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Sample records for pre-term infants showed

  1. Mothers of Pre-Term Infants in Neonate Intensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…

  2. 3D MR ventricle segmentation in pre-term infants with post-hemorrhagic ventricle dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wu; Yuan, Jing; Kishimoto, Jessica; Chen, Yimin; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or bleed within the brain is a common condition among pre-term infants that occurs in very low birth weight preterm neonates. The prognosis is further worsened by the development of progressive ventricular dilatation, i.e., post-hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD), which occurs in 10-30% of IVH patients. In practice, predicting PHVD accurately and determining if that specific patient with ventricular dilatation requires the ability to measure accurately ventricular volume. While monitoring of PHVD in infants is typically done by repeated US and not MRI, once the patient has been treated, the follow-up over the lifetime of the patient is done by MRI. While manual segmentation is still seen as a gold standard, it is extremely time consuming, and therefore not feasible in a clinical context, and it also has a large inter- and intra-observer variability. This paper proposes a segmentation algorithm to extract the cerebral ventricles from 3D T1- weighted MR images of pre-term infants with PHVD. The proposed segmentation algorithm makes use of the convex optimization technique combined with the learned priors of image intensities and label probabilistic map, which is built from a multi-atlas registration scheme. The leave-one-out cross validation using 7 PHVD patient T1 weighted MR images showed that the proposed method yielded a mean DSC of 89.7% +/- 4.2%, a MAD of 2.6 +/- 1.1 mm, a MAXD of 17.8 +/- 6.2 mm, and a VD of 11.6% +/- 5.9%, suggesting a good agreement with manual segmentations.

  3. Radionuclide scintigraphy in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic and asymptomatic pre-term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morigeri, C.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Narang, A. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Chandigarh (India); Bhattacharya, A.; Mittal, B.R. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chandigarh (India)

    2008-09-15

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in pre-term infants. The diagnosis based on symptoms is always questionable. The incidence of GER in symptomatic babies varies from 22% to 85%, but literature regarding the incidence of reflux in asymptomatic pre-term infants is lacking. We used radionuclide scintigraphy to evaluate the incidence of GER in symptomatic as well as asymptomatic pre-term neonates and to assess whether symptoms have any relation with positive scintigraphy. We studied 106 pre-term infants (52 symptomatic, 54 asymptomatic) of less than 34 weeks of gestation, who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Babies were considered symptomatic in the presence of vomiting, regurgitation, apnea, de-saturations, unexplained bradycardia and recurrent lung collapses. Radionuclide scintigraphy was conducted at post-conceptional age of 32-34 weeks when they were clinically stable for 72 h. Feeding was avoided for 2 h preceding the study. {sup 99m}Tc sulphur colloid was administered in a dose of 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) in 1 ml, followed by milk (full feed) through an orogastric tube, prior to imaging under a gamma camera. Reflux was graded as low or high, and reflux episodes during the study were counted. The incidence of GER in the symptomatic group was 71.2% and in asymptomatic babies 61.1% (p=0.275). High-grade reflux was more common (71.4%) than low-grade (28.6%) in both groups (p=0.449). Mean number of reflux episodes in 20 min was 4.4{+-}2.4 in symptomatic babies and 4.9 {+-}2.2 in asymptomatic babies (p=0.321). Babies with positive scintigraphy were similar in birth weight, gestation, time to achieve full feeds, weight and age at discharge to those with negative scintigraphy. GER is common in pre-term infants of less than 34 weeks gestation. The incidence of positive scintigraphy and grade of reflux is not significantly different in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic babies. Though radionuclide scintigraphy is a simple, quick and non-invasive investigation in

  4. [Risks factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeballos Sarrato, Susana; Villar Castro, Sonia; Ramos Navarro, Cristina; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Sánchez Luna, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Pre-term delivery is one of the leading causes of foetal and perinatal mortality. However, perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal death in preterm deliveries have not been well studied. To analyse foetal mortality and perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pregnancies of less than 32 weeks gestational age. The study included all preterm deliveries between 22 and 31 +1 weeks gestational age (WGA), born in a tertiary-referral hospital, over a period of 7 years (2008-2014). A logistic regression model was used to identify perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality (foetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded). During the study period, the overall foetal mortality was 63.1% (106/168) (≥22 weeks of gestation) occurred in pregnancies of less than 32 WGA. A total of 882 deliveries between 22 and 31+6 weeks of gestation were included for analysis. The rate of foetal mortality was 11.3% (100/882). The rate of intra-partum foetal death was 2.6% (23/882), with 78.2% (18/23) of these cases occurring in hospitalised pregnancies. It was found that Assisted Reproductive Techniques, abnormal foetal ultrasound, no administration of antenatal steroids, lower gestational age, and small for gestational age, were independent risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality. This study showed that there is a significant percentage intra-partum foetal mortality in infants between 22 and 31+6 WGA. The analysis of intrapartum mortality and risk factors associated with this mortality is of clinical and epidemiological interest to optimise perinatal care and improve survival of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Localised photoplethysmography imaging for heart rate estimation of pre-term infants in the clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichulee, Sitthichok; Villarroel, Mauricio; Jorge, João.; Arteta, Carlos; Green, Gabrielle; McCormick, Kenny; Zisserman, Andrew; Tarassenko, Lionel

    2018-02-01

    Non-contact vital-sign estimation allows the monitoring of physiological parameters (such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation) without contact electrodes or sensors. Our recent work has demonstrated that a convolutional neural network (CNN) can be used to detect the presence of a patient and segment the patient's skin area for vital-sign estimation, thus enabling the automatic continuous monitoring of vital signs in a hospital environment. In a study approved by the local Research Ethical Committee, we made video recordings of pre-term infants nursed in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, UK. We extended the CNN model to detect the head, torso and diaper of the infants. We extracted multiple photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGi) signals from each body part, analysed their signal quality, and compared them with the PPGi signal derived from the entire skin area. Our results demonstrated the benefits of estimating heart rate combined from multiple regions of interest using data fusion. In the test dataset, we achieved a mean absolute error of 2.4 beats per minute for 80% (31.1 hours) from a total recording time of 38.5 hours for which both reference heart rate and video data were valid.

  6. Very pre-term infants' behaviour at 1 and 2 years of age and parental stress following basic developmental care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der; Maguire, C.M.; Bruil, J.; Cessie, S. le; Zwieten, P. van; Veen, S.; Wit, J.M.; Walther, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at I and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard

  7. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation in weight gaining of pre-term infants hospitalized in intensive care unit

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    Keshavarz M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Many studies have demonstrated that pre-term neonates gained more weight over the 10 days stimulation period. This research has been conducted to determine the effects of five days Tactile- Kinesthetic stimulation (TKS on weight gaining of pre-term infants hospitalized in Fatemiye neonatal intensive care unit."n"n Methods: Fifty one babies who graduated from the NICU to the intermediate care nursery were randomly allocated into test and control groups (24 and 27 neonate respectively. TKS was provided for three 20 minute periods per day for five consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure strokes in left and right lateral position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of the limbs. They were observed for changes in physiologic parameters and weight gaining during five days stimulation in hospital."n"n Results: Over the five days TKS an increase in weight was seen in the test group (p=0.018, 43.1 vs 5.4. Infants in both the test and control groups were matched for mean weight before study and days in which they received antibiotics and photo therapy. Mean temperature and O² saturation had no meaningful difference, but an increase in

  8. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM 10 , PM 2.5 , CO, NO 2 , and SO 2 . Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  9. [Impact of screening and treatment of low systemic blood flow in the prevention of severe intraventricular haemorrhage and/or death in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego Erroz, Ignacio; Alonso Quintela, Paula; Jiménez Gonzalez, Aquilina; Terroba Seara, Sandra; Rodríguez Blanco, Silvia; Rosón Varas, María; Castañón López, Leticia

    2018-04-02

    To assess the effect of a protocolised intervention for low systemic blood flow (SBF) in the occurrence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or death in pre-term infants. A study with a quasi-experimental design with retrospective controls was conducted on pre-term infants of less than 30weeks of gestational age, born between January 2016 and July 2017, who were consecutively included in the intervention period. The control cohort included pre-term infants (born between January 2013 and December 2015) matched by gestational age, birth weight, and gender (two controls for each case). The cases of low SBF diagnosed according to functional echocardiography during the study period received dobutamine (5-10μg/kg/min) for 48hours. The study included 29 cases (intervention period) and 54 controls (pre-intervention period). Ten out of 29 (34.5%) infants received dobutamine for low SBF during the intervention period, with 3/29 (10.3%) cases of severe IVH and/or death compared to 17/54 (31.5%) in the control cohort (p=.032). There was an independent association between the intervention and a decreased occurrence of severe IVH/death after adjusting for confounding factors both in the logistic regression model [OR 0.11 (95%CI: 0.01-0.65), p=.015], as well as in the sensitivity analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting [OR 0.23 (95%CI: 0.09-0.56); p=.001]. In this study with retrospective controls, a protocolised screening, and treatment for low SBF was associated with a decreased occurrence of severe IVH or death in preterm infants. Large, adequately powered trials, are needed in order to determine whether postnatal interventions directed at low SBF can improve neurological outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Do Infants Show Social Preferences for People Differing in Race?

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    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Do infants develop meaningful social preferences among novel individuals based on their social group membership? If so, do these social preferences depend on familiarity on any dimension, or on a more specific focus on particular kinds of categorical information? The present experiments use methods that have previously demonstrated infants' social…

  11. Neurosonography of the pre-term neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a description of our present understanding of the premature brain as seen through the eyes of the sonogram. Neurosonography of the Pre-Term Neonate ties the pathophysiology, anatomy and the all important clinical follow-up data to the sonogram. The book is divided into five sections: Scanning Techniques and Normal Anatomy, Pathophysiology of Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage and Ischemia, Neurosonography - Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage - Periventricular Leukomalacia, Incidence and Outcome - Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage - Periventricular Leukomalacia and Comparison of Two Modalities: Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography

  12. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hans; Hegaard, H K; Greisen, G

    2012-01-01

    Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies. A comprehe......Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies....... A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the PubMed database from their inceptions to 1 October, 2010 using the keywords 'magnesium sulphate, children/infant/pre-term/premature and cerebral palsy/mortality/morbidity/adverse effects/outcome' identified 11 reports of observational studies. Two...... authors working independently extracted the data. A meta-analysis of the data found an association between magnesium sulphate treatment and a significantly reduced risk of mortality (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.89) and cerebral palsy (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.89). Antenatal treatment with magnesium sulphate...

  13. Emotional contagion: dogs and humans show a similar physiological response to human infant crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Min Hooi; Ruffman, Ted

    2014-10-01

    Humans respond to an infant crying with an increase in cortisol level and heightened alertness, a response interpreted as emotional contagion, a primitive form of empathy. Previous results are mixed when examining whether dogs might respond similarly to human distress. We examined whether domestic dogs, which have a long history of affiliation with humans, show signs of emotional contagion, testing canine (n=75) and human (n=74) responses to one of three auditory stimuli: a human infant crying, a human infant babbling, and computer-generated "white noise", with the latter two stimuli acting as controls. Cortisol levels in both humans and dogs increased significantly from baseline only after listening to crying. In addition, dogs showed a unique behavioral response to crying, combining submissiveness with alertness. These findings suggest that dogs experience emotional contagion in response to human infant crying and provide the first clear evidence of a primitive form of cross-species empathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sucção não nutritiva em bebês prematuros: estudo bibliográfico Succión no-nutritiva en bebes prematuros: un estudio bibliográfico Non-nutritive sucking in pre-term infants: a bibliographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise Conceição Caetano

    2003-03-01

    programas de estimulación se evidenció la alta hospitalaria precoz y mayor ganancia de peso. Hay escasa literatura sobre el asunto, principalmente nacional, y los artículos no trataron de la descripción detallada de la transición de la alimentación gástrica hacia la oral, dejando una laguna que merece estudios posteriores.This is a bibliographic study on non-nutritive sucking in pre-term infants. Objectives: to characterize and analyze the scientific production on non-nutritive sucking in pre-term infants and identify how the transition from gastric to oral feeding takes place as well as how it begins and develops by considering the stimulation of non-nutritive sucking. Methodology: review of secondary sources (MEDLINE and LILACS. Results: pre-term infants presented a stable clinical condition, without cardio-respiratory, neurological or gastro-intestinal alterations. Gestational age varied from 30 to 35 weeks and the weight from 1,400 to 1,800 g. The stimulus for non-nutritive sucking used was a pacifier or bottle nipple. The time and frequency of stimulus application varied. As a result of the stimulation programs, there were early hospital discharges and greater weight gain. Literature on this subject, particularly that of national authorship, is scarce and the articles do not address a detailed description of the transition from gastric to oral feeding, thus leaving a gap that deserves to be further studied.

  15. Interação mãe-bebê pré-termo e mudança no estado de humor: comparação do Método Mãe-Canguru com visita na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Interaction between mothers and pre-term infants and mood changes: a comparison between the Kangaroo Mother Method and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guimarães Cruvinel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar mudanças nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo em função do tipo de contato com o seu filho: Método Mãe-Canguru (MMC e visita ao filho na incubadora da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. MÉTODOS: foi aplicada a Escala Analógica de Humor em 60 mães divididas em 2 grupos: mães que participam do Método Mãe-Canguru (GC e mães que acompanharam o bebê na incubadora (GI. Os grupos foram pareados em função da idade das mães, número de gestações e tipo de parto. As mães foram avaliadas antes e depois de uma das visitas ao filho na incubadora ou sessão de MMC. RESULTADOS: as mães do GC melhoraram o humor, relatando: sentirem-se mais calmas, fortes, com idéias claras, ágeis, dinâmicas, satisfeitas, tranqüilas, perspicazes, relaxadas, atentas, competentes, alegres e amistosas. As mães do GI não apresentaram melhora no estado de humor em nenhum item, mas pioraram no item "sentindo-se desajeitada". CONCLUSÕES: o Método Mãe-Canguru mostrou-se eficaz na melhora nos estados de humor de mães de bebês pré-termo, contribuindo assim para a minimização dos efeitos negativos da internação neonatal.OBJECTIVE: to assess changes in the subjective state of mood of mothers of pre-term babies, comparing different kinds of mother-infant interaction: the Kangaroo Mother Method (KMM and those observed on a visit to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: the Visual Analogue Mood Scale was used with 60 mothers divided into two groups: mothers included in the Kangaroo Program (KG and mothers with a baby on an incubator (IG. The groups were matched for the mothers' age, number of pregnancies and kind of delivery. The mothers were evaluated before and after a visit to the baby on an incubator or a KMM session. RESULTS: it was found that KG mothers were in a better mood, reporting that they felt calmer, stronger, more clear-headed, more agile, dynamic, satisfied, at ease, perceptive, relaxed, considerate

  16. Very Preterm Infants Failing CPAP Show Signs of Fatigue Immediately after Birth.

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    Melissa L Siew

    Full Text Available To investigate the differences in breathing pattern and effort in infants at birth who failed or succeeded on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP during the first 48 hours after birth.Respiratory function recordings of 32 preterm infants were reviewed of which 15 infants with a gestational age of 28.6 (0.7 weeks failed CPAP and 17 infants with a GA of 30.1 (0.4 weeks did not fail CPAP. Frequency, duration and tidal volumes (VT of expiratory holds (EHs, peak inspiratory flows, CPAP-level and FiO2-levels were analysed.EH incidence increased 9 ml/kg with higher peak inspiratory flows than CPAP-fail infants (71.8 ± 15.8 vs. 15.5 ± 5.2 ml/kg.s, p <0.05. CPAP-fail infants required higher FiO2 (0.31 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.01, higher CPAP pressures (6.62 ± 0.3 vs. 5.67 ± 0.26 cmH2O and more positive pressure-delivered breaths (45 ± 12 vs. 19 ± 9% (p <0.05.At 9-12 minutes after birth, CPAP-fail infants more commonly used lower VTs and required higher peak inspiratory flow rates while receiving greater respiratory support. VT was less variable and larger VT was infrequently used reflecting early signs of fatigue.

  17. Asian infants show preference for own-race but not other-race female faces: the role of infant caregiving arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoying; Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Zhu, Dandan; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that 3- to 4-month-olds show a visual preference for faces of the same gender as their primary caregiver (e.g., Quinn et al., 2002). In addition, this gender preference has been observed for own-race faces, but not for other-race faces (Quinn et al., 2008). However, most of the studies of face gender preference have focused on infants at 3-4 months. Development of gender preference in later infancy is still unclear. Moreover, all of these studies were conducted with Caucasian infants from Western countries. It is thus unknown whether a gender preference that is limited to own-race faces can be generalized to infants from other racial groups and different cultures with distinct caregiving practices. The current study investigated the face gender preferences of Asian infants presented with male versus female face pairs from Asian and Caucasian races at 3, 6, and 9 months and the role of caregiving arrangements in eliciting those preferences. The results showed an own-race female face preference in 3- and 6-month-olds, but not in 9-month-olds. Moreover, the downturn in the female face preference correlated with the cumulative male face experience obtained in caregiving practices. In contrast, no gender preference or correlation between gender preference and face experience was found for other-race Caucasian faces at any age. The data indicate that the face gender preference is not specifically rooted in Western cultural caregiving practices. In addition, the race dependency of the effect previously observed for Caucasian infants reared by Caucasian caregivers looking at Caucasian but not Asian faces extends to Asian infants reared by Asian caregivers looking at Asian but not Caucasian faces. The findings also provide additional support for an experiential basis for the gender preference, and in particular suggest that cumulative male face experience plays a role in inducing a downturn in the preference in older infants.

  18. Asian infants show preference for own-race but not other-race female faces: The role of infant caregiving arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that 3- to 4-month-olds show a visual preference for faces of the same gender as their primary caregiver (e.g., Quinn et al., 2002. In addition, this gender preference has been observed for own-race faces, but not for other-race faces (Quinn et al., 2008 However, most of the studies of face gender preference have focused on infants at 3 to 4 months. Development of gender preference in later infancy is still unclear. Moreover, all of these studies were conducted with Caucasian infants from Western countries. It is thus unknown whether a gender preference that is limited to own-race faces can be generalized to infants from other racial groups and different cultures with distinct caregiving practices. The current study investigated the face gender preferences of Asian infants presented with male versus female face pairs from Asian and Caucasian races at 3, 6, and 9 months and the role of caregiving arrangements in eliciting those preferences. The results showed an own-race female face preference in 3- and 6-month-olds, but not in 9-month-olds. Moreover, the downturn in the female face preference correlated with the cumulative male face experience obtained in caregiving practices. In contrast, no gender preference or correlation between gender preference and face experience was found for other-race Caucasian faces at any age. The data indicate that the face gender preference is not specifically rooted in Western cultural caregiving practices. In addition, the race dependency of the effect previously observed for Caucasian infants reared by Caucasian caregivers looking at Caucasian but not Asian faces extends to Asian infants reared by Asian caregivers looking at Asian but not Caucasian faces. The findings also provide additional support for an experiential basis for the gender preference, and in particular suggest that cumulative male face experience plays a role in inducing a downturn in the preference in older

  19. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

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    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics.

  20. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

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    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  1. Preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched formula until 6 months show improved growth and development.

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    Jeon, Ga Won; Jung, Yu Jin; Koh, Sun Young; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Kyung Ah; Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Sung Shin; Shim, Jae Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched preterm formula to preterm infants until 6 months' corrected age (CA) on growth and development in the first 18 months of life. Very low-birthweight preterm infants were fed preterm formula until term (40 weeks CA). Infants were then assigned to one of three groups and were fed term formula until 6 months' CA (group 1, n= 29); preterm formula to 3 months' CA and then term formula to 6 months' CA (group 2, n= 30); or preterm formula until 6 months' CA (group 3, n= 31). Anthropometry was performed at term, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and at s18 months' CA. Mental and psychomotor development were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 18 months' CA. Although body weight, length, head circumference and z score for CA at term in group 3 were significantly lower than those of groups 1 and 2, growth rates of these parameters were significantly higher in group 3 up to 18 months CA', as compared to groups 1 and 2. The mental developmental index and psychomotor developmental index of the Bayley test were not significantly different between the three groups. Very low-birthweight preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched preterm formula until 6 months' CA demonstrated significantly improved growth rates for bodyweight, length and head circumference, and comparable mental and psychomotor development throughout the first 18 months of life. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Identification and Understanding of Pre-term Birth at Kintampo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    A newborn assessment tool was designed to address the gap in data collection identified during the study (Afr J Reprod Health 2011; 15[4]:. 98-105). Résumé ..... No Bathing/Dec. Exposure. Yes. 3. 21. No. 11. 79. Views on infant life. Respondents related their views of infant life. The importance and significance of infant life ...

  3. Nephrocalcinosis in pre-term neonates: A study of incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal B Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis (NC in pre-term neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at the Al-Minya University, Egypt. The study included 97 pre-term neonates with a gestational age 34 weeks. Data on duration of hospitalization, sex, gestation, birth weight, family history of renal stone, need for respiratory support, intake of calcium and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN and nephrotoxic drugs were collected. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphate were measured within the first week of life and again at term. Blood gases, urinary pH, urinary calcium/creatinine (U Ca/Cr ratio and urinary oxalate/creatinine (U Ox/Cr ratio were measured once at term. Three renal ultrasound (US scans were performed; one before the first week of life, the second at term and the third at a corrected age of one year. Of the 97 infants studied, 14 (14.4% developed NC diagnosed by renal US at term. NC was bilateral in 11 infants. Factors significantly associated with NC were gestational age, need for respiratory support, high calcium intake, TPN, use of post-natal dexamethasone, furosemide, theophylline, and/or aminoglycosides and U Ca/Cr ratio and U Ox/Cr ratio (all P < 0.05. Low gestational age (P = 0.004, use of respiratory support (P = 0.005, furosemide therapy (P = 0.002 and increased U Ca/Cr ratio (P = 0.001 were the strongest independent risk factors after logistic regression analysis. Eight of the 14 infants (57.1% with NC had spontaneous resolution of calcification at a corrected age of one year. Screening at term with a renal US scan and long-term follow-up of renal function is needed for early diagnosis and better management of NC. Future research pertaining to prevention of NC in pre-term neonates is required.

  4. Infants with complex congenital heart diseases show poor short-term memory in the mobile paradigm at 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Harrison, Tondi; Heathcock, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning, short-term memory and general development including cognitive, motor, and language domains in infants with Complex Congenital Heart Defects (CCDH). Ten infants with CCHD (4 males, 6 females) and 14 infants with typical development (TD) were examined at 3 months of age. The mobile paradigm, where an infant's leg is tethered to an overhead mobile, was used to evaluate learning and short-term memory. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition (Bayley-III) was used to evaluate general development in cognitive, motor, and language domains. Infants with CCHD and infants with TD both showed learning with significant increase in kicking rate (pshort-term memory (p=0.017) in the mobile paradigm. There were no differences on cognitive, motor, and language development between infants with CCHD and infants with TD on the Bayley-III. Early assessment is necessary to guide targeted treatment in infants with CCHD. One-time assessment may fail to detect potential cognitive impairments during early infancy in infants with CCHD. Supportive intervention programs for infants with CCHD that focuses on enhancing short-term memory are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in globus pallidus with (pre)term kernicterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Govaert (Paul); R.M.C. Swarte (Renate); S.G.F. Robben (Simon); I.F.M. de Coo (René); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); M. Sinaasappel (Maarten); J. Barkovich (James); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); M.H. Lequin (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: We report serial magnetic resonance (MR) and sonographic behavior of globus pallidus in 5 preterm and 3 term infants with kernicterus and describe the clinical context in very low birth weight preterm infants. On the basis of this information, we suggest

  6. Efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerine in idiopathic pre-term labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shahida; Shaikh, Abdul Hameed; Akhter, Saleem; Isran, Basma

    2012-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of transdermal Nitroglycerine patch in idiopathic pre-term labour and foetomaternal outcome. This quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Obstetrics Unit-II of Shaikh Zayed Hospital for Women, Chandka Medical College, Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University, Larkana, from Jan 1 to June 30, 2010. Sixtyfive pregnant women at 28-34 weeks of gestation were recruited after they met the selection criteria based on non-probability consecutive sampling. Initially, 73 patients were selected, but 65 of them completed the treatment, while 8 patients refused to continue. Patients diagnosed with pre-term labour were given glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 5 mg/12 hours transdermal patch which was applied on the anterior abdominal wall. The second patch of same dose was given after 12 hours. Arrest of labour, prolongation of pregnancy in days or weeks along with side effects of the agent were monitored. Patients were followed till delivery to know the foeto-maternal outcome. Dramatic effects were seen in around 60 (92.3%), of the total patients who had felt relief from premature labour pains within the first hour and only 5 (7.6%) patients could not go beyond 24 hours, as among them 3 (4.61%) had previous uterine scar and 2 (3.07%) developed ruptured membranes after 12 hours of admission and their babies also could not survive. Mean pregnancy prolongation was 15.35 +/- 9.45 days (min: 4 max: 35), so delivery was deferred up to 48 hours, 3 to 7 days and more than 7 days in 4 (6.15%), 6 (9.23%) and 50 (76.92%) respectively. Glyceryl trinitrate, trans dermal patch is effective and safe tocolytic in idiopathic preterm labour. By prolonging pregnancy it improves neonatal outcome.

  7. A boy infant with sleep related rhythmic movement disorder showing arm banging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2014-09-01

    Discussion: We diagnosed him as having arm banging type of sleep related rhythmic movement disorder. To our knowledge, no precise description on this type of sleep related rhythmic movement disorder has been found. In addition, this patient seemed to be the youngest case of sleep related rhythmic movement disorder showing arm banging.

  8. Recurrent gastric lactobezoar in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leonor; Berenguer, Alberto; Pilar, Carla; Gonçalves, Rute; Nunes, José L

    2014-07-01

    Lactobezoars are a type of bezoar composed of undigested milk and mucus. The aetiology is likely multifactorial, being classically described in association with pre-term, low-birth weight infants fed with hyperconcentrated formula. The authors present a case of lactobezoar recurrence in a pre-term infant with oesophageal atresia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of recurrence of lactobezoar.

  9. Factors influencing the incidence of pre-term birth in Calabar, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women who had pre-term birth in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, over a 2 ½ year period were studied. The aim was to establish the factors influencing the incidence of pre-term birth in Calabar. Factors which significantly increase the incidence of pre-term delivery included: previous induced abortion ...

  10. Níveis de ferro, cobre e zinco em colostro de puérperas adultas de recém-nascidos a termo e pré-termo, segundo variáveis maternas e socioeconômicas Levels of iron, copper and zinc in the colostrum of adult puerpera of term and pre-term infants, as a function of maternal and socioeconomic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli S. S. da Costa

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever os níveis de Fe, Cu e Zn em amostras de colostro de puérperas adultas brasileiras de recém-nascidos a termo (RNAT e pré-termo (RNPT e avaliar a influência das variáveis maternas (idade materna, estado nutricional pré-gestacional, paridade, intercorrências gestacionais, renda familiar per capita e condições de saneamento sobre os níveis desses oligoelementos, visando apontar as mulheres em risco de produzirem colostro com menores níveis destes minerais. MÉTODOS: coletaram-se 50 amostras de colostro de puérperas de RNAT e 38 de puérperas de RNPT, do Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Os oligoelementos foram analisados através da técnica de Fluorescência de Raios X por Reflexão Total com radiação Síncrotron. RESULTADOS: os níveis de Fe nos grupos RNPT e RNAT foram semelhantes (p > 0,05. As concentrações de Cu foram maiores no colostro de RNPT (p OBJECTIVES: to investigate the concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn in samples of colostrum from Brazilian adult women puerpera of term infants (TI and pre-term infants (PTI and to evaluate the influence of some maternal variables (age, pre-pregnancy nutritional status, parity, maternal health alterations during the gestational period, per capita familiar income and living conditions on the concentration of those elements, aiming to identify the women who were prone to produce colostrum with low levels of oligoelements. METHODS: 50 samples of colostrum from puerpera of TI and 38 from puerpera of PTI were collected from women interned at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. The levels of trace elements were determined by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF with Synchrotron Radiation. RESULTS: no differences were observed in the Fe levels between PTI and TI groups (p > 0,05. The Cu concentrations were higher in the PTI colostrum (p < 0,05 and those of Zn were higher in the TI colostrum (p < 0,05. We observed

  11. Randomised study showed that recorded maternal voices reduced pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, G; Cabano, R; Villa, G; Bigogno, A; Ardesi, M; Dioni, E

    2017-10-01

    Alleviating pain in neonates should be the goal of all caregivers. We evaluated whether recorded maternal voices were safe and effective in limiting pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit of an Italian children's hospital. This prospective, controlled study took place from December 2013 to December 2015. We enrolled 40 preterm infants, born at a 26-34 weeks of gestation, at a corrected gestational age 29-36 weeks and randomised them to listen or not listen to a recording of their mother's voice during a painful, routine heel lance for blood collection. Changes in the infants' Premature Infant Pain Profile, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure during the procedure were compared by analysis of variance. Possible side effects, of apnoea, bradycardia, seizures and vomiting, were also recorded. Both groups showed a marked increase in PIPP scores and decrease in oxygen saturation during the procedure, but infants in the treatment group had significantly lower PIPP scores (p = 0.00002) and lower decreases in oxygen saturation (p = 0.0283). No significant side effects were observed. Using recorded maternal voices to limit pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures appeared safe and effective. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Neonatal septicemia: differences in full-term and pre-term newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Ramírez, J; Sánchez-Saucedo, L U

    1990-04-01

    Neonatal septicemia was assessed by blood cultures in 115 newborns (NB) during a two years study in a pediatric hospital of reference in Mexico City. The studied patients were divided in two groups of gestational age, and the differences of etiologic agents, clinical signs, laboratory findings and clinical outcome were compared at term and preterm neonates. We observed Staphylococcus epidermidis became the first cause of septicemia in at term NB (P less than 0.001), while Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (P less than 0.01) were more frequent in the preterm neonates. The clinical manifestations of fever (P less than 0.001), hepatomegaly (P less than 0.01), splenomegaly (P less than 0.05), and rejection to feeding (P less than 0.05) were more common in at term NB. On the other hand, apneas (P less than 0.01), hypothermia (P less than 0.02), and abdominal distension (P less than 0.05) were more frequent in the preterm NB. The altered white blood cell counts were more commonly observed in the preterm group, as leukopenia (P less than 0.05), neutropenia (P less than 0.01), and high I/T ratio (P less than 0.05). There were not significant differences in complications or sequels between the two groups; however, the mortality ratio was higher in the preterm NB group (P less than 0.02). Changing etiology of neonatal septicemia is discussed, and we propose these kind of data are very useful for purpose of detection, diagnostic and treatment of septic neonates.

  13. Pesticides exposure through environment and risk of pre-term birth: a study from Agra city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M; Singh, L; Agarwal, P; Saroj, R; Taneja, A

    2017-12-18

    Pre-term birth is an increasingly prevalent complex condition with multiple risk factors including environmental pollutants. Evidences linking organochlorine pesticides with adverse pregnancy outcomes are inconsistent for link between organochlorine pesticides and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a case-control study of 50 cases of full-term births and 40 cases of pre-term births in this study. Placental organochlorine pesticides like metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane that is, (p,p-DDE, p,p-DDT and o,p-DDD) and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (α, β, γ and δ HCH) were analyzed by gas chromatography. Although the mean levels of pesticide were found higher in the placenta of the women with pre-term delivery cases placentas, but only α-HCH, total-HCH, p,p-DDE and total-DDT were found statistically significant. It was observed that pesticide exposed women were approximately 1.7 times more likely to deliver pre-term baby as compare to pregnant women that were not exposed to any pesticides. We also observed that increasing maternal age reduced the risk of having pre-term birth (OR = 0.99). Among all pesticides, α-HCH was found to be strongest isomer to induce premature baby birth (p term births.

  14. Outcomes of Pre-Term Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Pre-term premature rupture of fetal membranes (pPROM) contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. These include chorioamnionitis, prematurity and still-births. Various microbial organisms have been implicated. Few studies have been done on pPROM in this environment. Objectives: To determine ...

  15. Pressure-actuated microfluidic devices for electrophoretic separation of pre-term birth biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahore, V; Kumar, S; Rogers, C I; Jensen, J K; Sonker, M; Woolley, A T

    2016-01-01

    We have developed microfluidic devices with pressure-driven injection for electrophoretic analysis of amino acids, peptides, and proteins. The novelty of our approach lies in the use of an externally actuated on-chip peristaltic pump and closely spaced pneumatic valves that allow well-defined, small-volume sample plugs to be injected and separated by microchip electrophoresis. We fabricated three-layer poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The fluidic layer had injection and separation channels, and the control layer had an externally actuated on-chip peristaltic pump and four pneumatic valves around the T-intersection to carry out sample injection. An unpatterned PDMS membrane layer was sandwiched between the fluidic and control layers as the actuated component in pumps and valves. Devices with the same peristaltic pump design but different valve spacings (100, 200, 300, and 400 μm) from the injection intersection were fabricated using soft lithographic techniques. Devices were characterized through fluorescent imaging of captured plugs of a fluorescein-labeled amino acid mixture and through microchip electrophoresis separations. A suitable combination of peak height, separation efficiency, and analysis time was obtained with a peristaltic pump actuation rate of 50 ms, an injection time of 30 s, and a 200-μm valve spacing. We demonstrated the injection of samples in different solutions and were able to achieve a 2.4-fold improvement in peak height and a 2.8-fold increase in separation efficiency though sample stacking. A comparison of pressure-driven injection and electrokinetic injection with the same injection time and separation voltage showed a 3.9-fold increase in peak height in pressure-based injection with comparable separation efficiency. Finally, the microchip systems were used to separate biomarkers implicated in pre-term birth. Although these devices have initially been demonstrated as a stand-alone microfluidic separation tool, they

  16. Risk factors for pre-term birth in a Canadian cohort of HIV-positive women: role of ritonavir boosting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Fatima; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Lamarre, Valerie; Ducruet, Thierry; Amre, Devendra; Soudeyns, Hugo; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of pre-term birth (PTB) associated with the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) during pregnancy remains a subject of debate. Recent data suggest that ritonavir boosting of PIs may play a specific role in the initiation of PTB, through an effect on the maternal–fetal adrenal axis. The primary objective of this study is to compare the risk of PTB among women treated with boosted PI versus non-boosted PIs during pregnancy. Methods Between 1988 and 2011, 705 HIV-positive women were enrolled into the Centre Maternel et Infantile sur le SIDA mother–infant cohort at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine in Montreal, Canada. Inclusion criteria for the study were: 1) attendance at a minimum of two antenatal obstetric visits and 2) singleton live birth, at 24 weeks gestational or older. The association between PTB (defined as delivery at <37 weeks gestational age), antiretroviral drug exposure and maternal risk factors was assessed retrospectively using logistic regression. Results A total of 525 mother–infant pairs were included in the analysis. Among them, PI-based combination anti-retroviral therapy was used in 37.4%, boosted PI based in 24.4%, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based in 28.1%, and no treatment was given in 10.0% of cases. Overall, 13.5% of women experienced PTB. Among women treated with antiretroviral therapy, the risk of PTB was significantly higher among women who received boosted versus non-boosted PI (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.02–3.97). This remained significant after adjusting for maternal age, delivery CD4 count, hepatitis C co-infection, history of previous PTB, and parity (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.05–4.51). There was no increased risk of PTB with the use of unboosted PIs as compared to NNRTI- or NRTI-based regimens. Conclusion While previous studies on the association between PTB and PI use have generally considered all PIs the same, our results would

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of paracetamol across the human age-range from (pre)term neonates, infants, children to adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chenguang; Allegaert, Karel; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; van der Marel, Caroline D.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize the variation in pharmacokinetics of paracetamol across the human age span, we performed a population pharmacokinetic analysis from preterm neonates to adults with specific focus on clearance. Concentration-time data obtained in 220 neonates (post-natal age 1-76 days,

  18. Prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

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    O. A. Mokuolu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, over 900,000 children under the age of five years die every year. Early neonatal death is responsible for a little over 20% of these deaths. Prematurity remains a significant cause of these early neonatal deaths. In some series, it is reported to be responsible for 60-70% of these deaths. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin. This was a prospective cohort study conducted over a 9-month period at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Records of deliveries and data on maternal socio-biological and antenatal variables were collected during this period in order to determine the prevalence and determinants of pre-term deliveries. Out of the 2,489 deliveries that took place over a 9-month period, there were 293 pre-terms, giving a pre-term delivery rate of 120 per 1,000 deliveries. Of the total deliveries, 1,522 singleton deliveries that satisfied inclusion criteria were recruited; 185 of them were pre-term deliveries giving a case:control ratio of 1:7. Significant determinants of pre-term delivery identified were previous pre-term delivery (P=0.001; OR=3.55; 95% CI=1.71-7.30, antepartum hemorrhage (P=0.000; OR=8.95; 95%CI=4.06-19.78, premature rupture of the membranes (P=0.000; OR=6.48; 95%CI=4.33-9.67, maternal urinary tract infection (P=0.006; OR=5.89; 95%CI=1.16-27.57, pregnancy induced hypertension (P=0.007; OR=3.23; 95%CI=2.09-4.99, type of labor (P=0.000; OR=6.44; 95%CI=4.42-9.38 and booking status (P=0.000; OR=4.67; 95%CI=3.33-6.56. The prevalence of pre-term delivery was 120 per 1,000 live births. Factors significantly associated with pre-term delivery were low socio-economic class, previous pre-term delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of fetal membranes, urinary tract infection, pregnancy induced hypertension, induced labor, and booking elsewhere outside the teaching hospital.

  19. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  20. Distribution of invariant natural killer T cells and dendritic cells in late pre-term birth without acute chorioamnionitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Yasuyuki; Shima, Yoshio; Takeshita, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2017-06-01

    Acute chorioamnionitis (aCAM) is an important cause of pre-term birth. However, little is known about the pathogenesis of late pre-term birth without aCAM that was the most common category of pre-term birth. Here we analyze the kinetics of immune cells obtained from the decidua of women with late pre-term births with and without aCAM. Deciduas were obtained from women who underwent labor with late pre-term birth without aCAM (PB-n/aCAM) or with aCAM (PB-w/aCAM). The population of DEC-205 + dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, NK cells, CD8 + T cells, and CD4 + T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The number of iNKT cells was higher in the decidua obtained from women with PB-n/aCAM than PB-w/aCAM. DEC-205 + DCs obtained from women with PB-n/aCAM preferentially induced iNKT cell proliferation. iNKT cell accumulation with DEC-205 + DCs in PB-n/aCAM suggests that iNKT cells contribute to the onset of PB-n/aCAM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fetal lipopolysaccharide exposure modulates diet-dependent gut maturation and sensitivity to necrotising enterocolitis in pre-term pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Schmidt, Mette; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    that improve resistance towards necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. At approximately 85% gestation, pig fetuses were injected intramuscularly with saline or LPS (0.014 mg/kg), or intra-amniotically with LPS (0.4 mg/kg). Pigs were delivered by caesarean section 3–5 d later and fed colostrum (C......Uterine infections during pregnancy predispose to pre-term birth and postnatal morbidity, but it is unknown how prenatal bacterial exposure affects maturation of the immature gut. We hypothesised that a prenatal exposure to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has immunomodulatory effects...

  2. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  3. Thymosin beta(4 and beta(10 levels in pre-term newborn oral cavity and foetal salivary glands evidence a switch of secretion during foetal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Nemolato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thymosin beta(4, its sulfoxide, and thymosin beta(10 were detected in whole saliva of human pre-term newborns by reversed-phase high performance chromatography coupled to electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite high inter-individual variability, concentration of beta-thymosins increases with an inversely proportional trend to postmenstrual age (PMA: gestational age plus chronological age after birth reaching a value more than twenty times higher than in adult whole saliva at 190 days (27 weeks of PMA (thymosin beta(4 concentration: more than 2.0 micromol/L versus 0.1 micromol/L. On the other hand, the ratio between thymosin beta(4 and thymosin beta(10 exhibits a constant value of about 4 along all the range of PMA (190-550 days of PMA examined. In order to investigate thymosin beta(4 origin and to better establish the trend of its production as a function of gestational age (GA, immunohistochemical analysis of major and minor salivary glands of different pre-term fetuses were carried out, starting from 84 days (12 weeks of gestational age. Reactive granules were seen in all glands with a maximum of expression around 140-150 days of GA, even though with high inter- and intra-individual variability. In infants and adults reactive granules in acinar cells were not observed, but just a diffuse cytoplasmatic staining in ductal cells. SIGNIFICANCE: This study outlines for the first time that salivary glands during foetal life express and secrete peptides such as beta-thymosins probably involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes. The secretion increases from about 12 weeks till to about 21 weeks of GA, subsequently it decreases, almost disappearing in the period of expected date of delivery, when the gland switches towards the secretion of adult specific salivary peptides. The switch observed may be an example of further secretion switches involving other exocrine and endocrine

  4. MUSCLE POWER, SITTING UNSUPPORTED AND TRUNK ROTATION IN PRETERM INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGROOT, L; HOPKINS, B; TOUWEN, B

    1995-01-01

    Discrepancies between active and passive muscle power are often seen in pre-term infants over the first year. Generally of a transient nature, they are most obvious in the extensor muscles of the trunk where there is a high active muscle power relative to the passive component. While high active

  5. Parenting the Premature Infant: Balancing Vulnerability and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, C.; Eiser, J. R.; Mayhew, A. G.; Gibson, A. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Relationships between child quality of life (QOL), maternal well-being and parenting were explored in a questionnaire study. Method: Mothers of 126 full-term (FT) and 91 pre-term (PT) infants during the child's second year of life completed measures of their own and the child's quality of life and behavioural difficulties. We developed…

  6. The Maternal Serological Response to Intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. Infection and Prediction of Risk of Pre-Term Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Demelza J; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Pre-term birth (PTB) associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI) is the major cause of early PTB less than 32 weeks of gestation. Ureaplasma spp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganisms in amniotic fluid of pre-term pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intra-amniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma sp. colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature, and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms are key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars) and the timing, magnitude, and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome.

