WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-school children electronic

  1. Social games with pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...

  2. Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, B; Roberts, I; Oakley, A

    2000-01-01

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  3. Construction environment education development activity for children pre-school

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  4. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  5. Improper nutrition and diseases in pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Taseva, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Dzidrova, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    For healthy generation it is healthy and orderly development from early childhood. It needs proper nutrition, proper care and personal hygiene. Early childhood is the most vulnerable period in the development stage of man. Improper diet and disease in children from pre-school age are a problem for both children and parents. It is therefore important to undertake measures for proper nutrition and prevention of diseases. Described as improper diet affects children from pre-school...

  6. Prevalence of strabismus among pre-school children community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though strabismus is a common presenting ocular problem at outpatient clinics of ophthalmology its magnitude in Ethiopia is not known. Objective: To determine the magnitude and type of manifest strabismus and strabismic amblyopia among pre-school children. Methods: A cros-sectional study was ...

  7. Worm Infestation And Anaemia Among Pre-school Children Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Design: Cross sectional. Method: Three hundred and ...

  8. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration is often described as a situation whereby two or more children work together towards a common goal. When viewed from a socio-cultural learning perspective, a broader understanding of collaboration is suggested. This article investigates the forms and pathways of children...

  9. Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ewing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (<.001, having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (<.05, and having been exposed to ETS at home (<.05. Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (<.05. Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (<.001, while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (<.01 whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (<.01. Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months.

  10. WITHDRAWN: Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, Bozhena; Roberts, Ian; Oakley, Ann

    2016-10-11

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  11. Dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. Results: About 96% ...

  12. Hearing assessment in pre-school children with speech delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psillas, George; Psifidis, Anestis; Antoniadou-Hitoglou, Magda; Kouloulas, Athanasios

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect any underlying hearing loss among the healthy pre-school children with speech delay. 76 children, aged from 1 to 5 years, underwent a thorough audiological examination consisting of tympanometry, free field testing, otoacoustic emission recordings and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). If hearing was normal, then they were evaluated by a child neurologist-psychiatrist. According to our findings, the children were classified into 3 groups; those with normal hearing levels (group I, 52 children, 68.4%), sensorineural hearing loss (group II, 22 children, 28.9%) and conductive hearing loss (group III, 2 children, 2.6%). In group I, speech delay was attributed to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), which represents high-functioning autistic children (37 cases). Other causes were specific language impairment (SLI)-expressive (3 cases), bilingualism (2 cases), and unknown etiology (10 cases). More than half (59%) of the children diagnosed with PDD evidenced significant language impairment limited to more than two words. Children with SLI-expressive and bilingualism used a maximum of two words. In group II, 13 children suffered from profound hearing loss in both ears, 3 from severe, 3 had profound hearing loss in one ear and severe in the other, 2 from moderate, and 1 had moderate in one ear and severe in the other. No child had mild sensorineural hearing loss. The children with profound hearing loss in at least one ear had total language impairment using no word at all (10 cases), or a maximum of two words (6 cases). When hearing loss was moderate to severe, then the speech vocabulary was confined to several words (more than two words-6 cases). Only two children suffering from conductive hearing loss both presented with complete lack of speech. A great number of healthy pre-school children with speech delay were found to have normal hearing. In this case, the otolaryngologist should be aware of the possible underlying clinical

  13. Prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faride Malekshahi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Malekshahi F1, Farhadi A2 1. Instructor, Department of Society Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Instructor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Childhood period it one of the most important stages of life in which individuals personality is formed. The majority of behavioral problems are due to attention deficit to the sensitive periods of childhood. This attention deficit leads to lack of agreement with environment and causes behavioural problems in children. Behavioural problem is attributed to a persons behaviour that his IQ isn lowered, but his or her mental and behavioural equilibrium is deviated from social norm and has severity, repetition and continuance in numerous times and places, so that his educational performance and behaviour will be frustrated and his efficiency is reduced. Such children are always rejected by others and in school there are a lot of grievances against them. Therefore, to pay attention children common behavioural problems is one of the most important topics and it prompt detection makes its treatment possible. So this study designed to determine prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children. Materials and methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 600 rural and urban pre-school children selected using random one stage sampling method. Data gathering tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic and behavioural disorders signs obtained from DSM IV. Reability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the university teaching members and retest method with a correlation coefficient 98%. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver 11 and Ch-square test. Results: Results of the study showed that 79% of the rural, and 68% of the urban children were at least involved in one of the behavioural

  14. [Psychophysiological studies in the pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullner, R; von Braun, G S; Ziegelmayer, G

    1976-10-14

    The behavior of 24 children, aged 3-6 years, was recorded on video-tape. Simultaneously the ECG was recorded telemetrically. These observations were made during two pre-school educational programs lasting 90 minutes each: "Didactic games" and "Elementary music and movement program". For each child a scale was developed to show the correlation of mean heart-rate and well defined motor-activity. It was evident that the mean heart-rate was higher during the music program than during the didactic program, corresponding to the higher motor-activity. But it was found that in the didactic program the variation of the heart-rate within short intervals was higher due to the more frequent occurrence of respiratory arrhythmias. It was also seen that during the music program the children showed no signs of exertion as they did towards the end of the didactic program. Respiratory arrhythmias were not seen in children who according to the Schellong-test were classified as stable in their cardiovascular system. The arrhythmias occurred mainly when the children showed signs of fatigue.

  15. Perceptions of Prospective Pre-School Teachers Regarding Children's Right to Participate in Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Nihan; Avci, Neslihan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the behaviours of pre-school teachers working with children aged between 4 and 6 years with regard to their right to participate in classroom activities. In this context, pre-school teacher's negative or positive applications regarding children's participation rights were revealed. Furthermore, preschool teachers'…

  16. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  17. Prevalence of Acute Malnutrition in Pre-School Children in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of acute malnutrition in pre-school children in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Four kindergartens in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Subjects: Pre-school children attending kindergartens in Karma Albald village (n ...

  18. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  19. Cognitive functioning of educationaly deprived pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has included 96 Roma elementary-school pupils from the first grade, 7 years and 6 months old on average, and 78 pre-school children, (6 years and 1 month old on average, out of which number there were 37 Roma pupils and 41 non-Roma pupils. The cognitive functioning has been tested with a battery consisted of 5 tests, which was based on the (adapted Wechsler’s scales and the linguistic competence test. The results have shown a significant lagging of Roma children behind the control group and test norms. The Analyses of Covariance have pointed to a significant influence of the father’s educational background on the test score, but the difference between groups remained notable even when that variable was kept under control. However, the Item Analyses revealed a number of items that turned out to be evidently "unfair" toward Roma children, and their elimination contributed to the annulling of differences among groups in the Analyses of Covariance for a particular number of tests. The data has been interpreted by the authors as a proof of necessity and possibility to adapt tests for the needs of testing the educationally neglected children. The fact that the greatest differences have been noticed in the tests saturated with the factors of visual-motor coordination and memory has been justified by the authors with the Roma children’s lack of experience of manipulation with toys and possible attention deficit as a consequence of absence of stimulative environment.

  20. GameBlocks: an entry point to ICT for pre-school children

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a system designed for pre-school children that offers an alternative introduction to the world of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), specifically computer programming. Illiterate children can construct simple...

  1. The Effects of Coordination and Movement Education on Pre School Children's Basic Motor Skills Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of analyzing the effect of the movement education program through a 12-week-coordination on the development of basic motor movements of pre-school children. A total of 78 students of pre-school period, 38 of whom were in the experimental group and 40 of whom were in the control group, were incorporated…

  2. Effects of Language Learning Interventions in Pre-School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger-Klicpera, B.; Knapp, W.; Kucharz, D.; Schabmann, A.; Schmidt, B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present contribution is to evaluate and discuss the impacts of language learning interventions in pre-school children with German as a first or a second language. The sample consisted of 864 children in intervention groups and 294 children as a comparison group within two successive cohorts. The instruments used were the SSV (Grimm…

  3. Understanding the Learning Style of Pre-School Children Learning the Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper understanding of how small children learn an instrument in the presence of their parents. It is qualitative in nature and concerned six pre-school children (five years old) who were learning the violin together and where their parents were present at the lessons. All the children's homes were visited…

  4. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases

  5. Analysis of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze and scientifically substantiate peculiarities of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children. Material and Methods: analysis and systematization of scientific and methodological literature, medical histories, anamneses, interviews and questionings. Results: it is specified that failure to timely identify and eliminate the symptoms of hip dysplasia in pre-school children leads to negative consequences, namely limited amplitude of hip joint movements; lower limp muscle weakness; valgus and varus deformations of lower limp; increasing of L-lordosis; skewness of hip bones; scoliosis; claudication. Conclusions: the modern state of the problem of hip dysplasia in pre-school children is analyzed. The cause-effect relationship is defined, their mutual transition is projected. All cause-effect relationships are in direct proportion and in constant interaction: the cause the forms effect and the effect influences the cause

  6. Airway resistance measurements in pre-school children with asthmatic symptoms : The interrupter technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, EMW; Schokker, S; van der Molen, T; Duiverman, EJ

    Measuring airway resistance in pre-school children with the interrupter technique has proven to be feasible and reliable in daily clinical practice and research settings. Whether it contributes to diagnosing asthma in pre-schoot children still remains uncertain. From the results of previous studies

  7. Lexical Categorization Modalities in Pre-School Children: Influence of Perceptual and Verbal Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallandini, Maria Anna; Roia, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates how categorical organization functions in pre-school children, focusing on the dichotomy between living and nonliving things. The variables of familiarity, frequency of word use and perceptual complexity were controlled. Sixty children aged between 4 years and 5 years 10 months were investigated. Three tasks were used: a…

  8. Pre-School Children Creating and Communicating with Digital Technologies in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPake, Joanna; Plowman, Lydia; Stephen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited literature on pre-school children's experiences with "digital technologies" at home and little discussion of the ways in which children harness these technologies for their own purposes. This paper discusses findings drawn from three studies that investigated the role of "domestic technologies" and…

  9. The Effect of TMPT Program on Pre-School Children's Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Cagla; Kocak, Nurcan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Starting Thinking Training at an early age is important. However, few studies were found regarding Thinking Training programs for pre-school children and the contributions of these programs to children's social problem-solving. In this context, the TMPT Program was developed for pre-school children and the effect of the program on 5-6…

  10. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  11. Behavioral determinants of mothers' safety measures to prevent injuries of pre-school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, E.; Geus, G.H. de; Kok, G.

    1995-01-01

    Home-related injuries are a major threat to pre-school children in the western world. In this study the behavioral determinants of 18 parental safety measures were assessed. To select behavioral determinants, the Attitude-Social influence-Self-efficacy/barriers model was used with the inclusion of

  12. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  13. The popularity of toys and play of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Kump, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents popularity of play and toys in pre-school period, influence of important factors on a play and selection of toys and differences in duration of the play, depending on children's age and gender. In the theoretical part we defined children's play and its importance, also we detaily described development of children's play and presented the meaning of toys. We classified toys according to the basic function and according to adequacy of toys for certain age group. We focu...

  14. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-School Age Children in Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günçavdi, Gizem; Göktürk, Söheyda; Bozoglu, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the challenges academic women, especially those who were mothers of pre-school age children, went through. The main guiding question of this study was "How do academic mothers with pre-school age children survive in the academia from pregnancy through all the various stages of parenting and motherhood?". This…

  15. Pre-School Children's Encounters with "The Magic Flute"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice; Acker, Aleksandra; Ferris, Jill; Deans, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a music programme in an Australian early learning centre. Through a repertoire of songs, games and instruments, the children were introduced to music forms, including opera. Mozart's Magic Flute was presented to these children by watching the Metropolitan Opera's latest film performance. Because this opera seized the…

  16. Dynamic assessment of word learning skills of pre-school children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Bernard; Law, James

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of children's word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support.

  17. The effect of group play therapy on social-emotional skills in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinekesh, Ahdieh; Kamalian, Mehrnoush; Eltemasi, Masoumeh; Chinekesh, Shirin; Alavi, Manijeh

    2013-12-24

    Childhood is important and critical period in human life. The foundation of ego is shaped in childhood. Play therapy is one of the successful strategies to help children with inner conflicts problems. This method of psychotherapy is base on the normal learning processes of children, provides solutions to relieve feelings of stress, and expands self-expression. Group play therapy can enhance the self-awareness, self- regulation, social communication, empathy and adoptability in children. Present study investigated the effects of play therapy on relational and emotional skills of pre-school children. For this purpose, the total numbers of 372 pre-school children were randomly selected, and divided into two equal groups (case and control). In next step, the BUSSE-SR methodology was used for evaluation and comparison of self-awareness, self-regulation, social interaction, empathy, adoptability, and control groups. Pre-test were performed for both groups and case group was involved in-group play therapy. According to the results of post-test, correlation of variables between case-control groups was examined by multivariate analysis of covariance. Frequency of boys and girls in our sample were 51.3 and 48.7 percent, respectively. The mean age of children was 5.1±0.6 year. According to the results of present study, play therapy significantly enhanced the social-emotional skills (Pplay therapy can be used in pre-school centers to help children learn problem-solving skills and communicate with others.

  18. Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcome of Sleeping Sickness in Sudanese Pre-School Children.

    OpenAIRE

    Eperon, G; Schmid, C; Loutan, L; Chappuis, F

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense among children are limited. Here, we described the demographic, clinical, diagnostic, treatment and outcome characteristics of HAT in pre-school children from Kajo-Keji County, South Sudan in comparison with older patients. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of HAT patients treated at the Kiri Sleeping Sickness Treatment Centre (SSTC), Kajo-Keji County, from June 2000 to December 2002. R...

  19. Early childhood caries amongst pre-school children and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pretested self-administered questionnaire on the causes of dental caries was sent to the caregivers, and 67% of them were returned. Results: Slightly over half (59.5%) of the children had dental caries. The majority of the caregivers (96.1%) reported that consumption of sugary foods causes tooth decay. Approximately ...

  20. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal...... helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used...... to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia...

  1. The Methods Applied by Pre-School Teachers to Raise the Curiosity of Children and Their Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktaskapu Soydan, Sema; Erbay, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the strategies used by pre-school teachers in order to raise curiosity in children. Based on this aim, sample is composed of 52 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education. Study data were collected via qualitative research methods. Research data were gathered…

  2. Level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre-school children in their ordinary lives

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    and keywords The level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre- school children in their ordinary lives. The diploma thesis deals with the issue of movement activity of pre-school children. Movement activities are vital part of healthy life, especially for children. It should be an essential part of every activity, no matter if it is sport, game, relaxation or just a walk to school. It should be a common part of every pre-school child daily programme. The ac...

  3. Burns and scalds in pre-school children attending accident and emergency: accident or abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Benger, J; McCabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess how frequently and adequately information relating to the possibility of non-accidental injury (NAI) is documented and considered by doctors assessing pre-school children with burns and scalds in the accident and emergency (A&E) department, and to determine the effect of introducing a routine reminder mechanism into the A&E notes, coupled with an improved programme of NAI education and awareness.

  4. Social behaviour in pre-school children: a child-centred follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Maša Vidmar; Maja Zupančič

    2006-01-01

    The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years), their personality type (resilient, average, willful) and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal) to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004), 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self...

  5. Complementary or alternative? The use of homeopathic products and antibiotics amongst pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Jackie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Any intervention to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics for infections in children has the potential to reduce the selective pressure on antimicrobial resistance and minimise the medicalisation of self-limiting illness. Little is known about whether homeopathic products might be used by some families as an alternative to antibiotics or the characteristics of such families. We used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC observational dataset to explore the hypothesis that the use of homeopathic products is associated with reduced antibiotic use in pre-school children and to identify characteristics of the families of pre-school children given homeopathic products. Methods Questionnaires data were completed by the parents of 9723 children while aged between 3–4.5 years in Bristol UK. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to explore the relationships between antibiotic and homeopathic product use. Results Six percent of children had received one or more homeopathic products and 62% one or more antibiotics between the ages of 3 and 4.5 years. After adjustment for factors associated with antibiotic use, there was no association between homeopathic product and antibiotic use (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84, 1.24. Factors independently associated with child homeopathic product use were: higher maternal education, maternal use of homeopathic products, maternal lack of confidence in doctors, mothers reporting that they were less likely to see doctor when the child was ill, children being given vitamins, watching less television and suffering from wheeze and food allergies. Conclusion In this observational study, the use of homeopathic products was not associated with decreased antibiotic consumption, suggesting the use of homeopathic product complements rather than competes with the use of antibiotics in pre-school children. The characteristics of mothers giving homeopathic products to their

  6. Stimulation of development of notion about syntax in pre-school children

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    Nikolić Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of the research the goal of which was to study the notion about syntax as one of the meta-linguistic abilities that contributes to adoption of reading. Research comprised two hundred children of pre-school age, divided into two groups, balanced according to gender, intelligence and socioeconomic status. The research was conducted by an experimental method test-retest. In the initial measuring, experimental and control group were given the list comprising three kinds of experimental tasks for determining the level of development of notion about syntax, constructed by the author of the research. Experimental program consisted of tasks for stimulation of development of notion about syntax, which children practiced in the course of ten days (up to 30 minutes a day, with the help of previously trained pre-school teachers. After the ten-day training, final measuring in both groups was performed in both groups of respondents, by parallel form of tasks. The goal of the research was to determine whether it is possible to encourage the development of notion about syntax in children of pre-school age by systematic practice. The results of final measuring indicate that both in experimental and control group there have been significant improvements with respect to development of notion about syntax, and that the number of answers in which judgement was based on the semantic criterion (experience and meaning was significantly reduced. In making judgements based on consequences (content of the sentence points to something which is a good or not a good thing to do, moral or immoral there were no significant differences in the final compared to the initial measuring in both groups. Significant differences in retest were found in making judgements based on meaning. The mere experience with test material at pre-school age brings about the improvement of the notion about language, and practice contributes considerably to shifting the

  7. Human parvovirus B19-induced anaemia in pre-school children in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbede, Olajide O.; Omoare, Adesuyi A.; Ernest, Samuel K.

    2018-01-01

    Sera collected from 57 anaemic and 115 non-anaemic age-matched pre-school children in Ilorin, Nigeria, between November 2014 and December 2015 were assayed for human parvovirus B19-specific IgM antibodies by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. A total of 17 (29.8%) anaemic children and 18 (15.7%) non-anaemic children were positive for parvovirus B19 infection. Infection with parvovirus B19 is common in this population, and screening for the virus during differential diagnosis is recommended. PMID:29850435

  8. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Scholten, Anne-Marie; de Vries, Sanne I

    2014-05-03

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in terms of physical activity, cognitive and social outcomes. In addition, we aimed to identify which playground characteristics are the strongest correlates of beneficial effects and for which subgroups of children effects are most distinct. In total, 13 experimental and 17 observational studies have been summarized of which 10 (77%) and 16 (94%) demonstrated moderate to high methodological quality, respectively. Nearly all experimental studies (n = 11) evaluated intervention effects on time spent in different levels of physical activity during recess. Research on the effects of (pre)school playgrounds on cognitive and social outcomes is scarce (n = 2). The experimental studies generated moderate evidence for an effect of the provision of play equipment, inconclusive evidence for an effect of the use of playground markings, allocating play space and for multi-component interventions, and no evidence for an effect of decreasing playground density, the promotion of physical activity by staff and increasing recess duration on children's health. In line with this, observational studies showed positive associations between play equipment and children's physical activity level. In contrast to experimental studies, significant associations were also found between children's physical activity and a decreased playground density and increased recess duration. To confirm the findings of this review, researchers are advised to conduct more experimental studies with a randomized controlled design and to incorporate the assessment of implementation strategies and process evaluations to reveal which intervention strategies and playground characteristics are most effective.

  9. EXAMINATION OF SOCIAL SKILLS OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Dilek Öğretir Özçelik

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether there is a relationship between the 5-6 years old children’s social skills and their age, gender as well as their parent’s age and educational background and similar variables. The sampling of the study consists of the 5-6 years old children who continue kindergarten, nursery and pre-school in the city of Ankara. The sampling was composed of 300 children and their parents (143 girls and 157 boys). The data was collected with questionnaire and scales. The...

  10. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms severity in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, E; Catal, F; Soylu, N; Ozcan, O O; Celiksoy, M H; Babayiğit, A; Erge, D; Karakoç, H T E; Sancak, R

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are seen frequently in atopic diseases. The present study aims to evaluate the frequency of psychiatric disorders and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. The parents of the pre-school children with cow's milk allergy were interviewed in person and asked to fill out the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form. The cow's milk allergy group included 40 children (27 male, 13 female) with mean age, 44.5±14.7 months, and the control group included 41 children (25 male, 16 female) with mean age, 47.6±15.2 months. It was established that 65% of the group with cow's milk allergy received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, while 36.6% of the control group received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.02). Within the psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (odds ratio: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.472-16.856, p=0.006), oppositional defiant disorder (odds ratio: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.139-28.128, p=0.026), and attachment disorder (odds ratio: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.747-13.506, p=0.004) were found significantly higher compared with the healthy control group. When the groups were compared in terms of psychiatric symptom severity scores, calculated by using the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders severity (p=0.006) and oppositional defiant disorder severity (p=0.037) were found to be higher in the cow's milk allergy group. Psychiatric disorders are frequent and severe in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Social behaviour in pre-school children: a child-centred follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Vidmar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years, their personality type (resilient, average, willful and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004, 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self-report data sets. The styles differed mainly by authoritative parenting and stimulation, and appeared structurally similar between the spouses. Parental agreement on individual style membership significantly exceeded chance levels, but was relatively low. Therefore further analyses considered maternal parenting style only. The mothers also filled in The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 and the teachers (concurrently and one year later filled in The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scales (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Child personality type membership was based on classifications derived in a previous study. Relatively, the personality type exerted the strongest and the most consistent effects on child social behavior in pre-school. Social functioning of the resilient and the willful children was somewhat more efficient in comparison to their counterparts with the average profile, even though the latter showed the most improvement in these domains between ages 3 and 4. With the willful children only, less-than-optimal parenting had an adverse effect on the development of externalizing behavior, while the development of social adjustment was negatively affected by the children's late entry to pre-school.

  12. [Breastfeeding as a protective factor against overweight and obesity among pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpa, M Catalina; Cerda, L Jaime; Terrazas, M Claudia; Cano, C Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overweight and obesity among children have significantly increased in Chile. To assess the benefits of breastfeeding in preventing malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children. A case-control study was conducted in 2011 on pediatric patients treated in a private Chilean healthcare center (San Joaquin Medical Center, Catholic University). Gender, age, weight, height, nutritional diagnosis, type of feeding during the first 6 months of life, socioeconomic status, parental education and obesity, television viewing, and kindergarten attendance were analyzed. A total of 209 patients were included in the study, 53.1% of whom were male, and 60.3% were predominantly breastfed for the first 6 months of life. More than half (51.7%) were eutrophic, 29.7% were overweight, and 18.6% obese. The patients were between the ages of 2 and 3 years 11 months. The crude Odds Ratio of breast-feeding versus formula during the first 6 months of life in patients with normal weight versus overweight children was 0.442 (95% CI 0.204-0.961). It was found that predominantly breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life acted as a protective factor against malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children treated in this private medical center. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. The personality structure of toddlers and pre-school children as perceived by their kindergarten teachers

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    Maja Zupančič

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the personality structure of children aged one to seven, as perceived by their kindergarten teachers. In addition, gender differences were examined to determine whether kindergarten teachers perceived the personality characteristics of toddler and pre-school girls differently than those of boys. 508 randomly-selected Slovenian children were assessed by their kindergarten teachers using adapted Flemish Big-Five Bipolar Rating Scales. Four-factor structures that explained more than two-thirds of the variance emerged for teachers' personality ratings of children in each of the three age groups: toddlers, three- to five-year-olds and five- to seven-year-olds. However, five of the twenty-five scales, four of them referring to the Conscientiousness dimension, did not appear to be relevant when assessing individual differences in the toddlerhood. Intellect/Openness, as observed for the toddler sample, and the combined Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness factor, extracted for each of the two older age groups, accounted for the greatest part of the variance. Extroversion was obtained as a second factor in each of the three age groups, while Emotional Stability showed relatively less stability across these groups. Agreeableness was clearly differentiated only in the oldest age group, emerging there for the first time as an independent factor. A few gender differences were found to be significant within the two groups of pre-school children, with girls consistently being rated higher in terms of Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness.

  14. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

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    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  15. Quantifying the visual perception skills of pre-school testees using a novel tangible electronic test instrument

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available . These children were found to be less proficient in visualisation skills than their suburban counterparts. A new study was undertaken to ascertain whether there is any difference in cognitive skills, particularly visual perception, between pre-school children from...

  16. PLAY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN CORECTIVE GYMNASTICS FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujo Bjeković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In present life conditions, especially in urban environment, children have very poor conditions for physical activities, or for movement in general. According to the new researches, working conditions and quality of work in nurseries and schools, especially if they are related to physical exercises, have certain influences on overall development of pre-school and school children. Childhood is ideal time for correction of numerous postural disturbances and deformities, whether they are congenital or acquired by injury, wrong body posture, or by poor nutrition. Playing is a power fultool for directing correct development of children, so very of ten it has to be adapted to age, capabilities, interests and needs of children.

  17. Ocular wavefront aberration and refractive error in pre-school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Damber; Fleck, Andre; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Bobier, William R.

    2011-11-01

    Hartmann-Shack images taken from an archived collection of SureSight refractive measurements of pre-school children in Oxford County, Ontario, Canada were retrieved and re-analyzed. Higher-order aberrations were calculated over the age range of 3 to 6 years. These higher-order aberrations were compared with respect to magnitudes of ametropia. Subjects were classified as emmetropic (range -0.5 to + 0.5D), low hyperopic (+ 0.5 to +2D) and high hyperopic (+2D or more) based upon the resulting spherical equivalent. Higher-order aberrations were found to increase with higher levels of hyperopia (p < 0.01). The strongest effect was for children showing more than +2.00D of hyperopia. The correlation coefficients were small in all of the higher-order aberrations; however, they were significant (p < 0.01). These analyses indicate a weak association between refractive error and higher-order aberrations in pre-school children.

  18. Sociodemographic, behavioural and environmental correlates of sweetened beverage consumption among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Casey, Linda; Storey, Kate

    2012-08-01

    To identify sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sweetened beverages (regular soft drinks, fruit juice) among children of pre-school age. Children's dietary intake, food behaviours and screen time were measured by parental report. A Geographic Informational System was used to assess the number of grocery stores and fast-food restaurants available within 1 km of the children's residence. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were constructed to determine correlates of drinking soft drinks during the previous week. Edmonton region, Canada. Children aged 4 and 5 years (n 2114) attending a public health unit for immunization were recruited for a cohort study on determinants of childhood obesity, between 2005 and 2007. Children from neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status (relative risk (RR) = 1·17, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·40) or who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·28, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·45) were significantly more likely to have consumed regular soft drinks within the last week. Those who lived within 1 km of a grocery store were significantly less likely to consume regular soft drinks (RR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96). Children who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·27) were more likely to exceed the recommended weekly number of servings of fruit juice. Socio-economic and built environment factors are associated with soft drink consumption in children of pre-school age. These findings may help health professionals to advocate for policies that reduce soft drink consumption among children.

  19. Effect of play therapy on behavioral problems of mal-adjusted pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khanbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present research was conducted to study the effect of play therapy on reducing behavioral problems of mal-adjusted children (children with oppositional defiant disorder. Method: By using multistage cluster sampling, regions 6, 7, and 8 in Tehran were selected, and among kindergartens of these areas, 3 kindergartens under the support of welfare organization were randomly selected. From pre-school children of these 3 kindergartens, 40 children that could have behavioral disorder according to their teachers and parents complaints, were carefully tested, and among them, by the results obtained from child symptom inventory questionnaire (CSI-4, teacher's form, and a researcher-made self-control checklist, 16 children who showed severe symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder were selected, and they were randomly divided into control and experimental group. This research is quasi-experimental, and is done by the use of pre-test, post-test, and control group. Results: values of calculated F for oppositional defiant disorder in control and experimental group is meaningful after fixing the effect of pre-test (F(1,12=74/94, P<0/001 so there is a meaningful difference between means of disobedience disorder post-test scores in experimental and control group by having the fixed effect of pre-test effect. Comparison of adjusted means of 2 groups shows that the mean of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in experimental group (M=14/09 is lower than control group (M=36/66. Therefore, applying play therapy in experimental group in comparison with control group, who did not receive these instructions, caused reduction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in pre-school children. Conclusion: Results of this research show that the children's disobedience is reduced by benefiting from play therapy.

  20. Religious feelings in pre-school children in their own and their mothers’ perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatala Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the expression of religious feelings in pre-school children and the perception of these feelings by the children’s’ mothers. Ninety Polish children from Catholic families aged 4, 5 and 6 participated in the study. A picture method along with interviews with children’s mothers were employed to gather the data. Data from the two sources was compared, taking into consideration the content and ways of expression of the described feelings. Relations between positive and negative feelings were investigated and further statistical analyses were focused mainly on negative feelings. It was found that structure of negative religious feelings obtained directly from the children bears significant similarity to the mothers’ perception.

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PARENTS` ATTUTUTES FROM NEIGHBOUR COUNTRIES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THEIR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A research has been done in pre-school institutions of Montenegro and Serb Republic whose aim was to get directions for improvement of physical education in pre-school institutions as well as for taking measures in order to educate parents of the children attending those institutions in the sense of improving knowledge on importance of physical activity for growth and development of pre-school children through monitoring and insight into attitudes of parents on physical activity of their children. Problem of this research is consisted of an attempt to use the parents` attitudes to estimate how active their children are within the time period when there are not on the pre-school institutions. Methods: The research was done by the poll method of anonymous questionnaire, with was filled by parents of the children attending pre-school institutions in Montenegro and Serb Republic. Sample of the examinees from Montenegro was made of 1356 of parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions from all three Montenegrin regions. Sample of the examinees from the Serb Republic was made of 386 parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions. Aim of the research was consisted of estimation of the parents` attitudes on volume and features of the physical activity of their children and of attempt to use the given data to take certain measures on the base of which their physical activities would be optimized. For this poll, a specially structured questionnaire for this purpose was used, in which the questions were set into groups with the aim of estimating features of physical activity of the pre-school children. Results: For the statistics processing methods of descriptive statistics were used, which were used for numerical and percent presentation of frequency of some answers of the examinees, and the answers were presented comparatively in tables for both samples. Results of this research indicate to trend

  2. Foot shape and its relationship with somatic characteristics in pre-school children

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    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The preschool period, characterised by high intensity of ontogenetic developmental changes, is considered to be the most important regarding formation of the foot. Getting to know the issue of the foot anatomy in children in this period is the main problem, which is the starting point towards proper prevention, examination, or correction of its deformities. Aim of the research: To analyse the shape of children’s feet and its relationship with chosen somatic characteristics in pre-school children. Material and methods : The study group comprised 80 five-year-old children recruited from randomly selected pre-schools in the Podkarpackie region. A CQ-ST podoscope was used as the research tool. In order to evaluate intersex differences at the average level of the tested variables, we used the Student’s t test or alternatively the Mann-Whitney U test. The relations between tested variables was assessed using Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s rank correlation. Results : A low percentage of foot deformities in the children was found. In girls, statistically significant relationships were seen between Clarke’s angle in the right foot and body mass index as well as between Wejsflog index in the right foot and body weight and height. In the case of boys, Clarke’s angle and Wejsflog index in the left foot correlated with body mass index. Conclusions: We can therefore assume that most of the surveyed girls and boys had correctly longitudinally and transversely arched feet and toes positioned correctly. Excessive weight was a factor distorting the foot shape in children; it caused a deterioration of longitudinal and transverse arch of the right foot in girls, and left foot flattening occurred in boys.

  3. Social disparities in children's vocabulary in early childhood. Does pre-school education help to close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Birgit

    2011-03-01

    Children start school with differing levels of skills. Thus, children of different social origin have different probabilities of educational success right from the start of their school career. This paper analyses how the gap in language abilities of children with different social backgrounds develops from age three to five. A focus lies on the question whether pre-school education can help to close this gap. The data of the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) show that children's score on a standardized vocabulary test strongly depends on their parents' education. These social differences remain stable or even increase slightly over the two-year period. Using fixed effect models, it is demonstrated that children of higher educated parents can improve their vocabulary more strongly than children whose parents have a lower educational level. Participation in an early education institution positively affects the vocabulary development of children with lower educated parents while there is no significant pre-school effect for children of higher educated parents. The results indicate that pre-school attendance does not lead to a catching-up process of children with lower educated parents. But without pre-school attendance, the gap between children of higher and lower educated parents widens even further. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  4. Does pre-school improve cognitive abilities among children with early-life stunting? A longitudinal study for Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; León, Juan; Miranda, Alejandra; Dearden, Kirk; Crookston, Benjamin T; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in developing countries have found that children who experience growth faltering in the first years of life show lower cognitive abilities than their peers. In this study, we use the Young Lives longitudinal dataset in Peru to analyze if attending pre-school affects cognitive abilities at age five years, and if there is an interaction with HAZ at age one year. Using instrumental variables we found, for receptive vocabulary, a positive effect of attending Jardines (formal) pre-schools; the effect of attending PRONOEI (community-based) pre-schools was not significant. More years attending Jardines was more beneficial for children who were better nourished. We suggest working to improve the quality of PRONOEI s, and with teachers on targeting children of lower nutritional status.

  5. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  6. Functional abdominal complaints in pre-school children: Parental reports of health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.P. Jongman (Henri); J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); H. Raat (Hein); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The aim of this study is to assess the influence of functional abdominal complaints (FAC) on health-related quality of life in a group of Dutch pre-school children. Methods Parents of children aged up to 6.0 visiting the outpatient pediatric department, Erasmus MC-Sophia,

  7. Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mond, J M; Stich, H; Hay, P J; Kraemer, A; Baune, B T

    2007-07-01

    To examine associations between obesity and impairment in developmental functioning in a general population sample of pre-school children. Standardized medical examinations were conducted in nine consecutive cohorts of male and female children (n=9415) aged between 4.4 and 8.6 years (mean=6.0, s.d.=0.37) residing in the Lower Bavaria region of Germany. Tests designed to assess performance in subdivisions representing four broad developmental domains, namely, motor development, speech development, cognitive development and psycho-social development, were completed by all participants. Boys had significantly higher rates of impairment than girls. The prevalence of obesity in boys was 2.4%, whereas in girls it was 4.3% (chi (2)=21.51, Pmotor skills was higher among obese male children than normal-weight male children (adjusted odds ratio=1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02, 3.01, Pability to focus attention was higher in obese female children than normal-weight female children (adjusted odds ratio=1.86, 95% CI=1.00, 3.44, Pobesity and impairment in specific aspects of developmental functioning may be evident in younger children.

  8. Identifying play characteristics of pre-school children with developmental coordination disorder via parental questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Waissman, Pola; Diamond, Gary W

    2017-06-01

    Motor coordination deficits that characterize children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affect their quality of participation. The aim of the current study was to identify play characteristics of young children with DCD, compared to those of children with typical development in three dimensions: activity and participation, environmental factors and children's impairments. Sixty-four children, aged four to six years, participated. Thirty were diagnosed as having DCD; the remaining 34 children were age, gender and socioeconomic level matched controls with typical development. The children were evaluated by the M-ABC. In addition, their parents completed a demographic questionnaire, the Children's Activity Scale for Parents (CHAS-P), the Children's Leisure Assessment Scale for preschoolers (CLASS-Pre), and My Child's Play Questionnaire (MCP). Children with DCD performed significantly poorer in each of the four play activity and participation domains: variety, frequency, sociability, and preference (CLASS-Pre). Furthermore, their environmental characteristics were significantly different (MCP). They displayed significantly inferior performance (impairments) in interpersonal interaction and executive functioning during play, in comparison to controls (MCP). Moreover, the children's motor and executive control as reflected in their daily function as well as their activities of daily living (ADL) performance level, contributed to the prediction of their global play participation. The results indicate that the use of both the CLASS-Pre and the MCP questionnaires enables the identification of unique play characteristics of pre-school children with DCD via parents' reports. A better insight into these characteristics may contribute to theoretical knowledge and clinical practice to improve the children's daily participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  10. Prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in South-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyike, Pius C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie; Obu, Herbert A; Odetunde, Odutola I; Chinawa, Awoere T

    2014-09-11

    Malnutrition can be defined as a state of nutrition where the weight for age, height for age and weight for height indices are below -2 Z-score of the NCHS reference. It has posed a great economic burden to the developing world. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in Abakiliki in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional studies that assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 1-5 years attending nursery and primary schools. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometry and clinical examination. A total of 616 children aged one to 5 years were enrolled into this study. Three hundred and sixty-seven (59.6%) were males while 249 (40.4%) were females. Sixty of the 616 children (9.7%) had acute malnutrition based on WHZ-score. Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was present in 33 children (5.3%) while 27 (4.4%) had severe acute malnutrition. The prevalence of global and severe acute malnutrition using z-score is 9.7% and 4.4% respectively while that of stunting is 9.9% with a male preponderance.

  11. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H.; Greeley, Christopher S.; Piercey, Lisa M.; Yu, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children ≤ 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  12. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  13. Determinants of nutritional status of pre-school children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial distribution of nutritional status of children of less than three years through Z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height using data collected by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99), India. The nutritional status of pre-school children was regressed on different socio-demographic factors after eliminating the effect of age. The data show that there are gender differences and spatial variations in the nutritional status of children in India. Gender difference is not very pronounced and almost disappears when the effects of age and socio-demographic variables are removed. The spatial difference, especially the rural-urban difference, was found to be very large and decreased substantially when the effects of age and socioeconomic variables were removed. However, the differences were not close to zero. All the variables were found to affect significantly the nutritional status of children. However, the literacy of mothers did not affect height-for-age significantly. The weight-for-age and height-for-age scores showed a dismal picture of the health condition of children in almost all states in India. The worst affected states are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Assam and Rajasthans are also lagging behind. Weight-for-height scores do not give a clear picture of state-wise variation. Goa, Kerala and Punjab are the three most developed states in India and also have the lowest percentages of underweight children according to the Z-scores. Along with these three states come the north-eastern states where women are well educated. Thus overall development, enhancement of level of education and low gender inequality are the key factors for improvement in the health status of Indian children.

  14. The relation between musical abilities and the phonological awareness in pre-school children

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    Anja Božič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The pre-school period plays a very important role in the language development. One of the significant indicators of this development is the phonological awareness. Some of the previous studies reported the presence of the relation between the phonological awareness and musical abilities. Our main goal was to examine this relation with the Test of the phonological awareness and the Test of musical abilities on 67 Slovene preschool children, aged from 5 to 6. We also wanted to investigate the differences between boys (N = 36 and girls (N = 31 and the differences between two age groups (aged from 5 to 5.5 years, N = 32, and from 5.5 to 6 years, N = 35. The results confirmed the connection between musical abilities and the phonological awareness. They also indicated that the recognition of the first and the last phoneme is related to melodic awareness and that phoneme merging is mainly related to rhythm awareness. No significant differences were found between male and female children or between the groups of the children of different ages.

  15. The role of pre-school children motor behavior in developing their self-concept

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    Perić Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of motor behavior and general intellectual abilities were performed on a sample of 42 pre-school children (22 boys and 20 girls aged 6 (±3 months; moreover, the self-concept of those children was analysed. For the assessment of their motor behavior six movement tasks were chosen and the Mary Gutrich scale was applied for the analysis of the results. The children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the means of Raven's colored progressive matrices so as to enable the groups to homogenise, as well as to eliminate potential parasite factors when drawing conclusions. The self-concept analysis was performed using the pshychological interview during the course of which the children described their impression of their own abilities with regard to the past, present and future. The data related to the self-concept were complemented with the analysis of the children's drawings. The statistical analysis of the data gathered showed that motor behavior plays a significant role in developing one's self-concept, which is especially true of boys. Even though there is no significant statistical difference between boys and girls with respect to the quality of their motor behavior, there are significant differences between them pertaining to the vocabulary they use when describing their own selves, i.e. their self-concept, especially with respect to the present and future. Boys seem to use more extensive motor-related vocabulary when describing themselves, especially those with greater motor skills. Both boys and girls show a tendency to describe themselves as incapable in the past. When describing their present moment capabilities, girls tend to use vocabulary related to play and independence, whereas they mostly use vocabulary related to professions and sex roles when referring to the future. These findings indicate that social factors are of immense importance from a very early age, especially among girls. Moreover, the results show that

  16. PRE-SCHOOL UPBRINGING OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES-CONDITION FOR SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATIONAL EDUCATION

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    Zora JACOVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool upbringing of children with developmental difficulties is the first link in the system of education and upbringing and at the same time the utmost segment in the system of integrational rehabilitation.Initiating the process of preschool upbringing and adequate organized treatment at early age, permits support of the development and maximum usage of the remained capabilities of children with developmental difficulties.The newest world experiences show that the upbringing and educational integration of children with developmental difficulties as asegment of the social integration, should set the main conditions in the frames of upbringing education and rehabilitational continuity and support the minimal restrictive environment for their development.In the pre-school institutions that function on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, an indifferent attitude towards the children with developmental difficulties is present, due to the uninformed educators for the characteristics and capabilities of these children and their believes for the negative influence of the children with developmental difficulties on the children without impairments, that implicates involvement of subsidery defectological education of present employed staff in the mainstream preschool institutions, also including defectologists in kindergartens for work with children with special difficulties in their development. Also, the data about the educator’s attitude in the mainstream preschool institutions is disturbing, so that they put the accent on the obligation for reducing of the program for work with handicapped children, not taking into consideration that subsidery, special forms and methods are needed beside the programs that are for the main stream group.The goal of our paper is to point out the need of involving of children with light developmental difficulties; the existence of special team in the preschool institutions when involving children with

  17. Cultural influence on aims of inclusion of mothers in pre-school children's play

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    Mihić-Lisul Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Child is introduced with the contents of culture at first through numerous influences culture has on family life, especially on defining parenting roles. Patriarchal culture, still strong in Yugoslavia, is full of norms that clearly define roles of elders and men, and excellently demarcates differences between father's and mother's role in bringing up their children, defined by the level of responsibility attached to parents in upbringing and educating a child. Research conducted in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia in January 2002, with the primary aim of diagnosing differences in frequency and quality of parent-pre-school children play concerning many relevant correlates, most important of which is the sex of the parent. Data show high distinctive quality difference in types and approaches to play in regard of the parent in question. Differences show that patriarchal culture's influence is still very strong. The results show that mothers are burdened with the higher level of responsibility, inevitably leading to higher parenting stress. The level of parenting stress can then influence the quality of meeting the requests put to parents, as well as raising level of general anxiety in all the activities concerning the child, therefore the play itself as well.

