation using 7 PHVD patient T1 weighted MR images showed that the proposed method yielded a mean DSC of 89.7% +/- 4.2%, a MAD of 2.6 +/- 1.1 mm, a MAXD of 17.8 +/- 6.2 mm, and a VD of 11.6% +/- 5.9%, suggesting a good agreement with manual segmentations.

  19. Influential Factors of Mother-Infant Skin-to-Skin Contact Based on the Precede-Proceed Model from the Perspective of Midwives in Torbat Heydariyeh Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Adeli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth plays a pivotal role in proper breastfeeding and mother-infant interaction. Despite numerous benefits of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact, this health behavior is not performed by many midwives. This study aimed to evaluate the influential factors for mother-infant skin-to-skin contact based on the Precede-Proceed model from the perspective of midwives in Torbat Heydariyeh hospitals. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 midwives working in hospitals of Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran in 2015. Demographic data of all participants were collected, and Mother-Newborn Skin-to-Skin Contact Questionnaire was also used based on the Precede-Proceed model. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using descriptive statistics, tables and graphs. Results: In this study, 88.1% of the midwives had positive attitudes towards skin-to-skin contact, and 90.5% had high perceived self-efficacy in performing the procedure. Major obstacles against establishing proper skin-to-skin contact were neonatal diseases and maternal fatigue (83.3% from the perspective of midwives. Moreover, 87.5% and 90.5% of the midwives emphasized the pivotal role of social support and motivation, respectively in implementing skin-to-skin contact. Also, more than 90% of the midwives considered training programs, service access and adequate facilities to be influential in the proper establishment of skin-to-skin contact. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the majority of midwives believed that enabling and reinforcing factors had significant effects on the proper establishment of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact. Therefore, it is recommended thateducational interventions be planned for parents, their family members and health care personnel involved in processes of childbirth and infant care. Furthermore, organizational planning and executive procedures should be developed to study the

  20. Prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Mokuolu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, over 900,000 children under the age of five years die every year. Early neonatal death is responsible for a little over 20% of these deaths. Prematurity remains a significant cause of these early neonatal deaths. In some series, it is reported to be responsible for 60-70% of these deaths. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin. This was a prospective cohort study conducted over a 9-month period at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Records of deliveries and data on maternal socio-biological and antenatal variables were collected during this period in order to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries. Out of the 2,489 deliveries that took place over a 9-month period, there were 293 pre-terms, giving a pre-term delivery rate of 120 per 1,000 deliveries. Of the total deliveries, 1,522 singleton deliveries that satisfied inclusion criteria were recruited; 185 of them were pre-term deliveries giving a case:control ratio of 1:7. Significant determinants of pre-term delivery identified were previous pre-term delivery (P=0.001; OR=3.55; 95% CI=1.71-7.30, antepartum hemorrhage (P=0.000; OR=8.95; 95%CI=4.06-19.78, premature rupture of the membranes (P=0.000; OR=6.48; 95%CI=4.33-9.67, maternal urinary tract infection (P=0.006; OR=5.89; 95%CI=1.16-27.57, pregnancy induced hypertension (P=0.007; OR=3.23; 95%CI=2.09-4.99, type of labor (P=0.000; OR=6.44; 95%CI=4.42-9.38 and booking status (P=0.000; OR=4.67; 95%CI=3.33-6.56. The prevalence of pre-term delivery was 120 per 1,000 live births. Factors significantly associated with pre-term delivery were low socio-economic class, previous pre-term delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of fetal membranes, urinary tract infection, pregnancy induced hypertension, induced labor, and booking elsewhere outside the teaching hospital.

  1. Re (I) bridged porphyrin dyads, triads and tetrads

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The porphyrin dyads have been explored for singlet-singlet energy transfer studies and porphyrin squares have been used for catalysis, chemical sensing, molecular sieving and photocurrent production studies. An overview of synthesis of Re(I) bridged porphyrin dyads, triads and tetrads and their interesting photophysical ...

  2. Distribution of invariant natural killer T cells and dendritic cells in late pre-term birth without acute chorioamnionitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Yasuyuki; Shima, Yoshio; Takeshita, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2017-06-01

    Acute chorioamnionitis (aCAM) is an important cause of pre-term birth. However, little is known about the pathogenesis of late pre-term birth without aCAM that was the most common category of pre-term birth. Here we analyze the kinetics of immune cells obtained from the decidua of women with late pre-term births with and without aCAM. Deciduas were obtained from women who underwent labor with late pre-term birth without aCAM (PB-n/aCAM) or with aCAM (PB-w/aCAM). The population of DEC-205 + dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, NK cells, CD8 + T cells, and CD4 + T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The number of iNKT cells was higher in the decidua obtained from women with PB-n/aCAM than PB-w/aCAM. DEC-205 + DCs obtained from women with PB-n/aCAM preferentially induced iNKT cell proliferation. iNKT cell accumulation with DEC-205 + DCs in PB-n/aCAM suggests that iNKT cells contribute to the onset of PB-n/aCAM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Localised photoplethysmography imaging for heart rate estimation of pre-term infants in the clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichulee, Sitthichok; Villarroel, Mauricio; Jorge, João.; Arteta, Carlos; Green, Gabrielle; McCormick, Kenny; Zisserman, Andrew; Tarassenko, Lionel

    2018-02-01

    Non-contact vital-sign estimation allows the monitoring of physiological parameters (such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation) without contact electrodes or sensors. Our recent work has demonstrated that a convolutional neural network (CNN) can be used to detect the presence of a patient and segment the patient's skin area for vital-sign estimation, thus enabling the automatic continuous monitoring of vital signs in a hospital environment. In a study approved by the local Research Ethical Committee, we made video recordings of pre-term infants nursed in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, UK. We extended the CNN model to detect the head, torso and diaper of the infants. We extracted multiple photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGi) signals from each body part, analysed their signal quality, and compared them with the PPGi signal derived from the entire skin area. Our results demonstrated the benefits of estimating heart rate combined from multiple regions of interest using data fusion. In the test dataset, we achieved a mean absolute error of 2.4 beats per minute for 80% (31.1 hours) from a total recording time of 38.5 hours for which both reference heart rate and video data were valid.

  4. in 54 Mother-Child Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Werner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes parental expectations for sleep-wake patterns in healthy kindergarten children and explores their relation to children’s sleep quality and parental distress. Data analysis of 54 mother-child dyads (age range of the children: 4–7 years indicated that parental expectations for children’s sleep-wake patterns differ between scheduled and free days and depend on children’s chronotype. Mothers of children with late chronotype showed less adequate expectations for children’s sleep onset time than mothers of children with early chronotype (e.g., morning types. Furthermore, children of mothers with less adequate expectations for children’s sleep onset time on scheduled days had longer settling periods during which sleep rituals may take place (r=0.31, P≤0.05, spent more time in bed than they actually sleep (r=0.35, P≤0.01, and had more frequently difficulties falling asleep (r=0.33, P≤0.01. However, less adequate expectations for children’s sleep onset time were not associated with parental distress (P>0.05. We conclude that parental expectations about their children’s sleep play a key role in understanding normal and abnormal sleep during childhood.

  5. Evidence for unintentional emotional contagion beyond dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dezecache

    Full Text Available Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another's emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B's faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others' emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics.

  6. Fetal lipopolysaccharide exposure modulates diet-dependent gut maturation and sensitivity to necrotising enterocolitis in pre-term pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Schmidt, Mette; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    that improve resistance towards necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. At approximately 85% gestation, pig fetuses were injected intramuscularly with saline or LPS (0.014 mg/kg), or intra-amniotically with LPS (0.4 mg/kg). Pigs were delivered by caesarean section 3–5 d later and fed colostrum (C......Uterine infections during pregnancy predispose to pre-term birth and postnatal morbidity, but it is unknown how prenatal bacterial exposure affects maturation of the immature gut. We hypothesised that a prenatal exposure to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has immunomodulatory effects...

  7. Pressure-actuated microfluidic devices for electrophoretic separation of pre-term birth biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahore, V; Kumar, S; Rogers, C I; Jensen, J K; Sonker, M; Woolley, A T

    2016-01-01

    We have developed microfluidic devices with pressure-driven injection for electrophoretic analysis of amino acids, peptides, and proteins. The novelty of our approach lies in the use of an externally actuated on-chip peristaltic pump and closely spaced pneumatic valves that allow well-defined, small-volume sample plugs to be injected and separated by microchip electrophoresis. We fabricated three-layer poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The fluidic layer had injection and separation channels, and the control layer had an externally actuated on-chip peristaltic pump and four pneumatic valves around the T-intersection to carry out sample injection. An unpatterned PDMS membrane layer was sandwiched between the fluidic and control layers as the actuated component in pumps and valves. Devices with the same peristaltic pump design but different valve spacings (100, 200, 300, and 400 μm) from the injection intersection were fabricated using soft lithographic techniques. Devices were characterized through fluorescent imaging of captured plugs of a fluorescein-labeled amino acid mixture and through microchip electrophoresis separations. A suitable combination of peak height, separation efficiency, and analysis time was obtained with a peristaltic pump actuation rate of 50 ms, an injection time of 30 s, and a 200-μm valve spacing. We demonstrated the injection of samples in different solutions and were able to achieve a 2.4-fold improvement in peak height and a 2.8-fold increase in separation efficiency though sample stacking. A comparison of pressure-driven injection and electrokinetic injection with the same injection time and separation voltage showed a 3.9-fold increase in peak height in pressure-based injection with comparable separation efficiency. Finally, the microchip systems were used to separate biomarkers implicated in pre-term birth. Although these devices have initially been demonstrated as a stand-alone microfluidic separation tool, they

  8. [Risks factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeballos Sarrato, Susana; Villar Castro, Sonia; Ramos Navarro, Cristina; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Sánchez Luna, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Pre-term delivery is one of the leading causes of foetal and perinatal mortality. However, perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal death in preterm deliveries have not been well studied. To analyse foetal mortality and perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pregnancies of less than 32 weeks gestational age. The study included all preterm deliveries between 22 and 31 +1 weeks gestational age (WGA), born in a tertiary-referral hospital, over a period of 7 years (2008-2014). A logistic regression model was used to identify perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality (foetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded). During the study period, the overall foetal mortality was 63.1% (106/168) (≥22 weeks of gestation) occurred in pregnancies of less than 32 WGA. A total of 882 deliveries between 22 and 31+6 weeks of gestation were included for analysis. The rate of foetal mortality was 11.3% (100/882). The rate of intra-partum foetal death was 2.6% (23/882), with 78.2% (18/23) of these cases occurring in hospitalised pregnancies. It was found that Assisted Reproductive Techniques, abnormal foetal ultrasound, no administration of antenatal steroids, lower gestational age, and small for gestational age, were independent risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality. This study showed that there is a significant percentage intra-partum foetal mortality in infants between 22 and 31+6 WGA. The analysis of intrapartum mortality and risk factors associated with this mortality is of clinical and epidemiological interest to optimise perinatal care and improve survival of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Very pre-term infants' behaviour at 1 and 2 years of age and parental stress following basic developmental care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der; Maguire, C.M.; Bruil, J.; Cessie, S. le; Zwieten, P. van; Veen, S.; Wit, J.M.; Walther, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at I and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard

  10. Collaborative learning using nursing student dyads in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austria, Mary Jean; Baraki, Katie; Doig, Alexa K

    2013-05-04

    Formal pairing of student nurses to work collaboratively on one patient assignment is a strategy for improving the quality and efficiency of clinical instruction while better utilizing the limited resources at clinical agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the student nurse and patient experiences of collaborative learning when peer dyads are used in clinical nursing education. Interviews were conducted with 11 students and 9 patients. Students described the process of collaborative learning as information sharing, cross-checking when making clinical decisions, and group processing when assessing the outcomes of nursing interventions. Positive outcomes reported by students and patients included reduced student anxiety, increased confidence and task efficiency. Students' primary concern was reduced opportunity to perform hands-on skills which had to be negotiated within each dyad. Meeting the present and future challenges of educating nurses will require innovative models of clinical instruction such as collaborative learning using student peer dyads.

  11. [The psychologist and the patient-carer dyad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard-Palacios, Judith

    2017-01-01

    At risk of physical and psychological burnout, carers form an integral part of the global care of the patient. The psychologist's expertise is valuable in the support of the patient- family carer dyad. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A Fulleropyrrolidine-phthalocyanine dyad for photovoltaic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, M.A.; Denk, P.; Hoppe, H.; Neugebauer, H.; Meissner, D.; Winder, C.; Brabec, C.J.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Gouloumis, A.; Vázquez, P.; Torres, T.

    2003-01-01

    We report on photophysical properties of a novel dyad molecule having as antenna/donor a Zn-phthalocyanine derivative and as acceptor a C60 derivative covalently attached. We found evidences for long living photoinduced electron transfer in solid state. Photovoltaic action of thin film devices of

  13. Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda

    In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

  14. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactions between perceived uncertainty types in service dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic interactions between uncertainty types in service dyads between servitized manufacturers and their customers. This is an important research area because servitized manufacturers face multi-source uncertainty and need to manage this uncertainty effectively to av...

  16. The Maternal Serological Response to Intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. Infection and Prediction of Risk of Pre-Term Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Demelza J; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Pre-term birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI) is the major cause of early PTB less than 32 weeks of gestation. Ureaplasma spp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganisms in amniotic fluid of pre-term pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intra-amniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma sp. colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature, and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms are key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars) and the timing, magnitude, and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome.

  17. Peer-Assisted Learning in the Physical Activity Domain: Dyad Type and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Gernigon, Christophe; Huet, Marie-Laure; Winnykamen, Fayda; Cadopi, Marielle

    2002-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to qualitatively analyze peer interaction in dyads practicing a swimming skill, and to examine the potential dyad type-by-gender differences in observed peer interaction modes. Sixty-four senior high school students (32 M, 32 F) trained for 8 min either in symmetrical (same competence) or asymmetrical (different competence levels) same-sex dyads. The numbers of attempts and performance scores were also documented for novices. The observed peer interaction modes consisted of guidance-tutoring, imitation, cooperation, and parallel activity. Multivariate and univariate analyses revealed that tutoring and imitation were manifested more in asymmetrical dyads, while cooperation and parallel activity were more frequent in symmetrical dyads. Males in symmetrical dyads displayed the most parallel activity. Males carried out more attempts than females. Regarding performance, males in asymmetrical dyads benefited more from training than the other groups did. Similarities and differences with findings observed in the academic domain are discussed.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for low vitamin D status among breastfeeding mother–infant dyads in an environment with abundant sunshine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salameh K

    2016-09-01

    rate, and vD status were lower in Doha than Cincinnati, US cohort.  Conclusion: vD deficiency is common in breastfeeding mother–infant dyads in this sunny environment and is associated with sun avoidance and low vD intake. We suggest corrective vD supplement of breastfeeding mothers and their infants, which should preferably start during pregnancy. Keywords: vitamin D deficiency, lactation, mothers, infants, sunlight exposure

  19. Impact of Mother-Infant Pair Clinics and Short-Text Messaging Service (SMS) Reminders on Retention of HIV-Infected Women and HIV-Exposed Infants in eMTCT Care in Malawi: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwapasa, Victor; Joseph, Jessica; Tchereni, Timothy; Jousset, Aurelie; Gunda, Andrews

    2017-06-01

    Poor retention of mothers and HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) in HIV care threatens efforts to eliminate pediatric HIV. Novel strategies are required to address this challenge. We compared 12-month maternal and HEI postpartum retention in health facilities implementing the following HIV care delivery models: integrated HIV and maternal, neonatal, and child health services [mother-infant pair (MIP) clinics], MIP clinics plus short-text messaging service (SMS) reminders to prevent default (MIP + SMS), and standard of care (SOC). From May 2013 to August 2016, a cluster randomized trial was conducted in rural Malawi, which randomized 30 health facilities to the 3 service delivery models. HIV+ pregnant women and HEIs were enrolled and followed up to monitor compliance with prescheduled visits and retention. Log binomial regression, using generalized estimated equation, was used to assess the impact of the models on retention. The trial enrolled 461, 493, and 396 HIV+ pregnant women and 386, 399, and 300 HEIs into the MIP, MIP + SMS, and SOC arms, respectively. Compared with the 12-month maternal retention rate in the SOC arm (22.2%), the rates were similar in the MIP arm [19.3%, risk ratio (RR): 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56 to 1.30] and in the MIP + SMS arm (24.9%, RR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.35). Compared with the 12-month infant retention rate in the SOC arm (9.8%), the rates were similar in the MIP arm (8.0%, RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.31 to 2.58) and in the MIP + SMS arm (19.5%, RR: 1.40, 95% CI: 0.85 to 2.31). MIP and MIP + SMS service delivery models were ineffective in improving maternal and infant retention in rural Malawi.

  20. Exchange and cohesion in dyads and triads: A test of Simmel's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeongkoo; Thye, Shane R; Lawler, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    This paper uses social exchange theory to address a classic question posed by Simmel (1964) regarding dyads and triads. The question is whether exchanges in a triad will generate more cohesion at the group level than exchanges in an isolated dyad. The main hypotheses, integrating several ideas from Simmel and social exchange theories, are as follows. First, triads generate less variability of behavior than dyads; that is, there is more uniformity or convergence in triads. Second, in the context of repeated exchange, we predict higher levels of cohesion in triads than in dyads. Third, positive emotion or affect has a stronger impact on cohesion in dyads than in triads, whereas uncertainty reduction has a stronger impact on cohesion in triads. To test these hypotheses, an experiment compared isolated dyads to dyads nested in a triadic exchange network. Subjects engaged in exchanges across a series of distinct episodes, using standard experimental procedures from research on relational cohesion (Lawler and Yoon, 1996) and exchange networks (Molm and Cook, 1995; Willer, 1999). Consistent with the hypotheses, the results reveal more convergence of behavior and higher cohesion in triads than in dyads; moreover, uncertainty reduction is the primary basis for cohesion in the triad, whereas positive affect was the primary basis for cohesion in the dyad. These results are discussed in relation to Simmelian dyad-triad dynamics and the theory of relational cohesion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation in weight gaining of pre-term infants hospitalized in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarz M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Many studies have demonstrated that pre-term neonates gained more weight over the 10 days stimulation period. This research has been conducted to determine the effects of five days Tactile- Kinesthetic stimulation (TKS on weight gaining of pre-term infants hospitalized in Fatemiye neonatal intensive care unit."n"n Methods: Fifty one babies who graduated from the NICU to the intermediate care nursery were randomly allocated into test and control groups (24 and 27 neonate respectively. TKS was provided for three 20 minute periods per day for five consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure strokes in left and right lateral position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of the limbs. They were observed for changes in physiologic parameters and weight gaining during five days stimulation in hospital."n"n Results: Over the five days TKS an increase in weight was seen in the test group (p=0.018, 43.1 vs 5.4. Infants in both the test and control groups were matched for mean weight before study and days in which they received antibiotics and photo therapy. Mean temperature and O² saturation had no meaningful difference, but an increase in

  2. [Domestic violence in patients and caregivers dyads in neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Paz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Trujillo-De Los Santos, Zoila

    2015-01-01

    Patients with neurological diseases are susceptible to abuse and neglect. Studies on violence in this context have mainly focused on abuse perpetrated by a caregiver to the patient directionally. In this study we describe violence in dyads of caregivers and patients with neurological disorders according to frequency, directionality, and type of relation. One-hundred-and-eighty-five caregiver-patient dyads were assessed by means of the National Survey of Violence Against Women (NSVAW) guidelines and the Zarit and Pfeiffer questionnaires. Bivariate analysis and Spearman correlation tests were performed. Violence was reported by 32.5% of caregivers and 33.5% of patients. In both groups, psychological abuse was the most common. Mutual violence (54.5%) is the most common type of abuse and the caregiver reported as having more violent behavior is the intimate partner. Epilepsy was the neurological disorder where violence was more prevalent (47.6%). The prevalence of violence in our sample is higher than the one for the general population of 21%, as reported by the NSVAW. Clinical neurologists and healthcare services are key elements for the detection of abuse in this context.

  3. Perfil epidemiológico da díade mãe-bebê internados em alojamento conjunto obstétrico de um hospital universitário para tratamento de hiperbilirrubinemia do recém-nascido = Epidemiological profile of the mother-infant dyads hospitalized in obstetric rooming of a university hospital for treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Viera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal é identificada clinicamente pela icterícia, caracterizando-se pela coloração amarelada de pele e mucosas. O tratamento é a fototerapia, mas aliado às emoções e dúvidas do período puerperal, pode gerar conflitos e resistência materna ao tratamento, prolongando o período de internação. O objetivo foi o de identificar o perfil epidemiológico das mães e recém-nascido submetidos à fototerapia no alojamento conjunto obstétrico. Estudo quantitativo, exploratório e descritivo; a coleta de dados deu-se por meio de formulário estruturado e pesquisa documental em prontuário clínico e a análise de dados por meio de estatística descritiva, não-probabilística. A coleta de dados permitiu destacar as características individuais, sociais, obstétricas e as relacionadas ao recém-nascido. O estudo evidenciou que as variáveis da faixa etária materna, escolaridade da mãe, predominância da cor branca, ocupação da mãe, renda familiar, grupo sanguíneo materno, complicações na gestação e ou trabalho de parto e parto, drogas usadas no trabalho de parto e parto, sexo do recém-nascido, grupo sanguíneo do recém-nascido e amamentação exclusiva com leite materno são os principais fatores preditivos de icterícia em recém-nascidos na nossa unidade de alojamento conjunto obstétrico.Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, clinically identified by jaundice, is characterized by a yellow skin color and mucous membranes. Normal treatment consists of phototherapy which, combined with postpartum emotions and concerns, may cause conflicts and mother’s resistance to treatment. Hospitalization period may therefore be prolonged. The epidemiological profile of mothers and newborn infant undergoing phototherapy in obstetric twin-room is identified. Analysis comprises a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study comprising the collection of data collection by a structured questionnaire and by retrieval of clinical records. Data analysis was used for descriptive non-probabilistic statistics. Data highlighted the individual, social, obstetric and others characteristics related to the newborn. Current research showed that variables such as mothers’ age bracket, schooling, predominance of white skin color, mother's occupation, family income, blood group, complications during pregnancy, labor or delivery, drugs used during labor and birth, sex of the newborn, newborn’s blood group and exclusively breastfeeding nutrition were the main predictive factors of jaundice in newborns in the obstetric twin-room under analysis.

  4. Incidence of Severe and Nonsevere Pertussis Among HIV-Exposed and -Unexposed Zambian Infants Through 14 Weeks of Age: Results From the Southern Africa Mother Infant Pertussis Study (SAMIPS), a Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; MacLeod, William; Kwenda, Geoffrey; Mwale, Magdalene; Williams, Anna L; Siazeele, Kazungu; Yang, Zhaoyan; Mwansa, James; Thea, Donald M

    2016-12-01

     Maternal vaccination with tetanus, reduced-dose diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) could be an effective way of mitigating the high residual burden of infant morbidity and mortality caused by Bordetella pertussis To better inform such interventions, we conducted a burden-of-disease study to determine the incidence of severe and nonsevere pertussis among a population of Zambian infants.  Mother-infant pairs were enrolled at 1 week of life, and then seen at 2- to 3-week intervals through 14 weeks of age. At each visit, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were obtained from both, and symptoms were catalogued. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify cases, and a severity scoring system to triage these into severe/nonsevere, we calculated disease incidence using person-time at risk as the denominator.  From a population of 1981 infants, we identified 10 with clinical pertussis, for an overall incidence of 2.4 cases (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-4.2) per 1000 infant-months and a cumulative incidence of 5.2 cases (95% CI, 2.6-9.0) per 1000 infants. Nine of 10 cases occurred within a 3-month window (May-July 2015), with highest incidence between birth and 6 weeks of age (3.5 cases per 1000 infant-months), concentrated among infants prior to vaccination or among those who had only received 1 dose of Diphtheria Tetanus whole cell Pertussis (DTwP). Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) modestly increased the risk of infant pertussis (risk ratio, 1.8 [95% CI, .5-6.9]). Only 1 of 10 infant cases qualified as having severe pertussis. The rest presented with the mild and nonspecific symptoms of cough, coryza, and/or tachypnea. Notably, cough durations were long, exceeding 30 days in several cases, with PCRs repeatedly positive over time.  Pertussis is circulating freely among this population of Zambian infants but rarely presents with the classical symptoms of paroxysmal cough, whooping, apnea, and cyanosis. Maternal HIV appears to increase the

  5. Observing the Mother-Infant Feeding Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Laws, Rachel; Moretto, Nicole; Daniels, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Early parenting is critical to effective attachment and a range of positive developmental outcomes for children. Feeding is a key task of early parenting and increasing evidence indicates that early feeding practices are important for the development of self-regulation of intake and food preferences which in turn are predictors of later obesity…

  6. Evaluative Language Used by Mandarin-Chinese-Speaking Dyads in Personal Narratives: Age and Socioeconomic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…

  7. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Whited, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  8. Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents’ Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12–16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison group). To test our hypothesis, we applied a multigroup actor–partner interdependence model to 3 friendship types that started and ended at different time points during the 2 waves of data collection. Results showed that adolescents reported levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up that were similar to those of their best friends. Socialization processes explained the increase in similarity exclusively in female dyads, whereas no evidence for friendship selection emerged for either male or female dyads. Additional analyses revealed that similarity between friends was particularly evident in the actual best friend dyads (i.e., true best friends), in which evidence for socialization processes emerged for both female and male friend dyads. Findings highlight the importance of examining friendship relations as a potential context for the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:21639621

  9. Substance use and decision-making in adolescent best friendship dyads: The role of popularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Water, E. de; Burk, W.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    In adolescent best friendship dyads, we examined: (a) similarity in substance use and decision-making; (b) associations between participants' decision-making and their own and best friend's substance use, (c) the influence of relative popularity within the dyad on these associations. Participants

  10. A preliminary conceptual framework for cancer couple dyads: live with love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Loke, Alice Y

    2015-01-01

    With the research focus on family caregiving shifting from the individual to the dyadic level, there is a need to develop a conceptual framework that focused on caregiver-patient dyads. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary conceptual framework for cancer couple dyads, to "Live With Love." A literature search was conducted among 4 electronic databases to identify couple-based intervention studies related to couples coping with cancer. This report differs from a traditional literature review in that we synthesized the models or frameworks used in these studies rather than the outcomes of the studies. A preliminary Live With Love Conceptual Framework (P-LLCF) for cancer couple dyads was developed based on the conceptual frameworks adopted in related literature on spousal caregiving for patients with cancer. This P-LLCF contains 3 domains: event situation, dyadic mediators, and caregiver-patient dyads (appraisal, coping, and adjustment/outcomes). The various components in this P-LLCF will work together to benefit the positive dyadic adjustment/outcomes of the spousal caregiver-patient dyads in the cancer dyads' journey of coping with cancer. This P-LLCF sheds new light on the study of cancer couple dyads. It will be potentially valuable for guiding the related research and development of interventions on cancer couple dyads. Future research is needed to assess the outcome of interventions that focus on different components. It is also needed to develop measurements to assess dyadic adjustment/outcomes in nursing practice.

  11. Daily Associations of Stress and Eating in Mother-Child Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Belcher, Britni R.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; O'Connor, Sydney; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in mother-child dyads to examine the day-level associations of stress and eating. Method. Mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 167 dyads) completed between three (weekday) and eight (weekend) EMA survey prompts per day at random nonschool times across 8 days.…

  12. Socially Shared Metacognition of Dyads of Pupils in Collaborative Mathematical Problem-Solving Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…

  13. Risk factors for pre-term birth in a Canadian cohort of HIV-positive women: role of ritonavir boosting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Fatima; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Lamarre, Valerie; Ducruet, Thierry; Amre, Devendra; Soudeyns, Hugo; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of pre-term birth (PTB) associated with the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) during pregnancy remains a subject of debate. Recent data suggest that ritonavir boosting of PIs may play a specific role in the initiation of PTB, through an effect on the maternal–fetal adrenal axis. The primary objective of this study is to compare the risk of PTB among women treated with boosted PI versus non-boosted PIs during pregnancy. Methods Between 1988 and 2011, 705 HIV-positive women were enrolled into the Centre Maternel et Infantile sur le SIDA mother–infant cohort at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine in Montreal, Canada. Inclusion criteria for the study were: 1) attendance at a minimum of two antenatal obstetric visits and 2) singleton live birth, at 24 weeks gestational or older. The association between PTB (defined as delivery at <37 weeks gestational age), antiretroviral drug exposure and maternal risk factors was assessed retrospectively using logistic regression. Results A total of 525 mother–infant pairs were included in the analysis. Among them, PI-based combination anti-retroviral therapy was used in 37.4%, boosted PI based in 24.4%, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based in 28.1%, and no treatment was given in 10.0% of cases. Overall, 13.5% of women experienced PTB. Among women treated with antiretroviral therapy, the risk of PTB was significantly higher among women who received boosted versus non-boosted PI (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.02–3.97). This remained significant after adjusting for maternal age, delivery CD4 count, hepatitis C co-infection, history of previous PTB, and parity (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.05–4.51). There was no increased risk of PTB with the use of unboosted PIs as compared to NNRTI- or NRTI-based regimens. Conclusion While previous studies on the association between PTB and PI use have generally considered all PIs the same, our results would

  14. Monodispersed Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Dye Dyads and Triads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladfelter, Wayne L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Blank, David A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mann, Kent R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-06-22

    The overall energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells depends on the combined efficiencies of light absorption, charge separation and charge transport. Dye-sensitized solar cells are photovoltaic devices in which a molecular dye absorbs light and uses this energy to initiate charge separation. The most efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) use nanocrystal titanium dioxide films to which are attached ruthenium complexes. Numerous studies have provided valuable insight into the dynamics of these and analogous photosystems, but the lack of site homogeneity in binding dye molecules to metal oxide films and nanocrystals (NCs) is a significant impediment to extracting fundamental details about the electron transfer across the interface. Although zinc oxide is emerging as a potential semiconducting component in DSSCs, there is less known about the factors controlling charge separation across the dye/ZnO interface. Zinc oxide crystallizes in the wurtzite lattice and has a band gap of 3.37 eV. One of the features that makes ZnO especially attractive is the remarkable ability to control the morphology of the films. Using solution deposition processes, one can prepare NCs, nanorods and nanowires having a variety of shapes and dimensions. This project solved problems associated with film heterogeneity through the use of dispersible sensitizer/ZnO NC ensembles. The overarching goal of this research was to study the relationship between structure, energetics and dynamics in a set of synthetically controlled donor-acceptor dyads and triads. These studies provided access to unprecedented understanding of the light absorption and charge transfer steps that lie at the heart of DSSCs, thus enabling significant future advances in cell efficiencies. The approach began with the construction of well-defined dye-NC dyads that were sufficiently dispersible to allow the use of state of the art pulsed laser spectroscopic and kinetic methods to understand the charge transfer

  15. Comparative analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels in pre-term and term babies delivered at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Olorunsola Obasa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P is an enzyme in the hexose monophosphate shunt required for the production of reducing equivalents needed to mop up free radicals. thereby keeping hemoglobin in its free state. Deficiency of the enzyme can cause severe neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to compare G6PD levels in pre-term and term babies, and evaluate the extent to which G6PD deficiency determines the severity of jaundice in various gestational age groups. Samples of cord blood collected from consecutively delivered babies in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were assayed for G6PD levels, and the babies were observed for jaundice during the first week of life. Those who developed jaundice had serial serum bilirubin measured. Nine hundred and thirty-three babies had G6PD assayed, with 348 being G6PD deficient, giving a hospital based prevalence of 37.3%. Of the 644 who were followed up, 143 (22.2% were pre-term and 501(77.8% were term babies. Babies with gestational age (GA 27-29 weeks had the highest G6PD levels. However, there was no significant variation among the different gestational age groups (F=0.64, P=0.64. Jaundice occurred more in pre-term compared to term babies with a relative risk of 2.41 (χ2=60.95, P=0.00001. Occurrence of jaundice in pre-term babies was irrespective of G6PD status (χ2=0.2, P=0.66, RR=1.09, CI=0.83

  16. BODIPY-pyrene and perylene dyads as heavy atom-free singlet oxygen sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2018-02-23

    Dyads combining BODIPY as an electron acceptor and pyrene or perylene as electron donor subunits were prepared and studied their photophysical properties studied by steady-state and transient spectroscopy. Depending on the structure of the subunits and polarity of the media, the dyads show either bright fluorescence or photo-induced electron transfer (PeT) in solution. Charge-transfer (CT) states formed as a result of PeT and were found to yield triplet excited states of the BODIPY. In the presence of molecular oxygen, the dyads sensitize singlet oxygen (1O2) with quantum yields of up to 0.75.

  17. The effect of dyad versus individual simulation-based ultrasound training on skills transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Madsen, Mette E; Oxlund, Birgitte S

    2015-01-01

    : This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of simulation-based ultrasound training in pairs (dyad practice) with that of training alone (single-student practice) on skills transfer. METHODS: In a non-inferiority trial, 30 ultrasound novices were randomised to dyad (n = 16) or single-student (n...... through pre-, post- and transfer tests. The transfer test involved the assessment of a transvaginal ultrasound scan by one of two clinicians using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS). RESULTS: Thirty participants completed the simulation-based training and 24...... interactions between training type and performance (p = 0.59). The dyad group demonstrated higher training efficiency in terms of simulator score per number of attempts compared with the single-student group (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Dyad practice improves the efficiency of simulation-based training and is non...

  18. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, Iris; Wedl, Manuela; Beetz, Andrea; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, pDogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI) and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT), had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016), as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ) or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ) (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003). We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context) in science and in counselling. PMID:28178272

  19. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Schöberl

    Full Text Available Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100 over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001, whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028. Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT, had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016, as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003. We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context in science and in counselling.

  20. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    OpenAIRE

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes; Luciandra Macedo de Toledo; Luís Alberto Ambrósio

    2012-01-01

    Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this...

  1. [Impact of screening and treatment of low systemic blood flow in the prevention of severe intraventricular haemorrhage and/or death in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego Erroz, Ignacio; Alonso Quintela, Paula; Jiménez Gonzalez, Aquilina; Terroba Seara, Sandra; Rodríguez Blanco, Silvia; Rosón Varas, María; Castañón López, Leticia

    2018-04-02

    To assess the effect of a protocolised intervention for low systemic blood flow (SBF) in the occurrence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or death in pre-term infants. A study with a quasi-experimental design with retrospective controls was conducted on pre-term infants of less than 30weeks of gestational age, born between January 2016 and July 2017, who were consecutively included in the intervention period. The control cohort included pre-term infants (born between January 2013 and December 2015) matched by gestational age, birth weight, and gender (two controls for each case). The cases of low SBF diagnosed according to functional echocardiography during the study period received dobutamine (5-10μg/kg/min) for 48hours. The study included 29 cases (intervention period) and 54 controls (pre-intervention period). Ten out of 29 (34.5%) infants received dobutamine for low SBF during the intervention period, with 3/29 (10.3%) cases of severe IVH and/or death compared to 17/54 (31.5%) in the control cohort (p=.032). There was an independent association between the intervention and a decreased occurrence of severe IVH/death after adjusting for confounding factors both in the logistic regression model [OR 0.11 (95%CI: 0.01-0.65), p=.015], as well as in the sensitivity analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting [OR 0.23 (95%CI: 0.09-0.56); p=.001]. In this study with retrospective controls, a protocolised screening, and treatment for low SBF was associated with a decreased occurrence of severe IVH or death in preterm infants. Large, adequately powered trials, are needed in order to determine whether postnatal interventions directed at low SBF can improve neurological outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. A Study of the Effect of Dyad Practice Versus That of Individual Practice on Simulation-Based Complex Skills Learning and of Students’ Perceptions of How and Why Dyad Practice Contributes to Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räder, Sune Bernd Emil Werner; Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Butrymovich, Vitalij

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of this study were (1) to explore the effectiveness of dyad practice compared with individual practice on a simulator for learning a complex clinical skill and (2) to explore medical students' perceptions of how and why dyad practice on a simulator contributes to learning a comp...... because learning from errors and overt communication, both keys to dyad practice, do not transfer to clinical practice.......PURPOSE: The aims of this study were (1) to explore the effectiveness of dyad practice compared with individual practice on a simulator for learning a complex clinical skill and (2) to explore medical students' perceptions of how and why dyad practice on a simulator contributes to learning...... a complex skill. METHOD: In 2011, the authors randomly assigned 84 medical students to either the dyad or the individual practice group to learn coronary angiography skills using instruction videos and a simulator. Two weeks later, participants each performed two video-recorded coronary angiographies...

  3. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM 10 , PM 2.5 , CO, NO 2 , and SO 2 . Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  4. A study of the effect of dyad practice versus that of individual practice on simulation-based complex skills learning and of students' perceptions of how and why dyad practice contributes to learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räder, Sune B E W; Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Butrymovich, Vitalij; Sander, Mikael; Jørgensen, Erik; Lönn, Lars; Ringsted, Charlotte V

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the effectiveness of dyad practice compared with individual practice on a simulator for learning a complex clinical skill and (2) to explore medical students' perceptions of how and why dyad practice on a simulator contributes to learning a complex skill. In 2011, the authors randomly assigned 84 medical students to either the dyad or the individual practice group to learn coronary angiography skills using instruction videos and a simulator. Two weeks later, participants each performed two video-recorded coronary angiographies on the simulator. Two raters used a rating scale to assess the participants' video-recorded performance. The authors then interviewed the participants in the dyad practice group. Seventy-two (86%) participants completed the study. The authors found no significant difference between the performance scores of the two groups (mean±standard deviation, 68%±13% for individual versus 63%±16% for dyad practice; P=.18). Dyad practice participants noted that several key factors contributed to their learning: being equal-level novices, the quality of the cooperation between partners, observational learning and overt communication, social aspects and motivation, and meta-cognition. Dyad practice is more efficient and thus more cost-effective than individual practice and can be used for costly virtual reality simulator training. However, dyad practice may not apply to clinical training involving real patients because learning from errors and overt communication, both keys to dyad practice, do not transfer to clinical practice.

  5. Interação mãe-bebê pré-termo e mudança no estado de humor: comparação do Método Mãe-Canguru com visita na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Interaction between mothers and pre-term infants and mood changes: a comparison between the Kangaroo Mother Method and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guimarães Cruvinel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar mudanças nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo em função do tipo de contato com o seu filho: Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC e visita ao filho na incubadora da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. MÉTODOS: foi aplicada a Escala Analógica de Humor em 60 mães divididas em 2 grupos: mães que participam do Método Mãe-Canguru (GC e mães que acompanharam o bebê na incubadora (GI. Os grupos foram pareados em função da idade das mães, número de gestações e tipo de parto. As mães foram avaliadas antes e depois de uma das visitas ao filho na incubadora ou sessão de MMC. RESULTADOS: as mães do GC melhoraram o humor, relatando: sentirem-se mais calmas, fortes, com idéias claras, ágeis, dinâmicas, satisfeitas, tranqüilas, perspicazes, relaxadas, atentas, competentes, alegres e amistosas. As mães do GI não apresentaram melhora no estado de humor em nenhum item, mas pioraram no item "sentindo-se desajeitada". CONCLUSÕES: o Método Mãe-Canguru mostrou-se eficaz na melhora nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo, contribuindo assim para a minimização dos efeitos negativos da internação neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to assess changes in the subjective state of mood of mothers of pre-term babies, comparing different kinds of mother-infant interaction: the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: the Visual Analogue Mood Scale was used with 60 mothers divided into two groups: mothers included in the Kangaroo Program (KG and mothers with a baby on an incubator (IG. The groups were matched for the mothers' age, number of pregnancies and kind of delivery. The mothers were evaluated before and after a visit to the baby on an incubator or a KMM session. RESULTS: it was found that KG mothers were in a better mood, reporting that they felt calmer, stronger, more clear-headed, more agile, dynamic, satisfied, at ease, perceptive, relaxed, considerate

  6. Self-organization of phthalocyanine--[60]fullerene dyads in liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Escosura, Andrés; Martínez-Díaz, M Victoria; Barbera, Joaquín; Torres, Tomas

    2008-02-15

    The use of blends in which a mesogen induces mesomorphism into a non-mesogenic compound has made possible the self-organization of phthalocyanine--[60]fullerene (Pc-C60) dyads into liquid crystals. Pc-C60 dyads 1, 2, or 3, in which two photoactive units are brought together by a phenylenevinylene spacer, have been synthesized through a Heck reaction that links 4-vinylbenzaldehyde to a monoiodophthalocyanine precursor, followed by standard cycloaddition of azomethine ylides--generated from the formylPc derivative and N-methylglycine--to one of the double bonds of C60. The mesomorphic and thermal properties of different mixtures formed by the liquid-crystalline phthalocyanine 4 and dyads 1, 2, or 3 were examined using polarizing optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC diagrams of the blends show clear transitions from the crystalline state to a mesophase, and the measured structural parameters obtained from the powder diffraction experiments are consistent with a discotic hexagonal columnar (Col h) structure. Considering that segregation in domains of separated molecules of Pc-C60 dyad and phthalocyanine 4 would preclude mesomorphism due to the mismatch in the column diameter and to the lack of mesogenic character of the pure dyads, a predominance of alternating stacking is proposed. Additionally, the observed decrease in the calculated density of the blend mesophases relative to the mesophase of pure compound 4 is important evidence in this direction.

  7. The Relations of Family Members’ Unique and Shared Perspectives of Family Dysfunction to Dyad Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    Among a community sample of families (N = 128), this study examined how family members’ shared and unique perspectives of family dysfunction relate to dyad members’ shared views of dyad adjustment within adolescent-mother, adolescent-father, and mother-father dyads. Independent of a family’s family perspective (shared perspective of family dysfunction), the adolescent’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with both mother and father, the father’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with the adolescent as well as lower marital quality with mother, and the mother unique perspective was associated with lower marital quality with the father. Moreover, for adolescent-parent dyads, compared to the parent unique perspective, the adolescent unique perspective was more strongly associated with dyad adjustment. These findings indicate that both shared and unique views of the family system – the adolescent’s unique view in particular - independently relate to the health of family subsystems. They also suggest that research as well as therapeutic interventions that focus on just the shared view of the family may miss important elements of family dysfunction. PMID:24884682

  8. The relations of family members' unique and shared perspectives of family dysfunction to dyad adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Hendricks, Charlene

    2014-06-01

    Among a community sample of families (N = 128), this study examined how family members' shared and unique perspectives of family dysfunction relate to dyad members' shared views of dyad adjustment within adolescent-mother, adolescent-father, and mother-father dyads. Independent of a family's family perspective (shared perspective of family dysfunction), the adolescent's unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with both mother and father; the father's unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with the adolescent, as well as lower marital quality with mother; and the mother unique perspective was associated with lower marital quality with the father. Moreover, for adolescent-parent dyads, compared with the parent unique perspective, the adolescent unique perspective was more strongly associated with dyad adjustment. These findings indicate that both shared and unique views of the family system-the adolescent's unique view in particular-independently relate to the health of family subsystems. They also suggest that research, as well as therapeutic interventions, that focus on just the shared view of the family may miss important elements of family dysfunction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Shared weight and dietary changes in parent-child dyads following family-based obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Mockus-Valenzuela, Danyte S; Stein, Richard I; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine whether children and their participating parents undergoing family-based behavioral treatment (FBT) for obesity show similar dietary changes following treatment, and if so, whether these shared dietary changes explain the similarity in weight change within the parent-child dyad. Data come from a randomized controlled trial of 148 parent-child dyads who completed FBT and were followed over a 2-year maintenance phase. Energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods ("RED" foods) and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed across time. Maintenance of lower RED food intake following FBT predicted weight maintenance in children and in parents (ps child dyads (ps child weight maintenance can be explained in part by similar long-term changes in energy-dense, nutrient-poor food intake. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  11. Effects of Gender Role and Task Content on Performance in Same-Gender Dyads: Transactive Memory as a Potential Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas; Huguet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was designed to examine the effects of gender role and task content on performance in learning dyads and to test the potential mediator effect of an intragroup process related to transactive memory. A total of 44 same-gender dyads participated in the study and were asked to collaborate on a stereotypically masculine or feminine…

  12. Determination of the protonation state of the Asp dyad: conventional molecular dynamics versus thermodynamic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Yali; Sun, Bin; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Junjun

    2016-03-01

    The protonation state of the Asp dyad is important as it can reveal enzymatic mechanisms, and the information this provides can be used in the development of drugs for proteins such as memapsin 2 (BACE-1), HIV-1 protease, and rennin. Conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been successfully used to determine the preferred protonation state of the Asp dyad. In the present work, we demonstrate that the results obtained from conventional MD simulations can be greatly influenced by the particular force field applied or the values used for control parameters. In principle, free-energy changes between possible protonation states can be used to determine the protonation state. We show that protonation state prediction by the thermodynamic integration (TI) method is insensitive to force field version or to the cutoff for calculating nonbonded interactions (a control parameter). In the present study, the protonation state of the Asp dyad predicted by TI calculations was the same regardless of the force field and cutoff value applied. Contrary to the intuition that conventional MD is more efficient, our results clearly show that the TI method is actually more efficient and more reliable for determining the protonation state of the Asp dyad.