  7. Mildly abnormal general movement quality in infants is associated with higher Mead acid and lower arachidonic acid and shows a U-shaped relation with the DHA/AA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Goor, S A; Schaafsma, A; Erwich, J J H M; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2010-01-01

    We showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation was associated with more mildly abnormal (MA) general movements (GMs) in the infants. Since this finding was unexpected and inter-individual DHA intakes are highly variable, we explored the relationship between GM quality and erythrocyte DHA, arachidonic acid (AA), DHA/AA and Mead acid in 57 infants of this trial. MA GMs were inversely related to AA, associated with Mead acid, and associated with DHA/AA in a U-shaped manner. These relationships may indicate dependence of newborn AA status on synthesis from linoleic acid. This becomes restricted during the intrauterine period by abundant de novo synthesis of oleic and Mead acids from glucose, consistent with reduced insulin sensitivity during the third trimester. The descending part of the U-shaped relation between MA GMs and DHA/AA probably indicates DHA shortage next to AA shortage. The ascending part may reflect a different developmental trajectory that is not necessarily unfavorable. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Activated umbilical cord blood cells from pre-term and term neonates express CD69 and synthesize IL-2 but are unable to produce IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cérbulo-Vázquez, Arturo; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The immune response exhibits quantitative and qualitative differences throughout human development. Both phenotypical and functional immaturity of newborn immune cellular components have been reported. We aimed to analyze possible differences in cellular activation assessed by expression of surface CD69 and cytokine production in mononuclear peripheral blood cells from premature (term (>37 weeks of gestation) neonates compared to adult donors. Ten persons from each group were selected; none was infected, immunodepressed, under medical treatment, or had any congenital abnormalities. Blood was obtained from umbilical cord of term and pre-term donors and vein punction of adults. All samples were collected in heparin and subsequently activated with PHA-L or PMA plus ionomycin at 37 degrees C for 4 h. After incubation, cells were labeled to determine CD69 expression on CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD19+, and CD16+56+ subpopulations. Intracellular staining was performed to analyze IFN-gamma, IL-2, and CD69 in CD3+ cells. After staining, cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. We first found a substantially higher number of CD3+CD4+CD69+ cells in premature and term neonates than in adults. Secondly, percentage of CD3+CD8+, CD56+, and CD19+ cells expressing CD69 was similar among the three groups. Thirdly, expression of CD69 was higher in CD19+ cells than in CD16+56+ cells of all three groups. Regarding cytokine production, IFN-gamma was detected only in cells from adults and was consistent in all individuals analyzed. In sharp contrast, IL-2 and intracellular CD69 (iCD69) were detected in all three groups, with no significant differences among them. Induction of IL-2 and iCD69 showed that lack of response with IFN-gamma was restricted to pre-term and newborn populations. In summary, our results showed that a) CD69 is an early activation marker of both mononuclear umbilical cord and peripheral blood cells activated by a mitogenic stimulus, and b) newborn CD3+ cells probably lack

  9. Human Milk Shows Immunological Advantages Over Organic Milk Samples For Infants in the Presence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS in 3D Energy Maps Using an Organic Nanobiomimetic Memristor/Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-H. DUH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is well known for its immunological advantages of protection and support for healthy early childhood cognitive development and prevention of chronic diseases over cow milk for infants. However, little is known about how the immunological advantages are linked to reduce Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO regarding neural synapse net energy outcomes when lipopolysaccharide (LPS attacks at a clinical concentration range compared with that in cow milk in a 3D energy map. We developed a nanostructure biomimetic memristor/memcapacitor device with a dual function of chronoamperometric (CA sensing/voltage sensing for the direct quantitative evaluation of immunological advantages between human milk and organic cow milk for infants in the presence of wide LPS concentration ranges; those ranges were between 5.0 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL and from 50 ng/mL to 1 µg/mL for both a CA and a voltage method, respectively. The Detection of Limit (DOL results are as follows: 3.73×10-18 g LPS vs. 1.2×10-16 g LPS in 40 µL milk samples using the 3.11×10-7cm3 voltage sensor and the 0.031cm2 CA sensor, respectively, under antibody-free and reagent-free conditions. The 3D energy map results show that cow milk is ten-times more prone to E. Coli attack, and the positive link was revealed that Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO formations occurred over the studied LPS concentration range from 50 ng/mL up to 1000 ng/mL from Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep frequency, fast gamma frequency to Sharp Wave-Ripple Complexes (SPW- R frequency. There had no pHFO with human milk samples at Slow Wave Sleeping (SWS, REM and SPW- R frequencies. The microbiota in the human milk samples successfully overcame the endotoxin attack from E. coli bacteria, however the pHFO only occurred at fast gamma frequency linked with the LPS level ≥ 500 ng/mL. Organic milk samples show an order of magnitude lower synapse energy density compared with human milk at SWS for with

  10. [Prenatal treatment with magnesium sulphate: Initial clinical outcomes in pre-term infants less than 29 weeks and correlation with neonatal magnesium levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Alonso, Laura; Pumarada Prieto, Marcelino; González Colmenero, Eva; Concheiro Guisán, Ana; Suárez Albo, María; Durán Fernández-Feijoo, Cristina; González Durán, Luisa; Fernández Lorenzo, José Ramón

    2017-03-01

    Antenatal magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) administration has shown to be effective in minimising cerebral palsy and severe motor dysfunction at the age of 2 years. The aim of this study is to analyse the initial clinical outcome of preterm neonates less than 29 weeks who have received prenatal MgSO 4 , as well as to determine the relationship between the magnesium dose delivered to the mother and the magnesium concentration in the neonates. A prospective cohort study was conducted on neonates of less than 29 weeks gestation admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Hospital Universitario de Vigo from December 2012 to July 2015. Comparative analysis was performed on the perinatal outcomes, neonatal morbidity, mortality, and magnesium levels between the groups of neonates exposed to magnesium sulphate and the control group. A total of 42 neonates were included in the study. The mothers of 28 of them had received MgSO4 as a neuroprotective agent. Statistical significance was obtained in the mortality variable. There were no significant differences in the rest of studied variables. There was a significant correlation between the full dose of MgSO4 received by the mother and the levels of magnesium in the neonate in the first 24hours of life (r 2 0.436; P<.001). A lower mortality was observed in the group that had been exposed to MgS04. No significant side effects were found as a result of administering of MgS04. The MgS04 dose received by mother has a linear relationship with the magnesium levels obtained in neonates. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing hypertension in the newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension.

  12. Organizational behavior of the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, M V

    1979-01-01

    The ability of the premature infant to organize behavior was described in relation to auditory, kinesthetic, and vestibular stimulation. Twenty infants from 31--36 weeks gestation were shown to have heart rate responses to auditory stimuli. The 31 week infant showed deceleration, while 32--36 week infants showed comparable patterns of acceleration followed by deceleration.

  13. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Midwest. Top of Page Infant Mortality Rates by Race and Ethnicity, 2015 *Source: Table 1 (p. 79) ... 1.27MB] . In 2015, infant mortality rates by race and ethnicity were as follows: Non-Hispanic black ...

  14. Comparative analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels in pre-term and term babies delivered at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Olorunsola Obasa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P is an enzyme in the hexose monophosphate shunt required for the production of reducing equivalents needed to mop up free radicals. thereby keeping hemoglobin in its free state. Deficiency of the enzyme can cause severe neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to compare G6PD levels in pre-term and term babies, and evaluate the extent to which G6PD deficiency determines the severity of jaundice in various gestational age groups. Samples of cord blood collected from consecutively delivered babies in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were assayed for G6PD levels, and the babies were observed for jaundice during the first week of life. Those who developed jaundice had serial serum bilirubin measured. Nine hundred and thirty-three babies had G6PD assayed, with 348 being G6PD deficient, giving a hospital based prevalence of 37.3%. Of the 644 who were followed up, 143 (22.2% were pre-term and 501(77.8% were term babies. Babies with gestational age (GA 27-29 weeks had the highest G6PD levels. However, there was no significant variation among the different gestational age groups (F=0.64, P=0.64. Jaundice occurred more in pre-term compared to term babies with a relative risk of 2.41 (χ2=60.95, P=0.00001. Occurrence of jaundice in pre-term babies was irrespective of G6PD status (χ2=0.2, P=0.66, RR=1.09, CI=0.83

  15. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  16. Misoprostol for pre-term labor induction in the second trimester: Role of medical history and clinical parameters for prediction of time to delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Liberto, Alexander; Endrikat, Jan; Frohn, Sandra; Solomayer, Erich; Ertan, Kubilay

    2014-01-01

    Serious fetal malformations and/or chromosome aberrations detected by modern diagnostic tools in early pregnancy require discussions on induced abortion with pregnant women. Competent counseling includes prediction of the time needed for the whole abortion process. In an attempt to refine our predictions, we evaluated the impact of 11 medical history and clinical variables on time to delivery. We performed a retrospective chart analysis on 79 women submitted for pre-term abortion because of fetal anomalies. Abortion was induced by vaginal application of misoprostol (prostaglandine E1, Cytotec™, Pfizer, New York, USA). We investigated 11 medical history and clinical variables for their impact on the percentage of women delivering within 24 hours (primary endpoint) and on the mean induction-delivery time interval (secondary endpoint). Fifty-three percent (42/79) of women delivered within 24 hours; 83.6% (66/79) delivered within 48 hours. A total of 83.3% of women with a history of late abortion delivered within 24 hours, whereas 50.7% without this history did. Mean induction-delivery time interval was 12.3 hours versus 35.5 hours, respectively. For history of early abortion, the figures were 65.2% versus 48.2% for delivery within 24 hours and 15.6 hours versus 32.5 hours for mean induction-delivery time interval. Current weight of fetus >500 g, weight of last previous newborn of ≤3500 g, previous pregnancies, premature rupture of membranes, and an elevated CRP of >0.5 mg/dL also cut time to delivery. Surprisingly, maternal and gestational age had no remarkable or consistent impact on the mean induction-delivery time interval. None of the differences reached statistical significance. Eighty-three percent of women needed 1000 μg or less for successful delivery. Neither variables of medical history nor specific clinical variables allow for precise prediction of time to delivery in the second trimester. Certain parameters, however, show a trend to reduce the

  17. Music therapy with hospitalized infants-the art and science of communicative musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, Stephen; Shoemark, Helen; Črnčec, Rudi; Newnham, Carol; Paul, Campbell; Prior, Margot; Coward, Sean; Burnham, Denis

    2012-07-01

    Infants seek contingent, companionable interactions with others. Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), while receiving care that optimizes their chances of survival, often do not have the kind of interactions that are optimal for their social development. Live music therapy (MT) with infants is an intervention that aims for contingent, social interaction between therapist and infant. This study, with a limited numbers of infants, examined the effectiveness of an MT intervention in the NICU at The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne. Two groups of late pre-term and full-term infants were recruited to the study; one was given MT and the other was not. A healthy group of infants not given MT served as an additional control. The effect of MT was indexed using two measures reflecting infant social engagement: the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI) and the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB). Results suggest that the MT intervention used at The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne supports infants' neurobehavioral development. In particular, hospitalized infants who received MT were better able to maintain self-regulation during social interaction with an adult, were less irritable and cried less, and were more positive in their response to adult handling, when compared with infants who did not receive the intervention. These are important prerequisites for social interaction and development. Further and larger scale research using MT with this population is indicated. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces over AD…

  19. Infant reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... twitch their hips toward the touch in a dancing movement. GRASP REFLEX This reflex occurs if you ... Infant reflexes can occur in adults who have: Brain damage Stroke When to Contact a Medical Professional ...

  20. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  1. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Infant Constipation Page Content Parents also worry that their babies ... without success? These signs can all suggest actual constipation. What parents can do: After the first month ...

  2. Infant resilience to the stress of the still-face: infant and maternal psychophysiology are related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jacob; Tronick, Ed

    2006-12-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is related to infant emotion regulation and resilience. However, few studies have examined RSA of infants and mothers during a stressful experience. Even fewer studies have measured infant and mother skin conductance (SC), which in part reflects anxiety. This pilot study examined RSA, heart rate (HR), and SC patterns of 12 five-month-old infants and their mothers during normal interaction and a stressful perturbation of the interaction in which the mother does not respond to her infant-the Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. Dyads were grouped into four categories by two conditions: whether the infant protested to the Still-Face episode (SF) and whether they "recovered" from the SF by reducing protest when the mother resumed interaction in the Reunion (RE). Infants who recovered from the SF had the largest increase in RSA from SF to RE. Mothers of infants who recovered from the SF showed a decrease in RSA during the RE, suggesting mobilization of infant soothing behaviors. Mothers of infants who did not recover from the SF showed physiologic markers of anxiety in the form of continued increases in RSA and high levels of SC. Furthermore, these mothers behaved in a manner that was not responsive to their infant's disengagement cues. These pilot results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring infant SC, a measure long disregarded in infant research. The findings suggest that maternal psychophysiology may be related to infant resilience and suggest a bidirectional effect of maternal and infant reactivity.

  3. Infant Care and Infant Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find ... How many infants are born each year? What steps can help promote an infant’s health before birth? ...

  4. Taking the 'Mother' out of 'Motherese' :young infants' preference for mothers' use of infant-directed speech

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Sheryl H

    1990-01-01

    Previous research on infant perception of speech has shown that infants prefer their mother's voice over the voice of an unfamiliar female. Additionally, infants show a preference for the type of speech that is normally directed towards infants, known as infant-directed (10) speech. The linguistic and prosodic features of 10 speech are typically exaggerated in comparison to speech that is used amongst adults (adult-directed or AD speech). Most previous studies investigating infant preference ...

  5. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  6. Sensibilidade e aleitamento materno em díades com recém-nascidos de risco Breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity in dyads with infants born at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alfaya

    2005-08-01

    filmed at face-to-face situation and evaluated through Mother-Infant Interaction Protocol (Schermann et al. 1994 to assess the maternal behaviors, the infant behaviors and the dyads behaviors. Results showed that maternal sensitivity was very different between groups (p = 0.039; Group III (control group had a better maternal sensitivity. Therefore maternal sensitivity is better in mothers of full-term health infants, than in mothers of pre-term infant and full-term infant who had needed intensive care. Breastfeeding is an important factor to promote a better maternal sensitivity.

  7. Radiological rickets in extremely low birthweight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, A.J.; McIntosh, N.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight infants of birthweight less than 1000 grams who survived for more than 28 days, had wrist X-rays to prospectively determine the incidence of radiological rickets. Twelve infants (25%) had normal X-rays throughout, 10 infants (21%) showed osteopoenia and 26 infants (54%) had classical changes or rickets of which 8 (17% of the total) had spontaneous fractures. There was poor correlation between peak values of serum alkaline phosphatase and the radiological changes.

  8. [Development of oral function and eating habits of infants living in a city area of Japan: in relation to the results of dental health examinations of infants aged 14 months at public health centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Natsuko; Maruyama, Rieko; Nakamura, Fusako; Tsuchiya, Ritsuko; Inoue, Mitsuko; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between eruption of deciduous teeth and eating habits determined by health examinations of infants. We verified eruption of deciduous teeth based on observations of 455 fourteen-month-old infants at health examinations in a ward of Tokyo, and performed a questionnaire survey involving their mothers regarding the hardness of infants' meals and their eating habits. We examined 420 infants excluding 17 whose births were 'pre-term delivery (born at or before 36 weeks)' and 18 whose questionnaire had excessive omissions. The percentage of infants who began a weaning diet at 5 to 6 months of age was 81.4%, and 71.2% of mothers considered their infant's age in months before starting a weaning diet. We divided the children into three stages: those not showing full eruption of the eight front deciduous teeth (stage I, 27.4%); those with full eruptions of the eight front deciduous teeth excluding the first primary molars (stage II, 61.9%); those with full eruptions of the first primary molars (stage III, 10.7%). Most mothers cooked meals considering the hardness of the gingival gums (stage I; 53.5%, stage II; 54.4%, stage III; 40.0%). The percentage of mothers who cooked meals considering the hardness of the primary molars was 14.0 and 15.1% in stages I and II, respectively. In addition, the percentage who cooked meals while considering the hardness in relation to adult meals was 7.0, 9.7, and 24.4% in stages I, II, and III, respectively. Moreover, the percentage considering the salt-taste in relation to adult meals was 13.2, 17.3, and 22.2% in stages I, II, and III, respectively. In the present study, we obtained valuable data showing that the timing deciduous teeth eruption varies among individuals. These results suggested that nutritional education on the appropriate quality of meals for infants based on their state of deciduous teeth eruption is necessary.

  9. Emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes (EOAET: amplitude da resposta em recém-nascidos a termo e pré-termo Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE: response amplitude in term and pre-term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C. A. Bassetto

    2003-01-01

    post-conception age. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 526 newborns, 440 born at term and 86 pre-term neonates divided in two groups: one with post-conception age varying from 31 to 36 weeks and the second one with post-conception age varying from 37 to 44 weeks. The TEOAE test was performed in a non-acoustically treated environment with ILO 88 - Otodynamics Otoacoustic Emission Analyzer, in the Quickscreener mode. RESULTS: The results showed a statistically significant asymmetric mean amplitude response in favor of the right ear, the females, the high frequency bands and the newborns with higher post-conception age. These differences observed between the mean amplitudes of the TEOAE of term and pre-term newborns suggest that the amplitude of TEOAE, besides providing an evidence of the integrity of the peripheral auditory system, may be used as an indicator of the maturation of the peripheral auditory system in newborns.

  10. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  11. Parenting Your Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sing songs. Show and talk about simple picture books. This is the way your baby learns how to talk. Infants Love To Explore You may have noticed that your baby is becoming interested in everything within reach, especially simple toys with bright colors and ...

  12. Reliability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale Using Recorded Video Observations Among the Preterm Infants in India: A Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Kirthika S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of motor function is a vital characteristic of infant development. Alberta Infant Motor scale (AIMS is considered to be one of the tool available for screening the developmental delays, but this scale was formulated by using western samples. Every country has its own ethnic and cultural background and various differences are observed in the culture and ethnicity. Therefore, there is a need to obtain reliability for the use of AIMS in south Indian population. Purpose: To find the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS on pre-term infants using the recorded video observations in Indian population. Method: 30 preterm infants in three age groups, 0-3 months (10 infants, 4-7 months (10 infants, 8-18 months (10 infants were recruited for this reliability study. The AIMS was administered to the preterm infants and the performance was videotaped. The performance was then rescored by the same therapist, immediately from the video and on another two consecutive months to estimate intra-rater reliability using ICC (3,1, two-way mixed effects model. For reporting inter-rater reliability, AIMS was scored by three different raters, using ICC (2,k two-way random effects model and by two other therapists to examine the inter and intra-rater reliability. Results: The two-way mixed effects model for intra-rater reliability of AIMS, ICC (3,1 = 0.99 and for reporting inter-rater reliability of AIMS by two-way random effects model, ICC (2,k = 0.96. Conclusion: AIMS has excellent intra and inter-rater reliability using recorded video observations among the preterm infants in India

  13. Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iron-fortified formula.Some formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow’s milk. If your baby seems ... cow’s milk, your doctor may suggest using a soy-milk formula.If you’re not breastfeeding, use infant ...

  14. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  15. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reflux and GERD in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when the infant begins to show symptoms including refusal to feed, poor weight gain, breathing problems and ... medical advice. It is not a substitute for care by a trained medical provider. GIKids is not ...

  17. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  18. Hexachlorophene lesions in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowdy, J M; Ulsamer, A G

    1976-03-01

    Vacuolization of the white matter of the brain is produced by a number of disease entities and chemicals, including hexachlorophene. Brains of 135 stillborn infants and infants dying in the neonatal period were examined for vacuole formation in the white matter to determine if any hexachlorophene-like lesions could be found. A nonsignificant excess of vaculoes was found in infants bathed in hexachlorophene at birth compared with infants not bathed in it. Analysis of 11 brains for hexachlorophene showed that detectable levels were present in five, all of which showed vacuolization. None was detected in the remaining six, three of which also showed vacuolization. In two of these there was no hexachlorophene exposure.

  19. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  20. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  1. Go naked: diapers affect infant walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G; Lingeman, Jesse M; Adolph, Karen E

    2012-11-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers - habitually worn by most infants in the sample - incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants' own diapers constitute an ongoing biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Infant Neurobehavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Miller, Robin J.; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C.; Padbury, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies mediating factors that are likely to accompany the change to a single-room NICU. These mediating factors include family centered care, developmental care, parenting and family factors, staff behavior and attitudes, and medical practices. Medical outcomes that plan to be measured are sepsis, length of stay, gestational age at discharge, weight gain, illness severity, gestational age at enteral feeding, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Neurobehavioral outcomes include the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) scores, sleep state organization and sleep physiology, infant mother feeding interaction scores, and pain scores. Preliminary findings on the sample of 150 patients in the open-bay NICU showed a “baseline” of effects of family centered care, developmental care, parent satisfaction, maternal depression, and parenting stress on the neurobehavioral outcomes of the newborn. The single-room NICU has the potential to improve the neurobehavioral status of the infant at discharge. Neurobehavioral assessment can assist with early detection and therefore preventative intervention to maximize developmental outcome. We also present an epigenetic model of the potential effects of maternal care on improving infant neurobehavioral status. PMID:21255702

  3. Crecimiento en recién nacidos prematuros de muy bajo peso natal Growth of very low birthweight pre-term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mayvel Espinosa Reyes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la expectativa de crecimiento óptimo de recién nacidos pretérminos, cuyos pesos al nacer fueron muy bajos, no está totalmente dilucidada, lo cierto es que esta población no crece de forma homogénea. Objetivos: caracterizar el crecimiento posnatal durante el primer año de vida, y determinar los factores asociados al crecimiento recuperador de esos recién nacidos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal prospectivo, que incluyó a los prematuros con peso natal inferior a 1 500 g nacidos en 4 hospitales ginecobstétricos de Ciudad de La Habana, entre el 1ro. de enero de 2005 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007. Resultados: la muestra estuvo conformada por 73 pacientes, 37 del sexo femenino (50,7 %. El 60,2 % nació entre las 32-36 semanas de gestación, el 50,6 % con un peso entre 1 200-1 399 g, y el 36 % con una talla entre 38-40,9 cm. A los 3 meses el 70 % se encontró por debajo del 3 percentil de talla/edad y peso/edad, y al año más del 50 % alcanzó percentiles normales. La menor edad gestacional, el embarazo único, la lactancia materna exclusiva (68,5 %, su mayor duración, así como la ausencia de infecciones, se relacionaron con mayor ganancia de peso, con significación estadística. Conclusiones: los recién nacidos pretérmino y de muy bajo peso al nacer tienen un ritmo de crecimiento acelerado durante el primer año de vida. Este crecimiento recuperador está relacionado con factores perinatales, posnatales y nutricionales.Introduction: the expectations of optimal growth of preterm newborns, whose birthweights were very low, are not totally clear; the real thing is that this population does not show homogeneous growth. Objectives: to characterize the postnatal growth for the first year of life and to determine those factors associated with their catch-up growth. Methods: a prospective longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted, which included preterm infants with birthweight under 1 500 g, born

  4. Response to pediatric physical therapy in infants with positional preference and skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Pelsma, M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; IJzerman, M.J.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pediatric physical therapy seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to responses to pediatric physical therapy

  5. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur...

  6. Facial Expressions in Context: Contributions to Infant Emotion Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.

    To make the point that infant emotions are more dynamic than suggested by Differential Emotions Theory, which maintains that infants show the same prototypical facial expressions for emotions as adults do, this paper explores two questions: (1) when infants experience an emotion, do they always show the corresponding prototypical facial…

  7. A Privileged Status for Male Infant-Directed Speech in Infants of Depressed Mothers? Role of Father Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter S.; Danko, Christina M.; Diaz, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Prior research showed that 5- to 13-month-old infants of chronically depressed mothers did not learn to associate a segment of infant-directed speech produced by their own mothers or an unfamiliar nondepressed mother with a smiling female face, but showed better-than-normal learning when a segment of infant-directed speech produced by an…

  8. Human milk composition and infant growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Christensen, Sophie Hilario; Lind, Mads Vendelbo

    2018-01-01

    studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth...... interesting potential in understanding infant growth. SUMMARY: Available evidence on human milk composition in relation to infant growth is sparse. This review summarizes recent publications investigating human milk composition; including micro- and macronutrients, human milk oligosaccharides, hormones......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational...

  9. Infant Physical Attractiveness, Affect, Temperament, and Gender in Relation to Tester Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Andrea D.

    1996-01-01

    Easily observable infant characteristics have been shown to influence others; perceptions of infant competence. This study examined the relation between infant characteristics and a tester's willingness to repeat opportunities for the infant to pass items during administration of a cognitive test. Results showed that infant physical attractiveness was related to lower elicited infant performance (the ratio of items initially failed). Positive affect was related to higher test scores. Because ...

  10. Nap-Dependent Learning in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present…

  11. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  12. Demonstration of Shared Intentionality by Nigerian Infants: A Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mother-infant pairs were observed in social interactions while interactional instructions were given both in the Yoruba language (for mothers) and in the English language (for video recording), to elicit the desired behavior from the infants. Analysis of the infants' behavior showed a progressive transformational ...

  13. Effect of Mother's Characteristics and Infant Feeding Practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education and occupation affected the nutritional status of these infants negatively. Conclusion: The study has shown that exclusive breastfeeding remains the best for the infant. It also showed that mother's care giving behaviour was a strong determinant of the nutritional status of the children. Key words: Infant feeding ...

  14. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  15. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

  16. Infants' Background Television Exposure during Play: Negative Relations to the Quantity and Quality of Mothers' Speech and Infants' Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Olson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Research on immediate effects of background television during mother-infant toy play shows that an operating television in the room disrupts maternal communicative behaviors crucial for infants' vocabulary acquisition. This study is the first to examine associations between frequent background TV/video exposure during mother-infant toy play at…

  17. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... AW, Diamond FB. Disorders of mineral homeostasis in children and adolescents. In: Sperling MA ed. Pediatric Endocrinology . ...

  18. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilator - infants; Respirator - infants ... WHY IS A MECHANICAL VENTILATOR USED? A ventilator is used to provide breathing support for ill or immature babies. Sick or premature babies are often ...

  19. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  20. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  1. SOME ASPECTS OF INFANT FEEDING AND PHYSICAL GROWTH OF THE PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Aronskind

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of infant feeding and physical growth of the premature infants. The researchers present the results of the dynamic prospective observation for 133 premature infants, who have been born with the body weight of not less than 2,000 g., and gestation period of less than 34 weeks. The researchers have examined physical growth of children, depending on the instrumentally visualized pathomorphological changes in the central nervous system, degree of prematurity and character of infant feeding. The research shows that the existence of pathomorphological changes in the central nervous system does not influence the rates of the infant physical growth. The use of new technologies of premature infant feeding contributes to the substantially big monthly additions of the body weight within the first six months of life and does not have any evident impact on the rates of the body weight additions within another six months of life. The rates of the height growth of the modern premature infants do not differ much from the corresponding indicators among the children, who were born in 1979. By the end of the first year of life, the number of children, who suffer from oligotrophy of the 1st or 2nd degree, is on the rise.Key words: premature infants, addition of body weight and height growth, infants, infant feeding.

  2. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  3. Preference patterns in infant vowel perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Monika T.; Polka, Linda

    2004-05-01

    Infants show directional asymmetries in vowel discrimination tasks that reveal an underlying perceptual bias favoring more peripheral vowels. Polka and Bohn (2003) propose that this bias is language independent and plays an important role in the development of vowel perception. In the present study we measured infant listening preferences for vowels to assess whether a perceptual bias favoring peripheral vowels can be measured more directly. Monolingual (French and English) and bilingual infants completed a listening preference task using multiple natural tokens of German /dut/ and /dyt/ produced by a male talker. In previous work, discrimination of this vowel pair by German-learning and by English-learning infants revealed a robust directional asymmetry in which /u/ acts as a perceptual anchor; specifically, infants had difficulty detecting a change from /u/ to /y/, whereas a change from /y/ to /u/ was readily detected. Preliminary results from preference tests with these stimuli show that most infants between 3 and 5 months of age also listen longer to /u/ than to /y/. Preference data obtained from older infants and with other vowel pairs will also be reported to further test the claim that peripheral vowels have a privileged perceptual status in infant perception.

  4. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  5. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Wal, M.F.V.D.; Brugman, E.; Sing, R.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5·6% (95% CI 4·2-7·0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  6. Observed infant food cue responsivity: Associations with maternal report of infant eating behavior, breastfeeding, and infant weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvinger, Elizabeth; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison L; Kaciroti, Niko A; Lumeng, Julie C

    2017-05-01

    Infant obesity and the rate of weight gain during infancy are significant public health concerns, but few studies have examined eating behaviors in infancy. Food cue responsivity has been described as a key contributor to obesity risk in school age children and adults, but has been rarely examined during infancy. The purpose of the current study was to test among 30 infants aged 6-12 months the hypotheses that infants would show greater interest in food versus non-food stimuli, and that greater birth weight, greater rate of weight gain during infancy, greater mother-reported food responsiveness, being formula versus breastmilk fed, and higher maternal body mass index, would each be associated with greater interest in the food versus non-food stimulus. Results showed that overall infants showed a preference for the food versus non-food stimulus. Preference for the food versus non-food stimulus was predicted by greater infant rate of weight gain since birth, greater maternal-reported infant food responsiveness, and having been exclusively formula-fed, but not by any other factor tested. Results are discussed with regard to theoretical implications for the study of infant obesity and applied prevention implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Hearing Loss on the Perception of Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susie; von Hapsburg, Deborah; Hay, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitates language learning in infants with normal hearing, compared to adult-directed speech (ADS). It is well established that infants with normal hearing prefer to listen to IDS over ADS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infants with hearing impairment (HI), like their NH peers, show a…

  8. Human milk composition and infant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Kamilla G; Christensen, Sophie H; Lind, Mads V; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2018-05-01

    This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth. For human milk micronutrient concentrations and microbiota content, and other bioactive components in human milk, the association with infant growth is still speculative and needs further investigation. The included studies in this review are all limited in their methodological design and methods but have interesting potential in understanding infant growth. Available evidence on human milk composition in relation to infant growth is sparse. This review summarizes recent publications investigating human milk composition; including micro- and macronutrients, human milk oligosaccharides, hormones and other bioactive components, and the association with infant weight, length, body mass index, and body composition.

  9. Characteristics of antigravity spontaneous movements in preterm infants up to 3 months of corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagishima, Saori; Asaka, Tadayoshi; Kamatsuka, Kaori; Kozuka, Naoki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Igarashi, Risa; Hori, Tsukasa; Yoto, Yuko; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated whether spontaneous antigravity limbs movements in very low birth weight preterm infants were insufficient compared to those in term infants. The relationship between the quality of general movements (GMs) and antigravity limbs movements was also examined. Preterm infants with very low birth weight without central nervous system disorders nor severe respiration disorders, and healthy term infants were recruited. The infants were set in a supine position. The distance between both hands and between both feet, and the height of both hands and feet from the floor were recorded at 1-3 corrected months for preterm infants, and at 1-3 months for term infants by a 3D motion capture system. The measurements were adjusted for body proportions. GMs in preterm and term infants were assessed similarly. Thirteen preterm and 15 term infants completed the study. In preterm infants, the distance between both hands and between both feet were longer, and the height of both hands and feet were lower than those in term infants in all measurements. In term infants, the height of both hands and feet increased as they developed, but no change was observed in preterm infants. In preterm infants with abnormal GMs, the distance between both hands was longer, and the height of both hands and feet was lower than that in those with normal GMs. There were no such differences between preterm infants with normal GMs and term infants with normal GMs. Antigravity limbs movements in preterm infants within the first 3 month of corrected age were insufficient compared with those in term infants. Furthermore, no improvement with development was observed in preterm infants. In addition, preterm infants with abnormal GMs showed worse antigravity limbs movements than preterm and term infants with normal GMs. The preterm infants with normal GMs could behave similar to the full term infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stock Photographs Do Not Comply With Infant Safe Sleep Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Michael H; Lagon, Elena; Bell, Theodore; Joyner, Brandi L; Moon, Rachel Y

    2018-04-01

    We evaluated images in popular stock photography websites for adherence with American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for safe infant sleep practices. Three top stock photo websites were used to collect photographs generated from key phrases. All images depicting an infant sleep environment were analyzed for consistency with AAP guidelines. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and z test of proportions, were conducted. A total of 1233 of 1947 stock photographs showed sleeping infants on a flat surface. In all, 627 (50.8%) photographs showed the infant in the supine position and 79 (5%) of all infant sleep environments were adherent with AAP recommendations. Bedding inconsistent with safe sleep recommendations was identified in 1133 images (71.3%), with blankets noted in 49.5%. Images depicting sleeping infants on stock photography sites do not routinely adhere to AAP recommendations. Media messages inconsistent with health care messages create confusion and misinformation about infant sleep safety and may lead inadvertently to unsafe practices.

  11. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities and infant mortality of 46,470 preterm infants born in Sweden between 1992 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calling, Susanna; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2011-07-01

    Studies on possible sociodemographic inequities in the survival of preterm infants are scarce. Individual and neighbourhood sociodemographic factors are related to preterm birth and to infant mortality in full-term infants. The aim here was to examine whether infant mortality in Swedish preterm infants is related to individual and neighbourhood sociodemographic factors, and to study whether the hypothesised association between neighbourhood deprivation and infant mortality persists after accounting for individual sociodemographic factors. The study included 46,470 infants with a gestational length of Sweden between 1992 and 2006. Neighbourhood deprivation was assessed by an index (education, income, unemployment, welfare assistance) in small geographical units, and categorised into low, moderate and high deprivation. Adjusted odds ratios for infant mortality were examined in relation to individual and neighbourhood sociodemographic factors. After adjusting for maternal age, infant mortality was associated with the following sociodemographic variables: maternal non-married/non-cohabiting status, low family income, low maternal education and rural status. After full adjustment, the odds ratio [95% confidence interval] was 2.98 [2.42, 3.67] for low family income compared with high family income. An increase in infant mortality was also associated with high neighbourhood deprivation; however, this increased risk no longer remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual sociodemographic factors. In conclusion, this study showed an increased infant mortality in preterm infants born to women with a less favourable sociodemographic profile. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  14. New Brazilian developmental curves and reference values for the Alberta infant motor scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Pereira, Keila R G

    2016-11-01

    The lack of Brazilian norms restrains the use of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to precisely categorize infant motor development and discriminate infants with motor difficulties from typically developing infants. This study investigated reference values for the AIMS for Brazilian infants. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of infants from birth-to-18 months old. Trained professionals assessed infants in daycares, homes, and governmental health centers. Results showed increases in raw scores across age groups from 0- to 15-months of age. The stability of raw scores was observed after 16 months of age. Brazilian infants demonstrated lower scores in specific ages compared to the Canadian sample. Canadian and Brazilian children showed differences in motor performance scores across age and norms were established for Brazilian infants. This study highlights the importance to establish reference values for AIMS of infants across cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physics Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    The attention span of K-12 students is very short; they are used to digesting information in short snippets through social media and TV. To get the students interested in physics, we created the Physics Reality Show: a series of staged short videos with duration no longer than a few minutes. Each video explains and illustrates one physics concept or law through a fast-paced sequence of physics demonstrations and experiments. The cast consists entirely of physics undergraduate students with artistic abilities and substantial experience in showing physics demonstrations at current outreach events run by the department: Physics Shows and Physics & Engineering Festival. Undergraduate students are of almost the same age as their high-school audience. They are in the best position to connect with kids and convey their fascination with physics. The PI and other faculty members who are involved in the outreach advise and coach the cast. They help students in staging the episodes and choosing the most exciting and relevant demonstrations. Supported by the APS mini-outreach Grant.

  16. Rachitic hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwahab T.H. Elidrissy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathy in infants is characterized by heart failure in apparently normal children without previous organic cardiac lesions. Cardiomyopathy has been found to comprise four types. Rickets is common in Saudi Arabia, that is why I reviewed this subject. Recently this case with classical features of rickets being admitted in a serious state we thought of publishing it. The infant responded well to treatment and full recovery was achieved. Follow up biochemistry, radiology cardiac function completely recovered and bony abnormalities showed evidence of healing. This case might have been missed as respiratory infection. We recommend meticulous look for biochemical features of rickets in infants admitted with respiratory symptoms.

  17. Active noise control for infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Gujjula, Shruthi; Kuo, Sen M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an active noise control system for infant incubators. Experimental results show that global noise reduction can be achieved for infant incubator ANC systems. An audio-integration algorithm is presented to introduce a healthy audio (intrauterine) sound with the ANC system to mask the residual noise and soothe the infant. Carbon nanotube based transparent thin film speaker is also introduced in this paper as the actuator for the ANC system to generate the destructive secondary sound, which can significantly save the congested incubator space and without blocking the view of doctors and nurses.

  18. Selection and Adaptation Components of Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Oeppen, James; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    We test the selection hypothesis of infant mortality against the adaptation hypothesis by decomposing the mortality age pattern over the first year of life into an adaptation- and a selection component. We show that the population level decline in mortality over the first hour of life...... is significantly influenced by mortality selection, i.e.~the frailest infants leaving the population shortly after birth. The subsequent mortality decline predominantly results from mortality changes observed in homogeneous sub-populations. This confirms the common view of the infant mortality age pattern being...

  19. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  20. Integrative literature review: sleep patterns in infants attending nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Ana Carolina Dantas Rocha; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Viana, Tamires Rebeca Forte; Lopes, Márcia Maria Coelho Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    To identify evidence available in the literature about sleep patterns of infants attending nurseries. An integrative review of studies published in Portuguese, English or Spanish available in full text on LILACS, CINAHL, and PubMed databases. The following descriptors sono, lactente and creches or berçários (in Portuguese) and sleep, infant and childcare or nurseries were used for LILACS, CINAHL and Pubmed, respectively. Nine studies were selected and analyzed. The main component explored in the studies about sleep pattern is the sleep position of the infants, due to its association with sudden infant death syndrome. The results pointed to the need to promote and develop written guidelines regarding behavioral practices to reduce the risk of this phenomenon. Evidence has identified sleep issues, mainly regarding the sleep position of the infant and the environment where the infant sleeps, showing that it is critical to set routines and interventions to improve the quality of sleep care of infants attending nurseries.

  1. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  2. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  3. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genital Problems in Infants (Female)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  5. Infant Skin Care Products: What Are the Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Joanne McManus

    2016-10-01

    Infant skin is susceptible to dryness and irritation from external factors, including topical skin care products not formulated for the infant's skin. This may increase the risk of contact dermatitis. Parents frequently express concern regarding potential harm from ingredients in skin care products and seek information. This is complicated by several skin care myths. The purpose of this literature review was to provide evidence-based information to educate parents on the use of products for preterm and term infants. Multiple searches using PubMed were conducted including the search terms "infant skin care," "infant products," "infant bath," "emollients," "diaper skin care," and "diaper wipes." Reference lists of comprehensive reviews were also scanned. Google searches were used to assess consumer information, product information, and regulatory guidelines. There is little scientific evidence to support safety of natural/organic products on infant skin. Raw materials originate from different sources, complicating testing and comparisons of ingredients. Research shows that cleansers formulated for infant skin do not weaken the skin barrier the way harsher soaps and detergents can. Oils with the lowest oleic acid content provide a lower risk of irritant contact dermatitis. Nurses must be informed about natural and organic products, preservatives, and fragrances and know the definition of commonly used marketing terms. Decisions regarding the use of infant products in preterm and term infants should be evidence based. More research is needed to support claims regarding the safety of products used on infant skin.

  6. Mothers speak differently to infants at-risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Goswami, Usha; Burnham, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt a novel interactional perspective on early linguistic environment and dyslexia by simultaneously studying two pre-existing factors, one maternal and one infant, that may contribute to these interactions; and two behaviours, one maternal and one infant, to index the effect of these factors. The maternal factor is whether mothers are themselves dyslexic or not (with/without dyslexia) and the infant factor is whether infants are at-/not-at family risk for dyslexia (due to their mother or father being dyslexic). The maternal behaviour is mothers' infant-directed speech (IDS), which typically involves vowel hyperarticulation, thought to benefit speech perception and language acquisition. The infant behaviour is auditory perception measured by infant sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time, which has been found to be reduced in dyslexic children. Here, at-risk infants showed significantly poorer acoustic sensitivity than not-at-risk infants and mothers only hyperarticulated vowels to infants who were not at-risk for dyslexia. Mothers' own dyslexia status had no effect on IDS quality. Parental speech input is thus affected by infant risk status, with likely consequences for later linguistic development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Estimation of gluconeogenesis in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, S C; Parimi, P; Van Beek, R; Gilfillan, C; Saker, F; Gruca, L; Sauer, P J

    2001-11-01

    The rate of glucose turnover (R(a)) and gluconeogenesis (GNG) via pyruvate were quantified in seven full-term healthy babies between 24 and 48 h after birth and in twelve low-birth-weight infants on days 3 and 4 by use of [(13)C(6)]glucose and (2)H(2)O. The preterm babies were receiving parenteral alimentation of either glucose or glucose plus amino acid with or without lipids. The contribution of GNG to glucose production was measured by the appearance of (2)H on C-6 of glucose. Glucose R(a) in full-term babies was 30 +/- 1.7 (SD) micromol. kg(-1). min(-1). GNG via pyruvate contributed approximately 31% to glucose R(a). In preterm babies, the contribution of GNG to endogenous glucose R(a) was variable (range 6-60%). The highest contribution was in infants receiving low rates of exogenous glucose infusion. In an additional group of infants of normal and diabetic mothers, lactate turnover and its incorporation into glucose were measured within 4-24 h of birth by use of [(13)C(3)]lactate tracer. The rate of lactate turnover was 38 micromol. kg(-1). min(-1), and lactate C, not corrected for loss of tracer in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, contributed approximately 18% to glucose C. Lactate and glucose kinetics were similar in infants that were small for their gestational age and in normal infants or infants of diabetic mothers. These data show that gluconeogenesis is evident soon after birth in the newborn infant and that, even after a brief fast (5 h), GNG via pyruvate makes a significant contribution to glucose production in healthy full-term infants. These data may have important implications for the nutritional support of the healthy and sick newborn infant.

  8. Motor development of preterm infants assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale: systematic review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia do N. Fuentefria

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Premature newborns are considered at risk for motor development deficits, leading to the need for monitoring in early life. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature about gross motor development of preterm infants, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS to identify the main outcomes in development. Data source: Systematic review of studies published from 2006 to 2015, indexed in Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, and Medline databases in English and Portuguese. The search strategy included the keywords: Alberta Infant Motor Scale, prematurity, preterm, motor development, postural control, and follow-up. Data summary: A total of 101 articles were identified and 23 were selected, according to the inclusion criteria. The ages of the children assessed in the studies varied, including the first 6 months up to 15 or 18 months of corrected age. The percentage variation in motor delay was identified in the motor outcome descriptions of ten studies, ranging from 4% to 53%, depending on the age when the infant was assessed. The studies show significant differences in the motor development of preterm and full-term infants, with a description of lower gross scores in the AIMS results of preterm infants. Conclusions: It is essential that the follow-up services of at-risk infants have assessment strategies and monitoring of gross motor development of preterm infants; AIMS is an assessment tool indicated to identify atypical motor development in this population.

  9. Motor development of preterm infants assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale: systematic review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentefria, Rubia do N; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    Premature newborns are considered at risk for motor development deficits, leading to the need for monitoring in early life. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature about gross motor development of preterm infants, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) to identify the main outcomes in development. Systematic review of studies published from 2006 to 2015, indexed in Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, and Medline databases in English and Portuguese. The search strategy included the keywords: Alberta Infant Motor Scale, prematurity, preterm, motor development, postural control, and follow-up. A total of 101 articles were identified and 23 were selected, according to the inclusion criteria. The ages of the children assessed in the studies varied, including the first 6 months up to 15 or 18 months of corrected age. The percentage variation in motor delay was identified in the motor outcome descriptions of ten studies, ranging from 4% to 53%, depending on the age when the infant was assessed. The studies show significant differences in the motor development of preterm and full-term infants, with a description of lower gross scores in the AIMS results of preterm infants. It is essential that the follow-up services of at-risk infants have assessment strategies and monitoring of gross motor development of preterm infants; AIMS is an assessment tool indicated to identify atypical motor development in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  10. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  11. Factors affecting infant and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, A L; Suchindran, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper examines the determinants of infant and child mortality variations in Jordan, Yemen, Egypt, and Tunisia using data from WFS surveys. The analysis considers biological correlates of mortality--mother's age, birth order, birth interval, and previous infant loss--and several social factors--mother's and father's education, mother's residence, father's occupation, and mother's work experience since marriage. The estimates for the 4 countries show large variations in the mortality rates and an expected pattern of declining infant and child mortality during the period of 20 years prior to the survey. Further, the proportionate decline in child mortality in each country was generally greater than the proportionate decline in infant mortality. A persistent pattern of higher child mortality for females than for males is found, suggesting preferential care and treatment of male offspring. The higher mortality risk is found for infants born to very young and very old mothers, with short previous birth intervals, of higher birth orders, and where the previous infant had died. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, the education of the mother and rural-urban residence are found to affect infant survival. In childhood, among the demographic factors, only birth interval shows a significant effect on mortality. The risk of child mortality decreases considerably with the increase in the birth interval. The analysis of the effect of breastfeeding on mortality, although based on limited information, clearly shows the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on the infant's survival, especially during the early months of life. For all countries, the mortality rate for the non-breastfeeders is substantially higher than for the breastfeeders even when the effect of the other covariates is controlled.