  18. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    VASILEVA Neli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Method...

  19. Visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian pre-school children - The SEGPAEDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, F L M; Thavaratnam, L K; Shukor, I N C; Ramasamy, S; Rahmat, J; Reidpath, D D; Allotey, P; Alagaratnam, J

    2018-02-01

    Little is known regarding the extent of visual impairment amongst pre-school children in Malaysia. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian preschool children. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on children aged four to six years from 51 participating kindergartens in the district of Segamat, Johor, Malaysia from 20 March 2016 to 6 April 2016. All subjects had initial eye screening consisting of LogMar visual acuity, orthoptics examination and Spot vision screener assessment. Subjects who failed the initial eye screening were invited for a formal eye assessment consisting of cycloplegic refraction and a comprehensive ocular examination. Definitions of visual impairment and amblyopia were based on the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study criteria. A total of 1287 children were recruited. Mean subject age was 5.03 (SD:0.77) and males represented 52.3% of subjects. Subjects by ethnicity were Malay (54.8%), Chinese (27.7%), Indian (15.6%) and Orang Asli (1.9%). Formal eye assessment was required for 221 subjects and 88.8% required ophthalmic intervention. Refractive error, representing 95.4% of diagnosed ocular disorders, comprised of astigmatism (84%), myopia (9%) and hypermetropia (6.9%). With-the-rule astigmatism was present in 93.4% of the subjects with astigmatism. Visual impairment was present in 12.5% of our subjects, with 61% having bilateral visual impairment. Of the subjects with visual impairment, 59.1% had moderate visual impairment. The prevalence of amblyopia was 7.53%, and 66% of the amblyopic subjects had bilateral amblyopia. Our study highlights an urgent need for initiation of preschool vision screening in Malaysia.

  20. Linking families with pre-school children from healthcare services to community resources: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jacky; Conway, David I; Gnich, Wendy; Macpherson, Lorna M D

    2017-03-08

    Poor health and health inequalities persist despite increasing investment in health improvement programmes across high-income countries. Evidence suggests that to reduce health inequalities, a range of activities targeted at different levels within society and throughout the life course should be employed. There is a particular focus on addressing inequalities in early years as this may influence the experience of health in adulthood. To address the wider determinants of health at a community level, a key intervention which can be considered is supporting patients to access wider community resources. This can include processes such as signposting, referral and facilitation. There is a lack of evidence synthesis in relation to the most effective methods for linking individuals from health services to other services within communities, especially when considering interventions aimed at families with young children. The aim of this study is to understand the way health services can best help parents, carers and families with pre-school children to engage with local services, groups and agencies to address their wider health and social needs. The review may inform future guidance to support families to address wider determinants of health. The study is a systematic review, and papers will be identified from the following electronic databases: Web of Science, Embase, MEDLINE and CINAHL. A grey literature search will be conducted using an internet search engine and specific grey literature databases (TRiP, EThOS and Open Grey). Reference lists/bibliographies of selected papers will be searched. Quality will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies and the CASP tool for qualitative studies. Data will be synthesised in a narrative form and weighted by study quality. It is important to understand how health services can facilitate access to wider services for their patients to address the wider

  1. An Examination of the Relationship between Pre-School Children's and Their Teachers' Attitudes and Awareness towards the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldur, Aycan; Ömeroglu, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of awareness and attitudes towards environment of pre-school children's and their teachers' and to examine the relationship between them. This study was based on correlational research model. The study group consisted of 26 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens and primary schools in a…

  2. The Effect of Project Based Learning in Teaching EFL Vocabulary to Young Learners of English: The Case of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsesiz, Fatma; Dolgunso¨z, Emrah; Konca, M. Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    English language teaching has newly been introduced to pre-school curriculum in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching EFL vocabulary to pre-school children through Project Based Learning (PBL). For this purpose, an experimental design, consisted of observation checklists, exam scores and a short survey,…

  3. Effectiveness of Sand-Therapy on the Attenuation of Separation anxiety Signs in Pre-School Children

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    Arghavan Shariat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The present research was conducted with the aim of determining effect of Sand-therapy on the attenuation of separation anxiety signs among pre-school children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: The statistical society consists of all pre-school children who had separation anxiety disorder and Among100 children, 30 persons were selected using available sampling. The method of this research is quasi-experimental with one group and pre-test and post-test plan. After performing pre-test of separation anxiety disorder scale, the experimental group were trained under sand-therapy training in 10 sessions of 60 minutes for a period of two months and after that, post-test of separation anxiety disorder scale was performed. The research tool consists of the questionnaire CSI-4 of child’s morbid signs. Wilcoxon method was used to analysis the results. Results: The research findings showed that there was a meaningful different (P=0.008 between pre- test & post-test scores of anxiety signs for study group.Conclusion: As a practical message, we can mention that sand therapy is as an interesting and practical playing for the children and it is a meaningful therapy related to attenuation of separation anxious signs. Keywords: Sand therapy, separation anxiety, pre-school-children

  4. LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL, SCHOOL AND HOME EDUCATION

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    Izabela Kiełtyk-Zaborowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue, disclosed in the article, is still relevant, because it supports a child’s creative activity through his/her contact with the literature. Moreover, a book genres influence the linguistic awareness, aesthetic sensitivity, develops the imagination and the ability to speak properly. Developing reading habits and close contact with art positively affects the child. So the aim of the article is to show the importance of supporting the child in creative tasks using the fiction texts. Much attention is given to the fact that literature for children in pre-school, school and home education influences the expansion of a child’s vocabulary and imagination. Constant complementation of teachers’ and parents’ activities in shaping reading interests of children influences their versatile development. Books evoke emotions, they teach how to behave in a proper way and they enrich the awareness of the surrounding world. Both teachers and parents should choose the right texts for a young reader taking into consideration his/her perceptive skills. Ever present humour in belles-lettres for children (vocabulary, situational humour or the protagonists in the books definitely provides children with joy and positive emotions. The contact with belles-lettres texts allows to develop interests of children connected with stage, theatre or music which is frequently a meaningful element of plays based on books for young children. It is also reported that both poetry and prose texts should be included into young readers’ collection. But the text should be adapted to the child’s perceptual abilities, in terms of form, content, and language. Family reading is important for developing the child’s reading interests, becoming one of the participants influencing the cultural environment of the family. The author concludes that supporting children in creative tasks using fiction texts and their forms such as theater, press, radio, television develops

  5. [Spirometry interpretation feasibility among pre-school children according to the European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, Roberto M; González, Scarlett A; Moya, Ana I; Fierro, Laura T; Brockmann, Pablo V; Caussade, Solange L

    2015-01-01

    Spirometry is the most used test to evaluate pulmonary function. Guidelines that defined acceptability and repeatability criteria for its implementation and interpretation among preschoolers were published in 2007. Our objective was to quantify the actual compliance with these criteria among pre-school patients. A review was performed on the baseline spirometry measured in patients aged 2 to 5 years in the Pediatric Respiratory Laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, who were admitted due to recurrent or persistent coughing or wheezing. Only those results obtained in patients who took the test for the first time were considered. They were analyzed by international standards. A total of 93 spirometry results (mean age 57.4 ± 8.6 months, 48 males) were obtained, of which 44 (47%) met all acceptable criteria, 87 (93%) obtained expiratory time of ≥ 0.5seconds, and 67 (72%) of the patients had an end-expiratory flow of ≤10% from peak flow. The variation in the measurement of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was very low (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.9). It was possible to meet the acceptability and repeatability criteria for spirometry among pre-school children in our Center, which was similar to previous reports. As in older children, this test is fully recommended for pre-school children who require lung function studies. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Kindergarten attendance may reduce developmental impairments in children: results from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, Riccardo N; Alvarenga, Marlies E; Stich, Heribert L; Jansen, Holger; Baune, Berhard T

    2010-08-01

    The relative risks and benefits of children attending kindergarten or pre-school remain uncertain and controversial. We used data from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey (BPMS) to look at the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children entering primary school and to assess if these were correlated with the duration of kindergarten attendance. We collected data from all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing, Bavaria from 2004 to 2007 (n = 4,005) and utilised a retrospective cross-sectional study design to review the information. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardized medical assessment. Point prevalence of impairments of speech, cognition, motor functioning and psychosocial functioning were compared by chi(2)-test for the variable of time spent in kindergarten. We detected a high incidence of impairments, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all the areas assessed. Longer length of time spent in kindergarten was associated with reduced rates of motor, cognitive and psychosocial impairments. There was no clear correlation between length of kindergarten attendance and speech disorders. Kindergarten attendance may have a positive effect on a number of domains of development including motor, cognitive and psychosocial development, but no significant effect on speech impairments. Implications for public health policies are discussed.

  7. Six years of vision screening tests in pre-school children in kindergartens of Wroclaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigiel, Marta; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Ireneusz

    2017-09-01

    Detection of vision defects of a child without professional knowledge is not easy. Very often, the parents of a small child does not know that their child sees incorrect. Also the youngster, not knowing any other way of seeing, does not know that it is not the best. While the vision of a small child is not yet fully formed, it is worth checking them very early. Defects detected early gives opportunity for the correction of anomalies, which might give the effect of the normal development of vision. According to the indications, the American Optometric Association (AOA) control eye examination should be performed between the ages of 6 months to 3 years, before going to school and then every two years. Members of SPIE Student Chapter, in cooperation with the Visual Optics Group working on the Department of Optics and Photonics (Faculty of Fundamental Problems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology) for 6 years offer selected kindergartens of Wroclaw participation in project "Screening vision tests in pre-school children". Depending on the number of involved members of the student chapter and willing to cooperate students of Ophthalmology and Optometry, vision screening test was carried out in up to eight kindergartens every year. The basic purpose of screening vision test is to detect visual defects to start the correction so early in life as possible, while increasing the efficiency of the child's visual potential. The surrounding community is in fact more than enough examples of late diagnose vision problems, which resulted in lack of opportunity or treatment failure

  8. COMPETENCIA MATEMÁTICA EN NIÑOS EN EDAD PREESCOLAR - MATH COMPETENCY IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

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    MYRIAM ESTHER ORTIZ PADILLA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the characteristics of Mathematical competency in pre-school age children in the Magdalena region. The population was represented by 101 children, to whom the Basic Mathematics Competency Test, Item 3, in its Spanish version, was administered. Quantitative methodology was used, from an empirical and analytical approach and a cross-sectional design was implemented. The results indicate that 31% of children evaluated obtaineda Mathematics Competency Global Index average, with 57% for descriptors: below averageand 22% above average. The private institutions placed a higher percentage of students aboveaverage. The sex and age variable does not provide significant differences.

  9. A simple assessment of physical activity is associated with obesity and motor fitness in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Otmar; Bolte, Gabriele; Morlock, Gabriele; Rückinger, Simon; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2009-08-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated. Survey, cross-sectional. Weight and height were measured in 12,556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004-5 and 2005-6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity. The mean age of the children evaluated was 5.78 (sd 0.43) years, 6535 (52.1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.786, 95 % CI 0.687, 0.898) or obese (OR = 0.655, 95 % CI 0.506, 0.849) and achieved 6.7 (95 % CI 5.8, 7.7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables. Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.

  10. The Efficacy of Group Play Therapy on the Social Skills of Pre-School Hearing-Impaired Children

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    Gita Movallali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate of the efficacy of group play therapy on the social skills of pre-school hearing-impaired children. Materials & Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test design and control group. The participants were 30 male hearing-impaired children from pre-schools centers in Varamin and Gharchak provinces using an available method. Subjects were randomly divided into experimental and control groups, each group consisting of 15 children. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group play therapy and the control group did not. The instruments were done using the Raven coloure progressive matrices test and social skills rating scale. The data were recorded and statistically analyzed using MANCOVA. Results: The results of MANCOVA showed that group play therapy had a significant effect on the social skills of hearing-impaired children (P<0.001. The results also revealed that group play therapy had a positive and significant effect on all subscales of social skills in these children: cooperation, self-assertiveness and self-control (P<0.001. Conclusion: Group play therapy can improve the social skills of hearing-impaired children. It is recommended that planning play therapy for hearing-impaired children receives serious attention .

  11. Childhood overweight and obesity among Kenyan pre-school children: association with maternal and early child nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A

    2010-04-01

    To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.

  12. THE EFFECT OF STORYTELLING IN A PLAY THERAPY ON ANXIETY LEVEL IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN DURING HOSPITALIZATION IN THE GENERAL HOSPITAL OF BUTON

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    Mimi Yati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is one of the psychical stresses experienced by children during hospitalization. A storytelling in a play therapy is considered effective in reducing anxiety. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety level in pre-school children during hospitalization in the general hospital of Buton. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design. There were 30 pre-school children selected in this study using accidental sampling, with 15 assigned in each group. The Pre School - Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS was used to measure anxiety in pre-school children. Wilcoxon matched paired test was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings showed that the mean of anxiety level in the intervention group in pretest was 42 and in posttest was 31.53. Wilcoxon matched paired test showed p-value 0.003 (<0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant effect of storytelling on the level of anxiety in pre-school children. Conclusions: There is a significant influence of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety levels in pre school children during hospitalization. It is suggested that this intervention could be applied as a nursing intervention to reduce anxiety in children.

  13. Factors Predisposing to Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in Children of Pre-School Age in the City of Zagreb, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lulić-Dukić, O.; Jurić, H.; Dukić, W.; Glavina, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a c...

  14. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

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    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  15. Brief Report: Application of the TEACCH Program on Chinese Pre-School Children with Autism--Does Culture Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Shek, Daniel T. l.; Lam, Lorinda L.; Tang, Florence L. Y.; Cheung, Penita M. P.

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted on 34 children with autism to evaluate the usefulness of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program for Chinese pre-school children in Hong Kong. Eighteen children received full-time center-based TEACCH program training. The control group included 16…

  16. Provision of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations to Chinese pre-school children--a 30-month evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E C; Holmgren, C J

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to provide restorations using the ART approach to pre-school children in Southern China in a kindergarten environment, using a high-strength glass-ionomer restorative material; to assess the acceptability of this approach and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the restorations placed. A total of 170 ART restorations were placed in 95 children, aged 5.1 +/- 0.7 years, by seven final-year dental students using standard ART procedures and hand instruments. The restorations were evaluated every six months thereafter by two calibrated independent examiners using explorers and mouth-mirrors. 93% of the children reported that they did not feel pain during treatment and 86% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 12- and 30-month survival rates of Class I restorations were 91% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding figures for Class V restorations were 79% and 70%, while those for Class II restorations were 75% and 51%. The failure rates of Class III and IV restorations were high with more than half of them scored as missing within the first year. The ART approach was shown to be acceptable to Chinese pre-school children for providing restorative dental care outside the traditional clinical setting. The success rates were high for Class I and V restorations in primary teeth, modest for Class II, and low for Class III and IV restorations.

  17. The production of direct object clitics in pre-school- and primary school-aged children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Palma, Silvia; Genovese, Elisabetta; Stagi, Paolo; Saladini, Gabriella; Arosio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Third-person direct object (DO) clitic pronoun production is examined through an elicited production method in pre-school- and primary school-aged groups of Italian children with specific language impairment (SLI) to establish whether there is an improvement from age 5 years to age 7 years and whether there are qualitative differences in the two groups' responses. It was found that 5- and 7-year-old Italian children with SLI produce fewer third-person DO clitics than same-age peers. The kind of responses they provide changes: at 5 years, children with SLI tend to omit clitics, while at 7 years, they use a full noun. Production of third-person DO clitics is a persistent challenge for children with SLI and is confirmed to be a good clinical marker both at 5 and 7 years of age.

  18. Cultural Practice of Children's-adult Research Activity in Pre-school Education: Content and Risks (Part I

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    Alieva T.I.,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of children's "research" activities, discusses the features and examples of its existence in pre-school education. Kinds of activity in which the child shows an educational initiative and curiosity, and also the contents of interests of children of preschool age are discussed. The author shows how everyday life situations, communication with adults and peers become sources of children's "research". In such situations, samples are set and the model of the cultural practices of cognition implemented. The author analyses the elements of technology of children's "research" according to empirical material. This work was supported by Federal Research Centre for Projects Evaluation and Consulting Services (project № 2.48.2016/НМ.

  19. Breakfast skipping is associated with differences in meal patterns, macronutrient intakes and overweight among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon; Potvin Kent, Monique; Farmer, Anna; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association between skipping breakfast, daily energy, macronutrients and food intakes, and BMI in pre-school children. A cross-sectional study using information on children's food consumption and measured height and weight. Energy and macronutrient intakes of the children were derived from parent/day-care attendant's responses to 24 h recall interviews and eating behaviour questionnaires. Data obtained from a representative sample (n 2,103) of children born in Quebec (Canada) in 1998. One thousand five hundred and forty-nine children, with a mean age of 49 (sd 3.12) months. Ten per cent of children ate breakfast on fewer than 7 days per week. This behaviour was associated with a lower diet quality and concentrated energy intakes through higher protein intakes at lunch and the consumption of snacks higher in energy and carbohydrate in the afternoon and evening; yet total daily energy intakes were not significantly different from those of pre-school children who ate breakfast every day. Breakfast skippers' mean BMI increased as intake of energy, carbohydrates or servings of grain products increased; however, this was not the case for breakfast eaters. When Cole's cut-off for overweight/obesity was used, overweight/obesity in breakfast skippers was related to the dinner-time consumption of approximately 3,000 kJ (700 kcal) or more for energy intake, approximately 100 g or more of carbohydrates, or approximately 3 servings or more of grain products. Eating breakfast every day is associated with having a healthy body weight, likely due to a more even distribution of energy intake across meals throughout the day.

  20. Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic infection among Orang Asli pre-school children in Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geik, Oui Pek; Sidek, Razalee

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection is still a major concern among Orang Asli pre-school children in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and STH infection. Besides, this study was also to identify the association between malnutrition and STH. A total of 256 Orang Asli (131 males and 125 females) from Temiar sub-tribes pre-school children aged one to six years from 19 villages in three Orang Asli settlements of Pos Hendrop, Pos Balar and Pos Tohoi located in Gua Musang, Kelantan had participated in this cross-sectional study between September to December 2014. A face-to-face interview was carried out using pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic. Children were measured on their body weight and height. The collected stool samples were examined using direct wet smear method for the presence of STH parasite. The results showed the prevalence of underweight and stunting among the children were 45.3% and 76.2% respectively. A total of 161 (62.9%) subjects were positively infected by at least one species of STH. The overall parasite infections were Ascaris lumbricoides (41.0%), Trichuris trichiura (28.5%) and hookworm (2.0%). From the total infected children, 8.6% of them were infected by two species of STH. This research revealed that gender and age group showed statistically significance with stunted with (p=0.003, p=0.049) respectively. Gender and age groups also reported significant association to STH infection among the subjects with (p=0.013, p=0.001) respectively. However, our results indicated that there was no significant association between STH infection with underweight and stunted. Our study reported that the prevalence of malnutrition and STH are still a major concern for the public health and a threat among Orang Asli pre-school children in Kelantan. Immediate action and innovative intervention should be taken by the Government to overcome the problems as these children are the

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis of comprehensive interventions for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD.

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    Yoshiyuki Tachibana

    Full Text Available There has an increasing number of published trials on psychosocial intervention programmes for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. To achieve better quality of unbiased evidence for the effectiveness of ASD interventions, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive review that covers studies with adequate quality standards, such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs, and different types of intervention In this study, we categorize interventions for ASD as behavioural, social-communication focused, and multimodal developmental based on Howlin's classification of early interventions for children with ASD. The aim of this study was to compare these three models and investigate the strengths and weaknesses of each type of intervention and to identify the approaches that contribute to a successful outcome for children with autism.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included RCTs targeting children with ASD 6 years old or younger. A random effects model was used to present the effect estimate for the outcomes. This study also performed combined meta-analyses of all the three models to investigate the overall effectiveness of the intervention programmes.32 randomized controlled studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. The synthesized data included 594 children from 14 RCTs. There was no statistically significant difference in the effects on autism general symptoms between the social-communication-focused model and the multimodal developmental model (p = 0.83. The results suggest that there is evidence of an effect on 'reciprocity of social interaction towards others' (standard mean difference [95% confidential interval] = 0.53[0.29,0.78], p<0.01 and 'parental synchrony' (SMD = 0.99[0.70,1.29], p<0.01.The small number of studies included in the present study limited the ability to make inferences when comparing the three models and investigating the strengths and weaknesses of each type of intervention with

  2. Pre-school social abilities: Construction and validation of a scale for children in contexts of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Betina Lacunza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social abilities are an essential part of human activity since they have a bearing on self-con­fidence, adoption of roles, self-regulation of behavior and academic performance, among other aspects. This study presents the process of construction and validation of a scale of social abilities for pre-school children. The scale was administered to 318 parents of 3 to 5 years old children of low socio-economic status who attend Primary Health Care Centers in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Considering the evolutionary and contextual charac­teristics relative to the process of acquisition of social abilities, a different protocol for every age group was designed. The result was a scale with confidence and validity characteristics. The validation of these instruments is helpful for evaluating children in poverty contexts since they enable us to distinguish social resources that allow children’s adaptation.

  3. Quality of pre-school children's pretend play and subsequent development of semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Karen; Lewis, Fiona M

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated if the quality of pre-school children's pretend play predicted their semantic organization and narrative re-telling ability when they were in early primary school. It was hypothesized that the elaborateness of a child's play and the child's use of symbols in play were predictors of their semantic organization and narrative re-tell scores of the School Age Oral Language Assessment. Forty-eight children were assessed using the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment when they were aged 4-5 years. Three-to-five years after this assessment their semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills were assessed. Results indicate that the elaborateness of a child's play and their ability to use symbols was predictive of semantic organization skills. Use of symbols in play was the strongest play predictor of narrative re-telling skills. The quality of a pre-school child's ability to elaborate complex sequences in pretend play and use symbols predicted up to 20% of a child's semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills up to 5 years later. The study provides evidence that the quality of pretend play in 4-5 year olds is important for semantic organization and narrative re-telling abilities in the school-aged child.

  4. Parental feeding behaviour and motivations regarding pre-school age children: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylatt, Louise; Cartwright, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Poor childhood diet is a major risk factor for disease and obesity, and parents of pre-school children are in a powerful position to influence diet for life. The technique of thematic synthesis (Thomas & Harden, 2008) was used to synthesise recent qualitative research on parental feeding of pre-school age children (18 months-6 years). The aim was to inform development of nutrition advice by gaining a comprehensive picture of parental feeding behaviours and motivations. Six key parental feeding behaviours were identified: modelling, rewards, pressure and encouragement, repeated exposure, creativity, and limiting intake. Four overarching themes regarding motivations were identified: promoting good health (balance and variety, and weight control); building positive relationships (child involvement, and parental engagement and responsiveness); practicalities and constraints (time, cost, and lack of culinary skill, and pressure and flexibility); and emotional motivations (problem avoidance, and emotional investment). Practicalities and constraints, and emotional motivations impacted more significantly on low income parents. In order to be effective, nutrition advice ought to tap into parents' strong desire to build positive relationships and promote good health while remaining sensitive to the significant constraints and practicalities faced. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

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    Jaroslaw Szydłowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of comprehensive interventions for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Miyazaki, Celine; Ota, Erika; Mori, Rintaro; Hwang, Yeonhee; Kobayashi, Eriko; Terasaka, Akiko; Tang, Julian; Kamio, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    There has an increasing number of published trials on psychosocial intervention programmes for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To achieve better quality of unbiased evidence for the effectiveness of ASD interventions, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive review that covers studies with adequate quality standards, such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and different types of intervention In this study, we categorize interventions for ASD as behavioural, social-communication focused, and multimodal developmental based on Howlin's classification of early interventions for children with ASD. The aim of this study was to compare these three models and investigate the strengths and weaknesses of each type of intervention and to identify the approaches that contribute to a successful outcome for children with autism. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included RCTs targeting children with ASD 6 years old or younger. A random effects model was used to present the effect estimate for the outcomes. This study also performed combined meta-analyses of all the three models to investigate the overall effectiveness of the intervention programmes. 32 randomized controlled studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. The synthesized data included 594 children from 14 RCTs. There was no statistically significant difference in the effects on autism general symptoms between the social-communication-focused model and the multimodal developmental model (p = 0.83). The results suggest that there is evidence of an effect on 'reciprocity of social interaction towards others' (standard mean difference [95% confidential interval] = 0.53[0.29,0.78], pASD have significant effects on a generalized skill to engage in reciprocal interactions with others. However, the outcomes of 'reciprocity of social interaction towards others' and 'parental synchrony' may be promising targets for interventions involving pre-school children with ASD

  7. [The pedagogical evaluation of the pre-school children with cochlear implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, T V

    The objective of the present work was to elaborate the content of comprehensive psycho-pedagogical examination for the assessment of the overall intelligence level in the children presenting with hearing impairments. The complex of studies to be carried out to achieve this purpose encompasses evaluation of the social, physical, and cognitive development of the children as well as peculiarities of their play activities, their speech and hearing abilities. This approach is believed to enable a teacher of deaf and hard of hearing to identify the individual characteristics of each child and determine those of special importance for the elaboration of educational programs on an individual basis taking into consideration variants of children's development (harmonic, uneven, retarded, etc.). To facilitate the implementation of the proposed method, a special electronic tool (a virtual practice for a teacher of deaf) has been created. The virtual practice is believed to be instrumental in the training of the teachers of deaf for the comprehensive evaluation of the children with cochlear implants. In this way, the effectiveness of the development of personalized rehabilitation programs can be substantially increased.

  8. Analysis of Understanding the Concept of Buoyancy in the Context of its Transfer from Pre-school Teachers to Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Furlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kindergarten curricula (Bahovec et al. 1999, 37 cover different areas of education that are sensibly interconnected and integrated. Science is one of the areas that represent child’s first learning about the surrounding world and the first introduction to nature. Science education is a very suitable approach of introducing children into basic research work, since in nature objects and phenomena are more concrete, and hence the children are instinctively attracted. Therefore, science education could act as a starting point for all other areas of education. Teaching science comprises several difficulties, which are mainly connected with the way how contents are introduced to children. This is often a great challenge and great responsibility for pre-school teachers, because the scientific content needs to be explained in an appropriate way taking into consideration the child's age, the use of correct terminology, and at the same time avoiding inadequate generalization and over-simplification. Buoyancy is a natural phenomenon that is experienced by every child, but which, on the other hand, is quite difficult to explain. With the present study we wished to assess the knowledge considering buoyancy of the part-time students within the Pre-school Teaching educational programme at the Faculty of Education of the University of Primorska, which is performed on different locations throughout Slovenia. These students already teach in the kindergartens and should be well acquainted with buoyancy from previously passed physics courses at the Faculty of Education. We examined how they explained the buoyancy to children in kindergartens, and whether the knowledge about buoyancy is affected by their working experience or the location of their study. The results show that the students’ knowledge about buoyancy is insufficient and incomplete. In addition, many misconceptions about buoyancy are transmitted to the children in the process of teaching

  9. Factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in children of pre-school age in the city of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulić-Dukić, O; Jurić, H; Dukić, W; Glavina, D

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a classic case-control study. The mean value of dmfs index among the cases amounted to 8.6, in comparison to 5.2 in the control group (pteeth-brushing habit after first 24 months did (p importance of early introduction of teeth-brushing and giving up the nightly consumption of sweet beverages in prevention of ECC.

  10. Associations of maternal employment and three-generation families with pre-school children's overweight and obesity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Lee, J S; Kawakubo, K

    2011-07-01

    Maternal employment has been shown to be associated with childhood overweight and obesity (Ow/Ob), but the presence of family members who care for children in place of the mothers might influence children's Ow/Ob and lifestyles. The influence of maternal employment on children's Ow/Ob should be examined together with the presence of caregivers such as grandparents. The effects of maternal employment and the presence of grandparents on lifestyles and Ow/Ob in Japanese pre-school children were investigated. Cross-sectional study on 2114 children aged 3-6 years who attended all childcare facilities in a city and primary caregivers was conducted. Children's weight and height, family environments (family members, maternal employment, single parent, number of siblings and parental Ow/Ob) and lifestyles (dietary, physical activity and sleeping habits) were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Ow/Ob was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. The eligible participants were 1765 children. The prevalence of Ow/Ob was 8.4% in boys and 9.9% in girls. Maternal employment was associated positively with irregular mealtimes, unfixed snacking times, bedtime after 10 p.m. and nighttime sleep duration of less than 10 h, whereas three-generation families were associated negatively with irregular mealtimes after adjustment for children's characteristics and family environments. Irregular mealtimes (OR (95% CI); 2.03 (1.36, 3.06)) and nighttime sleep duration of less than 10 h (1.96 (1.28, 3.01)) were associated with increased risks of being Ow/Ob. Both maternal employment and three-generation families were significantly associated with children's Ow/Ob. However, three-generation families maintained a significant association (1.59 (1.08, 2.35)) after adjustment for maternal employment. These study results suggest that the grandparents who care for pre-school children in place of mothers are more likely to contribute to childhood Ow/Ob than maternal

  11. Association of consumption of products containing milk fat with reduced asthma risk in pre-school children : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, AH; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Boshuizen, HC; Brunekreef, B

    Background: Environment and lifestyle contribute to the development of asthma in children. Understanding the relevant factors in this relationship may provide methods of prevention. The role of diet in the development of asthma in pre-school children was investigated. Methods: Data from 2978

  12. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

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    Neli VASILEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Methods: The dynamics of the visual per-ception (visual gnosis in typically develop¬ing children were tested with an adapted version of the Poppelreuter-Ghent Test for figure-ground segregation. The total number of overlapping objects is 33, grouped accor¬ding to the level of difficulty. The children are given a group of objects separately in a following sequence and they should segregate and name the objects. Results: A number of 365 typically developing children without diagnosis of visual disorders and without corrected visus took part in the research. All children, aged 4, 5, and 6 from three different settlements attend state nursery schools and have Bulgarian as a mother tongue. A three-factor dispersion analysis was held to define the statistical significance of the independent factors age, gender and settlement. The research’s data define the 5 year olds as sensitive about the dynamics of the complex forms of visual perception, compared to the four year old children (pchildren (pchildren from the big town compared to the capital (pchildren at the age of six demonstrate a low rating

  13. Social factors and television use during meals and snacks is associated with higher BMI among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly

    2008-12-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between social factors, food consumption during television viewing, and overall television viewing and how these are associated with BMI when the role of familial and social factors are considered in a population-based birth cohort of pre-school children from Québec (Canada). The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998-2002) (LSCDQ). The study follows a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. A nutrition assessment was conducted on 1549 children aged 4.5 years and included a 24 h dietary recall, an eating behaviour and television viewing questionnaire, and a measurement of children's heights and weights. Statistical analyses were performed. Nearly one-quarter of children ate at least twice daily in front of the television. Children who consumed snacks while watching television on a daily basis had higher BMI than children who did so less frequently. Children who ate snacks in front of the television every day, or some times during the week, ate more carbohydrates (total), more fat and less protein, fewer fruits and vegetables, and drank soft drinks more often than children who never ate snacks in front of the television. Health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity with focused strategies to help children change the types of foods consumed during television viewing and to reduce the time spent watching television, particularly during meal times, which may change children's dietary intake and eating patterns.

  14. Predictors of needs for community and financial resources for families of pre-school children with cerebral palsy

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    Bertule D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of predictors of family needs for the families of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP is important for provision of efficient and cost-effective services. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of children, families and services that are risk factors to meeting family needs for community and financial resources. 234 parents of pre-school children with CP completed a modified version of the Family Needs Survey (FNS, the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC-20, and a demographic questionnaire. The gross motor function level and communication function level of children were classified on the basis of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS respectively. Two hierarchical multiple regression models were generated to determine the predictors of unmet family needs. The socialisation and communication skills of children, as well as caregiver employment and family income levels were significant predictors of family needs for community resources (adjusted R2=0.44. Significant risk factors in terms of family needs for financial resources included the child's gross motor limitations, caregiver employment, low levels of family income and no ability to receive services on the basis of enabling and partnership principles (adjusted R2=0.51. A child's limitations in terms of communication, gross motor functions and socialisation, as well as the socioeconomic status of the child's family, must be taken into account when planning services for families with preschool children with CP.

  15. The Evaluation Of Effectiveness Of ICDS In 7 Anganwadi Centres On The Health Status Of Pre-School Children

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    Kulkarni M.N

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Integrated child Development Services (ICDS scheme in 7 Anganwadi centers of Davangere Block on the health status of pre-school children were studied for a period of one year. Total of 547 children, who were enrolled for supplementary nutrition and non-formal education, formed the study group. Impact of the programme on nutritional status was seen only in severely malnourished children (Grade III & IV. Severely malnourished children constituted 9.3% of total initially and 3.9 percent at the end of the study. The number of children belonging to grade I & II malnutrition were 74% initially and 81.5% at the end of the study. Not much improvement in the immunization status for BCG., all three doses of oral polio vaccine and DPT was 42.4, 59.4 and 73.3 percent at the baseline study and 56, 67.7 and 82 percent respectively at the end of the study. The supply of supplementary nutrients and vaccines was irregular. High prevalence of vit. ‘A’ Deficiency and anemia were noted.

  16. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [The formation of the self-maintenance skills in the pre-school children presenting with locomotor and coordination disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaeva-Dubrovina, N A; Burkova, A M

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation acknowledges the sharp rise in the prevalence of congenital malformation in this country during the past 30 years. In 2010-2011, this pathology was estimated to occur in 3% of the children. It includes a variety of locomotor and coordination disorders of which the most widespread are infantile cerebral paralysis, ataxia, consequences of perinatal lesions of the central nervous system, etc. This article contains a detailed description of these locomotor and coordination disorders. The objective of the present work was to elaborate and evaluate the program for the formation of the self-maintenance skills in the pre-school children presenting with locomotor and coordination disorders under conditions of family guidance and education. The study was carried out from September 2013 till May 2014 based at MUP DOD "Semeiny klub Nadezhda" ("The Hope Family Club", Municipal unitary facility for children's additional education) and supported by B.N. El'tsin Ural Federal University. It included 10 children suffering from locomotor and coordination disorders of different severity and members of their families. The following methods were used: the self-service skills scorecard , monitoring formation of the motor skills, and Wilcoxon's T-test. The use of the program based on the cooperation with the children's families allowed to achieve positive dynamics in the patients' conditions. Moreover, 30% of them acquired the full scope of the self-maintenance skills. The most pronounced changes in the motor abilities were apparent in the movements of the upper and lower extremitis, walking, and motion in space. The proposed program for the formation of the self-maintenance skills in the pre-school children presenting with locomotor and coordination disorders proved to be highly efficacious. The study has demonstrated the importance of the parents' involvement in the process of formation of the self-maintenance skills and motor abilities

  18. An Exploration of the Differential Effects of Parents' Authoritarianism Dimensions on Pre-school Children's Epistemic, Existential, and Relational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Margherita; Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Research on adult populations has widely investigated the deep differences that characterize individuals who embrace either conservative or liberal views of the world. More recently, research has started to investigate these differences at very early stages of life. One major goal is to explore how parental political ideology may influence children's characteristics that are known to be associated to different ideological positions. In the present work, we further investigate the relations between parents' ideology and children cognitive processing strategies within the framework of political ideology as motivated social cognition (Jost et al., 2003) and the dual process model of political ideology (Duckitt et al., 2002). Specifically, epistemic (implicit attitudes toward order vs. chaos), existential (negativity and threat bias), and relational needs (conformity measure) were assessed in pre-school children (N = 106; 4–6 years). For each child at least one parent completed both the Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and the Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) measures. Interestingly, results indicated that mothers' and fathers' responses had unique associations with children's socio-cognitive motivations, and different findings emerged in relation to the two facets of parental authoritarianism, namely dominance (i.e., SDO) and submission (i.e., RWA). More specifically, children's existential needs appeared to be more related to mothers' RWA scores, whereas children's epistemic needs appeared to be more related to fathers' SDO. Finally, parents' RWA and SDO scores appeared to have opposite effects on children's relational needs: children's conformity increased at increasing levels of mothers' RWA and decreased at increasing levels of fathers' SDO. Overall, however, results were relatively weak and several links between the responses of parents and their children were not significant, suggesting caution in drawing strong conclusions about the impact of parents

  19. An Exploration of the Differential Effects of Parents' Authoritarianism Dimensions on Pre-school Children's Epistemic, Existential, and Relational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Margherita; Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Research on adult populations has widely investigated the deep differences that characterize individuals who embrace either conservative or liberal views of the world. More recently, research has started to investigate these differences at very early stages of life. One major goal is to explore how parental political ideology may influence children's characteristics that are known to be associated to different ideological positions. In the present work, we further investigate the relations between parents' ideology and children cognitive processing strategies within the framework of political ideology as motivated social cognition (Jost et al., 2003) and the dual process model of political ideology (Duckitt et al., 2002). Specifically, epistemic (implicit attitudes toward order vs. chaos), existential (negativity and threat bias), and relational needs (conformity measure) were assessed in pre-school children ( N = 106; 4-6 years). For each child at least one parent completed both the Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and the Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) measures. Interestingly, results indicated that mothers' and fathers' responses had unique associations with children's socio-cognitive motivations, and different findings emerged in relation to the two facets of parental authoritarianism, namely dominance (i.e., SDO) and submission (i.e., RWA). More specifically, children's existential needs appeared to be more related to mothers' RWA scores, whereas children's epistemic needs appeared to be more related to fathers' SDO. Finally, parents' RWA and SDO scores appeared to have opposite effects on children's relational needs: children's conformity increased at increasing levels of mothers' RWA and decreased at increasing levels of fathers' SDO. Overall, however, results were relatively weak and several links between the responses of parents and their children were not significant, suggesting caution in drawing strong conclusions about the impact of parents

  20. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and neuropsychological development in pre-school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; Forns, Joan; Martínez, David; Guxens, Mònica; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Lertxundi, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-10-01

    BackgroundMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity may impair infant neuropsychological development, but it is unclear whether intrauterine or confounding factors drive this association.MethodsWe assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with neuropsychological development in 1,827 Spanish children. At 5 years, cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed using McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms using the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors and maternal intelligence quotient. We used paternal obesity as negative control exposure as it involves the same source of confounding than maternal obesity.ResultsThe percentage of obese mothers and fathers was 8% and 12%, respectively. In unadjusted models, children of obese mothers had lower scores than children of normal weight mothers in all McCarthy subscales. After adjustment, only the verbal subscale remained statistically significantly reduced (β: -2.8; 95% confidence interval: -5.3, -0.2). No associations were observed among obese fathers. Maternal and paternal obesity were associated with an increase in ADHD-related symptoms. Parental obesity was not associated with autism symptoms.ConclusionMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with a reduction in offspring verbal scores at pre-school age.

  1. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  2. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  3. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  4. Exercise testing of pre-school children using the Bruce treadmill protocol: new reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.M. van der Cammen-van Zijp (Monique); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); T. Takken (Tim); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); D. Tibboel (Dick); H.J. Stam (Henk); H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Bruce treadmill protocol is an often-used exercise test for children and adults. Few and mainly old normative data are available for young children. In this cross-sectional observational study we determined new reference values for the original Bruce protocol in children aged 4 and 5

  5. The use of first language scaffolding to teach English as a foreign language to pre-school children during dramatic play in West Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulia Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian community generally perceives that English language teaching should require phonology, vocabulary, grammar, discourse, and pragmatics. As a result, this often demands that pre-school teachers use English all the time. Code switching between English, Indonesian, and Minang – the local language of the region – is perceived negatively, and teachers are often criticized for using a multilingual approach that is “part snake and part eel” [sakarek ula sakarek baluik]. This refers to a negative perception of mixing languages in educational settings. In fact, code switching between Minang (first language, Indonesian (second language, and English (foreign language is the norm of language use in this part of Indonesia. However, in this community, there is a lack of respect for pre-school teachers' professionalism as well as scepticism towards the effectiveness of a multilingual teaching approach, which is used widely at the pre-school level. Vygotsky [14], the Russian psychologist, presents a different perspective on this phenomenon, noting that children learn languages by playing. Their first language can be the main tool to help them understand new words and utterances in context. By using code switching, teachers help pre-school children to link their prior knowledge and experience to the new forms of expression that enable them to derive the meaning of new words from the social context of language use. For this reason, scaffolding techniques should be used by pre-school teachers, particularly in ways which support children's cognitive development in constructing new meanings based on their first language experience. This paper, based on a research study-in-progress at Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia, explores patterns of interaction between pre-school teachers and their students as teachers scaffold the development of EFL through dramatic play in West Sumatera, Indonesia. This interaction is systemic in nature and

  6. Role of Assessment Tests in the Stability of Intelligence Scoring of Pre-School Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Jong, Y-J.; Hsu, H-Y.; Lung, F-W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As part of an ongoing clinical service programme for pre-school children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analysed the effect of three assessment tests, that is, Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II, Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of…

  7. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  8. Risk Diagnosis for the Development of Social Behaviour Disorders in Pre-school Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butollo, W.

    This paper is a summary of a study concerned with identification of risk variables which affect the development of social and emotional behavior in young children. Families with pre-schoolers responded to a questionnaire designed to screen children who might be considered high risk. The screening results were validated with behavior observations…

  9. Social Emotional Competence of Pre-School Children: Relationship to Intelligence and Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, S.