  13. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

  14. Influences on Infant Feeding: Perceptions of Mother-Father Parent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Wilson; Thullen, Matthew J; Davis, Alexandra N; Sethi, Tarunjot K

    The purpose of this study was to examine interrelational-, organizational-, and community-level influences on how coparents collaborate about infant and toddler feeding. Using qualitative methods, we interviewed mother-father parent dyads to explore the potential influences on infant and toddler feeding. Participants were purposively recruited from two Midwest, rural, university-system pediatric clinics. Thematic analysis was used to code the data. Mother-father dyadic interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview schedule. Twenty-four mother-father dyads who had a child between the ages of 6 and 36 months were interviewed together. Major themes include interpersonal factors (peer behavior reinforcement, dyad and important others infant feeding conflict, conflict resolution proactiveness), organizational factors (healthcare provider infant-feeding support, workplace flexibility), and community factors (public perception on breastfeeding and social media influence). Community-based collaboration can be a platform for mother-father dyads, researchers, public health nurses, and other healthcare providers to proactively create interventions that include opportunity for building coparenting skills and infant-feeding knowledge that promote team management of common early childhood feeding challenges.

  15. Let the Force Be with Us: Dyads Exploit Haptic Coupling for Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Knoblich, Guenther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    People often perform actions that involve a direct physical coupling with another person, such as when moving furniture together. Here, we examined how people successfully coordinate such actions with others. We tested the hypothesis that dyads amplify their forces to create haptic information to coordinate. Participants moved a pole (resembling a…

  16. Antecedents of Toddler Aggression: Dysfunctional Parenting in Mother-Toddler Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2006-01-01

    Aggression is stable as early as 2 years of age and predicts many negative adult outcomes. Although longitudinal predictors of child aggression have been identified, information is lacking regarding the proximal precursors of toddlers' aggression. During a 30-min interaction, 54 mother-toddler dyads were observed. Toddlers were categorized as…

  17. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Program on the Elaborations of Students Working in Dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, K.; Janssen, J.J.H.M.; Veenman, S.A.M.; Linden, A.A.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a school improvement program on cooperative learning (CL) with respect to the elaborations of 6th-grade students working in mixed-ability and mixed-sex dyads on 2 cooperative tasks were examined. A posttest-only design with a control group was used to investigate the

  18. Custodial Grandmother-Grandfather Dyads: Pathways among Marital Distress, Grandparent Dysphoria, Parenting Practice, and Grandchild Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory C.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model was examined using structural equation modeling with data from 193 custodial grandmother-grandfather dyads. The model's measurement and structural components were largely invariant by grandparent gender. For grandmothers and grandfathers alike, the effects of their psychological and marital distress on…

  19. The CD40-CD40L Dyad in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Suzanne A. B. M.; Seijkens, Tom T. P.; van Dorst, Koos J. F.; Dijkstra, Christine D.; Kooij, Gijs; Lutgens, Esther

    2017-01-01

    The CD40-CD40L dyad is an immune checkpoint regulator that promotes both innate and adaptive immune responses and has therefore an essential role in the development of inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS, CD40 and CD40L are expressed on immune cells present in blood and

  20. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  1. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

  2. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  3. Shared heart failure knowledge and self-care outcomes in patient-caregiver dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Julie T; Higgins, Melinda K; Reilly, Carolyn M; Clark, Patricia C; Dunbar, Sandra B

    Patient's knowledge about heart failure (HF) contributes to successful HF self-care, but less is known about shared patient-caregiver knowledge. The purpose of this analysis was to: 1) identify configurations of shared HF knowledge in patient-caregiver dyads; 2) characterize dyads within each configuration by comparing sociodemographic factors, HF characteristics, and psychosocial factors; and 3) quantify the relationship between configurations and patient self-care adherence to managing dietary sodium and HF medications. This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data (N = 114 dyads, 53% spousal). Patient and caregiver HF knowledge was measured with the Atlanta Heart Failure Knowledge Test. Patient dietary sodium intake was measured by 3-day food record and 24 h urine sodium. Medication adherence was measured by Medication Events Monitoring System caps. Patient HF-related quality of life was measured by the Minnesota Heart Failure Questionnaire; caregiver health-related quality of life was measured by the Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary. Patient and caregiver depression were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Patient and caregiver perceptions of caregiver-provided autonomy support to succeed in heart failure self-care were measured by the Family Care Climate Questionnaire. Multilevel and latent class modeling were used to identify dyadic knowledge configurations. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to characterize differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics by configuration. Logistic/linear regression were used to quantify relationships between configurations and patient dietary sodium and medication adherence. Two dyadic knowledge configurations were identified: "Knowledgeable Together" (higher dyad knowledge, less incongruence; N = 85, 75%) and "Knowledge Gap" (lower dyad knowledge, greater incongruence; N = 29, 25%). Dyads were more likely to be in the "Knowledgeable Together" group if they

  4. Autonomous Motivation and Fruit/Vegetable Intake in Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura A; Bolger, Niall; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Patrick, Heather; Oh, April Y; Nebeling, Linda C; Hennessy, Erin

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous motivation (motivation to engage in a behavior because of personal choice, interest, or value) is often associated with health behaviors. The present study contributes to research on motivation and eating behaviors by examining (1) how autonomous motivation is correlated within parent-adolescent dyads and (2) whether parent- and adolescent-reported autonomous motivation predicts the parent-adolescent correlation in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake frequency. Data were drawn from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study, a cross-sectional U.S. survey of parent-adolescent dyads led by the National Cancer Institute and fielded between April and October 2014. In 2016, data were analyzed from dyads who had responses on a six-item self-report measure of daily frequency of FV consumption and a two-item self-report measure of autonomous motivation for consuming FVs. Parents' and adolescents' reports of autonomous motivation and FV intake frequency were positively correlated. Both parents' and adolescents' autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of their own FV intake frequency and that of their dyad partner (p-values ≤0.001). These effects of autonomous motivation explained 22.6% of the parent-adolescent correlation in FV intake frequency. Actor effects (one's motivation predicting their own FV intake frequency) were stronger than partner effects (one's motivation predicting their partner's FV intake frequency). Parent-adolescent similarity in autonomous motivation for healthy eating may contribute to similarity in eating behaviors. Future research should further examine how individual-level health behavior correlates influence health behaviors within dyads. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Purpose in life in ALS patient-caregiver dyads: A multilevel longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Natasha E; Morey, Jennifer N; Kasarskis, Edward J; Segerstrom, Suzanne C

    2017-11-01

    Eudaemonic positive psychological health (PPH), such as purpose in life (PIL), may be maintained more than hedonic PPH, such as quality of life (QOL), for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and their caregivers across the disease course. Furthermore, patients' and caregivers' PPH may impact one another. The present study examined (a) PIL and QOL variance structures; (b) PIL and QOL trajectories from diagnosis, approaching death, with disease severity; and (c) between-dyad and within-dyad relationships for PIL and QOL in patients with ALS and their caregivers. PIL and QOL were assessed in patient-caregiver dyads (N = 110) up to 7 times over 18 months. Multilevel models revealed the proportion of variance attributed to stable between-person differences was higher for PIL (patients = 74%; caregivers = 76%) than QOL (patients = 60%; caregivers = 55%). PIL and QOL declined in relation to disease severity and time. For PIL, proximity to diagnosis and death moderated within-person change; decline was generally faster following diagnosis and approaching death. Longitudinal within-dyad relationships revealed that patients' fluctuations in PIL were mirrored in their caregiver and vice versa. PIL was more stable than QOL and was therefore a potential psychological resource for patients and caregivers. Critical periods-after diagnosis and approaching death-accompanied more rapid PIL decline. QOL was also impacted by proximity to critical periods. PIL within-dyad relationships may reflect a shared disease experience. Psychological intervention focused on enhancing purpose, particularly during critical periods, is a promising direction for future study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Adolescent-Parent Dyad Descriptions of the Decision to Start the HPV Vaccine Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jane; Ipp, Lisa S; de Roche, Ariel M; Catallozzi, Marina; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2018-02-01

    To examine how adolescent-parent dyads describe decision-making regarding initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series, specifically who they viewed as making the final decision. Semistructured interviews with adolescent-parent dyads were audio-recorded and transcribed. Responses to the question: "How did you make a decision about whether or not to receive the HPV vaccine series?" were content-coded for each individual member of the dyad. Adolescent medicine clinics of 2 large urban medical centers and through snowball sampling. Adolescents 14-17 years of age and a parent (N = 262). Qualitative analyses were conducted for those who agreed that they were offered and started the HPV vaccine series (n = 109). None. Descriptions of the decision-making included 1 person (adolescent or parent) making the decision or joint decision-making by the adolescent and parent together. More than half of the dyads did not agree on who made the decision to start the vaccine. Most adolescents and parents described a similar account about when they were offered the HPV vaccine, although the interpretation of the event in terms of the decision-maker might have differed. More than half of adolescents and parents individually mentioned the health care provider in their description of the HPV vaccine decision-making process even though they were not queried about the role of the provider. Understanding the range of descriptions of these dyads is helpful to guide interventions to promote vaccine uptake in a manner that balances provider expertise, adolescent autonomy, and parental involvement. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Activated umbilical cord blood cells from pre-term and term neonates express CD69 and synthesize IL-2 but are unable to produce IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cérbulo-Vázquez, Arturo; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The immune response exhibits quantitative and qualitative differences throughout human development. Both phenotypical and functional immaturity of newborn immune cellular components have been reported. We aimed to analyze possible differences in cellular activation assessed by expression of surface CD69 and cytokine production in mononuclear peripheral blood cells from premature (term (>37 weeks of gestation) neonates compared to adult donors. Ten persons from each group were selected; none was infected, immunodepressed, under medical treatment, or had any congenital abnormalities. Blood was obtained from umbilical cord of term and pre-term donors and vein punction of adults. All samples were collected in heparin and subsequently activated with PHA-L or PMA plus ionomycin at 37 degrees C for 4 h. After incubation, cells were labeled to determine CD69 expression on CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD19+, and CD16+56+ subpopulations. Intracellular staining was performed to analyze IFN-gamma, IL-2, and CD69 in CD3+ cells. After staining, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. We first found a substantially higher number of CD3+CD4+CD69+ cells in premature and term neonates than in adults. Secondly, percentage of CD3+CD8+, CD56+, and CD19+ cells expressing CD69 was similar among the three groups. Thirdly, expression of CD69 was higher in CD19+ cells than in CD16+56+ cells of all three groups. Regarding cytokine production, IFN-gamma was detected only in cells from adults and was consistent in all individuals analyzed. In sharp contrast, IL-2 and intracellular CD69 (iCD69) were detected in all three groups, with no significant differences among them. Induction of IL-2 and iCD69 showed that lack of response with IFN-gamma was restricted to pre-term and newborn populations. In summary, our results showed that a) CD69 is an early activation marker of both mononuclear umbilical cord and peripheral blood cells activated by a mitogenic stimulus, and b) newborn CD3+ cells probably lack

  8. Thymosin beta(4 and beta(10 levels in pre-term newborn oral cavity and foetal salivary glands evidence a switch of secretion during foetal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Nemolato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta(4, its sulfoxide, and thymosin beta(10 were detected in whole saliva of human pre-term newborns by reversed-phase high performance chromatography coupled to electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite high inter-individual variability, concentration of beta-thymosins increases with an inversely proportional trend to postmenstrual age (PMA: gestational age plus chronological age after birth reaching a value more than twenty times higher than in adult whole saliva at 190 days (27 weeks of PMA (thymosin beta(4 concentration: more than 2.0 micromol/L versus 0.1 micromol/L. On the other hand, the ratio between thymosin beta(4 and thymosin beta(10 exhibits a constant value of about 4 along all the range of PMA (190-550 days of PMA examined. In order to investigate thymosin beta(4 origin and to better establish the trend of its production as a function of gestational age (GA, immunohistochemical analysis of major and minor salivary glands of different pre-term fetuses were carried out, starting from 84 days (12 weeks of gestational age. Reactive granules were seen in all glands with a maximum of expression around 140-150 days of GA, even though with high inter- and intra-individual variability. In infants and adults reactive granules in acinar cells were not observed, but just a diffuse cytoplasmatic staining in ductal cells. SIGNIFICANCE: This study outlines for the first time that salivary glands during foetal life express and secrete peptides such as beta-thymosins probably involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes. The secretion increases from about 12 weeks till to about 21 weeks of GA, subsequently it decreases, almost disappearing in the period of expected date of delivery, when the gland switches towards the secretion of adult specific salivary peptides. The switch observed may be an example of further secretion switches involving other exocrine and endocrine

  9. Dansyl-naphthalimide dyads as molecular probes: effect of spacer group on metal ion binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Balaraman H; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2011-11-17

    Interaction of a few dansyl-naphthalimide conjugates 1a-e linked through polymethylene spacer groups with various metal ions was investigated through absorption, fluorescence, NMR, isothermal calorimetric (ITC), and laser flash photolysis techniques. The characteristic feature of these dyads is that they exhibit competing singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) and photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes, both of which decrease with the increase in spacer length. Depending on the spacer group, these dyads interact selectively with divalent Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions, as compared to other mono- and divalent metal ions. Jobs plot analysis showed that these dyads form 2:3 complexes with Cu(2+) ions, while 1:1 complexes were observed with Zn(2+) ions. The association constants for the Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) complexes were determined and are found to be in the order 10(3)-10(5) M(-1). Irrespective of the length of the spacer group, these dyads interestingly act as fluorescence ratiometric molecular probes for Cu(2+) ions by altering the emission intensity of both dansyl and naphthalimide chromophores. In contrast, only the fluorescence intensity of the naphthalimide chromophore of the lower homologues (n = 1-3) was altered by Zn(2+) ions. (1)H NMR and ITC measurements confirmed the involvement of both sulfonamide and dimethylamine groups in the complexation with Cu(2+) ions, while only the latter group was involved with Zn(2+) ions. Laser excitation of the dyads 1a-e showed formation of a transient absorption which can be attributed to the radical cation of the naphthalimide chromophore, whereas only the triplet excited state of the dyads 1a-e was observed in the presence of Cu(2+) ions. Uniquely, the complexation of 1a-e with Cu(2+) ions affects both PET and SSET processes, while only the PET process was partially inhibited by Zn(2+) ions in the lower homologues (n = 1-3) and the higher homologues exhibited negligible changes in their emission properties. Our results

  10. Synthesis of mesogenic phthalocyanine-C60 donor–acceptor dyads designed for molecular heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Henri Geerts

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of phthalocyanine-C60 dyads 2a–d was synthesized. Key steps in their synthesis are preparation of the low symmetry phthalocyanine intermediate by the statistical condensation of two phthalonitriles, and the final esterification of the fullerene derivative bearing a free COOH group. Structural characterization of the molecules in solution was performed by NMR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Preliminary studies suggest formation of liquid crystalline (LC mesophases for some of the prepared dyads. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of LC phthalocyanine-C60 dyads.

  11. Interplay between singlet and triplet excited states in a conformationally locked donor–acceptor dyad

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2015-10-13

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a palladium(II) porphyrin – anthracene dyad bridged via short and conformationally rigid bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene spacer were achieved. A spectroscopic investigation of the prepared molecule in solution has been undertaken to study electronic energy transfer in excited singlet and triplet states between the anthracene and porphyrin units. By using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy it was shown that excitation of the singlet excited state of the anthracene leads to energy transfer to the lower-lying singlet state of porphyrin. Alternatively, excitation of the porphyrin followed by intersystem crossing to the triplet state leads to very fast energy transfer to the triplet state of anthracene. The rate of this energy transfer has been determined by transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparative studies of the dynamics of triplet excited states of the dyad and reference palladium octaethylporphyrin (PdOEP) have been performed.

  12. The Use of Personal Pronouns: A Comparison between Iranian and Malaysian Dyads

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    Seyed Yasin Yazdi-Amirkhiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is part of a larger study which comparatively examined the collaborative discourse of two Iranian and two Malaysian dyads. The members of the dyads were all female and of the same English language proficiency. Core findings of the study on the typology and the frequency of the pronouns used by the participants in the course of eleven sessions of collaborative writing are reported. The content analysis of their pair talk for pronouns indicated that Iranian participants tended to use “I” and “you” considerably more than their Malaysian counterparts, whereas Malaysian participants were found to have a stronger tendency to use “we” more often. The findings are discussed with regard to the macro-cultural dichotomy of world cultures (collectivist/ individualist.

  13. Naphtyl- and pyrenyl-flavylium dyads: Synthesis, DFT and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Castillo, Bethsy Adriana; Sánchez-Bojorge, Nora Aydee; Chávez-Flores, David; Camacho-Dávila, Alejandro A.; Pasillas-Ornelas, Eddie; Rodríguez-Valdez, Luz-María; Zaragoza-Galán, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    A one-step preparation of flavylium salts containing naphtyl and pyrenyl moieties is described hereafter. Flavylium salts were successfully characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS spectrometry. Theoretical calculations were carried out by means of Density Functional Theory in order to simulate flavylium cation electronic transitions. Molecular simulation of -naphtyl derivatives displayed a coplanar conformation between naphthalene and benzopyrylium moieties. In contrast, DFT analysis exhibited a non-coplanar arrangement of pyrene and benzopyrylium units. These former statements in coherence with the absorption experiments where the naphtyl-flavylium dyads shows a red-shifted maximum absorption band with respect to pyrene dyads, led us to conclude that these bathochromic effects are associated with a more planar conformation.

  14. Sensory atypicalities in dyads of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glod, Magdalena; Riby, Deborah M; Honey, Emma; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2017-03-01

    Sensory atypicalities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the relationship between sensory atypicalities in dyads of children with ASD and their parents has not been investigated. Exploring these relationships can contribute to an understanding of how phenotypic profiles may be inherited, and the extent to which familial factors might contribute towards children's sensory profiles and constitute an aspect of the broader autism phenotype (BAP). Parents of 44 children with ASD and 30 typically developing (TD) children, aged between 3 and 14 years, participated. Information about children's sensory experiences was collected through parent report using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Information about parental sensory experiences was collected via self-report using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile. Parents of children with ASD had significantly higher scores than parents of TD children in relation to low registration, over responsivity, and taste/smell sensory processing. Similar levels of agreement were obtained within ASD and TD parent-child dyads on a number of sensory atypicalities; nevertheless significant correlations were found between parents and children in ASD families but not TD dyads for sensation avoiding and auditory, visual, and vestibular sensory processing. The findings suggest that there are similarities in sensory processing profiles between parents and their children in both ASD and TD dyads. Familial sensory processing factors are likely to contribute towards the BAP. Further work is needed to explore genetic and environmental influences on the developmental pathways of the sensory atypicalities in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 531-538. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Physical activity in adolescents: examining influence of the best friend dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vítor P; Gabbard, Carl; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dyadic friendship relationships on adolescent physical activity (PA) behavior. Unique to this study was examination of the "best friend" dyad. Participants were 268 adolescents (13-18 years of age) of both sexes (boys n = 140, girls n = 128), constituting 134 best friendship dyads; 84 were reciprocal best friends and 50 were not. PA was evaluated with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was tested using a hierarchical linear model. First, a null model was run to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient for each type of PA. Next, sex, age, and reciprocity in friendship were included in the model as PA predictors. The null models revealed significant intraclass correlation coefficient values for vigorous PA (VPA) (.32) moderate PA (MPA) (.31), and sitting behavior (.21), but not for walking. Age was the only predictor for VPA, whereas for MPA the predictors were sex and age of the partner. Reciprocity in friendship (best friend) was not a significant predictor for PA. These results indicate a high degree of similarity between best friend dyad in PA, except for walking. The age and sex of the best friend (partner) were important predictors of MPA. The reciprocity in friendship (being reciprocal best friends) was not a relevant variable. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of triplet state generation in heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads by media polarity and structural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Mikhail A; Karuthedath, Safakath; Polestshuk, Pavel M; Callaghan, Susan; Flanagan, Keith J; Telitchko, Maxime; Wiesner, Thomas; Laquai, Frédéric; Senge, Mathias O

    2018-03-28

    A family of heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads (BADs) exhibiting triplet excited state formation from charge-transfer states is reported. Four types of BODIPY scaffolds, different in the alkyl substitution pattern, and four anthracene derivatives have been used to access BADs. Fluorescence and intersystem crossing (ISC) in these dyads depend on donor-acceptor couplings and can be accurately controlled by substitution or media polarity. Under conditions that do not allow charge transfer (CT), the dyads exhibit fluorescence with high quantum yields. Formation of charge-transfer states triggers ISC and the formation of long-lived triplet excited states in the dyads. The excited state properties were studied by steady-state techniques and ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to determine the parameters of the observed processes. Structural information for various BADs was derived from single crystal X-ray structure determinations alongside DFT molecular geometry optimization, revealing the effects of mutual orientation of subunits on the photophysical properties. The calculations showed that alkyl substituents on the BODIPY destabilize CT states in the dyads, thus controlling the charge transfer between the subunits. The effect of the dyad structure on the ISC efficiency was considered at the M06-2X level of theory, and a correlation between mutual orientation of the subunits and the energy gap between singlet and triplet CT states was studied using a multireference CASSCF method.

  17. Control of triplet state generation in heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads by media polarity and structural factors

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2018-02-12

    A family of heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads (BADs) exhibiting triplet excited state formation from charge-transfer states is reported. Four types of BODIPY scaffolds, different in the alkyl substitution pattern, and four anthracene derivatives have been used to access BADs. The fluorescence and intersystem crossing (ISC) in these dyads depend on donor-acceptor couplings and can be accurately controlled by the substitution or media polarity. Under conditions that do not allow charge transfer (CT), the dyads exhibit fluorescence with high quantum yields. Formation of charge-transfer states triggers ISC and the formation of long-lived triplet excited states in the dyads. The excited state properties were studied by steady-state techniques and ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to determine the parameters of the observed processes. Structural information for various BADs was derived from single crystal X-ray structure determinations alongside DFT molecular geometry optimization, revealing the effects of mutual orientation of subunits on the photophysical properties. The calculations showed that alkyl substituents on the BODIPY destabilize CT states in the dyads, thus controlling the charge transfer between the subunits. The effect of the dyad structure on the ISC efficiency was considered at M06-2X level of theory and a correlation between mutual orientation of the subunits and the energy gap between singlet and triplet CT states was studied using multireference CASSCF method.

  18. Misoprostol for pre-term labor induction in the second trimester: Role of medical history and clinical parameters for prediction of time to delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Liberto, Alexander; Endrikat, Jan; Frohn, Sandra; Solomayer, Erich; Ertan, Kubilay

    2014-01-01

    Serious fetal malformations and/or chromosome aberrations detected by modern diagnostic tools in early pregnancy require discussions on induced abortion with pregnant women. Competent counseling includes prediction of the time needed for the whole abortion process. In an attempt to refine our predictions, we evaluated the impact of 11 medical history and clinical variables on time to delivery. We performed a retrospective chart analysis on 79 women submitted for pre-term abortion because of fetal anomalies. Abortion was induced by vaginal application of misoprostol (prostaglandine E1, Cytotec™, Pfizer, New York, USA). We investigated 11 medical history and clinical variables for their impact on the percentage of women delivering within 24 hours (primary endpoint) and on the mean induction-delivery time interval (secondary endpoint). Fifty-three percent (42/79) of women delivered within 24 hours; 83.6% (66/79) delivered within 48 hours. A total of 83.3% of women with a history of late abortion delivered within 24 hours, whereas 50.7% without this history did. Mean induction-delivery time interval was 12.3 hours versus 35.5 hours, respectively. For history of early abortion, the figures were 65.2% versus 48.2% for delivery within 24 hours and 15.6 hours versus 32.5 hours for mean induction-delivery time interval. Current weight of fetus >500 g, weight of last previous newborn of ≤3500 g, previous pregnancies, premature rupture of membranes, and an elevated CRP of >0.5 mg/dL also cut time to delivery. Surprisingly, maternal and gestational age had no remarkable or consistent impact on the mean induction-delivery time interval. None of the differences reached statistical significance. Eighty-three percent of women needed 1000 μg or less for successful delivery. Neither variables of medical history nor specific clinical variables allow for precise prediction of time to delivery in the second trimester. Certain parameters, however, show a trend to reduce the

  19. A trouble shared is a trouble halved: social context and status affect pain in mouse dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    Full Text Available In mice behavioral response to pain is modulated by social status. Recently, social context also has been shown to affect pain sensitivity. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of interaction between status and social context in dyads of outbred CD-1 male mice in which the dominance/submission relationship was stable. Mice were assessed for pain response in a formalin (1% concentration test either alone (individually tested-IT, or in pairs of dominant and subordinate mice. In the latter condition, they could be either both injected (BI or only one injected (OI with formalin. We observed a remarkable influence of social context on behavioral response to painful stimuli regardless of the social status of the mice. In the absence of differences between OI and IT conditions, BI mice exhibited half as much Paw-licking behavior than OI group. As expected, subordinates were hypoalgesic in response to the early phase of the formalin effects compared to dominants. Clear cut-differences in coping strategies of dominants and subordinates appeared. The former were more active, whereas the latter were more passive. Finally, analysis of behavior of the non-injected subjects (the observers in the OI dyads revealed that dominant observers were more often involved in Self-grooming behavior upon observation of their subordinate partner in pain. This was not the case for subordinate mice observing the pain response of their dominant partner. In contrast, subordinate observers Stared at the dominant significantly more frequently compared to observer dominants in other dyads. The observation of a cagemate in pain significantly affected the observer's behavior. Additionally, the quality of observer's response was also modulated by the dominance/submission relationship.

  20. Building collaborative partnerships in critical care: the RN case manager/social work dyad in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Dana Deravin

    2009-01-01

    More than 5 million patients are admitted annually to intensive care units (ICUs) in the United States. As the life expectancy of the population continues to lengthen, we should expect to see a proportionate increase in the burden of acute and chronic illness as well as a rise in the demand for critical care services. The case management dyad team of nurse case manager and social worker enhances and supports the critical care team through the implementation of collaborative interventions that focus upon the (1) minimization of inpatient transitions, (2) reduction of cost by decreasing the length of stay, (3) promotion of patient and family satisfaction through efforts of advocacy, and (4) enhanced discharge planning. Hospital ICUs. In the critical care setting the professional partnership of the RN case manager/masters in social worker (RN/MSW) dyad is a core component in the linkage of the ICU support system and it enhances the functioning of the ICU multidisciplinary team. The efforts of the dyad team are congruent with the goals of patient care, with the desires of the family, and with the mission of the organization. Shared goals and a shared commitment to professional practice provide the essential building blocks of the dyad relationship. The dyad structure presents an opportunity for RN case managers and social workers to integrate their strengths and skills in a collaborative patient-centered effort. The RN/MSW dyad structure as a model for case management practice promotes continuity of care and strengthens professional relationships. The case manager and the social worker have many shared responsibilities; therefore, a partnership that promotes continuous collaboration and communication is essential to the achievement of successful patient care outcomes. The professional partnership that evolves, as depicted by the RN/MSW dyad structure, enhances the organizations' mission to deliver quality patient-centered care.

  1. [Multidisciplinary care during peripartum: mother-baby dyad in the center of the relational constellations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, E; Ortiz, N; Alberque, C; Almeida Heymans, A; Epiney, M; Canuto, A; Weber, K

    2013-02-13

    Pregnancy and new motherhood may be crisis and vulnerability periods and therefore increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. Liaison psychiatry plays a major role in the first psychiatric evaluation of mothers in order to specify a diagnosis and to initiate a treatment when necessary. This article describes the care of mothers suffering from peripartum psychiatric disorders by the liaison psychiatry in the maternity ward, an outpatient practice, as well as an in-patient care unit where mother and baby can stay together. The multidisciplinary approach and its constellation around the mother-baby dyad are detailed and two clinical cases are reported.

  2. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    OpenAIRE

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-01-01

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lac...

  3. Synthesis of Zinc Chlorophyll Homo/Hetero-Dyads and their Folded Conformers with Porphyrin, Chlorin, and Bacteriochlorin π-Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Fukai, Kazuhiro; Shimazu, Hideki; Shoji, Sunao

    2014-01-01

    Zinc complex of pyropheophorbide-b, a derivative of chlorophyll-b, was covalently dimerized through ethylene glycol diester. The synthetic homo-dyad was axially ligated with two methanol molecules from the β-face and both the diastereomerically coordinating methanol species were hydrogen bonded with the keto-carbonyl groups of the neighboring chlorin in a complex. The resulting folded conformer in a solution was confirmed by visible, (1) H NMR and IR spectra. All the synthetic zinc chlorin homo- and hetero-dyads consisting of pyropheophorbides-a, b and/or d took the above methanol-locked and π-π stacked supramolecules in 1% (v/v) methanol and benzene to give redmost (Qy) electronic absorption band(s) at longer wavelengths than those of the corresponding monomeric chlorin composites. The other zinc chlorin and bacteriochlorin homo-dyads completely formed similar folded conformers in the same solution, while zinc inverse chlorin and porphyrin homo-dyads partially took such supramolecules. The J-type aggregation to folded conformers and the redshift values of composite Qy bands were dependent on the electronic and steric factors of porphyrinoid moieties in dyads. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  4. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Richard C

    2010-09-12

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare 'parcelling' to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking 'beyond the dyad'. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained 'intelligent' birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own.

  5. Dyads of father and son suicide separated by time and circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Henry J

    2010-03-01

    We encountered 2 dyadic suicides among fathers and sons. In the first dyad, the father was a 64-year-old man with complications of heart surgery. He committed suicide with a shotgun. The decedent's son was a 38-year-old man. Five years after his father's death, the son had an argument with his wife. That morning, he drove to the house where his father had lived and inflicted a handgun wound to his head. In the second dyad, the son was a 22-year-old man whose girlfriend left him. He inflicted a shotgun injury to the head. His blood alcohol level was 294 mg/dL. The father of this decedent was a 43-year-old man who 1 year later was despondent after a fight with his girlfriend. He was found dead at home with a single handgun wound to the chest. His blood alcohol level was 173 mg/dL. All 4 suicides appear to have been premeditated and all 4 men used guns. Suicide in a family tends to cause depression and complicate bereavement in survivors more than other types of death. Copycat suicide is well-documented in high-profile cases. The effect of father-son relationships is likely closer and more influential than celebrity suicides.

  6. Self-efficacy and physical activity in adolescent and parent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Elaine M; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between self-efficacy and physical activity in adolescent and parent dyads. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used to explore the relationships among levels of parent physical activity, parent-adolescent self-efficacy, and adolescent physical activity. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were conducted in a purposive sample of 94 adolescent/parent dyads. Regression results indicated the overall model significantly predicted adolescent physical activity (R(2) = .20, R(2)(adj) = .14, F[5, 70]= 3.28, p= .01). Only one of the five predictor variables significantly contributed to the model. Higher levels of adolescent self-efficacy was positively related to greater levels of adolescent physical activity (β= .29, p= .01). Practitioners are encouraged to examine the level of self-efficacy and physical activity in families in an effort to develop strategies that impact these areas and ultimately to mediate obesity-related challenges in families seeking care. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Student nurse dyads create a community of learning: proposing a holistic clinical education theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of students' experiences of cooperative learning in the clinical setting. Although cooperative learning is often used successfully in the classroom, it has not been documented in the clinical setting with sophomore nursing students being paired with other sophomore nursing students. Using a grounded theory methodology a sample of 64 participants (32 student nurse dyads, eight clinical groups, in two different acute care institutions) were observed on their first day in the clinical setting while working as cooperative partners. Interviews were also conducted with students, patients and staff preceptors. Data were collected in the fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009 and the spring of 2010 using semi-structured interviews and reflective surveys. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. A holistic clinical education theory for student nurses was identified from the data. This theory includes a reciprocal relationship among five categories relevant to a community of learning: supportive clinical experience; improved transition into practice; enhanced socialization into the profession; increased accountability and responsibility; and emergence of self-confidence as a beginning student nurse. The use of student dyads creates a supportive learning environment while students were able to meet the clinical learning objectives. Cooperative learning in the clinical setting creates a community of learning while instilling very early in the education process the importance of teamwork. This approach to clinical instruction eases the transition from the classroom to the clinical learning environment, and improves patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Physiological and Relational Predictors of Mother-Infant Behavioral Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sara F; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2016-12-01

    Coordinated social behavior and positive affect shared between parent and child in early life provide a foundation for healthy social and emotional development. We examined physiological (cardiac vagal responses) and relational (attachment security) predictors of dyadic behavioral coordination in a sample of 13-month-old infants and their mothers ( N = 64). We tested whether cardiac vagal responses moderated the association between attachment security and behavioral coordination. The main effect of attachment on coordination was moderated by infant cardiac vagal tone (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] during rest). Securely attached infants with lower cardiac vagal tone were more behaviorally coordinated with their mothers; there was no association between attachment and coordination for infants with high cardiac vagal tone. Infants with greater increases in cardiac vagal reactivity (i.e., RSA during social engagement) exhibited greater behavioral coordination with their mothers regardless of attachment status. There were no effects for maternal cardiac vagal responses. These results illustrate how individual differences in physiological responses inform healthy early social-emotional functioning.

  9. Lateralization of mother-infant interactions in wild horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenina, Karina; Giljov, Andrey; Malashichev, Yegor

    2018-03-01

    The manifestation of behavioural lateralization has been shown to be modified by environmental conditions, life experiences, and selective breeding. This study tests whether the lateralization recently found in feral domestic horse (Equus caballus) is evident in undomesticated horses. Mother-offspring interactions were investigated in Przewalski's horse (E. ferus przewalskii) living in their natural habitat in Mongolia. Lateral position preferences during mare-foal spontaneous reunions were used as a behavioural marker of visual lateralization. Preferences were separately assessed for foals' approaches to their mothers and mares' approaches to their foals. Preference to keep the mother in the visual field of the left eye was found in various types of foals' behaviour. In slow travelling, Przewalski's foals showed stronger preference for the left eye use than feral horse foals. Population-level left-eye bias was also found in mothers approaching their foals. Our results indicate right-hemispheric dominance for control of mother-offspring interactions in Przewalski's horses, similar to what has been reported for other mammals including humans. Benefits conferred by the lateralized social processing of and responding to social stimuli may explain that the left-lateralized social behaviour is a robust trait of equine behaviour, not modified by domestication or specific environmental conditions of the population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Breastfeeding and the mother-infant relationship-A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weerth, C. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother–infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother–infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond

  11. [Mother-infant mental health from viewpoint of relationship disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hisako

    2003-01-01

    Infants can adapt themselves and their relationship with their caregivers in a way incomparable to any other stage in life. Infants are innately motivated to communicate with people and to actively take part in human social interaction. The question is how to provide an environment that facilitates such potentials for each particular infant and its family. Japan strove to improve the physical aspect of maternal and infant care after the second World War and yielded a nation-wide perinatal and infant screening system that produced a world minimum infant mortality rate and more than 80% compliance rate of infant checkups. Instead, infant abuse and infants with development disorders and psychosomatic symptoms has alerted the professionals to improve their approach. In addition, the increasing incidence of child abuse, juvenile crimes, eating disorders and other emotional and behavioral problems of children and adolescents has alerted the government and public to reconsider the importance of early intimate relationship. Creating a secure base for families to enjoy nurturing companionship with their infants is now common goal of infant mental health in Japan. As professionals we try to introduce a more dynamic, natural, non-judgmental empathic approach to support troubled infant care-giving systems. Whichever problem an infant may suffer, whether a problem of body or mind, its mother is bound to suffer and much more so in Japan with its old values for divine motherhood, stigmas associated with abnormality and new demands for perfect mothering. It should be acknowledged more and more that a well-meant effort on the side of infant workers cannot yield beneficial outcomes for mothers and infants unless we take into full account the importance of the complex intertwining of diverse factors, including the infant's predisposition, the mother's upbringing and past trauma and quality of the attachment system supporting the mother and family interaction. It is here that an urgent need to introduce infant mental health exists. Health professionals exchange, having shown their clinical attitudes and knowledge to their trainees, mutual nurturing companionship among workers, infants and families, which is the spirit of infant mental health. The dawn of infant mental health is steadily breaking in Japan.

  12. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  13. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... knees snug against your body. If your nipple hurts, see if your baby has slipped down and ... Rasmussen KM. Breastfeeding and health outcomes for the mother-infant dyad. Pediatr Clin North Am . 2013;60( ...

  14. Interpersonal Mechanisms Explaining the Transfer of Well- and Ill-Being in Coach-Athlete Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The current study explored coaches' interpersonal behaviors as a mechanism for well- and ill-being contagion from coach to athlete and vice versa. Eighty-two coach-athlete dyads from individual sports completed selfreport measures before and after a training session. Structural equation modeling supported three actor-partner interdependence mediation models, in which coaches' presession well- and ill-being were associated with changes in athletes' well- and ill-being over the course of the session. These relationships were mediated by athletes' perceptions of their coaches' interpersonal styles during the session. The reciprocal transfer from athlete to coach was not fully supported. Nonetheless, coaches' perceptions of their own interpersonal behaviors were associated with changes in their postsession well- and ill-being. Overall, evidence is provided for the contagion of affect from authority figures to those under their instruction but not vice versa.

  15. A Co(II)-Ru(II) dyad relevant to light-driven water oxidation catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro Montellano; Natali, Mirco; Pizzolato, Erica; Chiorboli, Claudio; Bonchio, Marcella; Sartorel, Andrea; Scandola, Franco

    2014-06-28

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at efficient water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen, by exploiting solar light. As a priority requirement, this process entails the integration of suitable multi-electron catalysts with light absorbing units, where charge separation is generated in order to drive the catalytic routines. The final goal could be the transposition of such an asset into a photoelectrocatalytic cell, where the two half-reactions, proton reduction to hydrogen and water oxidation to oxygen, take place at two appropriately engineered photoelectrodes. We herein report a covalent approach to anchor a Co(II) water oxidation catalyst to a Ru(II) polypyridine photosensitizer unit; photophysical characterisation and the catalytic activity of such a dyad in a light activated cycle are reported, and implications for the development of regenerative systems are discussed.

  16. Difficulties in the physician-patient dyad: invoking the psychiatric consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, M K; MacKenzie, T B; Callies, A L

    1984-06-01

    Drawing upon their studies of physicians' responses to the recommendations and diagnosis of psychiatric consultants, the authors propose that the psychiatric consultant is most often invoked when the primary physician experiences an inappropriate interpersonal distance in the relationship with the patient. Sensing the threat or the reality of the patient as too close or too distant, the physician seeks the presence of the consultant. In the subsequent triadic constellation, the psychiatric consultant is suggested to function principally as buffer between the physician and the patient, restoring, or effecting a more optimal interpersonal distance in the original dyad. This construct helps to explain the consultees' "selectivity" in requesting consultation and the marked disparity between reported prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the medically ill and referral rates. It also calls attention to the role of the psychiatric consultant in assuring that the medical care of the patient with psychiatric features is not compromised or abbreviated.

  17. Cocaine self-administration in social dyads using custom-built operant conditioning chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Ryan T; Strickland, Justin C; Smith, Mark A

    2014-10-30

    Traditionally, the analysis of intravenous drug self-administration is limited to conditions in which subjects are tested in isolation. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because drug use in humans often occurs in the presence of others. We used custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed social dyads visual, olfactory, auditory, and limited tactile contact while concurrently self-administering cocaine. Male rats were trained to respond according to a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (with a limited hold) in order to determine if patterns of cocaine (0.75mg/kg/infusion) self-administration became more similar over time in social pairs. Cocaine self-administration was tested across five days according to a 10-min fixed interval schedule (with a 5-min limited hold). Quarter-life values (time at which 25% of responses were emitted per interval) were analyzed using intraclass correlations. The total number of reinforcers obtained did not vary across the five days of testing; however, quarter-life values became progressively more similar between individuals within the social dyads. Standard operant conditioning chambers are unable to assess responding in multiple animals due to their small size, the need to prevent subjects from responding on the lever of their partner, and the need to prevent infusion lines from entangling. By using custom-built social operant conditioning chambers, we assessed the effects of social contact on cocaine self-administration. Social operant conditioning chambers can be used as a preclinical method to examine social influences on drug self-administration under conditions that approximate human substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond the 'dyad': a qualitative re-evaluation of the changing clinical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Roberts, Celia; Li, Shuangyu; Weber, Orest; Singy, Pascal

    2014-09-29

    To identify characteristics of consultations that do not conform to the traditionally understood communication 'dyad', in order to highlight implications for medical education and develop a reflective 'toolkit' for use by medical practitioners and educators in the analysis of consultations. A series of interdisciplinary research workshops spanning 12 months explored the social impact of globalisation and computerisation on the clinical consultation, focusing specifically on contemporary challenges to the clinician-patient dyad. Researchers presented detailed case studies of consultations, taken from their recent research projects. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics, further analysis of selected case studies prompted the identification of key emergent themes. University departments in the UK and Switzerland. Six researchers with backgrounds in medicine, applied linguistics, sociolinguistics and medical education. One workshop was also attended by PhD students conducting research on healthcare interactions. The contemporary consultation is characterised by a multiplicity of voices. Incorporation of additional voices in the consultation creates new forms of order (and disorder) in the interaction. The roles 'clinician' and 'patient' are blurred as they become increasingly distributed between different participants. These new consultation arrangements make new demands on clinicians, which lie beyond the scope of most educational programmes for clinical communication. The consultation is changing. Traditional consultation models that assume a 'dyadic' consultation do not adequately incorporate the realities of many contemporary consultations. A paradox emerges between the need to manage consultations in a 'super-diverse' multilingual society, while also attending to increasing requirements for standardised protocol-driven approaches to care prompted by computer use. The tension between standardisation and flexibility requires addressing in educational

  19. Photodynamics of charge separation and recombination in solid alternating films of phthalocyanine or phthalocyanine-fullerene dyad and perylene dicarboximide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehtivuori, Heli; Kumpulainen, Tatu; Hietala, Matti; Efimov, Alexander; Helge, Lemmetyinen; Kira, Aiko; Imahori, Hiroshi; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.

    2009-01-01

    Alternate bilayer structures of N,N'-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4,9,10- perylene dicarboximide (PDI), freebase phthalocyanines (Pc), and double-linked free-base phthalocyanine-fullerene dyad (Pc-C 60) were prepared by the Langmuir-Schäfer method and studied using a range of optical spectroscopy

  20. The interdependence of posttraumatic stress symptoms in parental dyads during and after their child's treatment for cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wikman, Anna; Ljungman, Lisa; Pingel, Ronnie; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Sanderman, Robbert; von Essen, Louise; Cernvall, Martin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer in a child is highly distressing and some parents are at increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). However, the interdependence of PTSS in parental dyads has rarely been accounted for. The aim was to explore the dyadic relationship of PTSS in parents of

  1. Long-lived photoinduced charge separation for solar cell applications in phthalocyanine–fulleropyrrolidine dyad thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, M. Antonietta; Denk, Patrick; Hoppe, Harald; Neugebauer, Helmut; Winder, Christoph; Meissner, Dieter; Brabec, Christoph; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Gouloumis, Andreas; Vázquez, Purificación; Torres, Tomás

    2003-01-01

    The photophysical properties of a new dyad molecule composed of a covalently linked Zn-phthalocyanine (antenna/donor) and a C60 derivative (acceptor) have been investigated. We report experimental evidence of long-lived charge separation in the solid state with a lifetime several orders of magnitude

  2. Homo- or Hetero- Triplet-Triplet Annihilation? A Case Study with Perylene-Bodipy Dyads/Triads

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xiaoneng

    2017-07-06

    The photophysical processes of intramolecular ‘ping-pong’ energy transfers in the iodinated reference dyad BDP-I2-Py, as well as the uniodinated dyad BDP-Py and triad BDP-2Py, were studied. For BDP-I2-Py, a forward Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the perylene (Py) unit to the diiodoBDP unit (7 ps) and a backward triplet energy transfer (TTET, 3 ns) from the diiodoBDP unit to the Py unit were observed. For the BDP-Py and BDP-2Py systems, a FRET (5 ~ 8 ps) and a photo-induced electron transfer (PET) (1-1.5 ns) were observed in acetonitrile. The uniodinated dyad and triad were used as the triplet energy acceptor and emitter for a TTA upconversion with palladium tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin as the triplet photosensitizer. A maximum upconversion quantum yield of 12.6 % was measured. Given that the dyad (BDP-Py) contains one BDP unit and one Py unit, while the triad (BDP-2Py) contains two Py units and one BDP unit, and based on the results from steady-state femtosecond and nanosecond transient optical spectroscopies, it is concluded that neither intramolecular homo- triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) nor intramolecular hetero-TTA is possible during a TTA upconversion for those upconversion systems.