  12. Imitation of televised models by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, A N

    1988-10-01

    Studies indicate that infants in our culture are exposed to significant amounts of TV, often as a baby-sitting strategy by busy caretakers. The question arises whether TV viewing merely presents infants with a salient collection of moving patterns or whether they will readily pick up information depicted in this 2-D representation and incorporate it into their own behavior. Can infants "understand" the content of television enough to govern their real-world behavior accordingly? One way to explore this question is to present a model via television for infants to imitate. Infants' ability to imitate TV models was explored at 2 ages, 14 and 24 months, under conditions of immediate and deferred imitation. In deferred imitation, infants were exposed to a TV depiction of an adult manipulating a novel toy in a particular way but were not presented with the real toy until the next day. The results showed significant imitation at both ages, and furthermore showed that even the youngest group imitated after the 24-hour delay. The finding of deferred imitation of TV models has social and policy implications, because it suggests that TV viewing in the home could potentially affect infant behavior and development more than heretofore contemplated. The results also add to a growing body of literature on prelinguistic representational capacities. They do so in the dual sense of showing that infants can relate 2-D representations to their own actions on real objects in 3-D space, and moreover that the information picked up through TV can be internally represented over lengthy delays before it is used to guide the real-world action.

  13. PREBIOTICS IN INFANT FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Vandenplas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract is different in breastfed infants and in children receiving standard infant formulas. While breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and can also contain some probiotics, standard infant formulas contain neither one thing nor the other. The formulation of an infant formula includes various prebiotic ingredients: galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, polydextrose and their combinations. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to baby food makes the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of infants receiving infant formulas more similar to the microbiota of breastfed children. Prebiotics alter the metabolic activity of the intestinal microflora (lower stool pH and increase the amount of short-chain fatty acids, have a bifidogenic effect and provide a stool consistency and bowel movement frequency that are similar to these parameters in breastfed infants. There is limited evidence that such changes in microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract may have some influence on the development of an infant's immune system. Adverse events are extremely rare in the application of prebiotics. 

  14. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...

  15. The Power of an Infant's Smile: Maternal Physiological Responses to Infant Emotional Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Mizugaki

    Full Text Available Infant emotional expressions, such as distress cries, evoke maternal physiological reactions. Most of which involve accelerated sympathetic nervous activity. Comparatively little is known about effects of positive infant expressions, such as happy smiles, on maternal physiological responses. This study investigated how physiological and psychological maternal states change in response to infants' emotional expressions. Thirty first-time mothers viewed films of their own 6- to 7-month-old infants' affective behavior. Each observed a video of a distress cry followed by a video showing one of two expressions (randomly assigned: a happy smiling face (smile condition or a calm neutral face (neutral condition. Both before and after the session, participants completed a self-report inventory assessing their emotional states. The results of the self-report inventory revealed no effects of exposure to the infant videos. However, the mothers in the smile condition, but not in the neutral condition, showed deceleration of skin conductance. These findings demonstrate that the mothers who observed their infants smiling showed decreased sympathetic activity. We propose that an infant's positive emotional expression may affect the branch of the maternal stress-response system that modulates the homeostatic balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

  16. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire - Infant Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudia Castro; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Pinto, Tiago Miguel

    This study proposed a version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire for infants under 12 months (CSHQ-I). The sample was comprised of 299 infants, aged between 2 weeks and 12 months. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four subscales: Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Anxiety, Positive Sleep Habits, and Daytime Sleepiness. The CSHQ-I total scale presented good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The CSHQ-I also showed good concurrent validity, with significant associations found between the CSHQ-I total scale and subscales and a measure of infant sleep-wake behaviors. The present study suggested the CSHQ-I as a reliable instrument to assess sleep problems in infants during the first year of life. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Infants track the reliability of potential informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummeltshammer, Kristen Swan; Wu, Rachel; Sobel, David M; Kirkham, Natasha Z

    2014-09-01

    Across two eye-tracking experiments, we showed that infants are sensitive to the statistical reliability of informative cues and selective in their use of information generated by such cues. We familiarized 8-month-olds with faces (Experiment 1) or arrows (Experiment 2) that cued the locations of animated animals with different degrees of reliability. The reliable cue always cued a box containing an animation, whereas the unreliable cue cued a box that contained an animation only 25% of the time. At test, infants searched longer in the boxes that were reliably cued, but did not search longer in the boxes that were unreliably cued. At generalization, when boxes were cued that never contained animations before, only infants in the face experiment followed the reliable cue. These results provide the first evidence that even young infants can track the reliability of potential informants and use this information judiciously to modify their future behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2004-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  19. Term small-for-gestational-age infants from low risk women are at significantly greater risk of adverse neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Jessie V; Flatley, Christopher J; Kumar, Sailesh

    2018-02-17

    Small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants (birthweight 37 weeks gestation). This is compounded by the fact that late pregnancy ultrasound is not the norm in many jurisdictions for this cohort of women. We thus investigated the relationship between birthweight age (AGA) (birthweight 10 th - 90 th centile) group at term. This was retrospective analysis of data from the Mater Mother's Hospital in Brisbane, Australia for women who birthed between January 2000 and December 2015. Women with multiple pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, pre-term birth, major congenital anomalies and large for gestational age infants (>90 th centile for gestational age) were excluded. SGA infants were subdivided into 2 cohorts - infants with birthweights 5 th - age groups than controls. After stratification for gestational age at birth, the composite outcome remained significantly higher in both small-for-gestational-age cohorts and was highest in the ages in infants <5 th centile for birthweight, it is highest at early term gestation. Our findings highlight that early term birth does not necessarily improve outcomes and emphasize the importance of identifying this cohort of infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infant with MRSA necrotizing fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panglao Rajan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Panglao Rajan,1 Pinkal Patel,1 Lori Cash,1 Anjali Parish,2 Scott Darby,1 Jack Yu,3 Jatinder Bhatia11Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 2Medical Center of Central Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USAAbstract: This is an unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in this premature infant, which highlights severity, rapid progression of this disease and shows outcome if intervention is initiated at an early stage. This case also highlights one of the possible serious complications of percutaneous inserted central catheter (PICC line, which can be life threatening.Keywords: necrotizing fasciitis, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, PICC, premature infant

  1. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  2. Longitudinal relations among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal mind-mindedness, and infant attachment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Ann E; Beebe, Beatrice; Power, Michelle; Stafford, Anna-Lee; Ewing, Julie; Egleson, Anna; Kaminer, Tammy

    2018-05-01

    The relations among maternal depression risk, maternal mind-mindedness, and infants' attachment behavior were longitudinally examined in a community sample of mother-infant dyads. Maternal self-reported depression risk was measured at the infant ages of 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months. Maternal mind-mindedness, assessed from mothers' comments about infants' mental states (e.g., infants' thoughts, desires, or emotions), was measured during mother-infant interactions when infants were 4 months. Infants' attachment behavior was assessed at one year. Mothers' depression risk decreased over the infants' first year, with the sharpest decline between 6 weeks and 4 months. Mothers at risk for depression when infants were 6 weeks showed less appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mind-mindedness was not related to maternal depression risk at the infant age of 4 months or 12 months. Infants' degree of disorganized attachment behavior at one year was positively associated with maternal depression risk at 6 weeks and negatively associated with maternal appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mothers who are at risk for depression in their infants' early lives may be hampered in their capacity to respond appropriately to their infants' mental states. Infants with mothers who have difficulty responding appropriately to their mental states, as suggested by low appropriate mind-mindedness, may feel less known and recognized by their mothers, a key theme in the origins of disorganized attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  4. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestures predict vocabulary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2015-11-01

    Twenty-nine infants aged 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while interacting with toys for 18 minutes. Six experimental stimuli were presented to elicit infant communicative bids in two communicative intent contexts - proto-declarative and proto-imperative. Mothers' verbal responses to infants' gestural and non-gestural communicative bids were coded for object and action labels. Relations between maternal labeling responses and infants' vocabularies at 1;1 and 1;5 were examined. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestural communicative bids were concurrently and predictively related to infants' vocabularies, whereas responses to non-gestural communicative bids were not. Mothers' object labeling following gestures in the proto-declarative context mediated the association from infants' gesturing in the proto-declarative context to concurrent noun lexicons and was the strongest predictor of subsequent noun lexicons. Mothers' action labeling after infants' gestural bids in the proto-imperative context predicted infants' acquisition of action words at 1;5. Findings show that mothers' responsive labeling explain specific relations between infants' gestures and their vocabulary development.

  5. Infants use temporal regularities to chunk objects in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Melissa M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Infants, like adults, can maintain only a few items in working memory, but can overcome this limit by creating more efficient representations, or "chunks." Previous research shows that infants can form chunks using shared features or spatial proximity between objects. Here we asked whether infants also can create chunked representations using regularities that unfold over time. Thirteen-month old infants first were familiarized with four objects of different shapes and colors, presented in successive pairs. For some infants, the identities of objects in each pair varied randomly across familiarization (Experiment 1). For others, the objects within a pair always co-occurred, either in consistent relative spatial positions (Experiment 2a) or varying spatial positions (Experiment 2b). Following familiarization, infants saw all four objects hidden behind a screen and then saw the screen lifted to reveal either four objects or only three. Infants in Experiment 1, who had been familiarized with random object pairings, failed to look longer at the unexpected 3-object outcome; they showed the same inability to concurrently represent four objects as in other studies of infant working memory. In contrast, infants in Experiments 2a and 2b, who had been familiarized with regularly co-occurring pairs, looked longer at the unexpected outcome. These infants apparently used the co-occurrence between individual objects during familiarization to form chunked representations that were later deployed to track the objects as they were hidden at test. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the familiarization affected infants' ability to remember the occluded objects rather than merely establishing longer-term memory for object pairs. Following familiarization to consistent pairs, infants who were not shown a hiding event (but merely saw the same test outcomes as in Experiments 2a and b) showed no preference for arrays of three versus four objects. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, we asked

  6. US infant mortality and the President's party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Javier M; Bound, John; Geronimus, Arline T

    2014-06-01

    Infant mortality rates in the US exceed those in all other developed countries and in many less developed countries, suggesting political factors may contribute. Annual time series on overall, White and Black infant mortality rates in the US were analysed over the 1965-2010 time period to ascertain whether infant mortality rates varied across presidential administrations. Data were de-trended using cubic splines and analysed using both graphical and time series regression methods. Across all nine presidential administrations, infant mortality rates were below trend when the President was a Democrat and above trend when the President was a Republican. This was true for overall, neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Regression estimates show that, relative to trend, Republican administrations were characterized by infant mortality rates that were, on average, 3% higher than Democratic administrations. In proportional terms, effect size is similar for US Whites and Blacks. US Black rates are more than twice as high as White, implying substantially larger absolute effects for Blacks. We found a robust, quantitatively important association between net of trend US infant mortality rates and the party affiliation of the president. There may be overlooked ways by which macro-dynamics of policy impact microdynamics of physiology, suggesting the political system is a component of the underlying mechanism generating health inequality in the USA. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  7. Emotional Processing of Infants Displays in Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Corfield, Freya; Leppanen, Jenni; Rhind, Charlotte; Deriziotis, Stephanie; Hadjimichalis, Alexandra; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to examine emotional processing of infant displays in people with Eating Disorders (EDs). Background Social and emotional factors are implicated as causal and maintaining factors in EDs. Difficulties in emotional regulation have been mainly studied in relation to adult interactions, with less interest given to interactions with infants. Method A sample of 138 women were recruited, of which 49 suffered from Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 16 from Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and 73 were healthy controls (HCs). Attentional responses to happy and sad infant faces were tested with the visual probe detection task. Emotional identification of, and reactivity to, infant displays were measured using self-report measures. Facial expressions to video clips depicting sad, happy and frustrated infants were also recorded. Results No significant differences between groups were observed in the attentional response to infant photographs. However, there was a trend for patients to disengage from happy faces. People with EDs also reported lower positive ratings of happy infant displays and greater subjective negative reactions to sad infants. Finally, patients showed a significantly lower production of facial expressions, especially in response to the happy infant video clip. Insecure attachment was negatively correlated with positive facial expressions displayed in response to the happy infant and positively correlated with the intensity of negative emotions experienced in response to the sad infant video clip. Conclusion People with EDs do not have marked abnormalities in their attentional processing of infant emotional faces. However, they do have a reduction in facial affect particularly in response to happy infants. Also, they report greater negative reactions to sadness, and rate positive emotions less intensively than HCs. This pattern of emotional responsivity suggests abnormalities in social reward sensitivity and might indicate new treatment targets. PMID

  8. Are we overprescribing antireflux medications for infants with regurgitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshoo, Vikram; Edell, Dean; Thompson, Aaron; Rubin, Mitchell

    2007-11-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of infants with persistent regurgitation who were referred to a pediatric gastroenterology service. The records of 64 infants with persistent regurgitation and without any neurodevelopmental abnormalities, underlying illness, or cigarette smoke exposure were evaluated for diagnostic workup and treatment. Forty-four infants underwent extended esophageal pH monitoring. Only 8 of 44 pH studies showed abnormal acid reflux. Forty-two of these 44 infants were already on antireflux medications. Other etiologies included hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (4) and renal tubular acidosis (1). Discontinuation of medication did not result in worsening of symptoms in most infants with normal pH studies. The majority of infants who were prescribed antireflux drugs did not meet diagnostic criteria for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  9. FOOD NEGLECT AND INFANT DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jesse J; Cross, Theodore P; Vaughn, Michael G; Gochez-Kerr, Tatiana

    2018-03-01

    The impact of food insecurity on child development in the general U.S. population is well-established, yet little is known about the harm of food neglect relative to other types of maltreatment. Due to the harmful physiological impact of inadequate nutrients and the social impact of food-related stress, it was hypothesized that food neglect would be more likely to impair infant cognitive and language development than physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of neglect. Families of infants (N = 1,951) investigated by Child Protective Services were studied using the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II; NSCAW Research Group, 2002). Results from multivariable logistic regression models that controlled for likely confounding variables showed that the odds of impairment in cognition and language were significantly greater when food neglect was the most serious form of maltreatment. Considering that both food insecurity and child neglect are associated with poverty and parental mental health problems, it will be important for child welfare and mental health professionals to work collaboratively to better the health of these vulnerable children. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  11. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  12. Urine collection - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003417.htm Urine collection - infants To use the sharing features on this ... collect the urine at home, have some extra collection bags available. How the Test will Feel There ...

  13. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  14. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  15. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  16. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water down Pedialyte or Infalyte. Do not give sports drinks to young infants. Try giving your baby ... gastrointestinal tract infections and food poisoning. In Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, ...

  17. Fatores de risco para nascimentos pré-termo em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Risk factors for pre-term birth in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Rigo Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar fatores de risco para nascimentos pré-termo por meio de estudo caso-controle populacional que envolve nascidos vivos hospitalares de mães residentes em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Os casos foram os 328 nascimentos pré-termo e os controles, uma amostra proporcional de 369 nascimentos com 37 semanas ou mais. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística múltipla hierarquizada. Verificou-se associação (p 30kg/m², com filho anterior pré-termo, com tratamento para engravidar; características maternas durante a gestação: com companheiro há no máximo dois anos, preocupações, bebida alcoólica semanal, pré-natal inadequado, prática de caminhada como proteção; agravos na gestação - sangramento, infecção do trato genital, volume alterado do líquido amniótico, hipertensão arterial e internação; gestação múltipla. A identificação de fatores de risco e a melhoria da qualidade da atenção pré-concepcional e pré-natal podem reduzir a prematuridade.The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with pre-term birth among live births in a hospital in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Cases consisted of 328 pre-term births, and controls were 369 births with gestational age greater than 37 weeks. A multiple hierarchical logistic regression analysis was carried out. There was a significant correlation (p 30 kg/m2; history of prematurity; history of assisted reproduction; mothers in a relationship for less than two years; maternal stress; weekly maternal alcohol consumption; insufficient prenatal care; gestational complications such as bleeding, genital tract infection, altered amniotic fluid volume, high blood pressure, and hospital admission; and twin pregnancy. Regular walks during pregnancy were a protective factor. Improved quality of prenatal care and the identification of the above factors during pregnancy may help reduce premature birth.

  18. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards on a request from the Commission related to the microbiological risks in infant formulae and follow-on formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrung, Birgit

    . sakazakii in high-risk infants (pre-term, underweight, immunocompromised), would be to use commercial sterile liquid formula. It is recommended that a Performance Objective (PO) for powdered infant formula and follow-on formula, aiming at very low levels of Salmonella and E. sakazakii (e.g. absence in 1, 10...... weight infants and those immunocompromised are at greatest risk. There are no experimental or epidemiological studies on the specific dose/response relationships of E. sakazakii infections in humans. As is the case for other microorganisms, the dose/response relationship may vary according......C for a sufficient time and multiply very rapidly at room temperatures. Good Hygienic Practices at reconstitution, storage and feeding are essential to avoid recontamination and/or multiplication of the pathogens in the reconstituted formula. The most effective control measure to minimise risks of Salmonella and E...

  19. Effects of infant massage on state anxiety in mothers of preterm infants prior to hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afand, Nahid; Keshavarz, Maryam; Fatemi, Naiemeh Seyed; Montazeri, Ali

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of infant massage on anxiety in mothers of preterm infants who discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit. Birth of preterm infants commonly leads to great levels of distress and anxiety in mothers. Although various methods have been suggested to help mothers cope with such stressful conditions, the effects of infant massage have not been adequately studied in mothers. This was a quasi-experimental clinical trial. Overall, in 70 mothers and their preterm infants who scheduled to be discharged within 24 hours, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scale (Spielberger) was completed for mothers in both groups in the morning of the day before discharge. The experimental group received eight minutes of massage including two standard similar parts (each part four minutes). The massage was repeated in two parts on the day of discharge, and then, state anxiety was re-measured using Spielberg's scale for all mothers. The control group received no intervention. The results showed that on the day of discharge, there was a significant difference in the overall mean score of maternal state anxiety between the two groups (p anxiety. In both groups, the mean score of maternal state anxiety was significantly decreased on the day of discharge (p anxiety of mothers of preterm infants, so it is recommended that mothers apply massage for preterm infants to improve their mental health. Mothers of preterm infants can promote mental health by continuing massage of their infants at home. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Neurodevelopmental outcome of HIV-exposed but uninfected infants in the Mother and Infants Health Study, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Priscilla E; Slogrove, Amy L; Laughton, Barbara; Bettinger, Julie A; Saunders, Henriëtte H; Molteno, Christopher D; Kruger, Mariana

    2018-01-01

    To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants in a peri-urban South African population. HEU infants living in Africa face unique biological and environmental risks, but uncertainty remains regarding their neurodevelopmental outcome. This is partly due to lack of well-matched HUU comparison groups needed to adjust for confounding factors. This was a prospective cohort study of infants enrolled at birth from a low-risk midwife obstetric facility. At 12 months of age, HEU and HUU infant growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes were compared. Growth was evaluated as WHO weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length and head-circumference-for-age Z-scores. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated using the Bayley scales of Infant Development III (BSID) and Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB). Fifty-eight HEU and 38 HUU infants were evaluated at 11-14 months of age. Performance on the BSID did not differ in any of the domains between HEU and HUU infants. The cognitive, language and motor scores were within the average range (US standardised norms). Seven (12%) HEU and 1 (2.6%) HUU infant showed social withdrawal on the ADBB (P = 0.10), while 15 (26%) HEU and 4 (11%) HUU infants showed decreased vocalisation (P = 0.06). There were no growth differences. Three HEU and one HUU infant had minor neurological signs, while eight HEU and two HUU infants had macrocephaly. Although findings on the early neurodevelopmental outcome of HEU infants are reassuring, minor differences in vocalisation and on neurological examination indicate a need for reassessment at a later age. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Behavior of Infants with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoff, Betsy; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared behavior of 52 Costa Rican 12- to 23-month-olds with iron-deficiency anemia to that of 139 infants with better iron status. Found that iron-deficient infants maintained closer contact with caregivers; showed less pleasure and playfulness; were more wary, hesitant, and easily tired; made fewer attempts at test items; and attended less to…

  2. Infant Visual Recognition Memory: Independent Contributions of Speed and Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined contributions of cognitive processing speed, short-term memory capacity, and attention to infant visual recognition memory. Found that infants who showed better attention and faster processing had better recognition memory. Contributions of attention and processing speed were independent of one another and similar at all ages studied--5,…

  3. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Fits, IBM; Flikweert, ER; Stremmelaar, EF; Martijn, A; Hadders-Algra, M

    Preterm infants often show postural abnormalities, such as hyperextension of neck and trunk, which can interfere with motor and cognitive development. Little is, however, known on the pathophysiology of postural development in preterm infants. Therefore, we longitudinally studied the development of

  4. Infants' Preferential Attention to Sung and Spoken Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Ilari, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Caregivers and early childhood teachers all over the world use singing and speech to elicit and maintain infants' attention. Research comparing infants' preferential attention to music and speech is inconclusive regarding their responses to these two types of auditory stimuli, with one study showing a music bias and another one…

  5. Breastfeeding, Bonding, and the Mother-Infant Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 570 mother-infant pairs to test the bonding hypothesis and the good-enough caregiver hypothesis as they relate to breastfeeding with maternal bonding and the mother-infant relationship. Found that breastfeeding dyads tended to show higher-quality relationships at 12 months than did bottle-feeding dyads.…

  6. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Kermani, Ramin Mozafari; Mohhamadi, Ali Reza; Nateghi, Mohammad Reza; Fazeli, Abolhasan Shahzade; Kashi, Khashayar Mehdizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART). Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods. In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD), Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded. It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants' right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART.

  7. Stress Pattern Preference in Spanish-Learning Infants: The Role of Syllable Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Ferran; Bosch, Laura

    2010-01-01

    As a result of exposure, infants acquire biases that conform to the rhythmic properties of their native language. Previous lexical stress preference studies have shown that English- and German-, but not French-learning infants, show a bias toward trochaic words. The present study explores Spanish-learning infants' lexical stress preferential…

  8. Response to Pediatric Physical Therapy in Infants With Positional Preference and Skull Deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Renske; Pelsma, Maaike; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric physical therapy (PPT) seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to response to PPT in 2-4

  9. Infants Prefer Tunes Previously Introduced by Speakers of Their Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Gaye; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Infants show attentional biases for certain individuals over others based on various cues. However, the role of these biases in shaping infants' preferences and learning is not clear. This study asked whether infants' preference for native speakers (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007) would modulate their preferences for tunes. After getting…

  10. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  11. Comparison of Breastmilk Odor and Vanilla Odor on Mitigating Premature Infants' Response to Pain During and After Venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebreili, Mahnaz; Neshat, Hanieh; Seyyedrasouli, Aleheh; Ghojazade, Morteza; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the calming effects of breastmilk odor and vanilla odor on preterm infants during and after venipuncture. One hundred thirty-five preterm infants were randomly selected and divided into three groups: control, vanilla odor, and breastmilk odor. Infants in the breastmilk group were exposed to breastmilk odor, and infants in the vanilla group were exposed to vanilla odor from 5 minutes before the start of sampling until 30 seconds after sampling. The Premature Infant Pain Profile was used for calculating quality of pain in infants during and after sampling. Statistical analyses showed that both vanilla and breastmilk odors had calming effects on premature infants during sampling, but just breastmilk odor had calming effects on infants after the end of sampling. Compared with vanilla odor, breastmilk odor has more calming effects on premature infants. Breastmilk odor can be used for calming premature infants during and after venipuncture.

  12. Using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale to early identify very low-birth-weight infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Shan-Tair; Huang, Chao-Ching

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) is able to identify very low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) as early as 6 months of corrected age. Longitudinal follow-up AIMS assessments were done at 6, 12, and 18 months old for 35 VLBW infants with cystic PVL (cPVL(+)), 70 VLBW infants without cystic PVL (cPVL(-)), and 76 term infants (healthy controls: HC). Corrected age was used for the preterm infants. The cPVL(+) group had significantly lower prone, supine and sitting subscales at age 6, 12, and 18 months than the cPVL(-) group (all p<0.05). The cPVL(-) group showed significantly lower supine, prone, sitting, and standing subscales than the HC group only at age 6 months. At age 6 months, the areas under the receiver operator curve used to discriminate the cPVL(+) infants from cPVL(-) infants were 0.82±0.04 for prone, 0.93±0.02 for supine, 0.83±0.05 for sitting, and 0.62±0.07 for standing. The AIMS may help early identify VLBW infants with cystic PVL at age 6 months old. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  14. Mycoestrogen pollution of Italian infant food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meucci, Valentina; Soldani, Giulio; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Saggese, Giuseppe; Massart, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    To determine the concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolites in the leading brands of infant formula milks and meat-based infant foods commonly marketed in Italy, and to assess their repercussion in the provisional tolerable daily intakes of these estrogenic mycotoxins. A total of 185 cow's milk-based infant formulas and 44 samples of meat-based infant foods samples were analyzed. The analysis of mycotoxins was performed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Zearalenone was detected in 17 (9%) milk samples (maximum 0.76 μg/L). The α-zearalenol was detected in 49 (26%) milk samples (maximum 12.91 μg/L). The β-zearalenol was detected in 53 (28%) milk samples (maximum 73.24 μg/L). The α-zearalanol and β-zearalanol were not detected in milk samples. Although α-zearalenol was detected in 12 (27%) meat samples (maximum 30.50 μg/kg), only one meat-based sample was contaminated by α-zearalanol (950 μg/kg). Zearalenone, β-zearalenol, and β-zearalanol were not detected in meat samples. This study shows the presence of mycoestrogens in infant (milk-based and meat-based) food, and this is likely to have great implications for subsequent generations, suggesting the need to perform occurrence surveys in this type of food. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infants Prefer Female Body Phenotypes; Infant Girls Prefer They Have an Hourglass Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Hawkins, Laura B; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3-18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls' greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls' later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success (e

  16. Severe calcinosis cutis in an infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puvabanditsin, Surasak; Patel, Jigneshkumar B. [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Surgery, Newark, NJ (United States); Garrow, Eugene; Titapiwatanakun, Ruetima; Getachew, Rahel [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2005-05-01

    We report on an infant with severe asphyxia and persistent pulmonary hypertension as a newborn. The baby received prolonged intravenous calcium gluconate therapy for hypocalcemia. At 5 weeks of age, multiple firm, indurated areas (armor-like lesions) were palpable in the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk, arms, legs, and face, particularly in skin folds. Roentgenographic study showed generalized soft-tissue calcifications throughout the body, extremities, and face. Calcinosis cutis occurs through a variety of pathogenetic mechanisms. Case reports on calcinosis cutis in infants are uncommon, and the calcifications are mostly localized. In our patient, they are generalized. (orig.)

  17. Selection and Adaptation Components of Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Oeppen, James; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    We test the selection hypothesis of infant mortality against the adaptation hypothesis by decomposing the mortality age pattern over the first year of life into an adaptation- and a selection component. We show that the population level decline in mortality over the first hour of life...... caused by adaptation on an individual level. The analysis is informed by detailed micro-data on births and infant deaths in the United States including more than 25 million births and 162,546 deaths. No parametric assumptions were necessary....

  18. Quantitative linking hypotheses for infant eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yurovsky

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework--applicable to any infant gaze experiment--and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website.

  19. Infants learn what they want to learn: responding to infant pointing leads to superior learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begus, Katarina; Gliga, Teodora; Southgate, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The majority of current developmental models prioritise a pedagogical approach to knowledge acquisition in infancy, in which infants play a relatively passive role as recipients of information. In view of recent evidence, demonstrating that infants use pointing to express interest and solicit information from adults, we set out to test whether giving the child the leading role in deciding what information to receive leads to better learning. Sixteen-month-olds were introduced to pairs of novel objects and, once they had pointed to an object, were shown a function for either the object they had chosen, or the object they had ignored. Ten minutes later, infants replicated the functions of chosen objects significantly more than those of un-chosen objects, despite having been equally visually attentive during demonstrations on both types of objects. These results show that offering information in response to infants' communicative gestures leads to superior learning (Experiment 1) and that this difference in performance is due to learning being facilitated when infants' pointing was responded to, not hindered when their pointing was ignored (Experiment 2), highlighting the importance of infants' own active engagement in acquiring information.

  20. Scaffolded reaching experiences encourage grasping activity in infants at high risk for autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest impaired motor skill development during infancy in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, it remains unclear whether infants at high familial risk for ASD would benefit from early interventions targeting the motor domain. The current study investigated this issue by providing 3-month-old infants at high familial risk for ASD with training experiences aimed at facilitating independent reaching. A group of 17 high-risk (HR) infants received 2 weeks of scaffolded reaching experiences using “sticky mittens,” and was compared to 72 low-risk (LR) infants experiencing the same or alternative training procedures. Results indicate that HR infants – just like LR infantsshow an increase in grasping activity following “sticky mittens” training. In contrast to LR infants, evidence that motor training encouraged a preference for faces in HR infants was inconclusive. PMID:25295021

  1. Cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-09-01

    Prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and preterm infants are at significantly increased risk. In term infants, prone sleeping is associated with reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI). However, little is known about the effects of sleeping position on TOI and MAP in preterm infants. We aimed to examine TOI and MAP in preterm infants after term-equivalent age, during the period of greatest SIDS risk. Thirty-five preterm and 17 term infants underwent daytime polysomnography, including measurement of TOI (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and MAP (Finapress Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) at 2 to 4 weeks, 2 to 3 months, and 5 to 6 months postterm age. Infants slept prone and supine in active and quiet sleep. The effects of sleep state and position were determined by using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and of preterm birth by using 2-way analysis of variance. In preterm infants, TOI was significantly lower when prone compared with supine in both sleep states at all ages (P preterm compared with term infants at 2 to 4 weeks, in both positions (P preterm infants in the prone position at 2 to 3 months (P position in preterm infants and is lower compared with age-matched term infants, predominantly in the prone position when MAP is also reduced. This may contribute to their increased SIDS risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Fever in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Fever in Infants and ChildrenBecause young children are not ... Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants and Children Fever Fever in Infants and Children Foot Problems Genital ...

  3. Congenital Hyperterophic Pyloric Stenosis of Infants | Mbanaso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 7-week-old male infant with congenital hyperterophic pyloric stenosis. The essence of this case report is to show that this condition could be mistaken for failure to thrive, protein caloric malnutrition, or ignorance on the part of the mother on how to feed the first born child. All these were suggested in our patient, ...

  4. Stability of infants' preference for prosocial others: Implications for research based on single-choice paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nighbor, Tyler; Kohn, Carolynn; Normand, Matthew; Schlinger, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Some research suggests infants display a tendency to judge others' prosocial behavior, and in particular, that infants show a strong preference for prosocial others. For example, data from one frequently cited and well-publicized study showed that, after watching a puppet show with three puppets, 74% of infants chose the puppet that "helped" rather than the puppet that "hindered" a third puppet from attaining its goal. The purpose of the current investigation was to replicate these methods and extend them by including a within-subject measure of infant puppet choice across repeated trials to assess the stability of infants' choice. In the current study, 20 infants viewed a puppet show and chose between two puppets (i.e., helper or hinderer) immediately following the puppet show. Although results were similar to previously published work on the first-choice trial (65% of infants chose the helper puppet on the first trial), infants did not consistently choose the helper across trials; several infants demonstrated a side preference, with 9 infants almost exclusively choosing puppets presented on the right or left side. The current investigation addressed limitations of previous research by including a between-subjects (replication) as well as a within-subjects (extension) repeated measure of choice that allowed for the examination of the stability of the choice measure. Our results, particularly in light of other failed replications, raise questions regarding the robustness of infants' preference for prosocial others and the reliability and validity of the single-choice paradigm.

  5. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART. Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods.In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD, Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded.It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants' right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05. Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001.These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART.

  6. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  7. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...

  8. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A hip problem in infants is known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). It is when the ball of the ... later in life? Resources International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Hip-Healthy Swaddling ...

  9. Colic in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Peter

    2010-02-05

    Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk.

  10. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  11. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the womb (breech position) babies with a family history of DDH Also, DDH occurs more frequently in girls than boys and among first-born infants. Doctors will consider all of these factors when deciding whether a baby's hips should be checked by ultrasound. In addition, a ...

  12. Preoperative cardiorespiratory trends in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, S T; Schulze, K F; Sahni, R; Wung, J T; Myers, M M; Stolar, C J

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptations of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) from birth until delayed surgery through the use of continuous monitoring. Continuous cardiovascular (HR, heart rate variability [HR-SD], BP, blood pressure variability [BP-SD], and oxygen saturation) and ventilatory (minute volume, airway pressure, and effective compliance) measurements were made on-line, using a computerized whole-body plethysmograph-incubator (Vital-trends, VT1000), in nine ventilated infants with CDH. Data collection commenced at birth and continued until surgery. Minute mean values for each variable were recorded. Hourly means were computed from the minute means, averaged across infants each hour over the first 50 hours of life, and regressed against postnatal age. Results showed a significant increase in BP (P newborn infants. Deviation from these idealized patterns may identify an infant who is not responding satisfactorily to the given therapy and who may require alternative treatment modalities.

  13. Infants' perseverative search errors are induced by pragmatic misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topál, József; Gergely, György; Miklósi, Adám; Erdohegyi, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely

    2008-09-26

    Having repeatedly retrieved an object from a location, human infants tend to search the same place even when they observe the object being hidden at another location. This perseverative error is usually explained by infants' inability to inhibit a previously rewarded search response or to recall the new location. We show that the tendency to commit this error is substantially reduced (from 81 to 41%) when the object is hidden in front of 10-month-old infants without the experimenter using the communicative cues that normally accompany object hiding in this task. We suggest that this improvement is due to an interpretive bias that normally helps infants learn from demonstrations but misleads them in the context of a hiding game. Our finding provides an alternative theoretical perspective on the nature of infants' perseverative search errors.

  14. Segmental trunk control acquisition and reaching in typically developing infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwani, Jaya; Santamaria, Victor; Saavedra, Sandra L; Wood, Stacy; Porter, Francine; Woollacott, Marjorie H

    2013-07-01

    This study explored the influence of an external support at the thoracic and pelvic level of the trunk on the success of reaching, postural stability and reaching kinematics while infants reached for a toy. Seventeen infants (4-6 months) were clustered into two groups according to their trunk control assessed with the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control. Major differences were seen between groups with pelvic support, whereas with thoracic support, all infants showed similar quality reaching behaviors. With the external pelvic support, infants who had acquired trunk control in the lumbar region were more accurate in their reaching movements (less movement time, improved straightness of reach, less movement units and increased path length per movement unit) and were more stable (decreased trunk and head displacement) during a reach than infants who had only acquired trunk control in the thoracic region. These results support the hypothesis that trunk control influences the quality of reaching behavior.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus infant infection adversely affects growth and development in maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompels, U A; Larke, N; Sanz-Ramos, M; Bates, M; Musonda, K; Manno, D; Siame, J; Monze, M; Filteau, S

    2012-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) coinfections have been shown to increase infant morbidity, mortality, and AIDS progression. In HIV-endemic regions, maternal HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected infants, which is the majority of children affected by HIV, also show poor growth and increased morbidity. Although nutrition has been examined, the effects of HCMV infection have not been evaluated. We studied the effects of HCMV infection on the growth, development, and health of maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Infants were examined in a cohort recruited to a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods. HIV-infected mothers and infants had received perinatal antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Growth, development, and morbidity were analyzed by linear regression analyses in relation to maternal HIV exposure and HCMV infection, as screened by sera DNA for viremia at 6 months of age and by antibody for infection at 18 months. All HCMV-seropositive infants had decreased length-for-age by 18 months compared with seronegative infants (standard deviation [z]-score difference: -0.44 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -.72 to -.17]; P = .002). In HIV-exposed infants, those who were HCMV positive compared with those who were negative, also had reduced head size (mean z-score difference: -0.72 [95% CI, -1.23 to -.22]; P = .01) and lower psychomotor development (Bayley test score difference: -4.1 [95% CI, -7.8 to -.5]; P = .03). HIV-exposed, HCMV-viremic infants were more commonly referred for hospital treatment than HCMV-negative infants. The effects of HCMV were unaffected by micronutrient fortification. HCMV affects child growth, development, and morbidity of African infants, particularly in those maternally exposed to HIV. HCMV is therefore a risk factor for child health in this region.

  16. Hand preference status and reach kinematics in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eliza L; Konidaris, George D; Berthier, Neil E

    2014-11-01

    Infants show age-related improvements in reach straightness and smoothness over the first years of life as well as a decrease in average movement speed. This period of changing kinematics overlaps the emergence of handedness. We examined whether infant hand preference status is related to the development of motor control in 53 infants ranging from 11 to 14 months old. Hand preference status was assessed from reaching to a set of 5 objects presented individually at the infant's midline; infants were classified into 'right preference' or 'no preference' groups. Three-dimensional (3-D) recordings were made of each arm for reaches under two distinct conditions: pick up a ball and fit it into the opening of a toy (grasp-to-place task) or pick up a Cheerio® and consume it (grasp-to-eat task). Contrary to expectations, there was no effect of hand preference status on reach smoothness or straightness for either task. On the grasp-to-eat task only, average speed of the left hand differed as a function of hand preference status. Infants in the no preference group exhibited higher left hand average speeds than infants in the right preference group. Our results suggest that while behavioral differences in the use of the two hands may be present in some infants, these differences do not appear to be systematically linked to biases in motor control of the arms early in development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  18. Effects of Kindermusik training on infants' rhythmic enculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, David W; Faux, Ashley L; Trainor, Laurel J

    2010-05-01

    Phillips-Silver and Trainor (2005) demonstrated a link between movement and the metrical interpretation of rhythm patterns in 7-month-old infants. Infants bounced on every second beat of a rhythmic pattern with no auditory accents later preferred to listen to an accented version of the pattern with accents every second beat (duple or march meter), whereas infants bounced on every third beat of the same rhythmic pattern preferred to listen to a version with accents every third beat (triple or waltz meter). The present study compared infants participating in Kindermusik classes with infants not participating in music classes. In Kindermusik classes infants receive enriched experience moving to music. Following Western musical norms, the majority of the music samples in the classes are in duple meter. During the preference test, Kindermusik infants listened longer overall, indicating heightened interest in musical rhythms. Both groups listened longer to the accented version that matched how they had been bounced, but only the Kindermusik group showed a stronger preference in the case of duple bouncing than in the case of triple bouncing. We conclude that musical classes for infants can accelerate the development of culture-specific metrical perception.

  19. [A phenomenological study on mother-infant interacting behavior patterns relating to newborn infant feeding in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K J

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe mother-infant interacting behavior patterns related to newborn infant feeding and to explore the mother's cultural belief about their infant. The data collection was conducted by observation and interview. Twenty-five mothers and their newborn infants who were normally delivered and were also planned to breastfeed were comprised as the subjects of this study. All subjects were interviewed and observed individually at 1 to 5 days after the delivery at the hospital, mid-wife's clinic, Maternal Child Health Center and their home throughout the country from remote area to big city. The observation data were recorded with symbolic letter on a recording sheet newly developed as a result of preliminary study. The interview data were tape recorded and then recorded in narrative form. Mother-infant interaction behaviors in early-feeding period were analyzed based on 19 analytic sub-categories and their composing elements. Unit of analysis were mother, infant and mother-infant dyad. 8 analytic categories draw from the data. Each were preparation, instrument, interaction inducing, evaluation referred to mother's behavior, preparation, instrument, interaction inducing referred to infant's behavior and synchronic behaviors referred to mother-infant dyad. Frequencies of behavior items based on the categories were converted to percent. The result showed that in mother's preparation behavior, the breast condition of Korean mother can be an affecting factor for mother-infant interaction during feeding, and vocalization behavior was observed most frequently in interaction inducing behavior while the least frequent behavior observed was contacting. Subcultural characteristics of mother-infant interaction behaviors were analyzed for their relationships between groups of mothers who have lived in remote area vs urban area, and who were multipara vs primipara. Using a chi-square test, there were statistically significant relationships in the

  20. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years old for infants with birth weights under 500 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagara, Syunsuke; Kouwaki, Masanori; Togawa, Takao; Sugiura, Tokio; Okada, Mayumi; Koyama, Norihisa

    2017-09-21

    Marked improvements have been achieved in the survival of extremely low birth weight infants, but survival rates and prognoses of extremely small infants with birth weights ≤500 g remain poor. The aim of this study was to clarify long-term outcomes for surviving infants with birth weights ≤500 g. The study population comprised fetuses of gestational age ≥22 weeks, expected live- or stillbirth weight ≤500 g, and birth date between 2003 and 2012. Developmental assessments were performed prospectively at 3 years old. Data were obtained for 21 fetuses, including 10 live births and 11 stillbirths. Of the 10 live births, median gestational age was 25.2 weeks (range, 22.4-27.1 weeks), median birth weight was 426 g (range, 370-483 g), and two neonates died before discharge. One infant with severe asphyxia died within 12 h and another infant with Down syndrome died at 34 days. The survival rate was thus 80%. All surviving infants were small for gestational age. Seven of the 8 surviving infants (88%) weighed less than 2500 g at a corrected age of 40 weeks. Seven infants were available for developmental assessments at 3 years old. One infant could not be followed. Two of those seven infants (29%) showed normal development, three infants (42%) showed mild neurodevelopmental disability, and two infants (29%) showed severe neurodevelopmental disability. One infant had periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy. Two of the seven infants (29%) had short stature (g. Further large studies are needed to assess long-term outcomes for extremely small infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Dioxin exposure in breast milk and infant neurodevelopment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Pham The; Nishijo, Muneko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-09-01

    Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers residing near hot spots of dioxin contamination areas in South Vietnam remain much higher than in unsprayed areas, suggesting that fetuses and breast-fed infants may be exposed to high levels of dioxins. The present study investigated the association of infant neurodevelopment in early infancy and dioxin exposure during the perinatal period. The study involved 216 mother-infant pairs living near the Da Nang airbase, a dioxin contaminated area in Vietnam. Mothers and infants were followed from birth until infants were 4 months old. Dioxin levels in breast milk were measured to estimate the perinatal dioxin exposure, including the infant daily dioxin intake (DDI) via breastfeeding. Infant neurodevelopmental parameters, including cognitive, language and motor domains were assessed at approximately 4 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III). The level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents in breast milk and the infant DDI showed significant inverse correlations with neurodevelopmental scores. When the subjects were divided into four groups according to dioxin levels in breast milk, the moderate and high DDI groups had significantly lower cognitive, composite motor and fine motor scores, and the high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents group had significantly lower fine motor score than the low exposure group. For all domains, neurodevelopmental scores were decreased with increase in the level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The present study demonstrates a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment in 4-month-old infants living in contaminated areas in Vietnam.

  2. Feeding infants and toddlers study: What foods are infants and toddlers eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Kay; Pac, Susan; Devaney, Barbara; Jankowski, Linda

    2004-01-01

    To describe the food consumption patterns of US infants and toddlers, 4 to 24 months of age. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers study based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age 4 to 24 months. The percentage of infants and toddlers consuming foods from specific food groups was estimated for six age groups, using a single 24-hour recall. Infants as young as 7 months of age showed food patterns that have been observed in older children and adults. From 18% to 33% of infants and toddlers between ages 7 and 24 months consumed no discrete servings of vegetables, and 23% to 33% consumed no fruits. French fries were one of the three most common vegetables consumed by infants 9 to 11 months of age. By 15 to 18 months, french fries were the most common vegetable. Almost half (46%) of 7- to 8-month-olds consumed some type of dessert, sweet, or sweetened beverage, and this percentage increased as age increased. By 19 to 24 months, 62% of toddlers consumed a baked dessert, 20% consumed candy, and 44% consumed a sweetened beverage. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, with emphasis on dark green, leafy, and deep yellow vegetables and colorful fruits. They should offer desserts, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks only occasionally, offering nutrient-dense, age-appropriate foods as alternatives (eg, fruit, cheese, yogurt, and cereals). Water, milk, and 100% fruit juices should be offered as alternative beverages. Because family food choices influence what foods are offered to children, family-based approaches to developing healthy eating habits may be helpful.