    Social-emotional competence (SEC) is considered a measure of an individual's total effectiveness in dealing with the environment. To verify empirically whether SEC depends on the intelligence and social maturity of young children, a study of 40 preschool children was undertaken in India. A standardized intelligence test was administered to the…

  10. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  11. Investigation of the Effects of Brain Teasers on Attention Spans of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Meryem; Hazar, Muhsin; Hazar, Zekihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of brain teasers on attention spans of preschool children of age six. The study was conducted using an experimental design with a control group and pre-test/post-test. The sample of the study is children of age six selected via random appointment among ones who were enrolled in the Merkez…

  12. Evaluation of a kindergarten-based nutrition education intervention for pre-school children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanlai; Ye, Dongqing; Li, Yingchun; Huang, Yongling; Li, Li; Gao, Yongqing; Wang, Sufang

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of nutrition education in kindergartens and to promote healthy dietary habits in children. Prospective cohort study. Four kindergartens with 1252 children were randomized to the intervention group and three with 850 children to the control group. The personal nutritional knowledge, attitudes and dietary behaviours of the parents were also investigated. Each month, children and parents in the intervention group participated in nutrition education activities. The main outcome measures were anthropometrics and diet-related behaviours of the children and the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of the parents at baseline, 6 months (mid-term) and 1 year (post-test). Baseline demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also collected. Seven kindergartens from Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, eastern China. Two thousand one hundred and two 4- to 6-year-old pre-schoolers from seven kindergartens participated. The prevalence of children's unhealthy diet-related behaviours decreased significantly and good lifestyle behaviours increased in the group receiving nutrition education compared with controls. Parental eating habits and attitudes to planning their children's diets also changed appreciably in the intervention group compared with the control group (P education improves pre-schoolers' lifestyle behaviours and brings about beneficial changes in parents' attitudes to planning their children's diets and their own personal eating habits.

  13. The Need for a Comprehensive Care and Education Service for Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    An argument is presented for a comprehensive and universal system of care and education for preschool children outside the family. Current institutional arrangements in the United Kingdom for government provision of education and care for young children are discussed and proposals are made for alternative ways of providing this service. It is…

  14. An Exploration of Life Skills Programme on Pre-School Children in Embu West, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatumu, Jane Ciumwari; Kathuri, Wilfred Njeru

    2018-01-01

    The Life Skills Programme, which is one of the newest programmes in the Kenya Preschool educational system was explored to establish the impact it had on the lives of preschool children in Embu West, Kenya. A primary school that is perceived as having well-disciplined children was purposively selected. The sample consisted of 39 students, 43…

  15. Pre-school Literacy Experiences of Children in Punjabi, Urdu and Gujerati Speaking Families in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Kath

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a survey of family literacy in which 30 Asian families with preschool children, whose first language is Urdu, Punjabi, or Gujerati, shared their home literacy experiences. Reports that parents encourage extensive preschool activities in the home, have high aspirations for the their children's education, and show an interest in…

  16. Physical Activity and Music to Support Pre-School Children's Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Jessica; Englund Bohm, Anna; Jeppsson, Catarina; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2018-01-01

    In order to give all children equal opportunities in school, methods to prevent early differences are needed. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two structured teaching methods: Math in Action, characterised by physical activity and music, and common numerical activities. Children (28 girls, 25 boys) were…

  17. Influences on the diet quality of pre-school children: importance of maternal psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Megan; Inskip, Hazel M; Ntani, Georgia; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Robinson, Sian M; Barker, Mary E

    2015-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that maternal psychological profiles relate to children's quality of diet. Cross-sectional study. Mothers provided information on their health-related psychological factors and aspects of their child's mealtime environment. Children's diet quality was assessed using an FFQ from which weekly intakes of foods and a diet Z-score were calculated. A high score described children with a better quality diet. Cluster analysis was performed to assess grouping of mothers based on psychological factors. Mealtime characteristics, describing how often children ate while sitting at a table or in front of the television, their frequency of takeaway food consumption, maternal covert control and food security, and children's quality of diet were examined, according to mothers' cluster membership. Mother-child pairs (n 324) in the Southampton Initiative for Health. Children were aged 2-5 years. Hampshire, UK. Two main clusters were identified. Mothers in cluster 1 had significantly higher scores for all psychological factors than mothers in cluster 2 (all P diets (β = -0.61, 95% CI -0.82, -0.40, P ≤ 0.001). This association was attenuated, but remained significant after controlling for confounding factors that included maternal education and home/mealtime characteristics (P = 0.006). The study suggests that mothers should be offered psychological support as part of interventions to improve children's quality of diet.

  18. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  19. Pre-school Educational Inequality? British Children in the 1970 Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    L Feinstein

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers mobility in and explanation of the position of children in the distribution of ability at different ages. Using the sub-samples of the BCS Cohort, it is found that 42 month ability rank provides a fairly stable guide to position in the distribution at age ten and that for girls, even the 22 month score is fairly stable. The paper then considers the question of the association of ability rank with the social background of children. It is found that children of women with d...

  20. Exercise-Induced Wheezing among Japanese Pre-School Children and Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Murakami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: EIW was not rare among current asthmatic children. An increased risk for EIW was in accordance with increasing severity of current asthma and this relation was mitigated with leukotriene receptor antagonist daily use among kindergartners.

  1. Socio-educational development of pre-school children in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fathers in the early year socio-educational development of children, not many research questions and ... This social problem can be traced back to the time when many black families were .... Media images that describe young fathers as.

  2. Swahili speech development: preliminary normative data from typically developing pre-school children in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangji, Nazneen; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa

    2015-01-01

    Swahili is widely spoken in East Africa, but to date there are no culturally and linguistically appropriate materials available for speech-language therapists working in the region. The challenges are further exacerbated by the limited research available on the typical acquisition of Swahili phonology. To describe the speech development of 24 typically developing first language Swahili-speaking children between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional design was used with six groups of four children in 6-month age bands. Single-word speech samples were obtained from each child using a set of culturally appropriate pictures designed to elicit all consonants and vowels of Swahili. Each child's speech was audio-recorded and phonetically transcribed using International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) conventions. Children's speech development is described in terms of (1) phonetic inventory, (2) syllable structure inventory, (3) phonological processes and (4) percentage consonants correct (PCC) and percentage vowels correct (PVC). Results suggest a gradual progression in the acquisition of speech sounds and syllables between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years. Vowel acquisition was completed and most of the consonants acquired by age 3;0. Fricatives/z, s, h/ were later acquired at 4 years and /θ/and /r/ were the last acquired consonants at age 5;11. Older children were able to produce speech sounds more accurately and had fewer phonological processes in their speech than younger children. Common phonological processes included lateralization and sound preference substitutions. The study contributes a preliminary set of normative data on speech development of Swahili-speaking children. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of phonological development, and may be used as a basis for further normative studies with larger numbers of children and ultimately the development of a contextually relevant assessment of the phonology of Swahili

  3. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE OF STUNTED PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN UNDERGOING NUTRITIONAL RECOVERY TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thaíse Morais; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Azevedo, Maria de Lourdes da Silva Gomes de; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo

    2018-01-01

    To determine if the treatment of stunted children offered at a specialized center influences their cognitive performance. Two groups of children from vulnerable families were selected, one consisting of stunted children being treated at the Nutrition Education and Recovery Center (CREN), and the other group of eutrophic children from a local, public day care center. At CREN, children are treated in a day-hospital system (9 hours/day, 5 days/week), receiving medical, nutritional and psycho-pedagogical support. All children were submitted to the Denver-II Development Screening Test and had their development and the height-for-age index assessed at 3 moments: at the beginning of the follow-up, and after 6 and 12 months. The socioeconomic status, according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria, was assessed at the beginning of the follow-up. Data were treated by prevalence ratios for cross-sectional baseline analysis, using the Poisson regression, and by pooled prevalence ratios for longitudinal analysis, using a generalized equation estimation model, both adjusted by age, sex and economic status. Seventy-four children were included, 37 for each group. There were no differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status between groups. In the longitudinal analysis, the CREN group showed better performance in the personal-social domain (pooled prevalence ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval - 95%IC 0.82-0.95), with no differences in the other domains. The treatment offered at CREN satisfactorily improved the social skills of the treated children, without changing other domains.

  4. Changes in body water distribution during treatment with inhaled steroid in pre-school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Anhøj, Jacob; Bisgaard, A M

    2004-01-01

    .i.d. delivered via Babyhaler, budesonide pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) 200 microg b.i.d. delivered via Nebuchamber and placebo. Spacers were primed before use. In total, 40 children aged 1-3 years, with mild intermittent asthma were included. Twenty-five of the children completed all three treatments...... overall this effect was not statistically significant (0.1 growth during inhaled steroid treatment seems to partly reflect generalized changes...

  5. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva; Filip D. Shavov

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G...

  6. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p < 0.001 than normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p < 0.05. In addition, normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor

  7. Effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A supplementation on the iron status of pre-school children in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Hu Mina; Tian, Weizheng; Zheng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Alice C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A intervention on the anaemic status and Fe metabolism of pre-school children. This study was a randomised, placebo-controlled and double-blinded intervention trial. All eligible anaemic pre-school children were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 received no intervention, which served as the control group, group 2 received 400 mg single-dose albendazole administration and group 3 received a 60000 μg vitamin A capsule combined with 400 mg single-dose albendazole at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period was for 6 months. Anthropometry and biochemical index about Fe metabolism were measured before and after intervention. A total of 209 pre-school anaemic children were randomly divided into three intervention groups (sixty-four, sixty-two and sixty for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The mean age of the children in the study was 4·4 (sd 0·7) years and 50·5 % of the children were female (94/186). After a follow-up period of 6 months, the levels of serum retinol, ferritin, transferrin receptor-ferritin index and body total Fe content of children in group 3 were significantly higher compared with children in groups 1 and 2 (PAlbendazole plus vitamin A administration showed more efficacy on the improvement of serum retinol and Fe metabolic status.

  8. Estimation of physical and mental development of children of the senior pre-school age

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    Pasichnyk V.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work is conducted physical and mental development of children of the senior preschool age. In the experiment, 90 children took part in the fifth year of life, among which 55 boys and 35 girls. It is noted that the children surveyed rate the physical development of the index corresponds to level - above the average. It was determined that the parameters of the functional state of preschool age children meet the age norm. It is revealed that in determining physical performance among boys set a good level, and satisfactory in girls. It is established that the results of physical fitness of boys is slightly higher than in girls. It was found that the diagnosis of the level of mental development in children fifth year of life, the average productivity and stability of attention, visual and auditory memory, visual-imagery and visual-thinking, and perception of speech correspond to the average level, and cognitive processes such as switching and distribution attention, imagination - a low level.

  9. Caries prevalence in Danish pre-school children delivered vaginally and by caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Mette Nelun; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Twetman, Svante Henrik Agardh

    2012-01-01

    -section had a higher mean value in comparison with those delivered vaginally (dmfs 6.8 vs 3.2), but the difference was not statistically significant. There was a significant relationship between caries prevalence and low family income in the total study group (OR = 5.8, p Within...... study group with complete information consisted of 594 children, 443 delivered vaginally and 151 by C-section. RESULTS: The total caries prevalence was 8% and no significant difference was displayed between the groups. When only the children with caries (dmfs > 0) were compared, those delivered by C...... the limitations of this observational cohort study, caries prevalence in 3-year-old children was not related to the mode of delivery. However, the tendency of more severe caries in the C-section group justifies further studies, preferably with a prospective design....

  10. Nutritional status of pre-school children from low income families

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    de Oliveira Adriana G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated growth and nutritional status of preschool children between 2 and 6 years old from low income families from 14 daycare centers. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1544 children from daycare centers of Santo Andre, Brazil. Body weight (W, height (H and body mass index (BMI were classified according to the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS. Cutoff points for nutritional disorders: -2 z scores and 2.5 and 10 percentiles for malnutrition risk, 85 to 95 percentile for overweight and above BMI 95 percentile for obesity. Stepwise Forward Regression method was used including age, gender, birth weight, breastfeeding duration, age of mother at birth and period of time they attended the daycare center. Results Children presented mean z scores of H, W and BMI above the median of the CDC/NCHS reference. Girls were taller and heavier than boys, while we observed similar BMI between both genders. The z scores tended to rise with age. A Pearson Coefficient of Correlation of 0.89 for W, 0.93 for H and 0.95 for BMI was documented indicating positive association of age with weight, height and BMI. The frequency of children below -2 z scores was lower than expected: 1.5% for W, 1.75% for H and 0% for BMI, which suggests that there were no malnourished children. The other extremity of the distribution evidenced prevalence of overweight and obesity of 16.8% and 10.8%, respectively. Conclusion Low income preschool children are in an advanced stage of nutritional transition with a high prevalence of overweight.

  11. [Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcal serotypes in healthy pre-school aged children after 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vera, César; Ruiz Andrés, María Ángeles; Arana Navarro, Teresa; Moneo Hernández, Isabel; Castillo Laita, José Antonio; Macipe Costa, Rosa; Revillo Pinilla, María José

    2011-06-11

    To determine the characteristics influencing pneumococcal serotype colonization in healthy pre-school aged children, the distribution of serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (VNC-7 v). SUJETOS AND METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children under 6 years of age attending well-child examinations in the province of Zaragoza (Spain). Logistic regression was used to study different variables related to the status of the carriers. Of the 371 children studied 30.7% were found to be carriers. With a vaccine coverage rate of 66%, factors related with presence of pneumococcal carriage were found to be the number of siblings (OR 1.44; CI 95% 1.05-1.97 for each sibling), attending a school or child day care centre (OR 3.99; CI 95% 2.00-7.96) and suffering from a minor upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (OR 1.72; CI 95% 1.02-2.90). Only 8.7% corresponded to VNC-7 v serotypes. The most common non VNC-7 v serotypes isolated were 19A, 6A, 15B, 11, and 15A. Significantly greater resistance was detected among VNC-7 v serotypes. Children in the setting of this study carried pneumococci more commonly when they have siblings, attend school or day care, or suffer from minor URTI. In the VNC-7 v vaccine era, VNC-7 v serotypes have become rare occurrences (8.7%) and emerging serotypes present better susceptibility to antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. prevalence of acute malnutrition in pre-school children in a rural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... families (families with four or more children) and 40 were from 'poor' families; 21 fathers ... World-wide, malnutrition is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality ... population of the northern region of Sudan is 750,000, with the ...

  13. Intelligence development of socio-economically disadvantaged pre-school children

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    Sefa Bulut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual development of socioeconomically disadvantaged preschool children is influenced by several factors. The development of intelligence is a multidimensional concept that is determined by biological, social, and environmental factors. In this literature review, however, only the social and environmental factors are discussed. Some of the factors that have profound effect on children's cognitive development are as follows: environmental stimulation, parental attitudes, maternal age, and education. Successful intervention and prevention programs aimed at enhancing children's cognitive development are also exemplified. It appears that early intervention programs in the second and third year of an infant's life have fundamental effects on the cognitive development of disadvan-taged children. It is clear that learning starts with birth. Longitudinal studies revealed that the most effective period for intervention is early childhood. Those who received early day-care and preschool intervention programs have sustained these gains in adolescence and adulthood. Those benefits include higher IQ scores, better achievement test scores, better reading and math skills, more educational attainment, more college degrees, and fewer psychosocial and mental health problems. Therefore, it appears that investing in early high-quality programs provide multiple advantages for individuals and society. Social activists, psychologists, and counsellors should make every effort to affect the allocation of governmental funds and policies.

  14. Changing Pre-School Children's Conceptions of the Day/Night Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, N.; Gritsi, F.; Kampeza, M.; Ravanis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the impact of a teaching intervention on preschoolers' concepts of the day/night cycle. Found that most children readily accepted that the sun and earth are separate spherical objects, but fewer attributed the day/night cycle to rotation of the earth on its axis. Most were puzzled by simultaneous movements of the earth around the sun and…

  15. The impact of urbanisation on the health, ofblack pre-school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    energy malnutrition (wasting). ... expenditure was used to assess socio-economic status and ... urban - an area so classified by the municipal authorities; (il) ... Estimation of a family's socio-economic status was done ... children compared with" adults, ·it nevertheless throws some ..... vaccinations are still critical problems.

  16. Socio-educational development of pre-school children in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past studies on South African fathers' less or non-involvement in their children's development have either approached it qualitatively, with rural dwellers that are less educated than participants, or those that were quantitatively limited in terms of their focus and methodology. There is, therefore, a dearth of quantitative data on ...

  17. The language scripts of pre-school children and of the language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It reflects on the lessons learnt from a language stimulation programme implemented by a dedicated volunteer in a childcare centre in an isolated farming valley in the Stellenbosch area. Some children attending this centre received deliberate language stimulation in a small-group setting on a weekly basis for 18 weeks ...

  18. Attitudes towards and the Practice of Discipline amongst Parents of Pre-School Children in Nottingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne E.; Pearce, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Compared beliefs of parents from Nottingham, England, about disciplining young children to their actual behavior management practices. Found that although one-quarter of parents agreed that "smacking" was appropriate in handling a 3-year-olds' unsafe behavior, almost two-thirds had smacked their preschool child in the preceding week.…

  19. Second-hand smoke exposure and the factors associated with avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children: a school-based cross-sectional study

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    Lin Wei-Ting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand Smoke (SHS exposure is a significant public health problem that may be responsible for serious health hazards for child. This study aimed to examine the exposure status of SHS and the factors associated with SHS avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a sample of the mothers of pre-school children (n = 1,020 in 30 registered kindergartens in eastern Taiwan. Overall, 919 (a response rate of 90% completed the questionnaires. Regression models were used to identify factors with respect to the avoidance behavior of SHS. Results The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 70% and 50% for the mothers and their children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, mothers who were current smokers (β = -0.260, p Conclusions The high prevalence rate of exposure to SHS for mothers and their children suggests that a well-designed future intervention program should be implemented in regard to pre-school children's mothers in order to prevent these mothers and their children from SHS exposure hazards, more particularly, to strengthen the knowledge base, to enhance self-efficacy and to foster a more positive attitude toward the avoidance of SHS in the mothers.

  20. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Natalya T. Таgiltseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G. Lozanov; he had studied out the suggestopedia method for foreign language teaching, and the theory of meta-subject education on the basis of artistic-creative activity and appeal to masterpieces of art. Monitoring and surveillance over non-verbal behavior of children, surveys and discussions were used as practical methods. Results. Musical experience of the child is considered as the process of the development of musical memory. Many suggestopedia techniques developed by Bulgarian and Russian researchers were selected and tested; those that involve the use of involuntary memorization of music when performing creative tasks: free movement or plastic intonation, paint color schemes, music and organizational tasks related to the preparation and conduct music lessons. Three series of diagnostic tasks associated with memory, remembering and recognition of classical pieces of music unknown for preschoolers were worked out to test the effectiveness of these methods and its integration into the process of preschoolers’ music education. The conducted experiment has shown that methods of suggestopedia provide memory activation – children keep in memory classical music. Scientific novelty. The research demonstrates the application reasonability of suggestopedia methods used at foreign language teaching, music education of preschool children and juniors. It has been proved that involuntary memorizing of classical music by children listening to background

  1. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

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    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  2. Dental caries experience among Albanian pre-school children: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, D; Caglar, E; Droboniku, E; Toti, C; Kuscu, O O

    2017-03-01

    To determine the dental caries experience and treatment needs among 5-year-olds in Albania. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2015 by using a cluster sampling technique. The dmft was used to assess dental caries experience and caries prevalence as percentages of children with dmf⟩0. Caries treatment needs were assessed with dt/dmft x 100, missing teeth with mt/dmft x 100 and ft /dmft x 100 as the Care Index. 2,039 five-year-olds, from 17 districts of Albania were selected . Children's residency was divided into 3 main regions (South, West, Central and North). WHO 2013 diagnostic criteria were used and dental caries was recorded at cavity level d3. The mean age was 5.4 (SD 0.5) years. The caries prevalence (dmf⟩0) was 84.1%. The prevalence of children without cavitated lesions (d=0) was 20.1%. The mean dmft index was 4.41 (SD 3.83). The caries treatment needs were 84% (SD 26%). The Albanian 5-year-olds assessed in this survey had a high dental caries experience and untreated cavities in the primary dentition. The national health authorities should introduce preventive programs and improved dental care access for this age group. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd

  3. Psychomotor education, an aspect of general formation of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Shingjergji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current developments of scientific thinking in the field of education are increasingly demanding in various disciplines for young people as a matter of urgency. It is already known that child development is conditioned by ancestry, socio-cultural environment, including interaction with peers and adults. Albanian institutions (kindergarten compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries have to deal with issues such as: (1 The development of a run or optimal acceleration enrichment motor for kindergarten children, seen as an important element of the formation of the human personality and its preparation to cope with various situations of life ; (2 The role of infrastructure in the natural development of the personality of children and the educational process as a whole; (3 Parental community involvement as a fundamental prerequisite of real development of the child; (4The qualification level of the teaching staff in the elementary education system and the preparation of students teacher. I hope to add my contribution through this paper, not only by identifying the problems above, but also in presenting alternatives of a development model of kindergarten children motors skills progress, compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries. Keywords: ; ; ; ;

  4. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Alexandrou, Christina; Bergström, Anna; Bonn, Stephanie; Bälter, Katarina; Löf, Marie

    2017-01-13

    The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different ( p food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  5. DIET OF ST. PETERSBURG INFANTS AND PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN AS A FACTOR MAINTAINING NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF THE REGION NATURE AND ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bulatova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study defects of infants and pre-school children diet, which negative consequences are aggravated by unfavorable nature and ecological conditions of St. Petersburg region. Patients and methods: diet of 119 children (53 — aged from 2 to 3 years old and 66 — from 4 to 6 years old visiting St. Petersburg pre-school institutions of 12-hours stay (including all additional food outside the institution was analyzed.  Analysis of diet was formed by assessment of actual nutrition and supply of nutrients. Results: actual diet of infants and pre-school children was found to deviate significantly from recommended standards which lead to long-standing imbalance of the main nutrients intake. Many defects of the diet are maintained by specific negative factors of the habitat. Combined influence of such influence causes disturbances in development and increase of ecology-dependent disorders in children. Conclusions: in organization of nutrition of children living in unfavorable nature and ecology conditions account must be taken not only of age standards of nutrients and calories intake, but weather, nature biological rhythms and specific geological characteristics.

  6. Effect of Play Therapy Applications on Shyness Behaviors of Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Kockaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of play therapy on a child who have shyness behavior through parent and teacher evaluations in preschool. The research was carried out with the participation of one shy student from six age groups who has been registered at 2014-2015 academic year in Saraykoy Central Mukerrem Tokat Kindergarten in Saraykoy, Denizli. AB experimental design was used from single subject design in the study. When results of the research examined, according to child's mother and teacher, play therapy intervention reduced emotional problems and peer relation problems and caused increase in prosocial behaviors. It could be said that play therapy program might have effective and significant impact on preschool children who have shyness behavior. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(1.000: 31-44

  7. Parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in Italian pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappini Elena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the management of fever in children have been recently published, however “fever phobia” is still spreading. To provide information which may sustain educational interventions tailored to our population we investigated the parental and medical knowledge and management of fever in preschool children. Methods A questionnaire was administered to a convenient sample of Italian parents and paediatricians. The questionnaire elicited information about definition and cause of fever, concerns about fever, method of temperature measurement, and treatment modalities. Results Overall, 388 parents and 480 paediatricians were interviewed. All the parents believed that fever could cause at least one harmful effect and 89.9% (n = 349 believed that, if left untreated, it can cause brain damage or seizures. Parents used multiple resources to obtain information about fever but 67.8% (n = 264 considered paediatricians as their primary resource. Several wrong behaviours were found in the same proportions among parents and paediatricians: 78.5% of paediatricians (n = 377 and 77.8% of parents (n = 302 used physical method to reduce fever (P = 0.867; 27.0% of paediatricians (n = 103 and 21.4% (n = 83 of parents declared to alternate ibuprofen and acetaminophen (P = 0.953. Differently, 73.1% (n = 351 of paediatricians preferred oral to rectal administration of antipyretics compared to 48.7% (n = 190 of parents (P  Conclusions Paediatricians’ attitudes greatly influence the parental behaviours and beliefs. Implementation of educational programs regarding the management of the febrile child are needed in our setting.

  8. EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT METHODOLOGICAL MODELS OF SWIMMING PRACTICE WITH PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 68 preschool boys and girls aged five to six years two models of swimming teaching realised with purpose to research their efficacity. lt was finded before that they were nonswimers. Testers deviated in two similar groups by basic motor and cognitive abilities. First model of swim teaching, signed as time deviated learning, was realised at the cloused swimming pool with 36 testers which exercised twice of week during three months. Second model of swim teaching, signed as time concentrated learning, was realised as a two-week course with 32 testers which exercised at the sea side. Two control assessment of swimming level knowledge were made during experimental process, and a final assesment was made at the and of the experiment Scaling tehnicque was used for assesing. An analysis of the obtained data resulted in the following conclusions: the both models of swim teaching were efficacity and majority of children accepted swim knovvledge. Results of time concentrated model learning were statistical significance beter then time deviated learning only in the control assesments, but the svviming level knowledge was not different in the final assment. That conclusion shows that model of time concentrated learning has more efficacity in the begining, and model of time deviated learning in the later period of teaching

  9. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  10. Role of zinc supplementation in acute diarrhea in pre-school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M.Y.; Malik, B.; Raza, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the therapeutic impact of zinc supplementation on clinical course of acute diarrhea i.e. frequency of stool, on stool amount and duration of acute diarrhea. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Family medicine department, PAF Hospital, Islamabad Pakistan from Jul to Dec 2009. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty eight children aged 6 months to 60 months in an Outpatient pediatric department of PAF Hospital, E-9 Sector Islamabad with acute diarrhea of less than 14 days were included in this randomized controlled trial. They were further divided into two groups zinc supplemented group (n=65) and non-zinc supplemented group (n=65). Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both the groups. Mean age in zinc supplemented group was 33.67 +- 16.45 months and in non-zinc supplemented group 33.63 +- 16.44 months. Reduction in stool frequency per day was found 62 percent in zinc supplemented group and 26 percent reduction was found in non-zinc supplemented group with obvious difference of 36 percent between these two groups from day 3 to day 5, which was found statistically significant (p=0.01). Similarly, significant difference (p=0.01) was observed for reduction in amount of stool per day from day 3 and day 5 with obvious difference of 45 percent between the study groups. Conclusions: Oral zinc administration in acute diarrhea reduces the frequency of diarrhea, output of stool and decreases total duration of diarrhea. (author)

  11. Reliability and Validity Study for the Coloured Progressive Matrices Test between the Ages of 3-9 for Determining Gifted Children in the Pre-School Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildiren, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the Coloured Progressive Matrices Test with regard to reliability and validity for the 3-9 age sample group because of the lack of diagnostic tools for the pre-school period. The sample group of the study was comprised of a total of 925 children with 433 girls (46.8%) and 492 boys (53.2%). Coloured…

  12. Determination of essential trace elements in diets from pre-school children; Determinacao de elementos traco essenciais em dietas de criancas de idade pre-escolar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera Akiko; San Miguel, Americo T.; Vasconcellos, Marina Beatriz A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The contents of Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn in the 19 diet samples taken from pre-school children were determined by neutron activation analysis. The diet samples were collected by duplicate portion method. The daily intake values obtained were compared with the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) values. The precision and accuracy were evaluated by analyzing two biological reference materials. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Plasma cytokines, chemokines and cellular immune responses in pre-school Nigerian children infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Cariosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with over one million deaths annually, particularly in children under five years. This study was the first to examine plasma cytokines, chemokines and cellular immune responses in pre-school Nigerian children infected with Plasmodium falciparum from four semi-urban villages near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods Blood was obtained from 231 children (aged 39–73 months who were classified according to mean P. falciparum density per μl of blood (uninfected (n = 89, low density (10,000, n = 22. IL-12p70, IL-10, Nitric oxide, IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17, IL-4 and TGF-β, C-C chemokine RANTES, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were measured in plasma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained and examined markers of innate immune cells (CD14, CD36, CD56, CD54, CD11c AND HLA-DR. T-cell sub-populations (CD4, CD3 and γδTCR were intracellularly stained for IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF following polyclonal stimulation or stimulated with malaria parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was endemic in these villages and all data were analysed taking into account the potential impact of bystander helminth infection. All data were analysed using SPSS 15 for windows and in all tests, p Results The level of P. falciparum parasitaemia was positively associated with plasma IL-10 and negatively associated with IL-12p70. The percentage of monocytes was significantly decreased in malaria-infected individuals while malaria parasitaemia was positively associated with increasing percentages of CD54+, CD11c+ and CD56+ cell populations. No association was observed in cytokine expression in mitogen-activated T-cell populations between groups and no malaria specific immune responses were detected. Although A. lumbricoides is endemic in these villages, an analysis of the data showed no impact of this helminth infection on P. falciparum parasitaemia or on immune responses associated with P. falciparum infection

  14. Child-targeted fast-food television advertising exposure is linked with fast-food intake among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Cleveland, Lauren P; Harris, Jennifer L; Hendricks, Kristy; Titus, Linda J

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether exposure to child-targeted fast-food (FF) television (TV) advertising is associated with children's FF intake in a non-experimental setting. Cross-sectional survey conducted April-December 2013. Parents reported their pre-school child's TV viewing time, channels watched and past-week FF consumption. Responses were combined with a list of FF commercials (ads) aired on children's TV channels during the same period to calculate children's exposure to child-targeted TV ads for the following chain FF restaurants: McDonald's, Subway and Wendy's (MSW). Paediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in New Hampshire, USA. Parents (n 548) with a child of pre-school age. Children's mean age was 4·4 years; 43·2 % ate MSW in the past week. Among the 40·8 % exposed to MSW ads, 23·3 % had low, 34·2 % moderate and 42·5 % high exposure. McDonald's accounted for over 70 % of children's MSW ad exposure and consumption. Children's MSW consumption was significantly associated with their ad exposure, but not overall TV viewing time. After adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status and other screen time, moderate MSW ad exposure was associated with a 31 % (95 % CI 1·12, 1·53) increase and high MSW ad exposure with a 26 % (95 % CI 1·13, 1·41) increase in the likelihood of consuming MSW in the past week. Further adjustment for parent FF consumption did not change the findings substantially. Exposure to child-targeted FF TV advertising is positively associated with FF consumption among children of pre-school age, highlighting the vulnerability of young children to persuasive advertising and supporting recommendations to limit child-directed FF marketing.

  15. Clinical outcomes of primary palatoplasty in pre-school-aged cleft palate children in Srinagarind hospital: quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Mongkholthawornchai, Siriporn; Keawkhamsean, Natda; Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2014-10-01

    collaboration of the Tawanchai Cleft Center and the government, as well as with private and non-governmental organizations was exceptional, particularly in regard to providing proper and continuous treatment for patients with cleft lips and/or cleft palate. The findings reflect a good quality of life in the pre-schooled children with cleft lip and cleft palate that received treatment from the Tawanchai Cleft Center at Srinagarind Hospital. Furthermore, the study showed that the problems associated with the condition, only affected the family's lives at a minimal level.

  16. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  17. Auditory processing, speech perception and phonological ability in pre-school children at high-risk for dyslexia: a longitudinal study of the auditory temporal processing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; Van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquière, Pol

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school children at high-family risk for dyslexia, compared to a group of well-matched low-risk control children. Based on family risk status and first gra...

  18. Prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children from southern Poland and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozioł-Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Piórecka, Beata; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters. Cross-sectional survey performed in 2012-2013. The Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS) adapted by Wardle, Carnell and Cooke was used to assess the level of food neophobia. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ and dietary records from three days. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine children's nutritional status and BMI was computed based on Polish growth charts. Wilcoxon's rank test and Pearson's rank-correlation coefficient were applied to compare the level of food neophobia and frequency of consumption of food products and nutrient intakes. Kindergartens in southern Poland located in or near Cracow. Three hundred and twenty-five pre-school children and their parents. Low neophobia was observed in 12·3 % and high neophobia in 10·8 % of the children examined. Children with a high level of neophobia were significantly less likely (Pfood neophobia were observed. High levels of neophobia are associated with diet variation and may enhance the risk of nutritional deficiencies in children.

  19. Hydroelectric reservoir inundation (Rio Madeira Basin, Amazon) and changes in traditional lifestyle: impact on growth and neurodevelopment of pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; McManus, Concepta; Leão, Renata S; Brandão, Katiane G; Marques, Rayson C; Vieira, Igor H Ito; Guimarães, Jean-Remy D; Malm, Olaf

    2011-04-01

    To assess the dependence on fish consumption of families and its impact on nutritional status and neurodevelopment of pre-school children. Cross-sectional study that measured children's hair mercury (HHg) as an indicator of family fish consumption, growth (anthropometric Z-scores, WHO standards) and neurological (Gesell developmental scores (GDS)) development. Traditional living conditions among families residing in the area adjacent to the Samuel Dam (Western Amazon) hydroelectric reservoir. Two hundred and forty-nine pre-school children (1-59 months of age) from families transitioning from the traditional Amazonian lifestyle. Family fish consumption was significantly correlated with children's HHg concentration (Spearman's r=0.246, P85), multiple regression analysis showed that fish consumption (as HHg) had no impact on GDS, but that some variables did interact significantly with specific domains (motor and language development). The study showed that the families' shift in fish consumption had no negative impact on the growth of young children and that ensuing methylmercury exposure has not been a noticeable neurodevelopmental hindrance.

  20. Child-targeted fast-food television advertising exposure is linked with fast-food intake among pre-school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Cleveland, Lauren P; Harris, Jennifer L; Hendricks, Kristy; Titus, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to child-targeted fast-food (FF) television (TV) advertising is associated with children’s FF intake in a non-experimental setting. Design Cross-sectional survey conducted April–December 2013. Parents reported their pre-school child’s TV viewing time, channels watched and past-week FF consumption. Responses were combined with a list of FF commercials (ads) aired on children’s TV channels during the same period to calculate children’s exposure to child-targeted TV ads for the following chain FF restaurants: McDonald’s, Subway and Wendy’s (MSW). Setting Paediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in New Hampshire, USA. Subjects Parents (n 548) with a child of pre-school age. Results Children’s mean age was 4·4 years; 43·2 % ate MSW in the past week. Among the 40·8 % exposed to MSW ads, 23·3 % had low, 34·2 % moderate and 42·5 % high exposure. McDonald’s accounted for over 70 % of children’s MSW ad exposure and consumption. Children’s MSW consumption was significantly associated with their ad exposure, but not overall TV viewing time. After adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status and other screen time, moderate MSW ad exposure was associated with a 31 % (95 % CI 1·12, 1·53) increase and high MSW ad exposure with a 26 % (95 % CI 1·13, 1·41) increase in the likelihood of consuming MSW in the past week. Further adjustment for parent FF consumption did not change the findings substantially. Conclusions Exposure to child-targeted FF TV advertising is positively associated with FF consumption among children of pre-school age, highlighting the vulnerability of young children to persuasive advertising and supporting recommendations to limit child-directed FF marketing. PMID:28416041

  1. An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Jane; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Grainger, Andrew; Bulley, Cathy; Reilly, John J; Mercer, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7 d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4 d of data with data for 4 d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3 d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7 h  d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.

  2. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i energy intake (EI obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water and (ii the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001 from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001, as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  3. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children

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    Siobhan A. O’Halloran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial. The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male, mean age 3.5 (0.19 (SD years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267 mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5 and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%, fruit (19%, and vegetable (14% products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8, white bread/rolls (6.0, and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4. Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75 serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72 dairy, and 0.52 (0.32 serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.

  4. SOME ASPECTS OF TEACHING MEDIA LITERACY TO PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SLOVENIA FROM A PERCEPTION STANDPOINT OF TEACHERS AND PARENTS

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    Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with media literacy as a multidimensional skill that parents and teachers possess. In this context we warn of the media-technical aspect of this skill and, within this aspect, of parents’ and teachers’ opinion on the presence of media in children’s lives. Following that, the paper explores teachers’ media-didactic competence as a component of educators’ media literacy. In the empiric part we used two aspects of fostering media literacy. One is the media-technical competence of parents and educators, while the other is the media-didactic competence of educators. We found that both parents and teachers believe that media have a strong presence in everyday lives of pre-school children and that they play an important role in teaching pre-school children. Teachers are aware of the importance of early teaching with media, for media and about media with the purpose of developing children’s media literacy, so they will not be afraid of media when they grow up.

  5. Acceptability of delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting to address obesity in pre-school children: a case study of the Common Risk Factor Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    The Common Risk Factor Approach proposes that public health efforts can be improved by multiple agencies working together on a shared risk factor. The present study aimed to assess the acceptability to parents, dental practice staff and commissioners of the delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting in order to address obesity. Semi-structured focus groups with dental practice staff and one-to-one interviews with parents of pre-school children and public health commissioners involved in an oral health promotion initiative delivering dietary advice in dental surgeries. Data were analysed using the Framework Approach. General dental practice surgeries and pre-schools in areas of high deprivation in north-east England. Parents (n 4), dental practice staff (n 23) and one commissioner. All participants found acceptable the concept of delivering public health messages in non-conventional settings. Dental practice staff were concerned about the potential for conflicting messages and deprioritisation of oral health advice, and they identified practical barriers to delivery, such as lack of training. Parents were very apprehensive about the potential of such approaches to stigmatise overweight children, including bullying. Uncertainty over the causes of obesity led to confusion about its solutions and the roles of public health and health care. Major concerns about the implementation of the Common Risk Factor Approach were raised by parents and dental practice staff. Specific dietary guidance for both oral health and healthy weight, as well as further research into issues of suitability, feasibility and stigmatisation, are needed.

  6. The Effect of Project Based Learning in Teaching EFL Vocabulary to Young Learners of English: The Case of Pre-school Children

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    Fatma KİMSESİZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available English language teaching has newly been introduced to pre-school curriculum in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching EFL vocabulary to pre-school children through Project Based Learning (PBL. For this purpose, an experimental design, consisted of observation checklists, exam scores and a short survey, was adopted. Firstly, through a short online survey, 150 kindergarten teachers were asked to specify which techniques they commonly used in their English classes. The primary aim here was to define traditional techniques and the rate of PBL use in Turkey. After defining common techniques, 28 children were randomly assigned to experimental (PBL instruction and control groups (traditional instruction equally and the data was collected in real time classroom setting for 8 weeks. The results showed that (1 PBL was rarely adopted in EFL classes in Turkey, (2 PBL instruction could increase EFL vocabulary learning gains when compared to common methods and (3 young learners were observed to have been more active in PBL classes. The effect of PBL instruction was discussed in local, cognitive and motivational perspectives in the light of previous related research. The potential benefits of further PBL use for young EFL learners and implications were also discussed.

  7. Understanding of Information about Medicines Use among Parents of Pre-School Children in Serbia: Parental Pharmacotherapy Literacy Questionnaire (PTHL-SR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubavić, Stana; Bogavac-Stanojević, Nataša; Jović-Vraneš, Aleksandra; Krajnović, Dušanka

    2018-05-14

    Parental health literacy plays an important role in children’s health, Experiences from pharmacy practice show that is necessary to check if parents understand instructions about use of medicines for children. This study aimed to assess pharmacotherapy literacy of parents of pre-school children and to examine association of parental pharmacotherapy literacy level with parent’s socio-demographic characteristics. The study was cross-sectional, conducted among parents of pre-school children (1⁻7 years of age), in kindergartens in several municipalities of Belgrade, Serbia, during regular parents meetings, from May to October 2016. Functional health literacy was measured by the Serbian version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). Parental pharmacotherapy literacy was assessed with newly constructed PTHL-SR questionnaire with good psychometric characteristics (Parental pharmacotherapy literacy questionnaire—Serbian). Overall, 813 parents participated in the study, mostly females (81.30%), between 30 to 40 years of age (70.85%) with two children (56.70%). Almost all of our study participants (99%) had adequate health literacy as assessed by S-TOFHLA. Mean score on PTHL-SR was 72.83% (standard deviation was 13.37), with better results among females than males (72% of women were in the group of highest PTHL-SR results). Our study showed that many parents (76.5%) knew the appropriate usage of non-prescription medicine for children, 57.2% parents were able to correctly calculate the dose of oral syrup for a child, and only 43.3% were able to interpret non-prescription dosage information written on the package. The majority of parents (61.3%) would make a dosage to child based on age and not on their weight. Every fifth parent with adequate functional health literacy measured by S-TOFHLA test, achieved the lowest results measured by PTHL-SR. Higher performance of the PTHL-SR was significantly correlated with education ( p information

  8. Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar town, Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawani, Narendar; Nisar, Nighat; Khan, Nazeer; Syed, Shahbano; Tanweer, Navara

    2012-12-27

    Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value dental plaque (p-value dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established.