  3. Observed normativity and deviance in friendship dyads' conversations about sex and the relations with youths' perceived sexual peer norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongardt, D. van de; Reitz, E.; Overbeek, G.J.; Boislard, M.A.; Burk, W.J.; Dekovic, M.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between observed normativity and deviance during adolescents' and young adults' conversations about sex with their friends and their individual perceptions of sexual peer norms. Participants were 16-21-year-old same-sex friendship dyads (31 male and 30 female

  4. Protege and Mentor Self-Disclosure: Levels and Outcomes within Formal Mentoring Dyads in a Corporate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanberg, Connie R.; Welsh, Elizabeth T.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-disclosure within protege/mentor dyads in formal mentoring partnerships within a corporate context as a means of learning more about specific relationship processes that may enhance the positive outcomes of mentoring. While both proteges and mentors self-disclosed in their relationships, proteges disclosed at a…

  5. Quality of life in stroke survivor-caregiver dyads: a new conceptual framework and longitudinal study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Serenella; Buck, Harleah G; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Simeone, Silvio; Pucciarelli, Gianluca; Fida, Roberta; Matarese, Maria; Alvaro, Rosaria; Vellone, Ercole

    2015-03-01

    To describe a new conceptual framework and the research protocol of a study designed to examine the quality of life in stroke survivor-caregiver dyads. Stroke has a significant impact on the patient-caregiver dyad. Few studies have been guided by a specific conceptual framework which considers the interactions among pre-existing situations prior to stroke, the new situation caused by the stroke and the moderating effects of environmental and caregiver-related variables. Longitudinal study. A sample of stroke survivor-caregiver dyads will be enrolled at patient discharge from rehabilitation hospitals and will be surveyed every 3 months for 1-year. Hypotheses generated from the conceptual framework will test predictors, mediators and moderators of stroke survivor and caregiver quality of life from the pre-existing situation prior to the stroke, the new situation mediation poststroke and situation moderators. The study is supported by a grant from the Centre of Excellence for Nursing Scholarship, Rome, December 2013. This study seeks to identify variables in the pre-existing situation prior to the stroke (e.g. living condition), the new situation mediation poststroke (e.g. type of stroke and caregiver burden) as well as situation moderators (e.g. social support) that influence stroke survivor-caregiver dyad's quality of life across the stroke trajectory. Also, the study will inform clinical practice and research by identifying variables that are potentially modifiable and therefore amenable to intervention. The proposed framework will also be helpful for future research focused on stroke survivor-caregiver dyads. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Carborane-stilbene dyads: the influence of substituents and cluster isomers on photoluminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Ugalde, A; Cabrera-González, J; Juárez-Pérez, E J; Teixidor, F; Pérez-Inestrosa, E; Montenegro, J M; Sillanpää, R; Haukka, M; Núñez, R

    2017-02-14

    Two novel styrene-containing meta-carborane derivatives substituted at the second carbon cluster atom (C c ) with either a methyl (Me) or a phenyl (Ph) group are introduced herein along with a new set of stilbene-containing ortho- (o-) and meta- (m-) carborane dyads. The latter set of compounds have been prepared from styrene-containing carborane derivatives via a Heck coupling reaction. High regioselectivity has been achieved for these compounds by using a combination of palladium complexes [Pd 2 (dba) 3 ]/[Pd(t-Bu 3 P) 2 ] as a catalytic system, yielding exclusively E isomers. All compounds have been fully characterised and the crystal structures of seven of them were analysed by X-ray diffraction. The absorption spectra of these compounds are similar to those of their respective fluorophore groups (styrene or stilbene), showing a very small influence of the substituent (Me or Ph) linked to the second C c atom or the cluster isomer (o- or m-). On the other hand, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed high emission intensities for Me-o-carborane derivatives, whereas their Ph-o-carborane analogues evidenced an almost total lack of fluorescence, confirming the significant role of the substituent bound to the adjacent C c in o-carboranes. In contrast, all the m-carborane derivatives display similar photoluminescence (PL) behavior regardless of the substituent attached to the second C c , demonstrating its small influence on emission properties. Additionally, m-carborane derivatives are significantly more fluorescent than their o-counterparts, reaching quantum yield values as high as 30.2%. Regarding solid state emission, only stilbene-containing Ph-o-carborane derivatives, which showed very low fluorescence in solution, exhibited notable PL emission in films attributed to aggregation-induced emission. DFT calculations were performed to successfully complement the photoluminescence studies, supporting the experimentally observed photophysical behavior of the styrene and

  7. Time Resolved Spectroscopic Studies on a Novel Synthesized Photo-Switchable Organic Dyad and Its Nanocomposite Form in Order to Develop Light Energy Conversion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Abhijit; Yadav, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Jana, Aindrila; Ganguly, Tapan

    2015-08-01

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations in pico and nanosecond time domain were made in the different environments on a novel synthesized dyad, 3-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (MNTMA) in its pristine form and when combined with gold (Au) nanoparticles i.e., in its nanocomposite structure. Both steady state and time resolved measurements coupled with the DFT calculations performed by using Gaussian 03 suit of software operated in the linux operating system show that though the dyad exhibits mainly the folded conformation in the ground state but on photoexcitation the nanocomposite form of dyad prefers to be in elongated structure in the excited state indicating its photoswitchable nature. Due to the predominancy of elongated isomeric form of the dyad in the excited state in presence of Au Nps, it appears that the dyad MNTMA may behave as a good light energy converter specially in its nanocomposite form. As larger charge separation rate (kcs ~ 4 x 10(8) s-1) is found relative to the rate associated with the energy wasting charge recombination processes (kcR ~ 3 x 10(5) s-1) in the nanocomposite form of the dyad, it demonstrates the suitability of constructing the efficient light energy conversion devices with Au-dyad hybrid nanomaterials.

  8. Brush Polymer of Donor-Accepter Dyads via Adduct Formation between Lewis Base Polymer Donor and All Carbon Lewis Acid Acceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method that taps into the facile Lewis base (LB→Lewis acid (LA adduct forming reaction between the semiconducting polymeric LB and all carbon LA C60 for the construction of covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads and brush polymer of dyads is reported. The polymeric LB is built on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT macromers containing either an alkyl or vinyl imidazolium end group that can be readily converted into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC LB site, while the brush polymer architecture is conveniently constructed via radical polymerization of the macromer P3HT with the vinyl imidazolium chain end. Simply mixing of such donor polymeric LB with C60 rapidly creates linked P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads in which C60 is covalently linked to the NHC junction connecting the vinyl polymer main chain and the brush P3HT side chains. Thermal behaviors, electronic absorption and emission properties of the resulting P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads have been investigated. The results show that a change of the topology of the P3HT-C60 dyad from linear to brush architecture enhances the crystallinity and Tm of the P3HT domain and, along with other findings, they indicate that the brush polymer architecture of donor-acceptor domains provides a promising approach to improve performances of polymer-based solar cells.

  9. Educational processes in the family: Linkage between the quality of dyad and triad relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research presented in this paper is to describe the relations between educational styles as dyad and co-parenting relations, as well as triad relations in the family which include processes of upbringing and taking care of the child. The sample comprised families with an adolescent. Data were obtained from 200 respondents, of the average age of 18. Respondents evaluated educational styles of their parents (separately father's, separately mother's in the Questionnaire for evaluating parenting style, and then also the quality of co-parenting cooperation in their families in the questionnaire Co-parenting relations in the family. The results indicate a significant correlation between the dimensions of parental styles and co-parenting relation. In that process, more prominent is the contribution of affective dimensions of parenting style, and what was also perceived and described are the differences in mutual relations of educational styles and co-parenting cooperation regarding parent's gender. The effects of the evaluated co-parental cooperation on educational behavior of the father are more evident.

  10. Communication strategies to reduce cancer disparities: Insights from African-American mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A; Carlyle, Kellie E

    2015-12-01

    Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African American women. Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Quality of Life for Dementia Caregiving Dyads: Effects of Incongruent Perceptions of Everyday Care and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heehyul; Townsend, Aloen L; Whitlatch, Carol J; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye

    2017-08-01

    This dyadic study investigated incongruence in care recipients' (CRs') and caregivers' (CGs') perceptions of (a) CRs' involvement in decision making and (b) how much CRs value social relations as predictors of subjective quality of life (QOL) of CRs with mild-to-moderate dementia and their primary family CGs. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional, dyadic data from in-person interviews with 205 CRs with mild-to-moderate dementia and their primary family CGs Incongruence was operationalized in two ways: absolute difference and direction of difference. Paired t tests and multilevel modeling were used to analyze differences. CGs reported CRs were significantly less involved in decision making and valued social relations significantly less than CRs. Greater incongruence on CRs' values significantly predicted lower QOL of CG and CR. When CGs reported that CRs valued social relationships less than the CR himself/herself reported, CGs' and CRs' QOL was significantly lower compared with QOL for dyads where there was no incongruence on CRs' values. Incongruent perceptions of CRs' involvement in decisions were not a significant predictor of QOL. This study provides evidence for the importance of assessing both CRs' and CGs' QOL, as well as incongruence in their perceptions in domains that may affect both of their QOL. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cooperation beyond the dyad: on simple models and a complex society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Players in Axelrod and Hamilton's model of cooperation were not only in a Prisoner's Dilemma, but by definition, they were also trapped in a dyad. But animals are rarely so restricted and even the option to interact with third parties allows individuals to escape from the Prisoner's Dilemma into a much more interesting and varied world of cooperation, from the apparently rare ‘parcelling’ to the widespread phenomenon of market effects. Our understanding of by-product mutualism, pseudo-reciprocity and the snowdrift game is also enriched by thinking ‘beyond the dyad’. The concepts of by-product mutualism and pseudo-reciprocity force us to think again about our basic definitions of cooperative behaviour (behaviour by a single individual) and cooperation (the outcome of an interaction between two or more individuals). Reciprocity is surprisingly rare outside of humans, even among large-brained ‘intelligent’ birds and mammals. Are humans unique in having extensive cooperative interactions among non-kin and an integrated cognitive system for mediating reciprocity? Perhaps, but our best chance for finding a similar phenomenon may be in delphinids, which also live in large societies with extensive cooperative interactions among non-relatives. A system of nested male alliances in bottlenose dolphins illustrates the potential and difficulties of finding a complex system of cooperation close to our own. PMID:20679112

  13. [Influence of maternal feeding restrictions on the mother-daughter dyad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattino, I; Sanfuentes, M T; Lagarribel, M; Jara, S; Lolas, F; Liberman, C

    1998-01-01

    Alimentary restraint, cognitive variable related to eating behavior and obesity, is reportedly a valuable predictor for the development of therapeutic strategies. This paper addresses the relationship between maternal restraint and several psychological variables in their daughters (alexithymia, neuroticism, extraversion). From the study of 35 mother-daughter dyads it can be concluded that daughters of highly restrained mothers tend to present high scores in the Restraint scale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire of Stunkard and Messick, translated into Spanish and validated as Cuestionario de Conducta Alimentaria. Daughters of highle restrained mothers present also higher scores in the Neuroticism scale of the revised version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Daughters of mothers with low Restraint scores are in average higher than those of their mothers, although lower than those belonging to daughters of highle restrained mothers. Previous observations on the positive correlation between Disinhibition and Hunger of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire are confirmed. These results add an additional risk factor for obesity (mothers with high Restraint) and contribute to delineate a set of psychometric indicators which might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of eating and body weight disorders.

  14. Sleep in mother and child dyads during treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ellyn E; Neu, Madalynn; Cook, Paul F; King, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    To compare the sleep of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during maintenance treatment with controls and to measure the effect on maternal sleep. Comparative, descriptive. Pediatric oncology clinic and communities in Colorado. 26 dyads of mothers and children with ALL and matched controls. Mothers completed insomnia severity, mood, and stress questionnaires and wore a wrist actigraph, and mothers and children completed a seven-day sleep diary. Mother and child sleep parameters (e.g., total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, awakenings); maternal insomnia severity, mood, and stress; child sleep habits. Mothers of children with ALL reported greater insomnia compared to controls, which was correlated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and stress. Maternal groups did not differ on diary- and actigraph-measured sleep outcomes; both groups experienced sleep fragmentation. Children with ALL took longer to fall asleep and had more variable sleep patterns. Actigraph and sleep diary data indicated adequate maternal sleep duration and sleep latency. Self-reported insomnia severity in mothers of children with ALL suggested sleep fragmentation that may be undetected by these measures. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to identify sleep problems in mothers and children with ALL, which may lead to recommendations for improved sleep and referrals for treatment.

  15. Interdependence of attachment styles and relationship quality in parent-adolescent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Hart, Ellen; Ellis, Lillian; Tan, Cin Cin

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined how attachment styles of parents and adolescents may jointly influence the quality of their relationship. Parent-adolescent (N dyads  = 77) pairs were recruited from a Midwestern town in the United States. The mean of adolescents' age was 16.25. Both members reported their attachment styles, relationship closeness, and relationship discord. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) showed that both members' attachment avoidance was associated with self-report lower levels of closeness. Parents' attachment anxiety was related to relationship discord. Parents with higher avoidant attachment reported lower closeness when adolescents were higher in avoidant attachment. Higher parents' anxious attachment was related to higher relationship closeness when adolescents were higher on anxious attachment. Such an association was negative when adolescents had lower anxious attachment. Higher parents' anxious attachment was related to greater discord when adolescents were lower on anxiety attachment. This study reveals the complex dyadic dynamics of relationship quality in parent-adolescent pairs. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Adolescent parenting – developmental risks for the mother-child dyad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories.

  17. Sleep Disturbance Association With Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients-Caregivers Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawashdeh, Sami Y; Lennie, Terry A; Chung, Misook L

    2016-10-06

    Sleep disturbance is common in patients with heart failure and their family caregivers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sleep disturbances of patients and their spousal caregivers predicted their own and their partners' quality of life (QoL) in 78 heart failure patient-spousal caregiver dyads. Sleep disturbance was assessed using a composite score of four common sleep complaints. QoL was assessed by the physical and mental well-being subscales of the Short-Form 12 Health Survey. The multilevel dyadic actor-partner interdependence model analysis was used to determine the association between sleep disturbance and QoL. Each individual's sleep disturbance predicted their own poor physical and mental well-being while spousal caregivers' sleep disturbance predicted their partners' mental well-being. Results indicated that patients' mental well-being is sensitive to their spouses' sleep disturbance. Interventions targeting improving sleep and QoL may have to include both patients and spousal caregivers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  19. Resident Dyads Providing Transition Care to Adolescents and Young Adults With Chronic Illnesses and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Richard J; Jasien, Joan; Maslow, Gary R

    2017-04-01

    Youth with special health care needs often experience difficulty transitioning from pediatric to adult care. These difficulties may derive in part from lack of physician training in transition care and the challenges health care providers experience establishing interdisciplinary partnerships to support these patients. This educational innovation sought to improve pediatrics and adult medicine residents' interdisciplinary communication and collaboration. Residents from pediatrics, medicine-pediatrics, and internal medicine training programs participated in a transitions clinic for patients with chronic health conditions aged 16 to 26 years. Residents attended 1 to 4 half-day clinic sessions during 1-month ambulatory rotations. Pediatrics/adult medicine resident dyads collaboratively performed psychosocial and medical transition consultations that addressed health care navigation, self-care, and education and vocation topics. Two to 3 attending physicians supervised each clinic session (4 hours) while concurrently seeing patients. Residents completed a preclinic survey about baseline attitudes and experiences, and a postclinic survey about their transitions clinic experiences, changes in attitudes, and transition care preparedness. A total of 46 residents (100% of those eligible) participated in the clinic and completed the preclinic survey, and 25 (54%) completed the postclinic survey. A majority of respondents to the postclinic survey reported positive experiences. Residents in both pediatrics and internal medicine programs reported improved preparedness for providing transition care to patients with chronic health conditions and communicating effectively with colleagues in other disciplines. A dyadic model of collaborative transition care training was positively received and yielded improvements in immediate self-assessed transition care preparedness.

  20. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-10-11

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  1. Surrogate utility estimation by long-term partners and unfamiliar dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Tunney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To what extent are people able to make predictions about other people’s preferences and values? We report two experiments that present a novel method assessing some of the basic processes in surrogate decision-making, namely surrogate-utility estimation. In each experiment participants formed dyads who were asked to assign utilities to health related items and commodity items, and to predict their partner’s utility judgments for the same items. In experiment one we showed that older adults in long-term relationships were able to accurately predict their partner’s wishes. In experiment two we showed that younger adults who were relatively unfamiliar with one another were also able to predict other people’s wishes. Crucially we demonstrated that these judgments were accurate even after partialling out each participant’s own preferences indicating that in order to make surrogate utility estimations people engage in perspective-taking rather than simple anchoring and adjustment, suggesting that utility estimation is not the cause of inaccuracy in surrogate decision-making. The data and implications are discussed with respect to theories of surrogate decision-making.

  2. A culturally appropriate intervention to improve health behaviors in Hispanic mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Melinda S; Nader, Philip R; Kennedy, Christine; Gahagan, Sheila

    2013-04-01

    Obesity interventions targeting Hispanic preschool children are still nascent, and few are culturally appropriate. We evaluated the feasibility of a culturally relevant 9-month intervention program to improve health behaviors in low-income Mexican mothers with 3- to 5-year-old children. A community engagement approach was used to culturally and linguistically tailor an intervention program that was pilot tested with 33 mother-child dyads enrolled from a large California urban health center. A one-group, pretest-posttest design assessed changes in children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), mothers' pedometer steps, and BMI. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention and at 6 months postintervention. At postintervention, SSB consumption had significantly decreased for soda and other sugary drinks with a modest reduction for 100% juice. Consumption of water had significantly increased, whereas milk had an increased trend. Maternal step counts significantly increased for weekdays by 69% and weekend days by 49%. Overall, maternal BMI decreased while children's BMI% remained stable. At 6 months postintervention, children's soda and juice consumption reverted toward baseline levels, as did maternal step counts, but children's consumption of sugary drinks remained lower, while water and milk remained higher. Findings suggest that a culturally relevant intervention was feasible for improving target health behaviors in a low-income Mexican community. Future work should assess an enhanced intervention including a maintenance phase for long-term adherence to health behavior changes and influence on maternal and child BMI.

  3. Emotion suppression, emotional eating, and eating behavior among parent-adolescent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Oh, April Y; Hennessy, Erin; Dwyer, Laura A

    2017-10-01

    Emotion suppression may lead to ironic increases in emotional experience. More important, suppression is a transactional process, creating stress and disrupting interactions for the suppressor and those in social interactions with individuals who are suppressing emotion. However, no research has examined the behavioral consequences of emotion suppression in close relationships. We examine the possibility that emotion suppression will predict eating behaviors as a secondary emotion regulatory strategy among 1,556 parent-adolescent dyads (N = 3,112), consistent with evidence suggesting that suppression influences eating at the individual-level. Actor-partner interdependence models and structural equation modeling demonstrate that one's own emotion suppression was associated with emotional eating; greater consumption of hedonic-low nutrient, high energy dense-foods; and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables (actor effects). One's partner's emotion suppression was also independently associated with one's own emotional eating; lower consumption of fruits and vegetables; and greater consumption of hedonic foods (partner effects), although this association was most consistent for adolescents' suppression and parents' eating (compared with the converse). These analyses suggest that dyadic emotion regulatory processes have implications on eating behavior. Moreover, analyses suggest that emotion suppression has potential implications on eating behaviors of others within close relationships with a suppressor, consistent with the notion that emotion regulation is a transactional process. These findings suggest that interventions to improve eating habits of parents and their adolescent children should consider dyadic emotion regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs’ perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. PMID:25750549

  5. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog-human dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog-human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog-human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog-human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog-human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog-human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog-human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog-human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives.

  6. Garden of Ambivalence The Topology of the Mother-child Dyad in Grey Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defne Tüzün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Maysles brothers’ 1975 documentary, Grey Gardens, portrays the lives of Edith Bouvier Beale and her daughter, Edith, known as Little Edie, the aunt and first cousin, respectively, of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. The mother and daughter live together in their East Hampton house that is literally falling apart. As their identical names imply, the Beales share a symbiotic relationship which is reflected in every aspect of their life. I argue that Grey Gardens calls for Julia Kristeva’s insistence on abjection as a crucial struggle with “spatial ambivalence (inside/outside uncertainty” and an attempt to mark out a space in the undifferentiated field of the mother-child symbiosis. In Powers of Horror, Kristeva (1982 states, “abjection preserves what existed in the archaism of pre-objectal relationship” (p. 10. Grey Gardens portrays the topology of the mother-child dyad, which pertains to a particular spatio-temporality: where this primordial relationship is concerned, object and subject crumble, and the distinction between past and present is irrelevant.

  7. The mother-offspring dyad: microbial transmission, immune interactions and allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenmalm, M C

    2017-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero. During pregnancy, there is a close immunological interaction between the mother and her offspring, which provides important opportunities for the maternal microbial environment to influence the immune development of the child. In support of this theory, combined pre- and postnatal supplementations seem to be crucial for the preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema. Here, the influence of microbial and immune interactions within the mother-offspring dyad on childhood allergy development will be discussed. In addition, how perinatal transmission of microbes and immunomodulatory factors from mother to offspring may shape appropriate immune maturation during infancy and beyond, potentially via epigenetic mechanisms, will be examined. Deeper understanding of these interactions between the maternal and offspring microbiome and immunity is needed to identify efficacious preventive measures to combat the allergy epidemic. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  8. Perceived social support and the sense of coherence in patient-caregiver dyad versus acceptance of illness in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Małgorzata; Dębska, Grażyna; Wojtyna, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Acceptance of illness is a significant determinant of further coping with a disease. Development of illness acceptance may be associated with the sense of coherence and perception of social support. Cancer is an example of a crisis situation, which affects both the patient and his/her close relatives. Consequently, acceptance of illness may be influenced by factors originating from both sides of caregiver-patient dyad. The aim of this study was to analyse direct and indirect interrelationships between perceived support and the sense of coherence in patient-caregiver dyad, and acceptance of illness in cancer patients. Cross-sectional study. The study included 80 dyads composed of cancer patients and their caregivers. Only cancer patients undergoing oncological treatment at the time of the study, for at least 3 months but no longer than 12 months, were enrolled. All subjects completed perceived support subscale included in the Berlin Social Support Scales, sense of coherence-29 questionnaire to determine the sense of coherence and Acceptance of Illness Scale. Compared to cancer patients, their caregivers presented with significantly lower levels of perceived social support and weaker sense of coherence. The sense of coherence in caregivers and patients was determined by their perceived support levels. The sense of coherence in caregivers turned out to be a key resource influencing acceptance of illness in cancer patients, both directly and indirectly, via their perceived social support and their sense of coherence. The sense of coherence, an intrinsic psychological factor determined by social support, is an important determinant of illness acceptance. Functioning of cancer patients is also modulated by psychosocial characteristics of their caregivers. Greater support offered to caregivers may substantially strengthen the sense of coherence in caregivers and cancer patients and, therefore, may improve the functioning of patient-caregiver dyad in a situation of

  9. Hole-transfer induced energy transfer in perylene diimide dyads with a donor-spacer-acceptor motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölle, Patrick; Pugliesi, Igor; Langhals, Heinz; Wilcken, Roland; Esterbauer, Andreas J; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina; Riedle, Eberhard

    2015-10-14

    We investigate the photoinduced dynamics of perylene diimide dyads based on a donor-spacer-acceptor motif with polyyne spacers of varying length by pump-probe spectroscopy, time resolved fluorescence, chemical variation and quantum chemistry. While the dyads with pyridine based polyyne spacers undergo energy transfer with near-unity quantum efficiency, in the dyads with phenyl based polyyne spacers the energy transfer efficiency drops below 50%. This suggests the presence of a competing electron transfer process from the spacer to the energy donor as the excitation sink. Transient absorption spectra, however, reveal that the spacer actually mediates the energy transfer dynamics. The ground state bleach features of the polyyne spacers appear due to the electron transfer decay with the same time constant present in the rise of the ground state bleach and stimulated emission of the perylene energy acceptor. Although the electron transfer process initially quenches the fluorescence of the donor it does not inhibit energy transfer to the perylene energy acceptor. The transient signatures reveal that electron and energy transfer processes are sequential and indicate that the donor-spacer electron transfer state itself is responsible for the energy transfer. Through the introduction of a Dexter blocker unit into the spacer we can clearly exclude any through bond Dexter-type energy transfer. Ab initio calculations on the donor-spacer and the donor-spacer-acceptor systems reveal the existence of a bright charge transfer state that is close in energy to the locally excited state of the acceptor. Multipole-multipole interactions between the bright charge transfer state and the acceptor state enable the energy transfer. We term this mechanism coupled hole-transfer FRET. These dyads represent a first example that shows how electron transfer can be connected to energy transfer for use in novel photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Do gender-dyads have different communication patterns? A comparative study in Western-European general practices

    OpenAIRE

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Messerli-Rohrbach, V.; Bensing, J.

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of quality of care, doctor-patient communication has become more and more important. Gender is an important factor in communication. Besides, cultural norms and values are likely to influence doctor-patient communication as well. This study examined (1) whether or not communication patterns of gender-dyads in general practice consultations differ across and between Western-European countries, and (2) if so, whether these differences continue to exist when controlling for pa...

  11. Post-acquisition Changes Beyond the Dyad: Power at the Net Level in Cross-Border Acquisitions(1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Fernando Loureiro Rezende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of the literature on post-acquisition changes is its dyadic feature, i.e. the emphasis is placed on the actors directly involved in the acquisition, often represented by the acquiree and the acquirer. Accordingly, actors outside the dyad, such as suppliers and buyers, are usually disregarded. There is, however, a relevant exception in this literature. Recently, some Nordic authors have claimed that if actors other than the acquiree and the acquirer are not taken into account, the existing literature may only present a partial view of changes following acquisitions. Consequently, they have suggested that changes following this type of operation can be analysed fruitfully at the network level. Our article adds to the efforts of these scholars to understand post-acquisition changes at a broader level by bringing to the fore two issues that have received scarce attention in the literature: i nets rather than the network level appears to be the locus where post-acquisition changes beyond the dyad take place; ii relational power can be regarded as an independent variable in post-acquisitionchanges beyond the dyad. These arguments are illustrated by three brief case studies of cross-border acquisitions.

  12. Perceptions about family planning and contraceptive practice in a marital dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewha; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyun Mi; Jang, Younkyoung; Shin, Hyejeong; Kim, Myeong Seon

    2014-04-01

    To examine couple interactions to predict wives' contraceptive use as well as that of their husbands in rural Ethiopia. Previous studies stated that men's power and their preferences regarding family planning have a significant role in the adoption of contraception, as well as women's general reproductive health. Spousal communication on reproductive matters helped couples to be aware of each other's perspectives and enhanced the usage of family planning through shared decision-making. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to analyse the Actor and Partner effects within the marital dyad. The study sample included 389 married couples who were recruited from households in seven enumeration areas randomly selected from Hetosa Woreda in Ethiopia. We used a face-to-face interview survey. Data were collected between 22 October and 21 November 2010 and analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, t-test, Pearson's correlation and the Actor-Partner interdependence model. There were significant differences in perceptions about family planning, contraceptive knowledge and contraceptive use between wives and husbands. Wives' perceptions about family planning affected theirs as well as that of their husbands' knowledge and use of contraceptive methods. However, husbands' perceptions about family planning did not affect their knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, but did influence their wives'. The application of couple data enhanced our understanding of the complex interactions between wives and husbands, which may lead to novel dyadic-based interventions to improve family planning practice. Couples must be educated and informed not only about the adoption of contraception, but also about reproductive rights and responsibilities through changes in educational and motivational strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elyssa Payne,1 Pauleen C Bennett,2 Paul D McGreevy1 1Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. Keywords: human–animal bond, personality, attitudes, social learning, affective state, dog

  14. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

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    Tovar Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%, Haitian (34% and Latino (30%. Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56 with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01. Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing

  15. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Hughes, Sheryl O; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Galvão, Heloisa; Economos, Christina D

    2012-05-29

    Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children's food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. The children's average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother's perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk

  16. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests

  17. A Small Number of Residues Can Determine if Linker Histones Are Bound On or Off Dyad in the Chromatosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing-Rui; Feng, Hanqiao; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Li, Shipeng; Schwieters, Charles D; Bai, Yawen

    2016-10-09

    Linker histones bind to the nucleosome and regulate the structure and function of chromatin. We have previously shown that the globular domains of chicken H5 and Drosophila H1 linker histones bind to the nucleosome with on- or off-dyad modes, respectively. To explore the determinant for the distinct binding modes, we investigated the binding of a mutant globular domain of H5 to the nucleosome. This mutant, termed GH5_pMut, includes substitutions of five globular domain residues of H5 with the corresponding residues in the globular domain of Drosophila H1. The residues at these five positions play important roles in nucleosome binding by either H5 or Drosophila H1. NMR and spin-labeling experiments showed that GH5_pMut bound to the nucleosome off the dyad. We further found that the nucleosome array condensed by either the GH5_pMut or the globular domain of Drosophila H1 displayed a similar sedimentation coefficient, whereas the same nucleosome array condensed by the wild-type globular domain of H5 showed a much larger sedimentation coefficient. Moreover, NMR and spin-labeling results from the study of the nucleosome in complex with the full-length human linker histone H1.0, whose globular domain shares high sequence conservation with the corresponding globular domain of H5, are consistent with an on-dyad binding mode. Taken together, our results suggest that a small number of residues in the globular domain of a linker histone can control its binding location on the nucleosome and higher-order chromatin structure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of Self-esteem, Optimism, and Perceived Control on Depressive Symptoms in Stroke Survivor-Spouse Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Misook L; Bakas, Tamilyn; Plue, Laura D; Williams, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in stroke survivors and their family caregivers. Given the interdependent relationship between the members of dyads in poststroke management, improving depressive symptoms in dyads may depend on their partner's characteristics. Self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control, all known to be associated with depressive symptoms in an individual, may also contribute to their partner's depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine actor and partner effects of self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control on depression in stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers. A total of 112 ischemic stroke survivors (78% white, 34% women; mean age, 62.5 ± 12.3 years) and their spouses (mean age, 60.6 ± 12.9 years) completed surveys in which depressive symptoms, self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Sense of Control Scale. Multilevel modeling, actor-partner interdependence model regression was used to determine influences on depressive symptoms within the dyad. Individuals with lower self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Stroke survivors whose spouses had lower levels of self-esteem (B = -0.338, P self-esteem (B = -0.047, P = .036) also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. We found significant partner effects of self-esteem on depression for both members and partner effect of optimism on patient's depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that further research is needed to determine if dyadic interventions may help to improve self-esteem, optimism, and depressive symptoms in both patients and their caregivers.

  19. Emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes (EOAET: amplitude da resposta em recém-nascidos a termo e pré-termo Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE: response amplitude in term and pre-term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C. A. Bassetto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes (EOAET têm sido a técnica mais empregada nas triagens auditivas neonatais. Nos últimos anos, uma análise mais detalhada das EOAET tem evidenciado a presença de características até então pouco exploradas do sistema auditivo periférico. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar o comportamento da amplitude de resposta das EOAET em recém-nascidos a termo e pré-termo em função dos parâmetros lados da orelha, sexo, espectro de freqüência e idade pós-concepcional. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra compôs-se de 526 recém-nascidos, sendo 440 nascidos a termo e 86 nascidos pré-termo. Estes últimos foram subdivididos em um grupo com idade pós-concepcional na data do teste variando entre 31 e 36 semanas e outro grupo com idade pós-concepcional na data do teste variando entre 37 e 44 semanas. O teste das EOAET foi realizado em ambiente sem tratamento acústico com o analisador de emissões otoacústicas ILO 88 da Otodynamics, no modo "Quickscreener". RESULTADO: Ao analisarmos os resultados, observamos assimetria significante da amplitude média de resposta a favor da orelha direita, do sexo feminino, das bandas de freqüências altas e dos recém-nascidos com maior idade pós-concepcional. Estas assimetrias sugerem que o parâmetro amplitude, além de fornecer evidência da presença das EOAET e portanto da integridade do sistema auditivo periférico, também pode ser tomado como um indicador de maturação do sistema auditivo periférico em recém-nascidos.Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE have been widely used in neonatal hearing screening programs. In the past years, a closer analysis of TEOAE has shown some unexplored characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the TEOAE response amplitude in term and pre-term neonates, as a function of the ear side, gender, frequency spectrum and

  20. USING THE PARENT-INFANT RELATIONSHIP GLOBAL ASSESSMENT SCALE TO IDENTIFY CAREGIVER-INFANT/TODDLER DYADS WITH ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIP PATTERNS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinikolaou, Kornilia; Karveli, Vassiliki; Skoubourdi, Aggeliki; Zarokosta, Foteini; Antonucci, Gianluca; Visci, Giovanni; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; MagalhÃes, Eunice; Essau, Cecilia; Allan, Sharon; Pithia, Jayshree; Walji, Fahreen; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Perez-Robles, Ruth; Fanti, Kostas A; Katsimicha, Evita; Hadjicharambous, Maria-Zoe; Nikolaidis, George; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-07-01

    The study examined whether the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood, Revised Edition (DC: 0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005) Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) is applicable to six European countries and contributes to the identification of caregiver-infant/toddler dyads with abusive relationship patterns. The sample consisted of 115 dyads with children's ages ranging from 1 to 47 months. Sixty-four dyads were recruited from community settings without known violence problems, and 51 dyads were recruited from clinical settings and already had been identified with violence problems or as being at risk for violence problems. To classify the dyads on the PIR-GAS categories, caregiver-child interactions were video-recorded and coded with observational scales appropriate for child age. To test whether the PIR-GAS allows for reliable identification of dyads with abusive relationship patterns, PIR-GAS ratings were compared with scores on the the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect's (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parental Version (ICAST-P; D.K. Runyan et al., ), a questionnaire measuring abusive parental disciplinary practices. It was found that PIR-GAS ratings differentiated between the general and the clinical sample, and the dyads with abusive patterns of relationship were identified by both the PIR-GAS and the ICAST-P. Interrater reliability for the PIR-GAS ranged from moderate to excellent. The value of a broader use of tools such as the DC: 0-3R to promote early identification of families at risk for infant and toddler abuse and neglect is discussed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Fatores de risco para nascimentos pré-termo em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Risk factors for pre-term birth in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Rigo Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar fatores de risco para nascimentos pré-termo por meio de estudo caso-controle populacional que envolve nascidos vivos hospitalares de mães residentes em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Os casos foram os 328 nascimentos pré-termo e os controles, uma amostra proporcional de 369 nascimentos com 37 semanas ou mais. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística múltipla hierarquizada. Verificou-se associação (p 30kg/m², com filho anterior pré-termo, com tratamento para engravidar; características maternas durante a gestação: com companheiro há no máximo dois anos, preocupações, bebida alcoólica semanal, pré-natal inadequado, prática de caminhada como proteção; agravos na gestação - sangramento, infecção do trato genital, volume alterado do líquido amniótico, hipertensão arterial e internação; gestação múltipla. A identificação de fatores de risco e a melhoria da qualidade da atenção pré-concepcional e pré-natal podem reduzir a prematuridade.The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with pre-term birth among live births in a hospital in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Cases consisted of 328 pre-term births, and controls were 369 births with gestational age greater than 37 weeks. A multiple hierarchical logistic regression analysis was carried out. There was a significant correlation (p 30 kg/m2; history of prematurity; history of assisted reproduction; mothers in a relationship for less than two years; maternal stress; weekly maternal alcohol consumption; insufficient prenatal care; gestational complications such as bleeding, genital tract infection, altered amniotic fluid volume, high blood pressure, and hospital admission; and twin pregnancy. Regular walks during pregnancy were a protective factor. Improved quality of prenatal care and the identification of the above factors during pregnancy may help reduce premature birth.

  2. Perfil epidemiológico da díade mãe-bebê internados em alojamento conjunto obstétrico de um hospital universitário para tratamento de hiperbilirrubinemia do recém-nascido - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i1.8942 Epidemiological profile of the mother-infant dyads hospitalized in obstetric rooming of a university hospital for treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i1.8942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Caldeira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal é identificada clinicamente pela icterícia, caracterizando-se pela coloração amarelada de pele e mucosas. O tratamento é a fototerapia, mas aliado às emoções e dúvidas do período puerperal, pode gerar conflitos e resistência materna ao tratamento, prolongando o período de internação. O objetivo foi o de identificar o perfil epidemiológico das mães e recém-nascido submetidos à fototerapia no alojamento conjunto obstétrico. Estudo quantitativo, exploratório e descritivo; a coleta de dados deu-se por meio de formulário estruturado e pesquisa documental em prontuário clínico e a análise de dados por meio de estatística descritiva, não-probabilística. A coleta de dados permitiu destacar as características individuais, sociais, obstétricas e as relacionadas ao recém-nascido. O estudo evidenciou que as variáveis da faixa etária materna, escolaridade da mãe, predominância da cor branca, ocupação da mãe, renda familiar, grupo sanguíneo materno, complicações na gestação e ou trabalho de parto e parto, drogas usadas no trabalho de parto e parto, sexo do recém-nascido, grupo sanguíneo do recém-nascido e amamentação exclusiva com leite materno são os principais fatores preditivos de icterícia em recém-nascidos na nossa unidade de alojamento conjunto obstétrico.Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, clinically identified by jaundice, is characterized by a yellow skin color and mucous membranes. Normal treatment consists of phototherapy which, combined with postpartum emotions and concerns, may cause conflicts and mother’s resistance to treatment. Hospitalization period may therefore be prolonged. The epidemiological profile of mothers and newborn infant undergoing phototherapy in obstetric twin-room is identified. Analysis comprises a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study comprising the collection of data collection by a structured questionnaire and by retrieval of clinical records. Data analysis was used for descriptive non-probabilistic statistics. Data highlighted the individual, social, obstetric and others characteristics related to the newborn. Current research showed that variables such as mothers’ age bracket, schooling, predominance of white skin color, mother's occupation, family income, blood group, complications during pregnancy, labor or delivery, drugs used during labor and birth, sex of the newborn, newborn’s blood group and exclusively breastfeeding nutrition were the main predictive factors of jaundice in newborns in the obstetric twin-room under analysis.

  3. A parent-child dyad approach to the assessment of health status and health-related quality of life in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Wendy J; Boydell, Katherine; Dell, Sharon; Feldman, Brian M; Marshall, Deborah; Willan, Andrew; Wright, James G

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of health state and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) are limited by a child's age and cognitive ability. Parent-proxy reports are known to differ from children's reports. Simultaneous assessment using a parent-child dyad is an alternative approach. Our objective was to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a parent-child dyad approach to utility and HR-QOL assessment of paediatric asthma health states. The setting was specialist care in a hospital-based asthma clinic. Participants were 91 girls and boys with asthma aged 8 to 17 years and 91 parents. The intervention employed was parent-child dyad administration of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 2 and 3, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Core and Asthma modules, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Questionnaires were administered by interview to children and parents separately and then together as a dyad to assess the child's health state. The dyad interview was repeated at the next clinic visit. Dyad-child agreement was measured by intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient; Spearman correlations were used to assess convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 28 children who remained clinically stable between visits with a two-way ICC coefficient. Responsiveness to change from baseline was assessed with Spearman coefficients in 30 children who demonstrated clinical change between visits. There was no significant agreement between parent and child for the HUI2 or HUI3 whereas agreement between dyad and child was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36, 0.69) for the HUI2 and 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.82) for the HUI3 overall. With respect to dyad performance characteristics, both HUI2 and HUI3 overall scores demonstrated moderate convergent validity with the generic PedsQL™ Core domains (range r = 0.30-0.52; p  0.4; p child dyad approach demonstrated moderate to strong performance characteristics in generic

  4. Long Term Follow-Up after a Randomized Integrated Educational and Psychosocial Intervention in Patient-Partner Dyads Affected by Heart Failure.

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    Maria Liljeroos

    Full Text Available To date, contemporary heart failure care remains patient-focused, but awareness of the partners' and families' situation is increasing. Randomized studies have mainly evaluated the short-term effects of dyadic interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the 24-month effects of an intervention with psych-educational support in dyads of heart failure patients and their partners.This study used a randomized study design and 155 patient-partner dyads were enrolled. The intervention included a nurse-led program of three sessions addressing psychoeducational support.The intervention did not have any effect on health, depressive symptoms or perceived control among the patient-partner dyads after 24 months. Furthermore, time to first event did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control patients.This study may be regarded as a first step in trying to understand dyads' need for supportive care. Individualized and more targeted interventions seem necessary to achieve a higher impact on dyad outcomes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02398799.

  5. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Family stress moderates relations between physiological and behavioral synchrony and child self-regulation in mother-preschooler dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Davis, Molly

    2016-01-01

    From a bio-behavioral framework, the relations between physiological synchrony, positive behavioral synchrony, and child self-regulation under varying levels of risk were examined among 93 mother- (M age = 30.44 years, SD = 5.98 years) preschooler (M age = 3.47 years, SD =.52 years, 58.70% male) dyads. Physiological synchrony was examined using interbeat interval (IBI) data and measures of positive behavioral synchrony and self-regulation were based on observations of a mother-child interaction task. Results supported the phenomenon of physiological synchrony among mother-preschooler dyads during an interaction, but not a baseline, task. Moderation analyses indicated that under conditions of high family risk, positive behavioral synchrony and child self-regulation were greater when physiological synchrony was low. Positive behavioral synchrony was positively associated with child self-regulation, regardless of risk status. The results document physiological synchrony among mothers and their preschool-aged children and the complex ways that physiological attunement relates to important developmental processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sunscreen-Based Photocages for Topical Drugs: A Photophysical and Photochemical Study of A Diclofenac-Avobenzone Dyad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Aparici-Espert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitization by drugs is a problem of increasing importance in modern life. This phenomenon occurs when a chemical substance in the skin is exposed to sunlight. Photosensitizing drugs are reported to cause severe skin dermatitis, and indeed, it is generally advised to avoid sunbathing and to apply sunscreen. In this context, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID diclofenac is a photosensitive drug, especially when administered in topical form. In this work, efforts have been made to design and study an innovative pro-drug/pro-filter system containing diclofenac and the UVA filter avobenzone in order to develop a safer use of this topical drug. The design is based on the presence of a well-established photoremovable phenacyl group in the avobenzone structure. Steady-state photolysis of the dyad in hydrogen-donor solvents, monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC, confirms the simultaneous photorelease of diclofenac and avobenzone. Laser flash photolysis and phosphorescence emission experiments allow us to gain insight into the photoactive triplet excited-state properties of the dyad. Finally, it is shown that avobenzone provides partial photoprotection to diclofenac from photocyclization to carbazole derivatives.

  8. High-resolution noncontact AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy investigations of self-assembled photovoltaic donor-acceptor dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grévin, Benjamin; Schwartz, Pierre-Olivier; Biniek, Laure; Brinkmann, Martin; Leclerc, Nicolas; Zaborova, Elena; Méry, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled donor-acceptor dyads are used as model nanostructured heterojunctions for local investigations by noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). With the aim to probe the photo-induced charge carrier generation, thin films deposited on transparent indium tin oxide substrates are investigated in dark conditions and upon illumination. The topographic and contact potential difference (CPD) images taken under dark conditions are analysed in view of the results of complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. After in situ annealing, it is shown that the dyads with longer donor blocks essentially lead to standing acceptor-donor lamellae, where the acceptor and donor groups are π-stacked in an edge-on configuration. The existence of strong CPD and surface photo-voltage (SPV) contrasts shows that structural variations occur within the bulk of the edge-on stacks. SPV images with a very high lateral resolution are achieved, which allows for the resolution of local photo-charging contrasts at the scale of single edge-on lamella. This work paves the way for local investigations of the optoelectronic properties of donor-acceptor supramolecular architectures down to the elementary building block level.

  9. Electron and excitation energy transfers in covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads: mechanisms and dynamics revealed using quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupellini, Lorenzo; Giannini, Samuele; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2017-12-20

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET), hole transfer (HT), charge recombination (CR) and energy transfer (EET) are fundamental mechanisms, which occur in both natural and artificial light harvesting systems. Here, we present a computational strategy which determines ET, HT, CR and EET rates in a consistent way and merges them in a kinetic model to reproduce the net excited state dynamics. The effects of the solvent are included in all steps of the calculations making the present strategy a useful tool for a rational design of charge and energy transfer processes in complex systems. An application to covalently linked zinc and free-base porphyrin-naphthalenediimide dyads is presented. For each of the two systems, ultrafast optical spectroscopy experiments have shown a specific photophysics with different processes taking place simultaneously. The model reveals that such a diversity is mainly due to the different relative stability of the charge-separated state, while the electronic couplings for charge and energy transfer processes are quite similar in the two dyads.

  10. Design and Synthesis of Aviram-Ratner-Type Dyads and Rectification Studies in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamurugan, Govindasamy; Gowri, Vijayendran; Hernández, David; Martin, Santiago; González-Orive, Alejandro; Dengiz, Cagatay; Dumele, Oliver; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Gisselbrecht, Jean-Paul; Boudon, Corinne; Schweizer, W Bernd; Breiten, Benjamin; Finke, Aaron D; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bernet, Bruno; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Cea, Pilar; Diederich, François

    2016-07-18

    The design and synthesis of Aviram-Ratner-type molecular rectifiers, featuring an anilino-substituted extended tetracyanoquinodimethane (exTCNQ) acceptor, covalently linked by the σ-spacer bicyclo[2.2.2]octane (BCO) to a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor moiety, are described. The rigid BCO spacer keeps the TTF donor and exTCNQ acceptor moieties apart, as demonstrated by X-ray analysis. The photophysical properties of the TTF-BCO-exTCNQ dyads were investigated by UV/Vis and EPR spectroscopy, electrochemical studies, and theoretical calculations. Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared and used in the fabrication and electrical studies of junction devices. One dyad showed the asymmetric current-voltage (I-V) curve characteristic for rectification, unlike control compounds containing the TTF unit but not the exTCNQ moiety or comprising the exTCNQ acceptor moiety but lacking the donor TTF part, which both gave symmetric I-V curves. The direction of the observed rectification indicated that the preferred electron current flows from the exTCNQ acceptor to the TTF donor. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effects of Infant Massage on Attachment Security: An Experimental Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Vonda K.