  3. Semantics guide infants' vowel learning: Computational and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Schure, S M M; Junge, C M M; Boersma, P P G

    2016-05-01

    In their first year, infants' perceptual abilities zoom in on only those speech sound contrasts that are relevant for their language. Infants' lexicons do not yet contain sufficient minimal pairs to explain this phonetic categorization process. Therefore, researchers suggested a bottom-up learning mechanism: infants create categories aligned with the frequency distributions of sounds in their input. Recent evidence shows that this bottom-up mechanism may be complemented by the semantic context in which speech sounds occur, such as simultaneously present objects. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether discrimination of a non-native vowel contrast improves when sounds from the contrast were paired consistently or randomly with two distinct visually presented objects, while the distribution of speech tokens suggested a single broad category. This was assessed in two ways: computationally, namely in a neural network simulation, and experimentally, namely in a group of 8-month-old infants. The neural network, trained with a large set of sound-meaning pairs, revealed that two categories emerge only if sounds are consistently paired with objects. A group of 49 real 8-month-old infants did not immediately show sensitivity to the pairing condition; a later test at 18 months with some of the same infants, however, showed that this sensitivity at 8 months interacted with their vocabulary size at 18 months. This interaction can be explained by the idea that infants with larger future vocabularies are more positively influenced by consistent training (and/or more negatively influenced by inconsistent training) than infants with smaller future vocabularies. This suggests that consistent pairing with distinct visual objects can help infants to discriminate speech sounds even when the auditory information does not signal a distinction. Together our results give computational as well as experimental support for the idea that semantic context plays a role in disambiguating

  4. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  5. Cry babies and pollyannas: Infants can detect unjustified emotional reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarella, Sabrina S; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Infants are attuned to emotional facial and vocal expressions, reacting most prominently when they are exposed to negative expressions. However, it remains unknown if infants can detect whether a person's emotions are justifiable given a particular context. The focus of the current paper was to examine whether infants react the same way to unjustified (e.g., distress following a positive experience) and justified (e.g., distress following a negative experience) emotional reactions. Infants aged 15 and 18 months were shown an actor experiencing negative and positive experiences, with one group exposed to an actor whose emotional reactions were consistently unjustified (i.e., did not match the event), while the other saw an actor whose emotional reactions were justified (i.e., always matched the event). Infants' looking times and empathic reactions were examined. Only 18-month-olds detected the mismatching facial expressions: those in the unjustified group showed more hypothesis testing (i.e., checking) across events than the justified group. Older infants in the justified group also showed more concerned reactions to negative expressions than those in the unjustified group. The present findings indicate that infants implicitly understand how the emotional valence of experiences is linked to subsequent emotional expressions.

  6. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  7. Peritoneal dialysis in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, M D; Spurgeon, P; Haycock, G B; Chantler, C

    1983-01-01

    A commercially available closed dialysis system and a new peritoneal cannula with potential advantages for infants have been developed. The dialysis set includes three dialysate bags that may be connected to the filling burette; the warming coil of the set is placed in a thermostatically controlled water bath. The peritoneal catheter comprises a flexible tube with side holes and a sharp short bevelled needle with obturator. Advantages of the new equipment over previously available equipment a...

  8. Infant and toddler nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Katie

    2015-12-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are often the first point of advice about nutrition and feeding concerns in infants and toddlers. The aim of this article is to discuss the assessment of breastfed infants and address commonly presenting issues such as regurgitation, vomiting and bowel habits. Recommendations for starting solids and management of fussy eating are also outlined in this article. Breastfeeding should be supported by all healthcare professionals. Intake is difficult to quantify, but can be assessed using growth and urine output, with support from lactation consultants and/or child and family health nurses. Regurgitation is common, and usually resolves itself. If there are clinical concerns about a child's vomiting, they should be investigated medically. Consti-pation can be caused by insufficient fluid intake and should be managed medically; dietary interventions are not recommended as first-line treatment. Solid foods should be introduced around six months of age, when the infant is developmentally ready. Delaying the introduction of solids or allergenic foods does not prevent allergies. Fussy eating is common in toddlers exerting their independence, and behavioural management is essential.

  9. Preference for infant-directed speech in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Samantha C; O'Sullivan, Laura P; Shah, Bhavesh L; Berthier, Neil E

    2014-11-01

    The current study explores the effects of exposure to maternal voice on infant sucking in preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants averaging 35 weeks gestational age were divided randomly into two groups. A contingency between high-amplitude sucking and presentation of maternal voice was instituted for one group while the other group served as a yoked control. No significant differences were observed in sucking of the two groups, but the degree of pitch modulation of the maternal voice predicted an increase in the rate of infant sucking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, Aline Martins; Soares, Daniele de Almeida; Tudella, Eloisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior and grasping in 5-, 6-, and 7-month-old preterm infants. Nine low-risk preterm and 10 full-term infants participated. Both groups showed the predominance of unimanual reaching, an age-related increase in the frequency of vertical-oriented and open hand movement, and also an increase in successful grasping from 6 to 7 months. The frequency of open hand was higher in the preterm group at 6 months. Intrinsic restrictions imposed by prematurity did not seem to have impaired reaching performance of preterm infants throughout the months of age.

  11. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  12. Infant autonomic nervous system response and recovery: Associations with maternal risk status and infant emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurland, Jill; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Smaling, Hanneke J A; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether risk status and cumulative risk were associated with autonomic nervous system reactivity and recovery, and emotion regulation in infants. The sample included 121 6-month-old infants. Classification of risk status was based on World Health Organization criteria (e.g., presence of maternal psychopathology, substance use, and social adversity). Heart rate, parasympathetic respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and sympathetic preejection period were examined at baseline and across the still face paradigm. Infant emotion regulation was coded during the still face paradigm. Infants in the high-risk group showed increased heart rate, parasympathetic withdrawal, and sympathetic activation during recovery from the still face episode. Higher levels of cumulative risk were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activation. Moreover, increased heart rate during recovery in the high-risk group was mediated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, indicating mobilization of sympathetic resources when confronted with socioemotional challenge. Distinct indirect pathways were observed from maternal risk to infant emotion regulation during the still face paradigm through parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation. These findings underline the importance of specific measures of parasympathetic and sympathetic response and recovery, and indicate that maternal risk is associated with maladaptive regulation of stress early in life reflecting increased risk for later psychopathology.

  13. Physiologic brain dysmaturity in late preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Mark S.; Johnson, Mark W.; Ludington, Susan M.; Loparo, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal EEG sleep was used to determine if differences are expressed between healthy late preterm and full term groups. Twenty-seven 24-channel multi-hour studies were recorded at similar post–menstrual ages (PMA) and analyzed for eight asymptomatic late preterm infants (LPT) compared with nineteen healthy full term (FT) infants as a preliminary analysis, followed by a comparison of a subset of 8 FT infants, matched for gender, race, and PMA. Z scores were performed on data sets from each group pair comparing each of seven EEG/Sleep measures for entire recordings, active (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) segments and artifact-free intervals. Six of seven measures showed differences between the 8 LPT and 8 matched FT cohort pair comparisons of >0.3; REMs, arousals during QS, spectral correlations between homologous centro-temporal regions during QS, spectral beta/alpha power ratios during AS and QS, a spectral measure of respiratory regularity during QS, and sleep cycle length. Quantitative neurophysiologic analyses define differences in brain maturation between LPT and FT infants at similar PMA. Altered EEG/Sleep behaviors in the LPT are biomarkers of developmental neuroplasticity involving interconnected neuronal networks adapting to conditions of prematurity for this largest segment of the preterm neonatal population. PMID:21796018

  14. Motor development curve from 0 to 12 months in infants born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayenne Martins Roberto Formiga, Cibelle; Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins

    2011-03-01

    To trace a reference curve for motor development from birth up to 12 months of corrected chronological age in infants born preterm and low birth weight. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 308 preterm infants (53% boys) weighing Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) was used for motor development assessment. Comparing the motor performance of preterm infants with infants from a standardized sample on the AIMS, it was found that, except for the age group of the newborn, preterm infants showed lower motor development scores in comparison with the AIMS normative sample in all age groups between 1 and 12 months. The curve of motor development showed a continuous increase in the number of motor skills of preterm infants during their first 12 months of age. However, the average of motor acquisitions of preterm infants showed a nonlinear pattern with a standard indicator of stabilization between 8 and 10 months of age. Preterm infants, 1-12 months of age, showed motor development AIMS scores lower than the standards established in the normative sample. The findings may contribute as norm-reference for assessing the motor development of preterm infants in follow-up programmes in developing countries. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Pathomorphological findings in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, G.

    2000-01-01

    Pathomorphology in the preterm infant represents an interaction of morphological organ immaturity and neonatal management with their respective sequelae. Pathomorphological examples include the modification in the morphology of hyaline membrane disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a consequence of modern neonatal therapy. Hemorrhagic and ischemic/hypoxic lesions of the central nervous system may occur in age- and agent-related distributional patterns, with subependymal hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia representing the most important examples. The most common intestinal finding, namely, necrotizing enterocolitis, typically shows segmental alterations, the morphology of which largely depends on the dominating causative agent. Hepatic cholestasis and fatty change are mostly consequences of parenteral nutrition or hypoxic/ischemic stress. Hepatic necrosis can be associated with the latter, but may also indicate disseminated intravascular coagulation. Vascular pathomorphology is represented by thromembolic lesions, in most instances corresponding to sequelae of neonatal management. (orig.) [de

  16. Active Motor Training Has Long-term Effects on Infants' Object Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Sarah E; Watkins, Rachel M; Needham, Amy Work

    2016-01-01

    Long-term changes in infants' behavior as a result of active motor training were studied. Thirty-two infants completed three visits to the laboratory. At the first visit, infants were 3 months old and completed an object exploration assessment. Then the experimenter demonstrated the motor training procedures appropriate for the infant's experimental condition, and parents took home custom infant mittens (either sticky or non-sticky) and a bag of lightweight toys to practice with their infants. Over the course of the following 2 weeks, infants participated in 10 sessions of either active (sticky) or passive (non-sticky) mittens training at home with their parents. Infants who participated in active mittens training wore mittens with the palms covered in Velcro, allowing them to pick up and move around small toys. Infants who participated in passive mittens training wore non-sticky mittens, and their parents moved the toys through their visual fields on their behalf. After completing the training, infants returned to the lab for the second visit. At visit two, infants participated in another object exploration assessment as well as a reaching assessment. Parents returned the training materials to the lab at the second visit, and were told not to continue any specific training regimen from this point forward. Two months later, when infants were about 5.5 months of age, they returned to the lab for a third visit. At the third visit, infants completed the same two assessments as during the second visit. The results of this study indicate that infants who participated in active motor training engaged in more sophisticated object exploration when compared to infants who received passive training. These findings are consistent with others in the literature showing that active motor training at 3 months of age facilitates the processes of object exploration and engagement. The current results and others reveal that the effects of early experience can last long after

  17. Neonatal procedural pain and preterm infant cortisol response to novelty at 8 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Ruth E; Weinberg, Joanne; Whitfield, Michael F

    2004-07-01

    Stress systems may be altered in the long term in preterm infants for multiple reasons, including early exposure to procedural pain in neonatal intensive care. This question has received little attention beyond hospital discharge. Stress responses (cortisol) to visual novelty in preterm infants who were born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; neonatal exposure to procedural pain and morphine in the neonatal intensive care unit. Seventy-six infants, 54 preterm (neonatal skin-breaking procedures. In contrast, cortisol responses to novelty were predicted equally well by neonatal pain or GA at birth. No relationship between morphine dosing and cortisol response was demonstrated in these infants. ELGA preterm infants show a different pattern of cortisol levels before and after positive stimulation of visual novelty than more maturely born, VLGA preterm and term-born infants. Exposure to high numbers of skin-breaking procedures may contribute to "resetting" basal arousal systems in preterm infants.

  18. Impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Friis-Hansen, B

    1979-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured, using the 133Xe clearance technique, a few hours after birth in 19 infants with varying degrees of respiratory distress syndrome. Ten of these infants had had asphyxia at birth. The least affected infants with normotension (systolic blood pressure 60 to 65 mm Hg...... at birth and infants with RDS only. CBF varied considerably with spontaneous variations in blood pressure, suggesting that autoregulation was lacking. This finding may explain why distressed premature infants are prone to develop massive capillary bleeding in the germinal layer with penetration......) had CBF values of about 40 ml/100 gm/minute. Hypotensive infants with asphyxia at birth or RDS or both had values for CBF of about 20 ml/100 gm/minute, or less. CBF was strongly correlated with the arterial blood pressure, showing a linear relationship that was identical in infants with asphyxia...

  19. Addressing parents' concerns: do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant's immune system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offit, Paul A; Quarles, Jessica; Gerber, Michael A; Hackett, Charles J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Kollman, Tobias R; Gellin, Bruce G; Landry, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys found that an increasing number of parents are concerned that infants receive too many vaccines. Implicit in this concern is that the infant's immune system is inadequately developed to handle vaccines safely or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system. In this review, we will examine the following: 1) the ontogeny of the active immune response and the ability of neonates and young infants to respond to vaccines; 2) the theoretic capacity of an infant's immune system; 3) data that demonstrate that mild or moderate illness does not interfere with an infant's ability to generate protective immune responses to vaccines; 4) how infants respond to vaccines given in combination compared with the same vaccines given separately; 5) data showing that vaccinated children are not more likely to develop infections with other pathogens than unvaccinated children; and 6) the fact that infants actually encounter fewer antigens in vaccines today than they did 40 or 100 years ago.

  20. Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Katharina J; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-11-01

    Physiological reactivity to repeated infant crying was examined as a predictor of risk for harsh discipline use with 12-month-olds in a longitudinal study with 48 low-income mother-infant dyads. Physiological reactivity was measured while mothers listened to three blocks of infant cry sounds in a standard cry paradigm when their infants were 3 months old. Signs of harsh discipline use were observed during two tasks during a home visit when the infants were 12 months old. Mothers showing signs of harsh discipline (n = 10) with their 12-month-olds were compared to mothers who did not (n = 38) on their sympathetic (skin conductance levels [SCL]) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to the cry sounds. Results showed a significant interaction effect for sympathetic reactivity only. Mean SCL of harsh-risk mothers showed a significant different response pattern from baseline to crying and onward into the recovery, suggesting that mean SCL of mothers who showed signs of harsh discipline continued to rise across the repeated bouts of cry sounds while, after an initial increase, mean SCL level of the other mothers showed a steady decline. We suggest that harsh parenting is reflected in physiological overreactivity to negative infant signals and discuss our findings from a polyvagal perspective.

  1. Infant mental health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen

    2011-03-01

    The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games...

  3. The Relationship between Parent-Infant Bed Sharing and Marital Satisfaction for Mothers of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Rosemary; Miller, Lynn D.; Yu, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between marital satisfaction and time spent bed sharing with infants in a community sample of 81 bed sharing mothers. Time spent bed sharing did not significantly predict variance in marital satisfaction when considering bed sharers as a whole. Moderation analysis, however, showed the interaction between…

  4. Infants Time Their Smiles to Make Their Moms Smile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ruvolo

    Full Text Available One of the earliest forms of interaction between mothers and infants is smiling games. While the temporal dynamics of these games have been extensively studied, they are still not well understood. Why do mothers and infants time their smiles the way they do? To answer this question we applied methods from control theory, an approach frequently used in robotics, to analyze and synthesize goal-oriented behavior. The results of our analysis show that by the time infants reach 4 months of age both mothers and infants time their smiles in a purposeful, goal-oriented manner. In our study, mothers consistently attempted to maximize the time spent in mutual smiling, while infants tried to maximize mother-only smile time. To validate this finding, we ported the smile timing strategy used by infants to a sophisticated child-like robot that automatically perceived and produced smiles while interacting with adults. As predicted, this strategy proved successful at maximizing adult-only smile time. The results indicate that by 4 months of age infants interact with their mothers in a goal-oriented manner, utilizing a sophisticated understanding of timing in social interactions. Our work suggests that control theory is a promising technique for both analyzing complex interactive behavior and providing new insights into the development of social communication.

  5. Social touch interacts with infants' learning of auditory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-Williams, Casey; Ferguson, Brock; Abu-Zhaya, Rana; Seidl, Amanda

    2017-09-29

    Infants' experiences are defined by the presence of concurrent streams of perceptual information in social environments. Touch from caregivers is an especially pervasive feature of early development. Using three lab experiments and a corpus of naturalistic caregiver-infant interactions, we examined the relevance of touch in supporting infants' learning of structure in an altogether different modality: audition. In each experiment, infants listened to sequences of sine-wave tones following the same abstract pattern (e.g., ABA or ABB) while receiving time-locked touch sequences from an experimenter that provided either informative or uninformative cues to the pattern (e.g., knee-elbow-knee or knee-elbow-elbow). Results showed that intersensorily redundant touch supported infants' learning of tone patterns, but learning varied depending on the typicality of touch sequences in infants' lives. These findings suggest that infants track touch sequences from moment to moment and in aggregate from their caregivers, and use the intersensory redundancy provided by touch to discover patterns in their environment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  7. Elimination Problems in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  8. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  9. The Role of Verbal Repetition in the Development of Infant Speech Preferences from 4 to 14 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoberts, Gerald W.; McDonough, Colleen; Lakusta, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated infants' preferences for age-appropriate and age-inappropriate infant-directed speech (IDS) over adult-directed speech (ADS). Two initial experiments showed that 6-, 10-, and 14-month-olds preferred IDS directed toward younger infants, and 4-, 8-, 10-, and 14-month-olds, but not 6-month-olds, preferred IDS directed…

  10. Caffeine for the management of apnea in preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mueni, Eunice; Opiyo, Newton; English, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty persists regarding the efficacy and safety of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline – in intravenous form named aminophylline) for the prevention and treatment of infant apnea. To help inform national guideline development in Kenya we undertook structured literature searches to identify current evidence on caffeine therapy for infant apnea. Available evidence shows that caffeine is as effective as intravenous theophylline (aminophylline), but is safer and easier to ...

  11. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

  12. Challenges Facing Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV among Infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health systems also face a lot of challenges while implementing these programmes that would promptly identify HIV exposed babies as well as enrolment into care. This review examined challenges facing early infant diagnosis of HIV among infants in Nigeria. Résumé Le nombre d'enfants qui sont atteints du VIH ne ...

  13. Challenges Facing Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV among Infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The number of children who have HIV continues to grow. Studies have confirmed dramatic survival benefits and mortality reduction for infants confirmed and managed as early as possible after diagnosis. With the advent of the Polymerase Chain. Reaction technology, early infant diagnosis of HIV among children is easier ...

  14. Infant toilet training in Thailand: starting and completion age and factors determining them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara

    2011-12-01

    To study the age at which Thai infants start and achieve toilet training and its associated factors. The parents of fifty infants in a research entitled "Bowel movements of normal Thai infants" were interviewed about age at which toilet training started, the process of toilet training and age at which infant successfully completed toilet training. Forty-seven infants from the 50 infants registered had data of the date of beginning toilet training. Five of them (10.6%) started toilet training at 4 months and 38 (80.9%) by 12 months. Most of the infants (73.7%) were initially trained when they showed urging signs. Only 45 infants had complete data of successful toilet training. Twenty-two cases (48.9%) were trained successfully by 12 months and most of them (16/22) succeeded within one month. The infants, who were not the first child and were taken care of by a well-educated mother, were found to start toilet training late. The youngest age at which normal Thai infants start to be toilet trained was 4 months. About 50% of the infants aged 12 months had successful toilet training. Being raised by a well-educated mother and a having a later birth order in a family were factors associated with late toilet training.

  15. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  16. Effect of body position on ventilation distribution in ventilated preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Judith L; Johnston, Leanne; Brauer, Sandy; Woodgate, Paul; Schibler, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Positioning is considered vital to the maintenance of good lung ventilation by optimizing oxygen transport and gas exchange in ventilated premature infants. Previous studies suggest that the prone position is advantageous; however, no data exist on regional ventilation distribution for this age group. To investigate the effect of body position on regional ventilation distribution in ventilated and nonventilated preterm infants using electrical impedance tomography. Randomized crossover study design. Neonatal ICU. A total of 24 ventilated preterm infants were compared with six spontaneously breathing preterm infants. Random assignment of the order of the positions supine, prone, and quarter prone. Ventilation distribution was measured with regional impedance amplitudes and global inhomogeneity indices using electrical impedance tomography. In the spontaneously breathing infants, regional impedance amplitudes were increased in the posterior compared with the anterior lung (p < 0.01) and in the right compared with the left lung (p = 0.03). No differences were found in the ventilated infants. Ventilation was more inhomogeneous in the ventilated compared with the healthy infants (p < 0.01). Assessment of temporal regional lung filling showed that the posterior lung filled earlier than the anterior lung in the spontaneously breathing infants (p < 0.02) whereas in the in the ventilated infants the right lung filled before the left lung (p < 0.01). In contrast to previous studies showing that ventilation is distributed to the nondependent lung in infants and children, this study shows that gravity has little effect on regional ventilation distribution.

  17. Social encouragement can influence manual preference in 6 month-old-infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange-Majoux, Françoise; Devouche, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of social encouragement on infants' hand movements, in particular on manual preference. Thirty-six infants were observed at 5.5 months. In a first step, their spontaneous manual preference was recorded with an object placed at the midline position. The second step consisted in encouraging infants to use their non-preferred hand by putting the object near that hand and congratulating them. The third step was similar to the first one (object placed at the midline position) except that the infant continued to be congratulated when (s)he used the non-preferred hand for reaching the object. Results showed that half of the infants exhibited a spontaneous manual preference and that a majority of these infants could use their non-preferred hand when verbally encouraged. Moreover, infants showing a left hand preference modified their hand-use more easily than infants showing a right hand preference. Although our findings reveal only a temporary and short-term influence of the social context, results are discussed in light of a socio-cognitive perspective whereby social encouragement can model manual preference, in particular its strength and stability. Highlights • At 5.5 months, a manual preference was observed in 47.2% of the infants. • The preference for the left hand was observed in 35.3% of the infants who presented a manual preference. • Left-handers change more easily their hand-use than right handers.

  18. Relation between sleep status of preterm infants aged 1-2 years and mothers' parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Yoko; Takada, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare infants' sleep measures through an actigraph and maternal parenting stress among preterm and full-term mothers, and to explore the factors affecting maternal parenting stress in relation to infants' sleep. The subjects were 44 pairs of mothers and children. Twenty-one were in the preterm group, and 23 were in the full-term group. Inclusion criteria for preterm infants were born at less than 36 weeks and birthweight of less than 2500 g. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form assesses maternal perception of the degree of parenting stress: the children's domain, and the parent's domain. An actigraph was applied to assess the infants' sleep measures. The PSI showed significant differences, with high scores in parenting stress in the preterm group. Also, the number of mothers who complained about their infant's sleep issues was significantly higher in the preterm group. Most of the sleep measures showed improvement by their age in both preterm and full-term infants. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that sleep efficiency, longest sleep duration at nighttime accounted for 71% of stress in the children's domain of the PSI of the preterm group. The parenting stress among mothers of preterm infants was significantly higher than that of mothers of full-term infants. The mothers of preterm infants were concerned about their infant's nocturnal sleep quality. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  20. Disseminated histoplasmosis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, C M; Navarrete, M; Carrillo, J M; Mora, L; Carranza, A

    1999-12-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients who reside in Histoplasma capsulatum-endemic regions. It has also been described in immunocompetent infants after exposure to a large inoculum of the pathogen resulting in case fatality rates of 40 to 50%. From 1983 through 1996 all infants with documented disseminated histoplasmosis were treated with amphotericin B followed by daily ketoconazole for 3 months. Immunologic workups were performed at the time of diagnosis and at 4 to 6 weeks of therapy. Surviving patients were followed for at least 1 year. Time to resolution of signs and symptoms was recorded, as were complications. We managed 40 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis. The age in months at diagnosis was 15.3+/-10.2 (mean +/- SD), and 24 were male. All patients were from endemic regions and they presented with fever, spleen and/or liver enlargement and hematologic abnormalities. Diagnosis was made by histology and culture of bone marrow, spleen, lymph node, bronchoalveolar or liver samples. Twenty patients presented with T cell deficiency that resolved at 4 to 6 weeks of therapy in all of the retested patients, and 10 of 12 tested patients had hyperglobulinemia that resolved. Thirty-five (88%) patients were cured by treatment; 4 died and 1 relapsed. Disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered in infants from endemic areas who present with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and hematologic abnormalities. These patients develop transient hyperglobulinemia and T cell deficiency that resolve with treatment. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by an oral azole for 3 months is effective in most patients.

  1. Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interaction: The Communicative Value of Infant-Directed Talking and Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diana; Peña, Marcela

    Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother. Behavioral response was analyzed from offline video coding, and brain response was estimated from the analysis of electrophysiological recordings. We found that during ID talking, infants displayed a significantly higher number of visual contacts, vocalizations, and body movements than during ID singing. Moreover, only during ID talking were the number of visual contacts and vocalizations positively correlated with the number of questions and pauses in the mother's speech. Our results suggest that ID talking provides infants with specific cues that allow them not only to react to mother stimulation, but also to act toward them, displaying a rudimentary version of turn-taking behavior. Brain activity partially supported that interpretation. The relevance of our results for bonding is discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Bacterial meningitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experiences of self-esteem among parents to preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    2014-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows that involvem......Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows...... that involvement of the father increases the fatherhood and thereby the bonding to the child. The parents’ self-esteem seems to be affected negatively by the premature birth. Objective: To gain further knowledge and a deeper understanding of the parents’ experience of their self-esteem during the admission...... phases: 1) Three weeks from birth and 2) eight months after discharge. Results: The findings of the research are based on a theoretical frame concerning self-esteem from a psychological point of view. The data from the first phase three weeks after birth show that, individual, relational and structural...

  4. Mothers' different styles of involvement in preterm infant pain care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelin, Anna; Lehtonen, Liisa; Pelander, Tiina; Salanterä, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    To describe and understand how mothers utilize the opportunity to actively participate in their preterm infants' pain care using facilitated tucking by parents (FTP). Descriptive and exploratory study with postintervention interview. Finnish level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Twenty-three mothers who had preterm infants born at gestational ages of 32 to 34 weeks. The parents (N=45) of 29 preterm infants were taught to use FTP. In addition, all nurses in the NICU (N=76) received the same education to support the parents' use of FTP. After 2 to 4 weeks of FTP use, the mothers (n=23) were interviewed using the Clinical Interview for Parents of High-Risk Infants with additional questions related to the infants' pain care. The interviews were analyzed inductively with cross-case analysis and deductively with a previously developed coding scheme. Facilitated tucking by parents was perceived positively and was used by all participating mothers. Three different styles of involvement in preterm infants' pain care with FTP were identified. They formed a continuum from external to random and finally to internalized involvement. In external involvement, the pain care with FTP was triggered by outside factors such as nurses, whereas in random and internalized involvement the motivation emerged from a parent. Mothers with external involvement thought that any person could apply the FTP. In random involvement, mothers were mainly absent during painful procedures, although they saw themselves as the best caregivers. In internalized involvement, the responsibility for infant pain care was shared within the family. Mothers' NICU-related stress and maternal attachment were associated with this variation. This study showed that mothers' are willing to actively participate in their preterm infants' pain care. However, the participation is unique according to mother and her experiences before and during NICU admission. Nurses need to consider these differences in mothers

  5. Individual Variation in Fathers? Testosterone Reactivity to Infant Distress Predicts Parenting Behaviors with their 1-Year-Old Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Patty X.; Saini, Ekjyot K.; Thomason, Elizabeth; Schultheiss, Oliver C.; Gonzalez, Richard; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Positive father involvement is associated with positive child outcomes. There is great variation in fathers? involvement and fathering behaviors, and men?s testosterone (T) has been proposed as a potential biological contributor to paternal involvement. Previous studies investigating testosterone changes in response to father-infant interactions or exposure to infant cues are unclear as to whether individual variation in T is predictive of fathering behavior. We show that individual variation...

  6. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  7. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.

  8. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  9. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  10. Selectivity in Infant Social Referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    In laboratory studies of social referencing, infants as young as 12 months have been reported to prefer looking at the experimenter over the caregiver for clarifying information. From an expertise perspective, such behavior could be interpreted as if the infant seeks information from others and can discriminate between persons who have or do not…

  11. Infant Mortality: An American Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Christiane B.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the complex problem of infant deaths in America and reviews the policy options before the nation. High infant mortality rates have been attributed to population heterogeneity, poverty, or differences in the way health services are organized. Links health policy issues to the larger issue of social and economic equity. (AF)

  12. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  13. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  14. Does maternal birth outcome differentially influence the occurrence of infant death among African Americans and European Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Archer, Phillip W

    2011-11-01

    The United States continues to have one of the highest infant mortality rates (IMR). Although studies have examined the association between maternal and infant birth outcomes, few studies have examined the impact of maternal birth outcome on infant mortality. This study was designed to examine the influence of maternal low birth weight and preterm birth on infant mortality. The 1997-2007 Virginia birth and infant death registry was analyzed. The infant birth and death data was linked to maternal birth registry data using the mother's maiden name and date of birth. From the mother's birth registry data, the grandmother's demographic and pregnancy history was obtained. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. There was a statistically significant association between maternal birth outcome and subsequent infant mortality. Infants born from a mother who was low birth weight were 2.3 times more likely to have an infant die within the first year of life. Similarly, infants born from a mother born preterm were 2.2 times more likely to have an infant die. Stratification by race showed that there was no statistical association between maternal birth weight and infant death among Whites. However, a strong association was observed among Blacks. Maternal birth outcomes may be an important indicator for infant mortality. Future longitudinal studies are needed to understand the underlying cause of these associations.

  15. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  16. Socioeconomic (SES) differences in language are evident in female infants at 7months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Laura M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Hurt, Hallam

    2015-12-01

    Language skills, strongly linked to academic success, are known to differ by socioeconomic status (SES), with lower SES individuals performing less well than higher SES. To examine the effect of SES on infant language at 7months of age and the relationship between maternal vocabulary skills and infant language function. To determine if the relationships between SES and infant language are mediated by maternal vocabulary skills. Longitudinal follow-up of healthy term female African American infants born to mothers in two SES groups: Low SES (income-to-needs≤1, no education beyond high school) and Higher SES (Income-to-Needs >1, at least a high school diploma). 54 infants tested at 7months of age; 54 mothers tested at infant age 7months. Preschool Language Scale-5 (PLS-5), Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV. Low SES infants (n=29) performed less well than Higher SES (n=25) on PLS-5 Total Language, Auditory Comprehension, and Expressive Communication (p≤0.012). Maternal Vocabulary subtest scores were lower in Low SES than Higher SES (p=0.002), but not related to infant PLS Language scores (p≥0.17). Maternal vocabulary did not mediate the relationship between SES and infant language skills at age 7months. In this single sex and race cohort of healthy, term, female infants, lower SES exerted negative effects on infant language by 7months of age. While maternal vocabulary scores showed no relation with infant language skills at 7months, continued study of the relations between SES, infant outcomes and maternal characteristics is needed to determine how low SES conditions impact early language. These findings underscore the importance of early interventions, as well as policies designed to improve socioeconomic conditions for infants and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Breast- and bottle-feeding in preterm infants: a comparison of behavioral cues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chen-Hsiu; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Chen, Siao-Min; Chen, Chih-Ling; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2013-12-01

    Developmental care has been broadly applied to identify the behavioral cues and care needs of preterm infants. Past studies indicate a significantly higher level of physical distress in bottle-fed preterm infants than in preterm infants who are breastfed. However, no evidence has yet been reported that supports the influence of feeding methods on behavioral cues. This study compares differences in the type and frequency of behavioral cues between breast- and bottle-fed preterm infants. A comparison study design and secondary data analysis method were used to assess data from two previous research projects. Infant feeding behavioral cues were observed and compared between two groups: 7 preterm infants who were breastfed and 7 preterm infants who were bottle-fed. After cases were matched by infant gestational age, behavioral responses were coded according to the preterm feeding cues coding system (PFCCS) from 7 paired maternal-infant feeding videos that featured preterm infants of 25 to 32 weeks gestational age at birth. The PFCCS classifies 24 feeding behavioral cues into hunger cues, self-regulatory cues, stress cues, and satiety cues. Infants in the breastfeeding group had a higher hunger cue frequency than their bottle-fed peers (p = .013), while bottle-fed infants had a higher stress cue frequency than their breastfed peers (p = .041). Other significant differences in behavioral cues between the two feeding methods included "fluid spillage" (bottle- >breast-, p = .008), "central cyanosis" (bottle- >breast-, p = .024) and "hand pushing" (breast- >bottle-, p = .034). Preterm infants in this study who breastfed showed significantly fewer stress cues than those who bottle fed. These findings support the importance of enhancing care provider sensitivity with regard to behavioral-cue observation. Findings further support breastfeeding rather than bottle-feeding for preterm infants.

  18. Measuring Neural Entrainment to Beat and Meter in Infants: Effects of Music Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Laura K.; Spinelli, Christina; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often engage in musical interactions with their infants. For example, parents across cultures sing lullabies and playsongs to their infants from birth. Behavioral studies indicate that infants not only extract beat information, but also group these beats into metrical hierarchies by as early as 6 months of age. However, it is not known how this is accomplished in the infant brain. An EEG frequency-tagging approach has been used successfully with adults to measure neural entrainment to auditory rhythms. The current study is the first to use this technique with infants in order to investigate how infants' brains encode rhythms. Furthermore, we examine how infant and parent music background is associated with individual differences in rhythm encoding. In Experiment 1, EEG was recorded while 7-month-old infants listened to an ambiguous rhythmic pattern that could be perceived to be in two different meters. In Experiment 2, EEG was recorded while 15-month-old infants listened to a rhythmic pattern with an unambiguous meter. In both age groups, information about music background (parent music training, infant music classes, hours of music listening) was collected. Both age groups showed clear EEG responses frequency-locked to the rhythms, at frequencies corresponding to both beat and meter. For the younger infants (Experiment 1), the amplitudes at duple meter frequencies were selectively enhanced for infants enrolled in music classes compared to those who had not engaged in such classes. For the older infants (Experiment 2), amplitudes at beat and meter frequencies were larger for infants with musically-trained compared to musically-untrained parents. These results suggest that the frequency-tagging method is sensitive to individual differences in beat and meter processing in infancy and could be used to track developmental changes. PMID:27252619

  19. Auditory context and memory retrieval in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, J; Prigot, J; Carroll, M; Pioli, L; Stein, A; Franco, A

    1997-12-01

    Three-month-old infants were trained to move an overhead crib mobile while 1 of 2 musical selections was played. Retention was assessed 1 or 7 days later in the presence of either the same music or a different musical selection. In Experiment 1, the musical selections were very different (classical versus jazz); in Experiment 2, they were much more similar (two classical pieces). Infants in both experiments displayed 1 day retention regardless of which music was played during the retention test. At 7 days, retention was seen only when the music played during the retention test matched the training music. These data are consistent with similar findings showing that 3-month-old infants' memory is disrupted at long retention intervals when the context present during retention testing does not match the learning context. As the infant's memory wanes, context appears to function as a necessary cue for the retrieval of acquired expectancies.

  20. Impact of blood sampling in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L P; Rasmussen, M K; Bjerregaard, L L

    2000-01-01

    ; the groups were then subdivided into critically ill or not. Diagnostic blood sampling and blood transfusion events were recorded. In total, 1905 blood samples (5,253 analysis) were performed, corresponding to 0.7 samples (1.9 analysis) per day per infant. The highest frequencies were found during the first....../kg. For the extremely preterm infants a significant correlation between sampled and transfused blood volume was found (mean 37.1 and 33.3 ml/kg, respectively, r = + 0.71, p = 0.0003). The most frequently requested analyses were glucose, sodium and potassium. Few blood gas analyses were requested (1.9/ infant). No blood...... losses attributable to excessive generous sampling were detected. The results show an acceptable low frequency of sampling and transfusion events for infants of GA 28-32 weeks. The study emphasizes the necessity of thorough reflection and monitoring of blood losses when ordering blood sampling...

  1. Healthful environments for hospitalized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Baker, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Medical and technological advances dominate the design of infant incubators because of their essential role in the survival of critically ill neonates. Yet other important design considerations, such as caregiver interaction, discomfort at bedside, and harmful materials, often are overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to consider the effects of existing incubator designs and to suggest criteria for the next generation of infant incubators. Incubators of the mid-1940s established an industry standard that exists to this day: portholes in an infant chamber positioned over a mechanical system, resting on top of storage cabinets or drawers. This design is unresponsive to many of the infants' needs and significantly influences parent/infant interaction. The physical effects and social barriers that the incubator presents to the health and well-being of infants are compounded by the use of unhealthful substances and materials such as formaldehyde. Collectively, these conditions call for an incubator that not only ameliorates physical and social obstacles, but also uses benign materials. Simple alterations to existing incubator design, such as introducing color and pattern, providing arm rests, and freeing space beneath the infant chamber to accommodate seated caregivers, would encourage more prolonged periods of contact with the infant occupants, thereby improving their behavioral organization and recovery. Replacing harmful materials with alternatives such as formaldehyde-free substrates in the cabinetry also will improve the developmental outcomes of the infant occupants. These types of recommended changes embrace the intent of the incubator to provide a controlled, secure environment while acknowledging that incubators are not merely medical equipment, but the living spaces of their infant occupants.

  2. Sudden infant death syndrome and other sleep-related infant deaths (case study of the Republic of Komi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya N. Korableva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, accidental asphyxia and suffocation in bed are the most significant part of the conditions united by the term “sudden unexpected death in infants” (SUDI. A high level of SUDI and a significant proportion in infant mortality are typical for countries with low rates of infant and babies mortality. The aim of the research is to study the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of the sudden infant death syndrome in the Komi Republic from 1997 to 2015, to assess the contribution of SIDS, occasional asphyxia and suffocation in bed to the mortality of infants to determine the optimization of approaches to the prevention of these conditions. Materials and Methods: The retrospective data analysis of the death of infants has been performed according to medical records, protocols of pathoanatomical studies, and the conclusions of the infant mortality commission of the Ministry of Health of the Komi Republic from 1997 to 2015. Risk factors were assessed retrospectively on the scale of life-threatening conditions (Tsinserling A.V. and co-authors, 1987. Results: The cumulative infant mortality rate from SIDS was 0.63 ± 0.33 ‰ (median – 0.55 ‰. Within the past 5 years, when the infant mortality rate in the region has not changed significantly, averaging 5.22 ± 0.73 ‰, the infant mortality rate from SIDS was 0.40 ± 0.25 ‰ (median 0.43. This compares with the level registered in the USA (0,4‰ in 2013 and in Western Europe with a similar level of infant mortality. In infant mortality of in the post-neonatal period, SIDS occurred in 13.8 ± 6.3 % (median – 12.2 %. Generally recognized data on the significant contribution of social and biological factors to decreasing the risk of sudden death syndrome were confirmed. The scale of life-threatening conditions showed the high sensitivity to death from SIDS. An examination of the place accident and assess of death circumstances is

  3. Infants prefer female body phenotypes; infant girls prefer they have an hourglass shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerianne M Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 144 infants (3 to 18 months of age during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio. When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type, a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls’ greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls’ later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance

  4. Osteopathy may decrease obstructive apnea in infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Denayer, Etienne; Vandenbossche, Thierry; Vermet, Luc; Hauser, Bruno; Deschepper, Jean; Engelen, Agnes

    2008-07-19

    Obstructive apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep: breathing is interrupted by a physical block to airflow despite effort. The purpose of this study was to test if osteopathy could influence the incidence of obstructive apnea during sleep in infants. Thirty-four healthy infants (age: 1.5-4.0 months) were recruited and randomized in two groups; six infants dropped out. The osteopathy treatment group (n = 15 infants) received 2 osteopathic treatments in a period of 2 weeks and a control group (n = 13 infants) received 2 non-specific treatments in the same period of time. The main outcome measure was the change in the number of obstructive apneas measured during an 8-hour polysomnographic recording before and after the two treatment sessions. The results of the second polysomnographic recordings showed a significant decrease in the number of obstructive apneas in the osteopathy group (p = 0.01, Wilcoxon test), in comparison to the control group showing only a trend suggesting a gradual physiologic decrease of obstructive apneas. However, the difference in the decline of obstructive apneas between the groups after treatment was not significant (p = 0.43). Osteopathy may have a positive influence on the incidence of obstructive apneas during sleep in infants with a previous history of obstructive apneas as measured by polysomnography. Additional research in this area appears warranted.

  5. Establishing normative nasal nitric oxide values in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Phillip S; Tian, Xin; Zahid, Maliha; Khalifa, Omar; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W

    2015-09-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a disease of impaired respiratory cilia motility, is often difficult to diagnose. Recent studies show low nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is closely linked to PCD, allowing the use of nNO measurement for PCD assessments. Nasal NO cutoff values for PCD are stratified by age, given nNO levels normally increase with age. However, normative values for nNO have not been established for infants less than 1 year old. In this study, we aim to establish normative values for nNO in infants and determine their utility in guiding infant PCD assessment. We obtained 42 nNO values from infants less than 1 year old without a history of PCD or recurrent sinopulmonary disease. Using regression analysis, we estimated the mean age-adjusted nNO values and established a 95% prediction interval (PI) for normal nNO. Using these findings, we were able to show 14 of 15 infant PCD patients had abnormally low nNO with values below the 95% PI. In this study we determined a regression model that best fits normative nNO values for infants less than 1 year old. This model identified the majority of PCD infants as having abnormally low nNO. These findings suggest nNO measurement can help guide PCD assessment in infants, and perhaps other pulmonary diseases with a link to low nNO. With early assessments, earlier clinical intervention may be possible to slow disease progression and help reduce pulmonary morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual Variation in Fathers’ Testosterone Reactivity to Infant Distress Predicts Parenting Behaviors with their 1-Year-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Patty X.; Saini, Ekjyot K.; Thomason, Elizabeth; Schultheiss, Oliver C.; Gonzalez, Richard; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Positive father involvement is associated with positive child outcomes. There is great variation in fathers’ involvement and fathering behaviors, and men’s testosterone (T) has been proposed as a potential biological contributor to paternal involvement. Previous studies investigating testosterone changes in response to father-infant interactions or exposure to infant cues are unclear as to whether individual variation in T is predictive of fathering behavior. We show that individual variation in fathers’ T reactivity to their infants during a challenging laboratory paradigm (Strange Situation) uniquely predicted fathers’ positive parenting behaviors during a subsequent father-infant interaction, in addition to other psychosocial determinants of paternal involvement, such as dispositional empathy and marital quality. The findings have implications for understanding fathering behaviors and how fathers can contribute to their children’s socioemotional development. PMID:26497119

  7. Individual variation in fathers' testosterone reactivity to infant distress predicts parenting behaviors with their 1-year-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Patty X; Saini, Ekjyot K; Thomason, Elizabeth; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Gonzalez, Richard; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-04-01

    Positive father involvement is associated with positive child outcomes. There is great variation in fathers' involvement and fathering behaviors, and men's testosterone (T) has been proposed as a potential biological contributor to paternal involvement. Previous studies investigating testosterone changes in response to father-infant interactions or exposure to infant cues were unclear as to whether individual variation in T is predictive of fathering behavior. We show that individual variation in fathers' T reactivity to their infants during a challenging laboratory paradigm (Strange Situation) uniquely predicted fathers' positive parenting behaviors during a subsequent father-infant interaction, in addition to other psychosocial determinants of paternal involvement, such as dispositional empathy and marital quality. The findings have implications for understanding fathering behaviors and how fathers can contribute to their children's socioemotional development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  9. Traumatic cervical epidural hematoma in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal Rangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-month-old male infant had presented with a history of a fall from the crib a fortnight ago. He had developed progressive weakness of both lower limbs. On examination, the infant had spastic paraplegia. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging of the cervical spine showed an epidural hematoma extending from the fourth cervical (C4 to the first dorsal (D1 vertebral level with cord compression. The patient had no bleeding disorder on investigation. He underwent cervical laminoplasty at C6 and C7 levels. The epidural hematoma was evacuated. The cervical cord started pulsating immediately. Postoperatively, the patient′s paraplegia improved dramatically in 48 hours. According to the author′s literature search, only seven cases of post-traumatic epidural hematoma have been reported in pediatric patients, and our patient is the youngest. The present case report discusses the etiopathology, presentation, and management of this rare case.