  9. Real-time PCR Demonstrates Ancylostoma duodenale Is a Key Factor in the Etiology of Severe Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Malawian Pre-school Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Khoffi, Harriet; Brabin, Bernard J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are an important cause of (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children in the tropics. Type of hookworm species (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) and infection load are considered associated with disease burden, although these parameters are rarely assessed due to limitations of currently used diagnostic methods. Using multiplex real-time PCR, we evaluated hookworm species-specific prevalence, infection load and their contribution towards severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi. Methodology and Findings A. duodenale and N. americanus DNA loads were determined in 830 fecal samples of pre-school children participating in a case control study investigating severe anemia. Using multiplex real-time PCR, hookworm infections were found in 34.1% of the severely anemic cases and in 27.0% of the non-severely anemic controls (panemia (adjusted odds ratio: 2.49 (95%CI 1.16–5.33) and 9.04 (95%CI 2.52–32.47) respectively). Iron deficiency (assessed through bone marrow examination) was positively associated with intensity of A. duodenale infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.63 (95%CI 1.18–11.20); 16.98 (95%CI 3.88–74.35) and 44.91 (95%CI 5.23–385.77) for low, moderate and high load respectively). Conclusions/Significance This is the first report assessing the association of hookworm load and species differentiation with severe anemia and bone marrow iron deficiency. By revealing a much higher than expected prevalence of A. duodenale and its significant and load-dependent association with severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi, we demonstrated the need for quantitative and species-specific screening of hookworm infections. Multiplex real-time PCR is a powerful diagnostic tool for public health research to combat (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children living in resource poor settings. PMID:22514750

  10. The influence of early feeding practices on healthy diet variety score among pre-school children in four European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise; Moschonis, George; Oliveira, Andreia; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Manios, Yannis; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Charles, Marie Aline; Emmett, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined whether maternal diet and early infant feeding experiences relating to being breast-fed and complementary feeding influence the range of healthy foods consumed in later childhood. Data from four European birth cohorts were studied. Healthy Plate Variety Score (HPVS) was calculated using FFQ. HPVS assesses the variety of healthy foods consumed within and across the five main food groups. The weighted numbers of servings consumed of each food group were summed; the maximum score was 5. Associations between infant feeding experiences, maternal diet and the HPVS were tested using generalized linear models and adjusted for appropriate confounders. The British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de L'Enfant study (EDEN), the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort and the Greek EuroPrevall cohort. Pre-school children and their mothers. The mean HPVS for each of the cohorts ranged from 2.3 to 3.8, indicating that the majority of children were not eating a full variety of healthy foods. Never being breast-fed or being breast-fed for a short duration was associated with lower HPVS at 2, 3 and 4 years of age in all cohorts. There was no consistent association between the timing of complementary feeding and HPVS. Mother's HPVS was strongly positively associated with child's HPVS but did not greatly attenuate the relationship with breast-feeding duration. Results suggest that being breast-fed for a short duration is associated with pre-school children eating a lower variety of healthy foods.

  11. Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths

  12. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Livia; Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta

    2017-01-01

    CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  13. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Taverna

    Full Text Available CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76, including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT. VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA. A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7% as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40 than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87 and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81. Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a communication-focused therapy for pre-school children with autism: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Sarah; Cary, Maria; Barrett, Barbara; Aldred, Catherine R; Charman, Tony; Howlin, Patricia; Hudry, Kristelle; Leadbitter, Kathy; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen; Pickles, Andrew; Slonims, Vicky; Temple, Kathryn J; Green, Jonathan

    2015-12-21

    Autism is associated with impairments that have life-time consequences for diagnosed individuals and a substantial impact on families. There is growing interest in early interventions for children with autism, yet despite the substantial economic burden, there is little evidence of the cost-effectiveness of such interventions with which to support resource allocation decisions. This study reports an economic evaluation of a parent-mediated, communication-focused therapy carried out within the Pre-School Autism Communication Trial (PACT). 152 pre-school children with autism were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) or PACT + TAU. Primary outcome was severity of autism symptoms at 13-month follow-up. Economic data included health, education and social services, childcare, parental productivity losses and informal care. Clinically meaningful symptom improvement was evident for 53 % of PACT + TAU versus 41 % of TAU (odds ratio 1.91, p = 0.074). Service costs were significantly higher for PACT + TAU (mean difference £4,489, p < 0.001), but the difference in societal costs was smaller and non-significant (mean difference £1,385, p = 0.788) due to lower informal care rates for PACT + TAU. Improvements in outcome generated by PACT come at a cost. Although this cost is lower when burden on parents is included, the cost and effectiveness results presented do not support the cost-effectiveness of PACT + TAU compared to TAU alone. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58133827.

  15. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta

    2017-01-01

    CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07–5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children’s motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS’s total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children’s motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis’ tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia. PMID

  16. The Effect of Food Guide Pyramid Education on the Knowledge of 5 to 6 Year Old Pre-School Children in one of the Districts of Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahmadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of food guide pyramid education on the knowledge of 5 to 6 year-old children in kindergarten in Shiraz, Iran, using play and show methods. Materials & Methods: 62 children, 5 to 6 years old, were selected from one of the districts of Shiraz pre-schools by random cluster sampling. Subjects were divided into two groups. One group was educated by show and the other group by play and drawings. However, in both groups, they were educated using the same subjects about the food guide pyramid. The results were recorded by some tests before and after the intervention and were analyzed by the SPSS software using two sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: In both groups, after being taught about food guide pyramids, their knowledge about the number of food groups and recognizing them were improved (P<0.001. In both groups, their knowledge about the priority of any good and bad snack improved after the intervention, but this increase was significant only in the drawing and playing group (P<0.05. Conclusion: In a happy environment, children can gain good capacities for nutrition education and also playing and drawing can provide good interactions. Therefore, this method can be a useful choice for informing the children.

  17. Why good placements matter: Pre-placement and placement risk factors associated with mental health disorders in pre-school children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Thomas; Gafson, Leonie

    2015-07-01

    Pre-school children placed in local authority care show elevated rates of mental health disorders when compared to the general population. This study investigated risk factors for mental health disorders relating to the period prior to entering care and while in care. A representative sample of 43 children in care aged 0-72 months in an inner London borough underwent comprehensive multidimensional assessments. Presence of emotional, behavioural, attachment and adaptive disorders was ascertained. Exposure to two pre-placement risk factors and six placement risk factors was compared between children with and without a disorder. A total of 26 children (60.5%) had at least one mental health disorder. The two pre-placement risk factors, multiple types of maltreatment and entry into care after the age of 6 months, were both significantly associated with mental health disorders. The three placement risk factors of sudden placement moves, multiple placement moves and child-carer alienation showed a significant association with mental health disorders. There was a strong correlation between the number of risk factors and the number of co-morbid mental health disorders per child (r = .67, p school mental health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Mental health problems in pre-school children with specific language impairment: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Bos, A.C.; Jansen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in children with language disorders ranges from 11 to 55%, due to additional disabilities that have a significant relationship to psychosocial difficulties. Specialists assume that children with a selective disorder [selective language impairment

  19. Moving House for Education in the Pre-School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine house moves that take place in the pre-school years, focusing on families who move for the education of their children. We present results showing that education- related house moves do indeed occur in the pre-school years with particular types of parents making these…

  20. Executive functioning in pre-school children with autism spectrum disorders: The relationship between executive functioning and language

    OpenAIRE

    Linnerud, Ida Cathrine Wang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Executive function difficulties are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and there are several indications of a modifying relationship between executive functions and language in children. However, there is limited research on the relationship between executive functioning and language in young children with ASD. The current study compared real-world executive functioning between groups of children with ASD, language disorders (LD), and typical development (T...

  1. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longi...

  2. Effects of Classroom Management Profiles of Pre-School Teachers on Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Children

    OpenAIRE

    METİN, Şermin; AYDOĞAN, Yasemin; KAVAK, Şule; MERCAN, Zerrin

    2018-01-01

    Thisresearch was conducted to determine the classroom management profile ofpreschool teachers and to examine the influence of teachers' classroommanagement profiles on children's social skills and problem behaviors. Theresearch was carried out in 2015-2016 educational year with teachers workinginkindergartens affiliated to Provincial Directorate of National Education inGaziantep province center and children in their classes. The study groupconsists of 485 children and 45 teachers wh...

  3. Parenting Stress and Coping Styles in Mothers and Fathers of Pre-School Children with Autism and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, A.; Pisula, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The study examined the profile of stress in mothers and fathers of preschool children with autism, Down syndrome and typically developing children. A further aim was to assess the association between parenting stress and coping style. Methods: A total of 162 parents were examined using Holroyd's 66-item short form of Questionnaire of…

  4. Parents' Cognitions and Expectations about Their Pre-School Children: The Contribution of Parental Anxiety and Child Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, Rebecca; Creswell, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relative associations between parent and child anxiety and parents' cognitions about their children. One hundred and four parents of children aged 3-5 years completed questionnaires regarding their own anxiety level, their child's anxiety level and their cognitions about the child, specifically parents' expectations…

  5. Health impact assessment and monetary valuation of IQ loss in pre-school children due to lead exposure through locally produced food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, J; Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Torfs, R

    2012-01-01

    A case study has been performed which involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb) and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR) in response to current and future legislation. Consecutive model calculations (MSCE-HM, WATSON, XtraFOOD, IEUBK) were performed by different partners on the project as part of the full chain approach to derive estimates of blood lead (B-Pb) levels in children as a consequence of the consumption of local produce. The estimated B-Pb levels were translated into an average loss of IQ points/child using an empirical relationship based on a meta-analysis performed by Schwartz (1994). The calculated losses in IQ points were subsequently further translated into the average cost/child using a cost estimate of €10.000 per loss of IQ point based on data from a literature review. The estimated average reduction of cost/child (%) for all countries considered in 2010 under BAU and MFTR are 12.16 and 18.08% as compared to base line conditions, respectively. In 2020 the percentages amount to 20.19 and 23.39%. The case study provides an example of the full-chain impact pathway approach taking into account all foreseeable pathways both for assessing the environmental fate and the associated human exposure and the mode of toxic action to arrive at quantitative estimates of health impacts at the individual and

  6. A STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE VALUE BEHAVIOUR AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS OF THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saide Özbey

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the value behaviour and interpersonal problem solving skills of the preschool children according to variables like their age, sex and the type of the schools they attend and to determine the relation between their value behaviour and their problem solving skills. The sample of the study consists of 321 children who were selected by random sampling method among the children of 48-72 months who attend to public and private kindergartens in the districts of Keçi...

  7. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using...... a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes...... of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P

  8. Improvement the nutritional status of pre-school children following intervention with a supplement containing iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin C and prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height, biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin - MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.

  9. Time course of EEG slow-wave activity in pre-school children with sleep disordered breathing: a possible mechanism for daytime deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Walter, Lisa M; Nisbet, Lauren C; Jackman, Angela R; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Trinder, John; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2012-09-01

    Daytime deficits in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are theorized to result from hypoxic insult to the developing brain or fragmented sleep. Yet, these do not explain why deficits occur in primary snorers (PS). The time course of slow wave EEG activity (SWA), a proxy of homeostatic regulation and cortical maturation, may provide insight. Clinical and control subjects (N=175: mean age 4.3±0.9 y: 61% male) participated in overnight polysomnography (PSG). Standard sleep scoring and power spectral analyses were conducted on EEG (C4/A1; 0.5-sleep stages and respiratory parameters. Repeated-measures ANCOVA evaluated group differences in the time course of SWA. Four groups were classified: controls (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; no clinical history); PS (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; clinical history); mild OSA (OAHI=1-5 events/h); and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA: OAHI>5 events/h). Group differences were found in the percentage of time spent in NREM Stages 1 and 4 (psleep pressure but impaired restorative sleep function in pre-school children with SDB, providing new insights into the possible mechanism for daytime deficits observed in all severities of SDB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Systems analysis of stress and positive perceptions in mothers and fathers of pre-school children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Richard P; Kovshoff, Hanna; Ward, Nicholas J; degli Espinosa, Francesca; Brown, Tony; Remington, Bob

    2005-10-01

    Systemic analyses of psychological functioning in families of children with autism have typically shown that parents report different experiences (e.g., stress) and that siblings may also be affected. The purpose of the present research was more explicitly to address relationships between child, partner, and parent variables. Parents of 48 children with autism (41 mother-father pairs) reported on child characteristics, and their own stress and mental health. Mothers were found to report both more depression and more positive perceptions than fathers. Regression analyses revealed that paternal stress and positive perceptions were predicted by maternal depression; maternal stress was predicted by their children's behavior problems (not adaptive behavior or autism symptoms) and by their partner's depression. The future testing of the mechanisms underlying these results is discussed. In addition, the need is emphasized for more systemic analyses to understand the psychological functioning of children with autism and their siblings and parents.

  11. Assessment of Knowledge Regarding Oral Hygiene among Parents of Pre-School Children Attending Pediatric Out Patient Department in Dhulikhel Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, K; Shrestha, D; Ghimire, N; Younjan, R; Sanjel, S

    2015-01-01

    Level of knowledge regarding oral hygiene among the parents of pre-school children plays an important role on maintaining the good oral hygiene of their children. In Nepal, sufficient research has not been carried out on this area. Objective of this study is to assess the level of knowledge on oral hygiene of preschool children's parents attending pediatric outpatient department in Dhulikhel Hospital. A descriptive study was conducted from November 2012 to January 2013 among one hundred parents of preschool children visiting pediatrics outpatient department of Dhulikhel Hospital. Paper and pencil based semi structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Questions related to demographic information and knowledge were asked. Thirty questions were used for assessing knowledge level. Knowledge score was calculated by allocating one point for each correct answer and zero point for each wrong answer. Analyzed data were presented in terms of numbers and percentages. Total knowledge scores were categorized based on percentage. Knowledge score was categorized on four group - exclusive intervals - namely-poor (0-40%), moderate (40-60%), good (60-80%) and excellent (80-100%). Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied to check significance difference and chisquare test was used to check association among different background characteristic. It was found that 81% had moderate knowledge, 15% had poor knowledge and 4% had good knowledge about oral hygiene. Median knowledge score was found to be 15 with range 10 to 21. Following variables were found to be significant difference on knowledge category: Education status (poral health problem (p = 0.008), Further significant association was found between knowledge category and educational status (pknowledge category and past experience (pKnowledge regarding oral hygiene was found satisfactory among the parents of preschool children visiting pediatric OPD of Dhulikhel Hospital.

  12. Total Energy Expenditure by the doubly labelled water method in rural pre-school children in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Salazar, G.; Diaz, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method in nineteen 5 y old children of a rural mountain community in Cuba. Materials and Methods. Ten males and nine females (18.4 and 18.5 kg average weight) with mean BMI values of 16.3 and 16.1 kg/m2 were included in the study. RMR was previously measured in year 2000 by indirect calorimetry in a sample of 11 children and values correlated properly with the estimations using the proposed equations of Henry and Rees. This estimate was used then for the whole group. Energy intake measured by 3-day weighed dietary record was 3.73 MJ/day. Tee was measured by the doubly labelled water method. Results: TEE values of well nourished children were 7.15 and 5.77 MJ/d for boys and girls, respectively. These findings imply that well nourished boys and girls are having a moderate to heavy physical activity requiring 93 and 75 kcal/kg per day. Physical activity of normal Cuban boys and girls living in rural areas was 1.88 and 1.59 METS, which is much higher than those values reported for children from developed countries using DLW. Energy intake was 1639 ± 381 in boys and 1230 ± 355 kcal/d in girls. Conclusions: TEE and physical activity level of rural Cuban children was higher than reported values of children living in developed countries

  13. Relation Between Percent Body Fat and Fundamental Motor Skills in Pre-School Children age 3-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Musalek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite well known that excessive body fat in children is interpreted as a marker of inhibited physical activity and motor performance. This study aimed to establish whether severe impairment of fundamental motor skills (defined as performance under 5th centile of norms will be significantly more frequently identified in pre-schoolers age 3-6 years with amount of body fat higher than 85th centile of norms. Research sample consisted of 496 (females=241, males=255 pre-schoolers selected from specific district of Prague, Czech Republic. The MABC-2 was used for the assesment fundamental motor skills. Equations for body fat estimation in children identified 35.8% children with body fat˃85th centile of norms, 61.7% within 15th–85th centile, and 2.5% of children˂15th centile of norms. Results revealed that children whose body fat was higher than 85th centile of norms or lower than 15th centile had double the frequency of severe motor problems. Interestingely on the other hand we found no signficant differences in the frequency of high above average performances˃90th centile in MABC-2 between fat 8.4% and non fat children 10.7%. We suggest that amount of body fat is not a clear predictor for the degree of fundamental motor skills.

  14. [Oral health status evaluation of pre-school children: longitudinal epidemiologic study (1993-1994), Córdoba, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battellino, L J; Cornejo, L S; Dorronsoro de Cattoni, S T; Luna Maldonado de Yankilevich, E R; Calamari, S E; Azcura, A I; Virga, C

    1997-06-01

    A one-year longitudinal survey was carried out on a sample of the Cordoba City 4-year old kindergarten population (n = 820); so as to determine the role of several variables upon the incidence of caries. The dmf-t, dmf-s, oral hygiene and oral health indexes as well as incidence rates and caries relative risks of caries were inversely related to the socioeconomic level (SEL) of the children involved. Thus in the SEL III (typical proletariat, non-typical proletariat and sub-proletariat) children, the relative risk of caries was almost five times higher (RR = 4.9) than in the SEL I (entrepreneureal and managerial bourgeoisie) children. In SEL I, almost all new lesions occurred on smooth surfaces (61.2%), while in SEL III the molar occlusal faces were mainly affected (66.3%). Daily sugar intake was higher in SEL III children but experience of caries showed poor correlation to the amount (r = 0.40) and frequency (r = 0.52) of carbohydrate intake. No significant interlevel differences were observed in the biochemical salivary parameters analyzed. Assisted toothbrushing and fluoride topications strongly lowered the incidence of caries among SEL III children, also making the corresponding rates fall almost to SEL I values (0.31, 0.23 and 0.22 vs. 0.21). In conclusion, SEL III children should be treated prophylactically with effective preventive measures, because of their susceptibility to caries. Such preventive measures include assisted toothbrushing and fluoride topications.

  15. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  16. Malnutrition in Pre-school Children across Different Geographic Areas and Socio-Demographic Groups in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewusie, J E; Beyene, J; Ahiadeke, C; Hamid, J S

    2017-04-01

    Objective Malnutrition in children pervades all aspects of their health, growth, cognitive and social development and can lead to irreversible and lifelong effects. We examine the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children under 5 in the Ghanaian population. Methods Using data from the latest available Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), we estimated and compared prevalence of malnutrition in children among the different subgroups of the population. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with childhood malnutrition in Ghana. Results Overall, 35.6 % (95 % CI: 33.6, 37.6) of Ghanaian children under 5 years of age suffer from some form of malnutrition. Specifically, 27.5 % (95 % CI: 25.1, 28.7), 13.8 % (95 % CI: 12.5, 15.3), 8.9 % (95 % CI: 7.8, 10.2) were stunted, underweight and wasted, respectively. Results from the logistic regression indicate that gender and age of the child, educational and nutritional status of the mother, and financial status of the household are risk factors associated with childhood malnutrition in Ghana. Conclusions for Practice In view of the observed high rate of malnutrition among Ghanaian children despite the interventions that have been in place since the 1990s, there is a need for increased awareness and improved targeted interventions as well as knowledge translation tools including extensive education on infant and young child feeding practices.

  17. Comet assay in salivary leukocytes: evaluation of early effects of air pollution exposure in pre-school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Ceretti

    2015-05-01

    For all these reasons, in some cases we could not count 100 nucleoids per slide. However, we decided to include the subjects in the final analysis of the results only if at least 60 nucleoids per subject (about 30 per slide, in 2 slides per subject were found [21]. Besides primary DNA damage, the RESPIRA study investigated micronucleus frequency in epithelial buccal cells of the same children as another biomarkers of early effects. The results of this test [22] showed a weak, but significant, association between MN frequency and concentration of air pollutants, such as PM10, PM2.5 and NO2. Moreover, MN level in the children of Brescia was higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  18. Playing to Learn: An Overview of the Montessori Approach with Pre-School Children with Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores some of the literature concerning the effectiveness of the Montessori educational approach for children with ASC within an English school context. Firstly, there is a discussion, including a short historical review, regarding the ideology of inclusion and how it has impacted upon mainstream education. Also, how this can be…

  19. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  20. Attention and Perseverance Behaviors of PreSchool Children Enrolled in Suzuki Violin Lessons and Other Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Laurie

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of attention span and persevering behaviors of preschool children. Finds the Suzuki Method of violin instruction is associated with longer attention spans and more persevering behaviors than creative movement instruction or other preschool programs. Concludes that teachers prefer the Suzuki Method's approach to other forms of…

  1. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  2. Particularities of Speech Readiness for Schooling in Pre-School Children Having General Speech Underdevelopment: A Social and Pedagogical Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanova, Irina A.; Borisova, Elena A.; Shapovalova, Olga E.; Karynbaeva, Olga V.; Vorotilkina, Irina M.

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of the research is due to the necessity of creating the pedagogical conditions for correction and development of speech in children having the general speech underdevelopment. For them, difficulties generating a coherent utterance are characteristic, which prevents a sufficient speech readiness for schooling forming in them as well…

  3. Systems Analysis of Stress and Positive Perceptions in Mothers and Fathers of Pre-School Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Richard P.; Kovshoff, Hanna; Ward, Nicholas J.; degli Espinosa, Francesca; Brown, Tony; Remington, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Systemic analyses of psychological functioning in families of children with autism have typically shown that parents report different experiences (e.g., stress) and that siblings may also be affected. The purpose of the present research was more explicitly to address relationships between child, partner, and parent variables. Parents of 48…

  4. Brief Report: Mediation of Treatment Effect in a Communication Intervention for Pre-School Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Catherine; Green, Jonathan; Emsley, Richard; McConachie, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Tests of mediation in treatment trials can illuminate processes of change and suggest causal influences in development. We conducted a mediation analysis of a previously published randomised controlled trial of parent-mediated communication-focused treatment for autism against ordinary care, with 28 children aged 2-5 years (Aldred et al. in J…

  5. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  6. Experiences of parents regarding a school-readiness intervention for pre-school children facilitated by Community Health Nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Prinsloo

    2015-01-01

    When CHN students engage with communities through service learning, a school-readiness intervention may serve as a powerful tool to provide parents with the support that is needed to empower them with the skills to contribute towards their children’s early childhood development. It may improve the parent–child relationship which is critical in the development of children.

  7. Prevalence and severity of malnutrition in pre-school children in a rural area of western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwena, Arthur M.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Hawley, William A.; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Vulule, John M.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2003-01-01

    We determined the nutritional status of children less than five years of age in an area in rural western Kenya with intense malaria transmission, a high prevalence of severe anemia and human immunodeficiency virus, and high infant and under-five mortality (176/1,000 and 259/1,000). No information is

  8. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2016-10-10

    Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometry) was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence). General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills), both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033) and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044). MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  9. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (accelerometry was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills, both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Results Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033 and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044. MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Conclusion Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  10. Investigating the neural correlates of voice versus speech-sound directed information in pre-school children.

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    Nora Maria Raschle

    Full Text Available Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age  = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments.

  11. A Computer-Based Sustained Visual Attention Test for Pre-School Children: Design, Development and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Zahedian Nasb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustained visual attention is a prerequisite for learning and memory. The early evaluation of attention in childhood is essential for their school and career success in the future. The aim of this study was to design, development and investigation of psychometric properties (content, face and convergent validity and test-retest and internal consistency reliability of the computer - based sustained visual attention test (SuVAT for healthy preschool children aged 4-6 with their special needs. Methods: This study was carried out in two stages: in the first stage computerbased SuVAT in two versions original and parallel were developed. Then the test-retest and internal consistency reliability using intra-class correlation and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients respectively were examined; Face validity was calculated through ideas gathering from 10 preschool children and content validity evaluated using CVI and CVR method and convergent validity of SuVAT with CPT was assessed using Pearson correlation. Results: The developed test showed a good content and faces validity, and also had excellent test-retest reliability. In addition, the assessment of internal consistency indicated the high internal consistency of the test (Cronbach’s alpha=0.869. SuVAT and CPT test demonstrated a positive correlation upon the convergent validity testing. Conclusion: SuVAT with good reliability and validity could be used as an acceptable sustained attention assessment in preschool children.

  12. Authoritative parenting and parental stress in parents of pre-school and older children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, L; Grant, E

    2006-03-01

    Rearing a child with a developmental disability is associated with increased parental stress. Theories of stress and adjustment and bi-directional theories of child development suggest that parenting could influence these negative outcomes. Relationships between parenting approaches and stress in parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) (N = 53) were examined across two age groups, 3-5 years and 9-11 years and compared with a contrast group of typically developing children (TD) (N = 60). Measures used were the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and Rickel and Biasatti's modification of Block's Child Rearing Practices Report, classified into Baumrind's parenting styles using Reitman and Gross's method. Parents in the older DD group used Authoritative parenting less than parents in the younger DD group, while the opposite developmental pattern was seen in the TD group. Multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant group x parenting style interaction for Parental Distress, Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction and Difficult Child. Stress measures were higher for the DD group and seemed to be associated with Authoritative parenting approaches, an effect that was not observed in the TD group. Findings suggest that the well-established effect of group on stress may be moderated by parenting style. Authoritative parenting may be highly stressful for parents of children with DD to implement, resulting in a decrease in its use across the two age groups.

  13. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  14. Social connections among parents of pre-school-age children in an inner and outer area of Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Jane Andrews

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parents’ social connectedness is an important factor in child health and development outcomes and has been strongly linked to place. This study aimed to compare social connectedness amongst parents in inner versus outer-suburbs of Melbourne using a mixed methods approach. Parents were recruited via playgroups, mother’s groups and preschools and interviewed face- to-face regarding their social networks, with a second open-ended interview focusing on parents’ ideals and experiences of raising children in their current location. Parents in the two areas identified a similar number of contacts, but had differently structured networks. Outer-suburban parents were more likely than inner-suburban parents to have very few contacts, and to name their general practitioner as among their significant contacts. They were less likely to have more extended networks or to include neighbours among their contacts. Parents in both areas had met at least some of their network members through local organisations or services with outer-suburban parents having met a greater proportion of their contacts in this way. Qualitative interview data supported the network analysis revealing the different priorities parents placed on neighbours, barriers experienced in connecting with neighbours in the outer- suburbs and the consequent heavy reliance on organised activities to form social connections. The different types of social connections parents in inner and outer Melbourne made in relation to raising their preschool-aged children revealed in this study have implications for both service delivery and social planning of new developments.

  15. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

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    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  16. A parent-based intervention to promote healthy eating and active behaviours in pre-school children: evaluation of the MEND 2-4 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, H; Hill, B; McCabe, M; Swinburn, B; Busija, L

    2016-02-01

    There is a paucity of studies evaluating targeted obesity prevention interventions in pre-school children. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a parent-based obesity prevention intervention for pre-schoolers - MEND (Mind, Exercise, Nutrition … Do It!) 2-4 on child diet, eating habits, physical activity/sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI). Parent-child dyads attended 10 weekly 90-min workshops relating to nutrition, physical activity and behaviours, including guided active play and healthy snack time. Assessments were conducted at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6 and 12 months post-intervention; child intake of vegetables, fruit, beverages, processed snack foods, fussiness, satiety responsiveness, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and neophobia were assessed via parent proxy report. Parent and child height and weight were measured. Two hundred one parent-child dyads were randomized to intervention (n = 104) and control (n = 97). Baseline mean child age was 2.7 (standard deviation [SD] 0.6) years, and child BMI-for-age z-score (World Health Organization) was 0.66 (SD 0.88). We found significant positive group effects for vegetable (P = 0.01) and snack food (P = 0.03) intake, and satiety responsiveness (P = 0.047) immediately post-intervention. At 12 months follow-up, intervention children exhibited less neophobia (P = 0.03) than controls. Future research should focus on additional strategies to support parents to continue positive behaviour change. ACTRN12610000200088. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. Pre-school children with suspected autism spectrum disorders: do girls and boys have the same profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gunilla Westman; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    The male to female ratio is raised in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have suggested that girls with ASD have more problems with communication than boys, but boys show more repetitive behaviours than girls. In this study, 20 girls, 1.8-3.9 years of age were matched for chronological and developmental age with 20 boys with suspected ASD. All the children were recruited after population screening and referral by Child Health Care Services to a specialised neuropsychiatry clinic, where they underwent comprehensive neuropsychiatric assessments. Comparisons were made with regard to diagnosis, developmental profiles and global disability. No significant gender differences were found. There were strong correlations between results obtained in different developmental areas. The results suggest that either (1) previous studies finding clear gender differences may have overrated discrepancies between girls and boys in ASD, or that (2) there may be girls, who will not be identified in the early years with our current screening instruments. More research with a much larger population representative study samples is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A model of roles and responsibilities in oral health promotion based on perspectives of a community-based initiative for pre-school children in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E; Rubin, G

    2014-03-01

    (i) To explore dental, school and family perspectives of an oral health promotion (OHP) initiative to improve access for pre-school children in deprived communities; (ii) to develop a model of roles and responsibilities for OHP in community settings. Semi-structured focus groups (n = 6) with dental practice staff (n = 24), and semi-structured interviews with school staff (n = 9) and parents and children (n = 4) who were involved in an OHP initiative for pre-school children. Framework analysis was applied to identify themes. Themes were used to develop a model of roles and responsibilities for OHP, based on the WHO Planning and evaluating health promotion model. Respondents subscribed to a community-based approach to improving access to dental services for pre-school children in deprived areas, with an emphasis on shared responsibility and communication. In addition to macro-level actions in directing health policy and services, commissioners were held responsible for investing in micro-level actions, such as funding OHP training and involving parents, and meso-level actions such as reducing barriers to access. The model we have developed builds on WHO recommendations on health promotion to identify the key roles and responsibilities that should be incorporated into further initiatives in OHP.

  19. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Warthon-Medina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe or multiple micronutrients (MMN including zinc (451 in each group. The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation.

  20. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation. PMID:26262642

  1. BASIC SUPPOSITIONS FOR ORGANIZING AND ESTABLISHING A COHERENT SYSTEM OF EARLY TREATMENT AND PRE-SCHOOL UPBRINGING OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES IN CONDITIONS OF TRANSITION (situation, problems and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupco Ajdinski

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper wants to pay attention to the utmost problems of treatment and pre-school upbringing, from several points of view ( health, social, educational, economic, normative etc., that are related to the establishment of the primary conditions and suppositions for successful organization of protection and rehabilitation of these children.Children with developmental difficulties are quite a complex problem of the family, society and professional problem. The complexity and the burden of this problem are seen through the type and level of impairment, through the number of such children, as in providing financial, personnel and other conditions that are needed for successful protection and treatment.Taking into consideration the number of these children, in the paper is given the prognosis according to some percentages used for the whole population by ON and WHO. It is considered that 5-7 % are children with developmental difficulties at pre-school period. because the main topic at this Symposium is early treatment and pre- school upbringing, the early age is taken for the mentioned percentage. According to this, in our country there are about 19.000 children from 0-9 years of age, if this percentage of 6 % is applied from the total number of children at that age, that shows in the latest census of the population in the R. of Macedonia in 1994 , that there are 313.908 children. This number shows the gravity of the problem that is elaborated in this paper. The author stresses that the complexity of this problem increases if we take into consideration the present conditions according to the range of these children with early treatment and preschool upbringing, as apart of the whole system of rehabilitation.The complete treatment, i.e. the rehabilitation of children with developmental difficulties presents the unity of all the provisions and proceedings that are necessary to be undertaken to eliminate or reduce to the minimum

  2. A population-based study of visual impairment among pre-school children in Beijing: the Beijing study of visual impairment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Sun, Baochen; Cui, Tongtong; Congdon, Nathan; Hu, Ailian; Chen, Jianhua; Shi, Jiliang

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment among Chinese children aged 3 to 6 years in Beijing. Population-based prevalence survey. Presenting and pinhole visual acuity were tested using picture optotypes or, in children with pinhole vision children with pinhole vision children aged 3 to 6 years (95.3% of sample). Subjects with bilateral correctable low vision (presenting vision or= 6/18) numbered 57 (0.322%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.237% to 0.403%), while 14 (0.079%; 95% CI, 0.038% to 0.120%) had bilateral uncorrectable low vision (best-corrected vision of or= 3/60), and 5 subjects (0.028%; 95% CI, 0.004% to 0.054%) were bilaterally blind (best-corrected acuity visual impairment included: refractive error in 57 children (75%), hereditary factors (microphthalmos, congenital cataract, congenital motor nystagmus, albinism, and optic nerve disease) in 13 children (17.1 %), amblyopia in 3 children (3.95%), and cortical blindness in 1 child (1.3%). The cause of visual impairment could not be established in 2 (2.63%) children. The prevalence of visual impairment did not differ by gender, but correctable low vision was significantly (P children. The leading causes of visual impairment among Chinese preschool-aged children are refractive error and hereditary eye diseases. A higher prevalence of refractive error is already present among urban as compared with rural children in this preschool population.

  3. Características vocais acústicas de crianças pré-escolares Vocal acoustic characteristics in pre-school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Michele Cappellari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro passo em qualquer tratamento é a avaliação. Desta forma, parâmetros de normalidade são a base para uma adequada avaliação. OBJETIVO: Verificar as medidas e características vocais de 23 crianças pré-escolares, entre quatro e seis anos, de ambos os sexos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostragem contou com questionário, triagem auditiva, e avaliação perceptivo-auditiva vocal, por meio da escala R.A.S.A.T.. A análise acústica foi realizada por meio do Multidimensional Voice Program. ESTUDO: Prospectivo de corte transversal. RESULTADOS: A variação de freqüência (vf0 e a proporção harmônico-ruído (NHR foram maiores na amostra total que aos cinco e seis anos; à medida que a idade aumentou, o NHR reduziu; à medida que o quociente de perturbação de Amplitude (PPQ aumentou, a vf0, variação de amplitude (vAm, o índice de fonação suave (SPI e o NHR também aumentaram; à medida que o PPQ, quociente de perturbação de amplitude (APQ e índice de turbulência vocal (VTI aumentaram, o índice de fonação suave (SPI reduziu. CONCLUSÃO: Os parâmetros acústicos, aos quatro anos, evidenciaram a imaturidade das estruturas e a falta de controle neuromuscular nessa idade e que o início deste processo de maturação, possivelmente, ocorre próximo aos cinco e seis anos de idade.Evaluation is the first step for any treatment. Therefore, normal parameters are the bases for proper evaluation. AIM: Verify measures and vocal acoustic characteristics of 23 pre-school aged children of both genders, aged four to six years and eight months. METHODS: The sampling process comprised a questionnaire -that was sent to parents, auditory screening and vocal-perception auditory assessment, based on the R.A.S.A.T. scale. Acoustic analysis was carried out through the Multi Dimensional Voice Program. STUDY: Prospective and cross-sectional. RESULTS: The noise-harmonic ratio (NHR and frequency variation (vf0 of the total sample was higher than what

  4. Soil-transmitted helminths in pre-school-aged and school-aged children in an urban slum: a cross-sectional study of prevalence, distribution, and associated exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

    2014-11-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  6. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nutritional deficiencies in the world today. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in Lagos. Methodology: The study was ...

  7. Looking at sexual education in pre-school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella García Quintero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the framework supporting the training of educative agents to influence upon sexual education of boys and girls in pre-school age as a way to attain high quality standard in the education. These rationale starts from the assumption that it is possible to favor the training process of educative agents on the topic by means of integrating actions with a gender centered approach. The proposal is the result of a thorough study based on the socio-historical cultural approach resulting from the doctoral dissertation already presented by the first authoress. At the same time, these results contribute to the research project “Training the family for the intellectual stimulus of pre-school children. Additionally it offers the stages of sexual education at pre-school age.

  8. Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J

    2015-04-01

    Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.

  9. Comparison of a possession score and a poverty index in predicting anaemia and undernutrition in pre-school children and women of reproductive age in rural and urban Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Tschannen, Andres B; Northrop-Clewes, Christine; Kouassi-Gohou, Valérie; Bosso, Patrice E; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether a possession score or a poverty index best predicts undernutrition and anaemia in women of reproductive age (15-49 years; WRA) and children aged 6-59 months living in Côte d'Ivoire. Anthropometric measurements were converted to Z-scores to assess stunting, wasting and underweight in children, and converted to BMI in WRA. A venous blood sample was drawn, and Hb concentration and Plasmodium spp. infection were determined. A possession score was generated with categories of zero to four possessions. A five-point (quintile) poverty index using household assets was created using principal component analysis. These socio-economic measures were compared for their ability to predict anaemia and malnutrition. Data were from a nationally representative survey conducted in Côte d'Ivoire in 2007. A sample of 768 WRA and 717 children aged 6-59 months was analysed. Overall, 74·9 % of children and 50·2 % of WRA were anaemic; 39·5 % of the children were stunted, 28·1 % underweight and 12·8 % wasted, while 7·4 % of WRA had BMI poverty index showed a stronger relationship with nutritional status than the possession score; mean Hb difference between the poorest and wealthiest quintiles in children and WRA was 8·2 g/l and 6·5 g/l, respectively (13·9 % and 19·8 % difference in anaemia, respectively; P poverty index was generally a better predictor of undernutrition in WRA and pre-school children than the possession score.

  10. Evaluation of fast food behavior in pre-school children and parents following a one-year intervention with nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy Xin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Ling, Dong Dong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan L; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie

    2014-06-30

    A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4-6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into "intervention" and "control" groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as "food", but rather as a "gift" or "interesting". The time of children's consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents' western style fast food behavior (p nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.

  11. Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into “intervention” and “control” groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as “food”, but rather as a “gift” or “interesting”. The time of children’s consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents’ western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01, although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.

  12. Assurance of opportunities for smooth start to school for pre-school education systems

    OpenAIRE

    Duobienė, Raimonda

    2016-01-01

    During a period of rapid globalisation, education has an obligation to adapt to the -needs of society. Current Lithuanian education policy for pre-school children provides that each child must be granted access to public services, working or needy families must be provided with greater support and a wider range of educational programmes that meet the needs of parents and children have to be developed. Currently in Lithuania, pre-school and pre-primary education is not mandatory, but it is...

  13. Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Søndergaard, Grethe; Vitting Andersen, Karen

    2012-01-01

    of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper......The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day...

  14. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and respiratory tract infections in pre-school children – a cross-sectional study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Bielska

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the 3-year-old children who had lower respiratory tract infections required antibiotics and hospitalization. Living in a home where no tobacco rules were established may cause an increase of respiratory tract infections.

  15. Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Lin, Dongdong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and c...

  16. CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL DESARROLLO COGNITIVO Y DEL LENGUAJE EN NIÑOS DE EDAD PREESCOLAR - CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGE PRE-SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIA ANGELICA CAMPO TERNERA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Study aimed to describe the general characteristics of cognitive development and 229 children aged 3 to 7 of socioeconomic status to attending official educational institutions of Barranquilla in the garden, grades 3 language transition first, developed under a descriptive design and was used as Inventory Development Battelle and the Questionnaire Maturity Child Neuropsychological instruments CUMANIN. The results demonstrate the need for stimulation in areas: receptive and expressive language, perceptual discrimination, reasoning and conceptual skills, memory and pace, low development in these aspects will mean for these children disadvantages compared to their peers that have a development according to their age

  17. The influence of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot on the biomechanics characteristics of foot of children of pre-school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychuk I.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article is defined linear and angular biomechanics descriptions of children's foot of senior preschool age. It is analysed the dynamics and increase of the explored indexes during realization of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot in the teaching process. In experiment took part teachers and instructors of physical culture; control and experimental group consist of 20 children at the age of 5-6 years old. Efficiency of the offered program of prophylaxis of flat foot is proved.

  18. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of DIR/Floortime[TM] Parent Training Intervention for Pre-School Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajareya, Kingkaew; Nopmaneejumruslers, Kaewta

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to test the efficacy of adding home-based Developmental, Individual-Difference, Relationship-Based (DIR)/Floortime[TM] intervention to the routine care of preschool children with autistic spectrum disorder. Measures of functional emotional development and symptom severity were taken. It was found that after the…

  19. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and their Association with Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban Pre-School Children in Benue State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyoalumun, Kpurkpur; Abubakar, Sani; Christopher, Nongu

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, contributing to high incidence of malnutrition and morbidity. This study aimed to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their association with nutritional status of children in Benue State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study conducted from January-June 2016, among 418 school children under-5 years of age. Anthropometric data, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Among the intestinal parasitic infections detected, the prevalence of E. histolytica was higher (51.0% and 29.0%) than all other parasites encountered in rural and urban pupils (Prural and urban pupils were 43.8% and 32.9%; 64.4% and 39.0% rural and urban pupils were underweight (WAZ<-2), while 30.3% and 24.3% were wasted (WHZ<-2). Infected children had significantly (P<0.05) higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Benue State is among the Nigerian states with the highest burden of tropical diseases with a current plan of elimination implemented through mass drug administration. This study identify/evaluate some essential information that will support the planning and implementation of the State's ongoing efforts.