    The formation of attachments is an important phenomenon occurring in the realm of socioemotional development. This study examined the impact of infant massage on infants' subsequent attachment security. Fifty-seven mother-infant dyads (48 dyads from Head Start, 9 from the community at large) were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group…

  12. Dyad Practice Impacts Self-Directed Practice Behaviors and Motor Learning Outcomes in a Contextual Interference Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlinsky, April; Hodges, Nicola J

    2017-10-06

    We studied dyad practice to determine whether and how alternating practice blocks with a partner impacts self-directed practice scheduling, learning, and perceptions of practice. Participants were assigned to be Partner 1 (P1) or 2 (P2). P1s had a blocked, random, or self-directed schedule, while all P2s self-directed practice of 3, differently-timed keystroke-sequences. P2s showed both own error-dependent practice (switching sequences following better performance) and partner-dependent practice, with the partner's schedule impacting sequence selection and switching frequency. A partner's schedule also impacted learning. Random practice resulted in better timing accuracy than blocked practice for both partners in an immediate and delayed retention test. These data give evidence that self-directed practice behaviors and learning outcomes are modulated by a partner's practice schedule.

  13. Neighborhood Qualification of the Association between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories among Mexican-origin Father-Adolescent Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Knight, George P.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-01-01

    To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father-adolescent dyads (N = 462). Compared to their counterparts in low-adversity neighborhoods, adolescents in high-adversity neighborhoods experienced greater initial benefits from authoritative fathering, greater long-term benefits from no-nonsense fathering, and fewer costs associated with reduced involvement fathering. The combined influences of alternative paternal parenting styles and neighborhood adversity may set ethnic and racial minority adolescents on different developmental pathways to competence. PMID:28453217

  14. Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605

  15. Friendly fire: Longitudinal effects of exposure to violent video games on aggressive behavior in adolescent friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Geert P; Burk, William J; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2018-05-01

    Research on gaming effects has focused on adolescence, a developmental period in which peer relationships become increasingly salient. However, the impact of peers on the effects of violent gaming on adolescents has been understudied. This study examined whether adolescents' exposure to violent video games predicted their own and their friend's aggression one year later. Among 705 gaming adolescents, 141 dyads were identified based on reciprocated best friend nominations (73.8% male, M age  = 13.98). Actor-Partner Interdependence Models indicated that adolescent males' (but not females') exposure to violent games positively predicted the aggression of their best friend 1 year later. This effect appeared regardless of whether the friends played video games together or not. The study illustrates the importance of peers in the association between violent gaming and aggression. © 2018 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Accuracy and Bias in Perception of Distress Level and Distress Change Among Same-Sex College Student Roommate Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shrout, Patrick E

    2018-02-01

    University students often experience high levels of stress and, in some cases, the stress leads to tragic outcomes. An important question is whether roommates can perceive the level and change in distress in their peers. We examined self- and other-reports of 187 same-sex undergraduate dyads at two times in a spring semester. Using the truth and bias model, we found that roommates tended to underestimate their partner's distress at both time points, and that ratings were equally influenced by truth and self-focus bias forces. For change, however, there was no evidence of directional (average) bias, and perceived change was only significantly related to the truth force. There were no consistent moderation effects by closeness or gender. These findings are interpreted in the context of person perception theory and the practical need for early warning about extreme distress in college students.

  17. Neighborhood Qualification of the Association Between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories Among Mexican-Origin Father-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A; Knight, George P; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-12-01

    To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father-adolescent dyads (N = 462). Compared to their counterparts in low-adversity neighborhoods, adolescents in high-adversity neighborhoods experienced greater initial benefits from authoritative fathering, greater long-term benefits from no-nonsense fathering, and fewer costs associated with reduced involvement fathering. The combined influences of alternative paternal parenting styles and neighborhood adversity may set ethnic and racial minority adolescents on different developmental pathways to competence. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  18. Friendly fire: Longitudinal effects of exposure to violent video games on aggressive behavior in adolescent friendship dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, William J.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2018-01-01

    Research on gaming effects has focused on adolescence, a developmental period in which peer relationships become increasingly salient. However, the impact of peers on the effects of violent gaming on adolescents has been understudied. This study examined whether adolescents’ exposure to violent video games predicted their own and their friend's aggression one year later. Among 705 gaming adolescents, 141 dyads were identified based on reciprocated best friend nominations (73.8% male, Mage = 13.98). Actor‐Partner Interdependence Models indicated that adolescent males’ (but not females’) exposure to violent games positively predicted the aggression of their best friend 1 year later. This effect appeared regardless of whether the friends played video games together or not. The study illustrates the importance of peers in the association between violent gaming and aggression. PMID:29363767

  19. Predictors of calcium intake at dinner meals of ethnically diverse mother-child dyads from families with limited incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Franklin, Frank; Liu, Yan

    2009-10-01

    Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study's objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their young children and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically diverse families with limited incomes. This was a secondary analysis of dietary data on mother-child dyads from a cross-sectional study. The sample was 465 children (4.4+/-0.6 years) and their mothers, 41% African American, 34% Hispanic, and 21% white. Dietary and anthropometric data were collected in 52 Head Start centers in Alabama and Texas during 1 year starting fall 2004. Associations between mother-child intakes were examined by race/ethnicity using correlations. Calcium intake from dinners was predicted (stepwise regression) from four beverage categories-milk, sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juices, and non-energy-containing beverages plus water-and from cheese and dairy desserts. Overall, the mother's dinnertime intake of milk did not predict that of her child. Mother-child intakes of cheese, dairy desserts, and sweetened beverages correlated more strongly than did milk. All the beverages and dairy groups demonstrated moderate correlations for dyads with those for cheese (r=0.56), dairy desserts (r=0.39), fruit juice (r=0.36), and sweetened beverages (r=0.31) higher than that for milk overall (r=0.29, Preplacing sweet beverages at dinner with low-fat milk or calcium-fortified beverages to improve the nutrient density of meals.

  20. Testing a Preliminary Live with Love Conceptual Framework for cancer couple dyads: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Xu, Yinghua; Zhou, Huiya; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the previous proposed Preliminary Live with Love Conceptual Framework (P-LLCF) that focuses on spousal caregiver-patient couples in their journey of coping with cancer as dyads. A mixed-methods study that included qualitative and quantitative approaches was conducted. Methods of concept and theory analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied in testing the P-LLCF. In the qualitative approach in testing the concepts included in the P-LLCF, a comparison was made between the P-LLCF with a preliminary conceptual framework derived from focus group interviews among Chinese couples' coping with cancer. The comparison showed that the concepts identified in the P-LLCF are relevant to the phenomenon under scrutiny, and attributes of the concepts are consistent with those identified among Chinese cancer couple dyads. In the quantitative study, 117 cancer couples were recruited. The findings showed that inter-relationships exist among the components included in the P-LLCF: event situation, dyadic mediators, dyadic appraisal, dyadic coping, and dyadic outcomes. In that the event situation will impact the dyadic outcomes directly or indirectly through Dyadic Mediators. The dyadic mediators, dyadic appraisal, and dyadic coping are interrelated and work together to benefit the dyadic outcomes. This study provides evidence that supports the interlinked components and the relationship included in the P-LLCF. The findings of this study are important in that they provide healthcare professionals with guidance and directions according to the P-LLCF on how to plan supportive programs for couples coping with cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Food-Related Practices, Quality of Diet, and Well-Being: Profiles of Chilean Mother-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Grunert, Klaus G; Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Hueche, Clementina

    2018-04-03

    To identify mother-adolescent dyad profiles according to food-related parenting practices and to determine differences in diet quality, family meal frequency, life satisfaction, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Mothers and children were surveyed in their homes or at schools in Temuco, Chile. A total of 300 mothers (average age, 41.6 years) and their adolescent children (average age, 13.2 years; 48.7% female). Maternal feeding practices using the abbreviated Family Food Behavior Survey (AFFBS), life satisfaction, food-related and family life satisfaction, diet quality, and eating habits. Principal component factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to verify Family Food Behavior Survey components in mother and adolescent subsamples. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify profiles. Three AFFBS components were detected: maternal control of child snacking behavior, maternal presence during eating, and child involvement in food consumption. Cluster analysis identified 3 mother-adolescent dyad profiles with different food-related parenting practices (P ≤ .001), mother (P ≤ .05) and child (P ≤ .001) diet quality, frequency of shared family meals (P ≤ .001), and mother (P ≤ .001) and child (P ≤ .05) life satisfaction levels. Results indicated that maternal well-being increased with an increased frequency of shared mealtime. Significantly, in contrast to the findings of previous studies, greater control over child eating habits was shown to affect adolescent well-being positively. These findings, among others, may contribute to the development of strategies for improving diet quality, overall well-being, and well-being in the food and family domains for all family members. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Observed Normativity and Deviance in Friendship Dyads' Conversations About Sex and the Relations With Youths' Perceived Sexual Peer Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Overbeek, Geertjan; Boislard, Marie-Aude; Burk, Bill; Deković, Maja

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined the relations between observed normativity and deviance during adolescents' and young adults' conversations about sex with their friends and their individual perceptions of sexual peer norms. Participants were 16-21-year-old same-sex friendship dyads (31 male and 30 female dyads) who performed a peer interaction task that consisted of five discussion assignments focusing on party planning, sexual double standards, condom use, homosexuality, and consensual sex. Videotaped discussions were coded to capture the amounts of normative talk (e.g., consistent with notions of healthy sexuality) and deviant talk (e.g., consistent with notions of risky sexuality), and the verbal or nonverbal reinforcement thereof. Participants also completed individual questionnaires to assess their perceived sexual descriptive norms, injunctive norms, pressure, and risk norms among their peers. Actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) results revealed that youths' perceived descriptive, injunctive, and risk norms, but not their experienced peer pressure, were related to both their own (actor effects) and their friends' (partner effects) normativity and deviance. Overall, more deviance was related to perceiving friends to be more sexually active, more approving of having sex, and engaging in more risky sex, whereas more normativity was related to these perceptions in the opposite direction. Gender differences in the APIMs indicated that interactive normativity and deviance was related to perceived descriptive, injunctive, and risk norms for boys, but only to perceived injunctive norms for girls. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing the dyadic nature of youths' sexual communication with friends, their relation to individual sexual peer norm perceptions, and gender differences therein.

  3. Relationships of physical activity and sedentary time in obese parent-child dyads: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Robert G; Berry, Diane C; Schwartz, Todd A; Hall, Emily G; Neal, Madeline N; Li, Siying; Lam, Diana

    2016-02-06

    Research suggests physical activity is linked to obesity. Further, the physical activity of healthy parents and their children is associated with each other. However, this relationship has not been examined in obese parents and their obese children. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity and sedentary time of obese, low-income, ethnic minority parents and their children on weekdays and weekend days using accelerometry. Data were obtained from eight rural sites in the middle and eastern part of North Carolina (N.C.), United States (U.S.) from 2007-2010 using a rolling enrollment. One hundred and ninety-nine obese parents (94 % female) and their obese children (54 % female) wore accelerometers simultaneously for three weekdays and one weekend day. Total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time and proportions were determined. Parents' and children's total physical activity and MVPA levels were lower on weekend days than weekdays. Total counts per minute for children on weekdays and weekend days were greater than for parents (p sedentary time followed a similar trend, with r = 0.33 (p child dyads on sedentary time were stronger for girls, while associations between dyads on MVPA were stronger for boys. However, formal interaction analyses were not significant (p > 0.13). Since physical activity levels of obese parents and their obese child are somewhat related, especially on weekend days, combined parent-child obesity programs focused on reducing sedentary time could be beneficial, particularly for the child. In conclusion, this study of the physical activity levels of obese parents and their obese children found some relationships between the parents' and children's physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns, especially on weekend days. NCT01378806 .

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  5. Similarities amid the Difference: Caregiving Burden and Adaptation Outcomes in Dyads of Parents and Their Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carona, C.; Crespo, C.; Canavarro, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study had two main objectives: first, to examine the direct and indirect effects, via social support, of caregiving burden on the adaptation outcomes of children/adolescents with cerebral palsy and their parents; and second, to assess the invariance of such models in clinical vs. healthy subsamples. Participants were 210 dyads of…

  6. A Research Experience for American Indian Undergraduates: Utilizing an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to Examine the Student-Mentor Dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R.; McMahon, Tracey R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2017-01-01

    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes after these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research…

  7. Measuring child awareness for adult symptomatic HIV using a verbal assessment tool: concordance between adult-child dyads on adult HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elisabeth; Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don; Moshabela, Mosa; Cluver, Lucie

    2015-11-01

    This study assessed children's awareness for adult HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses using a verbal assessment tool by analysing inter-rater reliability between adult-child dyads. This study also evaluated sociodemographic and household characteristics associated with child awareness of adult symptomatic HIV. A cross-sectional survey using a representative community sample of adult-child dyads (N=2477 dyads) was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Analyses focused on a subsample (n=673 adult-child dyads) who completed verbal assessment interviews for symptomatic HIV. We used an existing validated verbal autopsy approach, originally designed to determine AIDS-related deaths by adult proxy reporters. We adapted this approach for use by child proxy reporters for reporting on HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses among living adults. Analyses assessed whether children could reliably report on adult HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses and adult provisional HIV status. Adult-child pairs concurred above the 65th percentile for 9 of the 10 HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses with sensitivities ranging from 10% to 100% and specificities ranging from 20% to 100%. Concordant reporting between adult-child dyads for the adult's provisional HIV status was 72% (sensitivity=68%, specificity=73%). Children were more likely to reliably match adult's reports of provisional HIV status when they lived in households with more household members, and households with more robust socioeconomic indicators including access to potable water, food security and television. Children demonstrate awareness of HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses experienced by adults in their household. Children in households with greater socioeconomic resources and more household members were more likely to reliably report on the adult's provisional HIV status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of (12)CH4 in the dyad (ν2/ν4) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyay, Badr; Louviot, Maud; Pirali, Olivier; Georges, Robert; Vander Auwera, Jean; Boudon, Vincent

    2016-01-14

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane ((12)CH4) in the so-called dyad (ν2/ν4) region (1100-1500 cm(-1)), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm(-1)) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad-dyad system (3000 cm(-1)) up to Jmax = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad-pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations dRMS are 3.60 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10(-3) cm(-1) for the pentad-dyad, 5.43 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the octad-pentad, and 4.70 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the tetradecad-octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets.

  9. Maternal recasts and activity variations: a comparison of mother-child dyads involving children with and without SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; de Weck, Geneviève; Salazar Orvig, Anne; da Silva Genest, Christine; Rahmati, Somayeh

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated maternal recast and the children's responses comparing dyads made up of a mother and a child with typical language development (TD) or a child with specific language impairment (SLI). More specifically, this article deals with the influence of the type of activity being carried out on the number and types of maternal recasts. A sample of 17 French-speaking children with SLI (age 5 to 7 years) matched with 17 TD same-age peers was observed in interaction with their mother during four different activities (joint reading, symbolic play, question guessing game and clue guessing game). The results showed that group and activity had an impact on the number and type of recasts. Mothers of children with SLI offered more recasts than mothers of TD children. The former preferred phonological recasts whereas the latter preferred lexical ones. Moreover, recasts were more frequently used in joint reading than in other activities. Regarding the children's responses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Children with SLI took up the maternal proposition more frequently after a lexical recast than after a recast of another type. The findings provide evidence for considering the features of the activities in clinical settings.

  10. Altruistic reasoning in adolescent-parent dyads considering participation in a hypothetical sexual health clinical trial for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Noé Rubén; Williams, Camille Y; Ipp, Lisa S; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2016-04-01

    Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent (dyadic) discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other's altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14-17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, a majority (61%) of dyadic discussions included a statement reflecting altruism. Parents responded to adolescents' statements of altruism more frequently than adolescents responded to parents' statements. Responses included: expresses concern, reiterates altruistic reasoning, agrees with altruistic reasoning, and adds to/expands altruistic reasoning. Since an altruistic perspective was often balanced with concerns about risk or study procedures, researchers cannot assume that altruism will directly lead to study participation. Optimizing the informed consent process for early phase clinical trials involving healthy adolescents may include supporting parents to have conversations with their adolescents which will enhance their capacity to consider all aspects of trial participation.

  11. Feel American, Watch American, Eat American? Remote Acculturation, TV, and Nutrition Among Adolescent-Mother Dyads in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M; Muzaffar, Henna; Iturbide, Maria I; Chu, Hui; Meeks Gardner, Julie

    2017-04-25

    Globalization prompts remote acculturation toward U.S. culture in Jamaica; this study used a bioecological systems approach to examine its proximal impact on nutrition through U.S. cable TV consumption, and maternal influences in the home. Overall, 330 randomly selected adolescent-mother dyads from schools in Kingston, Jamaica (M adolescent_age  = 13.8 years, SD adolescent_age  = 1.8) completed questionnaires reporting American identity and behavioral preferences, daily time spent watching U.S.-produced TV programs, and frequency of eating unhealthy foods. Actor-partner interdependence models revealed that girls' American identity/behavior directly predicted their unhealthy eating, whereas girls' mothers and boys' American identity/behavior indirectly predicted unhealthy eating as mediated by their U.S. TV hours. Additionally, mothers' American identity/behavior predicted daughters' unhealthy eating as mediated by mothers' U.S. TV hours. Remote acculturation theory may facilitate more targeted research and prevention/intervention. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. External and internal reality: the impact of the current socio-economic crisis on the analytic dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Anna

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the impact of the current economic crisis on the psychic functioning of the patient and the analyst, their relationship and collaboration. This intrusion of 'external reality' is multidimensional, and thus with multiple meanings. The critical role of the economic factor brings various dimensions of money into play, such as self-preservation, power as well as aspects of psychosexual development. In addition, the crisis involves symbolic loss of basic ideals such as honesty and social responsibility. Patient and analyst are affected in similar and different ways in their respective roles as well as according to the specific intrapsychic functioning of each. Moreover, unique characteristics of the crisis often create a crisis in the analysis. In order to avoid deformation of the analytic relationship, the analytic dyad must examine and work through the multiple meanings of the crisis as well as the meaning of the impact of the crisis on the analytic relationship for both patient and analyst. This complex transference- countertransference interplay poses specific challenges to the analyst. After discussion of these issues, clinical material is presented that demonstrates how they appear in analytic practice today. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. [Social networks, risk dyads, and their role in the epidemiology and prevention of drug related infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Rácz, József

    2010-08-08

    In the case of risk behaviors where infection transmission occurs through social relationships (e.g. via sharing drugs and injecting equipment, or through sexual relations), prevention should follow (among others) the path of the social network. Previous studies have shown that sharing of injecting equipment is more likely to occur in larger and denser networks and that more popular individuals are more likely to engage in risk behaviors, become infected or transmit infection. Primary targets of social network interventions are central individuals, and information diffuses from them to the more peripheral members of the network. The most effective preventions are those where social network interventions targeting high-risk, central individuals are complemented by concurrent individual counseling and/or dyad interventions. Injecting drug users in Hungary would also benefit from such a multifaceted prevention approach aiming to reduce risky injecting behavior. This population needs prevention, in whatever form available, to prevent the deterioration of the current HCV and HIV epidemiological situation in Hungary and the development of an HIV epidemic that will eventually spread over to the general population.

  14. Emotional intelligence and coping strategies as determinants of quality of life in depressed patient-caregiver dyads: An actor-partner interdependence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, L; Baumstarck, K; Alessandrini, M; Hamidou, Z; Testart, J; Serres, M; Arquillière, P; Auquier, P; Leroy, T; Zendjidjian, X

    2017-04-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and their natural caregivers experience major lifestyle difficulties. Little is known concerning dyadic (i.e., patient and natural caregiver) characteristics' impact on quality of life. In a sample of depressed patient-caregiver dyads, we examined quality of life (QoL) levels compared with the general population and whether QoL is influenced by emotional intelligence (EI) and coping strategies using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). This cross-sectional study involved 79 patient-caregiver dyads. The self-reported data, completed by patients and their primary caregivers, included QoL (SF-36), EI (TEIQue-SF) and coping strategies (BriefCope). The QoL of patients and caregivers was compared with 158 French age-sex-matched healthy controls. The dyadic interactions were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Patients and their caregivers experienced lower QoL levels than French age-sex-matched controls. The EI findings showed actor (degree to which the person's EI was associated with his/her own QoL) and partner (degree to which the person's EI was associated with QoL of the other member of the dyad) effects for patients and caregivers. The coping strategies (i.e., problem solving, positive thinking, avoidance and social support) revealed only actor effects. QoL is seriously impaired in depressed patients and their primary caregivers and is associated with EI and coping strategies. Targeted interventions focusing on EI and coping strategies could be offered to improve QoL in dyads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Actor-partner interdependence analysis in depressed patient-caregiver dyads: Influence of emotional intelligence and coping strategies on anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerite, Serres; Laurent, Boyer; Marine, Alessandrini; Tanguy, Leroy; Karine, Baumstarck; Pascal, Auquier; Xavier, Zendjidjian

    2017-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of suffering for both patients and their natural caregivers. A preliminary study highlights the association of emotional intelligence (EI) and coping strategies with quality of life. However, there is a lack of studies concerning dyadic (i.e., patient and natural caregiver) characteristics' impact on anxious and depressive symptoms. In a sample of MDD patients-caregivers dyads, we explored the influence of EI and coping strategies on anxious and depressive symptoms using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). The cross-sectional study included 79 MDD patient-caregiver dyads. Self-reported data, completed by patients and their primary caregivers, were collected including socio-demographic, EI using TEIQue-SF, coping strategies using BriefCope, depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory, anxious symptoms using STAI. The APIM was used to test the dyadic effects of EI and coping strategies on anxious and depressive symptoms, using structural equation modelling. Patients and caregivers reported both anxious and depressive symptoms. Coping strategies, such as problem solving, positive thinking and avoidance, exhibited evidence of actor (degree to which the individual's coping strategies are associated with their own anxiety or depression level) and partner effect (degree to which the individual's coping strategies are associated with the anxiety or depression level of the other member of the dyad). The caregivers' EI was associated with a decrease of their own depression level contrary to patients for which the results were not significant. The patients' and caregivers' EI was associated with a decrease of their own level of anxiety. EI and coping strategies were moderately associated with anxious and depressive symptomatology among MDD patient-caregiver dyads. These results suggest that targeted interventions could be proposed to both patients and caregivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Cyanuric acid hydrolase from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571: crystal structure and insights into a new class of Ser-Lys dyad proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghee Cho

    Full Text Available Cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH catalyzes the hydrolytic ring-opening of cyanuric acid (2,4,6-trihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine, an intermediate in s-triazine bacterial degradation and a by-product from disinfection with trichloroisocyanuric acid. In the present study, an X-ray crystal structure of the CAH-barbituric acid inhibitor complex from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571 has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution. The CAH protein fold consists of three structurally homologous domains forming a β-barrel-like structure with external α-helices that result in a three-fold symmetry, a dominant feature of the structure and active site that mirrors the three-fold symmetrical shape of the substrate cyanuric acid. The active site structure of CAH is similar to that of the recently determined AtzD with three pairs of active site Ser-Lys dyads. In order to determine the role of each Ser-Lys dyad in catalysis, a mutational study using a highly sensitive, enzyme-coupled assay was conducted. The 10⁹-fold loss of activity by the S226A mutant was at least ten times lower than that of the S79A and S333A mutants. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed the Ser226/Lys156 dyad as the only absolutely conserved dyad in the CAH/barbiturase family. These data suggest that Lys156 activates the Ser226 nucleophile which can then attack the substrate carbonyl. Our combination of structural, mutational, and bioinformatics analyses differentiates this study and provides experimental data for mechanistic insights into this unique protein family.

  17. Modulation of ICT probability in bi(polyarene)-based O-BODIPYs: towards the development of low-cost bright arene-BODIPY dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Rivero, Leire; Sánchez-Carnerero, Esther M; Jiménez, Josue; Bañuelos, Jorge; Moreno, Florencio; Maroto, Beatriz L; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo; de la Moya, Santiago

    2017-09-12

    We report the synthesis, and spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of a selected library of novel spiranic O-BODIPYs bearing a phenol-based bi(polyarene) unit tethered to the boron center through oxygen atoms. These dyes constitute an interesting family of arene-BODIPY dyads useful for the development of photonic applications due to their synthetic accessibility and tunable photonic properties. It is demonstrated that the electron-donor capability of the involved arene moiety switches on a non-emissive intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state, which restricts the fluorescence efficiency of the dyad. Interestingly, the influence of this non-radiative deactivation channel can be efficiently modulated by the substitution pattern, either at the dipyrrin ligand or at the polyarene moiety. Thus, dyads featuring electron-rich dipyrrin and electron-poor polyarene show lower or almost negligible ICT probability, and hence display bright fluorescence upon dual excitation at far-away spectral regions. This synthetic approach has allowed the easy development of low-cost efficient ultraviolet-absorbing visible-emitting cassettes by selecting properly the substitution pattern of the involved key units, dipyrrin and bi(polyarene), to modulate not only absorption and emission wavelengths, but also fluorescence efficiencies.

  18. Effect of Conjugation Length on Photoinduced Charge-Transfer in π-Conjugated Oligomer-Acceptor Dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Junlin

    2017-05-25

    A series of -conjugated oligomer-acceptor dyads were synthesized that feature oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE) conjugated backbones end-capped with a naphthalene diimide (NDI) acceptor. The OPE segments vary in length from 4 to 8 phenylene ethynene units (PEn-NDI, where n = 4, 6 and 8). Fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that intramolecular OPE NDI charge transfer dominates the deactivation of excited states of the PEn-NDI oligomers. Both charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) are strongly exothermic (G0CS ~ -1.1 and G0CR ~ -2.0 eV), and the driving forces do not vary much across the series because the oxidation and reduction potentials and singlet energies of the OPEs do not vary much with their length. Bimolecular photoinduced charge transfer between model OPEs that do not contain the NDI acceptors with methyl viologen was studied, and the results reveal that the absorption of the cation radical state (OPE+•) remains approximately constant ( ~ 575 nm) regardless of oligomer length. This finding suggests that the cation radical (polaron) of the OPE is relatively localized, effectively occupying a confined segment of n 4 repeat units in the longer oligomers. Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer dynamics in the PEn-NDI series was investigated by UV-visible femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with visible and mid-infrared probes. Charge separation occurs on the 1 – 10 ps timescale, with the rates decreasing slightly with increased oligomer length (βCS ~ 0.15 Å-1). The rate for charge-recombination decreases in the sequence PE4-NDI > PE6-NDI ~ PE8-NDI. The discontinuous distance dependence in the rate for charge recombination may be related to the spatial localization of the positive polaron state in the longer oligomers.

  19. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C. [Department of Immunology, Biogen Idec, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok.kumar@louisville.edu [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.

  20. Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2010-07-01

    To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy.

  1. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways

  2. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of {sup 12}CH{sub 4} in the dyad (ν{sub 2}/ν{sub 4}) region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amyay, Badr, E-mail: badr.amyay@gmail.com, E-mail: vincent.boudon@u-bourgogne.fr; Louviot, Maud; Boudon, Vincent, E-mail: badr.amyay@gmail.com, E-mail: vincent.boudon@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Avenue A. Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Pirali, Olivier [Ligne AILES, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay (ISMO), CNRS, Université Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Georges, Robert [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251, Campus de Beaulieu, Université de Rennes 1/CNRS, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Vander Auwera, Jean [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, C.P. 160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Avenue F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-01-14

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane ({sup 12}CH{sub 4}) in the so-called dyad (ν{sub 2}/ν{sub 4}) region (1100–1500 cm{sup −1}), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm{sup −1}) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad–dyad system (3000 cm{sup −1}) up to J{sub max} = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad–pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations d{sub RMS} are 3.60 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for the pentad–dyad, 5.43 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for the octad–pentad, and 4.70 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for the tetradecad–octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets.

  3. Testing parent dyad interchangeability in the parent proxy-report of PedsQL™ 4.0: a differential item functioning analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doostfatemeh, Marziyeh; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2015-08-01

    In child-parent agreement studies in the field of paediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL), little attention has been paid to the effect of gender in parental proxy rating of children's HRQoL. This study aims to test the potential interchangeability of parent dyads in reporting children's HRQoL on both item and scale levels of the PedsQL™ 4.0 instrument, using the approach of differential item functioning (DIF). The PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed by 576 father-and-mother dyads. A polytomous item response theory model, graded response model, was used to detect DIF across fathers and mothers. Assessment at item level showed that fathers and mothers perceived the meaning of items of the PedsQL™ 4.0 consistently. Regarding the scale level, a moderate to high level of agreement was observed between mothers' and fathers' reports on all similar subscales. Although the significant mean score differences in total, physical and emotional functioning indicated that fathers gave higher scores to their children, the small effect size implied that this difference may not be practically meaningful. Our findings revealed that discrepancy in parent dyads in rating children's HRQoL is a "real" difference and not an artefact due to measurement non-invariance. Fathers were seen to have slightly different insights into their children, especially for emotional functioning, but overall the results were not all that different. This suggests that paternal proxy-reports can be included in studies along with maternal proxy-reports, and the two may be combined when looking at parent-child agreement. Parent-child agreement studies in Iran are not affected by parents' gender, and therefore, researchers may rely on the assumption of the interchangeability of fathers and mothers in these studies.

  4. The crystal structure, mutagenesis, and activity studies reveal that patatin is a lipid acyl hydrolase with a Ser-Asp catalytic dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydel, Timothy J; Williams, Jennifer M; Krieger, Elysia; Moshiri, Farhad; Stallings, William C; Brown, Sherri M; Pershing, Jay C; Purcell, John P; Alibhai, Murtaza F

    2003-06-10

    Patatin is a nonspecific lipid acyl hydrolase that accounts for approximately 40% of the total soluble protein in mature potato tubers, and it has potent insecticidal activity against the corn rootworm. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of a His-tagged variant of an isozyme of patatin, Pat17, to 2.2 A resolution, employing SeMet multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing methods. The patatin crystal structure has three molecules in the asymmetric unit, an R-factor of 22.0%, and an R(free) of 27.2% (for 10% of the data not included in the refinement) and includes 498 water molecules. The structure notably revealed that patatin has a Ser-Asp catalytic dyad and an active site like that of human cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) [Dessen, A., et al. (1999) Cell 97, 349-360]. In addition, patatin has a folding topology related to that of the catalytic domain of cPLA(2) and unlike the canonical alpha/beta-hydrolase fold. The structure confirms our site-directed mutagenesis and bioactivity data that initially suggested patatin possessed a Ser-Asp catalytic dyad. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis revealed that Ser77 and Asp215 were critical for both esterase and bioactivity, consistent with prior work implicating a Ser residue [Strickland, J. H., et al. (1995) Plant Physiol. 109, 667-674] and a Ser-Asp dyad [Hirschberg, H. J. H. B., et al. (2001) Eur. J. Biochem. 268, 5037-5044] in patatin's catalytic activity. The crystal structure aids the understanding of other structure-function relationships in patatin. Patatin does not display interfacial activation, a hallmark feature of lipases, and this is likely due to the fact that it lacks a flexible lid that can shield the active site.

  5. Rolling cycle amplification based single-color quantum dots–ruthenium complex assembling dyads for homogeneous and highly selective detection of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chen; Liu, Yufei; Ye, Tai; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike, E-mail: zhkhe@whu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A universal, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots–ruthenium complex (QDs–Ru) assembling dyads. - Highlights: • The single-color QDs–Ru assembling dyads were applied in homogeneous DNA assay. • This biosensor exhibited high selectivity against base mismatched sequences. • This biosensor could be severed as universal platform for the detection of ssDNA. • This sensor could be used to detect the target in human serum samples. • This DNA sensor had a good selectivity under the interference of other dsDNA. - Abstract: In this work, a new, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots–ruthenium complex (QDs–Ru) assembling dyads. This strategy includes three steps: (1) the target DNA initiates RCA reaction and generates linear RCA products; (2) the complementary DNA hybridizes with the RCA products to form long double-strand DNA (dsDNA); (3) [Ru(phen){sub 2}(dppx)]{sup 2+} (dppx = 7,8-dimethyldipyrido [3,2-a:2′,3′-c] phenanthroline) intercalates into the long dsDNA with strong fluorescence emission. Due to its strong binding propensity with the long dsDNA, [Ru(phen){sub 2}(dppx)]{sup 2+} is removed from the surface of the QDs, resulting in restoring the fluorescence of the QDs, which has been quenched by [Ru(phen){sub 2}(dppx)]{sup 2+} through a photoinduced electron transfer process and is overlaid with the fluorescence of dsDNA bonded Ru(II) polypyridyl complex (Ru-dsDNA). Thus, high fluorescence intensity is observed, and is related to the concentration of target. This sensor exhibits not only high sensitivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) ssDNA with a low detection limit (0.5 pM), but also excellent selectivity in the complex matrix. Moreover

  6. Age-related hearing loss in individuals and their caregivers: effects of coping on the quality of life among the dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzarotto S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sébastien Lazzarotto,1,2 Karine Baumstarck,1 Anderson Loundou,1 Zeinab Hamidou,1,3 Valérie Aghababian,1 Tanguy Leroy,1,4 Pascal Auquier1 1EA 3279, Self-Perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Aix Marseille Université, 2French Regional Institute for Prevention of Aging, Marseille, 3National Clinical Research Quality of Life in Oncology Platform, Marseille, 4Social Psychology Research Group (GRePS EA 4163, Université Lumière Lyon 2, Bron, France Objectives: Age-related hearing loss (ARHL impacts the daily living and quality of life (QoL of affected individuals and the functioning of family caregivers. In the specific context of voluntary medical checkups, we examined sample dyads (ARHL individual and the caregiver to determine whether QoL of patients and caregivers is influenced by coping strategies implemented either by themselves or their relatives.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a descriptive/correlative design performed in a French preventive health center (Regional Institute for Prevention of Aging, Marseille, France for the beneficiaries of pension funds of private sector employees. The samples included beneficiary–caregiver dyads. The beneficiaries had bilateral (mild to moderately severe ARHL. Self-reported data were collected as follows: QoL using the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, coping strategies using the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Scale, and anxiety and mood using visual analog scales.Results: The final sample comprised 44 beneficiaries and 44 caregivers. The caregiver was the partner of the beneficiary in 73% of cases. The QoL scores of the social dimension were significantly lower for beneficiaries and caregivers compared with French age- and sex-matched controls. Among beneficiaries and caregivers, coping strategies based on problem solving were the most commonly used strategies. The use of positive thinking strategies was associated with

  7. Modulation of Energy Transfer into Sequential Electron Transfer upon Axial Coordination of Tetrathiafulvalene in an Aluminum(III) Porphyrin-Free-Base Porphyrin Dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Bregles, Lucas P; Lim, Gary N; Boland, Patricia; Kerr, Russ G; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-09-08

    Axially assembled aluminum(III) porphyrin based dyads and triads have been constructed to investigate the factors that govern the energy and electron transfer processes in a perpendicular direction to the porphyrin plane. In the aluminum(III) porphyrin-free-base porphyrin (AlPor-Ph-H2Por) dyad, the AlPor occupies the basal plane, while the free-base porphyrin (H2Por) with electron withdrawing groups resides in the axial position through a benzoate spacer. The NMR, UV-visible absorption, and steady-state fluorescence studies confirm that the coordination of pyridine appended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative (TTF-py or TTF-Ph-py) to the dyad in noncoordinating solvents afford vertically arranged supramolecular self-assembled triads (TTF-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por and TTF-Ph-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por). Time-resolved studies revealed that the AlPor in dyad and triads undergoes photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer processes. Interestingly, the energy and electron donating/accepting nature of AlPor can be modulated by changing the solvent polarity or by stimulating a new competing process using a TTF molecule. In modest polar solvents (dichloromethane and o-dichlorobenzene), excitation of AlPor leads singlet-singlet energy transfer from the excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) to H2Por with a moderate rate constant (k(EnT)) of 1.78 × 10(8) s(-1). In contrast, excitation of AlPor in the triad results in ultrafast electron transfer from TTF to (1)AlPor* with a rate constant (k(ET)) of 8.33 × 10(9)-1.25 × 10(10) s(-1), which outcompetes the energy transfer from (1)AlPor* to H2Por and yields the primary radical pair TTF(+•)-AlPor(-•)-H2Por. A subsequent electron shift to H2Por generates a spatially well-separated TTF(+•)-AlPor-H2Por(-•) radical pair.

  8. A High-Energy Charge-Separated State of 1.70 eV from a High-Potential Donor-Acceptor Dyad: A Catalyst for Energy-Demanding Photochemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gary N; Obondi, Christopher O; D'Souza, Francis

    2016-09-12

    A high potential donor-acceptor dyad composed of zinc porphyrin bearing three meso-pentafluorophenyl substituents covalently linked to C60 , as a novel dyad capable of generating charge-separated states of high energy (potential) has been developed. The calculated energy of the charge-separated state was found to be 1.70 eV, the highest reported for a covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene dyad. Intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer leading to charge-separated states of appreciable lifetimes in polar and nonpolar solvents has been established from studies involving femto- to nanosecond transient absorption techniques. The high energy stored in the form of charge-separated states along with its persistence of about 50-60 ns makes this dyad a potential electron-transporting catalyst to carry out energy-demanding photochemical reactions. This type of high-energy harvesting dyad is expected to open new research in the areas of artificial photosynthesis especially producing energy (potential) demanding light-to-fuel products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. What they bring: baseline psychological distress differentially predicts neural response in social exclusion by children's friends and strangers in best friend dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddam, Suman; Laws, Holly; Crawford, Jessica L; Wu, Jia; Bolling, Danielle Z; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Friendships play a major role in cognitive, emotional and social development in middle childhood. We employed the online Cyberball social exclusion paradigm to understand the neural correlates of dyadic social exclusion among best friends assessed simultaneously. Each child played with their friend and an unfamiliar player. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed via electroencephalogram during exclusion by friend and unfamiliar peer. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling to account for nesting of children within friendship dyads. Results showed that stranger rejection was associated with larger P2 and positive slow wave ERP responses compared to exclusion by a friend. Psychological distress differentially moderated the effects of friend and stranger exclusion such that children with greater psychological distress were observed to have larger neural responses (larger P2 and slow wave) to exclusion by a stranger compared to exclusion by a friend. Conversely, children with lower levels of psychological distress had larger neural responses for exclusion by a friend than by a stranger. Psychological distress within the dyad differentially predicted the P2 and slow wave response. Findings highlight the prominent, but differential role of individual and dyadic psychological distress levels in moderating responses to social exclusion in middle childhood. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. What they bring: baseline psychological distress differentially predicts neural response in social exclusion by children’s friends and strangers in best friend dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddam, Suman; Laws, Holly; Crawford, Jessica L.; Wu, Jia; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Friendships play a major role in cognitive, emotional and social development in middle childhood. We employed the online Cyberball social exclusion paradigm to understand the neural correlates of dyadic social exclusion among best friends assessed simultaneously. Each child played with their friend and an unfamiliar player. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed via electroencephalogram during exclusion by friend and unfamiliar peer. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling to account for nesting of children within friendship dyads. Results showed that stranger rejection was associated with larger P2 and positive slow wave ERP responses compared to exclusion by a friend. Psychological distress differentially moderated the effects of friend and stranger exclusion such that children with greater psychological distress were observed to have larger neural responses (larger P2 and slow wave) to exclusion by a stranger compared to exclusion by a friend. Conversely, children with lower levels of psychological distress had larger neural responses for exclusion by a friend than by a stranger. Psychological distress within the dyad differentially predicted the P2 and slow wave response. Findings highlight the prominent, but differential role of individual and dyadic psychological distress levels in moderating responses to social exclusion in middle childhood. PMID:27330184

  11. Evaluation of Physician and Nurse Dyad Training Procedures to Deliver a Palliative and End-of-Life Communication Intervention to Parents of Children with a Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Kane, Javier R; Pradhan, Kamnesh R; Shih, Chie-Schin; Gauvain, Karen M; Baker, Justin N; Haase, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    When a child's prognosis is poor, physicians and nurses (MDs/RNs) often struggle with initiating discussions about palliative and end-of-life care (PC/EOL) early in the course of illness trajectory. We describe evaluation of training procedures used to prepare MD/RN dyads to deliver an intervention entitled: Communication Plan: Early Through End of Life (COMPLETE) intervention. Our training was delivered to 5 pediatric neuro-oncologists and 8 pediatric nurses by a team of expert consultants (i.e., in medical ethics, communication, and PC/EOL) and parent advisors. Although half of the group received training in a 1-day program and half in a 2-day program, content for all participants included 4 modules: family assessment, goal-directed treatment planning, anticipatory guidance, and staff communication and follow-up. Evaluations included dichotomous ratings and qualitative comments on content, reflection, and skills practice for each module. Positive aspects of our training included parent advisers' insights, emphasis on hope and non-abandonment messages, written materials to facilitate PC/EOL communication, and an MD/RN dyad approach. Lessons learned and challenges related to our training procedures will be described. Overall, the MDs and RNs reported that our PC/EOL communication-training procedures were helpful and useful. Future investigators should carefully plan training procedures for PC/EOL communication interventions. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  12. Communication, coping, and quality of life of breast cancer survivors and family/friend dyads: a pilot study of Chinese-Americans and Korean-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Won

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to understand the dyadic relationships between family communication and quality of life (QOL) and between coping and QOL in Chinese-American and Korean-American breast cancer survivor (BCS)-family member dyads. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 32 Chinese-American and Korean-American BCS-family member dyads were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The dyadic data were analyzed using a pooled regression actor-partner interdependence model. The study findings demonstrated that the survivors' general communication and use of reframing coping positively predicted their own QOL. The survivors' and family members' general communication was also a strong predictor of the family members' physical-related QOL score specifically. Meanwhile, each person's use of mobilizing coping negatively predicted his or her partner's QOL. The study findings add important information to the scarce literature on the QOL of Asian-American survivors of breast cancer. The findings suggest that Chinese-American and Korean-American BCS and their family members may benefit from interventions that enhance communication and coping within the family unit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Infection disclosure in the injecting dyads of Hungarian and Lithuanian injecting drug users who self-reported being infected with hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Li, Nan; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of disclosure to network members of being hepatitis C virus (HCV)- or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected among injecting dyads of infected injection drug users (IDUs) in Budapest, Hungary and Vilnius, Lithuania,. Multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess associations. Very strong infection disclosure norms exist in Hungary, and HCV disclosure was associated with using drugs and having sex within the dyad. Non-ethnic Russian IDUs in Lithuania were more likely to disclose HCV infection to non-Roma, emotionally close and HCV-infected network members, and to those with whom they shared cookers, filters, drug solutions or rinse water or got used syringes from, and if they had fewer non-IDU or IDU network members. Ethnic Russian Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose HCV if they had higher disclosure attitude and knowledge scores, 'trusted' network members, and had lower non-injecting network density and higher injecting network density. HIV-infected Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose to 'trusted' network members. Disclosure norms matched disclosure behaviour in Hungary, while disclosure in Lithuania to 'trusted' network members suggests possible stigmatization. Ongoing free and confidential HCV/HIV testing services for IDUs are needed to emphasize and strengthen disclosure norms, and to decrease stigma.

  14. Communication, Coping, and Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Survivors and Family/Friend Dyads: A Pilot Study of Chinese- and Korean-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to understand the dyadic relationships between family communication and quality of life (QOL) and between coping and QOL in Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivor (BCS)-family member dyads. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 32 Chinese- and Korean-American BCS-family member dyads were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The dyadic data were analyzed using a pooled regression actor-partner interdependence model. Results The study findings demonstrated that the survivors’ general communication and use of reframing coping positively predicted their own QOL. The survivors’ and family members’ general communication was also a strong predictor of the family members’ physical-related QOL score specifically. Meanwhile, each person’s use of mobilizing coping negatively predicted his or her partner’s QOL. Conclusions The study findings add important information to the scarce literature on the QOL of Asian-American survivors of breast cancer. The findings suggest that Chinese- and Korean-American BCS and their family members may benefit from interventions that enhance communication and coping within the family unit. PMID:24700695

  15. Breast functions perceived by Korean mothers: infant nutrition and female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmee; Sohn, Min; Yoo, Eunkwang

    2010-04-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional study of 2,235 Korean postpartum women was conducted to explore (a) feeding types with related factors, (b) the perceived benefits of each feeding type, (c) the perceived sexuality-related barriers to breast-feeding, and (d) the perceived relative significance of breast functions. The most frequently utilized feeding type was breast-feeding only. The gender of infants, vaginal delivery, not being employed, having a nuclear family, previous breast-feeding experience, and previously receiving breast-feeding education were statistically significant factors of breast-feeding. Breast-feeding and mixed feeding mothers indicated that their feeding choices were based on nutritional benefits, convenience, and improving family relationships. Only breast-feeding mothers reported changes in breast shape as a perceived sexuality-related barrier to breast-feeding. All mothers reported that infant feeding was a more significant concern than female sexual functioning, but post hoc Schéffe revealed that the breast-feeding mothers appreciated infant feeding function more than female sexual functioning.

  16. Hepatitis c virus antibodies in mother-infant blood pair in Zaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... acute infection in children proceed to chronic infections at the same rate as in adults with vertically transmitted ... step 3rd generation indirect ELISA. The HCV antibody test for both mothers and babies .... duction of interferon (alpha. beta. gamma) as described in the placental environment. The finding in this ...