  10. Recommended use of morphine in neonates, infants and children based on a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kart, T; Christrup, Lona Louring; Rasmussen, M

    1997-01-01

    The English language literature has been reviewed in order to evaluate the present knowledge on morphine's metabolism and pharmacokinetics in children. The majority of preterm neonates are capable of glucuronidating morphine, but birth weight; gestational and postnatal age influence...... the glucuronidation capability. Term neonates, infants, and children are able to produce morphine glucuronides. For the reported pharmacokinetics parameters a meta-analysis was made; volume of distribution, estimated to be 2.8 +/- 2.6 l.kg-1, seems to be regardless of age, while half-life and clearance were found...... to be related to age. Half-life was estimated to be 9.0 +/- 3.4 h in pre-term neonates, 6.5 +/- 2.8 h in term neonates aged 0-57 days, and 2.0 +/- 1.8 h for infants and children aged 11 days to 15 years. Clearance was estimated to be 2.2 +/- 0.7 ml.min-1.kg-1 for preterm neonates, 8.1 +/- 3.2 ml.min-1.kg-1...

  11. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due...

  12. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitalized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Christoph P; Graham, Eric M; Hill, Kevin; Li, Jennifer S; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Clark, Reese H; Smith, P Brian

    2016-10-01

    Hospitalized infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represent a high-risk group. Recent data on risk factors for mortality following CPR in this population are lacking. We hypothesized that infant demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and levels of cardiopulmonary support at the time of CPR requirement would be associated with survival to hospital discharge following CPR. Retrospective cohort study. All infants receiving CPR on day of life 2 to 120 admitted to 348 Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. We collected data on demographics, interventions, center volume, and death prior to NICU discharge. We evaluated predictors of death after CPR using multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering of the data by center. Our cohort consisted of 2231 infants receiving CPR. Of these, 1127 (51%) survived to hospital discharge. Lower gestational age, postnatal age, 5-min APGAR, congenital anomaly, and markers of severity of illness were associated with higher mortality. Mortality after CPR did not change significantly over time (Cochran-Armitage test for trend p=0.35). Mortality following CPR in infants is high, particularly for less mature, younger infants with congenital anomalies and those requiring cardiopulmonary support prior to CPR. Continued focus on at risk infants may identify targets for CPR prevention and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Horng Su

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine growth restriction is common in very preterm infants. The incidence in very-low-birth-weight infants ranges between 43% and 97% in various centers, with a wide variability due to the use of different reference growth charts and nonstandard nutritional strategies. Extrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate postnatal nutrition is an important factor contributing to growth failure, as most very preterm infants experience major protein and energy deficits during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization. First-week protein and energy intake are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in very preterm infants. Early aggressive nutrition, including parenteral and enteral, is well tolerated in the very preterm infant and is effective in improving growth. Continued provision of appropriate nutrition (fortified human milk or premature formula is important throughout the growing care during the hospitalization. After discharge, exclusively breast-fed infants require additional supplementation. If formula-fed, nutrient-enriched postdischarge formula should be continued for approximately 9 months corrected age. Supplementation of the preterm formulas with protein would increase the protein/energy ratio (3 g/100 kcal, leading to increased lean mass with relatively decreased fat deposition. Further research is required to optimize the nutritional needs of preterm infants and to evaluate the effects of nutritional interventions on long-term growth, neurodevelopment, and other health outcomes.

  14. Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  16. Are infants with torticollis at risk of a delay in early motor milestones compared with a control group of healthy infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Anna; Nilsson, Staffan; Lagerkvist, Anna-Lena; Beckung, Eva

    2009-07-01

    Recently it has been claimed that infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) are at risk of a delay in early motor milestones. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether infants with CMT are indeed at risk in comparison with a control group of healthy infants. A second aim was to investigate whether the time spent in a prone position and plagiocephaly had any influence on motor development. Eighty-two infants with CMT (35 females and 47 males) were compared with 40 healthy infants (18 females and 22 males). Motor development was assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor scale (AIMS). Multiple regression showed that infants in the CMT group had a significantly lower AIMS score than the control group at 2 months (p=0.03) and 6 months of age (p=0.05). Infants who spent at least three occasions daily in a prone position when awake had significantly higher AIMS scores than infants who spent less time prone at 2 months (p=0.001), 6 months (pmotor milestones significantly later than the control group until the age of 10 months, but the risk of delay seems to be more strongly associated with little or no time prone when awake than with CMT.

  17. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Saccani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece, to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants and Canada (2,400 infants. Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care.

  18. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2013-09-01

    To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece), to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants) and Canada (2,400 infants). Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p ≤ 0.05. 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care.

  19. Infantes, Infantaticum. Remarques introductives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Henriet

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte commence par donner un chapitre des Miracles d’Isidore de Séville écrits par Lucas de Tuy (années 1220-1230. On y voit le saint expulser du monastère de Saint-Isidore l’infante Sancha, sœur d’Alphonse VII et maîtresse de l’Infantaticum. Une époque se termine, qui, depuis le Xe siècle, avait été marquée par le rôle éminent de certaines infantes (filles et soeurs de rois, placées à la tête d’un ensemble de possessions structurées par un ou plusieurs monastères. A la mort des infantes, ces « infantats » (infantaticum revenaient à la couronne. Cette pratique, qu’il serait sans doute exagéré de qualifier d’institution, ne nous est clairement présentée que chez les chroniqueurs du début du XIIIe siècle, lorsqu’elle disparaît en tant que telle. L’histoire de l’Infantaticum invite donc à s’interroger sur le rôle des femmes dans les stratégies de pouvoir propres à l’Espagne du Moyen Âge central, en même temps qu’elle contraint l’historien à ne pas imaginer les infantes comme les incarnations successives d’un personnage type et invariant à travers les siècles.Este texto empieza con un capítulo de los Milagros de Isidoro de Sevilla escritos por Lucas de Tuy en los años 1220-1230. Se ve al santo expulsar del monasterio de San Isidoro a la infanta Sancha, hermana de Alfonso VII y domina del Infantazgo (Infantaticum. Se acaba una época, que desde el siglo X habia sido marcada por el papel eminente de ciertas infantas (hijas y hermanas de reyes que dominaban un conjunto de posesiones estructuradas por uno o varios monasterios. A la muerte de las infantas, estos « infantazgos » volvían a la corona. Esta práctica, que dificilmente se puede calificar de « institución », no se nos presenta de manera totalmente clara antes de las crónicas de principios del XIII, momento en el cual desaparece como tal. La historia del Infantazgo nos invita a interrogarnos sobre el

  20. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  1. [Acute bronchiolitis in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschildre, A; Thumerelle, C; Bruno, B; Dubos, F; Santos, C; Dumonceaux, A

    2000-03-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common disease of the respiratory tract during the first year of life, and occurs in annual epidemics in winter. The etiology is viral, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the commonest agent. Respiratory symptoms remain generally mild, and treatment just supportive and at home. Certain infants are at high risk of severe illness (age less than 3 months, preterm birth, neonatal respiratory disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, underlying chronic diseases), and require hospitalisation. Most treatments are of unproved (corticosteroids), or limited benefit (inhaled bronchodilators, antibiotics). Chest physiotherapy is indicated in case of bronchial secretion. Vaccine are not now available, but prophylaxis with human RSV immunoglobulin or monoclonal antibodies has to be considered for children at increased risk for severe disease.

  2. Infants' Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants' preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants' looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants' allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment.

  3. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGAcommunicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling Infant i's Look on Trial t: Race-Face Preference Depends on i's Looking Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hoben; Fassbender, Ina

    2017-01-01

    When employing between-infant designs young infants' looking style is related to their development: Short looking (SL) infants are cognitively accelerated over their long looking (LL) peers. In fact, looking style is a within-infant variable, and depends on infant i 's look distribution over trials. For the paired array setting, a model is provided which specifies the probability, π i ∈ [0, 1], that i is SL. The model is employed in a face preference study; 74 Caucasian infants were longitudinally assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Each i viewed same race (Caucasian) vs. other race (African) faces. Infants become SL with development, but there are huge individual differences in rate of change over age. Three month LL infants, [Formula: see text], preferred other race faces. SL infants, [Formula: see text], preferring same race faces at 3, and other race faces at 6 and 9 months. Looking style changes precede and may control changes in face preference. Ignoring looking style can be misleading: Without considering looking style, 3 month infants show no face preference.

  5. Modeling Infant i's Look on Trial t: Race-Face Preference Depends on i's Looking Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoben Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When employing between-infant designs young infants' looking style is related to their development: Short looking (SL infants are cognitively accelerated over their long looking (LL peers. In fact, looking style is a within-infant variable, and depends on infant i's look distribution over trials. For the paired array setting, a model is provided which specifies the probability, πi ∈ [0, 1], that i is SL. The model is employed in a face preference study; 74 Caucasian infants were longitudinally assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Each i viewed same race (Caucasian vs. other race (African faces. Infants become SL with development, but there are huge individual differences in rate of change over age. Three month LL infants, π^i<1/2, preferred other race faces. SL infants, π^i>1/2, preferring same race faces at 3, and other race faces at 6 and 9 months. Looking style changes precede and may control changes in face preference. Ignoring looking style can be misleading: Without considering looking style, 3 month infants show no face preference.

  6. Joint engagement in infants and its relationship to their visual impairment measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urqueta Alfaro, Andrea; Morash, Valerie S; Lei, Daisy; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    Coordination of attention between a social partner and an external focus of shared interest, called joint engagement, is associated with positive developmental outcomes such as better language, socio-emotional, and theory of mind skills in sighted infants. Current measures of joint engagement rely on an infant's visual behaviors, making it difficult to study joint engagement in infants with low or no vision. In a naturalistic observational study, 20 infants with various levels of visual impairments - mean ages: 1.08 years (N=9) and 1.62 years (N=18), were videotaped during 30-min free play sessions with their caregivers. Seven infants were tested at both ages. Videos were coded to determine the percentage of time the dyads participated in joint engagement. Results showed that all visually impaired infants participated in joint engagement, with a significant increase between earlier and later ages. Infants' visual impairment levels were described in terms of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as measured using both visual evoked potential and preferential looking techniques. Of the visual measurements, infants' reduction in contrast sensitivity measured with preferential looking, alone, predicted the infants' percentage of time in joint engagement across ages. Contrary to prior research that exclusively focused on visual acuity, this finding supports the need to include contrast sensitivity measurements in studies with visually impaired infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility of pulse oximetry for assessment of infants born in community based midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Marrit; Ganzeboom, Angelina; Dawson, Jennifer A; Walther, Frans J; Bustraan, Jacqueline; van Roosmalen, Jos J M; te Pas, Arjan B

    2014-05-01

    to evaluate the feasibility of using pulse oximetry (PO) for evaluating infants born in community-based midwifery care. a prospective, observational study of infants born after midwifery supervised (home) births. 27 midwives from seven practices providing primary care in (home) births used PO at birth or the early puerperal period over a ten-month period. Data were obtained on the effect of PO on outcome, interventions and decision-making. Midwives were surveyed about applicability and usefulness of PO. 153 infants born in primary midwifery care. all births were uncomplicated except for one infant receiving supplemental oxygen and another was mask ventilated. In 138/153 (90%) infants PO was successfully used and 88% of midwives found PO easy to use. In 148/153 (97%) infants PO did not influence midwives' clinical judgment and referral policy. In 5/153 (3%) infants, midwives were uncertain of the infant's condition, but PO measurements were reassuring. In case of suboptimal neonatal condition or resuscitation, 100% of midwives declared they would use PO again. it is feasible to use PO in community based midwifery care, but not considered an important contribution to routine evaluation of infants. Midwives would like to have PO available during suboptimal neonatal condition or when resuscitation is required. PO can be applied in community based midwifery care; it does not lead to insecurity or extra referral. Further research on a larger group of infants must show the effect of PO on neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  9. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic...... stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  10. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic...... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study...

  11. CONSEQUENCES OF IMPROPER INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Zakharova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of food programming according to which the type of nourishment of an infant programs peculiarities of his metabolism all along his entire future life, and as a consequence, predisposition to certain diseases and characteristics of their run. The work gives an estimate of the hazards and consequences of improper infant feeding and explains the advantages of the breast feeding. The authors present modern information on preparation of baby milk formulas.Key words: infants, health, feeding, adapted milk formulas, nucleotides, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides.

  12. Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J; Cheney, D L; Seyfarth, R M

    2000-11-22

    We studied the development of infant baboons' (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) responses to conspecific 'barks' in a free-ranging population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. These barks grade from tonal, harmonically rich calls into calls with a more noisy, harsh structure. Typically, tonal variants are given when the signaller is at risk of losing contact with the group or a particular individual ('contact barks'), whereas harsh variants are given in response to predators ('alarm barks'). We conducted focal observations and playback experiments in which we presented variants of barks recorded from resident adult females. By six months of age, infants reliably discriminated between typical alarm and contact barks and they responded more strongly to intermediate alarm calls than to typical contact barks. Infants of six months and older also recognized their mothers by voice. The ability to discriminate between different call variants developed with increasing age. At two and a half months of age, infants failed to respond at all, whereas at four months they responded irrespective of the call type that was presented. At six months, infants showed adult-like responses by responding strongly to alarm barks but ignoring contact barks. We concluded that infants gradually learn to attach the appropriate meaning to alarm and contact barks.

  13. Hexachlorophene emulsions and antiseptic skin care of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plueckhahn, V D; Collins, R B

    1976-05-29

    This paper reviews 81,756 live births and 858 infant deaths occurring during the years 1959 to 1969. Sixty-three instances of central nervous system vacuolation are reported. Prematurity is shown to be a necessary prerequisite for central nervous system vacuolation to occur during routine antiseptic skin care of newborn infants with 3% hexachlorophene emulsions. Hyperbilirubinaemia is a contributory factor in such premature infants. Long-term clinical follow-up studies show that, should central nervous system vacuolation occur in premature infants, there is no resultant detriment to their immediate clinical progress and physical and neurological development. Normal newborn infants weighing more than 2,000 g do not develop such central nervous system vacuolation during routine antiseptic skin care. The writers conclude that there is no rationale for regulations to restrict the use of 3% hexachlorophene emulsions in routine antiseptic skin care of normal newborn infants and that the benefits of such use far outweigh any possible risks from central nervous system vacuolation.

  14. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers of preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaboni Whitney Gondwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PTS symptoms are a common negative emotional response of mothers of preterm infants. PTS symptoms are one of the least explored emotional responses in postpartum period and in mothers of preterm infants. Malawi has the highest preterm birth in the world, but little is known about PTS symptoms following preterm birth in Malawi. The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on the incidence, prevalence, and impact of PTS symptoms following preterm birth, predictors of PTS symptoms, screening and management, and to identify the gaps and the applicability of the evidence to developing countries such as Malawi. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and ERIC databases. Articles were limited to PTS symptoms in mothers after preterm birth and up to 24 months. A total of 23 articles were included in the analysis. Findings showed that most literature was from developed countries. Fifteen instruments were identified and the PPQ was the most commonly used instrument. Time points for measurement varied. Mothers of preterm infants presented with at least one PTS symptom and they had higher PTS symptoms than mothers of healthy full-term infants, but no significant differences were seen with mothers of sick full term infants. Maternal, infant, and external factors predicted the onsets of PTS symptoms. Psychoeducation and counseling significantly reduced PTS symptoms, although mothers were only referred if symptoms were severe. Research in developing or low-income countries like Malawi is needed and researchers need to engage more in longitudinal approaches.

  15. Growth and development of infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ruobing; Wang, Xiaoliang; Fu, Ping

    2009-10-31

    To observe changes in audiology, intellectual development, behavior development, and physical growth during systematic follow-up of infants with asymptomatic congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Fifty-two infants diagnosed with asymptomatic congenital HCMV infection from July 2003 to July 2007 served as the infection group, and 21 healthy infants served as the control group. All infants were confirmed to have HCMV infection by Fluorescent Quantative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR). In both the infection and control groups, the neonates and infants at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year of age underwent examinations. 1) 20 items of National Black Nurses Association (NBNA) scores of neonates 12-14 days after birth in 2 groups were 38.3 +/- 1.95 and 38.5 +/- 2.29, without significant differences. 2) Auditory test: 50 ears of 25 cases in the infection group showed abnormal auditory thresholds in V waves with an abnormal rate of 14%, while no abnormalities were found in 21 cases in the control group. 3) Mental and psychomotor development index scores in the control group (107.49 +/- 11.31 and 107.19 +/- 10.98) were compared with those in 41 asymptomatically infected infants at 1 year of age (107.21 +/- 9.96 and 108.31 +/- 11.25), and no statistically significant difference was noted. 1) An elevated threshold in the V wave was present in asymptomatically infected infants, but could not be detected through otoacoustic emission (OAE) screening. 2) Either in the neonatal or infant periods, asymptomatic congenital HCMV infection did not have a significant influence on nervous behavior or on physical and intellectual development.

  16. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  17. Lactobacillus reuteri accelerates gastric emptying and improves regurgitation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrio, Flavia; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Francesco; Bisceglia, Massimo; Filannino, Antonia; Cavallo, Luciano; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2011-04-01

    Young infants are frequently affected by uncomplicated regurgitation that may persist despite dietetic and conservative interventions. On this basis, we studied the putative effects of probiotics on the frequency of regurgitation and gastric emptying time in infants with functional gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Forty-two infants with regurgitation were randomized to assume Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 at a dose of 1 × 10(8) CFU per day and placebo for 30 days. The episodes of regurgitation were recorded by the parents each day. Gastric emptying time was recorded using real-time ultrasound at baseline and at the end of the study. Twenty-one infants without regurgitation were enroled to compare anthropometric and physiological parameters before the intervention diet. Thirty-four infants completed the study (19 infants receiving probiotics and 15 placebo).At baseline, the whole group of infants was similar to the control group as regards anthropometric and physiological data. The median fasting antral area was significantly reduced, (P = 0·01) the delta in gastric emptying rate was significantly increased (P = 0·01) and the median episodes per day of regurgitation was reduced (, P probiotic group compared to the placebo group. In the whole group, the frequency of regurgitation and the basal antral area showed a positive correlation (r = 0·53, P = 0·004). In infants with functional GER, L. reuteri DSM 17938 reduce gastric distension and accelerate gastric emptying. In addition, this probiotic strain seems to diminish the frequency of regurgitation. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  18. Alcohol consumption by breastfeeding mothers: Frequency, correlates and infant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Judy; Tay, Rui Yang; McCormack, Clare; Allsop, Steve; Najman, Jake; Burns, Lucy; Olsson, Craig A; Elliott, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Sue; Mattick, Richard P; Hutchinson, Delyse

    2017-09-01

    There is limited research regarding the effects of alcohol consumption by breastfeeding mothers on infant development. This study examined the frequency, correlates and outcomes of alcohol use during lactation. Data were from an Australian cohort study. Maternal demographics and substance use were assessed during pregnancy and at 8 weeks and 12 months postpartum. Breastfeeding duration, infant feeding, sleeping and development (Ages and Stages Questionnaire) were also assessed postpartum. Logistic regression and general linear model analyses examined characteristics of women who drank during breastfeeding, and the association between alcohol use during breastfeeding and infant outcomes. Alcohol use was reported by 60.7% and 69.6% of breastfeeding women at 8 weeks and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding women who consumed alcohol were more likely to be born in Australia or another English-speaking country, be tertiary educated and have higher household incomes. Most drank at low levels (≤14 standard drinks per week, breastfeeding duration, infant feeding and sleeping behaviour at 8 weeks, and most infant developmental outcomes at 8 weeks or 12 months, after adjusting for confounders. The only significant association showed that infants whose mothers drank at 8 weeks postpartum had more favourable results for personal-social development at 12 months compared with those whose mothers abstained. Low level drinking during breastfeeding is not linked with shorter breastfeeding duration or adverse outcomes in infants up to 12 months of age. [Wilson J, Tay RY, McCormack C, Allsop S, Najman J, Burns L, Olsson CA, Elliott E, Jacobs S, Mattick RP, Hutchinson D. Alcohol consumption by breastfeeding mothers: Frequency, correlates and infant outcomes. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Infant exposure to dioxin-like compounds in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Phillips, Linda

    2002-06-01

    We used a one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model to predict the infant body burden of dioxin-like compounds that results from breast-feeding. Validation testing of the model showed a good match between predictions and measurements of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) in breast-fed infants, and the exercise highlighted the importance of the assumption of the rate of dissipation of TEQs in the infant. We evaluated five nursing scenarios: no nursing (i.e., formula only), and nursing for 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. We assumed that an infant weighs 3.3 kg at birth and is exposed to a total of 800 pg TEQ/day by consumption of breast milk, leading to an estimated body weight-based dose of 242 pg TEQ/kg-day, which drops to 18 pg TEQ/kg-day after 1 year. This decline is due to declines in dioxin concentration in mother's milk and infant body weight increases. This range is significantly higher, on a body-weight basis, than adult TEQ exposure, which has been estimated to average about 1 pg TEQ/kg-day. For the nursing scenarios of >or= 6 months, we predict that body burdens (expressed as a body lipid concentration) peak at around 9 weeks at 44 ppt TEQ lipid. We predict that the body burden of the formula-fed infants will remain below 10 ppt TEQ lipid during the first year. These results compare to the current adult average body burden of 25 ppt TEQ lipid. We also found that an infant who had been breast-fed for 1 year had an accumulated dose 6 times higher than a 1-year-old infant who had not been breast-fed. For a 70-year lifetime, individuals who had been breast-fed had an accumulated dose 3-18% higher than individuals who had not been breast-fed.

  20. Functional connectivity of the cortex of term and preterm infants and infants with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Makiko; Watanabe, Hama; Yasui, Kojiro; Kimura, Yuki; Shitara, Yoshihiko; Tsuchida, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoto; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-15

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) imaging studies have revealed the functional development of the human brain in early infancy. By measuring spontaneous fluctuations in cerebral blood oxygenation with NIRS, we can examine the developmental status of the functional connectivity of networks in the cortex. However, it has not been clarified whether premature delivery and/or chromosomal abnormalities affect the development of the functional connectivity of the cortex. In the current study, we investigated the spontaneous brain activity of sleeping infants who were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit at term age. We classified them into the 3 following infant groups: (i) term-or-late-preterm, (ii) early-preterm, and (iii) Down's syndrome (DS). We used multichannel NIRS to measure the spontaneous changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) at 10 measurement channels, which covered the frontal, temporal, and occipital regions. In order to reveal the functional connectivity of the cortical networks, we calculated the temporal correlations of the time-course signals among all of the pairs of measurement channels. The functional connectivity was classified into the 4 following types: (i) short-range, (ii) contralateral-transverse, (iii) ipsilateral-longitudinal, and (iv) control. In order to examine whether the local properties of hemodynamics reflected any pathological conditions, we calculated the phase differences between the oxy- and deoxy-Hb time-course signals in the 3 groups. The statistical analyses of the functional connectivity data showed main effects of group and the types of connectivity. For the group effect, the mean functional connectivity of the infants in the term-or-late-preterm group did not differ from that in the early-preterm group, and the mean functional connectivity of the infants in the DS group was lower than that in the other 2 groups. For the effect of types of connectivity, short-range connectivity

  1. Refining Stimulus Parameters in Assessing Infant Speech Perception Using Visual Reinforcement Infant Speech Discrimination: Sensation Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhler, Kristin M; Baca, Rosalinda; Dudas, Emily; Fredrickson, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    repeated measures logistic regression where SL and contrast were used to predict the likelihood of speech discrimination criterion. Infants were able to reach criterion for the /a-i/ contrast at statistically lower SLs when compared to /ba-da/. There were six infants who never reached criterion for /ba-da/ and one never reached criterion for /a-i/. The conditional probability of not reaching criterion by 70 dB SL was 0% for /a-i/ and 21% for /ba-da/. The predictive logistic regression model showed that children were more likely to discriminate the /a-i/ even when controlling for SL. Nearly all normal-hearing infants can demonstrate discrimination criterion of a vowel contrast at 60 dB SL, while a level of ≥70 dB SL may be needed to allow all infants to demonstrate discrimination criterion of a difficult consonant contrast. American Academy of Audiology.

  2. Specialized Proresolving Mediators Rescue Infant Mice from Lethal Citrobacter rodentium Infection and Promote Immunity against Reinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Luis Alonso; Altman, Norman H; Khan, Wasif; Serhan, Charles N; Adkins, Becky

    2017-10-01

    Infants are generally highly susceptible to oral pathogens. Intestinal infection and the associated diarrhea are significant global causes of morbidity and mortality in infants. Among the enteric pathogens, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) stands out as showing the highest risk for infection-induced death in infants ≤12 months old. We have developed an experimental model of infant infection with EPEC, using the mouse-specific pathogen Citrobacter rodentium Our murine infant model is similar to EPEC infection in human infants since infant mice are much more susceptible to C. rodentium infection than adult mice; infants infected with 50-fold fewer bacteria than the standard adult dose uniformly succumbed to the infection. Infant infection is characterized by high early and sustained bacterial titers and profound intestinal inflammation associated with extensive necrosis and systemic dissemination of the bacteria. Therefore, it seems likely that infant deaths result from sepsis secondary to intestinal damage. Recently, specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) have been found to exert profound beneficial effects in adult models of infection. Thus, we investigated the actions of two proresolving lipid mediators, resolvin D1 (RvD1) and resolvin D5 (RvD5), on the course of infection in infants. Strikingly, postinfection treatment with RvD1 and RvD5 reduced bacterial loads, mitigated inflammation, and rescued the infants from death. Furthermore, postinfection treatment with RvD1 and RvD5 led to protection from reinfection associated with C. rodentium -specific IgG responses comparable to those in adults. These results indicate that SPM may provide novel therapeutic tools for the treatment of pathological intestinal infections in infants. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Maternal-infant bonding in homeless adolescents and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, O J

    1990-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a major problem in our society today. A special subset of adolescents who are becoming mothers are those who are homeless--those who have no dependable, on-going place to live. These homeless teen mothers are a special at-risk group in terms of mothering. The focus of this study is to study maternal-infant bonding in a subset of homeless adolescents who are becoming mothers. This is a longitudinal, descriptive study for which the overall research questions are: What is the process of maternal-infant bonding in homeless teens during the first year of the infant's life? What are the mother-infant interactions around the feeding experience during this first year of life? Mother-infant pairs (N = 19), who are clients in a residential home, are videotaped (videotaped segments, N = 30) during the feeding situation. Time/event periods for data gathering according to the infant's age are: 1-3 weeks; 6-8 weeks; 4 months; 6 months; 8 months; 10 months; 12 months. Content analysis of the tapes used Barnard's Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS), a 73-item binary scale divided into 6 subscales. A descriptive profile of the clients on admission to the program includes measures of empathy, self-esteem, depression, social support, and social network. The findings are compared with the NCAFS norms for homeless teen mothers.

  4. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  5. Determinants of infant and child mortality in Zimbabwe: Results of multivariate hazard analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kembo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses important issues in infant and child mortality in Zimbabwe. The objective of the paper is to determine the impact of maternal, socioeconomic and sanitation variables on infant and child mortality. Results show that births of order 6+ with a short preceding interval had the highest risk of infant mortality. The infant mortality risk associated with multiple births was 2.08 times higher relative to singleton births (p<0.001. Socioeconomic variables did not have a distinct impact on infant mortality. Determinants of child mortality were different in relative importance from those of infant mortality. This study supports health policy initiatives to stimulate use of family planning methods to increase birth spacing. These and other results are expected to assist policy makers and programme managers in the child health sector to formulate appropriate strategies to improve the situation of children under 5 in Zimbabwe.

  6. Using noninvasive NIRS to evaluate the metabolic capability of infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Ding, Haishu; Hou, Xinling; Zhou, Congle; Lie, Zhiguang; Wang, Guangzhi; Tian, Fenghua

    2005-01-01

    The value of cerebral oxygenation saturation is important for optimal treatment and prognosis in neonates during perinatal period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cerebral oxygen in newborn infants and obtain clinical characteristic parameters by using steady state spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy. The subjects consist of 239 infants selected from two hospital. The results show that the values of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) for preterm infants with gestational ages of 27 - 32 weeks were different from term infants and the value of rSO2 for sick term infants after treatment were better than that of before treatment. Above results suggest that the value of rSO2 may be used as a clinical parameter to assess cerebral oxygen for preterm and sick infants avoiding hypoxia.

  7. Mothers of anxious/ambivalent infants: maternal characteristics and child-care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, A; Mayseless, O

    2000-01-01

    A general model of the determinants of parenting was employed to explore the antecedents of the ambivalent attachment pattern in Israel. Specifically, three classes of variables were identified: maternal, infant, and child-care context. Participants were 98 mothers and their infants. This research was part of a longitudinal study on sleep patterns. Mothers filled out questionnaires and were observed with their infants in the Ainsworth Strange Situation laboratory procedure. Mothers of ambivalent infants showed lower education level, higher separation anxiety, and higher parenting stress than mothers of secure infants. Infants' perceived difficult temperament did not discriminate between the two groups. Longer hours spent at work and placement in group day-care were both associated with ambivalent attachment. The findings are discussed in light of the importance of considering distal factors such as maternal attitudes and general caregiving strategy in clarifying the antecedents of attachment patterns.

  8. Development of adaptive sensorimotor control in infant sitting posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chiou; Jeka, John; Clark, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    A reliable and adaptive relationship between action and perception is necessary for postural control. Our understanding of how this adaptive sensorimotor control develops during infancy is very limited. This study examines the dynamic visual-postural relationship during early development. Twenty healthy infants were divided into 4 developmental groups (each n=5): sitting onset, standing alone, walking onset, and 1-year post-walking. During the experiment, the infant sat independently in a virtual moving-room in which anterior-posterior oscillations of visual motion were presented using a sum-of-sines technique with five input frequencies (from 0.12 to 1.24 Hz). Infants were tested in five conditions that varied in the amplitude of visual motion (from 0 to 8.64 cm). Gain and phase responses of infants' postural sway were analyzed. Our results showed that infants, from a few months post-sitting to 1 year post-walking, were able to control their sitting posture in response to various frequency and amplitude properties of the visual motion. Infants showed an adult-like inverted-U pattern for the frequency response to visual inputs with the highest gain at 0.52 and 0.76 Hz. As the visual motion amplitude increased, the gain response decreased. For the phase response, an adult-like frequency-dependent pattern was observed in all amplitude conditions for the experienced walkers. Newly sitting infants, however, showed variable postural behavior and did not systemically respond to the visual stimulus. Our results suggest that visual-postural entrainment and sensory re-weighting are fundamental processes that are present after a few months post sitting. Sensorimotor refinement during early postural development may result from the interactions of improved self-motion control and enhanced perceptual abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  10. Clival chordoma in an infant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of clival chordoma seen in a 7 month 16 day old infant is presented. The literature on this subject, clinical course of such tumours and the management strategy in paediatric age group is reviewed.

  11. Home apnea monitor use - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000755.htm Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing ... portable. Why is an Apnea Monitor Used at Home? A monitor may be needed when: Your baby ...

  12. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bones, that are in various stages of healing. Handling Suggestions • All movements should be slow, methodical and ... holding, lifting, diapering, and general infant care. The return demonstration will ensure that the parents are comfortable ...

  13. Barium meal examination of infants under four months of age presenting with vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.J.; Ziervogel, M.A.; Azmy, A.F.

    1984-02-01

    One hundred barium meal examinations performed on infants of less than 4 months of age are reviewed. All the infants presented with vomiting as a major symptom and the diagnosis remained in doubt following the initial clinical assessment. Fifty seven per cent of the examinations showed an abnormality of which 45% were throught to be significant. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was demonstrated in 23 infants. Other abnormalities included hiatus hernia, gastrooesophageal reflux, and duodenal abnormalities. The value of barium meal examinations in this group of infants is emphasised.

  14. Wavelet-based automatic cry recognition system for detecting infants with hearing-loss from normal infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansouri Jam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Infant cry is a multimodal and dynamic behaviour that it contains a lot of information. Goal of this investigation is recognition of two groups of infants by new acoustic feature that has not used in infant cry classification. The cry of deaf infants and normal hearing infants is studied. ‘Mel filter-bank discrete wavelet coefficients (MFDWCs’ have been extracted as feature vector. Infant cry classification is a pattern recognition problem such as ‘automatic speech recognition’, which in signal processing stage the authors performed some pre-processing included silence elimination, filtering, pre-emphasising and, segmentation. After applying the discrete wavelet transform on the Mel scaled log filter bank energies of a cry signal frames, MFDWCs feature vector was extracted. The feature vector, MFDWCs, of each cry sample has large length, so they used principle components analysis to reduce in feature space dimension, after training of neural network as classifier, they achieved to 93.2% correction rate in cry recognition of test data set. This result shows better efficiency in comparison with previous familiarised approaches.

  15. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  16. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  17. Preference for facial averageness: Evidence for a common mechanism in human and macaque infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Fabrice; Méary, David; Quinn, Paul C; Lee, Kang; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J; Pascalis, Olivier

    2017-04-13

    Human adults and infants show a preference for average faces, which could stem from a general processing mechanism and may be shared among primates. However, little is known about preference for facial averageness in monkeys. We used a comparative developmental approach and eye-tracking methodology to assess visual attention in human and macaque infants to faces naturally varying in their distance from a prototypical face. In Experiment 1, we examined the preference for faces relatively close to or far from the prototype in 12-month-old human infants with human adult female faces. Infants preferred faces closer to the average than faces farther from it. In Experiment 2, we measured the looking time of 3-month-old rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) viewing macaque faces varying in their distance from the prototype. Like human infants, macaque infants looked longer to faces closer to the average. In Experiments 3 and 4, both species were presented with unfamiliar categories of faces (i.e., macaque infants tested with adult macaque faces; human infants and adults tested with infant macaque faces) and showed no prototype preferences, suggesting that the prototypicality effect is experience-dependent. Overall, the findings suggest a common processing mechanism across species, leading to averageness preferences in primates.

  18. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su Mi; Chai, Jee Won [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD) due to adrenal insufficiency (AI) in preterm infants. Among the 257 preterm infants born at <33 weeks of gestation between December 2009 and February 2014 at our institution, 35 preterm infants were diagnosed with AI. Brain ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed before and after LCD in 14 preterm infants, after exclusion of the other 21 infants with AI due to the following causes: death (n=2), early AI (n=5), sepsis (n=1), and patent ductus arteriosus (n=13). Fourteen of 257 infants (5.4%) were diagnosed with LCD due to AI. The age at LCD was a median of 18.5 days (range, 9 to 32 days). The last ultrasonographic findings before LCD occurred showed grade 1 periventricular echogenicity (PVE) in all 14 patients and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) with focal cystic change in one patient. Ultrasonographic findings after LCD demonstrated no significant change in grade 1 PVE and no new lesions in eight (57%), grade 1 PVE with newly appearing GMH in three (21%), and increased PVE in three (21%) infants. Five infants (36%) showed new development (n=4) or increased size (n=1) of GMH. Two of three infants (14%) with increased PVE developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia. LCD due to AI may be associated with the late development of GMH, increased PVE after LCD, and cystic PVL with rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia.

  19. Integration of a hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infant into a social group of conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunström, Maria; Persson, Tomas; Björklund, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Rejections of infants among non-human primates occasionally occur in the wild as well as in captive settings. Controlled adoptions of orphans and introductions of individuals into new groups are therefore sometimes necessary in captivity. Consequently, behavioral research on integration procedures and on the acceptance of infants by adoptive mothers is much needed. In this study, the introduction and subsequent adoption were examined in an 18-month-old hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The infant was introduced into an age/sex-diversified social group of conspecifics at Furuvik Zoo, Gävle, Sweden, and continuous focal data was collected during the final stage of integration, including infant care exhibited by the group members and the infant's secure base behavior. The infant was successfully integrated into the group and engaged in positive social interactions with all group members. An adult primiparous female chimpanzee formed a bond resembling a mother-infant relationship with the infant, which continues to be maintained at publication. However, the female initially showed very limited interest in the infant. It was, in fact, two other younger female group members that exhibited most infant care. The infant's secure base behavior patterns indicate that she adapted well to the new circumstances in the chimpanzee group as the integration progressed. This provides evidence that a final adopter does not necessarily initially show maternal interest and that there can be flexibility in maternal behavior in adult chimpanzee females. Moreover, the methods applied employing gradual familiarization with all the group members and the use of an integration enclosure, may have contributed to a successful result. These findings extend our knowledge of introduction procedures in captivity as well as provide information on foster mother-infant attachment in chimpanzees.

  20. Infants' Speech Segmentation: The Impact of Mother-Infant Facial Synchrony

    OpenAIRE

    Kish, Allison; Courtaney, Katie; Dilger, Adi; Gallo, Tori; King, Lauren; Jarvis, Amy; Roberson, Ambry; Smith, Meredith; Thottichira, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Various measures of infant responsiveness have been shown to predict child outcomes. Despite this extensive research, there is no work examining links between infant responsiveness during caregiver-infant interactions with infants' ability to perform basic linguistic tasks. One key task in early linguistic development is word segmentation, an achievement that allows infants to build their mental dictionaries. We hypothesized that infants' responsiveness to caregiver facial expressions might b...

  1. Lower Extremity Abscess Formation in Premature Infants due to Routine Infant Vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuhang; Mundluru, Surya N.; Chu, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of vaccines, the impact of vaccinations has been immeasurable. Under the current immunization guidelines, infants receive the first of their routine infant vaccinations at 2 months of age. While the benefits of routine infant vaccinations in premature infants have been demonstrated, there is relatively little data on the dosing of these vaccines in premature infants. The medical records of two premature infants who developed intramuscular abscesses after receiving their...

  2. [Infants wearing teething necklaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, A; Casasoprana, A; Cascarigny, F; Claudet, I

    2012-10-01

    Numerous infants wear teething necklaces, a quack remedy with a real risk of strangulation or aspiration of small beads. Evaluate parental perceptions and beliefs about the use of teething necklaces and analyze parental knowledge about the associated dangers. Between March and July 2011, in three different pediatric units of a tertiary children's hospital and a general hospital in Toulouse and Montauban (southwest France), voluntary parents were invited to be interviewed about their child wearing a teething necklace. The interviews were conducted following an anthropological approach: they were recorded and then fully transcribed and analyzed. Parents were informed that the conversation was recorded. During the study period, 48 children were eligible. Eleven families refused to participate, 29 parents were interviewed face to face. The children's mean age was 14 years ± 7 months, the male:female ratio was equal to 0.8 (12 boys, 15 girls). The mean age of children when necklace wearing was started was equal to 4 ± 2 months. The mean mother's age was 31 ± 5 years and 33 ± 4 years for fathers. The parents' religion was mostly Catholic (60%). Teething necklaces were mainly made of amber (n=23). Sales information about the risks associated with the necklaces was for the most part absent (92%). The most frequent positive parental perceptions were analgesic properties and a soothing remedy (73%); a birth accessory and memory (64%); an esthetic accessory (60%); a protective amulet (60%); and an alternative or additional element to other traditional therapeutics (55%). The negative parental perceptions (n=4) were an unnecessary accessory, costume jewelry, a pure commercial abuse of a popular belief, a dangerous item with a risk of strangulation, and the absence of proof of its efficacy. Although parents concede that teeth eruption is benign, they fear its related symptoms. To a natural phenomenon a natural response: they use a necklace to satisfy the analogy. The

  3. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kylie D; Campbell, Karen; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A; McCallum, Zoe; Cameron, Adrian; Ball, Kylie; Gold, Lisa; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Crawford, David

    2013-01-01

    The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program, is a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial of an obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents of infants from age 4-20 months. Conducted from 2008 to 2010, the program had high uptake and retention and showed positive impacts on some dietary outcomes and television viewing. Funding was secured for a follow-up study of participants two and 3.5 years post intervention (at child ages ~3.5 and 5 years). The follow-up study aims to assess intervention effects, mediators and moderators of effects, and program cost-effectiveness over the longer term. The 492 families still enrolled in the Melbourne InFANT Program at intervention conclusion will be recontacted and renewed consent sought to participate in this follow-up study. No further intervention will occur. Home visit data collections will occur approximately two and 3.5 years post intervention. Main outcomes to be assessed include child body mass index, waist circumference, diet (3 × 24-hour recalls; food frequency questionnaire), physical activity (8 days ActiGraph accelerometer data; parent reported active play) and sedentary time (8days ActiGraph accelerometer and ActivPAL inclinometer data; parent reported screen time). Follow-up of participants of the Melbourne InFANT Program at two and 3.5 years post intervention will allow assessment of longer term intervention effects, investigation of potential mediators and moderators of such effects, and economic evaluation of the longer term outcomes. This information will be valuable to researchers and policy makers in progressing the field of early childhood obesity prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Giulia; Tierney, Adrienne L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have often tested infants who have a significant family history of autism spectrum disorder, given the increased prevalence observed among such infants. In the present study we tested infants at high- and low-risk for ASD (based on having an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder or not) at 6- and 12-months-of-age. We computed intrahemispheric linear coherence between anterior and posterior sites as a measure of neural functional connectivity derived from electroencephalography while the infants were listening to speech sounds. We found that by 12-months-of-age infants at risk for ASD showed reduced functional connectivity compared to low risk infants. Moreover, by 12-months-of-age infants later diagnosed with ASD showed reduced functional connectivity, compared to both infants at low risk for the disorder and infants at high risk who were not later diagnosed with ASD. Significant differences in functional connectivity were also found between low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go onto develop ASD. These results demonstrate that reduced functional connectivity appears to be related to genetic vulnerability for ASD. Moreover, they provide further evidence that ASD is broadly characterized by differences in neural integration that emerge during the first year of life.

  5. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Rogers, Stefanie P; Hicks, Penni D; Hawthorne, Keli M; Parker, Bruce R; Abrams, Steven A

    2009-07-29

    Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, alkaline phosphatase activity (P-APA) in ELBW infants and evaluate our experience with the diagnosis of rickets in these infants. We evaluated all ELBW infants admitted to Texas Children's Hospital NICU in 2006 and 2007. Of 211 admissions, we excluded 98 patients who were admitted at >30 days of age or did not survive/stay for >6 weeks. Bone radiographs obtained in 32 infants were reviewed by a radiologist masked to laboratory values. In this cohort of 113 infants, P-APA was found to have a significant inverse relationship with BW, gestational age and serum phosphorus. In paired comparisons, P-APA of infants nutrition greater than 3 to 4 weeks, or clinical suspicion. Of these, 18 showed radiologic rickets and 14 showed osteopenia without rickets. Infants with BW 600 IU/L was very common in ELBW infants. BW was significantly inversely related to both P-APA and radiologic rickets. No single value of P-APA was related to radiological findings of rickets. Given the very high risk of osteopenia and rickets among ELBW infants, we recommend consideration of early screening and early mineral supplementation, especially among infants <600 g BW.