  20. The Effect of Social Isolation on Depressive Symptoms Varies by Neighborhood Characteristics: A Study of an Urban Sample of Women with Pre-School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; O'Campo, Patricia; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Muntaner, Carles

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how individual characteristics, social isolation, and neighborhood context affect depressive symptoms in a socio-economically diverse population of women with young children. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 261 mothers from 68 neighborhoods in Baltimore between 1998 and 2000. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  1. Real-time PCR Demonstrates Ancylostoma duodenale Is a Key Factor in the Etiology of Severe Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Malawian Pre-school Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Khoffi, Harriet; Brabin, Bernard J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hookworm infections are an important cause of (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children in the tropics. Type of hookworm species (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) and infection load are considered associated with disease burden, although these parameters are rarely

  2. Vitamin D, not iron, is the main nutrient deficiency in pre-school and school-aged children in Mexico City: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint-Martinez de Castro, Georgina; Guagnelli, Miguel Ángel; Clark, Patricia; Méndez Sánchez, Lucía; López-González, Desireé; Galán-Herrera, Juan Francisco; Sánchez-Ruiz, Martín

    2016-07-19

    In 2012, the Mexican National Health Survey showed a moderate prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency, around 16%, in a national representative sample of children. A decreasing prevalence of anemia during the last 15 years has been observed in Mexico. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of vitamin D in children 3-8 years old in four different locations within the metropolitan area of Mexico City and to compare them to levels of iron and zinc as references of nutritional status. One hundred and seventeen healthy children aged 3-8 years attending four hospitals in Mexico City were invited to participate. All children received medical and nutritional evaluation, and blood samples were obtained. Children were selected in the four hospitals between April and August 2008. More than half (51.3%) were boys; their average age was 5.5 ± 1.6 years. The mean height and weight of the children were 112.1 ± 11.2 cm and 20.2 ± 4.9 kg respectively, with a body mass index [BMI] of 15.8 ± 1.7 kg/m². The mean Z-score (BMI) was 0.007 ± 0.999. The prevalence of subjects with deficient levels of 25-OH-vitamin D (ENSANUT 2012) about the sustained reduction of anaemia prevalence among preschool and schoolchildren since 1999 and the rising rates of vitamin D deficiency in the same population. Similar to other studies, we found a link between socioeconomic status and the deficiency of micronutrients, these being markers of better nutrition, and vitamin D is remarkably related to the quality of the diet. This finding has not been considered in our population before. There is evidence of a sustained decrease of anaemia in Mexican children due to general enrichment of foods and focus on vulnerable populations, while vitamin D deficiency seems to have increased. More studies are needed to obtain more information on vitamin D levels at different ages and definition of susceptible groups in order to investigate the possibility of general population measures such as enrichment

  3. PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Bjelica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A poll procedure has been done at sample of 102 kindergarten teachers with Bachelor degree attending Specialist studies at Department of Pre-School Education of the Faculty of Philosophy in Niksic, and the aim of the poll was to determine the examinees’ opinions on games organizations in pre-school institutions, from all towns of Montenegro. All of the questioned teachers were employed during the poll or they had already had working experience. The poll was based on the 14 questions ques¬tionnaire, especially made for this purpose in which the questions were classified in groups in order to determine 4 aspects that are important for successful organization of games. The first group of the questions regards choice of the games to be played; the second group relates to space choice for the game, as the third group of the questions refers to the way of making groups of children during preparation. The fourth group of the questions regards making cooperation and tolerance among the children during the games’ realization. This poll is a part of the research done at the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education in Niksic with the aim to get directions for improving teaching and expert work in pre-school institutions through monitoring and insight into opinions of Specialist studies’ students.

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE EDUCATIONAL STAFF TOWARDS CHILDREN WITH DEVE LOPMENTAL DISORDERS-AN IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR THEIR QUALITY TREATMENT IN THE PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana MATOVSKA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction· The purpose for the integration in the preschool institution· The need for the integration in the preschool institution· The results of the integration in the preschool institutionPersonal experience from the integration in the preschool institution· The relationship of the educational and upbringing staff towards the child· The relationship of the child towards the preschool institution· (the relationship towards the other children and the relationship towards the staff Proposal and suggestions for solving the present situation· The completion of legislative and its carrying out in practice· The creation of space and staff possibilities for active integration of the children with developmental disorders in the preschool institutions· The preparation of didactic material and the devices for carrying out the working program.

  5. Unhealthy and healthy food consumption inside and outside of the school by pre-school and elementary school Mexican children in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lilian; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-12-01

    Food from lunch packs (LP) or food available inside and outside of school can play an important role in the development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the LP of elementary school (ES) and preschool children (PS) in Tijuana, and the foods available to them inside and outside of school. Eight public schools participated in the study. A random sample of all the groups from a school district was conducted. A questionnaire was administered to children in first through sixth grade (ES) and to the parents of PS. LP and food available inside and outside of the school were classified as healthy, unhealthy, and adequate according to the guidelines set forth by the Secretariat of Health. A total of 2,716 questionnaires were administered and the content of 648 LP was assessed. It was observed that 99% of PS had LP prepared at home, a higher percentage than ES. None of the LP of the ES was classified as healthy, and 1% was classified as adequate. Among PS, 21% of the LP were classified as healthy and 6% as adequate. More than half of the children recognized the brand name of foods high in fat, salt, and added sugar available inside and outside of school grounds. Most of the LP of ES and PS and the foods available inside and outside of school were unhealthy and inadequate. A strategy to prevent the availability of unhealthy and inadequate food in LP and foods available inside and outside schools is recommended.

  6. Anthropometric Improvement among HIV Infected Pre-School Children Following Initiation of First Line Anti-Retroviral Therapy: Implications for Follow Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnafu Mekonnen Tekleab

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART is a lifesaving intervention for HIV infected children. There is a scarcity of data on immunological recovery and its relation with growth indicators among HIV infected young children. The current study aims to assess the pattern of anthropometric Z-score improvement following initiation of first-line ART among under-five children and the relationship between anthropometric Z-score improvement and immunologic recovery.We included under-five children who were on first-line ART at five major hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. We measured anthropometry and collected clinical and laboratory data at follow up, and we retrieved clinical and anthropometric data at ART initiation from records. Z-scores for each of the anthropometric indices were calculated based on WHO growth standards using ENA for SMART 2011 software. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between time on ART and anthropometric Z-score improvement; and the relationship between anthropometric Z-score improvement and immunologic recovery. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent predictors of anthropometric Z-score change.The median age of the participants was 4.1 (Interquartile range (IQR: 3.3-4.9 years. More than half (52.48% were female. The median duration of follow up was 1.69 (IQR: 1.08-2.63 years. There was a significant improvement in all anthropometric indices at any follow up after initiation of first-line ART (underweight; 39.5% vs16.5%, stunting; 71.3% vs 62.9% and wasting; 16.3% vs 1.0%; p-value< 0.0001. There was an inverse relationship between improvement in weight for age Z-score (WAZ and duration of ART (R2 = 0.04; F (1, 158; p = 0.013. Height for age Z-score (HAZ both at the time of ART initiation and follow up has a positive linear relationship with CD4 percentage at follow up (Coef. = 1.92; R2 = 0.05; p-value = 0.002. Duration on ART (Std. Err. = 0.206, t = -1.99, p-value = 0.049 and level of maternal

  7. Cost-effectiveness of interventions for increasing the possession of functioning smoke alarms in households with pre-school children: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Pedro; Cooper, Nicola J; Sutton, Alex J; Hayes, Mike; Dunn, Ken; Manca, Andrea; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-05-16

    The UK has one of the highest rates for deaths from fire and flames in children aged 0-14 years compared to other high income countries. Evidence shows that smoke alarms can reduce the risk of fire-related injury but little exists on their cost-effectiveness. We aimed to compare the cost effectiveness of different interventions for the uptake of 'functioning' smoke alarms and consequently for the prevention of fire-related injuries in children in the UK. We carried out a decision model-based probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis. We used a hypothetical population of newborns and evaluated the impact of living in a household with or without a functioning smoke alarm during the first 5 years of their life on overall lifetime costs and quality of life from a public health perspective. We compared seven interventions, ranging from usual care to more complex interventions comprising of education, free/low cost equipment giveaway, equipment fitting and/or home safety inspection. Education and free/low cost equipment was the most cost-effective intervention with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £34,200 per QALY gained compared to usual care. This was reduced to approximately £4,500 per QALY gained when 1.8 children under the age of 5 were assumed per household. Assessing cost-effectiveness, as well as effectiveness, is important in a public sector system operating under a fixed budget restraint. As highlighted in this study, the more effective interventions (in this case the more complex interventions) may not necessarily be the ones considered the most cost-effective.

  8. Association between the seven-repeat allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) and spontaneous food intake in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Portella, André Krumel; Kennedy, James L; Gaudreau, Hélène; Davis, Caroline; Steiner, Meir; Soares, Claudio N; Matthews, Stephen G; Sokolowski, Marla B; Dubé, Laurette; Loucks, Eric B; Hamilton, Jill; Meaney, Michael J; Levitan, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    Studies in adults show associations between the hypofunctional seven-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), increased eating behaviour and/or obesity, particularly in females. We examined whether 7R is associated with total caloric intake and/or food choices in pre-schoolers. 150 four-year-old children taking part in a birth cohort study in Canada were administered a snack test meal in a laboratory setting. Mothers also filled out a food frequency questionnaire to address childrens' habitual food consumption. Total caloric and individual macronutrient intakes during the snack meal and specific types of foods as reported in the food diaries were compared across 7R allele carriers vs. non-carriers, using current BMI as a co-variate. We found significant sex by genotype interactions for fat and protein intake during the snack test. Post hoc testing revealed that in girls, but not boys, 7R carriers ate more fat and protein than did non-carriers. Based on the food diaries, across both sexes, 7R carriers consumed more portions of ice cream and less vegetables, eggs, nuts and whole bread, suggesting a less healthy pattern of habitual food consumption. The 7R allele of DRD4 influences macronutrient intakes and specific food choices as early as four years of age. The specific pattern of results further suggests that prior associations between the 7R allele and adult overeating/obesity may originate in food choices observable in the preschool years. Longitudinal follow-up of these children will help establish the relevance of these findings for obesity risk and prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Healthy eating and the difficulties faced in making it a reality: perceptions of parents/guardians of pre-school children in Belo Horizonte/MG, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Isabel Cristina; Esteves, Juliana Maria de Melo; França, Thaís Elias

    2015-08-01

    A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted to establish the perceptions of 77 guardians of preschool children enrolled in a Child Day Care Center in Belo Horizonte/Minas Gerais State, regarding what is a healthy diet and the difficulties faced in having a healthy diet. The instrument used was a pretested semi-structured questionnaire containing leading questions obtained in face-to-face interviews. For data analysis, the Collective Subject Discourse technique was used, which elicited data organization of a verbal nature. It was revealed that the guardians have a notion of what healthy diet is, however their answers implied inadequate eating habits. They attributed insufficient financial resources, lack of time and ingrained eating habits as being the main difficulties in having a healthy diet. These three difficulties are the reasons given by some guardians who do not believe they have a healthy diet. The conclusion drawn is that the guardians need to have a better diet, because their eating habits influence their children's eating habits. These findings revealed the need for food and nutrition education strategies to enable the guardians to recognize and have a healthy diet.

  10. Desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças prematuras de muito baixo peso na idade pré-escolar Pre-school cognitive development of very low birth weight preterm children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. B. B. Méio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desenvolvimento cognitivo na idade pré-escolar de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de prematuros nascidos entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993, com peso igual ou menor que 1.500 g, egressos de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal pública, foi avaliada na idade pré-escolar pelo teste WPPSI-R, aplicado por psicólogas. Foram excluídas crianças com malformações, síndromes genéticas ou infecção congênita, transferidas de outra instituição, nascidas de parto domiciliar e com condições que impedissem a aplicação do teste. Avaliaram-se crianças pré-escolares de uma escola na mesma cidade, nascidas a termo, para comparação. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 79/129 crianças, com peso de nascimento médio de 1.219,6 g (±168,9; 44/61 delas (72,1% estavam na escola. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos (estudo e perda. As médias dos escores obtidos pelas crianças do estudo foram: total - 75,6±11,9; executivo - 77±12,9; e verbal - 78,6±11,1. Nas crianças da escola, as médias foram: total - 85,1±13,2; executivo - 85,3±13,8; e verbal - 87,7±13,9. Essa diferença foi significativa tanto para os escores total (p OBJECTIVE: To examine the cognitive development of school-aged children born preterm and with very low birthweight. METHODS: A cohort of premature infants born between January, 1991, and September, 1993 was examined at pre-school age. All fo them were born in a public Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with birth weight less than 1,500g. The WPPSI-R Test was used for cognitive evaluation and applied by psychologists. Babies with malformations, genetic syndromes, congenital infections, transferred from other institutions or born at home, and those with conditions which precluded the application of the test, were excluded. A group of pre-school children in the same city, born at term, were tested for comparison. RESULTS: 79 children were

  11. Child’s creativity in transition from pre-school to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal research started from the conclusion reached by different authors. According to them the time when a child leaves a pre-school institution to start primary school is marked by stagnation of and decrease in child’s creativity, seen as a personality potential. The aim of the research was to establish creativity levels shown by children in both pre-school institution and primary school, and then to conclude if difference between pre-school and school teachers` attitudes influence the development of a child’s creativity. Data was collected from a judgment scale given to pre-school and school teachers and arts creativity task given to children. It was concluded that the level of children’s creativity started to drop after they started primary school. Different understanding of the idea of creativity between pre-school and primary school teachers could be a possible reason leading to the phenomenon of decreasing creative expression in children starting primary school. On the basis of previous theoretical assumptions and the research results it is possible to define measures to be taken in view of teacher training, both at pre-school and primary school level. It is also important to check the validity of suggested measures in future research.

  12. Effects of Two Micronutrient-Fortified Food Aid Products Containing Different Levels of Dairy Protein on Anthropometric Variables in Rural Pre-School Children in Guinea-Bissau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Payal; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan; Schlossman, Nina; Balan, Ela; Pruzensky, William

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Food insecurity in Guinea-Bissau is widespread and micronutrient deficiencies are anticipated among vulnerable groups. The objective: to test the efficacy of two Micronutrient-Rich Ready to Use Supplementary Foods (MNR-RUSF) in preschool children aged 3-5 years over 3 months. 9 preschools were randomly assigned to one of two intervention arms (92 gram MNR-RUSF sachets containing 500 kcal/sachet and either 15% or 33% of dairy protein, provided 5 days per week) or to a control (C) group that received no MNR-RUSF. Weight, height and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured at baseline and endline. Malnutrition at baseline was high, with 5.6% <2 z scores for weight and 7.1% <2 z scores for height. Both intervention arms showed a significant increase in weight vs. controls (ΔWeight 15% group = 0.77+0.75 kg, 33% group = 0.76+0.78 kg, C = 0.42+0.1.8 kg, p<0.05) but not in height (ΔHeight 15% group = 3.1+2.0 cm, 33% group = 2.8+2.1 cm, C = 2.8+3.8 cm, p = 0.34). Changes in weight and height were not significantly different between the 15% and 33% groups (p = 0.99 and p = 0.38, respectively). There was a significant increase in MUAC in both the intervention arms vs. control, with the 33% intervention arm demonstrating a significantly greater increase than the 15% intervention arm (ΔMUAC 15% group = -.03±0.68 cm, 33% group = 0.14±0.78 cm, C = -0.31±0.67cm, p<0.001). This study is the first to focus on anthropometry in preschool-aged children in Guinea-Bissau and indicates that while both standard and high-dairy containing MNR-RUSF products improve weight in preschool populations with a high prevalence of malnutrition, those containing high levels of dairy protein have additional benefits for improving MUAC. (author)

  13. Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic.

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    Yajun Mu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children.One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes, aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves.The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, P<0.01. Bland-Altman plot indicated a moderate agreement of cylinder values between the two methods. Based on the criteria specified by the AAPOS 2013 guidelines, the sensitivity and specificity (in respective order for detecting hyperopia were 98.31% and 97.14%; for detecting myopia were 78.50% and 88.64%; for detecting astigmatism were 90.91% and 80.37%; for detecting anisometropia were 93.10% and 85.25%; and for detection of strabismus was 77.55% and 88.18%.The refractive values measured from Spot photoscreener showed a moderate agreement with the results from cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction, however there was an overall myopic shift of -0.49D. The performance in detecting individual amblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves.

  14. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  15. Tempo máximo de fonação de crianças pré-escolares Maximum phonation time in pre-school children

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    Carla Aparecida Cielo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre o tempo máximo de fonação (TMF em crianças obtiveram diferentes resultados, constatando que tal medida pode refletir o controle neuromuscular e aerodinâmico da produção vocal, podendo ser utilizada como indicador para outras formas de avaliação, tanto qualitativas quanto objetivas. OBJETIVO: Verificar as medidas de TMF de 23 crianças pré-escolares, com idades entre quatro e seis anos e oito meses. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O processo de amostragem contou com questionário enviado aos pais, triagem auditiva e avaliação perceptivo-auditiva vocal, por meio da escala RASAT. A coleta de dados constou dos TMF. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Prospectivo de corte transversal. RESULTADOS: Os TMF /a/, /s/ e /z/ médios foram 7,42s, 6,35s e 7,19s; os TMF /a/ aos seis anos, foram significativamente maiores do que aos quatro anos; à medida que a idade aumentou, todos os TMF também aumentaram; e a relação s/z para todas as idades foi próxima de um. CONCLUSÕES: Os valores de TMF mostraram-se superiores aos verificados em pesquisas nacionais e inferiores aos verificados em pesquisa internacionais. Além disso, pode-se concluir que as faixas etárias analisadas no presente estudo encontram-se num período de maturação nervosa e muscular, sendo a imaturidade mais evidente na faixa etária dos quatro anos.Past studies on the maximum phonation time (MPT in children have shown different results in duration. This factor may reflect the neuromuscular and aerodynamic control of phonation in patients; such control might be used as an indicator of other evaluation methods on a qualitative and quantitative basis. AIM: to verify measures of MPT and voice acoustic characteristics in 23 children aged four to six year and eight months. METHOD: The sampling process comprised a questionnaire that was sent to parents, followed by auditory screening and a voice perceptive-auditory assessment based on the R.A.S.A.T. scale. Data collection included the MPT. STUDY

  16. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Package: a novel method for the multi-dimensional assessment of neurodevelopment in pre-school age children.

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    Michelle Fernandes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. METHODS: An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. RESULTS: The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests; cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm; and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment in 35-45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD. Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts.

  17. Parental knowledge of pre-school child oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Anand; Rao, Arun Prasad; Reddy, Venugopal; Ahamed, Syed Shaheed; Muhammad, Shameer; Thayumanavan, Shanmugam

    2013-10-01

    The dental health of preschool children has extensive implications on the oral heath of the individual as he grows into an adult. Parents/guardians of preschool children play a central role in enforcing proper oral hygiene and preventive regime in these children. This study was conducted with the aim of describing the views of parents/guardians about the dental health of pre-school children. Response was obtained on a 21 point questionnaire from randomly visiting parents of the outpatient section of Rajah Muthiah dental college and Hospital, Annamalainagar, India. The findings of the present study point towards poor awareness among the parents/guardians of preschool children, pertaining to their childs' oral health and this could directly translate to poor oral health among the children in this area.

  18. Development and validation of a Chinese translated questionnaire: A single simultaneous tool for assessing gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract related illnesses in pre-school children

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    Amy S.Y. Lau, MSc

    2018-04-01

    لحصول على مؤشر صلاحية عملية الاستجابة للبند بمستوى ١.٠٠ لهذه الاستبانة من ٣٠ من المجيبين مما يدل على أن البنود كانت واضحة ومفهومة. الاستنتاجات: أظهرت هذه الدراسة مستوى جيدا من مؤشر الصلاحية في النسخة المترجمة الصينية، مما يدل على أنها أداة صالحة وموثوق بها لاستخدامها في التقييم المتزامن للأمراض ذات الصلة بالجهازين الهضمي والتنفسي في الأطفال الصغار ويمكن تطبيقها على سكان ماليزيا الصينيين والدول الأخرى الناطقة بالصينية. Abstract: Objectives: Children are prone to contagious illnesses that come from peers in nurseries, kindergartens, and day care centres. The administration of probiotics has been reported to decrease the episodes of such illnesses, leading to decreased absences and consumption of antibiotics. With less emphasis on, and preferences for, blood collection from young subjects, quantifiable data are merely obtained from surveys and questionnaires. Malaysia has a population which is 25% ethnic Chinese. We aimed to develop a single tool that enables simultaneous assessments of both gastrointestinal and respiratory tract-related illnesses among young Chinese children. Methods: The English-language validated questionnaires using data about demographics and monthly health records were translated into the Chinese language. Both forward and backward translated versions were validated. Results: The developed demographic and monthly health questionnaires showed an overall item-level content validity index (I-CVI of 0.99 and 0.97, respectively; while the translated Chinese versions showed I-CVI of 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. Item-level of response process validity index of 1.00 for this questionnaire was obtained from 30 respondents

  19. Aleitamento materno, alimentação complementar, sobrepeso e obesidade em pré-escolares Amamantamiento materno, alimentación complementaria, sobrepeso y obesidad en preescolares Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, overweight and obesity in pre-school children

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    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento Simon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação do sobrepeso e da obesidade com o aleitamento materno e a alimentação complementar em pré-escolares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 566 crianças matriculadas em escolas particulares no município de São Paulo, SP, 2004-2005. A variável dependente foi sobrepeso e obesidade. Para a classificação do estado nutricional das crianças foram utilizadas as curvas de percentis do Índice de Massa Corporal para idade, classificando como sobrepeso valores e"P85 e OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación del sobrepeso y de la obesidad con el amamantamiento materno y la alimentación complementaria en preescolares. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal envolviendo 566 niños matriculados en escuelas privadas en el municipio de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, 2004-2005. La variable dependiente fue sobrepeso y obesidad. Para la clasificación del estado nutricional de los niños fueron utilizadas las curvas de percentiles del índice de masa corporal para edad, clasificando como sobrepeso valores ?P85 y OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of overweight and obesity with breastfeeding and complementary feeding in pre-school children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 566 children, enrolled in private schools of the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2004-2005. The dependent variable was overweight and obesity. Body Mass Index percentile curves were employed to classify children's nutritional status, considering values e"P85 and

  20. Children’s participation in Finnish pre-school education - Identifying, Describing and Documenting Children’s Participation

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    Jonna Leinonen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, analyzes, and evaluates children’s participatory in Finnish pre-school groups. Children’s participation is viewed in the context of the Core Curriculum for Pre-school Education in Finland (2010, in which children are considered active subjects, who interact with both other people and the environment. However, in practical data, collected via survey from pre-school educators, this ideology is restricted and the educators in pre-school groups focus on children’s participation from a narrow point of view that reflects a lack of connection between the Core Curriculum goals for pre-school education and the actual participatory practices children face.

  1. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among pre-school and school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate vitamin A status of pre-school and school aged children in the study area. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Arssi, Ethiopia Subjects: Four hundred and two children. Results: Night blindness, Bitots spot, corneal xerosis, corneal ulceration and corneal scar were observed in 7.2%, 2.2 %, 0.2%, 0.5%, ...

  2. Afecciones bucales más frecuentes en preescolares de Consolación del Sur Most frequent oral affections in pre-school children in Consolacion del Sur

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    María del Carmen Rosete Mazón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en niños preescolares de 2-5 años, pertenecientes al área de salud del policlínico "5 de Septiembre", municipio Consolación del Sur, Pinar del Río, en el período comprendido entre 2006-2007, con el objetivo de determinar las afecciones bucales más frecuentes. El universo estuvo formado por 453 niños y la muestra por 412 niños según los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Los preescolares incluidos en el estudio oscilaron entre 2 y 5 años de edad. Se confeccionó un formulario para la recogida de los datos previo consentimiento informado de padres o representantes. Se examinaron los niños en el consultorio, hogar o círculo infantil, con luz natural, usando guantes, depresores linguales y regla milimetrada para medir la magnitud del resalte. Para el procesamiento y el análisis de la información se confeccionó una base de datos utilizando el sistema Microsoft Excel 2003 y el programa estadístico Estadística 5.0. Se aplicó en calidad de medida de resumen el porcentaje. La asociación entre las variables se analizó mediante el test de independencia basado en la distribución ji cuadrado. El nivel de significación estadística empleado fue de 0.05. Se identificaron como afecciones bucales más frecuentes en la mayoría de los niños estudiados la caries dental, maloclusiones y traumatismos dentarios.A descriptive, cross- sectional study with pre-school children from 2 to five years old belonging to "5 de septiembre" clinic in Consolacion del Sur was conducted from 2006 to 2007 with the objective of determining most frequent oral affections. The target group was comprised of 453 children and the sample of 412 considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ages taken were approximately 2 and 5 years old. A form to collect data was prepared taking into account a previous informed consent from parents or representatives. Children were examined in the polyclinic, home or care centers

  3. Contribuição da educação infantil para o letramento: um estudo a partir do conhecimento de crianças sobre textos The contribution of pre-school to literacy: a study about children's textual knowledge

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    Maria Tarciana de Almeida Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que mesmo indivíduos não alfabetizados fazem usos sociais da leitura e da escrita e que a escola tem papel importante nestes usos, o presente estudo investigou a contribuição da educação infantil para o letramento em crianças ainda não alfabetizadas. Em uma perspectiva psicológica, o letramento foi examinando a partir do conhecimento sobre textos e seus portadores. Crianças na faixa etária entre 7 e 8 anos com diferentes níveis de escolaridade (três anos, dois anos, um ano e sem educação infantil foram solicitadas a identificar diferentes portadores de textos (Tarefa 1 e a discriminar textos de diferentes gêneros (Tarefa 2. Observou-se que as crianças tinham um conhecimento limitado sobre textos e seus portadores, e que os anos de educação infantil não propiciaram o desenvolvimento deste conhecimento.Taking into consideration that even illiterate individuals make social uses of reading and writing, and that school has an important role in such uses, this study investigated the contribution that pre-school education has to literacy in terms of social practice for illiterate children. In a psychological perspective, literacy was examined based on the knowledge of texts and their media. Children aged 7 and 8 with different levels of schooling (three years, two years, one year, and no pre-school education were asked to identify different text media (Task 1 and to discriminate texts of different genres (Task 2. We observed that children had limited knowledge of texts and their media, and that the years of pre-school education did not promote the development of such knowledge.

  4. COMPETENCE CONDITIONS ENABLING EDUCATION IN PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION ESTABLISHMENTS: PARENTS’ EVALUATION

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    Skaistė Kovienė

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Competence, psychological and material-organisational conditions determine favourable educational environment for parent education in pre-school education establishments. The aim of this research is - to identify competence conditions determining favourable educational environment for parent education in pre-school education establishment. Competence conditions, determining favourable educational environment for parent education in pre-school education establishments, which are formed of pedagogues and parents’ collaboration and parents’ communication between themselves, have been examined in the research. One of the determining factors, forming favourable educational environment for parent education is- pre-school educational establishment pedagogues, therefore both professional and personal pedagogues’ abilities were analysed to apply the most suitable communication and collaboration forms with parents in a concrete situation, to give parents pedagogical-psychological support. Standardised interview was applied for the research (for gathering empiric research data and content analysis (empiric data analysis. Parents of the children attending pre-school education establishments participated in the research. The obtained results allowed making concrete conclusions about competence conditions determining favourable environment for parent education and to identify, according to parents, the most necessary for parents’ education improvement educational environment area, – pedagogues and parents’ communication and collaboration.

  5. Healthy incentive scheme in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, C Johnston

    2013-12-16

    A pre-school offering a full-day-care service provides for children aged 0-5 years for more than 4 h\\/d. Researchers have called for studies that will provide an understanding of nutrition and physical activity practices in this setting. Obesity prevention in pre-schools, through the development of healthy associations with food and health-related practices, has been advocated. While guidelines for the promotion of best nutrition and health-related practice in the early years\\' setting exist in a number of jurisdictions, associated regulations have been noted to be poor, with the environment of the child-care facility mainly evaluated for safety. Much cross-sectional research outlines poor nutrition and physical activity practice in this setting. However, there are few published environmental and policy-level interventions targeting the child-care provider with, to our knowledge, no evidence of such interventions in Ireland. The aim of the present paper is to review international guidelines and recommendations relating to health promotion best practice in the pre-school setting: service and resource provision; food service and food availability; and the role and involvement of parents in pre-schools. Intervention programmes and assessment tools available to measure such practice are outlined; and insight is provided into an intervention scheme, formulated from available best practice, that was introduced into the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

  6. Fairy-Tale Niche Marketing: Neoliberal Appropriation of Pre-School Education

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    Urszula Dzikiewicz-Gazda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author describes specfic mechanisms of neoliberalization at work in pre-school education in Poland. The argument is based on an ethnographic analysis of a theatre performance which crowned one of Wrocław’s educational projects called “Enterprising Pre-school Student”. It demonstrates the workings of neoliberal ideology, which—based on the niche marketing strategy—targets specific needs of particular consumer groups. Addressing children with a specialised marketing message, the strategy uses fairy tales as a tool and cover for instilling desired behaviour patterns in them.

  7. Constructing squares as a mathematical problem solving process in pre-school

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    MARIA ANGELA SHIAKALLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Could problem solving be the object of teaching in early education? Could children’s engagement in problem solving processes lead to skills and conceptual understanding development? Could appropriate teaching interventions scaffold children’s efforts? The sample consisted of 25 children attending public pre-school in Cyprus. The children were asked to construct different sized squares. Findings show that children responded positively to the problem and were successful in solving it. During the problem solving process children demonstrated development of skills and conceptual understanding. Teacher-children and children-children interactions played an important role in the positive outcome of the activity.

  8. INCLUSIVE CULTURE IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

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    Irena NOVACHEVSKA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive policy and practice, one cannot talk about successful inclusion without a properly developed inclusive institutional culture.This paper is a contribution to the research considering the development of inclusive culture in three preschool institutions. It is based on the thinking and attitudes of the pre­school staff toward the necessity of developing and nurturing an inclusive culture. Successful inclusion of pupils with special needs in the mainstream school system cannot be conceived without an inclusive culture.

  9. Validation of a questionnaire for asthma case identification in pre-schools in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Luciano E; Sly, Peter D; Llancaman, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    We recently developed and validated a screening questionnaire for determining which school-aged children may need further investigation to diagnose and manage asthma. In the present study we sought to extend this to pre-school aged children. Questions from the school-aged questionnaire and literature on pre-school asthma were used to inform a focus group of parents with pre-school-aged children with asthma to develop a screening questionnaire. Parents of children attending 6 randomly selected kindergartens in Trelew, Argentina (n = 639) were invited to respond to the questionnaire. A reliability test-retest was undertaken in 187 randomly selected parents who completed the same questionnaire twice within 2-5 weeks. Clinical assessment included a standardized history and physical examination, spirometry before and after a β-agonist inhaler, and chest X-ray. Asthma was diagnosed by the pulmonologist. Completed surveys were returned for 620 children, 607 of whom underwent clinical evaluation. The mean age was 4.21 years (range of 3.01-5.50) and included 82.5% white and 49.4% male children. Asthma was diagnosed in 103 (17.0%) children); 72 (69.9%) of these children did not have a previous diagnosis of asthma. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the questionnaire were 93.2%, 86.1%, 57.8% and 98.4%, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of a screening questionnaire for identifying pre-school-aged children who may benefit from further assessment for asthma. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Exploring personality traits and well-being among pre-school and primary school teachers in Croatia

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    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-school and primary school teachers are directly involved in the education of children. In addition to teachers’ competences, the quality of their work is significantly influenced by their psychological well-being. It is therefore important to focus on their well-being as well as on personality traits they have. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between life satisfaction, happiness, optimism and personality traits of pre-school and primary school teachers in Croatia. Participants and procedure The study was conducted on a sample of 103 pre-school teachers and 117 primary school teachers who completed self-evaluated scales on personality traits, life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. Results The results demonstrated high levels of all personality traits in both samples. High levels of life satisfaction were positively associated with happiness and optimism. Personality traits were also positively associated with life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. There were no differences in life satisfaction, happiness, optimism or personality traits between pre-school and primary school teachers, except for openness to experience being higher in pre-school teachers. Emotional stability was a significant predictor of teachers’ well-being. Conclusions The results have significant implications for improvement of teaching practice at primary school and pre-school levels. The findings highlight the importance of teachers’ personality traits and their well-being for the quality of their work with children.

  11. Open pre-schools at integrated health services - A program theory

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    Agneta Abrahamsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family centres in Sweden are integrated services that reach all prospective parents and parents with children up to their sixth year, because of the co-location of the health service with the social service and the open pre-school. The personnel on the multi-professional site work together to meet the needs of the target group. The article explores a program theory focused on the open pre-schools at family centres.Method: A multi-case design is used and the sample consists of open pre-schools at six family centres. The hypothesis is based on previous research and evaluation data. It guides the data collection which is collected and analysed stepwise. Both parents and personnel are interviewed individually and in groups at each centre.Findings: The hypothesis was expanded to a program theory. The compliance of the professionals was the most significant element that explained why the open access service facilitated positive parenting. The professionals act in a compliant manner to meet the needs of the children and parents as well as in creating good conditions for social networking and learning amongst the parents. Conclusion: The compliance of the professionals in this program theory of open pre-schools at family centres can be a standard in integrated and open access services, whereas the organisation form can vary. The best way of increasing the number of integrative services is to support and encourage professionals that prefer to work in a compliant manner.

  12. Open pre-schools at integrated health services - A program theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Abrahamsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family centres in Sweden are integrated services that reach all prospective parents and parents with children up to their sixth year, because of the co-location of the health service with the social service and the open pre-school. The personnel on the multi-professional site work together to meet the needs of the target group. The article explores a program theory focused on the open pre-schools at family centres. Method: A multi-case design is used and the sample consists of open pre-schools at six family centres. The hypothesis is based on previous research and evaluation data. It guides the data collection which is collected and analysed stepwise. Both parents and personnel are interviewed individually and in groups at each centre. Findings: The hypothesis was expanded to a program theory. The compliance of the professionals was the most significant element that explained why the open access service facilitated positive parenting. The professionals act in a compliant manner to meet the needs of the children and parents as well as in creating good conditions for social networking and learning amongst the parents. Conclusion: The compliance of the professionals in this program theory of open pre-schools at family centres can be a standard in integrated and open access services, whereas the organisation form can vary. The best way of increasing the number of integrative services is to support and encourage professionals that prefer to work in a compliant manner.

  13. Arriboflavinose clínica em pré-escolares, filhos de migrantes em trânsito pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento, na capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Clinical riboflavin deficiency in pre-school age children of migrants in transit through Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento in the Capital of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Wilson

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento clínico entre 109 pré-escolares, filhos de migrantes em trânsito pela Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN, tendo-se constatado altíssima prevalência de arriboflavinose. A única medida factível foi a administração de riboflavina a todas as crianças examinadas.A clinical study was carried out on 109 pre-school age children of migrants in transit through Central de Triagem e Encaminhamento (CETREN. A very high prevalence rate regarding arriboflavinosis was found. The only feasible measure was administration of riboflavin in capsules to all children examined.

  14. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  15. Use of electronic games by young children and fundamental movement skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Hinkley, Trina; Okely, Anthony D; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated associations between pre-school children's time spent playing electronic games and their fundamental movement skills. In 2009, 53 children had physical activity (Actigraph accelerometer counts per minute), parent proxy-report of child's time in interactive and non-interactive electronic games (min./week), and movement skill (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) assessed. Hierarchical linear regression, adjusting for age (range = 3-6 years), sex (Step 1), and physical activity (cpm; M=687, SD=175.42; Step 2), examined the relationship between time in (a) non-interactive and (b) interactive electronic games and locomotor and object control skill. More than half (59%, n=31) of the children were female. Adjusted time in interactive game use was associated with object control but not locomotor skill. Adjusted time in non-interactive game use had no association with object control or locomotor skill. Greater time spent playing interactive electronic games is associated with higher object control skill proficiency in these young children. Longitudinal and experimental research is required to determine if playing these games improves object control skills or if children with greater object control skill proficiency prefer and play these games.

  16. COMMUNICATION WITH PARENTS PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION VIA MODERN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    KOZLOVÁ, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    My bachelor thesis address the question of communication with parents in the pre-school education using modern technologies in our and other countries. In this thesis I tried to determine the real state of usage of modern communication technologies at chosen pre-school education facilities by interview research. Based on this research I suggest the optimal solution of this communication problem on the level of current modern communication technologies.

  17. Relationship between anthropometry and motor abilities at pre-school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toia, Daniela; Klein, Daniel; Weber, Sarah; Wessely, Nicolas; Koch, Benjamin; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Struder, Heiko; Graf, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Little is known to date about the relationship between poor motor abilities and overweight or obese pre-school children. Thus, this study examined the association between motor abilities and weight status in 1,228 kindergarten children (45.8% female). Anthropometric data were assessed; age 4.7 + or - 1.0 years; height 108.6 + or - 8.0 cm; weight 19.1 + or - 3.6 kg; BMI 16.1 + or - 1.5 kg/m(2). The modified Karlsruher Motor Ability Screening Test was carried out to determine the motor abilities of speed strength, muscular endurance, coordination, flexibility, and speed. Based on the German BMI reference values, 3.5% of the children were obese, 9.6% overweight, 83.4% normal weight, and 3.5% underweight. During various test tasks, below-average motor abilities were discovered in 44.0-47.3%. In all age groups, overweight and obese children did not differ from their normal and underweight counterparts; except for underweight children which fared worse in flexibility. In contrast to former studies with first graders, overweight or obese pre-school children did not possess worse motor abilities than normal weight children. However, the high number of overweight children and motor deficits suggests that preventive measures should start at this early age. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems in mild to moderate prematures at (pre-)school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketharanathan, N.; Lee, W.; Mol, A.C. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a gap in the knowledge of longterm outcome of mild to moderate prematures compared to the extreme prematures or very low birth weight infants. AIM: Determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in (pre-)school age children

  19. Child personality measures as contemporaneous and longitudinal predictors of social behaviour in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictive relations from personality measures to children's social behaviour in pre-school were examined for 3 year old children (at Time 1; T1 who were reassessed one year later (at Time 2; T2. At both times, mothers and fathers separately rated children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003, while the pre-school teachers assessed the same children on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Three general predictive models were examined, contemporaneous (at T1 and T2, longitudinal, and cumulative. Mother- and father-rated child personality was contemporaneously predictive of children's social behaviour as assessed by their pre-school teachers. The most consistent predictions across the spouses and at both times of measurement were obtained for child externalizing behaviour. More disagreeable and emotionally stable children, as opposed to their less disagreeable and more in stable counterparts, were concurrently observed to exhibit more externalizing tendencies during the time spent in pre-school. Maternal reports were longitudinally predictive of children's social competence and internalizing behaviour and the father reports predicted internalizing and externalizing behaviour one year later. Neuroticism at age 3 was consistently linked to internalizing tendencies at age 4 across parents both longitudinally and cumulatively. Father-rated Disagreeableness at age 3 was predictive of externalizing behaviour one year later in both longitudinal and cumulative models, while the contemporaneous information on child Disagreeableness and Neuroticism (reversed at T2, independent of the respective child traits at T1, significantly improved the cumulative predictions of externalizing behaviour from maternal reports. In general, child personality scores derived from maternal data sets were more powerful predictors of children's social behaviour across

  20. Something special: Care, pre-school television and the dis/abled child

    OpenAIRE

    Holdsworth, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Through a close reading of the series Something Special (2003–), this article explores the implicit and explicit rhetorics of ‘care’ within the remit and content of the UK pre-school children’s channel CBeebies. With its address to an audience that includes disabled children and children with special educational needs, CBeebies is celebrated as an inclusive site of play and learning for its diverse audience of 0–6 year-olds. In Something Special (2003–), for example, Mr Tumble’s playful encou...

  1. Potential self-selection bias in a nested case-control study on indoor environmental factors and their association with asthma and allergic symptoms among pre-school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Sigsgaard, T.

    2006-01-01

    , including health, building characteristics of the home, and socioeconomic factors between participating and non-participating families in a nested case-control study on asthma and allergy among children. Information was collected in a baseline questionnaire to the parents of 14,077 children aged 1-6 years...... in a first step. In a second step 2,156 of the children were invited to participate in a case-control study. Of these, 198 cases and 202 controls were finally selected. For identifying potential selection bias, information concerning all invited families in the case-control study was obtained from...

  2. Teoría de la mente y empatía. Repercusiones en la aceptación por los iguales en niños y niñas de Educación Infantil, Primaria y Secundaria/Theory of mind and empathy. Repercussions on peer acceptance in Pre-school Primary and Secondary Education children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Trinidad Maldonado Recio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM and empathy are skills that play a crucial role in social interaction. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience are contributing to distinguishing between the cognitive and affective components of ToM and empathy, thus defining a conceptual relationship between them. This study analysed the impact of cognitive ToM, affective ToM, cognitive empathy, and affective empathy on the social acceptance of children. It also investigated the relative contribution of these factors in pre-school, primary school, and secondary school children. There were 127 participants in three age groups: 4 to 5 years (N = 31, 7 to 8 years (N = 38, and 12 to 14 years (N = 58. They were administered a selection of ToM tasks, the Basic Empathy Scale, and a sociometric questionnaire. The results confirmed a positive association between affective empathy and peer acceptance in the 4 to 5 year age group, a negative association between ToM and peer acceptance in the 7 to 8 year age group, and a positive association between cognitive empathy and peer acceptance in the 12 to 14 year age group. The attribution of mental states and empathy is useful in the perception of signals in the social environment and its appropriate use allows adaptation to the group. However, its relevance changes according to the different stages of development.

  3. „Careers of young delinquents”, i.e. the phenomenon of excluding pre-school children who are at risk of social maladjustment during the early stages of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on the process of social exclusion from the first stage of the education of children at risk of social maladjustment. The author presents strategies and tactics used by teachers of preschool education to eliminate the exclusion of children who cause educational problems. The author analyzes the data in accordance with the methodology of grounded theory in the context of game theory.

  4. Mass media and the development of pre-reading of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    GALATÍKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis maps mass media, especially television broadcasting and electronic devices with connection to the Internet, in the lives of pre-school children, and investigates the relationship between mass media and development of initial reading skills. The theoretical part analyses existing literature relevant to pre-school child development elementary reading and mass media, while the empirical research makes an independent investigation into this phenomenon in society using questionnaires f...