  17. From Biological Rhythms to Social Rhythms: Physiological Precursors of Mother-Infant Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Links between neonatal biological rhythms and the emergence of interaction rhythms were examined in 3 groups (N=71): high-risk preterms (HR; birth weight less than 1,000 g), low-risk preterms (LR; birth weight=1,700-1,850 g), and full-term (FT) infants. Once a week for premature infants and on the 2nd day for FT infants, sleep-wake cyclicity was…

  18. Mother-Infant Attachment Style as a Predictor of Depression among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Amani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: There are an increasing number of studies showing an association of adult attachment styles to psychopathology. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between attachment style and depression among students of Bu-Ali Sina University in Iran. Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 157 girl students who were randomly selected. They were evaluated by demographic questionnaire, Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI (Hazan and Shaver, and theBeck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. The data was analysis by using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis in SPSS 16 statistical package. Results: Findings indicated that secure attachment style had no significant correlation with depression and insecure attachment styles had a significant positive correlation with depression (p

  19. Maternal Oxytocin Is Linked to Close Mother-Infant Proximity in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Robinson

    Full Text Available Maternal behaviour is a crucial component of reproduction in all mammals; however the quality of care that mothers give to infants can vary greatly. It is vital to document variation in maternal behaviour caused by the physiological processes controlling its expression. This underlying physiology should be conserved throughout reproductive events and should be replicated across all individuals of a species; therefore, any correlates to maternal care quality may be present across many individuals or contexts. Oxytocin modulates the initiation and expression of maternal behaviour in mammals; therefore we tested whether maternal plasma oxytocin concentrations correlated to key maternal behaviours in wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus. Plasma oxytocin concentrations in non-breeding individuals (4.3 ± 0.5 pg/ml were significantly lower than those in mothers with dependent pups in both early (8.2 ± 0.8 pg/ml and late (6.9 ± 0.7 pg/ml lactation. Maternal plasma oxytocin concentrations were not correlated to the amount of nursing prior to sampling, or a mother's nursing intensity throughout the dependent period. Mothers with high plasma oxytocin concentrations stayed closer to their pups, reducing the likelihood of mother-pup separation during lactation which is credited with causing starvation, the largest cause of pup mortality in grey seals. This is the first study to link endogenous oxytocin concentrations in wild mammalian mothers with any type of maternal behaviour. Oxytocin's structure and function is widely conserved across mammalian mothers, including humans. Defining the impact the oxytocin system has on maternal behaviour highlights relationships that may occur across many individuals or species, and such behaviours heavily influence infant development and an individual's lifetime reproductive success.

  20. The Effects of Maternal Social Phobia on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Social Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Schofield, Elizabeth; Sack, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We…

  1. Infants' Speech Segmentation: The Impact of Mother-Infant Facial Synchrony

    OpenAIRE

    Kish, Allison; Courtaney, Katie; Dilger, Adi; Gallo, Tori; King, Lauren; Jarvis, Amy; Roberson, Ambry; Smith, Meredith; Thottichira, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Various measures of infant responsiveness have been shown to predict child outcomes. Despite this extensive research, there is no work examining links between infant responsiveness during caregiver-infant interactions with infants' ability to perform basic linguistic tasks. One key task in early linguistic development is word segmentation, an achievement that allows infants to build their mental dictionaries. We hypothesized that infants' responsiveness to caregiver facial expressions might b...

  2. Developmental Changes in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Birth to 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated development of face-to-face communication in infants between 1 and 14 weeks old and their mothers. Found a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with increases occurring between weeks 4 and 9. When placed on a sofa, infants' face-to-face communication was longer than when they were held. Girls spent a longer…

  3. Evoking communication in Rett syndrome: comparisons with conversations and games in mother-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, B; Trevarthen, C

    1997-01-01

    Girls with Rett syndrome retain a responsiveness with care-givers that corresponds in many respects with the preverbal communication observed with normal infants. This has characteristic rhythmic patterns and phrases, mutual imitation, reciprocal emotional phases and rudimentary oral, vocal and gestural expressions. After individuals with Rett syndrome have passed the critical stage in dissolution of their attention, co-ordination and voluntary control, they retain positive orientation to human faces and eyes with smiling. Video analyses show that they can engage with rhythms and phrases of conversation, sometimes showing a sense of humour and sensitivity to playful teasing. They respond to repeated patterns of expression in rhythmic/prosodic play and to certain forms in music. It is suggested that sensitive and appropriately attuned support for the rudimentary motives for human contact that survive in Rett syndrome can help stabilisation of self-regulatory states, alleviate panic and confusion and facilitate learning. The effects of the disorder may be a consequence of a genetic fault in the elaboration of an Intrinsic Motive Formation in the reticular core of the embryo brain, leading to dysregulation of differentiation in higher cognitive systems and learning, but leaving partially intact motive principles for human intersubjective response.

  4. A cluster randomised controlled effectiveness trial evaluating perinatal home visiting among South African mothers/infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

    Full Text Available Interventions are needed to reduce poor perinatal health. We trained community health workers (CHWs as home visitors to address maternal/infant risks.In a cluster randomised controlled trial in Cape Town townships, neighbourhoods were randomised within matched pairs to 1 the control, healthcare at clinics (n = 12 neighbourhoods; n = 594 women, or 2 a home visiting intervention by CBW trained in cognitive-behavioural strategies to address health risks (by the Philani Maternal, Child Health and Nutrition Programme, in addition to clinic care (n = 12 neighbourhoods; n = 644 women. Participants were assessed during pregnancy (2% refusal and 92% were reassessed at two weeks post-birth, 88% at six months and 84% at 18 months later. We analysed 32 measures of maternal/infant well-being over the 18 month follow-up period using longitudinal random effects regressions. A binomial test for correlated outcomes evaluated overall effectiveness over time. The 18 month post-birth assessment outcomes also were examined alone and as a function of the number of home visits received.Benefits were found on 7 of 32 measures of outcomes, resulting in significant overall benefits for the intervention compared to the control when using the binomial test (p = 0.008; nevertheless, no effects were observed when only the 18 month outcomes were analyzed. Benefits on individual outcomes were related to the number of home visits received. Among women living with HIV, intervention mothers were more likely to implement the PMTCT regimens, use condoms during all sexual episodes (OR = 1.25; p = 0.014, have infants with healthy weight-for-age measurements (OR = 1.42; p = 0.045, height-for-age measurements (OR = 1.13, p<0.001, breastfeed exclusively for six months (OR = 3.59; p<0.001, and breastfeed longer (OR = 3.08; p<0.001. Number of visits was positively associated with infant birth weight ≥2500 grams (OR = 1.07; p = 0.012, healthy head-circumference-for-age measurements at 6 months (OR = 1.09, p = 0.017, and improved cognitive development at 18 months (OR = 1.02, p = 0.048.Home visits to neighbourhood mothers by CHWs may be a feasible strategy for enhancing maternal/child outcomes. However, visits likely must extend over several years for persistent benefits.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00996528.

  5. Attachment, Mothering and Mental Illness: Mother-Infant Therapy in an Institutional Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciantonio, Sonia; Hemer, Susan R; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2018-03-01

    This paper is an ethnographic exploration of how attachment theory underpins therapeutic practices in an Australian institutional context where mothers of infants have been diagnosed and are undergoing treatment for mental illness. We argue that attachment theory in this particular context rests on a series of principles or assumptions: that attachment theory is universally applicable; that attachment is dyadic and gendered; that there is an attachment template formed which can be transferred across generations and shapes future social interactions; that there is understood to be a mental health risk to the infant when attachment is characterised as problematic; and that this risk can be mitigated through the therapeutic practices advocated by the institution. Through an in-depth case study, this paper demonstrates how these assumptions cohere in practice and are used to assess mothering as deficient, to choose therapeutic options, to shape women's behaviour, and to formulate decisions about child placement.

  6. A focused ethnographic assessment of Middle Eastern mothers' infant feeding practices in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to following complementary feeding guidelines among Middle Eastern mothers and the cultural considerations of practitioners from an emic perspective. This is a two-phase focused ethnographic assessment of infant feeding among 22 Middle Eastern mothers in Western Canada who had healthy infants aged cultural, health care system and personal factors. Culture was an umbrella theme influencing all aspects of infant feeding decisions. Mothers cited health care professionals' lack of cultural considerations and lack of relevance and practicality of infant feeding guidelines as the main reasons for ignoring infant feeding recommendations. Early introduction of pre-lacteal feeds and inappropriate types of foods fed to infants among immigrant/refugee Middle Eastern mothers in Canada is cause of concern. Involving trained language interpreters in health teams and educating health care staff on cultural competency may potentially increase maternal trust in the health care system and eventually lead to increased awareness of and adherence to best practices with infant feeding recommendations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Estudo das variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro humano de parturientes a termo e pré-termo Study of retinol level variations of human colostrum among parturient women with term and pre-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Louise Pereira de Melo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro de parturientes a termo e pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas amostras de leite de 78 lactantes, sendo metade delas mães de recém-nascidos prematuros. As amostras de colostro foram obtidas por expressão manual de uma mama, até 72 horas após o parto, no turno vespertino e no início da mamada, até atingir um volume de 2,0 ml. A determinação do retinol foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística através do teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: o valor médio do retinol no colostro de mães a termo (n = 39 e pré-termo (n = 39 foram, respectivamente, 89,4 ± 46,1 mig/dL e 55,6 ± 27,7 mig/dL. A diferença entre as médias foi estatisticamente significante (p OBJECTIVES: to analyze retinol levels variations in the colostrum of term and pre-term parturient women. METHODS: colostrum samples of 78 lactating women, half of which were mothers of premature newborns, were analyzed. The samples were manually extracted from one breast until 2.0 ml were obtained. They were collected up to 72 hours after birth, during the morning hours and right before nursing. Retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by the T-test for means comparison. RESULTS: the mean retinol values in the colostrums of women with term (n = 39 and pre-term newborns (n = 39 were 89,4 ± 46,1 mug/dL and 55,6 ± 27,7 mug/dL, respectively. The difference of means was considered statistically significant at (p < 0,001. Human milk meets the need for Vitamin A in the term newborn. However, for the premature newborn, it only supplied 66% of the needs. CONCLUSIONS: results suggest that exclusive use of human milk does not meet the needs of pre-term newborn completely and that a Vitamin A supplement for the mother is necessary in order to reduce Vitamin A risk deficiency.

  8. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedecke Julia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Methods Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status, their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score. Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308, regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI. The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685. The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960 regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342 between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p

  9. Photoactive Molecular Dyads [Ru(bpy)3-M(ttpy)2] n+ on Gold (M = Co(III), Zn(II)): Characterization, Intrawire Electron Transfer, and Photoelectric Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Quang, Long; Farran, Rajaa; Lattach, Youssef; Bonnet, Hugues; Jamet, Hélène; Guérente, Liliane; Maisonhaute, Emmanuel; Chauvin, Jérôme

    2018-04-23

    We propose in this work a stepwise approach to construct photoelectrodes. This takes advantage of the self-assembly interactions between thiol with a gold surface and terpyridine ligands with first-row transition metals. Here, a [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ photosensitive center bearing a free terpyridine group has been used to construct two linear dyads on gold (Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ and Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ ). The stepwise construction was characterized by electrochemistry, quartz crystal microbalance, and atomic force microscopy imaging. The results show that the dyads behave as rigid layers and are inhomogeneously distributed on the surface. The surface coverages are estimated to be in the order of 10 -11 mol cm -2 . The kinetics of the heterogeneous electron transfer is determined on modified gold ball microelectrodes using Laviron's formula. The oxidation rates of the terminal Ru(II) subunits are estimated to be 700 and 2300 s -1 for Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ and Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ , respectively. In the latter case, the rate is limited by the kinetics of electron transfer between an intermediate Co(II) center and the gold surface. For Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ , the Zn-bis-terpyridine center is not involved in the electron-transfer process and the oxidation of the Ru(II) subunit occurs through a superexchange process. In the presence of a tertiary amine in solution, the electrodes at a bias of 0.12 V behave as photoanodes when subjected to visible light irradiation. The magnitude of the photocurrent is around 10 μA cm -2 for Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ and 5 μA cm -2 for Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ , proving the importance of an electron relay on the photon-to-current conversion. The results suggest an efficient conversion for Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ , since each bound dyad, once excited, injects an electron around 10 times per second.

  10. High resolution study of MSiH4 (M=28, 29, 30) in the Dyad Region: Analysis of line positions, intensities and half-widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Kashirina, N. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2017-12-01

    The infrared spectra of SiH4 in natural abundance (92.23% of 28SiH4, 4.68% of 29SiH4, and 3.09% of 30SiH4) were measured in the region of 600-1200 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer, analyzed and compared with the results available in the literature. More than 3500 transitions with Jmax. = 27 were assigned to the dyad bands ν4 and ν2 of 28SiH4 (the band ν2 is allowed in Raman, but forbidden in absorption spectra for symmetry reasons, and its transitions appear in absorption spectra only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ν4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The results of the analogous analyses of the 29SiH4 and 30SiH4 isotopologues are also presented (the numbers of the assigned transitions are here more than 1360 and 1120). An further analysis of about 790 experimental ro-vibrational lines in the dyad region of 28SiH4 was performed using the Voigt profile to simulate the measured line shape and to determine experimental line intensities. A set of 4 effective dipole moment parameters for the dyad of 28SiH4 was obtained on that basis from the weighted fit, which reproduce the initial experimental intensities of about 790 lines with the drms = 5.6 % . Analogous analyses were made for the two other isotopic species, 29SiH4, and 30SiH4. A detailed line list of transitions in the region of 750-1150 cm-1 is generated. The half-widths of 40 ro-vibrational lines (Jup.max. = 16) are studied from the multi-spectrum analysis, and self-pressure broadening coefficients are determined.

  11. Direct Observation of a Photochemical Alkyne-Allene Reaction and of a Twisted and Rehybridized Intramolecular Charge-Transfer State in a Donor-Acceptor Dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereka, Bogdan; Svechkarev, Denis; Rosspeintner, Arnulf; Tromayer, Maximilian; Liska, Robert; Mohs, Aaron M; Vauthey, Eric

    2017-11-22

    The excited-state dynamics of an aniline-triazine electron donor-acceptor dyad with an alkyne spacer has been investigated using a combination of ultrafast broadband mid-IR and visible transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The transient IR data reveal the occurrence of an efficient alkyne to allene isomerization of the spacer with a time constant increasing from a few hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds with solvent viscosity. This process is faster than the vibrational cooling of the Franck-Condon excited state, indicative of nonequilibrium dynamics. The transient electronic absorption and fluorescence data evidence that this transformation is accompanied by a charge separation between the donor and the acceptor subunits. The allene character of the spacer implies an orthogonal orientation of the donor and acceptor moieties, similar to that proposed for twisted intramolecular charge-transfer states. Such states are often invoked in the excited-state dynamics of donor-acceptor dyads, but their involvement could never be unambiguously evidenced spectroscopically. The alkyne-allene isomerization involves not only a torsional motion but also a bending of the molecule due to the sp to sp 2 rehybridization of one of the alkyne carbon atoms. This twisted and rehybridized intramolecular charge transfer ("TRICT") state decays back to the planar and linear alkyne ground state on a time scale decreasing from a few hundred to ten picoseconds upon going from weakly to highly polar solvents. The different solvent dependencies reveal that the dynamics of the allene buildup are controlled by the structural changes, whereas the decay is limited by the charge recombination step.

  12. Identification and Understanding of Pre-term Birth at Kintampo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    A newborn assessment tool was designed to address the gap in data collection identified during the study (Afr J Reprod Health 2011; 15[4]:. 98-105). Résumé ..... No Bathing/Dec. Exposure. Yes. 3. 21. No. 11. 79. Views on infant life. Respondents related their views of infant life. The importance and significance of infant life ...

  13. Changes in globus pallidus with (pre)term kernicterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Govaert (Paul); R.M.C. Swarte (Renate); S.G.F. Robben (Simon); I.F.M. de Coo (René); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); M. Sinaasappel (Maarten); J. Barkovich (James); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); M.H. Lequin (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: We report serial magnetic resonance (MR) and sonographic behavior of globus pallidus in 5 preterm and 3 term infants with kernicterus and describe the clinical context in very low birth weight preterm infants. On the basis of this information, we suggest

  14. D-π-A-A-π-D prototype 2,2'-bipyridine dyads exhibiting large structure and environment-sensitive fluorescence: synthesis, photophysics, and computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Monima; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Ghanta, Susanta; Das, Samar K

    2012-01-06

    A series of 4,4'-π-conjugated-2,2'-bipyridine chromophores (MS 1-8) were synthesized, and their photophysical and thermal properties were investigated. The title "push-pull' chromophores", except MS 1, were integrated with both alkoxy and alkylamino donor functionalities that differ in their donation capabilities. The oligophenylenevinylene (OPV) chromophores MS 4-8 are associated with a π-extended backbone in which the position and the number of alkoxy donors were systematically varied. All of the studied systems possess a D-π-A-A-π-D dyad archetype in which the A-A is the central 2,2'-bipyridine acceptor core that is electronically attached with the donor termini through π-linkers. The fluorescence quantum yields of the synthesized chromophores are found to be sensitive to the molecular archetype and the solvent medium. Out of the eight fluorescent compounds reported in this article, the compound MS 5 exhibits fluorescence in the solid state also. The modulating effect of the nature, position, and number of donor functionalities on the optical properties of these classes of compounds has further been comprehended on the basis of DFT and TD-DFT computation in a solvent reaction field.

  15. Adult patients with schizophrenia using violence towards their parents: a phenomenological study of views and experiences of violence in parent-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Chi; Tu, Chun-Hsien

    2014-02-01

    To describe the lived experiences of aggression and violence among patients with schizophrenia and their victimized biological parent as the major caregiver being aggressed by their child (parent-adult-child dyads), and to gain an understanding of the precipitating factors influencing violence. Child-to-parent violence, particularly in the mentally ill adult child, is arguably the most stressful and under-researched issue of family violence. Violence in patients with mental illness is most frequently targeted at family members, and most often takes place at home. Both patients and their parents' experiences of violence are relatively unexplored. Qualitative study design. Data were collected using individual in-depth interviews between August 2010-August 2011 in Taiwan. Purposive sample of 14 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia who had aggression and violence in the past year directed towards their biological parent of either gender. Five main themes were identified: violence occurring beyond control in a particular situation translated into parent and patient's possible endangerment, the repetitive nature of violence, distress, ineffective communication, and management of violence and help-seeking. Repetitive violent episodes and tension made both the parent and patient feel uncontrollable. Parents had a perceived fear of adverse consequences such as being punished by receiving more retribution and they also had concerns related to their parental responsibility. Health professionals should be aware of the complexity of phenomena and the interplay of factors inducing violence. A comprehensive dyadic parent-child intervention is suggested for violence prevention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother–Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebaya, Philip; Karakochuk, Crystal D.; March, Kaitlin M.; Chen, Nancy N.; Stamm, Rosemary A.; Kroeun, Hou; Sophonneary, Prak; Borath, Mam; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Barr, Susan I.; Lamers, Yvonne; Houghton, Lisa A.; Allen, Lindsay H.; Green, Tim J.; Whitfield, Kyly C.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother–infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum) and in Cambodia (assessed between 3–27 weeks post-partum). Canadian mothers (n = 124) consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69) were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI) in pmol/L) were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747), 452 (400, 504), and 506 (459, 552); in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687), 317 (256, 378), and 357 (312, 402). The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L): 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p < 0.05); only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001). PMID:28287490

  17. Psychosocial resiliency is associated with lower emotional distress among dyads of patients and their informal caregivers in the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Riklin, Eric; Jacobs, Jamie M; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of patients' and their informal caregivers' psychosocial resiliency factors with their own and their partners' emotion domains (distress, anxiety, depression, and anger) after admission to the neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro-ICU). Eighty-three dyads of patients (total n = 87) and their informal caregivers (total n = 99) participated in this observational, cross-sectional study by self-reporting demographics and measures of resiliency factors (mindfulness [Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised], coping [Measure of Coping Status-A], intimate bond [Intimate Bond Measure], self-efficacy [patients: General Self-Efficacy Scale; caregivers: Revised Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale]) and emotion domains (Emotion Thermometers) within 2 weeks of Neuro-ICU admission. There were no differences between patients' and caregivers' levels of psychosocial resiliency, distress, or anxiety. Patients reported greater depression and anger relative to their caregivers. Overall, roughly half of patients (50.6%) and caregivers (42.4%) reported clinically significant emotional distress. Patients' and caregivers' own psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with their own, but not their partner's, emotion domains. Findings of high distress among both patients and caregivers at admission emphasize the importance of attending to the mental health of both patients and caregivers in the Neuro-ICU. As modifiable psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with emotion domains for both patients and caregivers, interventions to enhance these factors may ameliorate emotional distress among these vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother–Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chebaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother–infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum and in Cambodia (assessed between 3–27 weeks post-partum. Canadian mothers (n = 124 consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69 were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI in pmol/L were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747, 452 (400, 504, and 506 (459, 552; in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687, 317 (256, 378, and 357 (312, 402. The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L: 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p < 0.05; only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001.

  19. RFC-1 80G>A polymorphism in case-mother/control-mother dyads is associated with risk of nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Rafaela; Vasconcelos, Gisele M; Vargas, Fernando R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    Embryonic tumors are associated with an interruption during normal organ development; they may be related to disturbances in the folate pathway involved in DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Prenatal supplementation with folic acid is associated with a decreased risk of neuroblastoma, brain tumors, retinoblastoma, and nephroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T) and RFC-1 rs1051266 (G80A) genotypes with the risk of developing nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Case-mother/control-mother dyad study. Samples from Brazilian children with nephroblastoma (n=80), neuroblastoma (n=66), healthy controls (n=453), and their mothers (case n=93; control n=75) were analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and/or buccal cells and genotyped to identify MTHFR C677T and RFC-1 G80A polymorphisms. Differences in genotype distribution between patients and controls were tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk for nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma was two- to fourfold increased among children with RFC-1 polymorphisms. An increased four- to eightfold risk for neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma was seen when the child and maternal genotypes were combined. Our results suggest that mother and child RFC-1 G80A genotypes play a role on the risk of neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma since this polymorphism may impair the intracellular levels of folate, through carrying fewer folate molecules to the cell interior, and thus, the intracellular concentration is not enough to maintain regular DNA synthesis and methylation pathways.

  20. A research experience for American Indian undergraduates: Utilizing an actor-partner interdependence model to examine the student-mentor dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R; McMahon, Tracey R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2017-03-01

    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes following these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research experience for American Indian undergraduates utilizing a series of actor-partner interdependence models within SEM. Participants included 26 undergraduate interns (50% American Indian; 50% American Indian and White; M age = 24) and 27 mentors (89% White; M age = 47). Findings indicated that in accounting for all potential paths between students and mentors, the partner path between mentor beliefs at the beginning of the program and students' skills related to autonomy (β =.59, p = .01) and academic resilience (β =.44, p = .03) at the end of the program were significant. These findings suggest the important impact of mentor beliefs on student outcomes, a relationship that should be adequately assessed and continue to be important focus of undergraduate research experiences. Findings further indicate the important role of mentors for American Indian undergraduates.

  1. Application of Dyadic Data Analysis in Pediatric Psychology: Cystic Fibrosis Health-Related Quality of Life and Anxiety in Child–Caregiver Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Christopher; McGinnity, Kelly; Modi, Avani C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the use of the actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) of dyadic relationships in a sample of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and their caregivers. Methods Multilevel modeling evaluated relations between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and anxiety in 29 child–caregiver dyads. The following effects were evaluated: actor and partner, and the respondent (i.e., child or caregiver) × HRQOL interaction. Results This study demonstrated a practical application of the APIM. Significant actor effects were found (i.e., lower child HRQOL was associated with increased child anxiety, caregiver anxiety increased as caregiver perceptions of their child's HRQOL decreased), but not partner effects. The significant interaction indicated that the effects were different for children and caregivers. Conclusions The APIM has the potential to increase pediatric researchers’ understanding of how social relationships and environments impact health outcomes. Future research should consider using dyadic data analysis when youth and caregiver data are available. PMID:22523403

  2. Ru-Os dyads based on a mixed bipyridine-terpyridine bridging ligand: modulation of the rate of energy transfer and pH-induced luminescence switching in the infrared domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Manoranjan; Maity, Dinesh; Deb, Sourav; Das, Shyamal; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2017-10-03

    A series of heterobimetallic complexes of compositions [(bpy/phen) 2 Ru(dipy-Hbzim-tpy)Os (tpy-PhCH 3 /H 2 pbbzim)] 4+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, tpy-PhCH 3 = 4'-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and H 2 pbbzim = 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)pyridine)), derived from a heteroditopic bpy-tpy bridging ligand, were synthesized and thoroughly characterized in this work. The heterometallic complexes exhibit two successive one-electron reversible metal-centered oxidations corresponding to Os II /Os III at lower potential and Ru II /Ru III at higher potential. All the four dyads exhibit very intense, ligand centered absorption bands in the UV region and moderately intense MLCT bands in the visible region. The dyads also show intense infrared emission with the emission maximum spanning between 734 nm and 775 nm with reasonably long room temperature lifetimes varying between 30 ns and 104 ns. Both steady state and time resolved luminescence spectroscopic investigations indicate that efficient and fast intramolecular energy transfer from the 3 MLCT state of the Ru(ii) center to the Os-center takes place in all the four dyads. In addition, the rate of energy transfer was found to depend on the terminal ligand on the Os-site. Due to the presence of a number of imidazole NH protons in the dyads, significant modulation of both the ground and excited state properties of the complexes was made possible by varying the pH of the solution. By varying the terminal ligand, pH-induced "on-off", "off-off-on" and "on-off-on" emission switching of the complexes was nicely demonstrated in the infrared region.

  3. Combined two-photon excitation and d → f energy-transfer in Ir/lanthanide dyads with time-gated selection from a two-component emission spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edkins, Robert M; Sykes, Daniel; Beeby, Andrew; Ward, Michael D

    2012-10-14

    In a pair of Ir/Eu and Ir/Tb dyads, two-photon excitation of the Ir-phenylpyridine chromophore at 780 nm is followed by partial d → f energy-transfer to give a combination of short-lived Ir-based (blue) and long-lived lanthanide-based (red or green) emission; these components can be selected separately by time-gated detection.

  4. Sucção não nutritiva em bebês prematuros: estudo bibliográfico Succión no-nutritiva en bebes prematuros: un estudio bibliográfico Non-nutritive sucking in pre-term infants: a bibliographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise Conceição Caetano

    2003-03-01

    programas de estimulación se evidenció la alta hospitalaria precoz y mayor ganancia de peso. Hay escasa literatura sobre el asunto, principalmente nacional, y los artículos no trataron de la descripción detallada de la transición de la alimentación gástrica hacia la oral, dejando una laguna que merece estudios posteriores.This is a bibliographic study on non-nutritive sucking in pre-term infants. Objectives: to characterize and analyze the scientific production on non-nutritive sucking in pre-term infants and identify how the transition from gastric to oral feeding takes place as well as how it begins and develops by considering the stimulation of non-nutritive sucking. Methodology: review of secondary sources (MEDLINE and LILACS. Results: pre-term infants presented a stable clinical condition, without cardio-respiratory, neurological or gastro-intestinal alterations. Gestational age varied from 30 to 35 weeks and the weight from 1,400 to 1,800 g. The stimulus for non-nutritive sucking used was a pacifier or bottle nipple. The time and frequency of stimulus application varied. As a result of the stimulation programs, there were early hospital discharges and greater weight gain. Literature on this subject, particularly that of national authorship, is scarce and the articles do not address a detailed description of the transition from gastric to oral feeding, thus leaving a gap that deserves to be further studied.

  5. Brain-Mind Dyad, Human Experience, the Consciousness Tetrad and Lattice of Mental Operations: And Further, The Need to Integrate Knowledge from Diverse Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other’s basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other’s work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Animal Abuse in an Immigrant-Rich Sample of Mother-Child Dyads Recruited From Domestic Violence Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie A; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Ascione, Frank R

    2018-03-01

    We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners ( n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.

  7. Relational uncertainty in service dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Relational uncertainty determines how relationships develop because it enables the building of trust and commitment. However, relational uncertainty has not been explored in an inter-organisational setting. This paper investigates how organisations experience relational uncertainty in se...

  8. Trajectories of parenting behavior and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying elder abuse & neglect among family caregiving dyads: A cross sectional study of psychometric properties of the QualCare scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Ridenour, Kimberly; Salaysay, Zachary; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Pierce, Steven J

    2017-04-01

    Universal screening for elder abuse and neglect is a current controversy in geriatrics, fueled by the lack of evidence on valid and reliable instruments. Since each U.S. State and many other countries have their own legal definitions of what constitutes elder abuse and neglect, this further complicates instrument development and clinical assessment. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the sensitivity and specificity of the QualCare Scale, an instrument with utility in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older adults receiving care at home. Data used in this analysis were collected during a training program in which trainees completed assessments (N=80) of standardized case scenarios of caregiving dyads. Trainees completed the QualCare Scale during each assessment. This training program, including the assessments of the standardized case scenarios, was completed using a custom designed virtual-reality platform. Trainees were able to interact with the environment, older adult and caregiver within the case scenario. Thirty-six nurses and social workers from two Michigan Medicaid Waiver Sites participated in the training program. Each participant assessed between one and five scenarios, yielding the sample of 80 assessments used in this analysis. The research team designed each standardized case scenario to reflect whether or not the QualCare Scale subscale score should indicate reportable elder abuse and neglect per the State statute. Accordingly, the research team's QualCare Scale scores for each scenario were used as the gold standard criterion of clinical significance for comparison against the participant's assessment scores. Sensitivity and specificity for each of the six QualCare subscales was determined. Overall, the subscales had high sensitivity (≥0.811) but a wide range for specificity (0.167-1.000). The QualCare Scale can be an effective tool in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older

  10. A triphenylamine-based push-pull – σ – C60 dyad as photoactive molecular material for single-component organic solar cells: synthesis, characterizations and photophysical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Labrunie, Antoine

    2018-04-23

    A push-pull – σ – C60 molecular dyad was synthesized via Huisgen-type click-chemistry and used as photoactive material for single-component organic solar cells. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) experiments of the dyad in solution show a significant quenching of the emission of the push-pull moiety. Spin-casting of a solution of the dyad results in homogenous and smooth thin-films, which exhibit complete PL quenching in line with ultrafast photo-induced electron-transfer in the solid-state. Spectro-electrochemistry reveals the optical signatures of radical cations and radical anions. Evaluation of the charge carrier mobility by space-charge limited current measurements gives an electron-mobility of μe = 4.3 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1, ca. 50 times higher than the hole-mobility. Single-component organic solar cells yield an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.73 V and a short-circuit current density of 2.1 mA cm-2 however, a poor fill-factor FF (29%) is obtained, resulting in low power conversion efficiency of only 0.4%. Combined TA and time-delayed collection field (TDCF) experiments show mostly ultrafast photon-to-charge conversion and a small component of diffusion-limited exciton dissociation, revealing the presence of pure fullerene domains. Furthermore, a strong field dependence of charge generation is observed, governing the device fill factor, which is further reduced by a competition between extraction and fast recombination of separated charges.

  11. Respostas fisiológicas de recém-nascidos pré-termo submetidos ao Metódo Mãe-Canguru e a posição prona Physical responses of pre-term newborn babies submitted to the Kangaroo-Mother Care Method in Prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Dantas Olmedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O Ministério da Saúde recomenda e incentiva a Atenção Humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo peso utilizando-se o Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC nas unidades integrantes do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar as respostas fisiológicas entre o MMC e a posição prona (PP, em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT. Foi feito um estudo de intervenção, realizado entre setembro e outubro de 2009, composto por 20 RNPT, de ambos os sexos, com idade gestacional entre 24 a 36 semanas, estáveis hemodinamicamente, sendo classificados como grupo I (MMC e grupo II (PP. Foram consideradas as variáveis: frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (FR, saturação periférica de oxigênio (SatO2 e temperatura corporal (T. As mensurações foram realizadas por três dias consecutivos, antes e 60 min após a aplicação das técnicas. No grupo PP, a FR aferida antes foi significativamente maior do que a aferida após a intervenção, nos 1º e 3º dias (pThe Ministry of Health recommends and looks forward to the Humanized Attention of low weight newborn babies using the Kangaroo-Mother Care Method (MCM in Unified Health System units. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the physiological responses between the MMC and the Prone Position (PP in pre-term newborn babies (PNB. Intervention study, realized between September and October of 2009, was performed. It was formed by 20 PNB, both sexes, with gestational ages between 24 to 36 weeks, hemodynamic stable, classified as group I (MCM and group II (PP. The following variables were considered: heart frequency (HF, breathing frequency (BF, periphery saturation of oxygen (SatO2, and body temperature (T. All measurements were realized for three consecutive days, before and 60 min after applying the procedures. On the PP group, the HF checked before was meaningfully higher than the one checked after the procedure, on the first and third days (p<0.0001; p<0

  12. Concentration of eight trace minerals in milk and sera of mother-infant pairs in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, S N; Onwuanaku, C; Okonji, M; VanderJagt, D J; Millson, M; Churchwell, C; Glew, R H

    2000-06-01

    Breastmilk from 15 healthy lactating women (21-31 years of age) from the hot, semi-arid sahel of Africa were analysed for copper, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Relative to published data from other populations worldwide, the milk of the Jos women appeared to contain adequate levels of magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and iron, but relatively low concentrations of zinc (1.07 micrograms/ml) and copper (170 micrograms/l). The sera of the exclusively breastfed infants nursed by these mothers contained levels of all these minerals that are within the international reference range of values. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the level of a particular mineral in the mothers' milk and the sera of their nursing infants.

  13. Midwives' experiences with mother-infant skin-to-skin contact after a caesarean section: 'fighting an uphill battle'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwedberg, Sofia; Blomquist, Josefin; Sigerstad, Emelie

    2015-01-01

    to explore midwives' experiences and perceptions of skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their healthy full-term infants immediately and during the first day after caesarean section. qualitative interviews with semi-structured questions. eight midwives at three different hospitals in Stockholm participated in the study. All participants provided care for mothers and their newborn infants after caesarean birth. transcribed material was analysed and interpreted using qualitative content analysis. The analysis yielded the theme 'fighting an uphill battle'. skin-to-skin contact was considered to be important, and something that midwives strove to implement as a natural element of postnatal care. However, in daily practice, midwives experienced many obstacles to such care, such as lack of knowledge among parents and other professionals about the benefits of skin-to-skin contact, the mother's condition after the caesarean section, and other organisational difficulties (e.g. collaboration with other professionals, lack of time). Introducing more skin-to-skin care was a challenge for the midwives, who sometimes felt both dismissed and disappointed when they tried to communicate the benefits of this type of care. skin-to-skin contact is not prioritised because many health care practitioners are unaware of its positive effects, and their care reflects this lack of knowledge. There is a need for education among all health care practitioners involved in caesarean procedures. Another difficulty is that many parents are unaware of the benefits of skin-to-skin contact. Maternity outpatient clinics need to inform parents about the benefits of such care, so mothers will understand the importance of skin-to-skin contact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The importance of shared environment in mother-infant attachment security: A behavioral genetic study [IF: 3.272

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, C.L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Fearon, R.M.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Fonagy, P.; Schuengel, C.

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 157 monozygotic and dizygotic twins, genetic and environmental influences on infant attachment and temperament were quantified. Only unique environmental or error components could explain the variance in disorganized versus organized attachment as assessed in the Ainsworth Strange

  15. Associations between singing to babies and symptoms of postnatal depression, wellbeing, self-esteem and mother-infant bond

    OpenAIRE

    Fancourt, D.; Perkins, R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is growing research documenting the psychological benefits of singing. However, it remains unknown whether singing to new babies is associated with enhanced maternal mental health. This study had two aims: (i) to explore whether these associations exist, and (ii) to compare the effects of singing to babies with listening to music in order to explore whether the sound of music alone or the physical act of singing might be responsible for effects.\\ud Methods: Multiple linear...

  16. The Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Mother-Infant Interaction and Infant Arousal in the Newborn Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, Sheryl Ridener; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the interactive behavior of 20 cocaine-using mothers and their neonates with a control group of drug-free mothers and newborns. Cocaine-exposed infants were asleep or distressed for significantly longer periods, and cocaine-using mothers spent significantly more time disengaged from, and passively looking at, infants than did…

  17. Content validation: clarity/relevance, reliability and internal consistency of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2017-08-10

    To analyze the results of the validation of building enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. The signs were built based on mechanisms of language acquisition in an enunciative perspective and on clinical experience with language disorders. The signs were submitted to judgment of clarity and relevance by a sample of six experts, doctors in linguistic in with knowledge of psycholinguistics and language clinic. In the validation of reliability, two judges/evaluators helped to implement the instruments in videos of 20% of the total sample of mother-infant dyads using the inter-evaluator method. The method known as internal consistency was applied to the total sample, which consisted of 94 mother-infant dyads to the contents of the Phase 1 (3-6 months) and 61 mother-infant dyads to the contents of Phase 2 (7 to 12 months). The data were collected through the analysis of mother-infant interaction based on filming of dyads and application of the parameters to be validated according to the child's age. Data were organized in a spreadsheet and then converted to computer applications for statistical analysis. The judgments of clarity/relevance indicated no modifications to be made in the instruments. The reliability test showed an almost perfect agreement between judges (0.8 ≤ Kappa ≥ 1.0); only the item 2 of Phase 1 showed substantial agreement (0.6 ≤ Kappa ≥ 0.79). The internal consistency for Phase 1 had alpha = 0.84, and Phase 2, alpha = 0.74. This demonstrates the reliability of the instruments. The results suggest adequacy as to content validity of the instruments created for both age groups, demonstrating the relevance of the content of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in the early postnatal period in Sydney, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbo, Felix A.; Eastwood, John; Page, Andrew; Arora, Amit; McKenzie, Anne; Jalaludin, Bin; Tennant, Elaine; Miller, Erin; Kohlhoff, Jane; Noble, Justine; Chaves, Karina; Jones, Jennifer M.; Smoleniec, John; Chay, Paul; Smith, Bronwyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Optimal breastfeeding has benefits for the mother-infant dyads. This study investigated the prevalence and determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the early postnatal period in a culturally and linguistically diverse population in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Methods The study used routinely collected perinatal data on all live births in 2014 (N?=?17,564) in public health facilities in two Local Health Districts in Sydney, Australia. The prevalence of m...

  19. Breastfeeding Performance Index at Age of 6 Months in Mansoura, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Karima Badawy

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are many indicators for breastfeeding assessment. The breastfeeding performance index (BPI) as a composite index to describe overall breastfeeding performance among infants under six months of age. Objectives: To describe the breastfeeding practice using BPI and to identify factors associated with low breastfeeding performance. Methods: A total of 528 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features, obstetric history, and the seven co...

  20. Contenus et répartition des échanges entre élèves de première année du primaire au cours de tâches d’écriture réalisées en dyade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lavoie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to compare student dyads engaged in writing tasks in terms of how the content of the exchanges and the number of interactions varied in relation to the type of grouping and the point in the school year in which the tasks were carried out. To this end, thirty dyads composed of Grade 1 elementary students with good and poor writing skill levels were observed on three occasions. The videotaped exchanges were analyzed using a grid. Results show that that there was no significant relation between the type of grouping in terms of gender and the number of interactions or the content of the exchanges. However, the subjects’ writing skill level was significantly related to the number of interactions produced by dyads and the content of their exchanges as well as the number of interactions as a function of the point in the school year.

  1. An innovative model for achieving breast-feeding success in infants with complex surgical anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taryn M; Spatz, Diane L

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes an innovative nurse-driven continuous quality improvement project. Infants born with congenital surgical anomalies face significant challenges within the newborn period and human milk/breast-feeding may not be viewed as a priority. In many hospitals, nurses refer families to lactation consultants for all breast-feeding assistance and support. The Transition to Breast Pathway was developed on the basis of the evidence-based standards and protocols at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The pathway consists of (1) initiation of pumping and maintenance of milk supply, (2) mouth care with human milk, (3) skin-to-skin care, (4) nonnutritive sucking at the breast, (5) transitioning to at breast feeds. A sample of 80 infants were enrolled in this project. Major results of the project are as follows: (1) mother's average milk supply was approximately 603 mL/d, (2) 71% (57/80) of the infants received mouth care with human milk, (3) 48% (38/80) mother/infant dyads performed skin-to-skin care, (4) 60% (35/58) of mother/infant dyads performed nonnutritive sucking at the breast, (5) 100% (58/58) of mother-infant dyads transitioned to breast prior to discharge. This continuous quality improvement project demonstrates that nurses can and should lead the process of transitioning infants to at breast feeds.

  2. Sensitisation of Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-based luminescence by Ir(III) units in Ir/lanthanide dyads: evidence for parallel energy-transfer and electron-transfer based mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Daniel; Cankut, Ahmet J; Ali, Noorshida Mohd; Stephenson, Andrew; Spall, Steven J P; Parker, Simon C; Weinstein, Julia A; Ward, Michael D

    2014-05-07

    A series of blue-luminescent Ir(III) complexes with a pendant binding site for lanthanide(III) ions has been synthesized and used to prepare Ir(III)/Ln(III) dyads (Ln = Eu, Tb, Gd). Photophysical studies were used to establish mechanisms of Ir→Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer. In the Ir/Gd dyads, where direct Ir→Gd energy-transfer is not possible, significant quenching of Ir-based luminescence nonetheless occurred; this can be ascribed to photoinduced electron-transfer from the photo-excited Ir unit (*Ir, (3)MLCT/(3)LC excited state) to the pendant pyrazolyl-pyridine site which becomes a good electron-acceptor when coordinated to an electropositive Gd(III) centre. This electron transfer quenches the Ir-based luminescence, leading to formation of a charge-separated {Ir(4+)}˙-(pyrazolyl-pyridine)˙(-) state, which is short-lived possibly due to fast back electron-transfer (transfer pathway is again operative and leads to sensitisation of Eu-based and Tb-based emission using the energy liberated from the back electron-transfer process. In addition direct Dexter-type Ir→Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer occurs on a similar timescale, meaning that there are two parallel mechanisms by which excitation energy can be transferred from *Ir to the Eu/Tb centre. Time-resolved luminescence measurements on the sensitised Eu-based emission showed both fast and slow rise-time components, associated with the PET-based and Dexter-based energy-transfer mechanisms respectively. In the Ir/Tb dyads, the Ir→Tb energy-transfer is only just thermodynamically favourable, leading to rapid Tb→Ir thermally-activated back energy-transfer and non-radiative deactivation to an extent that depends on the precise energy gap between the *Ir and Tb-based (5)D4 states. Thus, the sensitised Tb(iii)-based emission is weak and unusually short-lived due to back energy transfer, but nonetheless represents rare examples of Tb(III) sensitisation by a energy donor that could be excited using visible

  3. Distribution of HLA-G extended haplotypes and one HLA-E polymorphism in a large-scale study of mother-child dyads with and without severe preeclampsia and eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, L. L.; Djurisic, S; Andersen, A.-M. N.

    2016-01-01

    The etiological pathways and pathogenesis of preeclampsia have rendered difficult to disentangle. Accumulating evidence points toward a maladapted maternal immune system, which may involve aberrant placental expression of immunomodulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecules during...... pregnancy. Several studies have shown aberrant or reduced expression of HLA-G in the placenta and in maternal blood in cases of preeclampsia compared with controls. Unlike classical HLA class Ia loci, the nonclassical HLA-G has limited polymorphic variants. Most nucleotide variations are clustered in the 5...... comprehensive performed, investigated the association between the HLA-G 14-bp ins/del (rs66554220) and HLA-E polymorphisms in mother and newborn dyads from pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia/eclampsia and from uncomplicated pregnancies. Furthermore, results from extended HLA-G haplotyping...

  4. Fe(II)-Catalyzed Isomerization of 5-Chloroisoxazoles to 2 H-Azirine-2-carbonyl Chlorides as a Key Stage in the Synthesis of Pyrazole-Nitrogen Heterocycle Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Kirill I; Galenko, Ekaterina E; Galenko, Alexey V; Novikov, Mikhail S; Ivanov, Alexander Yu; Starova, Galina L; Khlebnikov, Alexander F

    2018-03-16

    2-(1 H-Pyrazol-1-ylcarbonyl)-2 H-azirines were synthesized by in situ trapping of 2 H-azirine-2-carbonyl chlorides, generated by Fe(II)-catalyzed isomerization of 5-chloroisoxazoles, with pyrazoles. According to DFT calculations, the selectivity of nucleophilic substitution at the carbonyl group of 2 H-azirine-2-carbonyl chloride by a pyrazole nucleophile, which is a mixture of two tautomers, is controlled by thermodynamic factors. 2-(1 H-Pyrazol-1-ylcarbonyl)-2 H-azirines are excellent precursors for the preparation of two other pyrazole-nitrogen heterocycle dyads: 5-(1 H-pyrazol-1-yl)oxazoles by photolysis and 1-(1 H-pyrrol-2-ylcarbonyl)-1 H-pyrazoles by a Ni(II)-catalyzed reaction with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. 5-(1 H-Pyrazol-1-yl)oxazoles show strong emission in acetonitrile at 360-410 nm with high quantum yields.