  6. Maternal postnatal psychiatric symptoms and infant temperament affect early mother-infant bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal mother-infant bonding refers to the early emotional bond between mothers and infants. Although some factors, such as maternal mental health, especially postnatal depression, have been considered in relation to mother-infant bonding, few studies have investigated the role of infant temperament traits in early bonding. In this study, the effects of maternal postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and infant temperament traits on mother-infant bonding were examined using both mother and father reports of infant temperament. Data for this study came from the first phase of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study (n=102, father reports n=62). After controlling for maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, mother-reported infant positive emotionality, measured by infant smiling was related to better mother-infant bonding. In contrast, infant negative emotionality, measured by infant distress to limitations was related to lower quality of bonding. In regards to father-report infant temperament, only infant distress to limitations (i.e., frustration/anger) was associated with lower quality of mother-infant bonding. These findings underline the importance of infant temperament as one factor contributing to early parent-infant relationships, and counseling parents in understanding and caring for infants with different temperament traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, NK; Julian, MM

    2017-01-01

    data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional – 2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant...

  8. Speed Discrimination in 6- and 10-Month-Old Infants Follows Weber's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohring, Wenke; Libertus, Melissa E.; Bertin, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    The speed of a moving object is a critical variable that factors into actions such as crossing a street and catching a ball. However, it is not clear when the ability to discriminate between different speeds develops. Here, we investigated speed discrimination in 6- and 10-month-old infants using a habituation paradigm showing infants events of a…

  9. Music Cognition in Early Infancy: Infants' Preferences and Long-Term Memory for Ravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Listening preferences for two pieces, Prelude and Forlane from "Le tombeau de Couperin" by Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), were assessed in two experiments conducted with 8-month-old infants, using the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP). Experiment 1 showed that infants, who have never heard the pieces, could clearly make a distinction between the…

  10. Perception of tones by bilingual infants learning non-tone languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Kager, R.W.J.

    This paper examines the ability of bilingual infants who were learning Dutch and another non-tone language to discriminate tonal contrasts. All infants from 5 to 18 months of age succeeded in discriminating a tonal contrast of Mandarin Chinese (Tone 1 versus Tone 4) and showed a U-shaped pattern

  11. Duration of Leave and Resident Fathers' Involvement in Infant Care in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Amanda; Whitehouse, Gillian; Baxter, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    This article uses time-diary data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC; N = 2,157 weekday diaries; N = 2,110 weekend diaries) to examine differences in infants' time with a resident father at age 4-19 months according to fathers' duration of leave around the birth. Results showed that those infants whose fathers took 4 weeks'…

  12. RESEARCH OF HEAVY METALS, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN POWDERED INFANT FORMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period between october 2007 and november 2008 were collected 60 samples of powdered infant formula. The analysis for the detection of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides show that the environmental situation is under control and powdered infant formula satisfies this health requisite.

  13. Relationship between parent–infant attachment and parental satisfaction with supportive nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ghadery-Sefat

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the study showed that mother–infant attachment improved by increasing mothers' satisfaction of supportive nursing care. Therefore, it seems necessary to increase maternal satisfaction through given nursing care support, in order to promote mother–infant attachment.

  14. Equal virulence of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.C.; Goossens, L.K.; Hendrix, R.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Lusthusz, A.; Thio, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) are predominant viruses associated with lower respiratory tract infection in infants. We compared the symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV and RV in hospitalized infants. RV showed the same symptoms as RSV, so on clinical

  15. Influence of maternal breast milk ingestion on acquisition of the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine E; Samuel, Buck S; Houghteling, Pearl; Shan, Guru; Ausubel, Frederick M; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Walker, W Allan

    2016-12-30

    The initial acquisition and early development of the intestinal microbiome during infancy are important to human health across the lifespan. Mode of birth, antibiotic administration, environment of care, and nutrition have all been shown to play a role in the assembly of the intestinal microbiome during early life. For preterm infants, who are disproportionately at risk of inflammatory intestinal disease (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis), a unique set of clinical factors influence the establishment of the microbiome. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of nutritional exposures on the intestinal microbiome in a cohort of preterm infants early in life. Principal component analysis of 199 samples from 30 preterm infants (<32 weeks) over the first 60 days following birth showed that the intestinal microbiome was influenced by postnatal time (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.13), birth weight (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.08), and nutrition (p < 0.001, R 2  = 0.21). Infants who were fed breast milk had a greater initial bacterial diversity and a more gradual acquisition of diversity compared to infants who were fed infant formula. The microbiome of infants fed breast milk were more similar regardless of birth weight (p = 0.049), in contrast to the microbiome of infants fed infant formula, which clustered differently based on birth weight (p < 0.001). By adjusting for differences in gut maturity, an ordered succession of microbial phylotypes was observed in breast milk-fed infants, which appeared to be disrupted in those fed infant formula. Supplementation with pasteurized donor human milk was partially successful in promoting a microbiome more similar to breast milk-fed infants and moderating rapid increases in bacterial diversity. The preterm infant intestinal microbiome is influenced by postnatal time, birth weight, gestational age, and nutrition. Feeding with breast milk appears to mask the influence of birth weight, suggesting a

  16. Atypical Kawasaki Disease in Two Infants Younger Than 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dahifar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Two infants, a boy and a girl aged 2.5 and 5 months, respectively, were admitted to Tehran's Children Hospital, for fever of unknown origin lasting for about two weeks. The boy presented with abdominal distention, diarrhea, irritability, pyuria, anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and raised titer of acute phase reactants. The girl presented with irritability, diarrhea and abdominal distention, Leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, anemia and elevated titer of acute phase reactants. All bacterial cultures and serological tests were negative. Cardiac echocardiography showed coronary artery aneurysm in both patients and confirmed the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease. These cases showed that atypical Kawasaki disease was often a late diagnosis and therefore should be quickly suspected in febrile young infants with abnormal inflammatory laboratory results without infection. Echocardiography is an important tool for diagnosis of atypical Kawasaki disease. Key words: Kawasaki disease, Infant, Coronary artery

  17. Lipoid pneumonia in infants: A radiological-pathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.O.; Riff, E.J.; Tufenkeji, H.T.; Moore, C.C.M.; Akhtar, M.

    1991-01-01

    A series of nine infants, 2-8 months of age, with a history of animal or vegetable fat intake within 10 days after birth, is presented. The infants developed respiratory problems and failure to thrive. Plain films and computed tomography showed areas of consolidation in the medial-posterior parts of the lungs. The areas of consolidation showed three types of changes of computed tomography. Attenuation measurements did not reveal fat. To establish the diagnosis, fine needle aspiration biopsy, tru-cut biopsy and/or open lung biopsy was done in eight infants and bronchopulmonary lavage in one patient. The pathological findings were an intense lymphocytic infiltration with scattered granulomas which contained lipid deposit. (orig.)

  18. Parent-Infant Psychotherapy and Postpartum Depression: The Fathers Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena da Rosa Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the specificities of postpartum maternal depression, the literature recommends that fathers become involved in psychological interventions within this context. This study presents an investigation of the participation of fathers in parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal postpartum depression. Two families participated in this study, both with a child aged between 7 and 8 months old, whose mothers showed depressive symptoms. These families participated in parent-infant psychotherapy lasting approximately 12 sessions. Analysis of the fathers’ participation in psychotherapy showed that their presence during sessions enables the therapy to address aspects of parenthood, and also reduce the feeling of mothers as being the only ones responsible for the family’s process of change. In regard to the technique, the presence of fathers during sessions allows the therapist to see and address the issues concerning mother-father-infant during sessions.

  19. Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Premature Male Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A premature male infant was born at 30 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 1,700 g in a rural hospital. He was diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome and received continuous positive airway pressure treatment for 26 days. At 26 days after birth, the patient was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and management. A comprehensive eye examination revealed a stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP involving zone 2 in both eyes. The patient was recommended to a provincial-level eye hospital for emergency laser therapy. Five months after birth, the feedback from the eye hospital showed that the patient had a high risk of blindness in both eyes. Our case report shows that delaying first screening examination increases the possibility of developing aggressive posterior ROP in infants with ROP. Doctors in rural hospitals should be aware of this possibility and trained for early screening and treatment in high-risk infants.

  20. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pdiversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly

  1. Early gross motor development of preterm infants according to the Alberta Infant Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haastert, I C; de Vries, L S; Helders, P J M; Jongmans, M J

    2006-11-01

    To systematically examine gross motor development in the first 18 months of life of preterm infants. A total of 800 preterm infants (356 boys), ages between 1 and 18 months and corrected for degree of prematurity, were assessed with the use of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Comparison of the mean Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores of the preterm infants with the norm-referenced values derived from term infants revealed that as a group, the preterm infants scored significantly lower at all age levels, even with full correction for degree of prematurity. In general, preterm infants exhibit different gross motor developmental trajectories compared with term infants in the first 18 months of life. The gross motor developmental profile of preterm infants may reflect a variant of typical gross motor development, which seems most likely to be specific for this population. As a consequence, adjusted norms should be used for proper evaluation and clinical decision-making in relation to preterm infants.

  2. Early psychomotor development of low-risk preterm infants: Influence of gestational age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor development and sensory processing: A comparative study between preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Thais Invenção; Pereira da Silva, Louise Gracelli; Tudella, Eloisa; Simões Martinez, Cláudia Maria

    2014-10-16

    Infants born preterm and/or with low birth weight may present a clinical condition of organic instability and usually face a long period of hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units, being exposed to biopsychosocial risk factors to their development due to decreased spontaneous movement and excessive sensory stimuli. This study assumes that there are relationships between the integration of sensory information of preterm infants, motor development and their subsequent effects. To evaluate the sensory processing and motor development in preterm infants aged 4-6 months and compare performance data with their peers born at term. This was a cross-sectional and comparative study consisting of a group of preterm infants (n=15) and a group of term infants (n=15), assessed using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI) and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). The results showed no significant association between motor performance on the AIMS scale (total score) and sensory processing in the TSFI (total score). However, all infants who scored abnormal in the total TSFI score, subdomain 1, and subdomain 5 presented motor performance at or below the 5th percentile on the AIMS scale. Since all infants who presented definite alteration in tolerating tactile deep pressure and poor postural control are at risk of delayed gross motor development, there may be peculiarities not detected by the tests used that seem to establish some relationship between sensory processing and motor development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fine Motor Development of Low Birth Weight Infants Corrected Aged 8 to 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the fine motor development between Low Birth Weight (LBW infants and Normal Birth Weight infants (NBW at the age of 8-12 months by using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2 . Methods: This was a non experimental and cross sectional study which was conducted on the 18 LBW infants and 14 normal infants. By referring to the profile of infants in NICU of Aliasghar Hospital, those with defined inclusion criteria was recognized (case group. The normal weight infants, randomly selected from Health Center of that hospital, matched with case group for date of birth. After completing the questionnaire about demographic variables, their gross motor development was assessed with PDMS-2. Finally the scores of the motor quotient were analyzed by independent t-test statistical method. Results: There was a significant difference between Fine motor quotient of groups (P=0.007. Discussion: This study showed that LBW infants are significantly lower than normal weight infants in attaining Fine motor skills. It means that the LBW infants are more prone to developmental difficulties.

  5. Asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism in very low-birth-weight infants without structural abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park

    Full Text Available Thirty-six VLBW infants who underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG brain PET and MRI were prospectively enrolled, while infants with evidence of parenchymal brain injury on MRI were excluded. The regional glucose metabolic ratio and asymmetry index were calculated. The asymmetry index more than 10% (right > left asymmetry or less than -10% (left > right asymmetry were defined as abnormal. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism were compared between right and left cerebral hemispheres, and between the following subgroups: multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage.In the individual analysis, 21 (58.3% of 36 VLBW infants exhibited asymmetric cerebral glucose metabolism. Fifteen infants (41.7% exhibited right > left asymmetry, while six (16.7% exhibited left > right asymmetry. In the regional analysis, right > left asymmetry was more extensive than left > right asymmetry. The metabolic ratio in the right frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices and right thalamus were significantly higher than those in the corresponding left regions. In the subgroup analyses, the cerebral glucose metabolism in infants with multiple gestations, premature rupture of membrane, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage were significantly lower than those in infants without these.VLBW infants without structural abnormalities have asymmetry of cerebral glucose metabolism. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism are noted in infants with neurodevelopmental risk factors. F-18 FDG PET could show microstructural abnormalities not detected by MRI in VLBW infants.

  6. Does β-APP staining of the brain in infant bed-sharing deaths differentiate these cases from sudden infant death syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisbeth Lund; Banner, Jytte; Byard, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Archival cerebral tissue from infants whose deaths were attributed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) from South Australia and Western Denmark were stained for β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) and graded according to a simple scoring chart. The resulting APP scores were correlated with sle......Archival cerebral tissue from infants whose deaths were attributed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) from South Australia and Western Denmark were stained for β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) and graded according to a simple scoring chart. The resulting APP scores were correlated...... with sleeping situation (shared vs. alone) showing a significantly higher amount of β-APP staining in the non-bed-sharing, than in the bed-sharing infants (Mann-Whitney, Australia: p = 0.0128, Denmark: p = 0.0014, Combined: p = 0.0031). There was also a marked but non-significant difference in sex distribution...... of β-APP staining was significantly higher in infants who were sleeping alone compared to those who were bed-sharing with one or more adults, in both an Australian and Danish cohort of SIDS infants. Whether this results from differences in the speed with which these infants die, differences in lethal...

  7. Theta Brain Rhythms Index Perceptual Narrowing in Infant Speech Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eBosseler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of speech perception shows a dramatic transition between infancy and adulthood. Between 6 and 12 months, infants’ initial ability to discriminate all phonetic units across the worlds’ languages narrows—native discrimination increases while nonnative discrimination shows a steep decline. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine whether brain oscillations in the theta band (4-8Hz, reflecting increases in attention and cognitive effort, would provide a neural measure of the perceptual narrowing phenomenon in speech. Using an oddball paradigm, we varied speech stimuli in two dimensions, stimulus frequency (frequent vs. infrequent and language (native vs. nonnative speech syllables and tested 6-month-old infants, 12-month-old infants, and adults. We hypothesized that 6-month-old infants would show increased relative theta power (RTP for frequent syllables, regardless of their status as native or nonnative syllables, reflecting young infants’ attention and cognitive effort in response to highly frequent stimuli (statistical learning. In adults, we hypothesized increased RTP for nonnative stimuli, regardless of their presentation frequency, reflecting increased cognitive effort for nonnative phonetic categories. The 12-month-old infants were expected to show a pattern in transition, but one more similar to adults than to 6-month-old infants. The MEG brain rhythm results supported these hypotheses. We suggest that perceptual narrowing in speech perception is governed by an implicit learning process. This learning process involves an implicit shift in attention from frequent events (infants to learned categories (adults. Theta brain oscillatory activity may provide an index of perceptual narrowing beyond speech, and would offer a test of whether the early speech learning process is governed by domain-general or domain-specific processes.

  8. New reference values must be established for the Alberta Infant Motor Scales for accurate identification of infants at risk for motor developmental delay in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kegel, A; Peersman, W; Onderbeke, K; Baetens, T; Dhooge, I; Van Waelvelde, H

    2013-03-01

    The Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) is a reliable and valid assessment tool to evaluate the motor performance from birth to independent walking. This study aimed to determine whether the Canadian reference values on the AIMS from 1990-1992 are still useful tor Flemish infants, assessed in 2007-2010. Additionally, the association between motor performance and sleep and play positioning will be determined. A total of 270 Flemish infants between 0 and 18 months, recruited by formal day care services, were assessed with the AIMS by four trained physiotherapists. Information about sleep and play positioning was collected by mean of a questionnaire. Flemish infants perform significantly lower on the AIMS compared with the reference values (P motor scores seem to be related to the sleep position, the amount of play time in prone, in supine and in a sitting device. Infants who are exposed often to frequently to prone while awake showed a significant higher motor performance than infants who are exposed less to prone (6 m: P = 0.013). Infants who are placed often to frequently in a sitting device in the first 6 months of life (P = 0.010) and in supine after 6 months (P = 0.001) performed significantly lower than those who are placed less in it. Flemish infants recruited by formal day care services, show significantly lower motor scores than the Canadian norm population. New reference values should be established for the AIMS for accurate identification of infants at risk. Prevention of sudden infant death syndrome by promoting supine sleep position should go together with promotion of tummy time when awake and avoiding to spent too much time in sitting devices when awake. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  10. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  11. NURSING AND CARING OF THE PREMATURE INFANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Eva; Hall, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    of attention-related behaviours, and the infant’s competences to have self-control, growth, breath function and time for discharge. Variables and the mothers: maternal self-esteem; staffs support to the parents; parents support from different networks and a demographic data. The study includes 60 children...... quantitatively. The data collecting will take place from the 19. Of October 2005 and one year forward. The expectations of the results are to find a significant advantage in the intervention group showing that the infants will be more mature; more stable in their self control; the mothers will be more competent...

  12. Actuarial survival of a large Canadian cohort of preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlsson Arne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased survival of preterm and very low birth weight infants in recent years has been well documented but continued surveillance is required in order to monitor the effects of new therapeutic interventions. Gestation and birth weight specific survival rates most accurately reflect the outcome of perinatal care. Our aims were to determine survival to discharge for a large Canadian cohort of preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and to examine the effect of gender on survival and the effect of increasing postnatal age on predicted survival. Methods Outcomes for all 19,507 infants admitted to 17 NICUs throughout Canada between January 1996 and October 1997 were collected prospectively. Babies with congenital anomalies were excluded from the study population. Gestation and birth weight specific survival for all infants with birth weight Results Survival to discharge at 24 weeks gestation was 54%, compared to 82% at 26 weeks and 95% at 30 weeks. In infants with birth weights 600–699, survival to discharge was 62%, compared to 79% at 700–799 g and 96% at 1,000–1,099 g. In infants born at 24 weeks gestational age, survival was higher in females but there were no significant gender differences above 24 weeks gestation. Actuarial analysis showed that risk of death was highest in the first 5 days. For infants born at 24 weeks gestation, estimated survival probability to 48 hours, 7 days and 4 weeks were 88 (CI 84,92%, 70 (CI 64, 76% and 60 (CI 53,66% respectively. For smaller birth weights, female survival probabilities were higher than males for the first 40 days of life. Conclusion Actuarial analysis provides useful information when counseling parents and highlights the importance of frequently revising the prediction for long term survival particularly after the first few days of life.

  13. Infants' preference for prosocial behaviors: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Claire; Scola, Céline; Arciszewski, Thomas; Picard, Delphine

    2016-11-01

    In 2007, a study carried out by Hamlin, Wynn, and Bloom provided concrete evidence that infants as young as 6 months were capable of social evaluation, displaying an early preference for agents performing a prosocial behavior. Since then the development of early social abilities to judge other's behavior has been the topic of a growing body of research. The present paper reviews studies conducted between 2007 and 2015 that experimentally examined infants' social evaluation abilities by testing their preference for agents acting prosocially. We performed a detailed analysis of a corpus of 16 research studies including 59 experimental results, scrutinizing their methods and findings, and identifying their convergent and divergent features. This analysis showed that a preference for agents who perform prosocial behaviors (as opposed to antisocial or neutral) was present in a majority of infants, but some conflicting results have also been reported. The rich interpretation that infants are endowed with mature socio-moral evaluation abilities has not really been sufficiently discussed. In order to deepen this debate, we assessed other studies that have further explored infants' understanding of the social value of behaviors. Many of the studies provide evidence that young infants manage to identify and prefer the prosocial agent by taking into account the context and agents' mental states beyond the behavior itself. In this study two specific areas are assessed: (1) studies that have previously explored social evaluation abilities beyond a basic preference for prosocial behavior and (2) current theories which attempt to explain how and why such preferences could exist so early in infancy. Future directions for research on social evaluation abilities in infants are also discussed as well as a review of the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Socio-demographic correlates of infant and childhood mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, K; Murthy, M S; Reddy, P R; Reddy, P J; Gowri, V; Sivaraju, S

    1985-01-01

    The influence of selected demographic and socioeconomic variables on infant and child mortality (1979 data) among 3 cultural groups -- Muslims, Harijans, and Caste Hindus -- in the rural Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh state in the South Central Region of India are analysed. Infant mortality was high throughout Andhra Pradesh, but it was higher among Muslims and Harijans (82.6/1000 and 82/8/1000 live births) than among Caste Hindus (63.25). The demographic variables examined were: age at marriage, age, number of conceptions, number of living children, and birth intervals. All except age at marriage and number of living children affected the 3 groups uniformly. Child mortality among the Harijans reflected the adverse effect of early marriage, and the large number of living children had and adverse effect on both infant and child mortality among the Muslims. Regression analysis also showed the high correlation of birth order to both infant and child mortality and of number of living children to childhood mortality. The socioeconomic values considered were economic status, education, occupation, family structure, type of marriage, and type of residence (in terms of ventilation). Economically, Caste Hindus were best off; educational status was lowest among the Harijans. Occupationally, most Caste Hindus were farmers; Muslims were businessmen; and Harijans were laborers. More Harijan women and children under 14 worked for wages as agricultural laborers. From the point of view of infant mortality, family income correlated negatively among the Harijans but positively among Muslims and Caste Hindus; occupation of husband correlated very negatively for Harijans and Muslims. Type of house and household size were negatively correlated for the Harijans but were not significant for the others. Correlations for childhood mortality were similar to those for infant mortality for most variables, but among Muslims education of husband and type of family correlated negatively and

  15. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F Morse

    Full Text Available For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7, or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9. A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5 is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9. Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  16. Posture Affects How Robots and Infants Map Words to Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F.; Benitez, Viridian L.; Belpaeme, Tony; Cangelosi, Angelo; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body – and its momentary posture – may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1–3, 6 & 7), or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9). A humanoid robot model (experiments 1–5) is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies’ momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6–9). Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge –not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping – but through the body’s momentary disposition in space. PMID:25785834

  17. [Risk factors for anemia in infants aged 6-12 months from rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ren-Fu; Liang, Xia; Liu, Cheng-Fang; Zhang, Lin-Xiu; Yue, Ai

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of anemia and related risk factors in infants aged 6-12 months from rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province. A questionnaire survey was used to collect the basic information on infants aged 6-12 months and their families from rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. The content of hemoglobin was measured in these infants. A multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for the development of anemia in infants. A total of 1 802 infants and their families participated in the survey, and there were 1 770 valid samples. A total of 865 infants (865/1 770, 48.87%) were found to have anemia. The multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that breastfeeding after birth (lack of scientific supplementary food) increased the risk of anemia in infants (OR=1.768, Panemia in infants. In the rural areas in southern Shaanxi Province, anemia in infants aged 6-12 months is still a serious public health problem. Improper feeding can increase the risk of anemia in infants, and scientific addition of supplementary food is the key to reducing anemia in infants.

  18. Ocular changes in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negareh Yazdani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article aimed to review the literatures on visual impairments and ocular changes in premature infants with low birth weight and gestational age.Methods: Five electronic databases including: PubMed, Web of Science, Science direct, Ovid, and Scopus were searched. Original articles published until 2015 describing preterm infants were reviewed. Repetitive and derivative articles were excluded.Results: Out of 100 unique, potentially relevant articles, 42 studies that addressed and met the inclusion criteria were evaluated.Conclusion: Prematurity affects ocular structures (from anterior to posterior segment and functions. Premature infants are at risk of myopization. Concerning the changes in premature infants, a significant increase is found in axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness; moreover, high incidence of retinal changes is reported as a result of prematurity. On the other hand, visual acuity, tear, electroretinogram, and visual evoked potential responses decrease with prematurity. The most common ophthalmic disorders in preterm infants are myopia and retinopathy of prematurity, which could affect life quality due to reduced visual acuity.

  19. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  20. Cross-Race Preferences for Same-Race Faces Extend Beyond the African Versus Caucasian Contrast in 3-Month-Old Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang; Liu, Qinyao; Pascalis, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    A visual preference procedure was used to examine preferences among faces of different ethnicities (African, Asian, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern) in Chinese 3-month-old infants exposed only to Chinese faces. The infants demonstrated a preference for faces from their own ethnic group. Alongside previous results showing that Caucasian infants exposed only to Caucasian faces prefer same-race faces (Kelly et al., 2005) and that Caucasian and African infants exposed only to native faces prefer th...

  1. Event-Related Potentials to an English/Spanish Syllabic Contrast in Mexican 10–13-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Gaxiola, Maritza; Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Lara-Ayala, Lourdes; Cadena, Cesar; Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2012-01-01

    We report brain electrophysiological responses from 10- to 13-month-old Mexican infants while listening to native and foreign CV-syllable contrasts differing in Voice Onset Time (VOT). All infants showed normal auditory event-related potential (ERP) components. Our analyses showed ERP evidence that Mexican infants are capable of discriminating their native sounds as well as the acoustically salient (aspiration) foreign contrast. The study showed that experience with native language influences VOT perception in Spanish learning infants. The acoustic salience of aspiration is perceived by both Spanish and English learning infants, but exposure provides additional phonetic status to this native-language feature for English learning infants. The effects of early experience and neural commitment as well as the impact of acoustic salience are further discussed. PMID:22577579

  2. Event-related potentials to an english/spanish syllabic contrast in mexican 10-13-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Gaxiola, Maritza; Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Lara-Ayala, Lourdes; Cadena, Cesar; Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2012-01-01

    We report brain electrophysiological responses from 10- to 13-month-old Mexican infants while listening to native and foreign CV-syllable contrasts differing in Voice Onset Time (VOT). All infants showed normal auditory event-related potential (ERP) components. Our analyses showed ERP evidence that Mexican infants are capable of discriminating their native sounds as well as the acoustically salient (aspiration) foreign contrast. The study showed that experience with native language influences VOT perception in Spanish learning infants. The acoustic salience of aspiration is perceived by both Spanish and English learning infants, but exposure provides additional phonetic status to this native-language feature for English learning infants. The effects of early experience and neural commitment as well as the impact of acoustic salience are further discussed.

  3. Recombinant Erythropoietin And Blood Transfusion In Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keramat Nouri

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundp: Very low birth weight infants ( <1500 g frequently require blood transfusions because of repeated blood sampling accompanied by anemia of prematurity. Methods: In an attempt to identify the effect of human recombinant erythropoietin to decrease the requirement for blood transfusions, erythropoietin was administered to 24 pre term infants less than 1500 g prospectively from September 1999 till December2000. Data about the characteristics of the population, the severity of diseases, and treatment with erythropoietin, clinical diagnosis, initial and subsequent hemoglobin, volume of blood loss, and the number of blood transfusions were recorded. These results were compared with data from the recorded information of 49 infants who did not receive erythropoietin during those past 2 years. There were no differences between the 2 groups with regard to the gestational age, birth weight, clinical diagnosis, severity of the illness, primary causes of admission, and initial hematologic parameters such as hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocytes. Erythropoietin was administered in a dose of 200 ill/kg three times weekly for 6-8 weeks accompanied with iron supplement 6 mg/ kg/day. Transfusions were administered according to protocol. Results: There was no significant difference between the number of blood transfusion among these 2 groups (p= 0.07. However, transfusions in the erythropoietin treated group were fewer in comparison to the other group (1.9 +1-1.6 to 3.2 +/-1.1. No difference was observed between final hemoglobin and hematocrit levels among the two groups (10.3 +1- 0.9 vs. 10.4 +1- 0.7 and 33.7 +1- 2.3 vs. 32.2 +1- 2.2. Conclusion: Very low birth weight infants receive frequent blood transfusions but a reduction in transfusion requirements was not apparent after administration of erythropoietin and iron in preterm infants in this study. However, the lack of impact on transfusion requirements fails to support routine use of

  4. Do infants find snakes aversive? Infants' physiological responses to "fear-relevant" stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Cat; LoBue, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    In the current research, we sought to measure infants' physiological responses to snakes-one of the world's most widely feared stimuli-to examine whether they find snakes aversive or merely attention grabbing. Using a similar method to DeLoache and LoBue (Developmental Science, 2009, Vol. 12, pp. 201-207), 6- to 9-month-olds watched a series of multimodal (both auditory and visual) stimuli: a video of a snake (fear-relevant) or an elephant (non-fear-relevant) paired with either a fearful or happy auditory track. We measured physiological responses to the pairs of stimuli, including startle magnitude, latency to startle, and heart rate. Results suggest that snakes capture infants' attention; infants showed the fastest startle responses and lowest average heart rate to the snakes, especially when paired with a fearful voice. Unexpectedly, they also showed significantly reduced startle magnitude during this same snake video plus fearful voice combination. The results are discussed with respect to theoretical perspectives on fear acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bed-sharing in the absence of hazardous circumstances: is there a risk of sudden infant death syndrome? An analysis from two case-control studies conducted in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Blair

    Full Text Available The risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS among infants who co-sleep in the absence of hazardous circumstances is unclear and needs to be quantified.Combined individual-analysis of two population-based case-control studies of SIDS infants and controls comparable for age and time of last sleep.Parents of 400 SIDS infants and 1386 controls provided information from five English health regions between 1993-6 (population: 17.7 million and one of these regions between 2003-6 (population:4.9 million.Over a third of SIDS infants (36% were found co-sleeping with an adult at the time of death compared to 15% of control infants after the reference sleep (multivariate OR = 3.9 [95% CI: 2.7-5.6]. The multivariable risk associated with co-sleeping on a sofa (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.1-47.4] or next to a parent who drank more than two units of alcohol (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.7-43.5] was very high and significant for infants of all ages. The risk associated with co-sleeping next to someone who smoked was significant for infants under 3 months old (OR = 8.9 [95% CI: 5.3-15.1] but not for older infants (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 0.7-2.8]. The multivariable risk associated with bed-sharing in the absence of these hazards was not significant overall (OR = 1.1 [95% CI: 0.6-2.0], for infants less than 3 months old (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 0.96-2.7], and was in the direction of protection for older infants (OR = 0.1 [95% CI: 0.01-0.5]. Dummy use was associated with a lower risk of SIDS only among co-sleepers and prone sleeping was a higher risk only among infants sleeping alone.These findings support a public health strategy that underlines specific hazardous co-sleeping environments parents should avoid. Sofa-sharing is not a safe alternative to bed-sharing and bed-sharing should be avoided if parents consume alcohol, smoke or take drugs or if the infant is pre-term.

  6. Development of infant common marmosets' (Callithrix jacchus) preference for their parents over adults from another group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsuko; Izumi, Akihiro; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Parent-offspring attachment is important for animals which have offspring that require parental care for their development. Infant attachment to the mother has been examined in macaques, but it remains poorly understood in common marmosets. Here, we examined the abilities of 14 common marmoset infants to show preference for their parents over adults from another group at the ages of 4, 10, and 15 weeks. Each infant was exposed to its parent and an adult from another group in an I-shaped maze. Although 4-week-old infants did not show a significant difference between approach behaviors toward their parents and other adults, 10- and 15-week-old infants approached and stayed longer near their parents than adults from another group. These results suggest selective approach behavior develops in marmosets by the age of 10 weeks.

  7. Social inequality in infant mortality: what explains variation across low and middle income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Growing work demonstrates social gradients in infant mortality within countries. However, few studies have compared the magnitude of these inequalities cross-nationally. Even fewer have assessed the determinants of social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. This study provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of social inequalities in infant mortality in 53 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We used the most recent nationally representative household samples (n = 874,207) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) to calculate rates of infant mortality. The relative and absolute concentration indices were used to quantify social inequalities in infant mortality. Additionally, we used meta-regression analyses to examine whether levels of inequality in proximate determinants of infant mortality were associated with social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. Estimates of both the relative and the absolute concentration indices showed a substantial variation in social inequalities in infant mortality among LMICs. Meta-regression analyses showed that, across countries, the relative concentration of teenage pregnancy among poorer households was positively associated with the relative concentration of infant mortality among these groups (beta = 0.333, 95% CI = 0.115 0.551). Our results demonstrate that the concentration of infant deaths among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in the majority of LMICs remains an important health and social policy concern. The findings suggest that policies designed to reduce the concentration of teenage pregnancy among mothers in lower socioeconomic groups may mitigate social inequalities in infant mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal Self-Critical and Dependent Personality Styles and Mother-Infant Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Lachmann, Frank

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated mother-infant communication in relation to Blatt's measures of adult personality organization, namely, interpersonal relatedness and self-definition, defining the higher ends of these two measures as dependency and self-criticism, respectively. A nonclinical sample of 126 mother-infant dyads provided the data. An evaluation of maternal self-criticism and dependency was made six weeks postpartum; four months postpartum, mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were studied and analyzed in conjunction with the earlier evaluation. Self- and interactive contingencies were defined by the predictability within, and between, the behaviors of each partner. This approach assesses the process of relating from moment to moment within a dyad. Self-contingency measures the degree of stability/variability of one person's ongoing rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency measures the likelihood that one person's behavior is influenced by the behavior of the partner. Infant and mother facial affect, gaze, and touch, and infant vocal affect, were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Maternal self-criticism and dependency had strikingly different effects on mother-infant communication. Self-critical mothers showed lowered attention and emotion coordination, staying more "separate" from infants in these realms, compromising infant interactive efficacy. This finding is consistent with Blatt and colleagues' descriptions of self-critical individuals as preoccupied with self-definition, compromising relatedness. Dependent mothers and their infants showed reciprocal emotional vigilance, consistent with Blatt and colleague's description of dependent individuals as "empty" and "needy" of emotional supplies from their partner. The study documents that the influence of the mother's personality organization operates through both infant and maternal contributions, a co-created process rather than a direct unilateral

  9. [Mothers' behavior regarding infant sleep position: effects of the last public campaign to prevent sudden infant death syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, L; Dos Santos, C; Richard, A; Jarjanette, V; Paniel, B J; Cabrol, D

    2000-12-01

    To define infant care practices in maternity units and those subsequently adopted at home. Using these data, we evaluated the acceptance and application of recommendations issued by the previous public education campaign on infant sleeping position as related to sudden infant death syndrome. A survey was carried out in two maternity units (Port-Royal and Créteil) and in one pediatric consultation unit (affiliated with Port-Royal maternity). The mixed position (side or back) is used equally with, respectively, 47% at Port-Royal and 45% at Créteil. The supine sleeping position (French public health recommendations) is used by 12% of the mothers at Port-Royal and by 40% at Créteil. It appears that hospital nurseries play an important role in determining the mother's preference for the sleeping position (64% at Port-Royal and 54% at Créteil), but it does not adequately explain all mothers' responses. However, as the infants mature (> two months old), the more spontaneously they changed their sleeping position. All the infants placed in a side sleeping position moved to a supine sleeping position during the night. Upon awakening, infants were found mostly in the supine position (in contrast to the national public education campaign). Our results show that mothers and hospital nurseries were distressed in terms of ensuring the supine sleeping position of the infant. New choices of sleeping positions were initiated by mothers. For example, they used the side position after feedings essentially in the case of reflux or during the daytime. The supine position was used when the mothers were assured that any problems had been avoided or only during the night.

  10. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  11. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...

  12. Infant Massage: Understand This Soothing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and touch therapy in neonates: The current evidence. Indian Pediatrics. 2010;47:771. Cervasio C. Baby massage ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-massage/art-20047151 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  13. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the foundation of his or her healthy development. Trust your ability to meet your baby's needs. You ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-development/art-20048012 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  14. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000805.htm How to save money on infant formula To use the sharing features ... several months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . Money-Saving Ideas Here are ...

  15. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...

  16. Spatial Exploration and Changes in Infant-Mother Dyads around Transitions in Infant Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Sabrina L.; Corbetta, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Infants' motor skill development triggers changes in parent-infant interactions, exploration, and play behaviors, particularly during periods of locomotor transitions. We investigated how these transitions reorganized infants' and mothers' explorations of spatial layouts. Thirteen infants and their mothers were followed biweekly from the age of 6…

  17. Infant feeding and anthropometric failure in infants (0–2 years) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prevalence of anthropometric failure among Nigerian infants is still high. Inappropriate infant feeding practices may be one of the major contributory factors. Objective: The study assessed the anthropometric indices of infants (0 – 2 years) and infant feeding practices of mothers in. Nsukka district; and ...

  18. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawlana, Wegdan; Zamiara, Paul; Lane, Hilary; Marcon, Margaret; Lapidus-Krol, Eveline; Chiu, Priscilla Pl; Moore, Aideen M

    2018-01-31

    Esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is a complex disorder, and most outcome data are confined to mortality and feeding-related morbidities. Our objective was to examine mortality, growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in a large recent cohort of infants with EA/TEF. Single center study of EA/TEF infants referred from January 2000 to December 2015. Data collected included associated defects, neonatal morbidity and mortality and growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 12-36months. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine variables associated with adverse outcome. Of the 253 infants identified, 102 infants (40%) were preterm. Overall mortality was 8.3%, the majority from major cardiac malformations (p<0.001) Neurodevelopmental assessments (n=182) showed that 76% were within normal, while some delay was seen in 24%, most often in expressive and receptive language. Nine infants had hearing impairment and 5 had visual impairment. Gastrostomy tubes were required in 47 patients and 15% continued to have weight growth velocities less than the 10th centile. A number of specialist interventions were required, Speech/Language being frequent. Mortality in EA/TEF is primarily related to concomitant anomalies, especially cardiac. Multidisciplinary follow up is important for early identification and intervention for growth failure and developmental delay. Retrospective study LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Glycerin Suppositories Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalinkumar; Dereddy, Narendra; Talati, Ajay J; Gaston, Kan; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To study the characteristics of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glycerin suppositories (GS) and evaluate the association of GS use with outcomes. Study Design  This is a retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with birth weight between 500 and 1,499 g were evaluated. We evaluated the frequency of GS use and compared the characteristics and outcomes of the GS group with the no-GS group. Multivariate analyses controlling for gestational age and small for gestational age status were performed to study the effect of GS on outcomes. Results  A total of 1,073 infants were included in the study. Out of those, 527 (49.1%) infants received GS. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis was not significantly different between the two groups, while days to reach full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in the GS group. Conclusion  Frequent use of GS warrants further prospective studies to evaluate its safety and efficacy in view of our study showing association with longer time to reach full enteral feeds. We speculate that GS use could be a marker for gastrointestinal dysmotility and hence the association with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Phrenic nerves and diaphragms in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, J; Weber, U; Schröder, J M; Lemke, R; Althoff, H

    1998-01-30

    Disturbances of the respiratory system may be an important factor in the cascade of events leading to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Even though the diaphragm is the major respiratory muscle in infants, little is known about alterations of this muscle and of the phrenic nerve in SIDS. In the present study, diaphragms and phrenic nerves of 24 SIDS infants and seven controls were analyzed. Morphometric analysis revealed only slightly larger cross sectional areas of phrenic nerve axons but no increase in myelin sheath thickness in SIDS cases. However, in one SIDS case, myelinated nerve fibre density was severely reduced. Using electron microscopy, several nerve fibres of SIDS infants showed focal accumulations of neurofilaments. Muscle fibre diameters in SIDS diaphragms were significantly larger compared to controls (P fibre ruptures and contracture bands were found. These prominent nonspecific ultrastructural alterations should advise caution in the interpretation of morphometric data. Thus, in some cases exemplified by one case of the present series, decreased density of phrenic nerve myelinated axons might contribute to SIDS. Still, the present results indicate that development of phrenic nerves and diaphragms is not delayed in most SIDS infants.

  1. Biophysical behaviour of the infant Meibomian lipid layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaercher, T; Möbius, D; Welt, R

    1994-01-01

    Infants have been known occasionally to stare without blinking for almost a minute. This puts great demands on the stability of their tear-film. To verify the stability of infant tears, we performed biophysical experiments on Meibomian gland secretion, which forms the outermost layer of the tear-film. The secretion was taken from infants belonging to one of three age-groups (1.5 years, 4-5 years, 7-10 years). Under in vitro conditions we determined the surface pressure and the surface potential of the film by spreading the secretion over a water surface and subsequently compressing and decompressing it. Sufficient amounts of Meibomian gland secretion were expressed in all age-groups. The surface pressure and the surface potential of the tears in infants corresponded to those in healthy adults. It was also found that the younger the patient was, the better was the consistency of the surface potential under repeated periods of compression and expansion. In comparison with the secretion of healthy adults, the infant Meibomian gland secretion showed better biophysical characteristics and a correspondingly higher stability in the tear-film.

  2. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), 99m TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and 99m TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  3. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong [Dongnam Health Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  4. Intra-abdominal Adiposity In Preterm Infants: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the total body fat mass and the intra-abdominal adipose tissue between preterm infants assessed at term corrected age and full-term newborns. Methods: An observational explorative study was conducted. 25 preterm and 10 full term infants were evaluated at 0-1 month of corrected and postnatal age, respectively. The total body fat mass was assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system (Pea Pod COSMED, USA and the intra-abdominal adipose tissue by means of magnetic resonance imaging (software program SliceOMatic, Version 4.3,Tomovision, Canada. Results: Total body fat mass (g of preterm and term infants was 633 (±183 and 538 (±203 respectively while intra-abdominal fat mass (g was 14.2 (±4.9 and 19.9 (±11.4. Conclusions: Preterm infants, although exhibiting a total body fat mass higher than full term infants, do not show an increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue.

  5. Infant Word Segmentation and Childhood Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Reznick, J. Steven; Xuehua, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically demonstrated. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether infant word segmentation skills are indeed related to later lexical development. Two word segmentation tasks, varying in complexity, were administered in infancy and related to childhood outcome measures. Outcome measures consisted of age-normed productive vocabulary percentiles and a measure of cognitive development. Results demonstrated a strong degree of association between infant word segmentation abilities at 7 months and productive vocabulary size at 24 months. In addition, outcome groups, as defined by median vocabulary size and growth trajectories at 24 months, showed distinct word segmentation abilities as infants. These findings provide the first prospective evidence supporting the predictive validity of infant word segmentation tasks and suggest that they are indeed associated with mature word knowledge. PMID:22709398

  6. Building a Model of Infant Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Joshua; Deak, Gedeon; Jasso, Hector; Triesch, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Naturalistic observations of infant/caregiver social attention have yielded rich information about human social develop- ment. However, observational data are expensive, laborious, and reliant on fallible human coders. We model interactions between caregivers and infants using a three dimensional sim- ulation environment in order to gain greater insight into the development of infant attention sharing, specifically gaze fol- lowing. Most models of infant cognition have been only ab- stractly ...

  7. Caffeine therapy in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez; Nour, Islam

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for treatment of apnea of prematurity. Its effect has been well established in reducing the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, and extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. Evidence for additional short-term benefits on reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus has also been suggested. Controversies exist among various neonatal intensive care units in terms of drug efficacy compared to other methylxanthines, dosage regimen, time of initiation, duration of therapy, drug safety and value of therapeutic drug monitoring. In the current review, we will summarize the available evidence for the best practice in using caffeine therapy in preterm infants. PMID:26566480

  8. Prefrontal activation associated with social attachment: facial-emotion recognition in mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Matsuoka, Sunao; Dan, Ippeita; Naoi, Nozomi; Nakamura, Katsuki; Kojima, Shozo

    2009-02-01

    Attachment between mothers and infants is the most primitive and primary form of human social relationship. Many reports have suggested that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a significant role in this attachment; however, only a select few provide experimental neurophysiological evidence. In the present study, to determine the neural substrates underlying the social and emotional attachment between mothers and infants, we measured their prefrontal activation by using near-infrared spectroscopy. We used movie stimuli that could robustly induce a positive affect, and the results for viewing own versus unfamiliar infants showed that own-infant viewing elicited increased activations around the anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the mothers. Their response magnitude in that area was also correlated with the behavioral rating of the pleasant mood of infants. Furthermore, our study revealed that the infants' prefrontal activation around the anterior OFC is specific to viewing their mothers' smile. These results suggest the OFC's role in regulating and encoding the affect in attachment system and also show that infants share similar neuronal functions with mothers, associated with their bonds at 1 year of age. We further discussed infants' prefrontal activations and their implications for the development of the social brain network.