  5. Influence of motor skills training on children's development evaluated in the Motor skills in PreSchool (MiPS) study-DK: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, nested in a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Andersen, Sarah Thurøe; Skovgaard, Thomas; Olesen, Line Groenholt; Elmose, Mette; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Simon Calmar; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2017-08-29

    Good motor skills are considered important for children's physical, social, and psychological development, but the relationship is still poorly understood. Preschool age seems to be decisive for the development of motor skills and probably the most promising time-window in relation to preventive strategies based on improved motor skills. This research program has four overall aims: (1) investigation of the effect of a structured program aimed at improving motor skills in 3-6-year-old children on current and future motor skills, health, cognition, and wellbeing; (2) establish reference data on motor skills in 3-6-year-olds; (3) description of early development of musculoskeletal problems; and (4) establishment of a population-based cohort of 3-6-year-olds. Over a four-year period, all preschools in a Danish municipality, Svendborg, will implement a new program aimed at optimizing children's motor skills. By introducing the program into a subset of the preschools at onset and comparing these children to another subset (control) that will not receive the intervention the first three years, it is possible to document a potential effect of the intervention. At the same time, a cohort will be established including all children attending preschools in the municipality with extensive baseline data collection: gross and fine motor skills; movement patterns; musculoskeletal complaints; physical activity; anthropometry; general wellbeing; cognitive abilities; language status; medical history; demographic background; and more. The children are aged 3-6 years at baseline. A total of 1461 children have been invited into the cohort, 368 to the intervention arm and 359 to the control arm. Follow-up time for the trial is 2.5 years. The cohort is planned to run at least until the children leave school at age 15-16 years. Longer follow-up will depend on future funding. If the results of the trial are positive, the intervention can be implemented in other similar settings with

  6. Electronic Books: Children's Reading and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Dungworth, Naomi; McKnight, Cliff; Morris, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in children's comprehension and enjoyment of storybooks according to the medium of presentation. Two different storybooks were used and 132 children participated. Of these, 51 children read an extract from "The Magicians of Caprona," about half reading an electronic version with an online dictionary, and the…

  7. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in very young and pre-school children in the context of selected sociodemographic indicators in the Czech Republic and in some others countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Včelařová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this study present the results of surveys in significant areas of social peda-gogy relating to both the prevention of overweight and obesity in children, and healthy lifestyle edu-cation. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in early age and preschool children are monitored in the context of selected socio-demographic indicators in the Czech Republic, Great Brit-ain, the USA, Australia, some European countries, Iran and China. The purpose of such oriented stud-ies is to find appropriate preventive, pedagogical or therapeutic interventions that could contribute to the elimination of risk factors in the particular societies. It turns out that the sociodemographic and psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in chil-dren (in terms of particular countries cannot be always uniformly described and defined. Numerous psychosocial or sociodemographic characteristics were found when comparing different ethnic groups, the different age cohorts of parents or the different developmental stages of children, when comparing countries with various standards of living, or even just, when comparing different socio-economic strata within the same country. It also appears that the relationships identified by the be-low-mentioned researches don´t have a straight forward effect, but are also modified by the influ-ence of other variables. A common feature overweight and obesity in children in the majority of countries seems to be associated with significant social inequalities within a specific country. Accord-ing to some authors, one of the possible ways to fight overweight and obesity in children is to reduce the inequalities of the macroeconomic society

  8. The Study of the Effect of Syntactic Complexity of Noun and Verb Phrase Structure on the Occurrence of Stuttering in 4-6 Year Pre-School Stuttering Persian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Ahangar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of syntactic complexity of noun phrase and verb phrase on the occurrence of stuttering in 4-6 year Persian speaking children with stuttering. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytic research was done on 15 stuttering children, consisting of 12 boys and 3 girls, 4 to 6 years old monolingual Persian speaking who referred to Javad-Ol-Aemmeh speech therapy clinic in Mashhad city. The sampling approach was simple (available sampling method. To do this research, sampling was carried out in a quiet home of speech therapy where there were just the speech therapist, the parent, the child and the researcher. While speaking, the speech of the children was recorded by an MP3 with Creative brand. Finally, a 30-minute spontaneous speech sample was gathered from each of the given stuttering children. The children produced around 60 utterances during a verbal interaction with the speech therapist, parents (mother or father or the researcher. Then the produced spontaneous speech sample by any of these stuttering children was transcribed on paper. The data were analyzed only as groups and not individually. The data were analyzed using SPSS software and Paired T-test method. Results: The group analyses showed significant differences between fluent and stuttered utterances in terms of syntactic complexity of noun and verb phrase structures. Also, the results confirm that at phrasal level, in noun phrases, based on their three functions as subject, direct object and object of preposition, there is a meaningful relationship between the number of subject (P<0.001 and object of preposition (P=0.050 with the stuttering frequency. In verb phrases, based on the presence of the auxiliary verb, copula verb, and negative prefix, just there is a meaningful relationship between the presence of the auxiliary verb and the stuttering frequency (P=0.010. Conclusion: The research findings indicate

  9. Prospective Pre-School Teachers' Attitudes towards Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Cumhur; Demir, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in prospective pre-school teachers' attitudes towards astronomy in terms of their grades. The study was conducted with 205 prospective teachers (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th graders) studying in the education faculty of a university in Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Astronomy Attitude Scale (AAS) was…

  10. Medindo o impacto de programas de recuperação nutricional de pré-escolares: teste de uma metodologia The assessment of the impact of nutritional feeding programs for pre-school children: a methodological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lucia Martini Lei

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da casuística de um programa de recuperação nutricional de pré-escolares operado no Município de Diadema, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, analisam-se dois procedimentos para avaliação de impacto. O primeiro procedimento - tradicional - baseia-se na proporção de crianças que ao final de um ano de exposição ao programa passam para a condição de eutrofia, ou seja, crianças que passam a apresentar adequação do peso à idade superior a 90% dos valores esperados em crianças eutróficas. O segundo procedimento - proposto no artigo - leva em conta a velocidade do crescimento, assumindo como resultados favoráveis incrementos de peso superiores àqueles esperados para crianças eutróficas. As vantagens do segundo procedimento sobre o primeiro - ressaltadas a partir de aspectos conceituais ligados à fisiopatologia da desnutrição e às características dos programas de recuperação nutricional - são comprovadas empiricamente.Two different approaches to the evaluation of the impact of food supplementation given to malnourished children are assessed on the basis of the experience of a program undertaken in the county of Diadema, in the metropolitan area of S. Paulo, Brazil. The first approach - a traditional one - is based on the proportion of children that at the end of one year's participation in the program present no weight deficit (weight for age more than 90% of the expected value. The second approach - proposed in the article - takes into account only the rate of growth and accepts weight increments superior to those expected among well-nourished children as favorable. The advantages of this second approach are fully demonstrated.

  11. Assessment of the content of mercury, methylmercury and other elements of interest in fish, hair and diets of pre-school children of the Amazon region; Avaliacao do conteudo de mercurio, metilmercurio e outros elementos de interesse em peixes e em amostras de cabelos e dietas de pre-escolares da regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2006-07-01

    Studies show that some regions of the Amazon region suffer mercury (Hg) impacts as a direct result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Jau National Park (PNJ) is the only National Park in Brazil that protects an entire black water basin (Jau River), flood land and tropical reserve. These conditions favor Hg methylation in the aquatic biota. This in turn, exposes living on the river populations to Hg contamination as well as the adjacent regions. Preliminary studies of pre-school children diets from PNJ communities have shown that these diets have a worrisome high Hg content. The present study assessed total Hg content, micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and macro nutrients (proteins, lipids, ash, energy, carbohydrate) in pre-school diets in the PNJ and surrounding communities. Furthermore, total and Me Hg levels were also determined in hair samples of these children as well as those living in several neighborhoods of the city of Manaus. Included in this determination were the fish most consumed by these populations. From these results it was possible to evaluate the nutritional content of the diets and the exposure of the children to Hg and Se Hg. Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to quantify total and Me Hg. Micro nutrient determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) and Macro nutrient through AOAC methodologies (USA). All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference materials analyses with certified values for the determined elements. Furthermore, the uncertainty sources for Hg and Me Hg determination were assessed and the expanded uncertainties were calculated. Total Hg levels in diets and total and Me Hg levels for hair samples, were well above those values found in different localities of the Amazon region. This also holds true for those surrounding areas of the JNP. For many children Hg intake values passed the 5 mug Hg/body weigh/week (PTWI

  12. A realização imaginária do desejo inconsciente num grupo terapêutico de crianças em idade pré-escolar Imaginary achievement of unconscious desire in a therapy group of pre-school-aged-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Silva Krug

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alguns teóricos têm observado que os grupos, assim como os sonhos, podem fornecer um espaço privilegiado para a realização imaginária de desejos inconscientes de seus membros. Por meio de relatos de sessões de um grupo terapêutico formado por crianças em idade pré-escolar, objetivou-se conhecer as formas de organização e de expressão do grupo que possibilitaram a realização imaginária de desejos inconscientes de seus membros. Mediante Análise Textual Qualitativa, constatou-se que a realização dos desejos foi possível pela articulação dinâmica entre desejos manifestos, formas de expressão e modos pelos quais o grupo organiza seus processos, influenciados pelas características do desenvolvimento psicossexual das crianças.A few theoreticians have observed that groups, as well as dreams, may provide a privileged space for the imaginary achievement of their members' unconscious desires. Through reports of sessions of a therapy group comprising children at pre-school age, this study aimed at learning the organization and expression forms of the group that rendered possible the imaginary achievement of their members' unconscious desires. Qualitative Textual Analysis led to find out that the achievement of desires was possible through the dynamic articulation among the expressed desires, forms of expressions and ways in which the group organizes its processes, influenced by the characteristics of the children's psychosexual development.

  13. FAMILY ORIENTATION FOR WORD PRECISION TROUTH SET FORMATION IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN / LA ORIENTACIÓN FAMILIAR PARA LA PRECISIÓN DE VOCABLOS A TRAVÉS DE LA FORMACIÓN DE CONJUNTOS EN LA EDAD PRESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmila Hidalgo Rosabal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work constitutes a road to offer the family resources, for the precision of words at the road institutional no, during preschool infancy. It permits decreasing the scarcities that present the educational agents for the integration of contents in united activity of multiple groups. He proves to be important to guarantee than the family of the road, institutional no confront the education of them children at the home, because he contains educational stock that the development of communicative abilities and mathematics permits. RESUMEN El presente trabajo constituye una vía para ofrecer recursos a la familia, para la precisión de vocablos en la vía no institucional, durante la infancia preescolar. Permite disminuir las carencias que presentan los agentes educativos para la integración de contenidos en la actividad conjunta de los grupos múltiples. Resulta importante para garantizar que la familia de la vía no institucional enfrente la educación de los niños en el hogar, pues contiene acciones educativas que permite el desarrollo de habilidades comunicativas y matemáticas.

  14. Inequality in pre-school provision : a geographical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pinch, Steven

    1983-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary analysis of pre-school services, a field which, with a few exceptions (Holmes, Williams and Brown, 1972; Freeman, 1977) has been ignored by geographers and indeed other urban analysts concermd with service allocations in cities. There are numerous possible explanations for this state of affairs, not the least inportant being the fact that study of the under-fives has been dominated by psychologists concerned with the intellectual, emotional and social development o...

  15. Investigation of 2013 pre-school education program in the context of values in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Aral

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been aimed to examine the acquisition and indicators in the Pre-school Education Program 2013, updated and implemented in 2013, according to the development areas in terms of values education in the study. For this purpose, content analysis method from qualitative research methods was used. The values addressed with in the direction of the theory of values have been divided into categories and subcategories. The final form of the category of values was given in line with the opinion of experts. The specified values have been analyzed according to their status of acquisition and indicators for children. As a result of the study, it has been found that the value of responsibility was given a great place in the pre-school education program and it is followed by the values of respect, solidarity, trust, love, tolerance, freedom, equality, friendship and justice respectively.  Depending on the results obtained, it may be recommended that more attention is paid to the individual interests and needs of children, all values are equally integrated into the program and school-family cooperation is ensured about the values.

  16. Science and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs of Pre-School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Bülent; Peker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine science and mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs of pre-school teachers in terms of some variables. The sample of the study was comprised of 191 pre-school teachers working in a city in Aegean Region of Turkey. Since it attempted to define self-efficacy beliefs of pre-school teachers toward science and…

  17. Integration оf Foreign Educational Technologies іn the Content of Program of Pre-School Education in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Frolenkova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reveals the integration and implementation of foreign educational technologies in the content of educational programs of preschool education in Ukraine. The emphasis on the implementation of programs for the ideas of Waldorf education, Montessori programs, “SelfEsteem”, “Step by Step”, “Education for sustainable development for children of pre-school age”. It is proved that the integration of foreign educational technologies in the process of optimizing the scientific and methodological support preschool education content Ukraine simulated based priority, primarily oriented humanistic, pedagogical ideas and technologies.Key words: educational technologies, integration, educational program, content of preschool education, children of pre-school age.

  18. Merenda no dia alimentar de crianças matriculadas em Centros de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar School-lunch as part of the eating habits of children enrolled in Pre-school Education and Feeding Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nilda Mazzilli

    1987-08-01

    dietary intake at home, through excluding meals and/or by reducing the quantity of food, after eating the school lunch; of the total of these children, one hundred and fifteen (64.6% pre-school children showed inadequate diet as regards energy intake; forty-eight (13.9% children increased the quantity of usual foods and/or included meals in their diet, but twenty-three children (47.9% showed insufficient energy intake. Among the one hundred and twenty (34.7% preschool children that did not show any modification in their diet, sixty-two (51.7% showed inadequate energy intake. We may conclude that it is necessary to inform the family that the role of the school lunchis as a dietary supplement and not a substitute for meals eaten at home.

  19. Serous Otitis Media in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keramat Mozaffarinia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salivary gland tumors are relatively rare and constitute 3-4% of all head and neck neoplasms. The majority (70% of salivary gland tumors arise in the parotid gland. Recommended treatment for a parotid mass is surgical excision with a surrounding cuff of normal tissue to prevent recurrence. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 300 patients who were operated by a single surgeon for parotidectomy over a 20-year period in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The patients' age, sex, operation findings, pathology report and type of surgery (parotidectomy or mastoidectomy were analyzed. Results: In 25 cases we had to find the nerve in a retrograde fashion by finding the distal branches and dissecting backwards to reach the mass, whereas in 275 patients the trunk of the facial nerve was approached in a conventional antegrade fashion. Twelve cases needed some sort of repair on the nerve due to a trauma in the surgical field, either grafting or anastomosis was done. Interestingly mastoidectomy was required in 5 of our cases. The aim of these mastoidectomies was to eradicate the malignancy in cases where a perineural invasion was present. It also gave us a chance to find a normal proximal nerve ending in order to perform a safe nerve reconstruction (grafting or anastomosis. Conclusion: Mastoidectomy and facial nerve anastomosis may be required in parotid surgery.  

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pre-school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-01-08

    Jan 8, 2013 ... nary tract infection (UTI) in ... Introduction. Infection of the urinary tract is among the commonest causes of ... with history of antibiotic use in the preceding two weeks ..... of antibiotics and emergence of resistant organisms.25.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and environment: what primary care providers say about pre-school vision screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-Tootle, Wendy L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Frazier, Marcela G; Crenshaw, Katie; Wall, Terry C

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and environment of primary care providers, and to develop a conceptual framework showing their impact on self-reported pre-school vision screening (PVS) behaviors. Eligible primary care providers were individuals who filed claims with Medicaid agencies in Alabama, South Carolina, or Illinois, for at least eight well child checks for children aged 3 or 4 years during 1 year. Responses were obtained on-line from providers who enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized trial to improve PVS. We calculated a summary score per provider per facet: (1) for behavior and knowledge, each correct answer was assigned a value of +1; and (2) for attitudes and environment, responses indicating support for PVS were assigned a value of +1, and other responses were assigned -1. Responses were available from 53 participants (43 of 49 enrolled pediatricians, 8 of 14 enrolled family physicians, one general physician, and one nurse practitioner). Recognizing that amblyopia often presents without outward signs was positively related to good PVS: [odds ratio (OR) = 3.9; p = 0.06]. Reporting that "preschool VS interrupts patient flow" posed a significant barrier (OR = 0.2; p = 0.05). Providers with high summed scores on attitudes (OR = 6.0; p = 0.03), or knowledge and attitudes (OR = 11.4; p attitudes or environment, and "good" PVS behavior (p = 0.04). PVS is influenced by positive attitudes, especially when combined with knowledge about amblyopia. Interventions to improve PVS should target multiple facets, emphasizing (1) asymptomatic children are at risk for amblyopia, (2) specific evidence-based tests have high testability and sensitivity for amblyopia in pre-school children, and (3) new tests minimize interruptions to patient flow.

  2. A qualitative study of teacher's perceptions of an intervention to prevent conduct problems in Jamaican pre-schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S

    2009-09-01

    There is a growing evidence base showing the efficacy of school-based interventions to prevent conduct problems but few evaluations have addressed teachers' perceptions of these programmes. Teachers' views on the acceptability, feasibility and usefulness of an intervention will influence implementation fidelity and programme sustainability and can help further our understanding of how the intervention works and how it may be improved. A pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training Programme supplemented by a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills was conducted in inner-city pre-schools in Kingston, Jamaica. Three pre-schools comprising 15 classrooms participated in the intervention which involved seven monthly teacher workshops and 14 weekly child lessons in each class. At the end of the intervention in-depth individual interviews were conducted with each intervention teacher. Teachers reported benefits to their own teaching skills and professional development, to their relationships with children and to the behaviour, social-emotional competence and school readiness skills of the children in their class. Teachers also reported benefits to teacher-parent relationships and to children's behaviour at home. A hypothesis representing the teachers' perceptions of how the intervention achieved these benefits was developed. The hypothesis suggests that intervention effects were due to teachers' gains in skills and knowledge in three main areas: (1) a deeper understanding of young children's needs and abilities; (2) increased use of positive and proactive strategies; and (3) explicitly teaching social and emotional skills. These changes then led to the variety of benefits reported for teachers, children and parents. Teachers reported few difficulties in implementing the majority of strategies and strongly recommended wider dissemination of the intervention. The intervention was valued by Jamaican pre-school teachers and teachers felt they were able to

  3. [Comparative analysis of the efficacy of a playful-narrative program to teach mathematics at pre-school level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Llario, M D; Vicent Catalá, Consuelo

    2009-02-01

    Comparative analysis of the efficacy of a playful-narrative program to teach mathematics at pre-school level. In this paper, the effectiveness of a programme comprising several components that are meant to consolidate mathematical concepts and abilities at the pre-school level is analyzed. The instructional methodology of this programme is compared to other methodologies. One-hundred 5-6 year-old children made up the sample that was distributed in the following conditions: (1) traditional methodology; (2) methodology with perceptual and manipulative components, and (3) methodology with language and playful components. Mathematical competence was assessed with the Mathematical Criterial Pre-school Test and the subtest of quantitative-numeric concepts of BADyG. Participants were evaluated before and after the academic course during which they followed one of these methodologies. The results show that the programme with language and playful components is more effective than the traditional methodology (p<.000) and also more effective than the perceptual and manipulative methodology (p<.000). Implications of the results for instructional practices are analyzed.

  4. Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys / Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira; Francisco Dyonisio C. Mendes; Leonardo Conceição Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exp...

  5. Mapping area variability in social and behavioural difficulties among Glasgow pre-schoolers: linkage of a survey of pre-school staff with routine monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S J E; Marryat, L; Thompson, L; Ellaway, A; White, J; McClung, M; Wilson, P

    2015-11-01

    Social, emotional and behavioural development in early to middle childhood impact upon many outcomes in future life and are influenced by home, neighbourhood and school environments. We used linked data to investigate differences between areas in Glasgow City in level of difficulties in pre-school age children, after consideration of demographics, including area-level deprivation. Pre-school education staff completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) on all children progressing to school from a local authority or partnership (local authority-funded private) pre-school in Glasgow City between 2010 and 2012. These data were linked to individual (age, gender) and area-level (deprivation) demographics from the City Council Education Services Department. Statistical models were fitted to the SDQ scores, adjusting for age, gender, area deprivation, year of school entry, pre-school establishment attended and electoral ward of residence. Correlation between neighbouring wards was incorporated to allow for clustering of scores. Boys and those living in more deprived areas had higher levels of difficulties. Children aged 5.0-5.5 years had fewest difficulties, while the oldest and youngest children had similar levels of difficulties. There were no significant secular trends by year of school entry. There remained differences among areas after adjusting for these variables, with children living in some areas having fewer difficulties than would be expected based on their socio-demographic characteristics. There remained differences in children's levels of difficulties between areas after adjusting for age, gender, area deprivation and year of school entry. Children in some very deprived areas had fewer difficulties than might be expected, while those in relatively affluent areas had more difficulties than expected based on their deprivation level. There may be other, unmeasured, individual- and area-level reasons for children's level of difficulties, and these

  6. From Picturebook to Multilingual Collage: Bringing Learners’ First Language and Culture into the Pre-school Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma McGilp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a project with a small group of children learning English as an a language (EAL at a pre-school in Scotland. The project however could be replicated across the globe, in any classroom with a diverse range of learners, with particular benefit to minority and newly arrived migrant children. At the project’s core was the aim to bring the children’s first language and culture into the classroom, drawing in particular on Cummin’s (1984 Common Underlying Proficiency model, which asserts that knowledge of one language can assist learners in their acquisition of another. The project used multicultural picturebooks to validate the learner’s experiences and culture, and then called on parents’ funds of knowledge to make the children’s first language visible in the classroom. This joint working between the children, parents and the pre-school culminated in the production of a multilingual collage – a prominent display that recognises the value of the children’s first language in the classroom, builds bridges between home and school and is reflective, and proud, of an increasingly multilingual Scotland.

  7. BURNOUT SYNDROME AMONG EDUCATORS IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Endica Radic; Sucic, Goran; Zaja, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of burnout syndrome (BS) has been recognized in many professions (pilots, firefighters, police officers, doctors…) that during their work are subjected to high levels of stress. For educators in preschool institutions stress level is very high thus creating the possibility of developing BS. For this research is selected preschool institution - kindergarten "Radost" (Joy) in Split, in which by use of questionnaires (modified scale by Freudenberger and modified scales by Girdin, Everly and Dusek) during 2014 among educators (100 respondents) is conducted a survey regarding the frequency of burnout syndrome. According to questionnaires by Girdin, Everly and Dusek there is no statistically significant difference between the number of educators who feel good and those that are under significant stress (χ2=1.04; p=0.307). According to questionnaire by Freudenberg educators are classified into 3 categories and distribution of educators by the groups is almost uniform (χ2=2.76; p=0.250), which means that one third of a teacher is in good condition, a third is in the risk area for burn-out syndrome, while one third are candidates for development of this syndrome. Comparing a teacher in good condition compared to other (at risk and those who are candidates for the burn-out syndrome) is up to 1.5 times higher in those who are at risk and the candidates for development of this syndrome than in others (χ2=4.5; p=0.033). The occurrence of burnout syndrome is very high for the group of educators (half of the educators!) in pre-school institutions which should be taken into account by the institutions management. For this purpose, it is necessary to organize regular medical check-ups with particular reference to burnout syndrome with signs of the syndrome to prevent its further development.

  8. BURNOUT SYNDROME AMONG EDUCATORS IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozo, Endica Radic; Sucic, Goran; Zaja, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of burnout syndrome (BS) has been recognized in many professions (pilots, firefighters, police officers, doctors…) that during their work are subjected to high levels of stress. For educators in preschool institutions stress level is very high thus creating the possibility of developing BS. Material and methods: For this research is selected preschool institution – kindergarten „Radost” (Joy) in Split, in which by use of questionnaires (modified scale by Freudenberger and modified scales by Girdin, Everly and Dusek) during 2014 among educators (100 respondents) is conducted a survey regarding the frequency of burnout syndrome. Research results: According to questionnaires by Girdin, Everly and Dusek there is no statistically significant difference between the number of educators who feel good and those that are under significant stress (χ2=1.04; p=0.307). According to questionnaire by Freudenberg educators are classified into 3 categories and distribution of educators by the groups is almost uniform (χ2=2.76; p=0.250), which means that one third of a teacher is in good condition, a third is in the risk area for burn-out syndrome, while one third are candidates for development of this syndrome. Comparing a teacher in good condition compared to other (at risk and those who are candidates for the burn-out syndrome) is up to 1.5 times higher in those who are at risk and the candidates for development of this syndrome than in others (χ2=4.5; p=0.033). Conclusion: The occurrence of burnout syndrome is very high for the group of educators (half of the educators!) in pre-school institutions which should be taken into account by the institutions management. For this purpose, it is necessary to organize regular medical check-ups with particular reference to burnout syndrome with signs of the syndrome to prevent its further development. PMID:26889099

  9. Who gets help for pre-school communication problems? Data from a prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeat, J; Wake, M; Ukoumunne, O C; Eadie, P; Bretherton, L; Reilly, S

    2014-03-01

    Pre-school communication problems are common, with implications for school readiness and educational achievement. Help is available from a variety of community healthcare providers. This study examined the extent to which help is received, and the predictors of service receipt. Prospective community study, in Melbourne, Victoria. At age 4 years, we assessed the speech, receptive and expressive language and fluency of 1607 children and gave feedback to their parents. At age 5 years, 983 families provided data on service use for communication problems between and 4 and 5 years. We compared service use between participants with and without impairment, and used logistic regression to estimate the strength of association between potential predictors (gender, socio-economic status, maternal education, English-speaking background status, family history of speech and language problems and parent concern) and service use (binary outcome). Data were available for both communication status and service use for 753 children. Only 44.9% of the 196 children with communication impairment received help from a professional. Furthermore, 7% of the 557 that did not meet criteria for communication impairment nevertheless received help from a professional. Parent concern was the strongest predictor of service use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.0; 95% CI: 5.6-14.8). Both over- and under-servicing for communication problems were evident. This study shows that accessing help for communication problems requires more than simply informing parents about the problem and having services available; there is a need for systematic support to get the right children to services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. PERFECTION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILD’S SPEECH OF DIALOGUE AND VOCABULARY DURING THE PROCESS OF GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH BOOK ILLUSTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Taurina, Agrita; Vigule, Dagnija

    2016-01-01

    Very topical issue in many situations nowadays is caused by parent busyness, aloofness among family members, and alienation in mutual relationships; therefore, in families too little attention is devoted to many-sided development of child’s abilities, too little time is spent on direct, emotional contact in conversation. During the survey on the pre-school education and development of vocabulary carried out by 54 educators, the more and less well known topics were found out. Children are open...

  11. THE ENVIRONMENT AS A CRUCIAL LEARNING FACTOR AT PRE-SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Močinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the author hypothesizes that physical environment is an essential factor for developing an educational project. The environment is considered a sort of "third educator", playing a decisive role in determining the quality of learning. Classrooms, laboratory, the corridor, the structure of the building itself and the context in which the building is placed; the colours of the walls, the quality of natural and artificial light in the building, the furniture and materials for learning are variables which determine the environment where a child lives, learns, experiences, begins relationships with other people. The educator is very important in the process of a child's development. By means of direct and indirect action, he/she can create an attractive space in the building, more accessible for the processes of functional learning. The empirical research, described in the present survey, underlines the importance of pre-schools as an important place for meeting, interaction, listening and reciprocity leading toward an improvement in the relationship between the child and the school environment. In particular, this empirical research will show the diversity of the places and materials teachers made available to children.

  12. A pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills in community pre-schools in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S; Powell, C; Gardner, J Meeks

    2009-09-01

    School-based interventions involving teacher and/or child training have been shown to benefit teacher practices and to prevent conduct problems and improve children's social and emotional competence in developed countries; however, we are aware of no reports from a developing country. We conducted a pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills based on concepts and activities drawn from the Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur Classroom Curriculum to determine if this approach is appropriate for use with Jamaican pre-school teachers and children. Five pre-schools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to an intervention (3 pre-schools with 15 classrooms) or control (2 pre-schools with 12 classrooms) condition. Intervention involved seven whole-day teacher workshops using the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme supplemented by 14 child lessons in each class. The project was evaluated through structured observations of four categories of teacher behaviour and four observer ratings: two rating scales of child behaviour and two rating scales of classroom atmosphere. Significant intervention benefits were found to teachers' behaviour with increased positive behaviour [b = 7.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5, 12.3], reduced negative behaviour (b =-3.5; 95% CI: -6.6, -0.2) and increases in the extent to which teachers promoted children's social and emotional skills (b = 46.4; 95% CI: 11.0, 81.7). The number of teacher commands was not significantly reduced (b =-2.71; 95% CI: -6.01, 0.59). Significant intervention benefits were found to ratings of child behaviour with an increase in children's appropriate behaviour (b = 5.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 10.8) and in children's interest and enthusiasm (b = 7.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.5). Intervention also benefited classroom atmosphere with increases in opportunities provided for children to share and help each other (b = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.1) and in teacher warmth

  13. Complementary Feeding Pattern in a Population of Pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: It has been postulated that offering bland diets to infants could habituate to food refusal during early childhood. To investigate the complementary feeding pattern in Nigerian preschool children and a possible association with their current feeding habits, a cross-sectional study of two hundred (200) children was ...

  14. Communicative Approach to Inclusive Education in Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraukle, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the basic principles of inclusive education motivates the inclusion of children with special needs in general education schools. The paper presents the process of implementing inclusive education in Latvia and the teachers' and parents' understanding of the role of communication in including children with special needs,…

  15. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing working hours of 8:00 am till 4:00 pm and caters ... Consecutive apparently healthy children whose parents ... Children on long-term transfusion therapy b. ... Social class was determined from occupation and ed- .... gression model was used to assess the effects of the .... iron stores in 6–24-month-old New Zealanders.

  16. Foreign Languages at the Pre-School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Raymond; Ford, James F.

    French was added to the early childhood curriculum at the New School in Fayetteville, Arkansas, after a review of the literature on the subject indicated potential beneficial effects of teaching foreign languages to young children. Some of the advantages to be gained by the children were greater readiness for school work in general, greater…

  17. Islamic Pre-School Management and Its Implications towards Students’ Learning Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosniati Hakim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Islamic education in schools had not completely assessed the development of students’ character and personality. Therefore, additional religious education through non-formal education and religious practices were needed in Islamic Pre-Schools. It provided a forum to foster, develop, cultivate, and transform the religious value of the students to improve their personality. The purpose of this research was to examine social phenomenon that occur naturally through the facts related to management activities of students. Qualitative research was used in this study where the data taken from head of Islamic pre-school and the school deputy, teacher, staffs, mosque administrators of Baitul Haadi, administrator of the school, staffs of Ministry of Religious Affairs as well as Islamic pre-school inspectors, parents, community leaders, and administrators of professional organizations. The finding showed that students’ management applied in Islamic pre-school through the management functions is able to provide the successful of student’s education and learning implementation. It was also found that student management applied in Islamic pre-school is planning activities of students’ admission process through the administration regularly with various regulations related to the success of education. Thus, it is expected that the government will provide the guidance and implement constant supervision in accordance with applicable regulations.

  18. Democratic challenges and potentials in pre-schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Jan; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Røn Larsen, Maja

    This paper takes point of departure in research approaching both empirical and theoretical challenges related to the study of very young children’s everyday lives in institutional settings. In this paper, we present an analysis of pedagogical practice about developing democracy and influence...... for children in a Danish nursery. On the one hand the paper highlight the situated processes of developing a pedagogical practice of influence and democracy for children, emphasising the explorative and experimenting character of such processes, and on the other hand show, how exactly processes like these tend...... to be neglected and restricted in the management strategies of documentation, that forms institutional conditions for the pedagogues....

  19. Having the Touch of Motivation in Pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole

    in a Danish Kindergarten and phenomenological interpretations I will argue that motivation to participate and engage is facilitated when educators speak to the 'bodies' of children, rather than to their intellectual reasoning. I will illustrate how an educator motivates a child during a game of tag by guiding...

  20. Togetherness and Diversity in Pre-School Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    Examined transcribed episodes of preschoolers' play collected in another study to compare differences in the ways blind and sighted children have access to physical space, experience social interaction, and create meaningful symbols. Found that differences in visual ability may impede togetherness. Devised strategies for educational practice and…

  1. Age dynamic of physical condition changes in pre-school age girls, schoolgirls and students, living in conditions of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Lebedinskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of physical condition, considering sex (females and age of the tested, living in region with unfavorable ecology. Material: we studied pre school age girls (n=1580, age 4-7 years. In the research we did not include children with chronic diseases, who were under observation. We tested schoolgirls (n=3211, age 7-17 years and girl students (n=5827, age 17-21 years, 1-4 years of study. Girl students were divided into five age groups: from 17 to 21 years. All participants lived in conditions of Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk. This region is characterized by unfavorable ecology and climate geographic characteristics. Results: in dynamic of physical condition of pre-school girls, schoolgirls and students we marked out three substantial periods of it characteristics' changes. Age 7-8 years is critical (transition from 1st to 2nd stage. The least values of these characteristics are found in older (after 17-18 years ages. In students we observed relative stabilization of these indicators. Conclusions: the received results shall be considered in building physical education training process in pre-school educational establishments, secondary comprehensive schools and higher educational establishments.

  2. Examining Prospective Pre-School and Biology Teachers’ Metacognitive Awareness and Epistemological Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    BEDEL, Emine Ferda; ÇAKIR, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe prospective pre-school and biology teachers’ level of metacognitive awareness and epistemological beliefs and to examine differences between the groups. The total of 286 pre-school and biology teacher candidates participated in the study. Participants were asked to complete the central epistemological beliefs questionnaire which consisted of four sub-scales namely: belief in science as a source of knowledge, belief in rational society, belief in s...

  3. Interações afetivas na família e na pré-escola Affective interactions in family and in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Maria Canhetti Mondin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa com crianças pré-escolares enfoca as relações afetivas como elementos indispensáveis à compreensão do crescimento da criança e os papéis da família e da escola nesse empreendimento. Assim, seu objetivo central consistiu na análise das interações afetivas de crianças na família e na pré-escola. Participaram 40 crianças de 4 a 6 anos, matriculadas em uma instituição pré-escolar municipal, localizada no interior do Estado de São Paulo, suas mães e dez professoras. Foram utilizados como instrumentos a observação, o questionário e a entrevista. O primeiro dirigiu-se ao comportamento das crianças no contexto pré-escolar, o segundo ao comportamento das professoras com as crianças e o terceiro destinou-se às mães, cujas verbalizações permitiram constatar as relações interpessoais no ambiente familiar. Os resultados revelaram que as crianças com dificuldades nas relações interpessoais na escola também as apresentavam no ambiente familiar.This research with pre-school children focused affective relations as indispensable elements to understand the growing of a child, and the role of the family and the school in such achievement. Its main goal consisted in the analysis of the affective interactions of children in the family and in pre-school. 40 children (4-6 years old from a municipal pre-school institution (in the State of São Paulo took part in the study, as well as their mothers and 10 teachers. Three instruments have been utilized: observation, questionnaire and interview. The first was used to investigate children's behavior in the pre-school context; the second one referred to the teachers' attitude toward the children, and the third one was dedicated to the mothers, whose verbalizations unveiled the personal relationships in the familiar environment. The results revealed that children with personal relationship problems at school, also presented the same problem at home.

  4. QUESTIONING FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN ISLAMIC PRE-SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the urgency of foreign language learning at early age by covering some arguments on the acquisition and bilingualism. Nowadays in Indonesia, under the interest of education, bilingual learning is undertaken by adopting the theory of bilingual acquisition referring to Chomsky’s ideas. In fact, the foreign language learning is not always in line with the principle of language acquisition especially for the early age children. The globalization era requires foreign language mastery so that for many institutions of children education have got the bilingual learning. As the example, some of Islamic educational institutions at the level of playgroup have applied the instruction in English and teaching Arabic words, by considering that the earlier foreign language learning is the better, and the fact that the golden age of brain development occurs at the first five years. This needs to be analyzed further, because there is also important task to have mother tongue language acquisition. For the community of multilingual such as in Indonesia, the acquisition of many languages is unavoidable. Therefore, parents are faced with two choices: To prior the mother tongue and bahasa Indonesia as second language or encourage the bilingual learning of Arabic and English.

  5. Pre-school manager training: a cost-effective tool to promote nutrition- and health-related practice improvements in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnston Molloy, Charlotte

    2013-10-18

    To evaluate the impact on nutrition- and health-related practice of two methods of delivery of a nutrition and health intervention in Irish full-day-care pre-schools: training of pre-school managers only or training of managers and their staff.

  6. Effect of electronic media on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram

    2010-07-01

    Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children's daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children's cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India. It is widely accepted that media has profound influence on child health, including violence, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Simultaneously, media may have some positive effects on child health. We need to find ways to optimize the role of media in our society, taking advantage of their positive attributes and minimizing their negative ones. We need to understand better how to reverse the negative impact of media and make it more positive.

  7. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  8. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Pre-Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    of staff with a pedagogic education, and a higher share of teachers with non-Danish ethnic background lead to significant improvements in children’s test results in Danish at the end of the 9th grade. Boys benefit more from pre-school quality than girls. We address possible selectivity by using...

  9. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  10. The Reliability and Structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in German Pre-Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Andrea; Kammermeyer, Gisela; Roux, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; Pianta, R. C., K. M. La Paro, and B. K. Hamre. 2008. "Classroom Assessment Scoring System. Manual Pre-K." Baltimore, MD: Brookes) and the quality of interactional processes in a German pre-school setting, drawing on a sample of 390…

  11. Web-Searching to Learn: The Role of Internet Self-Efficacy in Pre-School Educators' Conceptions and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Pin; Chien, Hui-Min

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationships between pre-school educators' conceptions of and approaches to learning by web-searching through Internet Self-efficacy. Based on data from 242 pre-school educators who had prior experience of participating in web-searching in Taiwan for path analyses, it was found in this study that…

  12. Professional Identity and Burnout among Pre-School, Elementary, and Post-Elementary School Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2015-01-01

    The novelty of the present study is its attempt to distinguish between pre-school, elementary, and post-elementary school teachers, regarding the relationship between professional identity and burnout. Two hundred and forty teachers responded to two questionnaires: professional identity and teacher burnout scales. Pre-school teachers were found to…

  13. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. (Sanne) de Vries; Karen Broekhuizen; Anne-Marie Scholten

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in

  14. [Language observation protocol for teachers in pre-school education. Effectiveness in the detection of semantic and morphosyntactic difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ygual-Fernández, Amparo; Cervera-Merida, José F; Baixauli-Fortea, Inmaculada; Meliá-De Alba, Amanda

    2011-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that teachers are capable of recognising pupils with language difficulties if they have suitable guidelines or guidance. To determine the effectiveness of an observation-based protocol for pre-school education teachers in the detection of phonetic-phonological, semantic and morphosyntactic difficulties. The sample consisted of 175 children from public and state-subsidised schools in Valencia and its surrounding province, together with their teachers. The children were aged between 3 years and 6 months and 5 years and 11 months. The protocol that was used asks for information about pronunciation skills (intelligibility, articulation), conversational skills (with adults, with peers), literal understanding of sentences, grammatical precision, expression through discourse, lexical knowledge and semantics. There was a significant correlation between the teachers' observations and the criterion scores on intelligibility, literal understanding of sentences, grammatical expression and lexical richness, but not in the observations concerning articulation and verbal reasoning, which were more difficult for the teachers to judge. In general, the observation protocol proved to be effective, it guided the teachers in their observations and it asked them suitable questions about linguistic data that were relevant to the determination of difficulties in language development. The use of this protocol can be an effective strategy for collecting information for use by speech therapists and school psychologists in the early detection of children with language development problems.

  15. Integration of educational methods and physical settings: design guidelines for High/Scope methodology in pre-schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Izadpanah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality design and appropriate space organization in preschool settings can support preschool children's educational activities. Although the relationship between the well-being and development of children and physical settings has been emphasized by many early childhood researchers, there is still a need for theoretical design guidelines that are geared towards the improvement of this issue. This research focuses on High/Scope education and aims to shape a theoretical guideline that raises teachers' awareness about the potential of learning spaces and guides them to improve the quality of the physical spaces. To create a theoretical framework, reliable sources are investigated in the light of High/Scope education and the requirements of pre-school children educational spaces. Physical space characteristics, the preschool child's requirements and High/Scope methodology identified design inputs, design considerations and recommendations that shape the final guideline for spatial arrangement in a High/Scope setting are integrated. Discussions and suggestions in this research benefit both designers and High/ Scope teaching staff. Results help High/Scope teaching staff increase the quality of a space in an educational setting without having an architectural background. The theoretical framework of the research allows designers to consider key features and users' possible activities in High/ Scope settings and shape their designs accordingly.

  16. Iron deficiency anaemia in pre-school (1- 6 years) in Al Shigla area (Khartoum State) :Prevalence and Aetiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Faiza Mohamed

    1999-04-01

    iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a public health problem throughout the world. Childhood iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective survey (systematic, cluster sampling) was carried out among pre-school children in Alshigla area (Khartoum State), to study the prevalence and aetological factors of IDA. 170 children selected for general nutritional evaluation, 110 of them for haemoglobin levels and morphological classification of anaemia, 70 for further investigations(serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity). The population at Alshigla were living in poor condition 85.3% relied on water brought by tankers which showed poor hygienic standard, 90% lived in extended families 54.1% had income level less than LS 3000/day irrespective of family size or mode of spending. A sample of 170 children showed (84.1%) normal nutritional status with 4.7% severe cases with high consumption of cereals low meat, fish and poultry group and vitamin C(22.9%). Disease episodes showed 67.7% had diarrhoea, 22.4% had giardia, 12.9% had malaria and 10.6% had worm infestation. This most probably due to unsanitary living condition. Haemoglobin analysis using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) for 110 of the children, showed high prevalence of anaemia (96.4%), 66% prevalence of IDA. Further haematological investigations of 50 of the children confirmed them as IDA cases.Thus the high prevalence of IDA in Alshigla was multi-factorial, inadequate take of dietary iron and of vitamin C, high intake of cereals and legumes, low intake of meat, poultry and fish group (MPF),and high tea consumption, thus food provides inadequate supply of iron and were rich in inhibitors of iron absorption. In addition episodes of diseases that may influence food (hence iron) utilisation contributed to the prevalence of IDA

  17. REDUCED EFFICIENCY AS A FACTOR MANIFESTING THE EMOTIONAL BURNOUT OF TEACHERS OF PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanna Viktorovna Vodenitskaya; Alexander Vitalyevich Gychev; Natalya Konstantinovna Grickevich

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the working efficiency of teachers of pre-school educational institutions. Professional work of teachers is one of the most psychologically intense social activities. Lack of uniform requirements from the administration, complex relationships between colleagues, external restraint of emotions lead to increased emotional stress, which adversely affects the health. The traces of stressful experiences of teachers manifest themselves in teachers’ negative attitude to work, ...