  5. Candidate gene analysis of spontaneous preterm delivery: New insights from re-analysis of a case-control study using case-parent triads and control-mother dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myking Solveig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD has a multifactorial etiology with evidence of a genetic contribution to its pathogenesis. A number of candidate gene case-control studies have been performed on spontaneous PTD, but the results have been inconsistent, and do not fully assess the role of how two genotypes can impact outcome. To elucidate this latter point we re-analyzed data from a previously published case-control candidate gene study, using a case-parent triad design and a hybrid design combining case-parent triads and control-mother dyads. These methods offer a robust approach to genetic association studies for PTD compared to traditional case-control designs. Methods The study participants were obtained from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A total of 196 case triads and 211 control dyads were selected for the analysis. A case-parent triad design as well as a hybrid design was used to analyze 1,326 SNPs from 159 candidate genes. We compared our results to those from a previous case-control study on the same samples. Haplotypes were analyzed using a sliding window of three SNPs and a pathway analysis was performed to gain biological insight into the pathophysiology of preterm delivery. Results The most consistent significant fetal gene across all analyses was COL5A2. The functionally similar COL5A1 was significant when combining fetal and maternal genotypes. PON1 was significant with analytical approaches for single locus association of fetal genes alone, but was possibly confounded by maternal effects. Focal adhesion (hsa04510, Cell Communication (hsa01430 and ECM receptor interaction (hsa04512 were the most constant significant pathways. Conclusion This study suggests a fetal association of COL5A2 and a combined fetal-maternal association of COL5A1 with spontaneous PTD. In addition, the pathway analysis implied interactions of genes affecting cell communication and extracellular matrix.

  6. Enunciative categories in the description of language functioning of mothers and infants aged 1-4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruel, Cristina Saling; Rechia, Inaê Costa; Oliveira, Luciéle Dias; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2016-01-01

    To present categories which explain the language functioning between infants and their mothers from Benveniste's concept of semiotic system, and verify whether such categories can be described numerically. Four mother-infant dyads were monitored in three stages. The first study consisted of a qualitative analysis of the transcribed video recordings conducted in each stage. We intended to identify the enunciative principles associated with the relationship between the semiotic system of the infant's body and their mother's language, namely, the principles of interpretancy and homology. The other study was conducted by means of a descriptive numerical analysis of the enunciative categories and the infant caregiver scale of behavior, using the ELAN software (EUDICO Linguistic Anotador). Mutuality in mother-infant interactions was observed in most of the scenes analyzed. Productive enunciative categories demonstrated in the infant's demand/mother's interpretation relation was identified in homology and interpretancy. It was also possible to use these categories to describe the mother-infant interactions numerically. In addition, other categories emerged because there are other subtypes of maternal productions not directly related to infant demand. This shows that infants are exposed to language of heterogeneous characteristics. The concept of semiotic system allowed the proposition of language functioning categories identifiable in the mother-infant relationship. Such categories were described numerically.

  7. Reflective functioning, maternal attachment, mind-mindedness, and emotional availability in adolescent and adult mothers at infant 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Canevini, Maria Paola

    2018-02-01

    The study evaluated reflective functioning (RF), maternal attachment, mind-mindedness, and emotional availability among 44 adolescent mother-infant dyads and 41 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant age 3 months, mother-infant interaction was coded with the mind-mindedness coding system and Emotional Availability Scales; mother attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) were more insecure and had lower RF; they were also less sensitive, more intrusive and hostile, and less structuring of their infant's activity; they used fewer attuned mind-related comments and fewer mind-related comments appropriate to infant development. In adult mothers, the Mother Idealizing and Lack of Memory AAI scales were correlated to non-attuned mind-related comments and the Father Anger scale to negative mind-related comments. In adult mothers, RF was associated with sensitivity. This was not the case with adolescent mothers. In both groups of mothers, there were no associations between sensitivity and mind-mindedness.

  8. Distribution of HLA-G extended haplotypes and one HLA-E polymorphism in a large-scale study of mother-child dyads with and without severe preeclampsia and eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, L L; Djurisic, S; Andersen, A-M N; Melbye, M; Bjerre, D; Ferrero-Miliani, L; Hackmon, R; Geraghty, D E; Hviid, T V F

    2016-10-01

    The etiological pathways and pathogenesis of preeclampsia have rendered difficult to disentangle. Accumulating evidence points toward a maladapted maternal immune system, which may involve aberrant placental expression of immunomodulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecules during pregnancy. Several studies have shown aberrant or reduced expression of HLA-G in the placenta and in maternal blood in cases of preeclampsia compared with controls. Unlike classical HLA class Ia loci, the nonclassical HLA-G has limited polymorphic variants. Most nucleotide variations are clustered in the 5'-upstream regulatory region (5'URR) and 3'-untranslated regulatory region (3'UTR) of HLA-G and reflect a stringent expressional control. Based on genotyping and full gene sequencing of HLA-G in a large number of cases and controls (n > 900), the present study, which to our knowledge is the largest and most comprehensive performed, investigated the association between the HLA-G 14-bp ins/del (rs66554220) and HLA-E polymorphisms in mother and newborn dyads from pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia/eclampsia and from uncomplicated pregnancies. Furthermore, results from extended HLA-G haplotyping in the newborns are presented in order to assess whether a combined contribution of nucleotide variations spanning the 5'URR, coding region, and 3'UTR of HLA-G describes the genetic association with severe preeclampsia more closely. In contrast to earlier findings, the HLA-G 14-bp ins/del polymorphism was not associated with severe preeclampsia. Furthermore, the polymorphism (rs1264457) defining the two nonsynonymous HLA-E alleles, HLA-E*01:01:xx:xx and HLA-E*01:03:xx:xx, were not associated with severe preeclampsia. Finally, no specific HLA-G haplotypes were significantly associated with increased risk of developing severe preeclampsia/eclampsia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Poor-prognosis disclosure preference in cancer patient-caregiver dyads and its association with their quality of life and perceived stress: a cross-sectional survey in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xin; Ye, Dawei; Wang, Qiming; Manyande, Anne; Yang, Lin; Qiu, Hong; Chao, Tengfei; Zhang, Peng; Gong, Chen; Zhuang, Liang; Yu, Shiying; Xiong, Huihua

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to examine the discordance between family caregivers and cancer patients in their poor-prognosis disclosure preferences in mainland China and then ascertained the associations between quality of life (QoL), perceived stress, and poor-prognosis disclosure preferences. Six hundred fifty-one pairs of inpatients and their matched caregivers (participation rate = 92.2%) were recruited in this cross-sectional survey. A set of paired self-administered questionnaires were completed independently by patient-caregiver dyads. Fewer family caregivers than cancer patients felt that poor prognosis should be disclosed to patients (61.2% vs. 90.0%, p perceived stress levels (p = 0.013). However, caregivers' poor-prognosis disclosure preference correlated only with their own physical state (p = 0.028). Moreover, the caregivers who concurred with patients in positive poor-prognosis disclosure preference were more likely to experience a better QoL (p perceived stress levels (p = 0.048) in the III-IV stage subgroup. There was a significant discrepancy in poor-prognosis disclosure preference between cancer patients and caregivers in China. The caregivers' preference of concealing poor prognosis from patients was not related to cancer patients' QoL or perceived stress. In addition, caregivers had better QoL and lower stress levels when they held the same positive poor-prognosis disclosure preference as the patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Efficient Photoinduced Energy and Electron Transfer in ZnII-Porphyrin/Fullerene Dyads with Interchromophoric Distances up to 2.6 nm and No Wire-like Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, John; Barbieri, Andrea; Armaroli, Nicola; Vizuete, María; Langa, Fernando; Delavaux-Nicot, Béatrice; Vartanian, Maida; Iehl, Julien; Hahn, Uwe; Nierengarten, Jean-François

    2017-10-12

    The dyads 1-3 made of an alkynylated Zn II -porphyrin and a bis-methanofullerene derivative connected through a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition have been synthesized. The porphyrin and fullerene chromophores are separated through a bridge made of a bismethanofullerene tether linked to different spacers conjugated to the porphyrin moiety [i.e., m-phenylene (1), p-phenylene (2), di-p-phenylene-ethynylene (3)]. Compounds 1-3 exhibit relatively rigid structures with an interchromophoric separation of 1.7, 2.0, and 2.6 nm, respectively, and no face-to-face or direct through-bond conjugation. The photophysical properties of compounds 1-3 have been investigated in toluene and benzonitrile with steady-state and time-resolved techniques as well as model calculations on the Förster energy transfer. Excited-state interchromophoric electronic interactions are observed with a distinct solvent and distance dependence. The latter effect is evidenced in benzonitrile, where compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a photoinduced electron transfer in the Marcus-inverted region, with charge-separated (CS) states living for 0.44 and 0.59 μs, respectively, whereas compound 3 only undergoes energy transfer, as in apolar toluene. The quantum yield of the charge separation (φ CS ) of compounds 1 and 2 in benzonitrile is ≥0.75. It is therefore demonstrated that photoinduced energy and electron transfers in porphyrin-fullerene systems with long interchromophoric distances may efficiently occur also when the bridge does not provide a wire-like conjugation and proceed through the triplet states of the chromophoric moieties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A qualitative study of the instructional behaviors and practices of a dyad of educators in self-contained and inclusive co-taught secondary biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Shanon D.

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) mandates that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. School districts have developed a variety of service delivery models to provide challenging educational experiences for all students. Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is the most widely used of the different service delivery models. While the philosophy of inclusion is widely accepted, the efficacy of the various inclusion models has recently been the focus of educational research. Researchers have questioned whether the presence of a special educator in the general education classroom has resulted in students with high incidence disabilities receiving specialized instruction. A qualitative study was designed to examine the instructional behaviors and practices exhibited and used by a dyad of educators in self-contained learning disabilities and inclusive co-taught secondary Biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period. In addition to utilizing interviews, observations, and classroom observation scales to answer the research questions, supporting student data (time-sampling measurement/opportunity to learn and student grades) were collected. The study concluded that the presence of a special educator in a co-taught classroom: (1) did contribute to the creation of a new learning environment, and notable changes in the instructional behaviors and practices of a general educator; (2) did contribute to limited specialized instruction for students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms and embedded (not overt) special education practices related to the planning and decision-making of the educators; (3) did contribute to the creation of a successful co-teaching partnership including the use of effective teaching behaviors; and (4) did impact success for some of the students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms; but (5) did not ensure the continuation of some of the new

  12. Níveis de ferro, cobre e zinco em colostro de puérperas adultas de recém-nascidos a termo e pré-termo, segundo variáveis maternas e socioeconômicas Levels of iron, copper and zinc in the colostrum of adult puerpera of term and pre-term infants, as a function of maternal and socioeconomic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli S. S. da Costa

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever os níveis de Fe, Cu e Zn em amostras de colostro de puérperas adultas brasileiras de recém-nascidos a termo (RNAT e pré-termo (RNPT e avaliar a influência das variáveis maternas (idade materna, estado nutricional pré-gestacional, paridade, intercorrências gestacionais, renda familiar per capita e condições de saneamento sobre os níveis desses oligoelementos, visando apontar as mulheres em risco de produzirem colostro com menores níveis destes minerais. MÉTODOS: coletaram-se 50 amostras de colostro de puérperas de RNAT e 38 de puérperas de RNPT, do Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Os oligoelementos foram analisados através da técnica de Fluorescência de Raios X por Reflexão Total com radiação Síncrotron. RESULTADOS: os níveis de Fe nos grupos RNPT e RNAT foram semelhantes (p > 0,05. As concentrações de Cu foram maiores no colostro de RNPT (p OBJECTIVES: to investigate the concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn in samples of colostrum from Brazilian adult women puerpera of term infants (TI and pre-term infants (PTI and to evaluate the influence of some maternal variables (age, pre-pregnancy nutritional status, parity, maternal health alterations during the gestational period, per capita familiar income and living conditions on the concentration of those elements, aiming to identify the women who were prone to produce colostrum with low levels of oligoelements. METHODS: 50 samples of colostrum from puerpera of TI and 38 from puerpera of PTI were collected from women interned at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. The levels of trace elements were determined by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF with Synchrotron Radiation. RESULTS: no differences were observed in the Fe levels between PTI and TI groups (p > 0,05. The Cu concentrations were higher in the PTI colostrum (p < 0,05 and those of Zn were higher in the TI colostrum (p < 0,05. We observed

  13. Porphyrin–anthraquinone dyads: Synthesis, spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    visible, IR, FAB-MS, 1H. NMR and ESR) and electrochemical ..... dressing this issue are currently in progress. Acknowledgement. Financial support for this work from the Board of. Research in Nuclear Sciences, Mumbai is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Triphenylamine corrole dyads: Synthesis, characterization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natural photosynthesis is one of the major pathways that render the solar energy conversion into in biolog- ... is to enquire about new artificial molecular systems mimicking the primary phenomena of natural photosyn- ... of the red light.21 The potentiality of stable corroles depends on their ability to display within the arrays.

  15. Porphyrin–anthraquinone dyads: Synthesis, spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and characterized by mass (FAB), IR, UV–visible, 1H NMR and ESR spectroscopic techniques and also by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric methods. Analysis of the data reveals that the spectral and electrochemical properties of the individual chromophoric entities are retained and that there is no specific π–.

  16. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning.

  17. Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolframm, I.A.; Bosga, J.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe

  18. Hydroquinone–pyrrole dyads with varied linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV–vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO–LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices.

  19. Porphyrin-anthraquinone dyads: Synthesis, spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 117; Issue 2 ... Analysis of the data reveals that the spectral and electrochemical properties of the individual chromophoric entities are retained and that there is no specific - interaction between the porphyrin and anthraquinone subunits. H2L2 and ZnL2 are shown ...

  20. Examining the Effects of Ambient Temperature on Pre-Term Birth in Central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Mathew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (born before 37 completed weeks of gestation is one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years of age. Several recent studies have examined the association between extreme temperature and preterm births, but there have been almost no such studies in arid Australia. In this paper, we explore the potential association between exposures to extreme temperatures during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy in a Central Australian town. An immediate effect of temperature exposure is observed with an increased relative risk of 1%–2% when the maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the summer season maximum temperature data. Delayed effects are also observed closer to 3 weeks before delivery when the relative risks tend to increase exponentially. Immediate risks to preterm birth are also observed for cold temperature exposures (0 to –6 °C, with an increased relative risk of up to 10%. In the future, Central Australia will face more hot days and less cold days due to climate change and hence the risks posed by extreme heat is of particular relevance to the community and health practitioners.

  1. [Neonatal septicemia: differences in full-term and pre-term newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Ramírez, J; Sánchez-Saucedo, L U

    1990-04-01

    Neonatal septicemia was assessed by blood cultures in 115 newborns (NB) during a two years study in a pediatric hospital of reference in Mexico City. The studied patients were divided in two groups of gestational age, and the differences of etiologic agents, clinical signs, laboratory findings and clinical outcome were compared at term and preterm neonates. We observed Staphylococcus epidermidis became the first cause of septicemia in at term NB (P less than 0.001), while Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (P less than 0.01) were more frequent in the preterm neonates. The clinical manifestations of fever (P less than 0.001), hepatomegaly (P less than 0.01), splenomegaly (P less than 0.05), and rejection to feeding (P less than 0.05) were more common in at term NB. On the other hand, apneas (P less than 0.01), hypothermia (P less than 0.02), and abdominal distension (P less than 0.05) were more frequent in the preterm NB. The altered white blood cell counts were more commonly observed in the preterm group, as leukopenia (P less than 0.05), neutropenia (P less than 0.01), and high I/T ratio (P less than 0.05). There were not significant differences in complications or sequels between the two groups; however, the mortality ratio was higher in the preterm NB group (P less than 0.02). Changing etiology of neonatal septicemia is discussed, and we propose these kind of data are very useful for purpose of detection, diagnostic and treatment of septic neonates.

  2. Pre-term Spontaneous Unscarred Uterine Rupture; A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sheybani

    2014-10-01

    Case:The case we intend to present is a multigravid woman (G3L2 in 28th week of gestation with an unscarred uterus. She had cardiac surgery six months earlier Atrial Septal Defect (ASD device closure with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI. She presented with severe dyspnea, diminished lung sounds in the right lower zone, chest pain at rest, and radiating pain to her right shoulder from 12 hours earlier. No FHR was detected by auscultation with Doppler. She had generalized abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness.

  3. The risks for pre-term delivery and low birth weight are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaemia was classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards: normal – Hb ≥11.0 g/dl; mild – Hb 9.0 - 10.9 g/dl; moderate – Hb 7.0 - 8.9 g/dl; and severe – Hb <7.0 g/dl. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the severity of anaemia. The following outcome measures were used: ...

  4. Risk factors associated with pre-term birth in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... p-value 0.004), cervical incompetence (AOR = 11.6; 95%CI 1.1-121.5; p-value 0.04), polyhydramnios (AOR = 8.3; 95%CI 1.7-40.2; p-value 0.008), and lack of antenatal visits (AOR = 5.1; 95%CI 1.4-17.8; p-value 0.042).Conclusion: This study has identified several risk factors for preterm birth in the city of Dar es Salaam.

  5. The risks for pre-term delivery and low birth weight are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on socio-demographic characteristics, iron supplementation, malaria prophylaxis, blood transfusion during current pregnancy, and current and previous pregnancy outcomes were collected and analysed. Anaemia was classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards: normal – Hb ≥11.0 g/dl; ...

  6. Risk factors for pre-term birth in Iraq: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbagh Samim A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTBis a major clinical problem associated with perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors associated with PTB in Mosul, Iraq. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Mosul, Iraq, from 1st September, 2003 to 28th February, 2004. Results A total of 200 cases of PTB and 200 controls of full-term births were screened and enrolled in the study. Forward logistic regression analysis was used in the analysis. Several significant risk associations between PTB and the following risk factors were identified: poor diet (OR = 4.33, heavy manual work (OR = 1.70, caring for domestic animals (OR = 5.06, urinary tract infection (OR = 2.85, anxiety (OR = 2.16, cervical incompetence (OR = 4.74, multiple pregnancies (OR = 7.51, direct trauma to abdomen (OR = 3.76 and abortion (OR = 6.36. Conclusion The main determinants of PTB in Iraq were low socio-economic status and factors associated with it, such as heavy manual work and caring for domestic animals, in addition to urinary tract infections and poor obstetric history.

  7. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. Methods A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Results Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6 and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9, but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8 than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p < 0.05 and after (β = 1.73; 95 % CI: 0.53, 2.94; p < 0.001 controlling for confounders, and an inverse relationship between consensual family type and child BMI after adjustment (β = −1.92; 95 % CI: −3.59, −0.24; p < 0.05. There was no significant relationship between parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Conclusion Children’s perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need

  8. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, S; Halliday, J; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2016-08-03

    Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6) and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9), but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8) than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p < 0.05) and after (β = 1.73; 95 % CI: 0.53, 2.94; p < 0.001) controlling for confounders, and an inverse relationship between consensual family type and child BMI after adjustment (β = -1.92; 95 % CI: -3.59, -0.24; p < 0.05). There was no significant relationship between parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Children's perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need to adopt an intergenerational approach to promote a clear

  9. A dynamic system analysis of dyadic flexibility and stability across the Face-to-Face Still-Face procedure: application of the State Space Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Borgatti, Renato; Menozzi, Giorgia; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-02-01

    The Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm allows to study the mother-infant dyad as a dynamic system coping with social stress perturbations. The State Space Grid (SSG) method is thought to depict both flexibility and stability of the dyad across perturbations, but previous SSG evidence for the FFSF is limited. The main aims were: (1) to investigate mother-infant dyadic flexibility and stability across the FFSF using the SSG; (2) to evaluate the influence of dyadic functioning during Play on infant Still-Face response and of infant stress response in affecting dyadic functioning during Reunion. Forty 4-month-old infants and their mothers were micro-analytically coded during a FFSF and eight SSG dyadic states were obtained. Dyadic flexibility and attractor states were assessed during Play and Reunion. Infants' stress response was coded as negative engagement during the Still-Face episode. Two dyadic states, "maternal hetero-regulation" and "affective mismatch", showed significant changes in the number of visits from Play to Reunion. During Play "maternal positive support to infant play" emerged as attractor state, whereas during Reunion a second attractor emerged, namely "affective mismatch". Dyadic affective mismatch during Play correlated with infants' negative engagement during Still-Face, whereas infants' response to Still-Face resulted in minor social matching during Reunion. Findings provide new insights into the flexible, yet stable, functioning of the mother-infant dyad as a dynamic system. Evidence of a reciprocal influence between dyadic functioning and infant social stress response are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adding some notes to the "Music of Containment". Discussion of paper: "The Music of Containment: Addressing the participants in mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggio, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    Thinking about the psychoanalytical process in parent-infant psychotherapy is the purpose of Björn Salomonsson's article. He proposes to consider that containment is the core of the treatment and that musicality is his main vehicle. His thought is linked with the research on primary intersubjectivity and is so exciting for all the parent-infant therapists. For myself, I emphasize the use of the psychoanalytical concept of affects rather than emotions, and I present my understanding of the transference phenomena with the part of the infantile sexuality of all the participants. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. The Effect of Cleft Lip and Palate, and the Timing of Lip Repair on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Hentges, Francoise; Hill, Jonathan; Karpf, Janne; Mistry, Beejal; Kreutz, Marianne; Woodall, Peter; Moss, Tony; Goodacre, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with cleft lip and palate are at risk for psychological problems. Difficulties in mother-child interactions may be relevant, and could be affected by the timing of lip repair. Method: We assessed cognitive development, behaviour problems, and attachment in 94 infants with cleft lip (with and without cleft palate) and 96…

  12. Blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Luz S; Porter, Brian O; McCoy, Virginia; Bango-Sanchez, Vivian; Kissel, Bonnie; Williams, Marjorie; Nunnewar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) improved maternal psychosocial health outcomes (parenting stress, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, maternal attachment) and maternal-infant interaction among substance-addicted mothers (SAMs) actively engaged in outpatient rehabilitation. Designed as a randomized, three-group controlled trial testing two levels of psychoeducational intervention (IMPEP vs. PEP) and a control group (standard care parenting resources), the study was conducted in two substance abuse centers in southeast Florida on a convenience sample of 138 recovering SAM-infant pairs. IMPEP or PEP classes were held weekly on Weeks 2-5, with data collected at baseline (Week 1), Week 6, and Week 12 via structured interviews, observation (Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction), and self-administered questionnaires (Abidin Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory), analyzed descriptively and inferentially using Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance and post hoc Wilcoxon rank sum and Mann-Whitney U tests. Both IMPEP and PEP groups had significantly increased Parenting Stress Index scores (decreased parenting stress) and decreased Beck Depression Inventory scores (decreased depressive symptoms) compared to controls at Week 12, whereas there were no clinically meaningful differences among study groups in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory, or Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction scores. Only the IMPEP group showed significant improvements in both psychological and physical (waist-hip ratio) measures of parenting stress over time. The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal-infant interaction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Promoting Mother-Infant Book Sharing and Infant Attention and Language Development in an Impoverished South African Population: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter J.; Vally, Zahir; Cooper, Hallam; Radford, Theo; Sharples, Arthur; Tomlinson, Mark; Murray, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The low rates of child literacy in South Africa are cause for considerable concern. Research from the developed world shows that parental sharing of picture books with infants and young children is beneficial for child language and cognitive development, as well as literacy skills. We conducted a pilot study to examine whether such benefits might…

  14. Bi-directional effects of depressed mood in the postnatal period on mother-infant non-verbal engagement with picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, Nadja; Burt, Mike

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the bi-directional nature of maternal depressed mood in the postnatal period on maternal and infant non-verbal behaviors while looking at a picture book. Although, it is acknowledged that non-verbal engagement with picture books in infancy plays an important role, the effect of maternal depressed mood on stimulating the interest of infants in books is not known. Sixty-one mothers and their infants, 38 boys and 23 girls, were observed twice approximately 3 months apart (first observation: mean age 6.8 months, range 3-11 months, 32 mothers with depressed mood; second observation: mean age 10.2 months, range 6-16 months, 17 mothers with depressed mood). There was a significant effect for depressed mood on negative behaviors: infants of mothers with depressed mood tended to push away and close books more often. The frequency of negative behaviors (pushing the book away/closing it on the part of the infant and withholding the book and restraining the infant on the part of the mother) were behaviors which if expressed during the first visit were more likely to be expressed during the second visit. Levels of negative behaviors by mother and infant were strongly related during each visit. Additionally, the pattern between visits suggests that maternal negative behavior may be the cause of her infant negative behavior. These results are discussed in terms of the effects of maternal depressed mood on the bi-directional relation of non-verbal engagement of mother and child. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blended Infant Massage–Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz S. Porter, PhD, ARNP, FAANP, FAAN

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal-infant interaction.

  16. A cross-sectional study of early identification of postpartum depression: Implications for primary care providers from The Ontario Mother & Infant Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sword Wendy

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This survey's objective was to provide planning information by examining utilization patterns, health outcomes and costs associated with existing practices in the management of postpartum women and their infants. In particular, this paper looks at a subgroup of women who score ≥ 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Survey (EPDS. Methods The design is cross-sectional with follow-up at four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge. Five Ontario hospitals, chosen for their varied size, practice characteristics, and geographic location, provided the setting for the study. The subjects were 875 women who had uncomplicated vaginal deliveries of live singleton infants. The main outcome measures were the EPDS, the Duke UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire and the Health and Social Services Utilization Questionnaire. Results EPDS scores of ≥ 12 were found in 4.3 to 15.2% of otherwise healthy women. None of these women were being treated for postpartum depression. Best predictors of an EPDS score of ≥ 12 were lack: of confident support, lack of affective support, household income of Conclusions Primary care physicians, midwives, and public health nurses need to screen for depression at every opportunity early in the postpartum period. A mother's expression of undue concern about her own or her baby's health may be predictive of postpartum depression. Flexible, mother-focused support from community providers may decrease the prevalence of postpartum depression.

  17. Gender differences in adult-infant communication in the first months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katharine; Caskey, Melinda; Rand, Katherine; Tucker, Richard; Vohr, Betty

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the verbal interactions of parents with their infants in the first months of life and to test the hypothesis that reciprocal vocalizations of mother-infant dyads would be more frequent than those of father-infant dyads. This prospective cohort study included 33 late preterm and term infants. Sixteen-hour language recordings during the birth hospitalization and in the home at 44 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and 7 months were analyzed for adult word count, infant vocalizations, and conversational exchanges. Infants were exposed to more female adult speech than male adult speech from birth through 7 months (P gender. Informing parents of the power of early talking with their young infants is recommended. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. [Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Anna; Köhler, Hubert; Cierpka, Manfred

    2018-03-01

    Impact of Socioeconomic Risk Exposure on Maternal Sensitivity, Stress and Family Functionality Parental stress exposure can influence the parent-child relationship, child development and child wellbeing in negative ways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic risk exposure on the quality of the mother-child-interaction and family functionality. A sample of 294 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was compared with a lower-risk, middle-class sample of 125 mother-infant-dyads in regard to maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation (CARE-Index), maternal stress (PSI-SF) and family functionality (FB-K). Lower levels of maternal sensitivity/child's cooperation and by trend also of the family functionality were found among the mothers from the at-risk sample in comparison to the low-risk sample. The level of maternal stress was similar in both samples. The results underpin the negative effects of a socio-economic risk exposure on the mother-child relationship. An early, sensitivity-focused family support could be encouraged to counteract the negative effects of early socioeconomic stress.

  19. Preserving breastfeeding for the rehospitalized infant: a clinical pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Diane L; Goldschmidt, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of feeding newborns with human milk are well established. Unfortunately some hospital practices do not support successful breastfeeding; practices such as early hospital discharge after birth, lack of appropriate follow-up primary care providers, and lack of access to breastfeeding support services can contribute to breastfeeding failure, as well as morbidity and mortality in the infant. Infants experiencing breastfeeding difficulties are sometimes admitted to the hospital with diagnoses such as hyperbilirubinemia/jaundice, dehydration/hypernatremia, rule out sepsis, and weight loss/failure to thrive. This article describes a clinical pathway developed with the express purpose of maintaining and enhancing lactation in mother-infant dyads experiencing breastfeeding difficulties. The goal of the pathway is to maintain lactation and breastfeeding while returning the infant to a state of health. A key focus of the pathway is milk transfer, a concept that is missing from much of the research on lactation difficulties. The pathway considers breastfeeding from both a maternal and an infant perspective, with a goal of preserving breastfeeding. It uses technology to support the breastfeeding process and could be useful for all practitioners working with mother-infant dyads experiencing breastfeeding difficulties.

  20. Radiological contrast media in the breastfeeding woman: a position paper of the Italian Society of Radiology (SIRM), the Italian Society of Paediatrics (SIP), the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN) and the Task Force on Breastfeeding, Ministry of Health, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Maria Assunta; Stacul, Fulvio; Quaranta, Roberto; Guastalla, Pierpaolo; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Banderali, Giuseppe; Fonda, Claudio; David, Vincenzo; Gregori, Massimo; Zuppa, Antonio Alberto; Davanzo, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    Breastfeeding is a well-recognised investment in the health of the mother-infant dyad. Nevertheless, many professionals still advise breastfeeding mothers to temporarily discontinue breastfeeding after contrast media imaging. Therefore, we performed this review to provide health professionals with basic knowledge and skills for appropriate use of contrast media. A joint working group of the Italian Society of Radiology (SIRM), Italian Society of Paediatrics (SIP), Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN) and Task Force on Breastfeeding, Ministry of Health, Italy prepared a review of the relevant medical literature on the safety profile of contrast media for the nursing infant/child. Breastfeeding is safe for the nursing infant of any post-conceptional age after administration of the majority of radiological contrast media to the mother; only gadolinium-based agents considered at high risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadodiamide, gadoversetamide) should be avoided in the breastfeeding woman as a precaution; there is no need to temporarily discontinue breastfeeding or to express and discard breast milk following the administration of contrast media assessed as compatible with breastfeeding. Breastfeeding women should receive unambiguous professional advice and clear encouragement to continue breastfeeding after imaging with the compatible contrast media. • Breastfeeding is a well-known investment in the health of the mother-infant dyad. • Breastfeeding is safe after administration of contrast media to the mother. • There is no need to temporarily discontinue breastfeeding following administration of contrast media.

  1. Making meaning of pumping for mothers of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Elizabeth B; Deatrick, Janet A; Curley, Martha A Q; Spatz, Diane L

    2015-01-01

    To describe the process of initiation and maintenance of milk supply and potential transition to direct breastfeeding among mother/infant dyads with infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). A Level-III neonatal intensive care unit. Eleven mother/infant dyads with infants with CDH. Prospective, longitudinal qualitative descriptive design. Semistructured interviews were conducted over the course of the NICU stay. Conventional content analysis was used. Human milk oral care emerged from the interview data as a strong facilitating factor to encouraging mothers to continue pumping during hospitalization. Four main themes emerged regarding the importance and value of human milk oral care for the mothers in relation to pumping and maintenance of milk supply: (a) It motivates me; (b) I'm a part of my baby getting better; (c) We do it together, and (d) We're getting somewhere. The findings of this study reflect the importance and value of human milk oral care as a driving factor to motivate mothers to maintain milk supply during the critical time when the infant with CDH is not able to take in enteral nutrition and throughout the hospital stay. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. The father of ethology and the foster mother of ducks: Konrad Lorenz as expert on motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Marga

    2009-06-01

    Konrad Lorenz's popularity in the United States has to be understood in the context of social concern about the mother-infant dyad after World War II. Child analysts David Levy, René Spitz, Margarethe Ribble, Therese Benedek, and John Bowlby argued that many psychopathologies were caused by a disruption in the mother-infant bond. Lorenz extended his work on imprinting to humans and argued that maternal care was also instinctual. The conjunction of psychoanalysis and ethology helped shore up the view that the mother-child dyad rests on an instinctual basis and is the cradle of personality formation. Amidst the Cold War emphasis on rebuilding an emotionally sound society, these views received widespread attention. Thus Lorenz built on the social relevance of psychoanalysis, while analysts gained legitimacy by drawing on the scientific authority of biology. Lorenz's work was central in a rising discourse that blamed the mother for emotional degeneration and helped him recast his eugenic fears in a socially acceptable way.

  3. Effect of Financial Incentives on Breastfeeding: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Thomas, Kate J; Whelan, Barbara; Walters, Stephen J; Burrows, Julia; Scott, Elaine; Viksveen, Petter; Johnson, Maxine; Baston, Helen; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anokye, Nana; Umney, Darren; Renfrew, Mary J

    2018-02-05

    Although breastfeeding has a positive effect on an infant's health and development, the prevalence is low in many communities. The effect of financial incentives to improve breastfeeding prevalence is unknown. To assess the effect of an area-level financial incentive for breastfeeding on breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. The Nourishing Start for Health (NOSH) trial, a cluster randomized trial with 6 to 8 weeks follow-up, was conducted between April 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, in 92 electoral ward areas in England with baseline breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum less than 40%. A total of 10 010 mother-infant dyads resident in the 92 study electoral ward areas where the infant's estimated or actual birth date fell between February 18, 2015, and February 17, 2016, were included. Areas were randomized to the incentive plus usual care (n = 46) (5398 mother-infant dyads) or to usual care alone (n = 46) (4612 mother-infant dyads). Usual care was delivered by clinicians (mainly midwives, health visitors) in a variety of maternity, neonatal, and infant feeding services, all of which were implementing the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative standards. Shopping vouchers worth £40 (US$50) were offered to mothers 5 times based on infant age (2 days, 10 days, 6-8 weeks, 3 months, 6 months), conditional on the infant receiving any breast milk. The primary outcome was electoral ward area-level 6- to 8-week breastfeeding period prevalence, as assessed by clinicians at the routine 6- to 8-week postnatal check visit. Secondary outcomes were area-level period prevalence for breastfeeding initiation and for exclusive breastfeeding at 6 to 8 weeks. In the intervention (5398 mother-infant dyads) and control (4612 mother-infant dyads) group, the median (interquartile range) percentage of women aged 16 to 44 years was 36.2% (3.0%) and 37.4% (3.6%) years, respectively. After adjusting for baseline breastfeeding prevalence and local government

  4. Population pharmacokinetics of paracetamol across the human age-range from (pre)term neonates, infants, children to adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chenguang; Allegaert, Karel; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; van der Marel, Caroline D.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize the variation in pharmacokinetics of paracetamol across the human age span, we performed a population pharmacokinetic analysis from preterm neonates to adults with specific focus on clearance. Concentration-time data obtained in 220 neonates (post-natal age 1-76 days,

  5. Development of a 3D ultrasound system to investigate post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in pre-term neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; Lee, D.; St. Lawrence, K.; Romano, W.; Fenster, A.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2013-03-01

    Clinical intracranial ultrasound (US) is performed as a standard of care on neonates at risk of intraventricular hemorrhaging (IVH) and is also used after a diagnosis to monitor for potential ventricular dilation. However, it is difficult to estimate the volume of ventricles with 2D US due to their irregular shape. We developed a 3D US system to be used as an adjunct to a clinical system to investigate volumetric changes in the ventricles of neonates with IVH. Our system has been found have an error of within 1% of actual distance measurements in all three directions and volume measurements of manually segmented volumes from phantoms were not statistically significantly different from the actual values (p>0.3). Interobserver volume measurements of the lateral ventricles in a patient with grade III IVH found no significant differences between measurements. There is the potential to use this system in IVH patients to monitor the progression of ventriculomegaly over time.

  6. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  7. Assessment of exposure to opiates and cocaine during pregnancy in a Mediterranean city: preliminary results of the "Meconium Project".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Puig, Carme; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Marchei, Emilia; Pellegrini, Manuela; Murillo, Janeth; Vall, Oriol; Pacifici, Roberta; García-Algar, Oscar

    2005-10-04

    For the first time in Europe, the "Meconium Project" aimed to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women and the effects of exposure to illicit drugs during pregnancy on the fetus and infant. Between October 2002 and February 2004, 1151 (79%) dyads among the 1439 mother-infant dyads from the Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain, met eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in the study. We present preliminary results on the first 830 meconium samples and 549 mother-infant dyads, for which statistical analysis of socio-economic and demographic characteristics and newborn somatometry was completed. The meconium analysis showed an overall 7.9% positivity for drugs of abuse, with 6-monoacetylmorphine and cocaine being the analytes, most frequently found in samples positive for opiates and cocaine. Structured interview disclosed 1.3, 1.8 and 1.3% of mothers exposed to opiates, cocaine and both drugs, while only one mother declared ecstasy consumption. Meconium analysis showed that prevalence of opiates, cocaine and combined drugs exposure was 8.7, 4.4 and 2.2%, respectively, and confirmed the case of ecstasy use. Arecoline, the main areca nut alkaloid, was found in meconium specimens from four Asiatic newborns, whose mothers declared beetle nut consumption during pregnancy. Parental ethnicity was not associated with drug use, nor was the social class, although a higher tendency toward drug consumption was observed in professional and partly skilled mothers. Drug consuming mothers showed a higher number of previous pregnancies and abortions (pconsumer mothers (meconium negative test), probably due to a lack of family planning. Consumption of opiates and cocaine during pregnancy was associated with active tobacco smoking, a higher number of smoked cigarettes and cannabis use. Exposure status and smoking behavior correlated with significantly lower birth weight in newborns from mothers exposed only to cocaine and to opiates and cocaine simultaneously. Of the

  8. Food quality assessment in parent-offspring dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    When the buyer and the consumer of a food product are not identical, the risk of discrepancies between food quality expectations and experiences is even higher. We introduce the concept of dyadic quality assessment and apply it to an exploration of parents' willingness to pay for new and healthier...

  9. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  10. -pyrrole substituted porphyrin-pyrene dyads using vinylene spacer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. P Silviya Reeta1 Ravi Kumar Kanaparthi1 L Giribabu1. Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500 607, India ...

  11. Relationship marketing's role in managing the firm-investor dyad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Wies, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an interdisciplinary conceptual framework demonstrating the role of marketing in managing investor relationships. The framework illustrates how companies can turn investor relationships into market-based assets by analyzing and managing them from a relationship marketing and

  12. Synchronization Analysis of Language and Physiology in Human Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsucci, Franco F; Musmeci, Nicolò; Aas, Benjamin; Schiepek, Günter; Reda, Mario A; Canestri, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; de Felice, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    We studied the synchronization dynamics of a therapist and patient during a psychotherapy session. This investigation was developed in order to explore a new possible perspective and methodology for studying the expression of emotions. More specifically, literature concerning synchronization of in-session non-verbal variables emphasises its positive correlation with empathy and therapeutic outcomes. We compared the dynamics of galvanic skin response (GSR) and linguistic prosody, chosen as indicators of emotional expression in different domains. We studied their synchronization through complementary methodologies: Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Markov Transition Matrix (MTM) and Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQA). We investigated the nonlinearity of GSR in terms of self-similarity and power-law, as emerged in autocorrelation functions and signal variations. We considered time-lagged correlations as a measure of dynamical systems' memory. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of a deeper study of all variables related to the psychotherapeutic process and their synchronization in order to extend our knowledge of general human dynamics.

  13. Whose intentions predict? Power over condom use within heterosexual dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderDrift, Laura E; Agnew, Christopher R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2013-10-01

    According to major theories of behavioral prediction, the most proximal psychological predictor of an individual's behavior is that individual's intention. With respect to interdependent behaviors such as condom use, however, relationship dynamics influence individuals' power to make decisions and to act. The current study examines how relationship dynamics impact 3 condom use relevant outcomes: (a) the individual forming his or her own intention to use condoms, (b) the couple forming their joint intention to use condoms, and (c) actual condom use behavior. We conducted a 2-wave longitudinal study of young heterosexual adult couples at high risk for HIV infection involving the collection of both individual- and couple-derived data. Results demonstrate the importance of both person (e.g., biological sex and dispositional dominance) and relational (e.g., relational power and amount of interest in the relationship, operationalized as commitment and perceived alternatives to the relationship) factors in predicting condom use intentions and behavior. Individuals who are lower in dispositional dominance are likely to incorporate their partner's intentions into their own individual intentions; the intentions of individuals who have less interest in the relationship are more highly predictive of the couple's joint intention; and the intentions of men and individuals higher in relationship power are more likely to exert a direct influence on condom use. These findings have implications for improving the health of high-risk individuals, including suggesting situations in which individuals are highly influenced by their partners' intentions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Strategic Leadership: Moving Beyond the Leader-Follower Dyad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Duursema (Hester)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContemporary organizations operate in an increasingly complex environment and organize themselves more and more horizontally, across organizational boundaries. Yet the leadership literature remains focused on the internal organization, largely neglecting the organizational context. There

  15. Re(I) bridged porphyrin dyads, triads and tetrads

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA cleavage.4 Design strategies to develop solid-state multichromophore arrays of defined rigidity, ... lent synthetic strategies to porphyrin arrays have gen- erally proved quite limiting. The covalent synthetic ...... since retention times vary inversely with size.23 Pulsed- field-gradient NMR, which measures coefficients for.

  16. Affect and Dyads: Conflict Across Different Technological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Jamika D.; Tatar, Deborah

    Communication is as, or more, important under conditions of conflict or disagreement as when agreement prevails. An experiment looked at couples engaged in discussing a topic that they disagreed about, either face-to-face, over the phone, or via instant messaging. At least one member of a couple was more likely to suffer an above-median decline in mood in the mediated condition as compared to the face-to-face condition. Couples in the face-to-face condition used the most words, while those in the instant messaging used the least. Couples in the phone condition nearly covered the spectrum. Current indications suggest that while the answer to the question, “Does arguing via mediated means have worse effects than all the other things in relationships, known and unknown, that contribute to the outcome of an argument?” is “No,” the answer to the question, “Does arguing via mediated means have bad effects compared to arguing face-to-face?” is “Quite likely.” At the minimum, the course of the argument and the facial expressions differ from medium to medium.

  17. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  18. Re(I) bridged porphyrin dyads, triads and tetrads

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Porphyrin rings containing two meso-pyridyl groups either in cis or trans fashion can be used to construct Re(I) ... phyrin squares have been used for catalysis, chemical sensing, molecular sieving and photocurrent production studies. An overview of ... graphic purification resulting in a low product yield. Non-covalent ...

  19. Food quality assessment in parent–child dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2011-01-01

    When the buyer and the consumer of a food product are not identical, the risk of discrepancies between food quality expectations and experience is even higher than when the buyer is also the consumer. In such situations the interpersonal aspects of food quality formation become the focus of atten......When the buyer and the consumer of a food product are not identical, the risk of discrepancies between food quality expectations and experience is even higher than when the buyer is also the consumer. In such situations the interpersonal aspects of food quality formation become the focus...... of attention. The purpose of this article is to discuss the interpersonal aspects of food quality formation, and to explore these in the context of parents buying new types of healthier in-between meals for their children. To pursue this we introduce the concept of dyadic quality assessment and apply...

  20. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.

  1. Longitudinal relations among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal mind-mindedness, and infant attachment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Ann E; Beebe, Beatrice; Power, Michelle; Stafford, Anna-Lee; Ewing, Julie; Egleson, Anna; Kaminer, Tammy

    2018-05-01

    The relations among maternal depression risk, maternal mind-mindedness, and infants' attachment behavior were longitudinally examined in a community sample of mother-infant dyads. Maternal self-reported depression risk was measured at the infant ages of 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months. Maternal mind-mindedness, assessed from mothers' comments about infants' mental states (e.g., infants' thoughts, desires, or emotions), was measured during mother-infant interactions when infants were 4 months. Infants' attachment behavior was assessed at one year. Mothers' depression risk decreased over the infants' first year, with the sharpest decline between 6 weeks and 4 months. Mothers at risk for depression when infants were 6 weeks showed less appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mind-mindedness was not related to maternal depression risk at the infant age of 4 months or 12 months. Infants' degree of disorganized attachment behavior at one year was positively associated with maternal depression risk at 6 weeks and negatively associated with maternal appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mothers who are at risk for depression in their infants' early lives may be hampered in their capacity to respond appropriately to their infants' mental states. Infants with mothers who have difficulty responding appropriately to their mental states, as suggested by low appropriate mind-mindedness, may feel less known and recognized by their mothers, a key theme in the origins of disorganized attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effects of an infant/toddler health program on parenting knowledge, behavior, confidence, and home environment in low-income mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Yang, Soo; Jang, Mi Heui; Yeom, Mijung

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a mother/infant-toddler health program developed to enhance parenting knowledge, behavior and confidence in low income mothers and home environment. A one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Sixty-nine dyads of mothers and infant-toddlers (aged 0-36 months) were provided with weekly intervention for seven session. Each session consisted of three parts; first, educating to increase integrated knowledge related to the development of the infant/toddler including nutrition, first aid and home environment; second, counseling to share parenting experience among the mothers and to increase their nurturing confidence; third, playing with the infant/toddler to facilitate attachment-based parenting behavior for the mothers. Following the programs, there were significant increases in parenting knowledge on nutrition and first aid. A significant improvement was found in attachment-based parenting behavior, but not in home safety practice. Nurturing confidence was not significantly increased. The program led to more positive home environment for infant/toddler's health and development. The findings provide evidence for mother-infant/toddler health program to improve parenting knowledge, attachment-based parenting behavior and better home environment in low income mothers. Study of the long term effectiveness of this program is recommended for future research.