  9. Case series of Bifidobacterium longum bacteremia in three preterm infants on probiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, Andrea; Zbinden, Reinhard; Berger, Christoph; Arlettaz, Romaine

    2015-01-01

    The use of probiotics as prophylaxis for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants is being increasingly practised. We report, for the first time, a case series of 3 preterm, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants who developed bacteremia with Bifidobacterium longum on probiotic therapy with Infloran® containing viable B. longum. We retrospectively reviewed data of 3 infants (of gestational age probiotic therapy with Infloran or shortly after, respectively, and was interpreted as transient bacteremia. The clinical presentation of these infants did not require antibiotic treatment after the isolation of B. longum. Infant 3 developed an NEC despite probiotic therapy with Infloran and the blood cultures showed B. longum growth. This infant required explorative laparotomy and antibiotic treatment. The clinical isolates of B. longum and the strain of the Infloran capsule showed an identical profile on biochemical, mass-spectrometric and molecular analyses, suggesting a direct correlation between the administration of probiotics and bacteremia with B. longum in all 3 infants. The occurrence of bacteremia with bifidobacteria after its prophylactic administration in VLBW infants and its possible clinical consequences are a matter of concern. In the interests of safety, the use of probiotics in such a population should be indicated with caution and requires further investigation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Making Sense of Infant Familiarity and Novelty Responses to Words at Lexical Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolis, Rory A.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Vihman, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests that familiarity and novelty preferences in infant experimental tasks can in some instances be interpreted together as a single indicator of language advance. We provide evidence to support this idea based on our use of the auditory headturn preference paradigm to record responses to words likely to be either familiar or unfamiliar to infants. Fifty-nine 10-month-old infants were tested. The task elicited mixed preferences: familiarity (longer average looks to the words likely to be familiar to the infants), novelty (longer average looks to the words likely to be unfamiliar) and no-preference (similar-length of looks to both type of words). The infants who exhibited either a familiarity or a novelty response were more advanced on independent indices of phonetic advance than the infants who showed no preference. In addition, infants exhibiting novelty responses were more lexically advanced than either the infants who exhibited familiarity or those who showed no-preference. The results provide partial support for Hunter and Ames’ (1988) developmental model of attention in infancy and suggest caution when interpreting studies indexed to chronological age. PMID:27242624

  11. Making sense of infant familiarity and novelty responses to words at lexical onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory A DePaolis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests that familiarity and novelty preferences in infant experimental tasks can in some instances be interpreted together as a single indicator of language advance. We provide evidence to support this idea based on our use of the auditory headturn preference paradigm to record responses to words likely to be either familiar or unfamiliar to infants. Fifty-nine ten-month-old infants were tested. The task elicited mixed preferences: familiarity (longer average looks to the words likely to be familiar to the infants, novelty (longer average looks to the words likely to be unfamiliar and no-preference (similar-length of looks to both type of words. The infants who exhibited either a familiarity or a novelty response were more advanced on independent indices of phonetic advance than the infants who showed no preference. In addition, infants exhibiting novelty responses were more lexically advanced than either the infants who exhibited familiarity or those who showed no-preference. The results provide partial support for Hunter and Ames’ (1988 developmental model of attention in infancy and suggest caution when interpreting studies indexed to chronological age.

  12. Flexible learning of multiple speech structures in bilingual infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Agnes Melinda; Mehler, Jacques

    2009-07-31

    Children acquire their native language according to a well-defined time frame. Surprisingly, although children raised in bilingual environments have to learn roughly twice as much about language as their monolingual peers, the speed of acquisition is comparable in monolinguals and bilinguals. Here, we show that preverbal 12-month-old bilingual infants have become more flexible at learning speech structures than monolinguals. When given the opportunity to simultaneously learn two different regularities, bilingual infants learned both, whereas monolinguals learned only one of them. Hence, bilinguals may acquire two languages in the time in which monolinguals acquire one because they quickly become more flexible learners.

  13. Altered Toll-Like Receptor-4 Response to Lipopolysaccharides in Infants Exposed to HIV-1 and Its Preventive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anicet Christel Maloupazoa Siawaya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen sensing and recognition through pattern recognition receptors, and subsequent production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is the cornerstone of the innate immune system. Despite the fact that HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants are prone to serious bacterial infections, no study has focused on the functionality of their bacteria recognition system. This is the first study to investigate baseline levels of three critically important immune response molecules in this population: complement component (C-3, toll-like receptor (TLR-4, and C-reactive protein (CRP. We enrolled 16 HEU and 6 HIV-unexposed (HU infants. TLR4 function was investigated by stimulating whole blood with increasing concentrations of TLR4-agonist ultrapure lipopolysaccharides. TLR4/TLR4-agonist dose response were assessed by measuring IL-6 secretion. Complement C3 and CRP were measured by photo spectrometry. Data showed no significant differences in baseline concentration of CRP between HEU and HU infants. Complement C3 was significantly higher in HEU infants than HU infants. TLR4 anergy was observed in 7 of 12 HEU infants, whereas the rest of HEU infants (n = 4 and the control HU infants tested (n = 3 showed responsive TLR4. None of the HEU infants investigated in this study had severe infections in the year after their birth. In conclusion, TLR4 anergy can occur in HEU infants without necessarily translating to increased vulnerability to infectious diseases.

  14. NT-Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Infants with Failure to Thrive due to Caloric Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Mänhardt

    2010-01-01

    Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, we compared N-BNP levels from all consecutive infants with FTT and bodyweight below the tenth percentile (caloric deprivation (CD group to infants with severe HF. Reference values from infants between 2 and 12 month were taken from the literature and healthy infants. Results. Our results show that infants with FTT (n=15 had significantly (P<.001 elevated N-BNP values compared with the healthy infants (n=23, 530 (119–3150 pg/mL versus 115 (15–1121 pg/mL. N-BNP values in this CD group are comparable to the median value of infants with severe HF (n=12 673 (408–11310 pg/mL. There is no statistical significant difference in age. Conclusion. Nutritional state has an important impact on N-BNP levels in infants with FTT. We could show comparable levels of N-BNP in infants with FTT and infants with severe HF.

  15. Developmental status of 1-year-old infants fed breast milk, cow's milk formula, or soy formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Aline; Cleves, Mario A; Bellando, Jayne B; Pivik, R T; Casey, Patrick H; Badger, Thomas M

    2012-06-01

    Although soy formula has been reported to support normal development, concerns exist regarding potential adverse developmental effects of phytochemicals associated with soy protein. This study characterized developmental status (mental, motor, and language) of breastfed (BF), milk-based formula-fed (MF), or soy protein-based formula-fed (SF) infants during the first year of life. Healthy infants (N = 391) were assessed longitudinally at ages 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Development was evaluated by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Preschool Language Scale-3. Mixed effects models were used while adjusting for socioeconomic status, mother's age and IQ, gestational age, gender, birth weight, head circumference, race, age, and diet history. No differences were found between formula-fed infants (MF versus SF). BF infants scored slightly higher than formula-fed infants on the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) score at ages 6 and 12 months (P < .05). Infants who were breastfed also had higher Psychomotor Development Index scores than SF infants at age 6 months and slightly higher Preschool Language Scale-3 scores than MF infants at ages 3 and 6 months (P < .05). In addition, BF infants had a lower probability to score within the lower MDI quartile compared with MF infants and a higher likelihood to score within the upper quartile for the MDI and Psychomotor Development Index compared with SF infants. This unique study showed that all scores on developmental testing were within established normal ranges and that MF and SF groups did not differ significantly. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a slight advantage of BF infants on cognitive development compared with formula-fed infants.

  16. Epigenetic mechanisms in the placenta related to infant neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Marsit, Carmen J

    2018-01-30

    As the 'third brain' the placenta links the developing fetal brain and the maternal brain enabling study of epigenetic process in placental genes that affect infant neurodevelopment. We described the characteristics and findings of the 17 studies on epigenetic processes in placental genes and human infant neurobehavior. Studies showed consistent findings in the same cohort of term healthy infants across epigenetic processes (DNA methylation, genome wide, gene and miRNA expression) genomic region (single and multiple genes, imprinted genes and miRNAs) using candidate gene and genome wide approaches and across biobehavioral systems (neurobehavior, cry acoustics and neuroendocrine). Despite limitations, studies support future work on molecular processes in placental genes related to neurodevelopmental trajectories including implications for intervention.

  17. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.

  18. Motor development of infants with positional plagiocephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G; Platt, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor skills. The purpose of this study was to compare motor development between infants with PP and matched peers without PP. We also examined differences in infant positioning practices when asleep and awake between the two groups. Twenty-seven infants with PP, 3 to 8 months of age, were matched by age, gender, and race to infants without PP. Motor performance was evaluated using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS). Parents completed a diary that recorded infant positioning over a 3-day period. Mean AIMS percentile score for infants with PP was 31.1 +/- 21.6 as compared with 42.7 +/- 20.2 in infants without PP (p = .06). Better performance on the AIMS was positively correlated with the amount of time in prone position when awake, for both groups of children (PP r = .52, no PP r = .44, p motor delay when evaluating infants with PP. It is also important for parents to be informed about the importance of supervised prone playtime to enhance the development of early motor skills.

  19. Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…

  20. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for infant mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...

  1. How Infants Use Vision for Grasping Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Michael E.; Clifton, Rachel K.; Ashmead, Daniel H.; Lee, Philip; Goubet, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments examined vision's role in infants' grasping of horizontally and vertically oriented rods. Found that infants differentially oriented their hand regardless of lighting and similar to control conditions where they could see rod and hand throughout reach. Findings suggest that infants may use current sight of object's orientation or…

  2. Breastfeeding and postimmunisation fever amongst infants receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the feeding pattern in a 24-hour feeding recall by mothers, infants were classified into exclusive and nonexclusive breastfeeding groups. Each of the infant's mothers was provided with a digital thermometer and instructed on how to measure the temperature of her infant. The information about the incidence of fever ...

  3. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  4. Acidified infant formula explained | Labuschagne | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of effective methods to prevent acute gastroenteritis is an important goal for infant health. Exclusive breastfeeding and postponement of complementary foods until the age of six months is recommended for healthy infants. However, at times, infant formula is required. Various types are commercially ...

  5. Respiratory mechanics in ventilated preterm infants : early determinants and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snepvangers, Dimphn Adriana Cornelia Maria

    2003-01-01

    The studies in this thesis show that in the current surfactant era, the majority of ventilated preterm infants are still suffering from respiratory morbidity and substantial respiratory function abnormalities throughout the early years of life. Since respiratory function testing during mechanical

  6. NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Conclusion: Case fatality rate for low birth weight infants with sepsis is high. Gram negative organisms are the predominant pathogens. No maternal risk factors were identified. Antibiotic sensitivity shows adequate sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins. INTRODUCTION.

  7. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting level among the children was 26.5%, underweight level was 11.1% and no child was wasted. There was a significant association between marital status, children age group and stunting using ordinal regression. Conclusion: The study showed a knowledge gap on infant complementary feeding in area of quality ...

  8. DLK1, a serum marker for hepatoblastoma in young infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falix, Farah A.; Aronson, Daniel C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Hiralall, Johan K.; Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is a malignant pediatric liver tumor. The currently used diagnostic serum marker for hepatoblastoma, a-fetoprotein (AFP), is not always reliable in infants with hepatoblastoma, due to the physiologically elevated levels of AFP in this age group. In this report, we show that Delta-like

  9. Infants' Learning, Memory, and Generalization of Learning for Bimodal Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Lasenby, Jennifer; Lee, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examined the impact of temporal synchrony on infants' learning of and memory for sight-sound pairs. Findings indicated that 7-month-olds had no difficulty learning auditory-visual pairs regardless of temporal synchrony, remembering them 10 minutes later and 1 week later. Three-month-olds showed poorer learning in no-synchrony than in…

  10. Distinguishing Novelty and Familiarity Effects in Infant Preference Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Nakai, Satsuki

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers possible problems researchers might face when interpreting the results of studies that employ variants of the preference procedure. Infants show a tendency to shift their preference from familiar to novel stimuli with increasing exposure to the familiar stimulus, a behaviour that is exploited by the habituation paradigm. This…

  11. A case of disseminated Candida dubliniensis in a preterm infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    autolytic tissue from the brain showed an extensive fungal meningo- encephalitis (Fig. 3). Examination of the thymus revealed parenchymal haemorrhages seen in the first 12 hours following a stressful event. Marked sinusoidal congestion was present in the spleen. A blood culture was obtained from the infant 2 days prior ...

  12. Infants' Sensitivity to the Congruence of Others' Emotions and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Westermann, Gert

    2013-01-01

    As humans, we are attuned to the moods and emotions of others. This understanding of emotions enables us to interpret other people's actions on the basis of their emotional displays. However, the development of this capacity is not well understood. Here we show a developmental pattern in 10- and 14-month-old infants' sensitivity to others'…

  13. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Jacqueline; Chestnut, Amanda H; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E A; Steele, Catriona M; Pickler, Laura

    2016-10-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity of five standard infant formulas, three barium products, and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20 % weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. The study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the lower boundary of the NDD nectar-thick liquid range. The study showed differences in viscosity between 60 % w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque(®) and E-Z-Paque(®) powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas, or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20 and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in

  14. Development of iron homeostasis in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age). Regardless of the feeding choice, infants' capacity to regulate iron homeostasis is important but less well understood than the regulation of iron absorption in adults, which is inverse to iron status and strongly upregulated or downregulated. Infants who were given daily iron drops compared with a placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age had similar increases in hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, isotope studies have shown no difference in iron absorption between infants with high or low hemoglobin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Together, these findings suggest a lack of homeostatic regulation of iron homeostasis in young infants. However, at 9 mo of age, homeostatic regulatory capacity has developed although, to our knowledge, its extent is not known. Studies in suckling rat pups showed similar results with no capacity to regulate iron homeostasis at 10 d of age when fully nursing, but such capacity occurred at 20 d of age when pups were partially weaned. The major iron transporters in the small intestine divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin were not affected by pup iron status at 10 d of age but were strongly affected by iron status at 20 d of age. Thus, mechanisms that regulate iron homeostasis are developed at the time of weaning. Overall, studies in human infants and experimental animals suggest that iron homeostasis is absent or limited early in infancy largely because of a lack of regulation of the iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin

  15. Estudo das variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro humano de parturientes a termo e pré-termo Study of retinol level variations of human colostrum among parturient women with term and pre-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Louise Pereira de Melo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro de parturientes a termo e pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas amostras de leite de 78 lactantes, sendo metade delas mães de recém-nascidos prematuros. As amostras de colostro foram obtidas por expressão manual de uma mama, até 72 horas após o parto, no turno vespertino e no início da mamada, até atingir um volume de 2,0 ml. A determinação do retinol foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística através do teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: o valor médio do retinol no colostro de mães a termo (n = 39 e pré-termo (n = 39 foram, respectivamente, 89,4 ± 46,1 mig/dL e 55,6 ± 27,7 mig/dL. A diferença entre as médias foi estatisticamente significante (p OBJECTIVES: to analyze retinol levels variations in the colostrum of term and pre-term parturient women. METHODS: colostrum samples of 78 lactating women, half of which were mothers of premature newborns, were analyzed. The samples were manually extracted from one breast until 2.0 ml were obtained. They were collected up to 72 hours after birth, during the morning hours and right before nursing. Retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by the T-test for means comparison. RESULTS: the mean retinol values in the colostrums of women with term (n = 39 and pre-term newborns (n = 39 were 89,4 ± 46,1 mug/dL and 55,6 ± 27,7 mug/dL, respectively. The difference of means was considered statistically significant at (p < 0,001. Human milk meets the need for Vitamin A in the term newborn. However, for the premature newborn, it only supplied 66% of the needs. CONCLUSIONS: results suggest that exclusive use of human milk does not meet the needs of pre-term newborn completely and that a Vitamin A supplement for the mother is necessary in order to reduce Vitamin A risk deficiency.

  16. The Influence of Different Caregivers on Infant Growth and Development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinrui; Liang, Furong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Manman; Han, Ying

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of parents in China ask grandparents or babysitters to care for their children. Modern parents are often the only child in their family because of China's One-Child Policy and thus may lack interaction with siblings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to explore whether different caregivers affect the physical and development of infants in China. In total, 2,514 infants were enrolled in our study. We assessed their weight-for-age, supine length-for-age, weight-for-length, occipital-frontal circumference, and Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) results and recorded their general parental information and their primary caregivers. The weights and lengths of 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters were significantly lower than those of infants under the care of parents or grandparents ( P  < 0.05). Additionally, 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters had the lowest DDST pass rate (75%) among the three groups (χ 2  = 11.819, P  = 0.012), especially for the fine motor-adaptive and language domains. Compared to 12-month-old infants under the care of parents and babysitters, infants under the care of grandparents were more likely to be overweight or obese ( P  < 0.001). The study showed that caregivers had a dominant role in the physical and cognitive development of the infants. Specifically, compared with infants raised by grandparents and parents, 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters had partially suppressed lengths and weights and lagged cognitively. The 12-month-old infants under the care of grandparents were more overweight than those cared for by parents and babysitters.

  17. The Influence of Different Caregivers on Infant Growth and Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinrui Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAn increasing number of parents in China ask grandparents or babysitters to care for their children. Modern parents are often the only child in their family because of China’s One-Child Policy and thus may lack interaction with siblings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to explore whether different caregivers affect the physical and development of infants in China.MethodsIn total, 2,514 infants were enrolled in our study. We assessed their weight-for-age, supine length-for-age, weight-for-length, occipital-frontal circumference, and Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST results and recorded their general parental information and their primary caregivers.ResultsThe weights and lengths of 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters were significantly lower than those of infants under the care of parents or grandparents (P < 0.05. Additionally, 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters had the lowest DDST pass rate (75% among the three groups (χ2 = 11.819, P = 0.012, especially for the fine motor-adaptive and language domains. Compared to 12-month-old infants under the care of parents and babysitters, infants under the care of grandparents were more likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.001.ConclusionThe study showed that caregivers had a dominant role in the physical and cognitive development of the infants. Specifically, compared with infants raised by grandparents and parents, 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters had partially suppressed lengths and weights and lagged cognitively. The 12-month-old infants under the care of grandparents were more overweight than those cared for by parents and babysitters.

  18. Digital disruption? Maternal mobile device use is related to infant social-emotional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myruski, Sarah; Gulyayeva, Olga; Birk, Samantha; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Buss, Kristin A; Dennis-Tiwary, Tracy A

    2017-09-24

    Mobile device use has become increasingly prevalent, yet its impact on infant development remains largely unknown. When parents use mobile devices in front of infants, the parent is physically present but most likely distracted and unresponsive. Research using the classic Still Face Paradigm (SFP) suggests that parental withdrawal and unresponsiveness may have negative consequences for children's social-emotional development. In the present study, 50 infants aged 7.20 to 23.60 months (M = 15.40, SD = 4.74) and their mothers completed a modified SFP. The SFP consisted of three phases: free play (FP; parent and infant play and interact), still face (SF; parent withdraws attention and becomes unresponsive), and reunion (RU; parent resumes normal interaction). The modified SFP incorporated mobile device use in the SF phase. Parents reported on their typical mobile device use and infant temperament. Consistent with the standard SFP, infants showed more negative affect and less positive affect during SF versus FP. Infants also showed more toy engagement and more engagement with mother during FP versus SF and RU. Infants showed the most social bids during SF and more room exploration in SF than RU. More frequent reported mobile device use was associated with less room exploration and positive affect during SF, and less recovery (i.e., engagement with mother, room exploration positive affect) during RU, even when controlling for individual differences in temperament. Findings suggest that the SFP represents a promising theoretical framework for understanding the impact of parent's mobile device use on infant social-emotional functioning and parent-infant interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Severe G6PD Deficiency Due to a New Missense Mutation in an Infant of Northern European Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warny, Marie; Lausen, Birgitte; Birgens, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We report a term male infant born to parents of Danish descent, who on the second day of life developed jaundice peaking at 67 hours and decreasing on applied double-sided phototherapy. In the weeks following, the infant showed signs of ongoing hemolysis. Laboratory tests showed very low glucose-6...

  20. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  1. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  2. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  3. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...

  4. Infant Massage: Communicating through Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Vivian

    1998-01-01

    Describes the benefits of infant massage, particularly for babies with deafness who have hearing parents. Steps for giving baby massages are provided, including placing a hand on the baby's stomach and making eye contact, starting with the legs, looking for cues, and communicating with the baby. (CR)

  5. Constipation in infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stools because their abdominal muscles are weak. So babies tend to strain, cry, and get red in the face when they have a bowel movement. This does not mean they are constipated. If ... in infants and children may include: Being very fussy and ...

  6. Mutual regulation between infant facial affect and maternal touch in depressed and nondepressed dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants’ affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants. We examined the affect......-regulating function of affectionate, caregiving and playful maternal touch in 24 PPD and 47 nonclinical mother-infant dyads when infants were four months old. In order to investigate the direction of effects and to account for repeated observations, the data were analysed using time-window sequential analysis...... and Generalized Estimating Equations. The results showed that mothers adapt their touching behaviors according to negative infant facial affect; thus, when the infant displays negative facial affect, the mothers were less likely to initiate playful touch and more likely to initiate caregiving touch. Unexpectedly...

  7. Infants' preferences for native speakers are associated with an expectation of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begus, Katarina; Gliga, Teodora; Southgate, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Humans' preference for others who share our group membership is well documented, and this heightened valuation of in-group members seems to be rooted in early development. Before 12 mo of age, infants already show behavioral preferences for others who evidence cues to same-group membership...... such as race or native language, yet the function of this selectivity remains unclear. We examine one of these social biases, the preference for native speakers, and propose that this preference may result from infants' motivation to obtain information and the expectation that interactions with native speakers...... was observed when infants could expect to receive information from the native speaker, indicating that infants were preparing to learn information from the native speaker to a greater extent than from the foreign speaker. While previous research has demonstrated that infants prefer to interact...

  8. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-01-01

    ) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...... indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374...... towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking...

  9. Human infants' learning of social structures: the case of dominance hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Olivier; Csibra, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    We tested 15-month-olds' capacity to represent social-dominance hierarchies with more than two agents. Our results showed that infants found it harder to memorize dominance relations that were presented in an order that hindered the incremental formation of a single structure (Study 1). These results suggest that infants attempt to build structures incrementally, relation by relation, thereby simplifying the complex problem of recognizing a social structure. Infants also found circular dominance structures harder to process than linear dominance structures (Study 2). These expectations about the shape of structures may facilitate learning. Our results suggest that infants attempt to represent social structures composed of social relations. They indicate that human infants go beyond learning about individual social partners and their respective relations and form hypotheses about how social groups are organized.

  10. The history of infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Barros Filho, Antônio Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    To retrace the history of infant nutrition with the objective of better understanding breastfeeding. Bibliographic searches were run on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and the Internet. Encyclopedias, scientific textbooks and books for the general public, in addition to literature, art and history, were also used. Texts on child care from several different periods were consulted, in addition to the history of medicine and recent scientific articles on infant nutrition. During the preindustrial period, customs varied little and the likelihood of survival was linked to breastfeeding or its substitution by a wetnurse's milk. Where this was not possible, infants were given animal milk, pre-chewed foods or paps that were poor in nutrients and contaminated, which caused high mortality rates. There was nothing that could successfully substitute breastfeeding and the survival of the species was dependent on breastfeeding. Once the industrial revolution had started, women who had been accustomed to breastfeeding went to work in factories, stimulating the search for alternative infant nutrition. Consumption of animal milk and formulae (diluted, flour-based, powdered milk) and premature introduction of complementary foods compromised children's health. The feminist movement and the contraceptive pill caused a fall in birth rates. Manufacturers in search of profits developed modified formulae and invested in advertising. Society reacted with breastfeeding support movements. Nowadays, the advantages of breastmilk are recognized and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months, to be supplemented with other foods from this age on and continued until at least 2 years of age. Infant nutrition, whether natural or artificial, has always been determined and conditioned by the social value attributed to breastfeeding.

  11. Breast feeding and growth in a group of selected 0 to 24 months infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvear, J.; Salazar, G.; Berlanga, R.; Santos, M. de los

    2000-01-01

    WHO is undertaking a combined growth study in several countries, in order to establish adequate growth curves for breast-feeding infants. Present growth charts in use, were obtained in a sample of breast and artificial feeding infants, which have overestimated the growth needs. In our country during the last two decades the number of mothers who decide to breast-feed their infants has permanently grown, due to the implementation of health care programs that promote, mother-infant interaction tight after birth, in all Public Hospitals, and education programs for the mothers, during both antenatal and post natal control of mother and child. The last figures obtained in a country sample of 10000 mother-infant pair, shows that 45% of the mothers are exclusively breast-feeding their infants at 6 months of age. This figure could increase if our infants were evaluated by the adequate charts, because it is of common use that many health professionals suggest to stop breast-feeding because the infant is not growing according the charts in use. The anthropometric study proposed by WHO will benefit considerably by adding determination of breast-milk intake using isotopic dilution of deuterium, a standard procedure proposed by Coward et al and extensively used in our country. The proposed study will also include milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) and energy density of milk to correlate energy supply, milk volume and growth. (author)

  12. Implicit association to infant faces: Genetics, early care experiences, and cultural factors influence caregiving propensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Esposito, Gianluca; Doi, Hirokazu; Venuti, Paola; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-05-15

    Genetics, early experience, and culture shape caregiving, but it is still not clear how genetics, early experiences, and cultural factors might interact to influence specific caregiving propensities, such as adult responsiveness to infant cues. To address this gap, 80 Italian adults (50% M; 18-25 years) were (1) genotyped for two oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs2254298) and the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which are implicated in parenting behaviour, (2) completed the Adult Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire to evaluate their recollections of parental behaviours toward them in childhood, and (3) were administered a Single Category Implicit Association Test to evaluate their implicit responses to faces of Italian infants, Japanese infants, and Italian adults. Analysis of implicit associations revealed that Italian infant faces were evaluated as most positive; participants in the rs53576 GG group had the most positive implicit associations to Italian infant faces; the serotonin polymorphism moderated the effect of early care experiences on adults' implicit association to both Italian infant and adult female faces. Finally, 5-HTTLPR S carriers showed less positive implicit responses to Japanese infant faces. We conclude that adult in-group preference extends to in-group infant faces and that implicit responses to social cues are influenced by interactions of genetics, early care experiences, and cultural factors. These findings have implications for understanding processes that regulate adult caregiving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Infant and fetal mortality among a high fertility and mortality population in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Indigenous populations experience higher rates of poverty, disease and mortality than non-indigenous populations. To gauge current and future risks among Tsimane Amerindians of Bolivia, I assess mortality rates and growth early in life, and changes in risks due to modernization, based on demographic interviews conducted Sept. 2002-July 2005. Tsimane have high fertility (total fertility rate = 9) and infant mortality (13%). Infections are the leading cause of infant death (55%). Infant mortality is greatest among women who are young, monolingual, space births close together, and live far from town. Infant mortality declined during the period 1990-2002, and a higher rate of reported miscarriages occurred during the 1950-1989 period. Infant deaths are more frequent among those born in the wet season. Infant stunting, underweight and wasting are common (34%, 15% and 12%, respectively) and greatest for low-weight mothers and high parity infants. Regression analysis of infant growth shows minimal regional differences in anthropometrics but greater stunting and underweight during the first two years of life. Males are more likely to be underweight, wasted, and spontaneously aborted. Whereas morbidity and stunting are prevalent in infancy, greater food availability later in life has not yet resulted in chronic diseases (e.g. hypertension, atherosclerosis and diabetes) in adulthood due to the relatively traditional Tsimane lifestyle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiological Features of Clostridium difficile Colonizing the Intestine of Jordanian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman N. Abu-Khader

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is commonly found in the intestine of infants without causing any disease. This study investigated the most important epidemiological features of C. difficile strains colonizing intestine of Jordanian infants. A total of 287 fecal samples were collected from infants admitted to the Jordan University Hospital (JUH over the period of 2015. Samples were cultured for C. difficile and their growth was identified using microbiological culture and PCR. The overall C. difficile colonization rate among hospitalized and nonhospitalized infants was 37/287 (12.9%. Neonates were less colonized than other infants (8.7% verses 19.5%. Colonization of the infants with C. difficile toxigenic strains (TcdA and TcdB was observed in 54% of the isolates, whereas those colonized with nontoxigenic strains were 46% and only one isolate was positive for binary toxin. Breast feeding of infants is a significant factor associated with decreased colonization with C. difficile. All C. difficile strains were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, while high resistance rate to ciprofloxacin (78.4% and less resistance rate to erythromycin (29.7% were detected among the isolates. The results showed that 40.5% of the isolates carried mutated gyrA and gyrB genes which have cross-resistance to ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin. This study represents useful epidemiological features about C. difficile colonizing intestine of infants living in a developing country.

  15. Natal status of infants of cocaine users and control subjects: a prospective comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, H; Brodsky, N L; Braitman, L E; Giannetta, J

    1995-01-01

    Cocaine use by pregnant women has increased dramatically in recent years. To assess the effect of maternal cocaine use on infant outcome, we enrolled 224 women (105 cocaine users, 119 control subjects) and their infants (all of 34 weeks or more gestational age and nonasphyxiated) in a prospective, blinded study. Results showed that infants exposed to cocaine were more likely to be admitted to the newborn intensive care unit, be treated for congenital syphilis, have a greater length of stay, and be discharged to a person other than the mother (all p 0.80). Infants of cocaine-using mothers and control subjects had a similar incidence of abnormal cranial and renal ultrasonographic findings and abnormal pneumocardiograms (all p > or = 0.32). We conclude that in this cohort of nonasphyxiated infants of 34 weeks or more gestational age, infants exposed to cocaine had more medical and social problems than control infants but did not differ statistically in the incidence of severe growth retardation, abnormal cranial or renal ultrasonographic findings, or abnormal pneumocardiograms. We suggest that natal interventions for the nonasphyxiated term and near-term infant exposed to cocaine should include a careful history and physical examination, follow-up plans, and social service involvement.

  16. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Shim, So-Yeon; Sung, In Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and mortality of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea and assess the associated factors of PHH. This cohort study used prospectively collected data from the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN). Among 2,386 VLBW infants in the KNN database born between January 2013 and June 2014, 63 infants who died without brain ultrasonography results were excluded. Maternal demographics and neonatal clinical characteristics were assessed. The overall incidence of IVH in all the VLBW infants was 42.2% (987 of 2,323), while those of IVH grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 25.1%, 7.0%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The incidence and severity of IVH showed a negatively correlating trend with gestational age and birth weight. PHH developed in 0%, 3.5%, 36.1%, and 63.8% of the surviving infants with IVH grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Overall, in the VLBW infants, the IVH-associated mortality rate was 1.0% (24/2,323). Only IVH grade severity was proven to be an associated with PHH development in infants with IVH grades 3-4. This is the first Korean national report of IVH and PHH incidences in VLBW infants. Further risk factor analyses or quality improvement studies to reduce IVH are warranted.

  17. Finding patterns and learning words: Infant phonotactic knowledge is associated with vocabulary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Grimm, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    Native language statistical regularities about allowable phoneme combinations (i.e., phonotactic patterns) may provide learners with cues to support word learning. The current research investigated the association between infants' native language phonotactic knowledge and their word learning progress, as measured by vocabulary size. In the experiment, 19-month-old infants listened to a corpus of nonce words that contained novel phonotactic patterns. All words began with "illegal" consonant clusters that cannot occur in native (English) words. The rationale for the task was that infants with fragile phonotactic knowledge should exhibit stronger learning of the novel illegal phonotactic patterns than infants with robust phonotactic knowledge. We found that infants with smaller vocabularies showed stronger phonotactic learning than infants with larger vocabularies even after accounting for general cognition. We propose that learning about native language structure may promote vocabulary development by providing a foundation for word learning; infants with smaller vocabularies may have weaker support from phonotactics than infants with larger vocabularies. Furthermore, stored vocabulary knowledge may promote the detection of phonotactic patterns even during infancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Umbilical Cord Blood of Infants with Meconium Stained of Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Arjmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Using a novel assay termed prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB assay to determine prooxidant-antioxidant balance in umbilical cord blood of infants with meconium stained of amniotic fluid (MSAF. Passage of meconium in amniotic fluid is associated with increase of neonatal mortality and morbidity. This complication occurs in about 15% of infants and is more widespread in postterm neonates. About 1.5 percent of neonates with MSAF develop meconium aspiration syndrome. Method. Sera of 29 umbilical cord blood of infants with MSAF and 32 healthy infants (HI were collected. Both groups had nonsmoker and non-alcoholic mothers with no diseases. The PAB was measured. Result. There was a significant increase of PAB value (32.8±15.9 HK in umbilical cord blood of infants with MSAF in comparison to HI (24.5±12.6 HK (P<0.05. There was no significant correlation between PAB value and age of mothers. Conclusion. The increased PAB value in infants with MSAF showed that these infants are exposed to oxidative stress. Further research with larger population is needed to demonstrate the oxidative stress in infants with MSAF.

  19. The functional neuroanatomy of maternal love: mother's response to infant's attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriuchi, Madoka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Senoo, Atsushi

    2008-02-15

    Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant's mother and crying for her). We found that a limited number of the mother's brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother's own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother's brain response for the mother's own infant's distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, thalamus, substantia nigra, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and PFC. Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness.

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Sangwan, Naseer; Stefka, Andrew T; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Aitoro, Rosita; Calignano, Antonio; Khan, Aly A; Gilbert, Jack A; Nagler, Cathryn R

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.

  1. Recognition of function words in 8-month-old French-learning infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rushen; Gauthier, Bruno

    2005-04-01

    Previous work has shown that German-learning 7-9-month-old infants recognize function words (Hoehle and Weissenborn, 2003). English-learning infants recognize function words around 10.5-11 months (Schafer et al. 1998; Shady, 1996; Shi et al., 2003, 2004), and the highly frequent determiner ``the'' at 8 months (Shi et al., 2004). The present study investigates French-learning infants' recognition of function words. As French is a syllable-timing language, the fuller syllabic status may allow infants to recognize function words earlier than English-learning infants. Syntactically and morphologically, functional elements occur more systematically in French than in English, providing reliable statistical cues to functor segmentation. Using a preferential looking procedure, we familiarized 8-month-olds with a target function word (``des,'' ``la,'' ``mes'' or ``ta''), and tested them with phrases containing the target versus a non-target. Results showed that infants' looking time to the phrases containing the targets versus those containing the non-targets differed significantly. Thus, infants recognized the target functors in continuous speech. As the targets included both high-frequency (``des,'' ``la'') and low-frequency (``mes,'' ``ta'') function words, we suggest that infants may begin segmenting high-frequency functors at an even younger age. The implications of early processing of function words to language acquisition will be discussed.

  2. Sonographic evaluation of acute osteomyelitis in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Yoo Kyung

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the related sonographic findings and to determine the value of sonography in establishing the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in infants. The sonographic findings of eleven infants aged 10 days-4 months (mean, 45 days) with acute osteomyelitis were retrospectively evaluated. The involved bones were the femur (n=5), humerus (n=2), tibia (n=2), rib(n=1), sternum (n=1), and calcaneus (n=1). Discontinuity or destruction of cortical margins, echotexture of the metaphysis and epiphysis, the presence of subperiosteal hypoechoic lesion, adjacent soft tissue swelling, distension of the joint capsule, the echotexture of joint effusion, and dislocation or subluxation of the involved joint were evaluated. The sonographic findings were compared with the plain radiographic (n=12) and MR (n=5) findings, with special attention to the identification of the metaphyseal or epiphyseal bony lesions and the involvement of adjacent joints. The sonographic findings of osteomyelitis were cortical discontinuity or destruction (n=12), hypoechoic lesions with an echogenic rim in the metaphysis (n=12), subperiosteal hypoechoic lesions (n=8), soft tissue swelling (n=9), a distended hip joint, with echogenic fluid (n=5), ill-demarcated echogenic lesions in the capital femoral epiphysis (n=5), and a subluxated hip joint (n=3). Plain radiographs revealed well or ill-defined osteolytic lesions in the metaphysis, accompanied by cortical destruction (n=8), new periosteal bone formation (n=3) and reactive sclerosis (n=2). Abnormality of the femoral epiphyses and joint involvement were not detected on plain radiographs, and in four cases no abnormality was noted. MR imaging showed that at T1WI, affected bony lesions were of low signal intensity and enhaned, with high signal intensity at T2WI. In all cases, both metaphyseal and epiphyseal lesions were demonstrated at MRI, but in one of the three cases in which an epiphyseal lesion was seen at MRI, this was not detected at US. Sonography is

  3. Sonographic evaluation of acute osteomyelitis in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Yoo Kyung [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    To analyze the related sonographic findings and to determine the value of sonography in establishing the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in infants. The sonographic findings of eleven infants aged 10 days-4 months (mean, 45 days) with acute osteomyelitis were retrospectively evaluated. The involved bones were the femur (n=5), humerus (n=2), tibia (n=2), rib(n=1), sternum (n=1), and calcaneus (n=1). Discontinuity or destruction of cortical margins, echotexture of the metaphysis and epiphysis, the presence of subperiosteal hypoechoic lesion, adjacent soft tissue swelling, distension of the joint capsule, the echotexture of joint effusion, and dislocation or subluxation of the involved joint were evaluated. The sonographic findings were compared with the plain radiographic (n=12) and MR (n=5) findings, with special attention to the identification of the metaphyseal or epiphyseal bony lesions and the involvement of adjacent joints. The sonographic findings of osteomyelitis were cortical discontinuity or destruction (n=12), hypoechoic lesions with an echogenic rim in the metaphysis (n=12), subperiosteal hypoechoic lesions (n=8), soft tissue swelling (n=9), a distended hip joint, with echogenic fluid (n=5), ill-demarcated echogenic lesions in the capital femoral epiphysis (n=5), and a subluxated hip joint (n=3). Plain radiographs revealed well or ill-defined osteolytic lesions in the metaphysis, accompanied by cortical destruction (n=8), new periosteal bone formation (n=3) and reactive sclerosis (n=2). Abnormality of the femoral epiphyses and joint involvement were not detected on plain radiographs, and in four cases no abnormality was noted. MR imaging showed that at T1WI, affected bony lesions were of low signal intensity and enhaned, with high signal intensity at T2WI. In all cases, both metaphyseal and epiphyseal lesions were demonstrated at MRI, but in one of the three cases in which an epiphyseal lesion was seen at MRI, this was not detected at US. Sonography is

  4. Natural SIV hosts: showing AIDS the door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahroudi, Ann; Bosinger, Steven E; Vanderford, Thomas H; Paiardini, Mirko; Silvestri, Guido

    2012-03-09

    Many species of African nonhuman primates are naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) in the wild and in captivity. In contrast to HIV-infected humans, these natural SIV hosts typically do not develop AIDS, despite chronic infection with a highly replicating virus. In this Review, we discuss the most recent advances on the mechanisms of protection from disease progression in natural SIV hosts, with emphasis on how they differ from pathogenic HIV/SIV infections of humans and rhesus macaques. These mechanisms include: (i) resolution of immune activation after acute infection, (ii) restricted pattern of target cell infection, and (iii) protection from mother-to-infant transmission. We highlight the areas that should be pursued in future studies, focusing on potential applications for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

  5. Vitamin B-6 metabolism in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, D J; Reynolds, R D; Andon, M B; Robbins, S T; Fletcher, A B

    1991-01-01

    The response of premature infants to intravenous pyridoxine or pyridoxal was studied by measuring serum and erythrocyte pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). In the first study serum PLP was measured in 28 infants periodically through day 28. Infants less than 30 wk gestational age (GA) had no serum PLP response to the administration of pyridoxine. Infants greater than or equal to 30 wk GA had significantly greater concentrations of PLP by day 3. In the second study there was a negligible response of serum PLP in nine infants less than or equal to 28 wk GA to supplementation of pyridoxine or pyridoxal. However, erythrocyte PLP and whole-blood total vitamin B-6 concentrations increased in both groups, indicating the presence of a substantial amount of the vitamin in the circulation of the infants. Whereas the functional significance of these observations is not known, it appears that in premature infants, serum PLP may not be an appropriate indicator of vitamin B-6 status.

  6. The motor repertoire in 3- to 5-month old infants with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Dafne; Einspieler, Christa; Panvequio Aizawa, Carolina Y; Mutlu, Akmer; Yang, Hong; Nogolová, Alice; Pansy, Jasmin; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Marschik, Peter B

    2017-08-01

    Even though Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability, studies on early development are scarce. To describe movements and postures in 3- to 5-month-old infants with Down syndrome and assess the relation between pre- and perinatal risk factors and the eventual motor performance. Exploratory study; 47 infants with Down syndrome (26 males, 27 infants born preterm, 22 infants with congenital heart disease) were videoed at 10-19 weeks post-term (median=14 weeks). We assessed their Motor Optimality Score (MOS) based on postures and movements (including fidgety movements) and compared it to that of 47 infants later diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 47 infants with a normal neurological outcome, matched for gestational and recording ages. The MOS (median=13, range 10-28) was significantly lower than in infants with a normal neurological outcome (median=26), but higher than in infants later diagnosed with cerebral palsy (median=6). Fourteen infants with Down syndrome showed normal fidgety movements, 13 no fidgety movements, and 20 exaggerated, too fast or too slow fidgety movements. A lack of movements to the midline and several atypical postures were observed. Neither preterm birth nor congenital heart disease was related to aberrant fidgety movements or reduced MOS. The heterogeneity in fidgety movements and MOS add to an understanding of the large variability of the early phenotype of Down syndrome. Studies on the predictive values of the early spontaneous motor repertoire, especially for the cognitive outcome, are warranted. The significance of this exploratory study lies in its minute description of the motor repertoire of infants with Down syndrome aged 3-5 months. Thirty percent of infants with Down syndrome showed age-specific normal fidgety movements. The rate of abnormal fidgety movements (large amplitude, high/slow speed) or a lack of fidgety movements was exceedingly high. The motor optimality score of infants with Down

  7. Enunciative categories in the description of language functioning of mothers and infants aged 1-4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruel, Cristina Saling; Rechia, Inaê Costa; Oliveira, Luciéle Dias; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2016-01-01

    To present categories which explain the language functioning between infants and their mothers from Benveniste's concept of semiotic system, and verify whether such categories can be described numerically. Four mother-infant dyads were monitored in three stages. The first study consisted of a qualitative analysis of the transcribed video recordings conducted in each stage. We intended to identify the enunciative principles associated with the relationship between the semiotic system of the infant's body and their mother's language, namely, the principles of interpretancy and homology. The other study was conducted by means of a descriptive numerical analysis of the enunciative categories and the infant caregiver scale of behavior, using the ELAN software (EUDICO Linguistic Anotador). Mutuality in mother-infant interactions was observed in most of the scenes analyzed. Productive enunciative categories demonstrated in the infant's demand/mother's interpretation relation was identified in homology and interpretancy. It was also possible to use these categories to describe the mother-infant interactions numerically. In addition, other categories emerged because there are other subtypes of maternal productions not directly related to infant demand. This shows that infants are exposed to language of heterogeneous characteristics. The concept of semiotic system allowed the proposition of language functioning categories identifiable in the mother-infant relationship. Such categories were described numerically.