  18. O desempenho na pré-escola de crianças portadoras de cárie severa - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2164 School performance of pre-school children with severe caries - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2164

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Colares

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de avaliar o desempenho na escola de crianças de quatro anos de idade portadoras de cárie severa. Foram examinadas 101 pré-escolares pertencentes a 4 escolas municipais da cidade do Recife, estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, no ano de 2002. Os exames clínicos foram realizados por 3 pesquisadoras (Kappa inter-examinador = 0,89 e intra-examinador = 0,91, com o objetivo de selecionar crianças livres de cárie (grupo A e portadoras de cárie severa (grupo B, compondo a amostra final de 41 crianças selecionadas A avaliação do desempenho das crianças na escola foi obtida por meio da aplicação de um questionário com as professoras. Verificou-se que o grupo dos alunos livres de cárie apresentou-se, em geral, mais atento às explicações das professoras em sala de aula e com menor dificuldade na realização das tarefas escolares, bem como não apresentaram faltas à escola por motivos relacionados aos dentes, o que não ocorreu com os alunos do grupo B. Quanto à participação oral em sala de aula e a pronúncia das palavras, não se observaram diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos, de acordo com as informações fornecidas pelas professoras. No grupo A, não foi relatado apelido constrangedor relacionado aos dentes, fato que foi verificado em 11% das crianças do grupo B. As professoras consideraram que 22% das crianças portadoras de cárie severa apresentavam prejuízos em suas atividades escolares devido às condições de sua saúde bucal. Concluiu-se que o desempenho das crianças portadoras de cárie severa na escola pode ser prejudicado por sua saúde bucal. Outras pesquisas devem ser desenvolvidas para melhor avaliar o impacto da cárie severa no desempenho da criança na escola.The study evaluated and compared school performance of caries-free and severe caries of 4-year-old children by their teachers’ perception. The selected group consisted of 101 preschoolers from 4 randomly chosen

  19. Relação da cintura abdominal com a condição nutricional, perfil lipídico e pressão arterial em pré-escolares de baixo estrato socioeconômico Relationship between waist circumference and nutritional status, lipid profile and blood pressure in low socioeconomic level pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Saccardo Sarni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o diagnóstico nutricional, o perfil lipídico, os níveis pressóricos e a medida de cintura em pré-escolares. Pretende-se ainda verificar se a medida de cintura está associada com índices antropométricos usuais no diagnóstico nutricional, perfil lipídico e pressão arterial em crianças obesas e eutróficas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 65 pré-escolares de baixo estrato socioeconômico, em escola municipal de Santo André. As avaliações clínico-laboratoriais consistiram em: medida de PA (Task Force, 1996, peso (P e estatura (E expressos como escore z (OMS, 1995 e IMC (índice de massa corpórea; níveis séricos de triglicérides, colesterol total e frações (VLDL-c, HDL-c, LDL-c (Kwiterowich e AHA. Análise estatística: Teste exato de Fisher e correlação. RESULTADOS: Observamos alto porcentual de inadequação da PA e lipídios séricos, independentemente da condição nutricional. A medida de cintura mostrou correlação positiva e significante com IMC e ZPE (r = 0,87 e r = 0,83; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate anthropometric data, blood lipid levels, blood pressure (BP and waist circumference (WC in preschool children. To relate WC with blood lipid levels and BP in obese and non-obese children. METHODS: In a transversal study we investigated 65 preschool children of low socioeconomic level in Santo André, São Paulo. The evaluation consisted of BP measurement (Task Force, 1996, weight (W, height (H expressed as z score (WHO,1995 and body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, total and fractions of cholesterol blood levels (Kwiterovich and AHA. Statistical analysis: Fisher test and correlations. RESULTS: We observed high BP and lipid levels unrelated to nutritional status. WC was significantly and positively correlated to BMI and ZWH (r = 0,87 and r = 0,83, respectively. Using as a cut-off 75 percentile of WC we found an accuracy of 89,1% with 87,2% specificity and 70,6% sensitivity and predictive value

  20. Children's attitudes towards Electronic Gambling Machines: an exploratory qualitative study of children who attend community clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestman, Amy; Thomas, Samantha; Randle, Melanie; Pitt, Hannah

    2017-05-08

    This research sought to explore whether children's visual and auditory exposure to Electronic Gambling Machines (EGMs) in community clubs contributed to shaping their attitudes towards these types of potentially harmful gambling products. This research also examined children's knowledge of EGM behaviours in adults within their social networks. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 45 children in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. All children had attended a club that contained gambling products in the previous 12 months. Face to face, semi-structured interviews explored a range of themes including recall of and attitudes towards EGMs. Data were analysed using thematic techniques. Four social learning theory concepts-attentional, retention, reinforcement and reproduction-were used to explore the range of processes that influenced children's attitudes towards EGMs. In relation to attentional factors, children recalled having seen EGMs in clubs, including where they were located, auditory stimuli and the physical appearance of EGMs. Children also retained information about the behaviours associated with gambling on EGMs, most prominently why adults gamble on these machines. Attitudes towards EGMs were reinforced by the child's knowledge of adults EGM behaviours. Some older children's attitudes were positively reinforced by the perception that profits from the machines would go back to their local sporting teams. Finally, while some children expressed a desire to reproduce EGM behaviours when they were older, others were concerned about the negative consequences of engaging in this type of gambling. Despite policies that try to prevent children's exposure to EGMs in community venues, children have peripheral exposure to EGMs within these environments. This exposure and children's awareness of gambling behaviours of adults appear to play a role in shaping their attitudes towards EGMs. While further research should explore the

  1. Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys / Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exposed to abusive physical punishment, adult fighting and violent TV programs engaged in more episodes of aggression during playful breaks. Boys who reported to play with toy guns at home did not engage in aggressive behavior more often than those who did not, but they displayed a higher proportion of pretended aggression. Results also indicated that aggressive behavior becomes more frequent as the number of aggressive models at home increases.

  2. The Necessity of Music Course in Pre-school Education%学前教育中音乐课程的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雅晶

    2011-01-01

    Music is an inevitable part in our life,for it can cultivate our mind and improve our comprehensive quality,so music education should start from pre-school stage, giving full scope to the function of music teaching for children from preschool stage. This paper,from the angle of the importance of music education, discusses on the reasons of carrying out music education in preschool time and the methods of carrying out pre-school music education.%音乐是我们生活中必不可少的一部分,音乐可以陶冶我们的情操,能提高我们的综合素质,音乐教育要从学前开始,要让音乐教育对幼儿的作用从学前就开始体现出来。本文将着重从学前音乐教育的重要性角度来谈为什么要在学前进行音乐教育,怎样进行学前音乐教育。

  3. Knowledge levels of pre-school teachers related with basic first-aid practices, Isparta sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training.

  4. Utilizando instrumentos para avaliação da percepção de dor em pré-escolares face a procedimento doloroso Using tools for pain perception assessment in hospitalized pre-school children submitted to painful procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabelle Mariano Rossato

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos: verificar se a escala de faces de intensidade de dor possibilita ao pré-escolar identificar sua experiência dolorosa; identificar comportamentos indicadores de dor em pré-escolares submetidos a procedimentos doloroso conhecer palavras utilizadas pelo pré-escolar para descrever a dor em relação a procedimento doloroso. Para tanto foram aplicados três instrumentos em 41 crianças hospitalizadas submetidas a curativo ou coleta de sangue. Os instrumentos utilizados foram escala de faces, indicadores comportamentais e palavras descritoras de dor. A maioria dos pré-escolares compreendeu e utilizou corretamente a escala de faces, o que foi evidenciado pelo movimento crescente 0 (sem dor® 4 (dor máxima na escolha das faces antes e depois do procedimento doloroso. Os comportamentos choro imóvel e franzir a testa predominaram como indicadores comportamentais, mostrando-se intensificados na vigência do procedimento. As verbalizações do pré-escolar relativas a sua dor revelaram uma tendência na utlização de termos concretos e de natureza avaliativa ou indicativa, resultando em conceitos variados e pouco precisos.The aim of this study was evaluate the utilization of tools for pain perception assessment in 41 hospitalized preschool children submitted to painful procedures: care of wounds or blood extraction. The utilizaded tools were the faces scale, behaviorial indicators and words which describe the pain. Most of the pre-schoolers understood and correctly answered to the faces scale, which can be noticed by the crescent moviment 0 (no pain® 4 (maximum pain during the choice of faces before and after the painful procedure. Crying, immortility and forehead wriking were the predominant behavioral indicators, intensified during the procedure. Preschoolers verbalizations about their pain showed up to be concret terms or evaluative-indicative nature, esulting in variable, precise or weakly precise concepts.

  5. SUPPORT OF PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises

  6. Effects of a Tablet-Based Mathematics Application for Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosko, Karl; Ferdig, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Tablets such as "iPad," "Android," and "Windows" devices have become ubiquitous in both the home and school settings. Adults and kids of all ages are using these tools and the associated apps to do everything from education to entertainment. Although there has been a positive relationship in the research between…

  7. Dietary Diversity and Nutritional Status of Pre-School Children from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJFAND

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... With the high levels of malnutrition and low dietary diversity observed among rural-Musa-dependent households in Gitega and Butembo, it is important that stakeholders work collaboratively in coming up with sustainable integrated approaches that link agriculture, nutrition and health in order to enhance ...

  8. In what case is it possible to speak about Mathematical capability among pre-school children?

    OpenAIRE

    Beloshistaya, Anna V.

    2012-01-01

    Most of people have fatal attitude to Mathematics: some of them are capable to learn it form nature, but the others are not. So is their fate – to suffer from it for the whole of life… But it is a rude though natural mistake, as it results from means of mathematical education and its content. Most of parents and teachers are directed on these aspects both in kindergarten and at primary school. Of course, parents are different. Nevertheless so many parents can’t possibly but speak about ach...

  9. The language scripts of pre-school children and of the language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    merely the ability to take part in everyday conversations is at issue here: .... by the first author and Lauren Onraët, both linguists who are experienced in ... The study comprised her honours research project. ..... created by the volunteer, and that this increased their cognitive load to such an ... Developmental Psychology 1:.

  10. The Effect of Soil Education Project on Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, Hulya; Yilmaz, Sevket; Gullac, Esin Turan; Onder, Alev

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the first two group applications of the project named "We are Learning about the Soil with Tipitop and His Friends" within the scope of the project group activities of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) "Schools of Nature and…

  11. Effect of Brain Button on The Development of Pre-School Children in Lamongan, East Java

    OpenAIRE

    Lilis Maghfuroh; Ati‟ul Impartina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain button is a type of brain exercise, which consists of a series of exercises that aims to help brain function better, making the brain sharper and smarter. This exercise starts with putting one hand over the navel. With the thumb and fingers of the other hand, the subject is expected to feel for the two hollow areas under the collarbone, about one inch out from the centre of the chest. Then the subject rubs these areas vigorously for 30 seconds to one minute, from left to rig...

  12. Utilization of oral health services by mothers of preschool children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine oral health services utilization by mothers of pre school children in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Four Primary Health Care (PHC) Clinics in Jos North Local Government Area Participants: 200 mothers of pre school children

  13. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…

  14. Effect of Child Centred Methods on Teaching and Learning of Science Activities in Pre-Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiema, Nelly C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite many research studies showing the effectiveness of teacher application of child-centered learning in different educational settings, few studies have focused on teaching and learning activities in Pre-Schools. This research investigates the effect of child centered methods on teaching and learning of science activities in preschools in…

  15. Investigation of Pre-School Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematics Education in Terms of Their Experience and Structure of Their Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ilhan; Guven, Bulent; Öztürk, Yasin; Arslan, Selahattin; Gürsöy, Kadir

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pre-school teachers' beliefs about teaching mathematics to young learners. In this context, we compared preschool teachers' beliefs with mathematical learning, talent-development-age appropriateness for mathematical learning, the nature of mathematics, the curriculum, teacher efficacy, and the teacher's role…

  16. An Analysis of Pre-School Teachers' and Student Teachers' Attitudes to Inclusion and Their Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Hakan; Celikoz, Nadir; Secer, Zarife

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate what the self-efficacy and attitudes of pre-school teachers and student teachers towards inclusive education were and to elucidate the relationship between self-efficacy and the attitudes on inclusion. Therefore, the present study investigated the self-efficacy perceptions and attitudes of student teachers…

  17. The nutritional impact of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Abr. sum.: Contains an account of a study of the effects of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers were selected for interviewing: recent entrants and longtime participants. The study concentrates on the

  18. The Efficacy of Electronic Books in Fostering Kindergarten Children's Emergent Story Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maria T.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2004-01-01

    A counterbalanced, within-subjects design was carried out to study the efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children's emergent story understanding. The study compared effects of children's independent reading of stories electronically with effects of printed books read aloud by adults. Participants were 18 four- to five-year-old…

  19. Parental Education and Pre-School Children’s Objectively Measured Sedentary Time: The Role of Co-Participation in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children’s sedentary time (ST. Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864, mean age 4.8, 52% boys with their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS (Increased Health and Wellbeing in Pre-schools study between years 2015 and 2016. Children (N = 821 wore an accelerometer for one week. Parents were informed of their educational background, and the frequency of visits with their child in nature, to parks or playgrounds, their own yard, and indoor sport facilities (N = 808. Testing the associations required multiple regression analyses. Parents with a low educational background reported more frequent visits with their child to their own yard, and these visits were associated with children’s lower ST. More highly educated parents co-visited indoor sport facilities more frequently, although this did not have a significant association with children’s ST. More frequent visits in nature were associated with a lower ST at weekdays, regardless of educational background. Future health promotion strategies should inform parents that frequent co-participation in PA, for example, in one’s own yard, is beneficial for lowering children’s ST.

  20. Using electronic storybooks to support word learning in children with severe language impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Daisy J. H.; van Dijken, Marianne J.; Bus, Adriana G

    2012-01-01

    Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two

  1. Increased pre-school overweight and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2013 is associated with appetite, eating frequency and supportive facilities: the Jiaxing Birth Cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Tao; Yang, Bo; Li, Duo

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing. However, little is known about the changes in di-etary factors and supportive facilities associated with childhood obesity. We aimed to document the changes in various dietary factors and supportive facilities and their associations with obesity among pre-school children. Among 42,531 children 4-5 years old, recruited between 2004 and 2013 in the Jiax-ing Birth Cohort, we examined the changes in the prevalence of various dietary factors and supportive facilities and overweight/obesity over 10 years. We used logistic regression to investigate the cross-sectional association between these factors and childhood overweight/obesity risk, adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity increased steadily from 11.8% (boy: 14.8%; girl: 9%) during 2004-2005 to 18% (boy: 21.4%%; girl: 15%) during 2012-2013. The prevalence of meal/snack frequency 3 times /day decreased substantially from 23% during 2004-2005 to 8% during 2012-2013, with more children having 5 times /day: from 32% to 45.6%. Children with a fair/bad appetite, compared with those with a good appetite, had a 45% (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.62) lower risk of overweight/obesity. Children with a meal frequency >=6 times/day (compared with 3 times/day) had a 0.12 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.2) higher BMI-z-score. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased substantially within a decade in southeast China. A better appetite and greater eating frequency were associated with the increased prevalence.

  2. Pre-school nutrition-related behaviours at home and early childhood education services: findings from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Sarah; Anderson, Sarah E; Morton, Susan Mb; Wall, Clare R

    2018-05-01

    Pre-school nutrition-related behaviours influence diet and development of lifelong eating habits. We examined the prevalence and congruence of recommended nutrition-related behaviours (RNB) in home and early childhood education (ECE) services, exploring differences by child and ECE characteristics. Telephone interviews with mothers. Online survey of ECE managers/head teachers. New Zealand. Children (n 1181) aged 45 months in the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study. A mean 5·3 of 8 RNB were followed at home, with statistical differences by gender and ethnic group, but not socio-economic position. ECE services followed a mean 4·8 of 8 RNB, with differences by type of service and health-promotion programme participation. No congruence between adherence at home and in ECE services was found; half of children with high adherence at home attended a service with low adherence. A greater proportion of children in deprived communities attended a service with high adherence, compared with children living in the least deprived communities (20 and 12 %, respectively). Children, across all socio-economic positions, may not experience RNB at home. ECE settings provide an opportunity to improve or support behaviours learned at home. Targeting of health-promotion programmes in high-deprivation areas has resulted in higher adherence to RNB at these ECE services. The lack of congruence between home and ECE behaviours suggests health-promotion messages may not be effectively communicated to parents/family. Greater support is required across the ECE sector to adhere to RNB and promote wider change that can reach into homes.

  3. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT OF KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS OF APPLE TREE PRE-SCHOOL SAMARINDA BY USING FLASHCARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mustika Rachmita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This present study aimed to investigate 14 kindergarten students of Apple Tree pre-school Samarinda with various ability toward their English vocabularies development by flashcards. A Class Action Research was applied in this study. The data was collected through observation checklist, sequence of cycles and interview transcript. Then, building on the analysis of the collected data, it further discusses the vocabulary development of YL and provides suggestions for TEYL. This study revealed that; (1 most of the students developed their English vocabularies gradually by flashcards. (2 These result indicated that TEYL especially kindergarten students by using flashcards could give significant vocabularies development in learning process. Flashcards is one of the simplest and effective teaching materials for teaching YL vocabulary due to the fact that flashcards are categorized based on themes with full colored pictures which attractive for YL. As this study showed the students were engaged with the topics given since the teachers used flashcards to teach English vocabulary. It was difficult to make engagement with YL in English teaching and learning because YL have different mood, self-motivation, and self-confidence which influenced to the willingness in grasping the lesson. Finally, through this based-picture learning, the students indicated that their progress in vocabulary development although this phenomena was commonly happened in TEFL for YL that lead to teaching method done by English teachers who are required to do more innovation toward their teaching method, to develop sufficient knowledge and to use proper teaching media.        

  4. Aspirations, education and inequality in England: insights from the Effective Provision of Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education Project

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, William; Sammons, Pam; Siraj, Iram; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Taggart, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Educational and occupational aspirations have become an important reference point in policy debates about educational inequality. Low aspirations are presented as a major barrier to closing educational attainment gaps and increasing levels of social mobility. Our paper contributes to this on-going debate by presenting data on the educational aspirations of students from the Effective Provision of Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education Project in England. We analyse factors that help pred...

  5. Direct observation of children's preferences and activity levels during interactive and online electronic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Cindy H P; Lam, Jessica W K; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2010-07-01

    Interactive electronic games have recently been popularized and are believed to help promote children's physical activity (PA). The purpose of the study was to examine preferences and PA levels during interactive and online electronic games among overweight and nonoverweight boys and girls. Using a modification of the SOFIT, we systematically observed 70 Hong Kong Chinese children (35 boys, 35 girls; 50 nonoverweight, 20 overweight), age 9 to 12 years, during 2 60-minute recreation sessions and recorded their game mode choices and PA levels. During Session One children could play either an interactive or an online electronic bowling game and during Session Two they could play an interactive or an online electronic running game. Children chose to play the games during 94% of session time and split this time between interactive (52%) and online (48%) versions. They engaged in significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during interactive games than their online electronic versions (70% vs. 2% of game time). Boys and nonoverweight children expended relatively more energy during the interactive games than girls and overweight children, respectively. New-generation interactive games can facilitate physical activity in children, and given the opportunity children may select them over sedentary versions.

  6. Vitamin a status in children with diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Abrol, Pankaj; Mehta, Umesh; Lal, Harbans

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin A status was measured in 50 pre-school children with acute and persistent diarrhoea. It was measured by (a) Fluorometric micromethod and (b) Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC). The results were compared with 25 normal children. Vitamin A status was lower in children with persistent diarrhoea whereas the results were comparable between the children with acute diarrhoea and control subjects.

  7. 75 FR 3154 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... that use solar power or other power sources), such as music players, headphones, some toys and games... basis that replacing or installing parts of a children's electronic device is not a children's activity... are not installed. We decline to revise the rule as suggested by some commenters. We have determined...

  8. Free and controlled game and activities in pre-school education in terms of teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Kázmerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with free and controlled play activities in preschool education in terms of teachers. It focuses primarily on the game preschool children playing children spend most of their time is their most important activities for the advancement of their entire personality. The theoretical part is focused on defining the concept of game play and substance of the relationship and the importance of play of preschool children. It is focused on free and controlled the game and activities, ...

  9. Learning about geometrical solids, shapes and lines in pre-school education

    OpenAIRE

    Hribar, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Children meet with mathematics and geometry through their everyday activities at almost every step in their social environment. Therefore, it is of great importance to begin teaching them with an appropriate and adjusted contents (connected to mathematics and geometry) already early in kindergarten years. As children usually learn through own experiences, these should, together with previous knowledge, needs and interest of children, not only be considered by educators, but should also form a...

  10. Electronic screens in children's bedrooms and adiposity, physical activity and sleep: do the number and type of electronic devices matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-07-11

    To examine whether the number and type of electronic screens available in children's bedrooms matter in their relationship to adiposity, physical activity and sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 502 children aged 9-11 years from Ottawa, Ontario. The presence (yes/no) of a television (TV), computer or video game system in the child's bedroom was reported by the parents. Percentage body fat was measured using bioelectrical impedance. An accelerometer was worn over seven days to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time, sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Screen time was self-reported by the child. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, annual household income and highest level of parental education, children with 2-3 screens in their bedroom had a significantly higher percentage of body fat than children with no screen in their bedroom. However, while children with 2-3 screens in their bedroom engaged in more screen time overall than those with no screen, total sedentary time and MVPA were not significantly different. Sleep duration was not related to the number of screens in the bedroom, but sleep efficiency was significantly lower in children with at least 2 screens in the bedroom. Finally, children having only a TV in their bedroom had significantly higher adiposity than those having no screen at all. In contrast, the presence of a computer in children's bedrooms was not associated with higher adiposity than that of children with no screen. A higher number of screens in a child's bedroom was associated with higher adiposity, more total screen time and lower sleep efficiency. Having a TV in the bedroom appears to be the type of screen presence associated with higher levels of adiposity. Given the popularity of screens among children, these findings are increasingly relevant to health promotion strategies.

  11. Electronic Paint: Understanding Children's Representation through Their Interactions with Digital Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John; Seow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates very young children's use of a stylus-driven, electronic painting and drawing on the tablet PC. The authors compare their development in the use of this device with their use of other mark-making media, including those which derive from pencil and paper technologies and also with mouse-driven electronic paintbox programs.…

  12. Pre-School Students' Informal Acquisitions Regarding the Concepts of Point and Straight Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbay, Keziban; Develi, Mehmet Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the informal cognitive structures regarding "point" and "straight line"--two basic and undefined terms of geometry--in children registered in preschool--the previous step before in-class formal education process. The study was conducted with the participation of 50 children enrolled in nursery,…

  13. Mother Tongue Usage in Ghanaian Pre-Schools: Perceptions of Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackie-Ofosu, Vivian; Mahama, Sheriffa; Vandyck, E. Solomon Tetteh Dosoo; Kumador, David Kwame; Toku, Nana Ama Afriyie

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the perceptions of parents and teachers on the use of the mother tongue and their preferred medium of communication and instruction for preschool children at home and in school. The sample was made up of a cross-section of parents and teachers (N=120, Female=80% for teachers and 55% for parents) of children (between…

  14. Studies of Place Perception in Elementary and Pre-School Education. Vol. I. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaut, J. M.

    A research project of environmental learning in children is discussed. Most of the studies conducted during the research involved observation of children aged 3-12, in mapping and free environmental behavior, and in curricular experiments using perceptual surrogates for map-learning and macro-environmental conceptualization in the lower elementary…

  15. A Qualitative Research on Active Learning Practices in Pre-School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Kanak, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    In educational environments prepared based on the active learning method, children learn with interest and pleasure, doing and experiencing, and directly through their own experiences. Considering the contributions of the active learning method and the educational environments designed based on it to children's development, it can be said that…

  16. K psychologii láskyplného vztahu: pedagogické inspirace se zaměřením na předškolní výchovu / On the psychology of an affectionate relationship: theoretical inspirations for pre-school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Helus

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper focusses on the personal approach to a child in the pre-school phase of their life, which constitutes a complex of interconnected developmental influences and culminates when the child enters kindergarten. The personal approach includes (a regard to important characteristics of pre-school children (to its dependence, openness to experience, potential and developmental prognosis and (b regard to critical incidents in its previous development (primary relationships and attachment, separation-individuation tendency, the onset of assertive self, integration into kindergarten. An affectionate relationship is a precondition for child’s development to progress naturally, in an uninhibited or deformed manner. An affectionate relationship of a kindergarten teacher has specific characteristics and finds realisation in her creative reflection on the child as a personality in forming.

  17. Health workers' use of electronic information concerning children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information regarding young children who experience barriers to the development of listening, language and learning is limited in the South African context. Health workers, in particular those ... These health workers also have access to and are active users of computers and the Internet. They may therefore benefit from ...

  18. Children and Electronic Games in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Bermann, Julie N.; Buchman, Debra D.

    1997-01-01

    Reports video game playing demographics. Reviews the literature on video game health hazards and positive health applications; cutting-edge applications in education and controversies about learning; and effects on personality. Discusses laboratory and survey research on the effects of video games violence. Considers whether some children may be…

  19. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  20. Determination of the level of noise in nurseries and pre-schools and the teachers′ level of annoyance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan Gokdogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this article is to determine the level of noise in nurseries and pre-schools and also to compare measured levels with standard levels and evaluate the teachers’ level of annoyance. Materials and Methods: The level of noise was measured in three different schools. A total of 162 students, whose ages were between 3 and 6 years, and 12 teachers were included the study. Every age groups’ level of noise was measured during sleeping, gaming, and eating activity. In addition, teachers’ annoyance was assessed in different age groups. Results: The 4- to 6-year-old groups were found to have higher level of sounds than 3-year-old group. Eating period was found to be the highest level of sound whereas sleeping was found the lowest. Furthermore, teachers’ annoyance was found higher as the age decreased. Conclusion: Nurseries and pre-schools have noisy environment both for the students and the teachers. High level of noise, which has bad effects on health, is a public health problem. Both the students’ families and teachers must be aware of this annoying situation.

  1. Adherence to active play and electronic media guidelines in preschool children: gender and parental education considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Schary, David P; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine adherence to current active play and electronic media use guidelines in a sample of US preschool-aged children and to examine whether differences occurred across gender and parental education. 164 parents completed an on-line survey to estimate preschool children's active play and sedentary behaviors. For weekdays, 50% of the sample met the active play guideline with this increasing to 65% during the weekend. With respect to electronic media use, 90% of the sample met guidelines during the week, with the percentage meeting guidelines dropping to 78% during the weekend. A greater percentage of preschool children from high parental education families (83.4 ± 3.3) met electronic media use guidelines on the weekends, compared to preschool children from low parental education families (59.4 ± 8.1) (p = 0.002). Our findings indicate that a substantial portion of preschool children are not meeting active play guidelines and that adherence to active play and electronic media use guidelines may be influenced by parental education.

  2. Emerging Musicality during the Pre-School Years: A Case Study of One Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of communication in early infancy and childhood have highlighted the significance of rhythm, sound and music for emotional and social development. There is, however, little detailed empirical data on the emergence of naturalistic music-related behaviour by children in the early years. The aim of this work is to examine instances of…

  3. An Innovation in Morocco's Koranic Pre-Schools. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija

    This working paper describes the ATFALE project to introduce pedagogical innovation into Moroccan preschools. Following a review of the history of the traditional Muslim Kuttab school for preschool and early elementary school children, the paper discusses the educational reform goals of the ATFALE project. Specifically, the project plans to…

  4. Child Development in the Context of Multicultural Pre-School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska

    This study examined the impact of a multicultural preschool curriculum in Slovenia on preschool children's sensitization to cultural differences and understanding of themselves, others, and different cultures. The curriculum was implemented for a 1-month period for 6.6- to 7-year-olds. Multicultural enrichment was evident in wall decorations, toys…

  5. design guidelines for High/Scope methodology in pre-schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality design and appropriate space organization in preschool settings can support ... framework for teachers without any architectural background and designers with no ... books and journal articles related to preschool education and children's ..... Brown JE, Isaacs JS, Krinke UB, Lechtenberg E & Murtaugh MA 2011.

  6. Pressing Tasks in the Care of Children of Preschool and School Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseytlin, I

    1960-01-01

    ...). It concerns pressing tasks of public health with regard to the care of children of pre-school and school age in order to strengthen the bond between school and life which also promotes the further...

  7. The Pattern of Electronic Game Use and Related Bodily Discomfort in Hong Kong Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Donald P. Y.; Szeto, Grace P. Y.; Jones, Alice Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the usage pattern of electronic game devices among primary school children in Hong Kong. Commonly used types of games devices were grouped into three main categories: large-screen/TV-based games, small handheld game devices and active game devices. A survey was conducted among 476 students in a local primary school, with…

  8. Categorization of videogames: some comments on 'Children and electronic games' by Funk, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M

    2000-06-01

    Comments are made on an article by Funk, et al. about children and electronic games. This author argues the cross-cultural differences and developmental effects must be taken into account and that the categorization system of videogames based on content is incomplete or too general to cover the complex actions of contemporary videogames. These factors alone may have implications for research.

  9. Possible Effects of Electronic Social Media on Gifted and Talented Children's Intelligence and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joan

    2016-01-01

    In just a few decades, electronic networks have expanded beyond all expectations. Instant messaging via smart phones and computers of all sorts whizz round the world. Researchers and policy makers are strongly divided in their findings and conclusions as to the effects of possible persuasive changes on the minds and lives of children, particularly…

  10. Electronic monitoring of adherence to inhaled corticosteroids: an essential tool in identifying severe asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, Anja; Artusio, Luca; Jamalzadeh, Angela; Nagakumar, Prasad; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Saglani, Sejal; Bush, Andrew; Frey, Urs; Fleming, Louise J

    2017-12-01

    International guidelines recommend that severe asthma can only be diagnosed after contributory factors, including adherence, have been addressed. Accurate assessment of adherence is difficult in clinical practice. We hypothesised that electronic monitoring in children would identify nonadherence, thus delineating the small number with true severe asthma.Asthmatic children already prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were prospectively recruited and persistence of adherence assessed using electronic monitoring devices. Spirometry, airway inflammation and asthma control were measured at the start and end of the monitoring period.93 children (62 male; median age 12.4 years) were monitored for a median of 92 days. Median (range) monitored adherence was 74% (21-99%). We identified four groups: 1) good adherence during monitoring with improved control, 24% (likely previous poor adherence); 2) good adherence with poor control, 18% (severe therapy-resistant asthma); 3) poor adherence with good control, 26% (likely overtreated); and 4) poor adherence with poor control, 32%. No clinical parameter prior to monitoring distinguished these groups.Electronic monitoring is a useful tool for identifying children in whom a step up in treatment is indicated. Different approaches are needed in those who are controlled when adherent or who are nonadherent. Electronic monitoring is essential in a paediatric severe asthma clinic. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  11. Oral language skills intervention in pre-school-a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Allyson; Hulme, Charles; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J; Fricke, Silke

    2017-01-01

    While practitioners are increasingly asked to be mindful of the evidence base of intervention programmes, evidence from rigorous trials for the effectiveness of interventions that promote oral language abilities in the early years is sparse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a language intervention programme for children identified as having poor oral language skills in preschool classes. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in 13 UK nursery schools. In each nursery, eight children (N = 104, mean age = 3 years 11 months) with the poorest performance on standardized language measures were selected to take part. All but one child were randomly allocated to either an intervention (N = 52) or a waiting control group (N = 51). The intervention group received a 15-week oral language programme in addition to their standard nursery curriculum. The programme was delivered by trained teaching assistants and aimed to foster vocabulary knowledge, narrative and listening skills. Initial results revealed significant differences between the intervention and control group on measures of taught vocabulary. No group differences were found on any standardized language measure; however, there were gains of moderate effect size in listening comprehension. The study suggests that an intervention, of moderate duration and intensity, for small groups of preschool children successfully builds vocabulary knowledge, but does not generalize to non-taught areas of language. The findings strike a note of caution about implementing language interventions of moderate duration in preschool settings. The findings also highlight the importance of including a control group in intervention studies. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  12. Determining rates of overweight and obese status in children using electronic medical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Catherine S.; Tu, Karen; Oud, William; Carsley, Sarah; Hanna, Miranda; Lebovic, Gerald; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in children by age, sex, and visit type, using data from EMRALD® (Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database). Design Heights and weights were abstracted for children 0 to 19 years of age who had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Using the most recent visit, the proportions and 95% CIs of patients defined as overweight and obese were compared by age group, sex, and visit type using the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Setting Ontario. Participants Children 0 to 19 years of age who were rostered to a primary care physician participating in EMRALD and had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Main outcome measures Proportion and 95% CI of children with overweight and obese status by age group; proportion of children with overweight and obese status by sex (with male sex as the referent) within each age group; and proportion of children with overweight and obese status at the most recent well-child visit type compared with other visit types by age group. Results There were 28 083 well-child visits during this period. For children who attended well-child visits, 84.7% of visits had both a height and weight documented. Obesity rates were significantly higher in 1- to 4-year-olds compared with children younger than 1 (6.1% vs 2.3%; P overweight and obese status were lower using data from well-child visits compared with other visits. Conclusion Electronic medical records might be useful to conduct population-based surveillance of overweight or obese status in children. Methodologic standards, however, should be developed. PMID:28209703

  13. Obesity in pre-school chldren: issuse and challenges for community based child health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Anne; Huntington, Annette

    Childhood obesity is becoming a topical issue in both the health literature and the popular media and increasingly child health nurses are observing preschool children who appear to be disproportionately heavy for their height when plotted on standardized growth charts. In this paper literature related to childhood obesity in New Zealand and internationally is explored to identify current issues, and the implications of these issues for nurses in community based child health practice are discussed. Themes that emerged from the literature relate to the measurement of obesity, links between childhood and adult obesity and issues for families. A theme in the literature around maternal perception was of particular interest. Studies that investigated maternal perceptions of childhood obesity found that mothers identified their child as being overweight or obese only when it imposed limitations on physical activity or when the children were teased rather than by referring to individual growth graphs. The implications for nursing in the area of child health practice is discussed as nurses working in this area need an understanding of the complex and often emotive issues surrounding childhood obesity and an awareness of the reality of people's lives when devising health promotion strategies.

  14. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. Methods: The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sede...

  15. The Next Level of Research on Electronic Play: Potential Benefits and Contextual Influences for Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy E. Salonius-Pasternak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on electronic play has focused on its possible negative effects for children and adolescents, and contextual factors such as socioeconomic status (SES and culture are rarely considered. This article considers the potential benefits of electronic play from a psychological perspective, as well as individual and contextual factors that may shape the influence of electronic play for children and adolescents. Demographics of players and the games themselves are presented, and recommendations for research and policy are discussed.

  16. Reductions in Parental Use of Corporal Punishment on Pre-School Children Following Participation in the Moms' Empowerment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Galano, Maria M; Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2016-06-09

    Corporal punishment is a widely used and widely endorsed form of parental discipline. Inter-partner violence places enormous stress upon women. The rate of corporal punishment is higher in homes where other types of domestic violence are also occurring. This study compares two groups: those who participated in an intervention for women exposed to intimate partner violence (The Moms' Empowerment Program [MEP]) and those in a comparison group. Using standardized measures, women in both groups were assessed at baseline and at the end of the program, 5 weeks later. The 113 mothers who participated in the MEP program had significantly improved their parenting, such that they had less use of physical punishment post-intervention. Findings suggest that a relatively brief community-based intervention program can reduce the use of parental physical punishment even in disadvantaged populations coping with stressful circumstances. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Do pre-school lung ventilation scans predict outcome by 6 years of age in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF)?

    OpenAIRE

    Yahia, R; Viviani, L; Carr, S; Bush, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Progressive respiratory disease accounts for most of the mortality and morbidity in CF. Identification of early lung disease is imperative to recognise young patients who are at high risk of developing future lung damage. The London CF collaboration has shown that infant pulmonary function at one and at two years is essentially normal, and one year HRCT has mild abnormalities only, so new markers need to be identified. We have used ventilation scans (VS) at the CF ...

  18. Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

  19. A Music Program for Training Head Start Teachers Using a Sequential, Cognitive, Developmental Process with Pre-school Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhecker, Shirley G.

    This practicum report addresses the need to supply Head Start teachers with: (1) specific preschool music objectives; (2) a sequential preschool developmental program in music to match the child's cognitive level; (3) how to choose instructional material to encourage specific basic school readiness skills; and (4) workshops to accomplish these…

  20. Pre-School Verbo-Sensory Motor Status as a Predictor of Educational Life-Courses and Self-Perceptions of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotulainen, Risto; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Ruoho, Kari; Savolainen, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    During a 15-year longitudinal study, 31 Finnish students (risk group) who had been identified as having deficiencies in reading and writing readiness at pre-school through the German Breuer-Weuffen Differentiation Test were compared with their peers (n = 62) in order to study long-term differences that emerged at the starting point of the study.…

  1. Psycho-developing needs of children and spatial features for children's stay

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Danica

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to look for possibilities of more quality constructing, i.e. a better organization and materialization of pre-school premises, and also to deal with the problem which comes up considering children's developing needs, based on the psychological aspect and features such space has to have as children's residence. Here in the study has been done a systematization of the possible features of the space in pre-school premises where children can spend time considering the...

  2. Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos a relação entre fatores de aprendizagem social, acessados via questionários, e os comportamentos agressivos e lúdicos de meninos pré-escolares, através de observação direta durante o recreio. Os participantes foram 15 meninos com idades entre quatro e seis anos, da cidade de Goiânia, GO, Brasil. Uma análise multivariada de variância indicou efeitos significativos de modelos de agressividade em casa nas taxas de agressão durante o brincar. Crianças expostas a punições físicas abusivas, brigas entre adultos e programas violentos de TV apresentaram mais agressões reais. Meninos que relataram brincar com armas de brinquedo em casa não apresentaram mais agressões reais do que os que relataram o contrário, mas apresentaram maior proporção de agressões de faz-de-conta. Os resultados também indicaram que quanto mais modelos agressivos em casa, maior a incidência de comportamentos agressivos.We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exposed to abusive physical punishment, adult fighting and violent TV programs engaged in more episodes of aggression during playful breaks. Boys who reported to play with toy guns at home did not engage in aggressive behavior more often than those who did not, but they displayed a higher proportion of pretended aggression. Results also indicated that aggressive behavior becomes more frequent as the number of aggressive models at home increases.

  3. Acute urinary retention in a pre-school girl with constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Ariza Traslaviña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of a preschool girl who developed acute urinary retention associated with constipation. Case description: A girl aged six years old presented a 24 h history of inability to urinate. She was went twice to the emergency room during this period. In the first admission, 12 h after the onset of the symptoms, she presented abdominal pain and acute urinary retention. After the drainage by urinary catheterization of 300 mL of clear urine, she presented relief of the symptoms and, as urinalysis had no change, the patient was discharged home. Twelve hours after the first visit, she returned to the emergency room complaining about the same symptoms. At physical examination, there was only a palpable and distended bladder up to the umbilicus with no other abnormalities. Again, a urinary catheterization was performed, which drained 450 mL of clear urine, with immediate relief of the symptoms. Urinalysis and urine culture had no abnormalities. During the anamnesis, the diagnosis of constipation was considered and a plain abdominal radiography was performed, which identified large amount of feces throughout the colon (fecal retention. An enema with a 12% glycerin solution was prescribed for three days. During follow-up, the child used laxatives and dietary modifications, this contributed to the resolution of the constipation. There were no other episodes of urinary retention after 6 months of follow-up. Comments: Acute urinary retention in children is a rare phenomenon and constipation should be considered as a cause.

  4. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  5. Health care quality measures for children and adolescents in Foster Care: feasibility testing in electronic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C; Nacion, Kristine M; Leonhart, Karen; Cooper, Jennifer N; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2018-02-22

    Preventive quality measures for the foster care population are largely untested. The objective of the study is to identify healthcare quality measures for young children and adolescents in foster care and to test whether the data required to calculate these measures can be feasibly extracted and interpreted within an electronic health records or within the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System. The AAP Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care served as the guideline for determining quality measures. Quality measures related to well child visits, developmental screenings, immunizations, trauma-related care, BMI measurements, sexually transmitted infections and depression were defined. Retrospective chart reviews were performed on a cohort of children in foster care from a single large pediatric institution and related county. Data available in the Ohio Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System was compared to the same population studied in the electronic health record review. Quality measures were calculated as observed (received) to expected (recommended) ratios (O/E ratios) to describe the actual quantity of recommended health care that was received by individual children. Electronic health records and the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System data frequently lacked important information on foster care youth essential for calculating the measures. Although electronic health records were rich in encounter specific clinical data, they often lacked custodial information such as the dates of entry into and exit from foster care. In contrast, Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System included robust data on custodial arrangements, but lacked detailed medical information. Despite these limitations, several quality measures were devised that attempted to accommodate these limitations. In this feasibility testing, neither the electronic health records at a single institution nor the county level Statewide

  6. Using electronic storybooks to support word learning in children with severe language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Daisy J H; van Dijken, Marianne J; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two stories were presented as video books with motion pictures, music, and sounds, and (b) two stories included only static illustrations without music or sounds. Two other stories served as the control condition. Both static and video books were effective in increasing knowledge of unknown words, but static books were most effective. Experiment 2 was designed to examine which elements in video books interfere with word learning: video images or music or sounds. A total of 23 kindergarten SLI children heard 8 storybooks each four times: (a) two static stories without music or sounds, (b) two static stories with music or sounds, (c) two video stories without music or sounds, and (d) two video books with music or sounds. Video images and static illustrations were equally effective, but the presence of music or sounds moderated word learning. In children with severe SLI, background music interfered with learning. Problems with speech perception in noisy conditions may be an underlying factor of SLI and should be considered in selecting teaching aids and learning environments. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.