  3. Physiological mechanisms, behavioral and psychological factors influencing the transfer of milk from mothers to their young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Wibke; Woodside, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Producing milk to support the growth of their young is a central element of maternal care in mammals. In spite of the facts that ecological constraints influence nursing frequency, length of time until weaning and the composition of milk, there is considerable similarity in the anatomy and physiology of milk production and delivery across mammalian species. Here we provide an overview of cross species variation in nursing patterns and milk composition as well as the mechanisms underlying mammary gland development, milk production and letdown. Not all women breastfeed their infants, thus in later sections we review studies of factors that facilitate or impede the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. The results of these investigations suggest that the decisions to initiate and maintain breastfeeding are influenced by an array of personal, social and biological factors. Finally, studies comparing the development of breastfed and formula fed infants as well as those investigating associations between breastfeeding, maternal health and mother/infant interaction are reviewed. Leading health agencies including the World Health Organization and CDC advocate breastfeeding for at least the first 6months postpartum. To achieve these rates will require not only institutional support but also a focus on individual mother/infant dyads and their experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Maternal breastfeeding, alone or as a couple? A study on the experiences of reconfiguration of bodies, roles, and daily routines in Mexican mothers and fathers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Plascencia, Ulises; Rangel-Flores, Yesica Yolanda; Rodríguez-Martinez, Ma Estela

    2017-09-28

    : Early interruption of maternal breastfeeding is a public health problem in developed and developing societies, and social gender constructions and social inequalities between men and women contribute to the phenomenon's complexity. The article reflects on the experiences of fathers and mothers with the reconfiguration of bodies, roles, and daily routines involved in breastfeeding. This was a qualitative study with an interpretative phenomenological focus and gender perspective in couples whose children were less than six months old, who were breastfeeding or had breastfed and agreed to participate voluntarily. A phenomenological analysis was performed on "units of meaning" in the four dimensions explored by phenomenology: corporality, time, space, and relations. Among the mothers, the analysis identified the existence of conflict and guilt associated with breastfeeding; the mothers' need for sleep and rest made them experience breastfeeding as a role that overburdened them in their daily lives. Their spouses showed limitations resulting from social constructs of masculinity, in becoming involved with the infant and supporting the mother to continue breastfeeding. It is thus urgent for health professionals to discuss the processes of motherhood and fatherhood in relation to infants and breastfeeding, from an inclusive gender perspective that assigns importance to the mother-infant dyad, with special emphasis on the mother-infant-father triad.

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study of Mother-Infant Interaction between Japan and Korea (4): Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Human Attachment Systems among Five Asian and Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaga, Tamotsu; And Others

    This study examined culture-specific attachment systems in Japan (including an Okinawan sample), Korea, China, United States, and the United Kingdom, using a questionnaire to measure the relative importance of various categories of interpersonal relations. Subjects were male and female university students and fathers and mothers of kindergarten…

  6. Post-partum depression and infant growth in a South African peri-urban settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, M; Cooper, P J; Stein, A; Swartz, L; Molteno, C

    2006-01-01

    To examine the association between maternal post-natal depression and infant growth. Infant growth has recently been shown, in two studies from South Asia, to be adversely affected by maternal depression in the early post-partum period. It is uncertain whether a similar association obtains in developing countries outside Asia. A sample of 147 mother-infant dyads was recruited from a peri-urban settlement outside Cape Town and seen at 2 and 18 months post partum. No clear effect of post-partum depression on infant growth was found. Although maternal depression at 2 months was found to be associated with lower infant weight at 18 months, when birthweight was considered this effect disappeared. Possible explanations for the non-replication of the South Asian findings are considered.

  7. The influence of culture on maternal soothing behaviours and infant pain expression in the immunization context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Greenberg, Saul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how maternal culture (ie, individualist versus collectivist) influences soothing techniques and infant distress. METHODS: Archival data were analyzed using a subsample of 80 mother-infant dyads selected from a larger database of infant pain expression. RESULTS: Mothers belonging to the individualist group used more affection behaviours when attempting to regulate their infants’ distress. No differences were observed in mothers’ touching, holding, rocking, vocalizing, caregiving or distracting their infants. Mothers’ culture did not appear to be related to the level of distress expressed by their infants. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the similarities in soothing and infant pain expression between individualist and collectivist cultures are more prominent than their differences. PMID:22059192

  8. The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Marga

    2010-06-01

    Harlow deserves a place in the early history of evolutionary psychiatry but not, as he is commonly presented, because of his belief in the instinctual nature of the mother-infant dyad. Harlow's work on the significance of peer relationships led him to appreciate the evolutionary significance of separate affectional systems. Over time, Harlow distanced himself from the ideas of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from Konrad Lorenz's views about imprinting and instincts. Harlow's work did not lend support to Bowlby's belief in an innate need for mother love and his thesis that the mother was the child's psychic organizer. Nor did Harlow agree with Lorenz's view of instincts as biological, unmodifiable innate needs, unaffected by learning.

  9. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...

  10. Sweet babies: chocolate consumption during pregnancy and infant temperament at six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo E

    2004-02-01

    Chocolate contains several biologically active components potentially having behavioral and psychological consequences. We tested whether chocolate consumption and stress experiences during pregnancy predict mother-rated infant temperament at 6 months. Prenatal frequency of chocolate consumption and intensity of psychological stress experience of the mothers, and temperament characteristics of the infants 6 months postpartum were evaluated in 305 consecutive, healthy mother-infant dyads. Mothers who reported daily consumption of chocolate rated more positively the temperament of their infants at 6 months. Maternal prenatal stress predicted more negatively tuned ratings of the infant temperament, particularly among those who reported never/seldom chocolate consumption. However, this effect was not observed among the mothers reporting weekly or daily chocolate consumption. In addition to producing subjective feelings of psychological well being, chocolate may have effects at multiple environmental and psychological levels.

  11. Similarities and Differences in Maternal Responsiveness in Three Societies: Evidence From Fiji, Kenya, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broesch, Tanya; Rochat, Philippe; Olah, Kata; Broesch, James; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    The first relationship between an infant and her caregiver, typically the mother, lays the foundation for cognitive, social, and emotional development. Maternal responsiveness and affect mirroring have been studied extensively in Western societies yet very few studies have systematically examined these caregiving features in non-Western settings. Sixty-six mother-infant dyads (7 months, SD = 3.1) were observed in a small-scale, rural island society in Fiji, a village in Kenya, and an urban center in the United States. Mothers responded similarly to infant bids overall, but differences were found across societies in the ways mothers selectively respond to affective displays. This has implications for understanding early emotion socialization as well as understanding variation in infant social ecologies across the globe. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Maternal prepregnant body mass index, duration of breastfeeding, and timing of complementary food introduction are associated with infant weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2004-01-01

    these associations among 3768 mother-infant dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. RESULTS: In multiple regression analyses, increasing maternal prepregnant BMI, decreasing durations of breastfeeding, and earlier complementary food introduction were associated with increased infant weight gain. An interaction......). In this sample, prepregnant obesity (BMI > or = 30.0), short durations of breastfeeding, and earlier introduction of complementary food were associated with 0.7 kg of additional weight gain during infancy. CONCLUSIONS: Infant weight gain is associated with maternal prepregnant BMI and with an interaction between......BACKGROUND: Women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy breastfeed for shorter durations than do normal-weight women. These shorter durations may place infants of overweight and obese women at risk of not receiving the benefits of breastfeeding, which may include a reduced risk of overweight...

  13. Gender and discipline in 5-12-month-old infants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Richard Evan; Fausto-Sterling, Anne; García-Coll, Cynthia; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    We examined the effects of infant age and gender on the behaviors of infants and mothers during discipline interactions using longitudinal, naturalistic, home-based, taped observations of 16 mother-infant dyads (eight males and eight females). These observations were conducted between the child ages of 5 and 12 months and used a devised Maternal Discipline Coding System to code for the occurrence of discipline events. During discipline interactions, mothers vocalized longer, used harsher tones, and used more explanations with older compared to younger infants. Male infants were more likely than female infants to cry or whine during discipline events. Mothers of male infants used longer vocalizations, more words, and more affectionate terms than mothers of female infants. Male infants were more difficult during discipline interactions than female infants, but it appeared that mothers of males responded to this difficulty by using milder discipline techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of Sensitivity in Mothers of 8-Month-Old Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alvarenga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study investigated the impact of maternal mental health, including postpartum depression, and of maternal-fetal attachment, on maternal sensitivity when babies were eight months old. The study included 38 mother-infant dyads. The women answered the SRQ-20 and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale in the third trimester of pregnancy, and the BDI, for evaluation of postpartum depression in the first month following birth. Maternal sensitivity was examined through an observation of mother-child interaction when babies were eight months old. The multiple regression model considering the three factors explained 18.6% of the variance in sensitivity, and only maternal-fetal attachment was a significant predictor. The results indicate the importance of interventions to promote the bond of pregnant women with their babies, which may even minimize possible harmful effects of postpartum depression on mother-child interaction.

  15. Storage of Unfed and Leftover Mothers' Own Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogleman, April D; Meng, Ting; Osborne, Jason; Perrin, Maryanne T; Jones, Frances; Allen, Jonathan C

    The objective was to examine the bacteriological and immunological properties of freshly expressed, previously frozen, and leftover mothers' own milk during storage. In the first of two pilot studies, 12 mother-infant dyads participated. The milk studied included freshly expressed unfed and freshly expressed leftover milk. Milk samples were stored at 24°C, 4°C, or -20°C. In the second pilot study, 11 mother-infant dyads participated. The milk studied included milk that had been previously frozen, including previously frozen leftover milk. Milk samples were stored at 24°C and 4°C. After storage in both studies, the milk was analyzed for bacteriological and immunological properties. Bacteriological and immunological characteristics of freshly expressed unfed and freshly expressed leftover milk and previously frozen unfed and previously frozen leftover milk remained stable during storage at 4°C for at least 6 days. The quality of all groups of mothers' milk declined when stored at 24°C for longer than 3 hours. While this study provides evidence that human milk might be safe at longer storage times, storage guidelines should not be revised until more research is performed. This study serves as a call to action for more research on the topic of human milk storage, specifically leftover human milk. The study provides information to inform future study designs on the topic of unpasteurized human milk storage. More research is needed regarding leftover human milk storage with a greater number of participants, determination of the quality of human milk, and the storage of human milk in a real-life setting.

  16. Maternal anxiety disorders predict excessive infant crying: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Johanna; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Wittich, Julia; Einsle, Franziska; Höfler, Michael; Martini, Julia

    2014-09-01

    To prospectively examine relations between maternal DSM-IV-TR anxiety and depressive disorders and excessive infant crying. Based on the prospective longitudinal Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development Study, n=306 expectant mothers were enrolled during early pregnancy and repeatedly interviewed until 16 months post partum. Lifetime and prospective information on maternal anxiety and depressive disorders was assessed via standardised diagnostic interviews (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women). Excessive crying (crying for ≥3 h per day on ≥3 days per week for ≥3 weeks) was assessed via Baby-DIPS. During the first 16 months after delivery, n=286 mother-infant dyads were available and included in the analyses. Excessive crying was reported by n=29 mothers (10.1%). Infants of mothers with anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy were at higher risk for excessive crying than infants of mothers without any anxiety disorder prior to pregnancy (OR=2.54, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.78, p=0.027). Risk was even increased when considering additionally incident anxiety disorders until delivery (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.25 to 7.32, p=0.014) and until 16 months post partum (OR=2.87, 95% CI 1.13 to 7.28, p=0.027). Associations remained stable when adjusting for sociodemographic and perinatal covariates. Maternal depressive disorders prior to pregnancy were not significantly associated with excessive crying in this sample. Maternal lifetime and incident anxiety disorders revealed to be a robust predictor for excessive crying. Thus, early identification and monitoring of women with anxiety disorders is important to identify mother-infant dyads at risk for excessive crying. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Operacionalização de escala para análise de padrão de mediação materna: um estudo com díades mãe-criança com deficiência visual Scale operationalization for analysis of maternal mediation patterns: a study with mother - child with visual impairment dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Barros da Cunha

    2006-12-01

    inadequate maternal mediation patterns, due to the mother's low expectations of her child's cognitive performance, which are affected by her inadequate comprehension of her child's actual learning limitations and possibilities. Thus, it is essential to asses the mother's mediation patterns using instruments that will result in indicators enabling the analysis of mediation occurring during mother child interaction. Toward this aim, the Mediated Learning Experience (MLE Rate Scale, elaborated by Carol Lidz in 1991, based on the Mediated Learning Experience Theory was adapted and applied. This instrument assesses adult-child interaction, focusing on the adult's mediation behaviors. These behaviors can promote the building of higher expectations as well as a more appropriate mediation pattern of interaction. After translating the MLE Scale into Portuguese, 36 behavioral categories were created to analyze the mother mediation pattern in 4 levels for each of the 12 components of the MLE Scale: intentionality, meaning, transcendence, joint regard, sharing of experiences, task regulation, encouragement, challenge, psychological differentiation, contingent responsiveness, affective involvement. This adapted version was applied to 12 mother-visually impairment children (5-9 years of age dyads; 3 domino games sessions with increasing levels of difficulty were videotaped. The results showed that the adaptation of MLE Scale was useful in the quantitative and qualitative analysis the adult-child interactions in semi-structured learning situations, corroborated by an acceptable agreement rate (77.2%.

  18. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genotype in relation to risk of nosocomial infection in pre-term neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwet, W. C.; Catsburg, A.; van Elburg, R. M.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in the innate immune response. Three alleles in the MBL gene, and one allele of the promoter, independently cause low serum MBL levels as compared with the wild-type. This study investigated the relationship between MBL genotype and the occurrence

  19. Prediction of pre term prelabour rupture of membrances to delivery interval in deliveries less than 34 weeks: identification of contributing factors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, SM

    2011-02-01

    Institute of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, RCPI Four Provinces Meeting Junior Obstetrics & Gynecology Society Annual Scientific Meeting, Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland Dublin Matenity Hospitals Report Meeting Friday 26th Nov 2010

  20. Crecimiento en recién nacidos prematuros de muy bajo peso natal Growth of very low birthweight pre-term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mayvel Espinosa Reyes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la expectativa de crecimiento óptimo de recién nacidos pretérminos, cuyos pesos al nacer fueron muy bajos, no está totalmente dilucidada, lo cierto es que esta población no crece de forma homogénea. Objetivos: caracterizar el crecimiento posnatal durante el primer año de vida, y determinar los factores asociados al crecimiento recuperador de esos recién nacidos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal prospectivo, que incluyó a los prematuros con peso natal inferior a 1 500 g nacidos en 4 hospitales ginecobstétricos de Ciudad de La Habana, entre el 1ro. de enero de 2005 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007. Resultados: la muestra estuvo conformada por 73 pacientes, 37 del sexo femenino (50,7 %. El 60,2 % nació entre las 32-36 semanas de gestación, el 50,6 % con un peso entre 1 200-1 399 g, y el 36 % con una talla entre 38-40,9 cm. A los 3 meses el 70 % se encontró por debajo del 3 percentil de talla/edad y peso/edad, y al año más del 50 % alcanzó percentiles normales. La menor edad gestacional, el embarazo único, la lactancia materna exclusiva (68,5 %, su mayor duración, así como la ausencia de infecciones, se relacionaron con mayor ganancia de peso, con significación estadística. Conclusiones: los recién nacidos pretérmino y de muy bajo peso al nacer tienen un ritmo de crecimiento acelerado durante el primer año de vida. Este crecimiento recuperador está relacionado con factores perinatales, posnatales y nutricionales.Introduction: the expectations of optimal growth of preterm newborns, whose birthweights were very low, are not totally clear; the real thing is that this population does not show homogeneous growth. Objectives: to characterize the postnatal growth for the first year of life and to determine those factors associated with their catch-up growth. Methods: a prospective longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted, which included preterm infants with birthweight under 1 500 g, born at 4 gynecobstetric hospitals from January 1st 2005 to December 31st, 2007 in Havana. Results: the sample was made up of 73 patients of whom 37 were females (50.7 %. Of this number, 60.2 % was born with 32-36 weeks of gestation; 50.6 % weighing 1 200-1 399 g and 36 % showed a size of 38 to 40.9 cm. After three months, 70 % was found to be less than 3 percentile of size/age and weight/age, but at one year, over 50 % reached normal percentile values. The smaller gestational age, the only pregnancy, the exclusive breastfeeding (68.5 %, longer duration of breastfeeding as well as lack of infections were all related to statistically significant higher weight gain. Conclusions: the preterm newborns with very low birthweight experience accelerated growth rate in their first year of life. This catch-up growth is linked to perinatal, postnatal and nutritional factors.

  1. [Prenatal treatment with magnesium sulphate: Initial clinical outcomes in pre-term infants less than 29 weeks and correlation with neonatal magnesium levels].

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    García Alonso, Laura; Pumarada Prieto, Marcelino; González Colmenero, Eva; Concheiro Guisán, Ana; Suárez Albo, María; Durán Fernández-Feijoo, Cristina; González Durán, Luisa; Fernández Lorenzo, José Ramón

    2017-03-01

    Antenatal magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) administration has shown to be effective in minimising cerebral palsy and severe motor dysfunction at the age of 2 years. The aim of this study is to analyse the initial clinical outcome of preterm neonates less than 29 weeks who have received prenatal MgSO 4 , as well as to determine the relationship between the magnesium dose delivered to the mother and the magnesium concentration in the neonates. A prospective cohort study was conducted on neonates of less than 29 weeks gestation admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Hospital Universitario de Vigo from December 2012 to July 2015. Comparative analysis was performed on the perinatal outcomes, neonatal morbidity, mortality, and magnesium levels between the groups of neonates exposed to magnesium sulphate and the control group. A total of 42 neonates were included in the study. The mothers of 28 of them had received MgSO4 as a neuroprotective agent. Statistical significance was obtained in the mortality variable. There were no significant differences in the rest of studied variables. There was a significant correlation between the full dose of MgSO4 received by the mother and the levels of magnesium in the neonate in the first 24hours of life (r 2 0.436; P<.001). A lower mortality was observed in the group that had been exposed to MgS04. No significant side effects were found as a result of administering of MgS04. The MgS04 dose received by mother has a linear relationship with the magnesium levels obtained in neonates. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Mother-child interactions in young children with excessive physical aggression and in typically developing young children.

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    Urbain-Gauthier, Nadine; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2017-07-01

    Among the multiple risk factors, the emergence of conduct problems in young children may be linked to harsh parenting and child's temperamental difficulties, leading to a reciprocal early discordant relationship. Little is known about the characteristics of early parent-child interactions in young children with physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the characteristics of mother-child interactions in dyads referred for excessive physical aggression in young children under 5 years of age compared to mother-child interactions in typically developing young children. Mother-child interactions were assessed during a free-play session in both a clinical sample ( N = 70, child mean age  = 3.5 years) and a nonclinical sample ( N = 80, child mean age  = 3.5 years) by using the Rating Scale of Interaction Style (Clark and Seifer, adapted by Molitor and Mayes). Significant differences were found between several interactive features in clinical and nonclinical dyads. In clinical dyads, mothers' behaviors were often characterized by intrusiveness and criticism toward children, and poor facilitative positioning. Children with excessive aggressive behavior often displayed poor communication, initiation of bids, and poor responsiveness toward the mother. They displayed fewer sustained bouts of play than typically developing children did. In clinical dyads, strong positive correlations were found between child responsiveness and maternal interest in engagement ( r = .41, p children with excessive aggressive behavior develop disrupted mother-infant interactions from a very young age. Several negative interactive features and correlations between child behavior and maternal behavior were found in clinical samples. The effects of these features add up and probably strengthen each other, thus leading to interactive difficulties from a very young age. More attention should be paid to early parent-child interactions in case of

  3. Preterm birth and Assisted Reproductive Technology/ART: maternal emotional wellbeing and quality of mother-newborn interaction during the first three months of life.

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    Tallandini, Maria A; Morsan, Valentina; Macagno, Franco

    2012-06-01

    Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and premature birth are stressful and difficult experiences for women. No research to date has examined the impact of ART on mother-child relationship in instances of preterm delivery. This study explored the psychological status of preterm infants' ART-mothers and the quality of mother-infant dyadic interaction, up to child age of three months (Corrected Age = CA). Forty-one ART-dyads and 53 Spontaneous Pregnancy (SP) dyads were enrolled. Mother and child were assessed at 5 to 7 days after birth (T1), at child discharge from hospital (T2), at one month after discharge (T3); and at 3 months CA (T4). The following measures were administered to the mothers: the Gordon Personal Profile Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Parenting Stress Index S-F. Mother-child interaction was coded by using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. At childbirth, the control group mothers showed a higher level of anxiety than the ART-mothers did, but at T2, T3, T4, both groups' parenting stress levels were below threshold. Conversely, ART mothers more frequently provided suitable stimulation for their child's socio-emotional and cognitive development than the control group did. No significant between-group differences were observed in the mothers' capacity to respond to their children's distress, nor in sensitivity to child cues. Both infant groups showed equal ability to send clear signals and to respond to parent-provided care. ART and SP mothers with premature infants showed no differences in degree of emotional burden experienced during the neonatal period. Yet, dyadic interaction was qualitatively better in ART dyads than in SP dyads. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurobiology of Maternal Stress: Role of Social Rank and Central Oxytocin in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal Axis Modulation

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    Jeremy D Coplan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic stress may conceivably require plasticity of maternal physiology and behavior to cope with the conflicting primary demands of infant rearing and foraging for food. In addition, social rank may play a pivotal role in mandating divergent homeostatic adaptations in cohesive social groups. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oxytocin (OT levels and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis regulation in the context of maternal social stress and assessed the contribution of social rank to dyadic-distance as reflective of distraction from normative maternal-infant interaction. Methods: Twelve socially-housed mother-infant bonnet macaque dyads were studied after variable foraging demand (VFD exposure compared to 11 unstressed dyads. Dyadic-distance was determined by behavioral observation. Social ranking was performed blindly by two observers. Post-VFD maternal plasma cortisol and CSF OT were compared to corresponding measures in non-VFD exposed mothers. Results: High social rank was associated with increased dyadic-distance only in VFD-exposed dyads and not in control dyads. In mothers unexposed to VFD, social rank was not related to maternal cortisol levels whereas VFD-exposed dominant versus subordinate mothers exhibited increased plasma cortisol. Maternal CSF OT directly predicted maternal cortisol only in VFD-exposed mothers. CSF OT was higher in dominant versus subordinate mothers. VFD-exposed mothers with high cortisol specifically exhibited CSF OT elevations in comparison to control groups. Conclusions: Pairing of maternal social rank to dyadic-distance in VFD presumably reduces maternal contingent responsivity, with ensuing long-term sequelae. VFD-exposure dichotomizes maternal HPA axis response as a function of social rank with relatively reduced cortisol in subordinates. OT may serve as a homeostatic buffer during maternal stress exposure.

  5. Breastfeeding improvement following tongue-tie and lip-tie release: A prospective cohort study.

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    Ghaheri, Bobak A; Cole, Melissa; Fausel, Sarah C; Chuop, Maria; Mace, Jess C

    2017-05-01

    Numerous symptoms may arise that prevent mother-infant dyads from maintaining desired breastfeeding intervals. Investigations into treatments that positively influence breastfeeding outcomes allow for improved patient counseling for treatment decisions to optimize breastfeeding quality. This investigation aimed to determine the impact of surgical tongue-tie/lip-tie release on breastfeeding impairment. Prospective, cohort study from June 2014 to April 2015 in a private practice setting. Study participants consisted of breastfeeding mother-infant (0-12 weeks of age) dyads with untreated ankyloglossia and/or tethered maxillary labial frenula who completed preoperative, 1 week, and 1 month postoperative surveys consisting of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), visual analog scale (VAS) for nipple pain severity, and the revised Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire (I-GERQ-R). Breastmilk intake was measured preoperatively and 1 week postoperatively. A total of 237 dyads were enrolled after self-electing laser lingual frenotomy and/or maxillary labial frenectomy. Isolated posterior tongue-tie was identified in 78% of infants. Significant postoperative improvements were reported between mean preoperative scores compared to 1 week and 1 month scores of the BSES-SF (F (2) = 212.3; P < .001), the I-GERQ-R (F (2) = 85.3; P < .001), and VAS pain scale (F (2) = 259.8; P < .001). Average breastmilk intake improved 155% from 3.0 (2.9) to 4.9 (4.5) mL/min (P < .001). Surgical release of tongue-tie/lip-tie results in significant improvement in breastfeeding outcomes. Improvements occur early (1 week postoperatively) and continue to improve through 1 month postoperatively. Improvements were demonstrated in both infants with classic anterior tongue-tie and less obvious posterior tongue-tie. This study identifies a previously under-recognized patient population that may benefit from surgical intervention if abnormal breastfeeding symptoms exist. 2c

  6. What is the container/contained when there are ghosts in the nursery?: Joining Bion and Fraiberg in dyadic interventions with mother and infant.

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    Malone, Johanna C; Dayton, Carolyn Joy

    2015-01-01

    "Ghosts in the nursery." "Visitors from the unremembered past." Fraiberg, Adelson, and Shapiro's (1975) words convey the relational "intruders" that they perceived while working with mothers and infants. A mother's unresolved past is a driving force within the treatment of mother-infant dyads. Working with these families, the therapist strives to process and metabolize the distress of the dyad while enabling the mother to contain the infant more fully. This article proposes that Fraiberg et al.'s metaphor may be newly elaborated utilizing Bion's (1962) original theoretical conceptualization of the "container and contained." He posited that an infant projects distressing affective states upon the mother, who contains the experience, transforms the feelings, and then enables the infant to reintroject a more tolerable experience. This lays the foundation for the relational experience of being known by another and facilitates the infant's development of self-knowledge and emotional regulation. We utilize Fraiberg et al.'s original case material to identify ways in which ghosts in the nursery disrupt the processes of the container and contained. Bion's ideas may help enrich our understanding of how the therapeutic relationship enables cycles of containment, transitioning the material "ghosts" from being contained by the infant to being contained by the therapist, and to ultimately being transformed so that the mother can reattribute them to the past. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. HIV Prophylaxis in High Risk Newborns: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors in an Inner City Context

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    Zenita Alidina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perinatal HIV transmission is less than 1% with antiretroviral (ARV prophylaxis. Transmission risk appears higher in “high risk” dyads, yet this is not well defined, possibly exposing more infants to combination ARV compared with standard care. Objective. To describe characteristics of mother-infant dyads where infants received ARVs and how these characteristics relate to specific ARV regimens. Methods. Retrospective chart review of ARV-receiving newborns at St. Michael’s Hospital from 2007 to 2012 (and their mothers. Numerical and categorical variables were analyzed using t-tests/ANOVA F-tests and Fisher’s exact tests, respectively. Results. Maternal HIV status at delivery was as follows: 69% positive and 24% unknown. Maternal factors significantly associated with newborn-triple therapy are Canadian origin, substance abuse, unstable housing, lost custody of previous children, and sex work. Neonatal factors are child protective services involvement, NICU, and lengthier admission. Maternal factors associated with monotherapy are African origin, HIV-positive, employment, and education. Further analysis based on maternal presentation at delivery demonstrated unequal distribution of many aforementioned factors. Discussion. This cohort revealed associations between particular factors and newborn-monotherapy or triple therapy that exist, suggesting that sociodemographic factors may influence the choice of ARV regimen. Canadian perinatal HIV transmission guidelines should qualify how to risk stratify newborns and consider use of rapid HIV antibody testing.

  8. Breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity in childhood and adolescence

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    Eleni-Maria Papatesta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the last decades, representing one of the most serious public health hazards of the 21st century. Efforts must be made by healthcare professionals to prevent it, as it is associated with short- and long-term risks for physical and mental health and because of the increased possibility to persist during adulthood. From antiquity human breast milk was considered the ideal nourishment for the newborn. Breastfeeding is beneficial for the mother-child dyad. Among others, existing data suggest that it reduces the risk for childhood and adolescence obesity. The mechanisms for this are numerous and include the feeding behavior breastfeeding infants acquire, their growth rate, the ‘early protein hypothesis’, the role of leptin that is found in increased levels in human milk, the dietary choices the breastfed infants make during childhood and adolescence and finally the differences in their bowel flora. Meta-analyses provide sufficient evidence for this protective effect, with a dose-response effect as to the duration of breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals involved in the care of the mother-infant dyad must encourage and support mothers to breastfeed their infants for a long period of time, if obesity were to be prevented. Aim of this review is to provide an account of existing data on the association of breastfeeding and the reduced risk of obesity in childhood and adulthood.

  9. Links between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms, maternal distress, infant gender and sensitivity in a high-risk population

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    Eickhorst Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal postpartum depression has an impact on mother-infant interaction. Mothers with depression display less positive affect and sensitivity in interaction with their infants compared to non-depressed mothers. Depressed women also show more signs of distress and difficulties adjusting to their role as mothers than non-depressed women. In addition, depressive mothers are reported to be affectively more negative with their sons than with daughters. Methods A non-clinical sample of 106 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk (poverty, alcohol or drug abuse, lack of social support, teenage mothers and maternal psychic disorder was investigated with EPDS (maternal postpartum depressive symptoms, the CARE-Index (maternal sensitivity in a dyadic context and PSI-SF (maternal distress. The baseline data were collected when the babies had reached 19 weeks of age. Results A hierarchical regression analysis yielded a highly significant relation between the PSI-SF subscale "parental distress" and the EPDS total score, accounting for 55% of the variance in the EPDS. The other variables did not significantly predict the severity of depressive symptoms. A two-way ANOVA with "infant gender" and "maternal postpartum depressive symptoms" showed no interaction effect on maternal sensitivity. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity were not linked. It is likely that we could not find any relation between both variables due to different measuring methods (self-reporting and observation. Maternal distress was strongly related to maternal depressive symptoms, probably due to the generally increased burden in the sample, and contributed to 55% of the variance of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  10. Intervenção psicoterápica de grupo com pais e bebês: relato de um caso Psychotherapeutic group intervention for parents and infants: a case report

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    Fernanda Caldas Jardim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Demonstrar a eficácia de uma intervenção psicoterápica em grupo (grupo operativo de reflexão onde pais e bebês são atendidos concomitantemente. METODOLOGIA: Através do relato de caso de uma menina com quadro de crises de agressividade, são discutidos aspectos da intervenção psicoterápica. RESULTADOS: Houve resolução dos sintomas, e aspectos saudáveis da interação mãe-bebê foram restabelecidos. DISCUSSÃO: No caso apresentado, o grupo operativo de reflexão foi fundamental para a melhora dos problemas apresentados por uma dupla mãe-bebê, auxiliando a mãe e o bebê a modificar aspectos disfuncionais na sua interação. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar dos bons resultados para essa família, mais estudos são necessários para avaliar o efeito do grupo operativo de reflexão.OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the efficacy of a psychotherapeutic group intervention (reflective operational group, in which parents and infants are seen concomitantly. METHODS: In a case report of a female infant who presented aggressiveness, aspects of the psychotherapeutic intervention are discussed. RESULTS: There was resolution of symptoms, and healthy aspects of the mother-infant interaction were reestablished. DISCUSSION: In the reported case, the reflective operational group was fundamental to symptom improvement presented by a mother-infant dyad, helping the mother and the baby change dysfunctional aspects of their interaction. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the good results for this family, further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the reflective operational group.

  11. Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour.

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    Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C

    2014-10-01

    Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk.

  12. Detection of Candida spp. in the vagina of a cohort of nulliparous pregnant women by culture and molecular methods: Is there an association between maternal vaginal and infant oral colonisation?

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    Payne, Matthew S; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Donath, Susan M; Bennett, Catherine M; Amir, Lisa H

    2016-04-01

    Most studies describing vaginal Candida spp. in pregnancy focus on symptomatic vaginitis, rather than asymptomatic colonisation, and solely utilise microbiological culture. The extent to which asymptomatic vaginal carriage may represent a reservoir for infant oral colonisation has been highly debated. This study formed part of the Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission Longitudinal Evaluation (CASTLE) study, in Melbourne, Australia, from 2009 to 2011 and used culture and molecular methods to examine vaginal swabs collected late in the third trimester of pregnancy for Candida spp. Oral swabs from infants were also examined using culture methods. Overall, 80 of 356 (22%) women were positive for Candida spp; the majority being Candida albicans (83%). Candida glabrata and other Candida spp. were also identified, but in much lower numbers. Molecular analysis identified numerous positive samples not detected by culture, including 13 cases of C. albicans. In addition, some positive samples only recorded to genus level by culture were accurately identified as either C. albicans or C. glabrata following molecular analyses. Eighteen infants recorded positive Candida spp. cultures, predominantly C. albicans. However, there were only four (25%) mother/infant dyads where C. albicans was detected. This study provides valuable data on asymptomatic colonisation rates of Candida spp. within an asymptomatic population of women late in pregnancy. The utilisation of molecular methods improved the rate of detection and provided a more accurate means for identification of non-albicans Candida spp. The low mother/infant colonisation rate suggests that non-maternal sources are likely involved in determining infant oral colonisation status. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Effect of a family-centered, secondhand smoke intervention to reduce respiratory illness in indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Walker, Natalie; Johnston, Vanessa; Glover, Marewa; Bullen, Christopher; Trenholme, Adrian; Chang, Anne; Morris, Peter; Segan, Catherine; Brown, Ngiare; Fenton, Debra; Hawthorne, Eyvette; Borland, Ron; Parag, Varsha; Von Blaramberg, Taina; Westphal, Darren; Thomas, David

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a significant cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI) and 5 times more common in indigenous children. A single-blind randomized trial was undertaken to determine the efficacy of a family centered SHS intervention to reduce ARI in indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. Indigenous mothers/infants from homes with ≥ 1 smoker were randomized to a SHS intervention involving 3 home visits in the first 3 months of the infants' lives (plus usual care) or usual care. The primary outcome was number of ARI-related visits to a health provider in the first year of life. Secondary outcomes, assessed at 4 and 12 months of age, included ARI hospitalization rates and mothers' report of infants' SHS exposure (validated by urinary cotinine/creatinine ratios [CCRs]), smoking restrictions, and smoking cessation. Two hundred and ninety-three mother/infant dyads were randomized and followed up. Three quarters of mothers smoked during pregnancy and two thirds were smoking at baseline (as were their partners), with no change for more than 12 months. Reported infant exposure to SHS was low (≥ 95% had smoke-free homes/cars). Infant CCRs were higher if one or both parents were smokers and if mothers breast fed their infants. There was no effect of the intervention on ARI events [471 intervention vs. 438 usual care (reference); incidence rate ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.88-1.37, p = .40]. Despite reporting smoke-free homes/cars, mothers and their partners continue to smoke in the first year of infants' lives, exposing them to SHS. Emphasis needs to be placed on supporting parents to stop smoking preconception, during pregnancy, and postnatal. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  14. Relationships between affiliative social behavior and hair cortisol concentrations in semi-free ranging rhesus monkeys.

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    Wooddell, Lauren J; Hamel, Amanda F; Murphy, Ashley M; Byers, Kristen L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-10-01

    Sociality is a fundamental aspect of human behavior and health. One benefit of affiliative social relationships is reduced short-term levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), which are indicative of physiological stress. Less is known, however, about chronic GC production in relation to affiliative social behavior. To address this issue, we studied a semi-free ranging troop of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and collected hair samples to measure hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), as a measure of chronic GC production, during routine biannual exams. We collected social behavior (both aggressive and affiliative) and hair samples for 32 adult female rhesus macaques over one year (Experiment 1). Our results indicated that adult females who initiated higher levels of social affiliation had significantly lower levels of HCCs. Neither the initiation nor the receipt of aggression were significantly related to HCCs in this study. In a second experiment we studied 28 mother-infant dyads for the first 90days postpartum to examine mother-infant facial interactions (i.e. mutual gazing). We analyzed HCCs during weaning approximately one year later, which is a major transitional period. We found that infants that engaged in higher levels of mutual gazing in the first 90days postpartum had significantly lower levels of HCCs during weaning. Finally, we studied 17 infant rhesus macaques (13 males) to examine whether social behavior (such as play) in the first five months of life correlated with infant HCCs over those months (Experiment 3). We found that infant males that engaged in more social play had significantly lower levels of HCCs. By relying on an animal model, our study shows that affiliative social traits are associated with lower long-term GC production. Future research should address the complex interactions between social behavior, chronic GC production, and mental and physical health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mother-toddler play interaction in extremely, very low birth weight, and full-term children: A longitudinal study

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    Paola Salvatori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although preterm birth represents a risk factor for early mother-infant interactions, few studies have focused on toddlerhood, an important time for the development of symbolic play, autonomous skills, and child’s socialization competences. Moreover, no study has looked at the effect of birth weight on mother-child interactions during this period. Expanding on the available literature on prematurity, the main objective of this study was to explore the quality of mother-toddler interactions during play, using a longitudinal research design, as well as taking into account the effect of birth weight.Method: 16 Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW, 24 Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW, 25 full-term children, and their mothers were recruited for the present study. Mother-child dyads were evaluated at 18, 24, and 30 months of child age. Ten minutes of mother-child play interaction were recorded and later coded according to the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS. Furthermore, the child’s level of development was assessed through the Griffiths Scale, and its contribution controlled for. Results: ELBW dyads showed an overall lower level of emotional availability, compared to VLBW and full-term dyads, but no main effect of birth weight was found on specific EA dimensions. Moreover, a significant effect of child age emerged. Overall scores, and Child Responsiveness and Involvement scores improved over time, independently of birth weight. Lastly, a significant effect of the interaction between birth weight and child age was found. Between 18 and 30 months, the overall quality of the interaction significantly increased in ELBW and VLBW dyads. Additionally, between 18 and 30 months, VLBW children significantly improved their responsiveness, while their mothers’ sensitivity, structuring, and non-intrusive behaviors improved. In contrast, no change emerged in full-term dyads, although scores were consistently higher than those of the other groups

  16. Timing of prenatal exposure to trauma and altered placental expressions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes and genes driving neurodevelopment.

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    Zhang, W; Li, Q; Deyssenroth, M; Lambertini, L; Finik, J; Ham, J; Huang, Y; Tsuchiya, K J; Pehme, P; Buthmann, J; Yoshida, S; Chen, J; Nomura, Y

    2018-04-01

    Prenatal maternal stress increases the risk for negative developmental outcomes in offspring; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In the present study, alterations in placental gene expression associated with maternal stress were examined to clarify the potential underlying epi/genetic mechanisms. Expression levels of 40 selected genes involved in regulating foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurodevelopment were profiled in placental tissues collected from a birth cohort established around the time of Superstorm Sandy. Objective prenatal traumatic stress was defined as whether mothers were exposed to Superstorm Sandy during pregnancy. Among the 275 mother-infant dyads, 181 dyads were delivered before Superstorm Sandy (ie, Control), 66 dyads were exposed to Superstorm Sandy during the first trimester (ie, Early Exposure) and 28 were exposed to Superstorm Sandy during the second or third trimester (ie, Mid-Late Exposure). Across all trimesters, expression of HSD11B2, MAOA, ZNF507 and DYRK1A was down-regulated among those exposed to Superstorm Sandy during pregnancy. Furthermore, trimester-specific differences were also observed: exposure during early gestation was associated with down-regulation of HSD11B1 and MAOB and up-regulation of CRHBP; exposure during mid-late gestation was associated with up-regulation of SRD5A3. The findings of the present study suggest that placental gene expression may be altered in response to traumatic stress exposure during pregnancy, and the susceptibility of these genes is dependent on the time of the exposure during pregnancy. Further studies should aim to clarify the biological mechanisms that underlie trimester-specific exposure by evaluating the differential impact on offspring neurodevelopment later in childhood. © 2018 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  17. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study

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    Ito, Kenichi; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed. PMID:27437946

  18. The Unifying Moral Dyad: Liberals and Conservatives Share the Same Harm-Based Moral Template.

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    Schein, Chelsea; Gray, Kurt

    2015-08-01

    Do moral disagreements regarding specific issues (e.g., patriotism, chastity) reflect deep cognitive differences (i.e., distinct cognitive mechanisms) between liberals and conservatives? Dyadic morality suggests that the answer is "no." Despite moral diversity, we reveal that moral cognition--in both liberals and conservatives--is rooted in a harm-based template. A dyadic template suggests that harm should be central within moral cognition, an idea tested--and confirmed--through six specific hypotheses. Studies suggest that moral judgment occurs via dyadic comparison, in which counter-normative acts are compared with a prototype of harm. Dyadic comparison explains why harm is the most accessible and important of moral content, why harm organizes--and overlaps with--diverse moral content, and why harm best translates across moral content. Dyadic morality suggests that various moral content (e.g., loyalty, purity) are varieties of perceived harm and that past research has substantially exaggerated moral differences between liberals and conservatives. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Acetylenic dithiafulvene derived donor-pi-acceptor dyads: synthesis, electrochemistry and non-linear optical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Brønsted; Petersen, Jan Conrad; Thorup, Niels

    2005-01-01

    A selection of donor-acceptor chromophores containing the redox-active dithiafulvene unit about acetylenic and aryl scaffolds has been synthesized. The molecules were studied for their optical, redox and structural properties. Moreover, third-order non-linear optical properties were investigated ...

  20. Perceptions of Purpose in Life Within Spousal Care Dyads: Associations With Emotional and Physical Caregiving Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Kales, Helen C; Birditt, Kira S

    2018-01-05

    Greater feelings of purpose in life are associated with better health and may reduce the negative impact of chronic stress. Yet little is known about how purpose in life may buffer the negative effects of caregiving, a common chronic stressor in middle and later life. This cross-sectional study utilized a U.S. sample of 315 spousal caregivers and their partners with functional disability drawn from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving to examine how both parties' perceptions of purpose in life are associated with caregivers' emotional and physical caregiving difficulties. We also evaluated whether care recipients' purpose in life moderates the association between caregivers' purpose in life and care-related difficulties. Finally, we considered whether these links differed by caregiver gender. Models controlled for caregivers' sociodemographics, care tasks, support resources, valued activity participation, and each care partner's health conditions. Caregivers' greater purpose in life was significantly linked to fewer physical caregiving difficulties. Caregivers' greater purpose in life was significantly associated with fewer emotional care-related difficulties among caregiving wives and when care recipients' purpose in life was low. Although the associations between purpose in life and care-related difficulties are likely bidirectional, purpose in life may represent an important resource for combating the adverse consequences of caregiving. This study highlights the value of considering personal resources and their implications for caregivers' well-being within a dyadic context.

  1. Synergistic "ping-pong" energy transfer for efficient light activation in a chromophore-catalyst dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Annamaria; Charalambidis, Georgios; Herrero, Christian; Margiola, Sofia; Leibl, Winfried; Coutsolelos, Athanassios; Aukauloo, Ally

    2015-10-07

    The synthesis of a porphyrin-Ru(II) polypyridine complex where the porphyrin acts as a photoactive unit and the Ru(II) polypyridine as a catalytic precursor is described. Comparatively, the free base porphyrin was found to outperform the ruthenium based chromophore in the yield of light induced electron transfer. Mechanistic insights indicate the occurrence of a ping-pong energy transfer from the (1)LC excited state of the porphyrin chromophore to the (3)MCLT state of the catalyst and back to the (3)LC excited state of the porphyrin unit. The latter, triplet-triplet energy transfer back to the chromophore, efficiently competes with fast radiationless deactivation of the excited state at the catalyst site. The energy thus recovered by the chromophore allows improved yield of formation of the oxidized form of the chromophore and concomitantly of the oxidation of the catalytic unit by intramolecular charge transfer. The presented results are among the rare examples where a porphyrin chromophore is successfully used to drive an oxidative activation process where reductive processes prevail in the literature.

  2. Daily dynamics in sleep and behavior of young African-American children: A convoluted dyad?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Alaribe, Calista U; Nwabara, Odochi U

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has provided evidence that in children sleep and behavior are related. We aimed to determine the association between naturalistic daily variations in sleep and behavioral functioning. African American children, 5.4±1.7years old, living on the south side of Chicago participated in a repeated measures study to assess this sleep-behavior link. Data was obtained from three separate two-week periods of 24-hour actigraphy and the parental version of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Canonical correlations analyses were applied to investigate the relation between individual changes in sleep and behavior. After 1-month, weekday average sleep duration primarily related to internalizing behaviors, while within-child variability of sleep related to behavioral changes which may involve internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Week-weekend differences in sleep associated with maladaptive social skills. Over a 6-week period, sleep onset latency and sleep offset latency related to behavioral symptoms and maladaptive skills. Over a period of 3-months, sleep associated with symptomatic behaviors while the adverse impact of within-child variability of sleep attenuated. Alternatively, the week-weekend differences in bedtime, wake-up time, wake after sleep onset and sleep onset latency in particular related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Findings showed that poor sleep related to dysfunctional behaviors. While maladaptive at the beginning, they may develop into symptomatic behaviors with potentially internalizing characteristics. As time goes on, individual changes in sleep onset and offset might be important clinical markers of a chronic 'social dysregulation'. Continued sufficient and regular sleep may improve daytime and nighttime behavioral regulation in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mutual regulation between infant facial affect and maternal touch in depressed and nondepressed dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants’ affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants. We examined the affect......The ability to regulate affect is important for later adaptive child development. In the first months of life, infants have limited resources for regulating their own affects (e.g. by gaze aversion), and for this reason they are dependent on external affect regulation from their parents. Previous...... and Generalized Estimating Equations. The results showed that mothers adapt their touching behaviors according to negative infant facial affect; thus, when the infant displays negative facial affect, the mothers were less likely to initiate playful touch and more likely to initiate caregiving touch. Unexpectedly...

  4. Histidine–dialkoxyanthracene dyad for selective and sensitive detection of mercury ions

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Sachin

    2017-12-18

    Histidine-dialkoxyanthracene (HDA) was synthesised as a turn off type fluorescent sensor for fast and sensitive detection of mercury ions (Hg2+) in aqueous media. The two histidine moieties act as ‘claws’ to selectively complex Hg2+. The binding ratio of HDA to Hg2+ was 1:1 (metal-to-ligand ratio). The association constant for Hg2+ towards the receptor HDA obtained from Benesi–Hildebrand plot was found to be 3.22 × 104 M−1 with detection limit as low as 4.7 nM (0.94 μg/L).