  8. Risks and realities: dyadic interaction between 6-month-old infants and their mothers in opioid maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfi, Monica; Smith, Lars; Waal, Helge; Sundet, Jon Martin

    2011-12-01

    A number of studies point to methadone exposure in utero as a possible risk factor in the developing mother-infant relationship in the first year of life. This study is part of a larger, national follow-up of 38 infants prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and 36 comparison, low-risk infants. The aim of the present paper is to assess the quality of mother-infant relationship when the infants are 6 months old. Videotaped mother-infant interactions were rated in a global scale (NICHD). Maternal and infant contributions collapsed into the variables "infant style" and "maternal style" showed that the only factor making significant contribution to the outcome measure "dyadic mutuality" was maternal style. The importance of group membership (exposed versus non-exposed), was reduced when controlling for maternal drug use prior to opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), maternal depression and parenting stress as well as infants' developmental status and sensory-integrative functions. This suggests that prediction of dyadic mutuality should be based on individual characteristics rather than group characteristics. These results support previous research findings that methadone and buprenorphine use per se does not have direct influence on the quality of early mother-infant relationship, but tailored follow-up procedures targeting drug-free pregnancies and parenting support are beneficial for women in OMT and their children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Infant pain-related negative affect at 12 months of age: early infant and caregiver predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din Osmun, Laila; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Flora, David B

    2014-01-01

    To examine the predictive relationships of early infant and caregiver variables on expressed pain-related negative affect duration at the 12-month immunization. Infants and their caregivers (N = 255) were followed during immunization appointments over the first year of life. Latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling context was used. Higher levels of initial infant pain reactivity at 2 months and caregiver emotional availability averaged across 2, 4, and 6 months of age were related to larger decreases in the duration of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life. Longer duration of infant negative affect at 2 months and poorer regulation of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life predicted longer durations of infant negative affect by 12 months. Infant negative affect at 12 months was a function of both infant factors and the quality of caregiver interactive behaviors (emotional availability) in early infancy.

  10. The Effect of Upper Limb Massage on Infants' Venipuncture Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Yuen-Man; Ip, Wan-Yim; Choi, Kai-Chow

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of upper limb massage on relieving pain among infants undergoing venipuncture in Hong Kong. This study was a crossover, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Eighty infants at the neonatal intensive care unit were randomly assigned to 2 groups in different order to receive interventions. The massage first group (N = 40) received 2-minute massage before venipuncture on the first occasion then received usual care (control) on the second occasion, and vice versa in the massage second group (N = 40). The infants' behavior and physiological responses were recorded on two occasions: (1) right after the intervention and (2) during the first 30 seconds of venipuncture procedure. The mean pain scores (Premature Infant Pain Profile) were significantly lower in infants who received massage (massage first: 6.0 [standard deviation = 3.3]; massage second: 7.30 [standard deviation = 4.4]) versus control (massage first: 12.0 [standard deviation = 4.3]; massage second: 12.7 [standard deviation = 3.1]). The crude and adjusted generalized estimating equations model showed that the infants had significantly lower pain score when receiving massage as compared to receiving the control treatment, and there were no significant time and carryover effects: -6.03 (95% confidence interval: -7.67 to -4.38), p pain perception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure of infants to ochratoxin A with breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, K; Blaszkewicz, M; Campos, V; Vega, M; Degen, G H

    2014-03-01

    The nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a worldwide contaminant in food commodities and also found frequently in human biological fluids. Dietary contaminants ingested by nursing mothers can appear in breast milk. But the rate of lactational transfer of OTA has not been investigated so far at various stages of breastfeeding. Therefore, and to investigate OTA exposure of Chilean infants, we conducted a longitudinally designed study in mother-child pairs (n = 21) with parallel collection of maternal blood, milk and of infant urine samples over a period of up to 6 months. Validated analytical methods were applied to determine OTA concentrations in all biological samples (n = 134). OTA was detected in almost all maternal blood plasma, at concentrations ranging between 72 and 639 ng/L. The OTA concentrations in breast milk were on average one quarter of those measured in plasma (M/P ratio 0.25). Interestingly, a higher fraction of circulating OTA was excreted in colostrum (M/P 0.4) than with mature milk (M/P ≤ 0.2). Infants exposure was calculated as daily intake from our new data for OTA levels in breast milk, and taking into account milk consumption and body weight as additional variables: Chilean infants have an average intake of 12.7 ± 9.1 ng/kg bw during the first 6 days after delivery while intake with mature milk results in average values close to 5.0 ng/kg bw/day. Their OTA exposure is discussed in the context of tolerable intake values suggested by different scientific bodies. Moreover, the study design enabled a comparison of OTA intake and infant urine concentrations over the breastfeeding period. The statistical analysis of n = 27 paired values showed a good correlation (r = 0.57) for this type of studies and thereby confirms that urinary OTA analysis in infants is a valid biomarker of exposure.

  12. Cord Serum Lipid Profile of Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Almusawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM is a critical issue in pediatrics, which is regarded as a major risk factor for birth trauma, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, birth asphyxia, transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN and jaundice. IDM is also a risk factor for microvascular (e.g., ocular and renal complications and macrovascular complications (e.g., cerebrovascular accident, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of hydrophobic organic molecules which can be extracted from tissues using non-polar solvents. Lipids, due to their hydrophobic property, are mainly found in membranes enclosing various cell organelles. Diabetes mellitus management with insulin (nowadays also with oral hypoglycemic medications has improved the outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM (most infants born to diabetic mother are large for gestational age. The neonatal mortality rate in IDM is over five times higher than that of infants of non-diabetic mothers. In this study, therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of maternal diabetes on cord serum lipid profile. Methods: This prospective (case-control study was carried out on 60 infants born in Al-Zahra teaching hospital during February 2014–October 2014. The study group consisted of 30 randomly chosen IDM, and the control group comprised 30 infants who were born to healthy mothers. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there are significant differences between IDM and infants of healthy mothers regarding lipid profile and birth weight. Conclusion: This study confirms that cord serum lipid profile (serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein is higher at birth in IDM. Moreover, this study shows a significant association between lipid profile and body weight.

  13. Journal Article: Infant Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model is used to predict the infant body burden of dioxin-like compounds that results from breast-feeding. Validation testing of the model showed a good match between predictions and measurements of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) in breast-fed infants, and the exercise highlighted the importance of the assumption of the rate of dissipation of TEQs in the infant. Five nursing scenarios were developed and evaluated within this modeling framework based on nursing duration: (1) non-nursing (i.e., formula only), (2) 6 weeks, (3), 6 months, (4) one year, and (5) two years. After nursing, the child is assumed to be exposed to background TEQ levels. It is further assumed that an infant weighs about 3.3 kg at birth and can be exposed to a total of 800 pg TEQ/day by consumption of breast milk, leading to an estimated body weight-based exposure of 242 pg TEQ/kg-day. After one year of breast-feeding, the exposure drops to about 18 pg TEQ/kg-day. This estimate considers declines in the concentrations of dioxins in mothers milk and infant body weight increases. This is significantly higher, on a body weight basis, than adult TEQ exposure, which are estimated to average about 1 pg TEQ/kg-day. For the 6 month and higher nursing scenarios, body burdens (expressed as a body lipid concentration) are predicted to peak at around 9 weeks at 44 ppt TEQ lipid. The formula-fed infants are predicted to have a body burden t

  14. Extraordinary intelligence and the care of infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T.; Kidd, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    We present evidence that pressures for early childcare may have been one of the driving factors of human evolution. We show through an evolutionary model that runaway selection for high intelligence may occur when (i) altricial neonates require intelligent parents, (ii) intelligent parents must have large brains, and (iii) large brains necessitate having even more altricial offspring. We test a prediction of this account by showing across primate genera that the helplessness of infants is a particularly strong predictor of the adults’ intelligence. We discuss related implications, including this account’s ability to explain why human-level intelligence evolved specifically in mammals. This theory complements prior hypotheses that link human intelligence to social reasoning and reproductive pressures and explains how human intelligence may have become so distinctive compared with our closest evolutionary relatives. PMID:27217560

  15. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Kirmse, Ursula; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Pluess, Michael; Klarhöfer, Markus; Meyer, Andrea H.; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a video clip that showed crying infants and emotional responses (valence, arousal, and irritation) were assessed after every video clip presentation. Increased BOLD signal during the perception of crying infants was found in brain regions that are associated with emotional responding, the amygdala and anterior insula. Significant BOLD signal decrements (i.e., habituation) were found in the fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, Broca’s homologue on the right hemisphere, (laterobasal) amygdala, and hippocampus. Individuals with high neuroticism showed stronger activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with low neuroticism. In contrast to our prediction we found no evidence that neuroticism impacts fMRI-based measures of habituation. Individuals with high neuroticism showed elevated skin conductance responses, experienced more irritation, and perceived infant crying as more unpleasant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals high in neuroticism are more emotionally responsive, experience more negative emotions, and

  16. Responses of free-ranging rhesus monkeys to a natural form of social separation. I. Parallels with mother-infant separation in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, C M; Rasmussen, K L; Suomi, S J

    1994-08-01

    Observations of 23 free-ranging rhesus monkey infants on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, indicated that mothers' first postpartum estrous periods were marked by large increases in the amount of time infants were separated from their mothers, by disturbances in mother-infant relationships, and by increases in infant distress behavior. When their mothers resumed mating, most infants showed signs of agitation; a few briefly showed indications of depression. Male infants responded to their mothers' resumption of mating by playing more, whereas females engaged in less play and more allogrooming. The results suggest (a) that basic parallels exist between the behavioral responses of rhesus infants to their mothers' resumption of mating in the field and to forcible separation from their mothers in captivity and (b) that early separation experiences may play a role in the normal development or manifestation of sex differences in behavior.

  17. A critical period of corticomuscular and EMG-EMG coherence detection in healthy infants aged 9-25weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Herskind, Anna; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    The early postnatal development of functional corticospinal connections in human infants is not fully clarified. We used EEG and EMG to investigate the development of corticomuscular and intramuscular coherence as indicators of functional corticospinal connectivity in healthy infants aged 1...... for infants younger than 9 weeks, whereas a short-lasting (10-20 ms) central peak was observed for EMG-EMG synchronization in older infants. This peak was largest for infants aged 9-25 weeks. These data suggest that the corticospinal drive to lower and upper limb muscles shows significant developmental...... changes with an increase in functional coupling in infants aged 9-25 weeks, a period which coincides partly with the developmental period of normal fidgety movements. We propose that these neurophysiological findings may reflect the existence of a sensitive period where the functional connections between...

  18. Gonadotropin levels in urine during early postnatal period in small for gestational age preterm male infants with fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, S; Kawai, M; Myowa-Yamakoshi, M; Morimoto, T; Matsukura, T; Heike, T

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate gonadotropin concentrations in small for gestational age (SGA) male infants with the reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis during the first few months of life that is important for genital development. We prospectively examined 15 SGA and 15 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) preterm male infants between 2013 and 2014 at Kyoto University Hospital. Gonadotropin concentrations (luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) were measured in serial urine samples from the postnatal days 7 to 168 and compared between SGA and AGA infants using the Mann-Whitney test. A longitudinal analysis showed that SGA infants had higher LH and lower FSH concentrations (P=0.004 and P=0.006, respectively) than AGA infants. Male infants who are SGA at birth because of fetal growth restriction have gonadotropin secretion abnormalities in the first few months of life.

  19. Different amounts of protest in 4-month-old infants of depressed vs. non-depressed mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gufler, Sandra Rejnholdt; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard

    Amount of vocal protest was measured in 4-month-old infants of depressed vs. non-depressed mothers during 10 minute face-to-face interaction. The sample consisted of two groups of mothers with their infants: depressed (n=17) and non-depressed (n=49), in total N=66. Vocal protest was measured using...... PRAAT phonetic software and manual, reliable coding. Results showed that infants of depressed mothers expressed a lower amount of vocal protest compared to infants of non-depressed mothers as measured in mean percentage of time (p

  20. Construction of 4D high-definition cortical surface atlases of infants: Methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-10-01

    In neuroimaging, cortical surface atlases play a fundamental role for spatial normalization, analysis, visualization, and comparison of results across individuals and different studies. However, existing cortical surface atlases created for adults are not suitable for infant brains during the first two postnatal years, which is the most dynamic period of postnatal structural and functional development of the highly-folded cerebral cortex. Therefore, spatiotemporal cortical surface atlases for infant brains are highly desired yet still lacking for accurate mapping of early dynamic brain development. To bridge this significant gap, leveraging our infant-dedicated computational pipeline for cortical surface-based analysis and the unique longitudinal infant MRI dataset acquired in our research center, in this paper, we construct the first spatiotemporal (4D) high-definition cortical surface atlases for the dynamic developing infant cortical structures at seven time points, including 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of age, based on 202 serial MRI scans from 35 healthy infants. For this purpose, we develop a novel method to ensure the longitudinal consistency and unbiasedness to any specific subject and age in our 4D infant cortical surface atlases. Specifically, we first compute the within-subject mean cortical folding by unbiased groupwise registration of longitudinal cortical surfaces of each infant. Then we establish longitudinally-consistent and unbiased inter-subject cortical correspondences by groupwise registration of the geometric features of within-subject mean cortical folding across all infants. Our 4D surface atlases capture both longitudinally-consistent dynamic mean shape changes and the individual variability of cortical folding during early brain development. Experimental results on two independent infant MRI datasets show that using our 4D infant cortical surface atlases as templates leads to significantly improved accuracy for spatial normalization

  1. Cigarette Tax Increase and Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Stephen W; Warner, Kenneth E; Pordes, Elisabeth; Davis, Matthew M

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking increases the risk for preterm birth, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome, which are all causes of infant mortality. Our objective was to evaluate if changes in cigarette taxes and prices over time in the United States were associated with a decrease in infant mortality. We compiled data for all states from 1999 to 2010. Time-series models were constructed by infant race for cigarette tax and price with infant mortality as the outcome, controlling for state per-capita income, educational attainment, time trend, and state random effects. From 1999 through 2010, the mean overall state infant mortality rate in the United States decreased from 7.3 to 6.2 per 1000 live births, with decreases of 6.0 to 5.3 for non-Hispanic white and 14.3 to 11.3 for non-Hispanic African American infants (P increased from $0.84 to $2.37 per pack (P increase per pack in cigarette tax was associated with a change in infant deaths of -0.19 (95% confidence interval -0.33 to -0.05) per 1000 live births overall, including changes of -0.21 (-0.33 to -0.08) for non-Hispanic white infants and -0.46 (-0.90 to -0.01) for non-Hispanic African American infants. Models for cigarette price yielded similar findings. Increases in cigarette taxes and prices are associated with decreases in infant mortality rates, with stronger impact for African American infants. Federal and state policymakers may consider increases in cigarette taxes as a primary prevention strategy for infant mortality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Preterm infants have significantly longer telomeres than their term born counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Vasu

    Full Text Available There are well-established morbidities associated with preterm birth including respiratory, neurocognitive and developmental disorders. However several others have recently emerged that characterise an 'aged' phenotype in the preterm infant by term-equivalent age. These include hypertension, insulin resistance and altered body fat distribution. Evidence shows that these morbidities persist into adult life, posing a significant public health concern. In this study, we measured relative telomere length in leukocytes as an indicator of biological ageing in 25 preterm infants at term equivalent age. Comparing our measurements with those from 22 preterm infants sampled at birth and from 31 term-born infants, we tested the hypothesis that by term equivalent age, preterm infants have significantly shorter telomeres (thus suggesting that they are prematurely aged. Our results demonstrate that relative telomere length is highly variable in newborn infants and is significantly negatively correlated with gestational age and birth weight in preterm infants. Further, longitudinal assessment in preterm infants who had telomere length measurements available at both birth and term age (n = 5 suggests that telomere attrition rate is negatively correlated with increasing gestational age. Contrary to our initial hypothesis however, relative telomere length was significantly shortest in the term born control group compared to both preterm groups and longest in the preterm at birth group. In addition, telomere lengths were not significantly different between preterm infants sampled at birth and those sampled at term equivalent age. These results indicate that other, as yet undetermined, factors may influence telomere length in the preterm born infant and raise the intriguing hypothesis that as preterm gestation declines, telomere attrition rate increases.

  3. Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, L; Nankervis, C A; Delooze, D; Giannone, P J

    2007-03-01

    Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment are common strategies for the prevention or management of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA). To compare the clinical responses of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants to indomethacin prophylaxis with that of other infants who were managed expectantly by being treated with indomethacin or surgically only after an sPDA was detected. Retrospective cohort investigation of 167 ELBW infants who received indomethacin prophylaxis (study) and 167 ELBW infants (control) treated expectantly who were matched by year of birth (1999 to 2006), birth weight, gestational age (GA) and gender. Mothers of the two groups of infants were comparable demographically and on the history of preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, antepartum steroids and cesarean delivery. Study and control infants were similar in birth weight, GA, low 5 min Apgar scores, surfactant administration, the need for arterial blood pressure control, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neonatal mortality. Necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforations, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III to IV, periventricular leukomalacia and stage 3 to 5 retinopathy of prematurity occurred also with similar frequency in both groups of infants. In the indomethacin prophylaxis group, 29% of the infants developed sPDA, and of them 38% responded to indomethacin treatment. In the expectantly treated group, 37% developed sPDA, and of them 59% responded to indomethacin treatment. Overall, surgical ligation rate for sPDA was similar between both groups of patients. In our experience, indomethacin prophylaxis does not show any advantages over expectant early treatment on the management of sPDA in ELBW infants. Although no deleterious effects were observed, prophylaxis exposed a significant number of infants who may have never developed sPDA, to potential indomethacin-related complications.

  4. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise B.B. Andersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. Design: The two dietary patterns ‘Family Food’ and ‘Health-Conscious Food’ were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374 of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. Results: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. Conclusions: Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable dietary patterns and potentially enable an early targeted preventive support.

  5. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  6. [Star anise poisoning in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, P; Pommier, P; Moulène, E; Retornaz, K; Prost, N; Deharo, L

    2003-07-01

    Star anise is used as herbal tea, for the treatment of colicky pain in infants. It may cause neurological troubles. We report 2 cases of star anise poisoning in infants before 6 months of age. Star anise herbal tea was given by parents. Tremors or spasms, hypertonia, hyperexcitability with crying, nystagmus, and vomiting were observed. Contamination or adulteration of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook), with Japanese star anise (Illicium religiosum) was proved in one child. Confusion or blending between Chinese and Japanese star anise may cause poisoning. Japanese star anise is a neurotoxic plant indeed, because it contains sesquiterpenic lactones. From November 2001, star anise products are theoretically prohibited in France, but they may be still available in some small groceries, or imported by families themselves.

  7. Radiation exposure and infant cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Tsutomu

    1974-01-01

    Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned. (K. Serizawa)

  8. Early neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants with mild intraventricular hemorrhage or those without intraventricular hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Rak Choi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; This study aimed to assess early development in very low birth weight (VLBW infants with mild intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH or those without IVH and to identify the perinatal morbidities affecting early neurodevelopmental outcome. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II was used for assessing neurological development in 49 infants with a birth weight &lt;1,500 g and with low grade IVH (?#167;rade II or those without IVH at a corrected age of 12 months. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Among the 49 infants, 19 infants (38.8% showed normal development and 14 (28.6% showed abnormal mental and psychomotor development. Infants with abnormal mental development (n=14 were mostly male and had a longer hospitalization, a higher prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, and were under more frequent postnatal systemic steroid treatment compared with infants with normal mental development (n=35, P&lt;0.05. Infants with abnormal psychomotor development (n=29 had a longer hospitalization and more associated PDA compared to infants with normal psychomotor development (n=20, P&lt;0.05. Infants with abnormal mental and psychomotor development were mostly male and had a longer hospitalization and a higher prevalence of PDA and BPD compared to infants with normal mental and psychomotor development (n=19, P&lt;0.05. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, a longer duration of hospitalization and male gender were found to be significant risk factors. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; Approximately 62% of VLBW infants with low grade IVH or those without IVH had impaired early development.

  9. Low parental tolerance for infant crying: an underlying factor in infant sleep problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; Juda-Hanael, Michal; Livne-Karp, Efrat; Kahn, Michal; Tikotzky, Liat; Anders, Thomas F; Calkins, Susan; Sivan, Yakov

    2016-10-01

    Parenting behaviours play a major role in the evolution of infant sleep. Sleep problems in infancy have been associated with excessive parental involvement at night-time, and with shorter delays in response to infant night wakings and signalling. Infant crying and sleep problems are linked, yet little is known about the impact of parental responses to crying on infant sleep patterns. This study examined the hypothesis that lower parental tolerance for crying is associated with infant sleep problems. We studied 144 married couples divided into three groups: parents of infants suffering from night-waking problems (i.e. the clinical group), parents of infants without sleep problems and childless couples. Crying tolerance was assessed using questionnaires, audio recordings of crying infants and using a novel paradigm, in which participants were shown a video of a crying infant and asked when they would intervene. Parents in the clinical group demonstrated shorter intervention delays in the crying infant clip (group effect: P sleep-disturbed infants appear to have lower tolerance for infant crying, which may be a predisposition underlying their excessive involvement in soothing their infants to sleep which may lead to the development of sleep problems. These preliminary findings should be explored further to assess their clinical validity and utility. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Relation between early motor delay and later communication delay in infants at risk for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A N; Galloway, J C; Landa, R J

    2012-12-01

    Motor delays have been reported in retrospective studies of young infants who later develop Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). In this study, we prospectively compared the gross motor development of a cohort at risk for ASDs; infant siblings of children with ASDs (AU sibs) to low risk typically developing (LR) infants. 24 AU sibs and 24 LR infants were observed at 3 and 6 months using a standardized motor measure, the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). In addition, as part of a larger study, the AU sibs also received a follow-up assessment to determine motor and communication performance at 18 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Significantly more AU sibs showed motor delays at 3 and 6 months than LR infants. The majority of the AU sibs showed both early motor delays and later communication delays. Small sample size and limited follow-up. Early motor delays are more common in AU sibs than LR infants. Communication delays later emerged in 67-73% of the AU sibs who had presented with early motor delays. Overall, early motor delays may be predictive of future communication delays in children at risk for autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Infant learning ability for recognizing artificially produced three-dimensional faces and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2011-05-13

    This study investigated infants' ability to learn artificially produced three-dimensional faces and non-face objects by using the three-dimensional graphic software. We created three-dimensional faces and non-face objects that contained no texture or fixed light source and used a familiarization-novelty preference procedure to familiarize infants with multiple views of a face or a shoe (non-face object). We set two familiarization presentations: one of sequentially rotating images of a single object (rotating presentation) and another of 6 different static view images (static presentation). After familiarization, we checked infants' recognition of the learning objects between these conditions. In Experiment 1, we examined the infants' ability to learn face and non-face objects in static and rotating presentations. Results showed that 6- to 8-month-old infants could learn the non-face objects in both presentations, while they could not learn the faces in the rotating presentation. In Experiments 2 and 3, we modified the rotating presentation for face learning. In Experiment 2, we used three-quarter views at test. In Experiment 3, we set a slower speed rotation. However, the infants still could not learn the faces. These results showed that infants' ability to learn faces differs from their ability to learn non-face objects.

  12. Ceramides in tracheal aspirates of preterm infants: Marker for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther van Mastrigt

    Full Text Available In an experimental mouse model we showed that ceramides play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and are a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We investigated whether ceramides are detectable in tracheal aspirates (TAs of preterm infants and differ between infants with or without BPD.Infants born ≤ 32 weeks of gestational age in need of mechanical ventilation in the first week of life were included. TAs were obtained directly after intubation and at day 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14. Ceramide concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. At 36 weeks postmenstrual age BPD was defined as having had ≥ 28 days supplemental oxygen.122 infants were included, of which 14 died and 41 developed BPD. All infants showed an increase in ceramides after the first day of intubation. The ceramide profile differed significantly between preterm infants who did and did not develop BPD. However, the ceramide profile had no additional predictive value for BPD development over GA at birth, birth weight and total days of mechanical ventilation.Ceramides are measurable in TAs of preterm born infants and may be an early marker for BPD development.

  13. Verbal encouragements can influence manual preference in 6 month-old-infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eMorange-Majoux

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of social encouragement on manual motricity, in particular on manual preference. Thirty-six infants were observed at 5.5 months. In a first step, their spontaneous manual preference was recorded with an object placed on the midline position; then, the second step consisted in leading infants to use their non-preferred hand by putting the object near that hand and congratulating them. The third step was similar to the first one (object placed on the midline position except that the infant continued to be congratulated when (she used the non-preferred hand for reaching the object. Results showed that half of the infants exhibited a spontaneous manual preference. A majority of these infants could use their non-preferred hand if they were verbally encouraged. Moreover, spontaneously left-handed infants modified their hand-use more easily than right-handed infants. Although our findings only show a momentary influence of the social context in a short term, results are discussed in a more socio-cognitive perspective, where social encouragements can model manual preference, in particular its strength and its stability.

  14. A History of Infant Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the adverti...

  15. Population growth and infant mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between population growth and economic outcomes is an issue of great policy significance. In the era of the Millennium Development Goals, poverty and its correlates have become the compelling issues. Economic growth may not automatically translate into reductions in poverty and its correlates (may not trickle down) if income distribution is at the same time worsening. We therefore investigate the direct effect of population growth on infant mortality for various income catego...

  16. STRIDOR IN INFANTS : A STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh; Ramesh; Somasekhara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Stridor is a high-pitched noisy breathing produced due to partial obstruction of either larynx or in the trachea. It may also be the first sign of a life threatening disorder. So, stridor in infants should not be overlooked or minimized as an inconsequential finding. Stridor is a distressing symptom to its victims and their parents and presents a diagnostic challenge to the otolaryngologist .The team work of otolaryngologist, pediatrician, anesthesiologist and other specialty peop...

  17. Randomized controlled trial of a book-sharing intervention in a deprived South African community: effects on carer-infant interactions, and their relation to infant cognitive and socio-emotional outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Tomlinson, Mark; Vally, Zahir; Dadomo, Harold; MacLachlan, Brenda; Woodward, Charlotte; Cooper, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Consistent with evidence from high income countries, we previously showed that, in an informal peri-urban settlement in a low-middle income country, training parents in book-sharing with their infants benefitted infant language and attention (Vally et al., 2015). Here, we investigated whether these benefits were explained by improvements in carer-infant interactions in both book-sharing and non-book-sharing contexts. We also explored whether infant socio-emotional development benefitted from book-sharing. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Carers of 14–16 month-old infants were randomized to 8 weeks’ training in book-sharing (n = 49) or a wait list control group (n = 42). In addition to the cognitive measures reported previously, independent assessments were made at base line and follow-up of carer-infant interactions during book-sharing and toy play. Assessments were also made, at follow-up only, of infant pro-social behaviour in a ‘help task’, and of infant imitation of doll characters’ non-social actions and an interpersonal interaction. Eighty-two carer-infant pairs (90%) were assessed at follow-up. (Trial registration ISRCTN39953901). Results Carers who received the training showed significant improvements in book-sharing interactions (sensitivity, elaborations, reciprocity), and, to a smaller extent, in toy-play interactions (sensitivity). Infants in the intervention group showed a significantly higher rate of pro-social behaviour, and tended to show more frequent imitation of the interpersonal interaction. Improvements in carer behaviour during book-sharing, but not during toy play, mediated intervention effects on all infant cognitive outcomes, and tended to mediate intervention effects on infant interpersonal imitation. Conclusions Training in book sharing, a simple, inexpensive intervention that has been shown to benefit infant cognitive development in a low-middle income country, also

  18. Human Breast Milk and Infant Formulas Differentially Modify the Intestinal Microbiota in Human Infants and Host Physiology in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenmin; Roy, Nicole C; Guo, Yanhong; Jia, Hongxin; Ryan, Leigh; Samuelsson, Linda; Thomas, Ancy; Plowman, Jeff; Clerens, Stefan; Day, Li; Young, Wayne

    2016-02-01

    In the absence of human breast milk, infant and follow-on formulas can still promote efficient growth and development. However, infant formulas can differ in their nutritional value. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of human milk (HM) and infant formulas in human infants and a weanling rat model. In a 3 wk clinical randomized controlled trial, babies (7- to 90-d-old, male-to-female ratio 1:1) were exclusively breastfed (BF), exclusively fed Synlait Pure Canterbury Stage 1 infant formula (SPCF), or fed assorted standard formulas (SFs) purchased by their parents. We also compared feeding HM or SPCF in weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats for 28 d. We examined the effects of HM and infant formulas on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacterial composition in human infants, and intestinal SCFAs, the microbiota, and host physiology in weanling rats. Fecal Bifidobacterium concentrations (mean log copy number ± SEM) were higher (P = 0.003) in BF (8.17 ± 0.3) and SPCF-fed infants (8.29 ± 0.3) compared with those fed the SFs (6.94 ± 0.3). Fecal acetic acid (mean ± SEM) was also higher (P = 0.007) in the BF (5.5 ± 0.2 mg/g) and SPCF (5.3 ± 2.4 mg/g) groups compared with SF-fed babies (4.3 ± 0.2 mg/g). Colonic SCFAs did not differ between HM- and SPCF-fed rats. However, cecal acetic acid concentrations were higher (P = 0.001) in rats fed HM (42.6 ± 2.6 mg/g) than in those fed SPCF (30.6 ± 0.8 mg/g). Cecal transcriptome, proteome, and plasma metabolite analyses indicated that the growth and maturation of intestinal tissue was more highly promoted by HM than SPCF. Fecal bacterial composition and SCFA concentrations were similar in babies fed SPCF or HM. However, results from the rat study showed substantial differences in host physiology between rats fed HM and SPCF. This trial was registered at Shanghai Jiào tong University School of Medicine as XHEC-C-2012-024. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Book-Sharing Intervention in a Deprived South African Community: Effects on Carer-Infant Interactions, and Their Relation to Infant Cognitive and Socioemotional Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Tomlinson, Mark; Vally, Zahir; Dadomo, Harold; MacLachlan, Brenda; Woodward, Charlotte; Cooper, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consistent with evidence from high-income countries (HICs), we previously showed that, in an informal peri-urban settlement in a low-middle income country, training parents in book sharing with their infants benefitted infant language and attention (Vally, Murray, Tomlinson, & Cooper, [Vally, Z., 2015]). Here, we investigated…

  20. EVALUATION bF THE INFANT AT RISK FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of tests of infant motor development have been described. These include the Milani-Comparetti Motor. Development Screening Test,15 the Chandler Movement. Assessment of Infants Screening Test,,. the Infant Motor. Screen,17 the Infant Neurological International Battery!S and the. Alberta Infant Motor Scale.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant potential of infant cereals produced from purple wheat and red rice grains and LC-MS analysis of their anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirawan, Rhanissa; Diehl-Jones, William; Beta, Trust

    2011-12-14

    Cellular oxidative damage by endogenous and exogenous sources of free radicals and reactive oxygen species is a particular threat in infants. Antioxidant protection is normally achieved through a balance between pro-oxidants and endogenous and/or dietary antioxidants. Comprehensive research is required on optimization to achieve good antioxidant protection through infant foods, in particular, the commercially available infant cereals. This study therefore investigated the properties of whole purple wheat, unpolished red rice, and partially polished red rice before and after processing to produce infant cereals. Total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), individual anthocyanin components, and cellular antioxidant activity were measured. Home-made and laboratory-made pigmented infant cereals differed in that the latter required longer exposure to higher temperature and enzymatic hydrolysis. Home-made and laboratory-made unpolished red rice infant cereals showed higher total phenolic contents and peroxyl radical scavenging activity than home-made and laboratory-made purple wheat infant cereals; however, the latter had higher TAC. Pigmented infant cereals generally had higher TPC, TAC, and ORAC than the commercial ones (p red rice. C-Glycosyl apigenin was found in both whole purple wheat and unpolished red rice. Processing significantly decreased anthocyanin and C-glycosyl apigenin contents (p red rice ones (p < 0.05). Whole purple wheat infant cereals showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial infant cereal, suggesting a possibility of improving infant antioxidant status by incorporating this grain in their diet.

  2. Asymmetry in infants’ selective attention to facial features during visual processing of infant-directed speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Smith

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments used eye tracking to examine how infant and adult observers distribute their eye gaze on videos of a mother producing infant- and adult-directed speech. Both groups showed greater attention to the eyes than to the nose and mouth, as well as an asymmetrical focus on the talker’s right eye for infant-directed speech stimuli. Observers continued to look more at the talker’s apparent right eye when the video stimuli were mirror flipped, suggesting that the asymmetry reflects a perceptual processing bias rather than a stimulus artifact, which may be related to cerebral lateralization of emotion processing.

  3. USE OF FOODSTUFFS WITH PRO-AND PREBIOTIC ACTIONS IN INFANT FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Ladodo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the data about opportunity to enrich the modern infant foodstuffs with pro and prebiotics. The authors name the contents of the foodstuffs with pro and prebiotic properties, findings of the multicentric research according to the estimate of their clinical efficiency among healthy and ill infants. They show the safety and high efficiency of the use of the given healthful and dietary foodstuffs.Key words: infant food, foodstuffs, probiotics, prebiotics, bifidus bacteria, lactic acid bacilli, oligosaccharides, lactulose, inulin.

  4. Eye contact during live social interaction modulates infants' oscillatory brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Stefanie; Michel, Christine; Reid, Vincent M; Parise, Eugenio; Striano, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    We examined infants' oscillatory brain activity during a live interaction with an adult who showed them novel objects. Activation in the alpha frequency range was assessed. Nine-month-old infants responded with desynchronization of alpha-band activity when looking at an object together with an adult during a social interaction involving eye contact. When infant and experimenter only looked at the object without engaging in eye contact, no such effect was observed. Results are interpreted in terms of activation of a generic semantic knowledge system induced by eye contact during a social interaction.

  5. Clinimetric properties of the alberta infant motor scale in infants born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Tamis W; de Valle, Katy; Eldridge, Bev; Galea, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) is a standardized motor assessment for young infants. This study aimed to examine the reliability of the AIMS in a group of infants born at or before 29 weeks of gestation. Fifty-nine infants born preterm were recruited. Two experienced pediatric physical therapists participated in this reliability study. Infants were assessed at 4, 8, 12, and 18 months corrected age (CA). Intrarater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] > or =0.99). The ICC for interrater reliability varied from 0.85 to 0.97. The ICC was low at 4 and 18 months CA. The AIMS is reliable in evaluating motor development in infants born preterm. Clinicians should be cautious about using the AIMS in infants at very young ages and those approaching independent ambulation. Accurate placement of the window on a movement repertoire is crucial. Attention is required when using the AIMS in infants developing atypically.

  6. Evaluation of a computerized system for mechanical ventilation of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fleur T; Abbasi, Soraya

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate a computerized system for mechanical ventilation of infants. FLEX is a computerized system that includes the features of a patented mode known as adaptive-support ventilation (ASV). In addition, it has many other features including adjustment of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), fraction of inspired oxygen (F(IO2)), minute ventilation, and control of weaning. It is used as an open-loop decision support system or as a closed-loop technique. Blood gas and ventilation data were collected from 12 infants in the neonatal intensive care at baseline and at the next round of evaluation. This data were input to open-loop version of FLEX. The system recommendations were compared to clinical determinations. FLEX recommended values for ventilation were on the average within 25% and 16.5% of the measured values at baseline and at the next round of evaluation, respectively. For F(IO2) and PEEP, FLEX recommended values were in general agreement with the clinical settings. FLEX recommendations for weaning were the same as the clinical determinations 50% of the time at baseline and 55% of the time at the next round of evaluation. FLEX did not recommend weaning for infants with weak spontaneous breathing effort or those who showed signs of dyspnea. A computerized system for mechanical ventilation is evaluated for treatment of infants. The results of the study show that the system has good potential for use in neonatal ventilatory care. Further refinements can be made in the system for very low-birth-weight infants.

  7. Mind Matters: A Meta-Analysis on Parental Mentalization and Sensitivity as Predictors of Infant-Parent Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.A.J.; Colonnesi, C.; Stams, G.-J.J.M.; Meins, E.

    2017-01-01

    Major developments in attachment research over the past 2 decades have introduced parental mentalization as a predictor of infant-parent attachment security. Parental mentalization is the degree to which parents show frequent, coherent, or appropriate appreciation of their infants' internal states.

  8. Population-Attributable Risk of Risk Factors for Recurrent Wheezing in Moderate Preterm Infants During the First Year of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, M.O.; Korsten, K.; Achten, N.B.; Tamminga, S.; Nibbelke, E.E.; Sanders, E.A.; Smit, H.A.; Groenwold, R.H.; Bont, L.; Liem, D.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrent wheezing in young infants has a high prevalence, influences quality of life, and generates substantial health care costs. We previously showed that respiratory syncytial virus infection is an important mechanism of recurrent wheezing in moderate preterm infants. We aimed to

  9. MEK inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients carrying RAS mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, M. (Mark); E.M.C. Driessen; M. Willekes (Merel); Pinhanços, S.S. (Sandra S.); P. Schneider (Pauline); R. Pieters (Rob); R.W. Stam (Ronald)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAcute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants is an aggressive malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and is characterized by translocations of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene. Previously, we identified RAS mutations in 14-24% of infant ALL patients, and showed that the presence

  10. Clinical and Operative Findings of Choledochal Cysts in Neonates and Infants Differ From Those in Older Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Jing Chen

    2003-10-01

    Conclusion: Diseases with different pathogeneses may cause different clinical manifestations and pathology of choledochal cysts in infants and older children. Some patients develop biliary cirrhosis in the early months of life. Our findings show that it is safe and imperative to treat neonates and infants with choledochal cysts as soon as possible, as delayed surgery may cause severe complications.

  11. Poor early growth and high salt intake in Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, Simonetta; Antolini, Laura; Orlando, Antonina; Brahmochary, Sujit; De Servi, Alessandra; Capelli, Silvia; Giussani, Marco; Nava, Elisa; Agostoni, Carlo; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    The influence of feeding patterns on the growth of infants and how salt is included in the diet are unknown in the area of West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional study was carried on 517 infants (median age 6.5 months). Negative Z-scores were observed for all anthropometric parameters. About 72.7% of infants aged 0-6 months received exclusive breastfeeding. In the 6-12-month-old group (n = 235), 91.5% had salt added to foods. In a regression model adjusted for age, a low salt diet resulted a significant factor in increasing weight-for-length and BMI for age z-scores, with increments equal to 0.637 SD (p = 0.037) and 0.650 SD (p = 0.036), respectively. In West Bengal infants showing poor growth, breastfeeding was associated with better anthropometric indexes, but early in life salt is added to their diet. Early life low weight coupled with high salt intake may be a risk factor for arterial hypertension in Indian children.

  12. Infant doses from the transfer of radionuclides in mothers' milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.; Smith, T.J.; Phipps, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Assessments of potential internal exposures of the child following radionuclide intakes by the mother require consideration of transfers during lactation as well as during pregnancy. Current ICRP work on internal dosimetry includes the estimation of radiation doses to newborn infants from radionuclides ingested in mothers' milk. Infant doses will be calculated for maternal intakes by ingestion or inhalation of the radionuclides, radioisotopes of 31 elements, for which fetal dose coefficients have been published. In this paper, modelling approaches are examined, concentrating on models developed for iodine, caesium, polonium, alkaline earth elements and the actinides. Comparisons of model predictions show maximum overall transfer to milk following maternal ingestion during lactation of about 30% of ingested activity for 131 I, 20% for 45 Ca and 137 Cs, 10% for 90 Sr, 1% for 210 Po and low values of less than 0.01% for 239 Pu and 241 Am. The corresponding infant doses from milk consumption are estimated in preliminary calculations to be about two to three times the adult dose for 45 Ca and 131 I, 70-80% of the adult dose for 90 Sr, about 40% for 137 Cs, 20% for 210 Po, and 239 Pu and 241 Am. Infant doses from radionuclides in breast milk are compared with doses to the offspring resulting from in utero exposures during pregnancy. (author)

  13. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook [Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah [Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  14. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Kyeong Ah

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  15. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Carolina Santos; Barros, Karina Vieira; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2016-01-01

    To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

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    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  17. Testing of mechanical ventilators and infant incubators in healthcare institutions.

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    Badnjevic, Almir; Gurbeta, Lejla; Jimenez, Elvira Ruiz; Iadanza, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The medical device industry has grown rapidly and incessantly over the past century. The sophistication and complexity of the designed instrumentation is nowadays rising and, with it, has also increased the need to develop some better, more effective and efficient maintenance processes, as part of the safety and performance requirements. This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on 50 mechanical ventilators and 50 infant incubators used in various public healthcare institutions. Testing was conducted in accordance to safety and performance requirements stated in relevant international standards, directives and legal metrology policies. Testing of output parameters for mechanical ventilators was performed in 4 measuring points while testing of output parameters for infant incubators was performed in 7 measuring points for each infant incubator. As performance criteria, relative error of output parameters for mechanical ventilators and absolute error of output parameters for infant incubators was calculated. The ranges of permissible error, for both groups of devices, are regulated by the Rules on Metrological and Technical Requirements published in the Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina No. 75/14, which are defined based on international recommendations, standards and guidelines. All ventilators and incubators were tested by etalons calibrated in an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory, which provides compliance to international standards for all measured parameters.The results show that 30% of the tested medical devices are not operating properly and should be serviced, recalibrated and/or removed from daily application.

  18. The Severity of Retinopathy in the Extremely Premature Infants

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    Alexandra Trivli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of extremely premature infants and to evaluate the risk factors and outcome of the cases. Materials and Methods. Out of 200 premature births, we retrospectively reviewed 9 cases that developed ROP. We excluded cases where ROP developed in newborns > 30 weeks of gestational age and cases where medical notes were unavailable or incomplete. Topical drops of cyclopentolate 1% and phenylephrine 5% were instilled and fundoscopy was performed using a direct ophthalmoscope. Results. The incidence of ROP was 4.5% in the 9-year period. The infants were divided into two groups. Group 1 included premature infants ≤27 weeks of age and Group 2 included those >27 weeks but ≤ 30 weeks of age. We found that the infants of Group 1 showed advanced stages of ROP in comparison to Group 2. Out of 18 eyes, 11 eyes had stage 3 ROP and they were all found in Group 1 (100% of cases. Conclusion. The severity of ROP was associated with earlier gestational age, lower birth weight, and oxygen supplementation. Constant cooperation between physicians and nursing staff is necessary to avoid undetected cases and further prevent ROP related blindness.

  19. Errors in anthropometric measurements in neonates and infants

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    D Harrison

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of methods used in Cape Town hospitals and clinics for the measurement of weight, length and age in neonates and infants became suspect during a survey of 12 local authority and 5 private sector clinics in 1994-1995 (Harrison et al. 1998. A descriptive prospective study to determine the accuracy of these methods in neonates at four maternity hospitals [ 2 public and 2 private] and infants at four child health clinics of the Cape Town City Council was carried out. The main outcome measures were an assessment of three currently used methods namely to measure crown-heel length with a measuring board, a mat and a tape measure; a comparison of weight differences when an infant is fully clothed, naked and in napkin only; and the differences in age estimated by calendar dates and by a specially designed electronic calculator. The results showed that the current methods which are used to measure infants in Cape Town vary widely from one institution to another. Many measurements are inaccurate and there is a real need for uniformity and accuracy. This can only be implemented by an effective education program so as to ensure that accurate measurements are used in monitoring the health of young children in Cape Town and elsewhere.

  20. Early communicative competences of infants and toddlers: A Slovenian study

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    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicative competences develop rapidly in the periods of infanthood and toddlerhood, both from the qualitative and quantitative point of view. In the following study we aimed to analyse for the first time the age differences in early communication competences of Slovenian infants and toddlers. The sample included 512 infants and toddlers, aged from 8 to 30 months; their communication competences were assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Gestures and Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (Marjanovič Umek, Fekonja Peklaj, Sočan, and Komidar, 2011. The obtained results suggest that in the period between 8 and 30 months of age there are significant age differences within different areas of communication competences (e.g. communicative and symbolic gestures, vocabulary, length and grammatical complexity of sentences. In addition, we found moderate to high positive correlations between different areas of infants' and toddlers' communication competences. The analysis of the effect of gender on the communication competences of infants and toddlers showed that girls and boys aged 8 to 16 months did not differ significantly in their communicative competences. Significant gender differences were found in toddlers aged from 16 to 30 months: girls expressed a more extensive vocabulary.