  5. Exploring the Dyad: The Relationship Establishment between a Novice Physical Education Teacher and His Mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Evelyn J.

    2017-01-01

    The retention of new teachers is a noteworthy issue among physical education teachers. One way to combat attrition is with the implementation of induction programs that have a strong emphasis on mentoring. Mentoring creates a "growth-in-connection" for the novice physical education teacher as well as the mentor. The relational cultural…

  6. Perylenediimide--metal ion dyads for photo-induced electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Bond, Andrew D; Nielsen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    A novel perylene diimide incorporating a tetradentate ligand was synthesized and the photophysical properties of its Cu(+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) complexes were investigated by fluorescence experiments....

  7. Marketing Internships: How Values and Search Strategies Differ across the Student-Employer Dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Scott R.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the value undergraduate marketing students are placing on various aspects of a marketing internship and compares the relative importance that internship providers place on these same factors. Results were obtained by surveying 140 internship providers and 336 undergraduate marketing majors. Internship providers rated…

  8. Concordance of Attachment Representations in Mother-/Father-Child Dyads and between Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Stievenart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the concordance of attachment representations in two-parent, two-child families as an original contribution to the current attachment literature. It uses both categorical attachment patterns and continuous scores. Data was collected on 92 native French-speaking Belgian families. In order to disentangle conceptual and methodological interpretations, each hypothesis was tested in two complementary ways: first in a sample where the parent completed the 'Cartes pour les Modèles Internes de Relation' (CaMir and their young children (four- to seven-year-olds the French version of the 'Attachment Story Completion Task'(Fr-ASCT and second, in a sample where both parents and their teenage to young-adult children (15- to 34-year-olds completed the CaMir. Our results indicated very little if any concordance of attachment representations, either when using categorical scores or when using continuous scores. The implications of these results for both theoretical and research purposes are discussed.

  9. Community engagement approach: developing a culturally appropriate intervention for Hispanic mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Melinda S; Clark, Mary Jo; Gahagan, Sheila

    2014-10-01

    Childhood obesity affects approximately 20% of U.S. preschool children. Early prevention is needed to reduce young children's risks for obesity, especially among Hispanic preschool children who have one of the highest rates of obesity. Vida Saludable was an early childhood obesity intervention designed to be culturally appropriate for low-income Hispanic mothers with preschool children to improve maternal physical activity and reduce children's sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. It was conducted at a large southwestern United States urban health center. Presented here are the methods and rationale employed to develop and culturally adapt Vida Saludable, followed by scoring and ranking of the intervention's cultural adaptations. An empowered community helped design the customized, culturally relevant program via a collaborative partnership between two academic research institutions, a community health center, and stakeholders. Improved health behaviors in the participants may be attributed in part to this community-engagement approach. The intervention's cultural adaptations were scored and received a high comprehensive rank. Postprogram evaluation of the intervention indicated participant satisfaction. The information presented provides investigators with guidelines, a template, and a scoring tool for developing, implementing, and evaluating culturally adapted interventions for ethnically diverse populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Community Engagement for Culturally Appropriate Obesity Prevention in Hispanic Mother-child Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Jo; Gahagan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity affects approximately 20% of US preschool children. Early prevention is needed to reduce young children’s risks for obesity, especially among Hispanic preschool children who have one of the highest rates of obesity. Vida Saludable was an early childhood obesity intervention designed to be culturally appropriate for low-income Hispanic mothers with preschool children to improve maternal physical activity and reduce children’s sugar sweetened beverage consumption. It was conducted at a large southwestern United States urban health center. Presented here are the methods and rationale employed to develop and culturally adapt Vida Saludable, followed by scoring and ranking of the intervention’s cultural adaptations. An empowered community helped design the customized, culturally relevant program via a collaborative partnership between two academic research institutions, a community health center, and stakeholders. Improved health behaviors in the participants may be attributed in part to this community-engagement approach. The intervention’s cultural adaptations were scored and received a high comprehensive rank. Post-program evaluation of the intervention indicated participant satisfaction. The information presented provides investigators with guidelines, a template, and a scoring tool for developing, implementing, and evaluating culturally adapted interventions for ethnically diverse populations. PMID:24595163

  11. Data, Dyads, and Dynamics: Exploring Data Use and Social Networks in Educational Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the past decade, there has been an increasing national policy push for educators to systematically collect, interpret, and use data for instructional decision making. The assumption by the federal government is that having data systems will be enough to prompt the use of data for a wide range of decision making. These policies rely…

  12. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet - Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  13. Dyads and triads at 35,000 feet: Factors affecting group process and aircrew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    The task of flying a multipilot transport aircraft is a classic small-group performance situation where a number of social, organizational, and personality factors are relevant to important outcome variables such as safety. The aviation community is becoming increasingly aware of the importance of these factors but is hampered in its efforts to improve the system because of research psychology's problems in defining the nature of the group process. This article identifies some of the problem areas as well as methods used to address these issues. It is argued that high fidelity flight simulators provide an environment that offers unique opportunities for work meeting both basic and applied research criteria.

  14. Modeling Nonstationary Emotion Dynamics in Dyads using a Time-Varying Vector-Autoregressive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Laura F; Ferrer, Emilio; Hamaker, Ellen L; Borsboom, Denny; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2018-03-05

    Emotion dynamics are likely to arise in an interpersonal context. Standard methods to study emotions in interpersonal interaction are limited because stationarity is assumed. This means that the dynamics, for example, time-lagged relations, are invariant across time periods. However, this is generally an unrealistic assumption. Whether caused by an external (e.g., divorce) or an internal (e.g., rumination) event, emotion dynamics are prone to change. The semi-parametric time-varying vector-autoregressive (TV-VAR) model is based on well-studied generalized additive models, implemented in the software R. The TV-VAR can explicitly model changes in temporal dependency without pre-existing knowledge about the nature of change. A simulation study is presented, showing that the TV-VAR model is superior to the standard time-invariant VAR model when the dynamics change over time. The TV-VAR model is applied to empirical data on daily feelings of positive affect (PA) from a single couple. Our analyses indicate reliable changes in the male's emotion dynamics over time, but not in the female's-which were not predicted by her own affect or that of her partner. This application illustrates the usefulness of using a TV-VAR model to detect changes in the dynamics in a system.

  15. Resisting and Redirecting: Agentive Practices within an African American Parent-Child Dyad during Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis Ellison, Tisha; Wang, Huan

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the digital storytelling practices between an African American mother and son. We used agency as a theoretical framework to explore how the two exercised their own power to collaborate on their digital story. As digital technologies became part of their practice, challenges and tensions arose when both participants attempted…

  16. Optimizing family emotional interaction in the dyad “mother and preschool child with intellectual disabilities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur A. Rean

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the psychological research on interaction of mothers with preschool children with intellectual disabilities. A questionnaire of Parent-Child Emotional Interaction by E.I. Zakharova and a Scale of Child Rejection Degree by A.I. Barkan are used in the empirical study. The basic idea of the scientific research is optimization of emotional interacting of mothers with preschool children who have intellectual disabilities by means of psychological training which is aimed at developing emotional-sensual, empathy-behavioural and cognitive-reflective components of parenthood. The data mentioned above describe the emotional side of mother’s interaction with the child as a disjunction, i.e. most of the mothers manifest low sensitivity to the condition and needs of the child, lack of understanding the causes of child behaviour, inability to empathize to the child when he/she is in a predicament. In order to improve mothers’ understanding of their own children, characteristics and regularities of child development, to enhance the ability to understand the experiences, states and interests of the child, to change attitudes of parents to the child and themselves a training program has been implemented. The results of the control phase of the experiment conducted show the positive effect of group work on peculiarities of parent-child emotional interaction. The number of mothers who are able to understand the reasons for the child’s moods, sympathize with child, set him/her calm attitude increased. Mothers’ impression that they are controlling the development of their child has appeared. Mothers were more likely to seek physical contact with a child. A larger number of mothers began to provide emotional support to their children and to take into account the mood and interests of the child in leisure activities planning.

  17. Social Skills of Older People: Conversations in Same- and Mixed-Age Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Dixie D.; Kemper, Susan; Hummert, Mary Lee; Kemtes, Karen A.; Shaner, Jaye; Segrin, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Finds that self-reported loneliness was not related to depression or social anxiety for either young or older adults, and was not related to young or older adults' social skill as measured by partner attention. Indicates that social anxiety, however, was related to social skill during intergenerational conversations. (SR)

  18. Defensin-neurotoxin dyad in a basally branching metazoan sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Lee, Ye Jin; Go, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hye Young; Lee, Tae Kwan; Park, Ji Been; Park, Nam Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate and invertebrate defensins have evolved from two independent ancestors, and that both defensins could share origins with animal toxins. Here, we purified novel sea anemone neurotoxin (BDS)-like antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-Crassicorin-I and its putative homolog (Crassicorin-II)-from the pharynx extract of an anthozoan sea anemone (Urticina crassicornis). Based on structural analyses and cDNA cloning, mature Crassicorin-I represents a cationic AMP likely generated from a precursor and comprising 40 amino acid residues, including six cysteines forming three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant Crassicorin-I produced in a heterologous bacterial-expression system displayed antimicrobial activity against both a gram-positive bacterium (Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica). The Crassicorin-I transcript was upregulated by immune challenge, suggesting its involvement in defense mechanisms against infectious pathogens in sea anemone. Sequence alignment and three-dimensional molecular modeling revealed that Crassicorin-I exhibits high degrees of structural similarity to sea anemone neurotoxins that share β-defensin fold which is found in vertebrate defensins and invertebrate big-defensins. Consistent with its structural similarity to neurotoxins, Crassicorin-I exhibited paralytic activity toward a crustacean. These findings motivated our investigation and subsequent discovery of antimicrobial activity from other known sea anemone neurotoxins, such as APETx1 and ShK. Collectively, our work signified that Crassicorin-I is the first AMP identified from a sea anemone and provided evidence of a functional linkage between AMPs and neurotoxins in a basally branching metazoan. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Mother-Father Dyad Conflict Strategy Clusters: Implications for Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Walker, Courtney S; Kwan, Janet W

    2016-12-01

    Research has examined the different parenting styles that are present during emerging adulthood; however, less is known about potential parental conflict strategies that emerging adults may be experiencing during this developmental time period. Conflict strategies are conceptualized in the current study as parents' efforts to regulate, correct, or enforce a consequence in response to their emerging adult child's behavior. Previous research on discipline during childhood and adolescence has suggested the use of harsh discipline (e.g., use of physical force) leads to negative outcomes for children. Despite evidence linking harsh discipline methods to harmful outcomes in various developmental periods and suggested influence of parents in emerging adulthood, very little is known about how parents handle conflict with their emerging adult children. Thus, the present study investigated parental conflict strategies and mental health outcomes of emerging adults. Results revealed a significant parent-child gender interaction for non-violent strategies and psychological aggression. Moreover, results indicated that emerging adult children of parents who utilize similar levels of aggressive methods reported greater psychological problems. The findings from the current study underscore parents' use of conflict strategies when interacting with their emerging adult children, and further emphasize the importance of future research in this area.

  20. Establishing Best Practice in School Counselling via Collaborative Leadership in the Counsellor-School Administrator Dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    School counselling services in Canada are inconsistent due to differing provincial guidelines. The lack of a national school counselling model and inconsistent provincial guidelines results in limited awareness of best practice and inconsistent services for students. Administrators and school counsellors have differing perspectives related to the…

  1. The relationships between religiosity and youth internalizing symptoms in African American parent-adolescent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Alyssa L; McKee, Laura G; Garcia, Randi L; Jones, Deborah J

    2018-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescents face a greater risk of internalizing symptoms, including symptoms of both depression and anxiety, compared with other racial groups; yet, relatively less is known about the variables that contribute to internalizing symptoms. With the aim of advancing this work, this study examined factors that may buffer against such symptoms (maternal warmth, religiosity), as well as those that may confer additional risk (maternal psychopathology). One hundred ninety-three AA single mothers and their adolescent youth reported on religiosity, maternal warmth and depressive symptoms, and youth internalizing symptoms. Dyadic structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of mother and adolescent religiosity, maternal warmth, maternal depressive symptoms, and adolescent age on youth internalizing symptoms as reported by both the mother and the adolescent. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal depressive symptoms were significantly associated with youth internalizing symptoms (as reported by the adolescent). Further, the impact of maternal religiosity on self-reported youth internalizing symptoms and its subscales was moderated by adolescent age. Specifically, maternal religiosity was associated with fewer self-reported internalizing symptoms in young adolescents, whereas the effect waned in older youth. Possible predictive coprocesses such as maternal influence on adolescent religious choices and identity formation are explored in the context of adolescent internalizing symptomatology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. From Dyad to Triad: Mediatization and Emerging Risks for Professional Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Pfadenhauer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence and spread of digital media, more business models foster and empower client participation in medical professions. With services and products ranging from rating platforms to apps targeting self-diagnosis, these businesses transform the client–practitioner relationship yet risk undermining a central pillar of professions—autonomy. Practitioners have to take legal actions against these business models, making visible the frictional interplay among the involved actors. This development calls for an analytical understanding of how this technology-induced cultural change affects professions and discourses on professionalism. We argue that a perspective on how practitioners deal with these challenges in various situations can be beneficial. Hence, we conceptualize professionals as engaged in identifying, assessing and managing risks for themselves and their clients. The emerging risk-management practices lead to an understanding of how this apparent cultural change plays an increasingly meaningful role for research on how professionalism regarding legitimation of authority is negotiated.

  3. Copper/ascorbic acid dyad as a catalytic system for selective aerobic oxidation of amines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrogl, Jiří; Voltrová, Svatava

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2009), s. 843-845 ISSN 1523-7060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : copper * ascorbic acid * oxidative deamination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.420, year: 2009

  4. The Producer-Director Dyad: Managing the Faultline between Art and Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.; Bhansing, P.V.; Kaufman, J.C.; Simonton, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Film production often takes place in project-based organizations (PBOs). Although each of these PBOs ceases to exist as soon as the film is finished, the professionals involved in a project are likely to collaborate with the same people in series of such projects and together form what is described

  5. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog?human dyad

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Elyssa Payne,1 Pauleen C Bennett,2 Paul D McGreevy1 1Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular import...

  6. Combined injuries of the pelvis and acetabulum: nature of a devastating dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Smith, Wade R; Hak, David J; Stahel, Philip F; Baron, Andrea J; Gillani, Syed A; Morgan, Steven J

    2010-05-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of combined injuries of the pelvis and acetabulum, which have not been previously described. We hypothesize that this combination of injuries affects not only the postinjury hemodynamics of the patient, but the outcome of subsequent acetabular fracture treatment. Retrospective study. Level I trauma center. The data collected included patient demographics, fracture classification, Injury Severity Score, systolic blood pressure on arrival, amount of packed red blood cells transfused, time to operation, perioperative complications, and radiographic outcomes. Age- and sex-matched control groups of patients with pure pelvic fractures and pure acetabular fractures were compared with the combined injury group to assess injury severity characteristics. To determine the independent factors influencing the postoperative residual displacement of the acetabulum, multiple linear regression analysis was used. Between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2007, there were 1612 patients with either pelvic or acetabular fractures requiring admission to our institution, of which 82 (5.1%) had the combination of an unstable pelvic injury (Orthopaedic Trauma Association [OTA] 61 Types B/C) and a displaced acetabular fracture (OTA 62). Eighty-two patients with an isolated unstable pelvic injury and 82 patients with an isolated displaced acetabular fracture were chosen from the same study period to act as control groups. Patients in the combined group were significantly more injured as compared with the displaced acetabular fracture control group with regard to Injury Severity Score (P fracture patterns were OTA 61.B1 and B2. Transverse-type acetabular fractures patterns (OTA 62.B1 and B2) accounted for 61.2% of all acetabular fractures in the combined group. The most frequent injury combination was a transverse-type acetabular fracture with an associated ipsilateral anterior disruption of the sacroiliac joint. Sixty-eight patients underwent surgical intervention at a mean time of 5.7 days. The mean postoperative displacement of acetabular fracture reduction was 2.2 mm as evaluated by radiographs. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the amount of postoperative posterior pelvic displacement, Type B2 acetabular fractures, and patient age were significant predictors of the amount of residual acetabular displacement found postoperatively. Patients with combined pelvic and acetabular fractures represent a serious injury that includes the resuscitative challenges of pelvic injuries coupled with the difficulties of precise reduction of acetabular fractures. To obtain optimal reduction of the acetabulum, initial accurate reduction of the posterior pelvic lesion appears to be necessary.

  7. Photodynamics of a constrained parachute-shaped fullerene-porphyrin dyad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, D.I.; Cheng, P.; Wilson, S.R.; Prokhorenko, V.; Katterle, M.; Holzwarth, A.R.; Braslavsky, S.E.; Klihm, G.; Williams, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The pronounced ability of fullerene C60 to act as an electron and energy acceptor has led to the synthesis of a large number of compounds in which C60 is covalently linked to photoactivatable groups which can serve as potential donors. Such compounds are of interest as model systems for

  8. Family Cohesion, Stigma, and Quality of Life in Dyads of Children With Epilepsy and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Teresa P; Crespo, Carla A; Austin, Joan K

    2017-07-01

    To examine the mediating role of stigma on the links between family cohesion and quality of life (QoL) in children with epilepsy and their parents. Participants were 192 families attending three Portuguese public hospitals. Children and parents completed self-report measures of family cohesion, stigma, QoL, and health-related QoL (HRQoL). Neurologists assessed clinical variables. Structural equation modeling within the framework of the actor-partner interdependence model was used. The final model showed a good fit to the data, explaining 43% and 35% of the QoL outcomes of children and parents, respectively. Family cohesion was positively linked to QoL outcomes, directly for children and parents, and indirectly for children only, by way of negative links with perceived stigma. At the dyadic level, parents' perceptions of family cohesion were positively associated with children's HRQoL. A routine screening of those patients experiencing poorer HRQoL should include the assessment of family relationships and stigma.

  9. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. An attachment theory perspective in the examination of relational processes associated with coach-athlete dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louise; Jowett, Sophia; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine actor and partner effects of (a) athletes' and coaches' attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship, and (b) athletes' and coaches' quality of the coach-athlete relationship on relationship satisfaction employing the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Coaches (N = 107) and athletes (N = 107) completed a questionnaire related to attachment styles, relationship quality, and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation model analyses revealed (a) actor effects for coaches' and athletes' avoidant attachment styles on their own perception of relationship quality and coaches' and athletes' perception of relationship quality on their own perception of relationship satisfaction, and (b) partner effects for athletes' avoidant attachment style on coaches' perceptions of relationship quality and for coaches' perceptions of relationship quality on athletes' perceptions of relationship satisfaction. The findings highlight that attachments styles can help us understand the processes involved in the formation and maintenance of quality relational bonds between coaches and athletes.

  11. Comparative conflict resolution patterns among parent-teen dyads of four ethnic groups in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, D T

    1995-06-01

    Ninety-six high school students reported their own behavior and the behavior of their parents in the resolution of conflicts during the previous year, using the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Parent-teen dyadic aggression levels for Americans of European, Japanese, Polynesian, and Filipino ancestry were compared in a series of orthogonal contrasts. The adolescent children of Polynesian American parents reported significantly higher parent aggression levels than did adolescents with parents of other ethnicity. Parent aggression was the best predictor of teen aggression directed toward parents. Subjects reciprocated with counteraggression toward European American parents significantly more often than toward parents of other ethnicity. Aggression by one parent was highly correlated with aggression by the other parent. Aggression by either parent was more highly correlated with teen aggression toward the mother, than with teen aggression toward the father.

  12. Spatial Exploration and Changes in Infant-Mother Dyads around Transitions in Infant Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Sabrina L.; Corbetta, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Infants' motor skill development triggers changes in parent-infant interactions, exploration, and play behaviors, particularly during periods of locomotor transitions. We investigated how these transitions reorganized infants' and mothers' explorations of spatial layouts. Thirteen infants and their mothers were followed biweekly from the age of 6…

  13. Triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion kinetics of C60-Bodipy dyads as organic triplet photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yaxiong; Zhou, Miaomiao; Zhou, Qiaohui; Zhou, Xiaoguo; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Bing

    2017-08-23

    Three new triplet photosensitizers consisting of a bodipy derivative and C 60 moieties were synthesized for triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion of perylene. With the extension of the π-conjugated structure of the bodipy derivative, the three photosensitizers exhibited different absorption wavelengths, e.g. 517 nm for B-2, 532 nm for B-4, and 557 nm for B-6. The steady-state and transient absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and upconverted fluorescence emission were investigated to reveal step-by-step the dynamic processes of the above systems. The quantum yields of intramolecular energy transfer, intersystem crossing, and triplet-triplet energy transfer were measured. From the upconverted fluorescence emission spectra, the overall quantum yield of the triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion, Φ UC , was determined to be 5.80% for B-2, 7.95% for B-4, and 4.99% for B-6.

  14. Male-driven grooming bouts in mixed-sex dyads of Kinda baboons (Papio kindae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fourrier, Marc S; Jolly, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the Central African Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is not well documented. Having previously noted distinctive grooming behavior in several Kinda baboon populations, we investigated the topic more systematically in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. We recorded the duration and details of male-female dyadic interactions (approaches, withdrawals and time spent grooming) in the early morning and late afternoon. Such interactions were more often initiated by the male and terminated by the female partner. The male groomed the female more often, and longer, than she groomed him, regardless of the female's reproductive state or the presence of an infant. The bias towards male grooming was stronger in morning than evening interactions. These behaviors, whose function is not immediately obvious, and which are unlike those previously reported in baboons, further exemplify the distinctiveness of the taxon.

  15. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  16. Ankyloglossia in breastfeeding infants: the effect of frenotomy on maternal nipple pain and latch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Anjana; Dobrich, Carole; Mitnick, Howard; Feldman, Perle

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effectiveness of frenotomy in ankyloglossic infants, by quantifying the changes in latch and maternal nipple pain using standardized tools. Infants below 12 weeks of age were recruited from the Goldfarb Breastfeeding Program between August 2004 and February 2005. Infants were selected based on the Frenotomy Decision Rule for Breastfeeding Infants (FDRBI), a new clinical tool for future validation. Latch was assessed using the Latch Tool. Maternal nipple pain was assessed using R. Melzack's Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, consisting of the Pain Rating Index (PRI) and Present Pain Intensity (PPI). Frenotomy was performed, followed by repeat latch and pain assessments. Mothers also received breastfeeding counseling throughout and after the procedure. A telephone questionnaire was administered 3 months later. Twenty-seven (27) mother-infant dyads participated in the study. No complications were seen with frenotomy. All infants had an equal or higher latch score after frenotomy, with an improvement in mean latch score of 2.5 (p frenotomy, with mean improvements of -11.4 points (p frenotomy had helped them. Timely frenotomy and breastfeeding counseling is an effective intervention, improving latch and decreasing nipple pain.

  17. Lingual frenotomy for breastfeeding difficulties: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollberg, Shaul; Marom, Ronella; Botzer, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding difficulties are sometimes attributable to tongue-tie with short-term relief after frenotomy. Limited follow-up is available, and predictors for nonsuccessful frenotomy have not yet been found. We recruited 264 mother-infant dyads who underwent lingual frenotomy for breastfeeding difficulties. Data regarding the indications, anatomy of the tongue, and the response of the infant were noted by the physician. Mothers were contacted by telephone at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after frenotomy to answer a questionnaire. Two weeks after frenotomy, 89% of mothers were still breastfeeding. An improvement in breastfeeding was reported by three-quarters of the mothers, but, unexpectedly, 3% reported worsening. At 3 and 6 months after the procedure, 68% and 56% of mothers were still breastfeeding, respectively. We could not find any predictor to indicate those infants in whom breastfeeding would not improve. There are favorable long-term effects of frenotomy on breastfeeding. Lingual frenotomy does not always alleviate breastfeeding difficulties, and rarely worsening ensues. We could not find any predictor for successful breastfeeding after frenotomy. We speculate that because the procedure is minor, in the event of breastfeeding difficulties, lingual frenotomy should be considered as an effective tool to assist in long-term breastfeeding.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Luís Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; Costa, Patrícia Rodrigues da; Lima, Flávia Aparecida Felipe de; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by the "Mother-Baby Interaction Protocol 0-6 months" tool. The duration of the Kangaroo Position during all the hospitalization period was correlated with the interaction between mother and preterm infant. The longer the dyad spent time in the Kangaroo Position, the more the newborns made physical contact attempts with their mothers during breastfeeding (r=0.37; p=0.03); and the longer the time in the Kangaroo Position, the less the mothers talked to their children (r=-0.47; p=0.006). Longer periods in the Kangaroo Position stimulates the initial exchanges of contact between preterm infant with his mother, which suggests a higher alert status of the newborn and a better availability for interactions with the mother during breastfeeding.

  19. Maternal Lifetime Trauma Exposure, Prenatal Cortisol, and Infant Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Devick, Katrina L; Brunst, Kelly J; Lipton, Lianna R; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-01-01

    Little research has examined the impact of maternal lifetime trauma exposure on infant temperament. We examined associations between maternal trauma history and infant negative affectivity and modification by prenatal cortisol exposure in a sociodemographically diverse sample of mother-infant dyads. During pregnancy, mothers completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and current stressors. Third-trimester cortisol output was assessed from maternal hair. When infants were 6 months old, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. In analyses that controlled for infant sex and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and stress during pregnancy, greater maternal trauma exposure was associated with increased infant distress to limitations and sadness. Higher and lower prenatal cortisol exposure modified the magnitude and direction of association between maternal trauma history and infant rate of recovery from arousal. The association between maternal trauma history and infant distress to limitations was somewhat stronger among infants exposed to higher levels of prenatal cortisol. The analyses suggested that maternal lifetime trauma exposure is associated with several domains of infant negative affectivity independently of maternal stress exposures during pregnancy and that some of these associations may be modified by prenatal cortisol exposure. The findings have implications for understanding the intergenerational impact of trauma exposure on child developmental outcomes.

  20. Prenatal cocaine exposure: the role of cumulative environmental risk and maternal harshness in the development of child internalizing behavior problems in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Colder, Craig R; Schuetze, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances and child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. We investigated whether maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk mediated or moderated this association. Participants consisted of 216 (116 cocaine exposed, 100 non-cocaine exposed) mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that, as hypothesized, maternal harshness moderated the association between prenatal cocaine exposure to child internalizing in kindergarten such that prenatal cocaine exposure increased risk for internalizing problems at high levels of maternal harshness from 7 to 36months and decreased risk at low levels of harshness. Contrary to hypothesis, the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and child internalizing in kindergarten was not mediated by maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk. However, cumulative environmental risk (from 1month of child age to kindergarten) was predictive of child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. Results have implications for parenting interventions that may be targeted toward reducing maternal harshness in high risk samples characterized by maternal substance use in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is maternal anxiety a barrier to exclusive breastfeeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifunhera, Javath Hussain; Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Sarkar, Siddharth; Kattimani, Shivanand; Adhisivam, Bethou; Vishnu Bhat, B

    2016-09-01

    To assess the association of maternal anxiety with nonadherence to exclusive breastfeeding. This questionnaire-based study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India mothers with infants less than 6 months of age and not exclusively breastfeeding were interviewed and their demographic and clinical details were noted. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered to these mothers. A total of 85 mother-infant dyads were included. The mean age of the mothers was 26 years and 57% were from urban areas. Among the additional feeds given, cow's milk was the commonest (57.6%), followed by gripe water (28.2%) and formula feeds (16.5%). The mean HADS anxiety subscale score was 12.2 (±5.3) and HADS depression subscale score was 9.5 (±3.8). The mean score on IIFAS was 58.4 (±3.6) suggesting a relatively favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. On linear regression analysis, higher HADS depression score, lower birth weight and lower per capita income were independent predictors of poorer attitudes toward breastfeeding. Maternal anxiety may be an independent risk factor for nonadherence to exclusive breastfeeding for the initial six months.

  2. Longitudinal Association between Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression, and the Role of Parenting: A Comparison of Three Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Laura; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Schuitmaker, Nicole; Tomlinson, Mark; Cooper, Peter J; Murray, Lynne

    The ability to regulate emotions is a key developmental achievement acquired during social interactions and associated with better behavioral and social outcomes. We examined the influence of culture on child emotion regulation (ER) and aggression and on early parenting practices, and the role of parenting in child ER. We assessed 48 mother-infant dyads from three cultures (1 UK, 2 South African) at infant age of 3 months for maternal sensitivity during face-to-face interactions and responses to infant distress during daily life, and at 2 years for child ER strategies and maternally reported aggression. There were cultural differences in child ER, and these were associated with differences in levels of aggression. Maternal strategies in response to early infant distress also differed by culture and predicted later child ER. Maternal sensitivity during face-to-face interactions was not associated with culture and showed no clear relationship with child ER. Cultural differences in maternal responses to infant distress mediated differences in child ER that are, in turn, related to differences in child aggression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Can typical US home visits affect infant attachment? Preliminary findings from a randomized trial of Healthy Families Durham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J; Martoccio, Tiffany L; Appleyard Carmody, Karen; Goodman, W Benjamin; O'Donnell, Karen; Williams, Janis; Murphy, Robert A; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2017-12-01

    US government-funded early home visiting services are expanding significantly. The most widely implemented home visiting models target at-risk new mothers and their infants. Such home visiting programs typically aim to support infant-parent relationships; yet, such programs' effects on infant attachment quality per se are as yet untested. Given these programs' aims, and the crucial role of early attachments in human development, it is important to understand attachment processes in home visited families. The current, preliminary study examined 94 high-risk mother-infant dyads participating in a randomized evaluation of the Healthy Families Durham (HFD) home visiting program. We tested (a) infant attachment security and disorganization as predictors of toddler behavior problems and (b) program effects on attachment security and disorganization. We found that (a) infant attachment disorganization (but not security) predicted toddler behavior problems and (b) participation in HFD did not significantly affect infant attachment security or disorganization. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential for attachment-specific interventions to enhance the typical array of home visiting services.

  4. Maternal Adverse Childhood Experience and Infant Health: Biomedical and Psychosocial Risks as Intermediary Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Maguire, Jonathon L; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the mechanisms accounting for the transfer of risk from one generation to the next, especially as they relate to maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical and emotional health outcomes. Participants were 501 community mother-infant dyads recruited shortly after the birth and followed up at 18 months. Mothers retrospectively reported on their adverse childhood experiences. The main outcome measures were parent-reported infant physical health and emotional problems. Potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission included cumulative biomedical risk (eg, prenatal and perinatal complications) and postnatal psychosocial risk (eg, maternal depression, single parenthood, marital conflict). Four or more adverse childhood experiences were related to a 2- and 5-fold increased risk of experiencing any biomedical or psychosocial risk, respectively. There was a linear association between number of adverse childhood experiences and extent of biomedical and psychosocial risk. Path analysis revealed that the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical health operated specifically through cumulative biomedical risk, while the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and infant emotional health operated specifically through cumulative psychosocial risk. This pattern was not explained by maternal childhood disadvantage or current neighborhood poverty. Maternal adverse childhood experiences confer vulnerability to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal psychosocial health. The association between adverse childhood experiences and offspring physical and emotional health operates through discrete intermediary mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. God's ruthless embrace: religious belief in three women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitt, Wendy Jones

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to determine if three people with the diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) viewed religion in characteristic and unique ways. The data was analyzed using Object Relations Theory, Attachment Theory, and an integrated cognitive, affect, and object relations theory. I concluded that the participants shared a faith style that resulted from an early developmental failure and that their image and response to God and the moral universe were a re-enactment of the dysfunctional mother/infant dyad. Specifically, God's character was seen as (1) self-evident and inescapable and (2) stationary and large. God was envisioned (3) as a person who is (4) magical; (5) inexplicable, and therefore, unreliable. Participants believed that (6) God's task was to provide and that (7) God created a moral universe. Their responses had an intense and desperate quality, were typified by ambivalence, and emphasized a power differential. Finally, the women's relationship with God took the form of a deal: if she was dependent, then God would provide. The interface between BPD and psychological and spiritual well-being is discussed and a tentative application of the findings is made to the field of mental health nursing. I suggest that an understanding of BPD religious constructs and the sensitive application of a few principles can contribute to the spiritual and psychological well-being of the BPD inpatient.

  6. Quality of Caregiving in Mothers With Illicit Substance Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Hatzis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of caregiving in mothers with substance abuse problems appears to be compromised. However, divergent findings, methodological variability, and sample characteristics point to the need for research synthesis. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search was undertaken. Studies were eligible if they (1 compared substance-misusing mothers with non–substance-misusing mothers, (2 involved children from birth to 3 years, and (3 maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness were measured using observational methodology. Results: A global meta-analysis for maternal sensitivity (n = 24 studies and child responsiveness (n = 16 studies on 3433 mother-infant dyads yielded significant population effect sizes and significant heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses found reduced heterogeneity when the meta-analysis was conducted on studies where groups were matched on key demographic characteristics; although the effect size was small, it was still significant for maternal sensitivity but not child responsiveness. Conclusions: Compromised quality of caregiving is found in high-risk, substance-misusing mothers, emphasising the importance of early intervention that draws from attachment-based interventions.

  7. The stunted child with an overweight mother as a growing public health concern in resource-poor environments: a case study from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are emerging at alarming rates in low income women in many countries. Guatemala has the additional burden of a high prevalence of chronic under-nutrition (stunting) in children. The purpose of this paper is to explore the dual burden of infant and child (5-23 months) under-nutrition and maternal over-weight and obesity in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Anthropometric measures were collected in 446 mother-infant dyads in a metropolitan population of mixed indigenous (Maya) and non-indigenous descent in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Children were identified as stunted based on a height for age overweight/obesity defined as a BMI ≥25. Stunted children with an overweight/obese mother were compared to other children who were not stunted and/or who did not have an overweight/obese mother. The prevalences of stunting (38%) and maternal overweight/obesity (45%) were high, but just 17% of the mother and child pairs were dual burden. The socio-demographic characteristics of stunted children were not influenced by maternal overweight or obesity. Policies are needed to address under-nutrition as well as preventing obesity and obesity-related chronic disease risks of stunted children and their mothers.

  8. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  9. Heightened attention to supplementation is needed to improve the vitamin D status of breastfeeding mothers and infants when sunshine exposure is restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Zalla, Lauren; Woo, Jessica G; Herbers, Patricia M; Davidson, Barbara S; Heubi, James E; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2014-07-01

    Although exclusively breastfed infants are at increased risk of vitamin D (vit D) deficiency if vit D supplementation is lacking and sun exposure is limited, assessment of both risk factors in the first year of life is lacking. We evaluated the contribution of vit D intake and sunlight exposure to vit D status in 120 healthy, breastfeeding mother-infant dyads, who were followed up for 1 year. Vitamin D intake and skin sunlight exposure were evaluated using questionnaires. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase levels were determined post-natally in mothers at 4 weeks and in infants at 4, 26 and 52 weeks. Vitamin D supplementation was low (L(-1)) and 49% were insufficient (50-L(-1)), while 18% of infants were severely vit D deficient (L(-1)) and 77% were deficient (L(-1)). At 26 weeks, winter/spring birth season and shorter duration of months of exclusive breastfeeding were protective of vit D deficiency in infants. Vitamin D deficiency in infants decreased to 12% at 52 weeks with sunlight exposure. Serum PTH levels were significantly higher in severely vit D deficient than sufficient infants. Vitamin D deficiency was widespread in early post-partum breastfeeding mothers and infants, and declined to one in eight infants at 52 weeks due mostly to sunshine exposure. When sunlight exposure is limited or restricted, intensified vit D supplementation of breastfeeding mothers and infants is needed to improve vit D status. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Weighing worth against uncertain work: The interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Jill Radtke; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L.; Albrecht, Susan A.; Cohen, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial postpartum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6–8 week period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension between breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work, and ambiguity surrounding infant behavior and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game; Letting Him be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us; and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive, and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of late preterm infants that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviors. PMID:23020593

  11. Fatherhood and parenting as health issues facing the rearrangements of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cláudia Regina; Gomes, Romeu; Moreira, Martha Cristina Nunes

    2015-11-01

    In this theoretical essay we aim to discuss paternity as a health issue in the context of contemporary gender roles by considering two lines of argument: (a) paternity, parenting and rearrangements of gender roles; and (b) paternity and parenting as a mutual relationship based on care. In our discussion, we highlight the inclusion of men in the health system from the point of view of paternity. At present this appears to be operating in an instrumental manner, with the mother-infant dyad still a major concern and men not being viewed as individuals with rights to health. Thus, we seek to question the system itself, in relation to its perceptions of the current state of paternity, by taking into consideration recent discussions about gender and sexuality as well as and new family arrangements that may challenge beliefs about the roles of families, fathers and mothers, which have impacts on care. Among other aspects, we conclude that we need to reinvent ourselves because we were not raised under the aegis of diversity and we were also not trained as professionals with a basis in the current problematic divisions that exist between father/mother and sex/gender, among many other previous certainties, all of which does not always help us to promote actions in the area of health.

  12. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on their Language Development as Toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Alan L; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ('media verbal interactions') might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads participating in a longitudinal study, media exposure and media verbal interactions were assessed using 24-hour recall diaries. Additionally, general level of cognitive stimulation in the home [StimQ] was assessed at 6 months and language development [Preschool Language Scale-4] was assessed at 14 months. Results suggest that media verbal interactions play a role in the language development of infants from low-income, immigrant families. Evidence showed that media verbal interactions moderated adverse impacts of media exposure found on 14-month language development, with adverse associations found only in the absence the these interactions. Findings also suggest that media verbal interactions may have some direct positive impacts on language development, in that media verbal interactions during the co-viewing of media with educational content (but not other content) were predictive of 14-month language independently of overall level of cognitive stimulation in the home.

  13. Storage of Unfed and Leftover Pasteurized Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ting; Perrin, Maryanne T; Allen, Jonathan C; Osborne, Jason; Jones, Frances; Fogleman, April D

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of storage on bacterial growth and immunological activity of pasteurized human milk and leftover pasteurized human milk that has been exposed to the microflora in an infant's mouth. Eighteen mother-infant dyads participated in two separate studies. Mother's milk was pasteurized, and each baby was fed 1 to 2 ounces. Pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk were stored at room (24°C) and refrigerated temperatures (4°C). After storage, milk was analyzed for bacteria, total protein, lysozyme activity, and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) activity. In pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk stored in the refrigerator for 7 days, total aerobic bacteria do not increase significantly and total protein and bioactive proteins are stable. At room temperature, there is a significant increase in total aerobic bacteria in leftover pasteurized milk during 12 hours of storage (p milk during 12 hours of storage (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). When stored in the refrigerator, pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk may be stored for at least 7 days when considering the variables studied. Caution should be used when storing pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk at room temperature to prevent an increase in bacterial growth and a decrease in total protein and SIgA activity.

  14. Feeding Modalities and the Onset of the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eLiu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBreast milk has been reported to ameliorate the severity and outcome of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS. The mechanism of this beneficial effect of breast milk on NAS remains unclear, as the negligible amount of methadone transmitted via breast milk is unlikely to have an impact on NAS. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different feeding modalities on the onset of NAS.A retrospective medical record review was conducted on one hundred and ninety-four methadone maintained mother/infant dyads. Infants were categorized on the first 2 days of life as predominantly breastfed, fed expressed human breast milk or formula fed. The feeding categories were then analyzed using the onset of NAS as the outcome measure. After adjusting for confounders, there was no significant effect of the modality of feeding on the rates of NAS requiring treatment (p=0.11. Breastfeeding significantly delayed the onset of NAS (p=0.04The act of breastfeeding in the first two days of life had no effect on whether an infant required treatment for NAS when compared to those fed EBM or formula. This only suggests that the advantages of breastfeeding on NAS cannot be substantiated in a small cohort and should not discourage breastfeeding.

  15. Positive predictors of quality of life for postpartum mothers with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jessica L; Beeghly, Marjorie; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Muzik, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The postpartum period brings a host of biopsychosocial, familial, and economic changes, which may be challenging for new mothers, especially those with trauma histories. Trauma-exposed women are at heightened risk for psychiatric symptomatology and reduced quality of life. The current study sought to evaluate whether a set of hypothesized promotive factors assessed during the first 18 months postpartum (positive parenting, family cohesion, and maternal resilience) are associated with life satisfaction in this population, after controlling for income and postpartum psychiatric symptoms. Analyses were based on data collected for 266 mother-infant dyads from a longitudinal cohort study, Maternal Anxiety during the Childbearing Years (MACY), of women oversampled for childhood maltreatment history. Hierarchical linear regression was used to evaluate the study hypotheses. Consistent with prior work, greater postpartum psychiatric symptoms and less income predicted poor perceptions of life quality. In hierarchical regressions controlling for income and psychiatric symptoms, positive parenting and family cohesion predicted unique variance in mothers' positive perceptions of life quality, and resilience was predictive beyond all other factors. Factors from multiple levels of analysis (maternal, dyadic, and familial) may serve as promotive factors predicting positive perceptions of life quality among women with childhood trauma histories, even those struggling with high levels of psychiatric or economic distress.

  16. Emotion Socialization Strategies of Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms: The Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation and Interactions With Infant Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Viana, Andres G; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-06-01

    Although the interpersonal difficulties associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are well established, their manifestations within the context of parent-child relationships remain understudied. The current study investigated the relation of maternal BPD symptoms to nonsupportive emotion socialization (i.e., the extent to which mothers punish or minimize their young children's displays of negative emotions), as well as the mediating role of maternal emotion regulation difficulties in this relation. The authors also investigated the moderating role of maternal BPD symptoms in the relation between infant temperamental anger and fear and punitive/minimizing emotion socialization. Using a sample of 99 mother-infant dyads, the authors found that maternal BPD symptoms were significantly related to punitive/minimizing emotion socialization and that maternal emotion regulation difficulties mediated this relation. Moreover, maternal BPD symptoms strengthened the association between mother-reported infant anger and punitive/minimizing emotion socialization. These results extend the growing literature on the impact of maternal BPD on child development.

  17. REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING AND PERSONALITY ORGANIZATION: ASSOCIATIONS WITH NEGATIVE MATERNAL BEHAVIORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Karin; Rousseau, Marie-Eve; Biberdzic, Marko; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether mothers who manifest insensitive and disconnected behaviors in interaction with their infants differ in terms of maternal reflective functioning (RF), personality organization, and histories of abuse. A total of 86 mother-infant dyads, 28 of them with histories of abuse, participated in the study. RF was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1985), and personality organization was assessed with the self-report Inventory of Personality Organization (M.F. Lenzenweger, J.F. Clarkin, O.F. Kernberg, & P.A. Foelsh, 2001; L. Normandin et al., 2002), before the birth of the baby. Maternal behaviors were assessed using the Disconnected and Extremely Insensitive Parenting measure when the infants were 15 to 18 months old. The results of multivariate analyses of covariance indicate that both RF and personality organization were associated with disconnected and extremely insensitive maternal behaviors. Mothers classified as presenting intrusive/aggressive behaviors had significantly lower RF as well as significantly more difficulties in personality organization, including reality testing, identity, and defense mechanisms. Withdrawn and disconnected maternal behaviors were associated with the combination of difficulties in mentalization and personality organization rather than difficulties in one specific area. In sum, the study provides new evidence regarding the importance of a mentalizing stance about early attachment relationships for the modulation of maternal behaviors, especially intrusive/aggressive behaviors. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Katharina J; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-11-01

    Physiological reactivity to repeated infant crying was examined as a predictor of risk for harsh discipline use with 12-month-olds in a longitudinal study with 48 low-income mother-infant dyads. Physiological reactivity was measured while mothers listened to three blocks of infant cry sounds in a standard cry paradigm when their infants were 3 months old. Signs of harsh discipline use were observed during two tasks during a home visit when the infants were 12 months old. Mothers showing signs of harsh discipline (n = 10) with their 12-month-olds were compared to mothers who did not (n = 38) on their sympathetic (skin conductance levels [SCL]) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to the cry sounds. Results showed a significant interaction effect for sympathetic reactivity only. Mean SCL of harsh-risk mothers showed a significant different response pattern from baseline to crying and onward into the recovery, suggesting that mean SCL of mothers who showed signs of harsh discipline continued to rise across the repeated bouts of cry sounds while, after an initial increase, mean SCL level of the other mothers showed a steady decline. We suggest that harsh parenting is reflected in physiological overreactivity to negative infant signals and discuss our findings from a polyvagal perspective.

  20. MATERNAL MENTALIZING CAPACITY AND PREMATURITY: EFFECTS OF AN INTERVENTION IN NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pinheiro Schaefer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mother-infant interactions and their impact on the formation of the psyche are studied by the Attachment Theory, highlighting the maternal mentalizing capacity as a determinant in the formation of a secure attachment. This study aimed to understand how a psychotherapeutic intervention performed with mother-premature baby pairs during hospitalization in NICU affects the maternal mentalizing capacity through a qualitative intervention research, with exploratory and descriptive character, which surveyed multiple cases and assessments before and after the intervention. The research included two mother-premature neonate dyads hospitalized in NICU. Before the intervention, the instruments used were: Socio-Demographic and Clinical Data Sheets and Live History Interview with the mother; after, the instrument used was the Hospitalization History Interview. Data were analyzed according to two themes: a maternal representations of herself; b maternal representations of the baby. There were changes in maternal mentalizing capacity, favoring the mother-baby bond and a possible implementation of interventions aimed at the early relationship mother-premature baby in NICU.