  7. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Children With Cochlear Implants Using Electronic Storybooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Jane; Wood, Carla

    2015-10-01

    The present intervention study explored the word learning of 18 children with cochlear implants in response to E-book instruction. Capitalizing on the multimedia options available in electronic storybooks, the intervention incorporated videos and definitions to provide a vocabulary intervention that includes evidence-based teaching strategies. The extent of the children's word learning was assessed using three assessment tasks: receptive pointing, expressively labeling, and word defining. Children demonstrated greater immediate expressive labeling gains and definition generation gains for words taught in the treatment condition compared to those in the comparison condition. In addition, the children's performance on delayed posttest vocabulary assessments indicated better retention across the expressive vocabulary task for words taught within the treatment condition as compared to the comparison condition. Findings suggest that children with cochlear implants with functional speech perception can benefit from an oral-only multimedia-enhanced intensive vocabulary instruction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Using Electronic Health Records to Examine Disease Risk in Small Populations: Obesity Among American Indian Children, Wisconsin, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Weinert, Bethany A; Godfrey, Liz; Adams, Alexandra K; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2016-02-25

    Tribe-based or reservation-based data consistently show disproportionately high obesity rates among American Indian children, but little is known about the approximately 75% of American Indian children living off-reservation. We examined obesity among American Indian children seeking care off-reservation by using a database of de-identified electronic health records linked to community-level census variables. Data from electronic health records from American Indian children and a reference sample of non-Hispanic white children collected from 2007 through 2012 were abstracted to determine obesity prevalence. Related community-level and individual-level risk factors (eg, economic hardship, demographics) were examined using logistic regression. The obesity rate for American Indian children (n = 1,482) was double the rate among non-Hispanic white children (n = 81,042) (20.0% vs 10.6%, P American Indian children were less likely to have had a well-child visit (55.9% vs 67.1%, P American Indian records (18.3% vs 14.6%, P obesity risk among American Indian children (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.1) independent of age, sex, economic hardship, insurance status, and geographic designation. An electronic health record data set demonstrated high obesity rates for nonreservation-based American Indian children, rates that had not been previously assessed. This low-cost method may be used for assessing health risk for other understudied populations and to plan and evaluate targeted interventions.

  9. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity.

  10. Investigating the Relationship between Pre-School Teachers’ Problem Solving Skills andTheir Epistemological Beliefs, Creativity Levels and Thinking Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdenur Uzunoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether the epistemological beliefs, creativity levels and thinking styles of pre-school teachers are significant predictors of their problem solving skills and in accordance with this purpose, a correlational survey design was used. The sample of this study consists of 155 pre school teachers working in Isparta in the school year 2011-2012. As data collection tools, “Problem Solving Inventory”, “Epistemological Beliefs Scale, “How Creative Are You?” and lastly, “Thinking Styles Inventory” were used. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. In this study, it has been found that problem solving skills of the teachers are a significant predictor of preschool teachers’ perceptions of their creativity levels positively and perceptions of their conventional thinking styles negatively in the belief that learning depends on ability.

  11. Craniospinal radiotherapy in children: Electron- or photon-based technique of spinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnacka, M.; Skowronska-Gardas, A.; Pedziwiatr, K.; Morawska-Kaczynska, M.; Zygmuntowicz-Pietka, A.; Semaniak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prone position and electron-based technique for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) have been standard in our department for many years. But this immobilization is difficult for the anaesthesiologist to gain airway access. The increasing number of children treated under anaesthesia led us to reconsider our technique. Aim: The purpose of this study is to report our new photon-based technique for CSI which could be applied in both the supine and the prone position and to compare this technique with our electron-based technique. Materials and methods: Between November 2007 and May 2008, 11 children with brain tumours were treated in the prone position with CSI. For 9 patients two treatment plans were created: the first one using photons and the second one using electron beams for spinal irradiation. We prepared seven 3D-conformal photon plans and four forward planned segmented field plans. We compared 20 treatment plans in terms of target dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. Results: In segmented field plans better dose homogeneity in the thecal sac volume was achieved than in electron-based plans. Regarding doses in organs at risk, in photon-based plans we obtained a lower dose in the thyroid but a higher one in the heart and liver. Conclusions: Our technique can be applied in both the supine and prone position and it seems to be more feasible and precise than the electron technique. However, more homogeneous target coverage and higher precision of dose delivery for photons are obtained at the cost of slightly higher doses to the heart and liver. (authors)

  12. Evidence-based guidelines for wise use of electronic games by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon; Abbott, Rebecca; Collins, Rachel; Campbell, Amity

    2014-01-01

    Electronic games (e-games) are widely used by children, often for substantial durations, yet to date there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding their use. The aim of this paper is to present guidelines for the wise use of e-games by children based on a narrative review of the research. This paper proposes a model of factors that influence child-e-games interaction. It summarises the evidence on positive and negative effects of use of e-games on physical activity and sedentary behaviour, cardio-metabolic health, musculoskeletal health, motor coordination, vision, cognitive development and psychosocial health. Available guidelines and the role of guidelines are discussed. Finally, this information is compiled into a clear set of evidence-based guidelines, about wise use of e-games by children, targeting children, parents, professionals and the e-game industry. These guidelines provide an accessible synthesis of available knowledge and pragmatic guidelines based on e-game specific evidence and related research.

  13. Methodological framework for the ergonomic design of children's playground equipment: a Serbian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanovic, Miroljub; Jekic, Savko; Stojiljkovic, Evica

    2014-01-01

    Adequate application of the static and dynamic anthropometric measures of pre-school children in ergonometric design of children's playground equipment should eliminate all dangers and difficulties in their use. Possibilities of injuries, insecure movements, discomfort able positions and some other dangerous actions may be minimized; and safety and health protection of pre-school children will be increased. Children's playground represents a significant space of activity for pre-school children. Therefore, it is necessary to apply ergonomic principles which contribute to the adjustment of the playground elements to children's anatomic features. Based on the results presented in this paper, new constructions were designed and new playgrounds were installed in Serbia. Participants were children from three pre-school age groups: Junior age group (3-4 years of age, 17 children), Medium age group (4-5 years of age, 22 children), and Senior age group (5-6 years of age, 26 children). Thirty-one static anthropometric measures (12 in standing position, 11 in sitting position, 7 related to dimensions of hand, foot an head, with body weight and shoe size) and 15 dynamic anthropometric measures (7 in standing position, 6 in sitting position and 2 dimension of foot and hand) were defined for the study. Measurements were taken using an anthrop-meter, a flexible measuring tape. Equations for ergonomic design of children's playground elements were also defined. Basic statistical data of static and dynamic anthropometric measurements of the pre-school children are presented in this paper, as well as the statistical calculation of the corrective anthropometric measurements. Measurements were performed in "Poletarac" kindergarten, part of the pre-school institution "Radost" in Cacak. Elements of playground equipment in "Bambi" kindergarten in Kragujevac (the Indian tent "wigwam", gate-house, swing and carousel) were designed and built using these parameters. Based on the obtained

  14. [Scanning electron microscopy of peripheral blood erythrocytes in the diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhagic vasculitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaeva, T A; Balasheva, I I; Saratikov, A S; Bocharova, M N; Mikhalenko, A N

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-four children aged 3-15 years were examined, 16 of these with cutaneous and articulo-cutaneous hemorrhagic vasculitis (HV) and 8 normal controls. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 10 patients treated by basic therapy and 6 children whose treatment protocols were supplemented by membranoprotector locheine. The children were repeatedly examined 1 month after discharge from hospital. Scanning electron microscopy of peripheral blood erythrocytes provides valuable diagnostic data on erythrocyte membrane morphology and function in children with HV and can serve as a method for monitoring the efficiency of new approaches to therapy of this disease.

  15. Perceptions of Harm to Children Exposed to Secondhand Aerosol From Electronic Vapor Products, Styles Survey, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; Tong, Van T; Marynak, Kristy; King, Brian A

    2017-05-25

    The US Surgeon General has concluded that e-cigarette aerosol is not harmless and can contain harmful and potentially harmful chemicals, including nicotine. We assessed factors associated with adults' perceptions of harm related to children's exposure to secondhand aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs). Data came from the 2015 Styles, an Internet panel survey of US adults aged 18 years or older (n = 4,127). Respondents were asked whether they believe aerosol from other people's EVPs causes children harm. Harm perceptions were assessed overall and by cigarette smoking, EVP use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess odds of perceived harm. Overall, 5.3% of adults responded that secondhand EVP exposure caused "no harm" to children, 39.9% responded "little harm" or "some harm," 21.5% responded "a lot of harm," and 33.3% responded "don't know." Odds of "no harm" response were greater among men than among women, current and former cigarette smokers than among never smokers, and current and former EVP users than among never users; odds were lower among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic other races than among non-Hispanic whites. Odds of responding "don't know" were greater among men, current cigarette smokers, and current and former EVP users; odds were lower among those aged 45 to 64 years than those aged 18 to 24 years and lower among non-Hispanic other races and Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. Two-fifths of US adults believe that children's exposure to secondhand EVP aerosol causes some or little harm, while one-third do not know whether it causes harm. Efforts are warranted to educate the public about the health risks of secondhand EVP aerosol, particularly for children.

  16. Three Broad Parental Feeding Styles and Young Children's Snack Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B.; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify broad overarching feeding styles that parents may use and their effects on pre-school-aged children's healthy and unhealthy snack intake. Design: Cross sectional study Methods: Mothers (n = 611) of children aged 2-7 years (mean age 3.9 years) completed an online survey assessing parent-feeding…

  17. [Associated factors to availability and use of electronic media in children from preschool to 4th grade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diana Marina; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The increased availability of electronic media has changed the behavior in children and young people by encouraging sedentary lifestile, with health effects from a very young age. To characterize the availability and use of electronic media and its associated factors in children from preschool through 4 th grade. A cross-sectional study with cluster sampling was carried out. Parents filled out the demographic survey, the availability and use of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate prevalence ratios adjusted for the sampling. Seven hundred and ten parents answered. The average age of the children was 6.7 years and 49.7% were male. Factors such as the mother working out of the house and family income were positively associated with the availability of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. The availability of a TV, computer and console in the child´s room, contributes to longer use of these electronic media. Both, the male gender and age of the child, were positively associated with the availability and use of electronic media. This is the first study in Colombia that reports the availability and use of electronic media in children. It is clear that modern life encourages sedentary behavior from the earliest years of life, which has been associated with health problems from early childhood. Intervention studies are needed aimed at reducing these behaviors in our context.

  18. Language Profiles and Literacy Outcomes of Children with Resolving, Emerging, or Persisting Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Duff, Fiona J.; Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with language impairment (LI) show heterogeneity in development. We tracked children from pre-school to middle childhood to characterize three developmental trajectories: resolving, persisting and emerging LI. Methods: We analyzed data from children identified as having preschool LI, or being at family risk of dyslexia,…

  19. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  1. A Educação infantil e o Plano Nacional de Educação: as propostas da CONAE 2010 Pre-school education and the National Plan for Education: the 2010 CONAE´S proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Fraga Vieira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo é destacar alguns aspectos da oferta de educação infantil no país nos últimos 10 anos, tendo em vista as metas do Plano Nacional de Educação (PNE de 2001. Transcorrido esse período, que se caracterizou pela implementação de políticas que objetivaram integrar creches e pré-escolas nos sistemas de ensino, em consonância com o marco legal pós-Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (LDBEN, 1996, nós percebemos permanências, redefinições e tensões. Os subsídios para a elaboração do novo PNE, deliberados na Conferência Nacional de Educação (CONAE no último abril, redimensionam metas para esta etapa da educação básica, no propósito mais geral de estabelecer as bases de um novo pacto federativo, visando à construção de um Sistema Nacional de Educação. Questionamos se as metas sugeridas pela CONAE para a educação da criança pequena consideram as tendências de cobertura de acesso observadas nos últimos 10 anos e se promovem investimento na perspectiva do marco legal que vem sendo construído nas duas últimas décadas.This paper highlights some aspects regarding the supply of pre-school education in Brazil, these last 10 years, bearing in mind the goals of the 2001 National Plan for Education (PNE. After the period characterized by the implementation of policies aimed at integrating creches (daycare center and pre-schools into the teaching systems, in line with the legal goals proposed after the National Education Law of Guidelines and Basis (LDBEN, 1996, we have perceived permanencies, redefinitions and tensions. The elements to draw up the new PNE, deliberated within the Conference on National Education (CONAE, last April, resize the goals for this stage of basic education, with a more general purpose of establishing bases for a new federative pact aimed at the development of a National System of Education. We wonder if the goals suggested by the CONAE for the education of little children

  2. Feasibility of using a handheld electronic device for the collection of patient reported outcomes data from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinney, Lisa A; Grade, John D; Connor, Nadine P

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which a communication disorder affects health-related quality of life (QOL) in children is not known. Unfortunately, collection of quality of life data via traditional paper measures is labor intensive and has several other limitations, which hinder the investigation of pediatric quality of life in children. Currently, there is not sufficient research regarding the use of electronic devices to collect pediatric patient reported outcomes in order to address such limitations. Thus, we used a cross-over design to compare responses to a pediatric health quality of life instrument (PedsQL 4.0) delivered using a handheld electronic device to those from a traditional paper form. Respondents were children with (n=9) and without (n=10) a speech or voice disorder. For paper versus the electronic format, we examined time to completion, number of incomplete or inaccurate question responses, intra-rater reliability, ease of use, and child and parent preference. There were no significant differences between children's scores, time to complete the measure, or ratings related to ease of answering questions. The percentage of children who made answering errors or omissions with paper and pencil was significantly greater than the percentage of children who made such errors using the device. This preliminary study demonstrated that use of an electronic device to collect QOL or patient-reported outcomes (PRO) data from children is more efficient than and just as feasible, reliable, and acceptable as using paper forms. The development of hardware and software applications for the collection of QOL and/or PRO data in children with speech disorders is likely warranted. The reader will be able to understand: (1) The potential benefits of using electronic data capture via handheld devices for collecting pediatric patient reported outcomes; (2) The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 is a measure of the perception of general health quality that has distinguished between

  3. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Nizar, F Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined.

  4. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmoein E. Al-Agha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC standards. Results: The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years. Children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices showed an increased BMI, and made up 68.4% of the sample. Conclusion: An increased BMI was more common among children who spent ≥2 hours daily on electronic devices. The relationship between BMI, reduced physical activity, and eating during television viewing was determined.

  5. Evaluation of psychometric properties and factorial structure of the pre-school child behaviour checklist at the Kenyan Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Abubakar, Amina; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R J C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Behavioural/emotional problems may be common in preschool children living in resource-poor settings, but assessment of these problems in preschool children from poor areas is challenging owing to lack of appropriate behavioural screening tools. The child behaviour checklist (CBCL) is

  6. Integration of Educational Methods and Physical Settings: Design Guidelines for High/Scope Methodology in Pre-Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadpanah, Shirin; Günçe, Kaðan

    2014-01-01

    Quality design and appropriate space organization in preschool settings can support preschool children's educational activities. Although the relationship between the well-being and development of children and physical settings has been emphasized by many early childhood researchers, there is still a need for theoretical design guidelines that are…

  7. Feasibility of using a handheld electronic device for the collection of patient reported outcomes data from children

    OpenAIRE

    Vinney, Lisa A.; Grade, John; Connor, Nadine P.

    2011-01-01

    The manner in which a communication disorder affects health-related quality of life (QOL) in children is not known. Unfortunately, collection of quality of life data via traditional paper measures is labor intensive and has several other limitations, which hinder the investigation of pediatric quality of life in children. Currently, there is not sufficient research regarding the use of electronic devices to collect pediatric patient reported outcomes in order to address such limitations. Thus...

  8. Assessment of symbolic function in Mexican preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Jiménez Barreto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of symbolic function is an important psychological formation of pre-school age and reflects the possibility of the child to use signs and symbols in a conscious way. Assessment of symbolic function can be used as one of preparation for school indicators. The objective of the present study is to characterize the level of symbolic function development in Mexican pre-school children. 59 children were included in the study. The ages of the children were between 5 and 6 years and all of them belonged to sub-urban pre-school institution. All 59 children participated in this study for the first time. Our assessment consisted of specific tasks with symbolic means on materialized, perceptive and verbal levels. Each child was tested individually. Results showed an insufficient development of the symbolic function in all evaluated children. More than 78% of the children showed difficulties during performance in the tasks of assessment; their drawings were undifferentiated and had few essential characteristics. The obtained results show the necessity to implement developmental strategies in order to guarantee the formation of the ability of constant conscious sage of symbolic means at the end of pre-school age.

  9. Pain Elimination during Injection with Newer Electronic Devices: A Comparative Evaluation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Neha; Saha, Sonali; Jaiswal, Jn; Samadi, Firoza

    2014-05-01

    The present study was taken up to clinically evaluate and compare effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS) and comfort control syringe (CCS) in various pediatric dental procedures as an alternative to the conventional method of local anesthesia (LA) administration. Ninety healthy children having at least one deciduous molar tooth indicated for extraction in either maxillary right or left quadrant in age group of 6 to 10 years were randomly divided into three equal groups having 30 subjects each. Group I: LA administration using conventional syringe, group II: LA administration using TENS along with the conventional syringe, group III: LA administration using CCS. After LA by the three techniques, pain, anxiety and heart rate were measured. The observations, thus, obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA), student t-test and paired t-test. The mean pain score was maximum in group I followed by group II, while group III revealed the minimum pain, where LA was administered using CCS. Mean anxiety score was maximum in group I followed by group II, while group III revealed the minimum score. Mean heart rate was maximum in group I followed in descending order by groups II and III. The study supports the belief that CCS could be a viable alternative in comparison to the other two methods of LA delivery in children. How to cite this article: Bansal N, Saha S, Jaiswal JN, Samadi F. Pain Elimination during Injection with Newer Electronic Devices: A Comparative Evaluation in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):71-76.

  10. Pre-school reading badge called "Iridescent Little Fish" and its impact on reading habits later in life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka Kristan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The project called Footsteps to the Book is being carried out at the youth department of the Library Miran Jarc in Novo mesto; in it, preschool children from the municipalities Novo mesto, Šentjernej and Škocjan participate. The child wins the reading badge - Iridescent Little Fish with a pin - by telling four stories (or poemsin the library that havebeen told or read to him by his parents. Family appreciation can be won by both parents and children. The project has been started with the intention of lessening the impact of media upon children, and of strengthening the spiritual bondage among parents and children through reading. The purpose of the above mentioned activity is to develop and enrich child's language and thinking and help h im form positive self esteem. Through family reading, we tried to attract to the library not only small children but also their parents and to get them accustomed to the regular use of library materials. The opinions of parents,librarians, teachers and educators are very encouraging and the cooperation of children is better each year.

  11. Determining rates of overweight and obese status in children using electronic medical records: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Catherine S; Tu, Karen; Oud, William; Carsley, Sarah; Hanna, Miranda; Lebovic, Gerald; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in children by age, sex, and visit type, using data from EMRALD ® (Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database). Heights and weights were abstracted for children 0 to 19 years of age who had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Using the most recent visit, the proportions and 95% CIs of patients defined as overweight and obese were compared by age group, sex, and visit type using the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Ontario. Children 0 to 19 years of age who were rostered to a primary care physician participating in EMRALD and had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Proportion and 95% CI of children with overweight and obese status by age group; proportion of children with overweight and obese status by sex (with male sex as the referent) within each age group; and proportion of children with overweight and obese status at the most recent well-child visit type compared with other visit types by age group. There were 28 083 well-child visits during this period. For children who attended well-child visits, 84.7% of visits had both a height and weight documented. Obesity rates were significantly higher in 1- to 4-year-olds compared with children younger than 1 (6.1% vs 2.3%; P overweight and obese status were lower using data from well-child visits compared with other visits. Electronic medical records might be useful to conduct population-based surveillance of overweight or obese status in children. Methodologic standards, however, should be developed. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  12. The Relationship between Quality of Pre-School Child Care Institutions and Teachers' Teaching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Õun, Tiia; Tuul, Maire; Tera, Signe; Sagen, Kelli; Mägi, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Various factors of the quality of preschool child care institutions influence the development of children and their future success in school. The activities of preschool child care institutions in Estonia are based on the national curriculum. Several indicators of structural quality have been determined on the national level. The aim of the…

  13. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Pre-School Screening Instrument: Comparison of Korean and US Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, K. H.; Squires, J.; Yovanoff, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Accurate and efficient developmental screening measures are critical for early identification of developmental problems; however, few reliable and valid tests are available in Korea as well as other countries outside the USA. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) was chosen for study with young children in Korea. Methods: The ASQ…

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation of a pre-school screening instrument: comparison of Korean and US populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, K H; Squires, J; Yovanoff, P

    2008-03-01

    Accurate and efficient developmental screening measures are critical for early identification of developmental problems; however, few reliable and valid tests are available in Korea as well as other countries outside the USA. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) was chosen for study with young children in Korea. The ASQ was translated into Korean and necessary cross-cultural adaptations were made. The translated version was then distributed and completed by 3220 parents of young children between the ages of 4 months and 5 years. Reliability was studied including domain correlations, internal consistency, and performance of identification cut-off scores for the Korean population. Rasch analyses including tests of Differential Item Functioning, contrasting Korean and US samples were also performed. In general, internal consistency of the Korean ASQ was high, with overall correlations 0.75 for communication, 0.85 for gross motor, 0.74 for fine motor, 0.72 for problem solving, and 0.65 for personal-social. Validity, including concurrent validity, also had strong evidence. Mean scores of children on the Korean translation of the ASQ and the US normative sample were generally similar. Rasch analyses indicated the majority of items functioned similarly across the Korean sample. In general, the ASQ was translated with cultural appropriateness in mind and functioned as a valid and reliable parent-completed screening test to assist in early identification of young children with developmental delays. Further research is needed to confirm these results with a larger and more diverse Korean sample.

  15. The Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Pre-School Parenting Programme in the United Kingdom: A Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpeth, Louise; Blower, Sarah; Tobin, Kate; Taylor, Rod S.; Bywater, Tracey; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Axford, Nick; Lehtonen, Minna; Jones, Carys; Berry, Vashti

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis for children with early-onset conduct disorder is poor. Conduct disorder also has a social cost for families and communities, and an economic cost for society through the increased use of health, education, social, legal and detention services. In this study, the Incredible Years (IY) BASIC programme was delivered to parents of…

  16. The Use of Touch-Screen Tablets at Home and Pre-School to Foster Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Young children living in technology-based communities are using touch-screen tablets (e.g. iPads) to engage with the digital world at an early age. The intuitive touch-screen interface, easily downloadable apps (applications) and mobility of tablets drive their increasing popularity with pre-schoolers. This review examines research to date on…

  17. Reliability and Validity of the "Decision-Making Skills Instrument for Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable data collection tool to assess the decision-making skills of children at the age of 5 to 6. The study group is composed of 300 children attending independent pre-schools located in the central district of Amasya province and their parents. In the study, four-factor and 29-item…

  18. The Timing of Maternal Work and Time with Children. Working Paper 425

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jay

    2009-01-01

    I use data from the American Time Use Survey to examine how maternal employment affects when during the day that mothers of pre-school-age children spend doing enriching childcare and whether they adjust their schedules to spend time with their children at more-desirable times of day. I find that employed mothers shift enriching childcare time…

  19. Prescription of respiratory medication without an asthma diagnosis in children: a population based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidgeest, M.G.P.; Dijk, L. van; Smit, H.A.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Brunekreef, B.; Leufkens, H.G.M.; Bracke, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In pre-school children a diagnosis of asthma is not easily made and only a minority of wheezing children will develop persistent atopic asthma. According to the general consensus a diagnosis of asthma becomes more certain with increasing age. Therefore the congruence between asthma

  20. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Didier N.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and...

  1. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  2. Use of computer access technology as an alternative to writing for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Brightlin Nithis; Samuel, Preethy Sarah; Manigandan, C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of an outcome-driven model of decision-making in the implementation of computer access technology (CAT) for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy. The child did not have the fine motor skills required to hold a pencil but had the cognitive abilities to learn to write; therefore, we explored the use of a CAT device to enable written communication. Case study methodology was used to describe the selection process, child-level outcomes, and clinical challenges faced by the therapist in the use of a consortium model that was designed for an outcome-driven model of decision-making. The critical role of an occupational therapist in this process using a family-centered approach is discussed.

  3. CONTEMPORARY CONDITION OF THE PROBLEM OF PROFESSIONAL-METHODICAL FORMATION COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS BY ONLINE COMMUNITIES TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Smirnova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of the present stage of development of professional education in the Russian Federation during the consideration of which, it is evident that one of the most important component of professional competence of future teachers of pre-school education is the extent of his readiness to use modern information technologies in their professional activities. One of the main means of formation of the psychological basis of the study competence should be allocated to a network community. Today it is impossible to imagine educational space without modern information technologies and means of telecommunication. They open up entirely new possibilities of education and communication, and, therefore, have considerable educational potential.

  4. Addressing dental fear in children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled pilot study using electronic screen media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isong, Inyang A; Rao, Sowmya R; Holifield, Chloe; Iannuzzi, Dorothea; Hanson, Ellen; Ware, Janice; Nelson, Linda P

    2014-03-01

    Dental care is a significant unmet health care need for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Many children with ASD do not receive dental care because of fear associated with dental procedures; oftentimes they require general anesthesia for regular dental procedures, placing them at risk of associated complications. Many children with ASD have a strong preference for visual stimuli, particularly electronic screen media. The use of visual teaching materials is a fundamental principle in designing educational programs for children with ASD. To determine if an innovative strategy using 2 types of electronic screen media was feasible and beneficial in reducing fear and uncooperative behaviors in children with ASD undergoing dental visits. We conducted a randomized controlled trial at Boston Children's Hospital dental clinic. Eighty (80) children aged 7 to 17 years with a known diagnosis of ASD and history of dental fear were enrolled in the study. Each child completed 2 preventive dental visits that were scheduled 6 months apart (visit 1 and visit 2). After visit 1, subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) group A, control (usual care); (2) group B, treatment (video peer modeling that involved watching a DVD recording of a typically developing child undergoing a dental visit); (3) group C, treatment (video goggles that involved watching a favorite movie during the dental visit using sunglass-style video eyewear); and (4) group D, treatment (video peer modeling plus video goggles). Subjects who refused or were unable to wear the goggles watched the movie using a handheld portable DVD player. During both visits, the subject's level of anxiety and behavior were measured using the Venham Anxiety and Behavior Scales. Analyses of variance and Fisher's exact tests compared baseline characteristics across groups. Using intention to treat approach, repeated measures analyses were employed to test whether the outcomes differed significantly: (1) between

  5. Children of Different Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Bundgaard, Helle

    2007-01-01

    In this article we discuss the production of social distinctions within an institutional setting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a multi-ethnic pre-school in Denmark we focus on the interpersonal encounters between immigrant children, their parents and the staff. More specifically we explore...... an apparent paradox in daily practice where on the one hand staff attempt to mute differences between children on the assumption that all children are equal and should be treated as such, while on the other hand distinctions are in practice established when children behave in ways considered inappropriate...... in relation to their own long term interest. Our material indicates that this logic systematically marks Middle Eastern children as ?other?. This legitimises an educational effort to compensate practices of upbringing in the families by teaching these children how to behave in ways considered 'proper...

  6. The role of electronic assessment of adherence in the education and counseling of children taking growth hormone: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Fritz; Norgren, Svante; Horne, Rob; Gasteyger, Christoph

    There are numerous issues surrounding adherence in children taking recombinant human growth hormone (rh-GH). New technologies capable of accurately recording/monitoring may highlight some of these issues, and have value in optimizing adherence levels through education and counseling. The intention of this review is to guide healthcare professionals (HCPs). PubMed, Google Scholar and citations in published papers were used to substantiate the views expressed by the authors. Both perceptional and practical factors influence the adherence levels of children taking rh-GH. Understanding such factors may help to identify the characteristics of ideal rh-GH devices and their potential impact on adherence. New technologies, such as electronic monitors, may facilitate patient-provider discussions on adherence, and help identify barriers that are amenable to change. Monitoring adherence may also help differentiate nonadherence from biological low response to rh-GH therapy. However, the medical, psychological, social and ethical aspects of electronic assessment require further investigation.

  7. The association between body mass index and duration spent on electronic devices in children and adolescents in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E.; Nizar, F. Sarah; Nahhas, Anwar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the duration spent on electronic devices, and to assess the factors that can cause obesity among children. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 541 participants. Data was collected from March to June 2015 via ambulatory pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The BMI standard deviation was calculated based on Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. Results: The mean age of...

  8. Influences of Teachers' Attitudes and Oral Guidance on the Persistence of Young Children Aged 3-6 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Fei; Feng, Lu; Wang, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    Persistence is important in developing pre-school children's ego control. Based on the fact that during the teaching process a teacher's communication and actions will have a significant influence on young children, which is due to the teachers' high degree of control over them, four experiments were designed to probe the influences of teachers'…

  9. Design, validation and administration of an observation tool for assessing water psychomotor skills in pre-school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Mármol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to create a new observation tool that lets the assessment of water psychomotor skills as well as the knowledge of its current state of development through its administration. In order to that, 8 experts (Physical Education teachers and swimming monitors all of them, have analyzed the Observation Tool for Assessing Water Psychomotor skills, composed by 5 factors (familiarization with the context, balance, displacement, handling and social relationships reporting satisfactory results. Furthermore, the water psychomotor development of 58 children aged between 3 and 6 years old was studied. Displacement and handling factors got the highest values meanwhile social relationships got the lowest value. Likewise, 5-6 years old group showed significant higher levels of water psychomotor development than 3-4 years old group.

  10. The Situation in Austria, Finland and Sweden and in the EFTA/EEA Countries (Iceland and Norway). Supplement to the Study on Pre-School and Primary Education in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report intends to fill the gap between the original document "Pre-School and Primary Education in the European Union" and the current state with the addition of the new Member States of Austria, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, and Norway. The report is divided into two parts. Part 1, "General Organisation," contains: (1)…

  11. Women and men in education services: comparison of gender representation in Italian pre-school (0-6 services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosy Nardone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a part of the results of the research project entitled “Stereotipi di genere, relazioni educative e infanzie” (“Gender stereotypes, educational relationships and childhood" conducted between 2010 and 2012 by a group of researchers from the CSGE (Gender and Education Study Centre of the University of Bologna, funded by the Emilia-Romagna Region. The research aimed to measure the ideas and representations of gender and the gender relations among adults who are educationally significant for preschool children (0-6 years, and to develop widespread reflection on the issue of the stereotyped images of female and male identity that still exist and are transmitted from a very early age. This article particularly focuses on the analysis developed on gender representations in educational services 0-6 years by the professionals working in the centres involved, relating quantitative data with the considerations that emerged from the focus groups, about the female and male in education.

  12. Immunologic status of children with thyroid cancer living near Chernobyl (flow cytometric and electron microscopic study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, K.P.; Gruzov, M.A.; Bolshova, B.V.; Afanasyeva, V.V.; Shlyakhovenko, V.S.; Vishnevskaya, O.A.; Tronko, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    It hag been carded out a light, election microscopic and flow cytometric study of blood leukocyte of children with malignant tumors (papillary carcinoma) of thyroid gland who were living at the moment of the accident near Chernobyl. The results obtained point out the presence of some disturbances of immune status of these children

  13. Do television and electronic games predict children's psychosocial adjustment? Longitudinal research using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion

    2013-05-01

    Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms.

  14. Individual, social, and physical environment factors associated with electronic media use among children: sedentary behavior at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew W; Timperio, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Individual, home social and physical environment correlates of electronic media (EM) use among children were examined and pattern of differences on school and weekend days. Youth (n = 298) aged 11 to 12 years self-reported time spent using EM (TV, video/DVD, computer use, and electronic games) on a typical school and a weekend day, each dichotomized at the median to indicate heavy and light EM users. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Logistic regression examined correlates of EM use. In total, 87% of participants exceeded electronic media use recommendations of ≤ 2 hrs/day. Watching TV during breakfast (OR = 3.17) and after school (OR = 2.07), watching TV with mother (OR = 1.96), no rule(s) limiting time for computer game usage (OR = 2.30), having multiple (OR = 2.99) EM devices in the bedroom and BMI (OR = 1.15) were associated with higher odds of being heavy EM user on a school day. Boys (OR = 2.35) and participants who usually watched TV at midday (OR = 2.91) and late at night (OR = 2.04) had higher odds of being a heavy EM user on the weekend. Efforts to modify children's EM use should focus on a mix of intervention strategies that address patterns and reinforcement of TV viewing, household rules limiting screen time, and the presence of EM devices in the child's bedroom.

  15. Bedtime Electronic Media Use and Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Hilgard, Joseph; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the use of screen-based media at bedtime among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study specifically examined whether the presence of media devices in the child's bedroom, the use of media as part of the bedtime routine, and exposure to media with violent content just before bedtime were associated with sleep difficulties. Parents of 101 children with ASD completed questionnaires assessing their children's sleep habits, bedroom media access (including television, video game devices, and computers), and patterns of nighttime media use (including timing of media exposure and violent media content). Children with ASD who used media as part of the bedtime routine showed significantly greater sleep onset latency than those who did not (39.8 vs 16.0 minutes). Similarly, children who were exposed to media with violent content within the 30-minute period before bedtime experienced significantly greater sleep onset delays and shorter overall sleep duration. In contrast, the mere presence of bedroom media was not associated with either sleep onset latency or sleep duration. Overall, these findings indicate that incorporating television and video games into the bedtime routine is associated with sleep onset difficulties among children with ASD. Exposure to violent media before bed is also associated with poor sleep. Families of children with ASD should be encouraged to regulate and monitor the timing and content of television and video game use, whether or not such devices are physically present in the child's bedroom.

  16. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Jan P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins. Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects

  17. Effect of electronic time monitors on children's television watching: pilot trial of a home-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Roberts, Vaughan; Maddison, Ralph; Dorey, Enid; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Tin Tin, Sandar

    2009-11-01

    This pilot study evaluated the feasibility (recruitment, retention, and acceptability) and preliminary efficacy of a six-week home-based electronic time monitor intervention on New Zealand children's television watching in 2008. Twenty-nine children aged 9 to 12 years who watched more than 20 h of television per week (62% male, mean age 10.4 years) were randomised to either the intervention or the control group. The intervention group received an electronic TV time monitor for 6 weeks and advice to restrict TV watching to 1 h per day or less. The control group was given verbal advice to restrict TV watching. Participant retention at 6 weeks was 93%. Semi-structured interviews with intervention families confirmed moderate acceptability of TV time monitors and several perceived benefits including better awareness of household TV viewing and improved time planning. Drawbacks reported included disruption to parents' TV watching and increased sibling conflict. Time spent watching television decreased by 4.2 h (mean change [SD]: -254 [536] min) per week in the intervention group compared with no change in the control group (-3 [241] min), but the difference between groups was not statistically significant, p=0.77. Both groups reported decreases in energy intake from snacks and total screen time and increases in physical activity measured by pedometer and between-group differences were not statistically significant. Electronic TV time monitors are feasible to use for home-based TV watching interventions although acceptability varies between families. Preliminary findings from this pilot suggest that such devices have potential to decrease children's TV watching but a larger trial is needed to confirm effectiveness. Future research should be family-orientated; take account of other screen time activities; and employ TV time monitors as just one of a range of strategies to decrease sedentary behaviour.

  18. Fine motor skills development of children with autism sepctrum disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Marešová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    My diploma thesis topic is Fine motor skills development of children with autism spectrum disorder. The objective of this document is to create a well arranged group of exercises and structured tasks aimed to develop fine motor skills of children at pre-school age with autism spectrum disorder. Theoretical part of this diploma thesis contains basic information related to autism and various details about motor skills. Practical section describes individual jobs and structured tasks used for fi...

  19. Sleep architecture in children with arousal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hernández-Torres

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: It has been reported that AD first manifests during the pre-school years and that the frequency of events gradually decreases and abate completely during adolescence, which is why AD is believed to be the manifestation of an immature central nervous system (CNS. It may be that the sleep architecture characteristics shown by patients in the ADG would correspond to CNS immaturity in healthy but younger children.

  20. Are Electronic Books Effective in Teaching Young Children Reading and Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jamillah M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether electronic books, CD-ROM'S, or interactive media are beneficial in teaching reading should be determined on evidence that they aid reading comprehension. Reading is worthless unless one comprehends. In order to examine the effectiveness of electronic books in a reading program, the characteristics and attributes of how…

  1. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  2. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion sizes served to children at Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Start caregivers are responsible for educating and feeding preschoolers enrolled in the Head Start program. Amongst pre-school aged children, portion size served is positively associated with intake of those foods. Researchers conducted eight focus groups with Hispanic and African American Head...

  3. The Effects of Folk Dance Training on 5-6 Years Children's Physical and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…

  4. Labor Supply Heterogeneity and Demand for Child Care of Mothers with Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apps, Patricia F.; Kabátek, J.; Rees, Ray; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a static structural model of hours of market labor supply, time spent on child care and other domestic work, and bought in child care for married or cohabiting mothers with pre-school age children. The father's behavior is taken as given. The main goal is to analyze the

  5. Biofilms for Babies: Introducing Microbes and Biofilms to Preschool-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian M. Couto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are beneficial to life on our planet as they facilitate natural processes such as global nutrient cycling in our environment. This article details a 30-minute activity to introduce pre-school children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age to microbes and biofilms in the natural environment.

  6. Early Talk Boost: A Targeted Intervention for Three Year Old Children with Delayed Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Louisa; Hartshorne, Mary; Black, Rachael; Atkinson, Jill; Baxter, Amanda; Pring, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Pre-school education has been greatly expanded in the United Kingdom in the last two decades and further expansion is planned. Its provision allows parents to take up employment thus increasing family incomes and it is expected to narrow the gap between socially disadvantaged children and their peers. The latter is important as studies have shown…

  7. [Survey on the use of electronic cigarettes and tobacco among children in middle and high school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, N; Chailleux, E

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of electronic cigarette use among teenagers and its connection with the consumption of tobacco. In 2014 we conducted a survey of 3319 middle and high school students. Among the students, 56% had tried an electronic cigarette at least once (boys: 59.9%, girls: 49.3%; ranging from 31.3% for the 8th grade students to 66.1% for the 12th grades). However, only 3.4% reported that they used electronic cigarettes every day. Initiation of e-cigarette use in these teenagers was principally due to use by friends or triggered by curiosity and they usually choose fruit or sweet flavours initially. The majority could not give the concentration of nicotine in e-cigarettes that they used. Moreover, 61.5% of the students had ever tried tobacco and 22.3% were daily smokers. Our study found a strong link between vaping and smoking. 80% of the students who had ever tried conventional cigarettes (94% for the daily smokers) had also tried an electronic cigarette, versus 16% of the student who have never smoked. Few students (6.2%) used electronic cigarettes without smoking tobacco too. Usually, they have tried tobacco before trying an electronic cigarette. Only tobacco smokers seem to smoke electronic cigarettes with nicotine. Although our study shows that teenagers frequently try electronic cigarettes, it does not prove, for the moment, that vaping itself usually leads to nicotine addiction. However, as most of the teenagers are unable to tell if the electronic cigarette they are testing contains nicotine, it raises the possibility that they could be vulnerable to manipulation by the tobacco industry. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Grammatical gender in the discourse of multilingual children's acquisition of German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari, Elke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of grammatical gender by multilingual pre-school children (aged six was investigated by observing their narration and discourse. It emerged that only three of the 17 children actually used gender to classify nouns. Grammatical agreement is acknowledged as a key feature of gender acquisition, and it reflects developmental steps. Children growing up with mostly bilingual German input at a low proficiency level had the greatest difficulties in acquiring gender and agreement in the group investigated.

  9. Associations of obesogenic behaviors in mothers and obese children participating in a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Gortmaker, Steven; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research has assessed the association between obesogenic behaviors in parents and their children. The objective of the present analysis was to examine cross-sectional associations in television (TV)/video viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and fast food intake between mothers and their pre-school aged children. We studied baseline data among 428 participants in High Five for Kids, a randomized controlled trial of behavior change among overweight and obese children age...

  10. Sleep quality, duration and behavioral symptoms among 5?6-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to examine whether parent-reported short sleep duration and sleeping difficulties are related to behavioral symptoms among pre-school aged children. The study is a cross-sectional survey of 297 families with 5?6-year-old children. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for children was used to measure sleep duration and sleeping difficulties, and the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher?s Report Form were used to measure attention problems, and ...

  11. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Golovey L.A.; Savenysheva S.S.; Engelgardt E.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children. Attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of parents and children gender. The sample included 150 children, 150 mothers and 75 fathers, all the families live in St. Petersburg. Results of the study reveal a significantly greater influence of the child's parent-child rel...

  12. How does the activity level of the parents influence their children's activity? The contemporary life in a world ruled by electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Anna; Strauss, Markus; Przybylek, Bianca; Dworrak, Tarja; Dworrak, Birgit; Leischik, Roman

    2018-01-01

    Apart from many positive changes associated with technical civilization, there are also - from the health point of view - some threats. The reduction in the level of physical activity is one of them. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there are any relationships between children's physical activity and behaviors, and to assess the impact of the adults' activity on their children's habits. The study involved a group of 340 children aged 7-12 years (mean age: 9.81 ±1.7) and their parents. In order to evaluate children's physical activity and the amount of time that they spend with electronic devices, an original questionnaire and the IPAQ questionnaire were used. Children usually use electronic devices between 2 and 7 days per week (mean: 4.74 ±0.86), regardless of sex ( p > 0.09) and spend between 5 and 1620 min per week (mean: 459.46 ±308.1) with their mobile phone, tablet, PCs and TVs. 67.92% of boys and 69.61% of girls lead an active lifestyle. The children's activity level depends on their parents' level of activity ( p Parents of semi-active children lead a lifestyle with a moderate level of physical activity. The level of physical activity in younger children depends on the children's relationship with their parents and their level of activity. Children spend a lot of free time with their electronic devices. It is necessary to develop and implement activities intended to raise awareness of children and their families about the effects of hypokinesis.

  13. Expectations Compared of First-Year Students in Pre-School and Primary School Education Degrees at the University of Burgos in Relation to Characteristics and Practices in University Teaching most Desired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime IBÁÑEZ QUINTANA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this work is to detect and analyse the desired characteristics and teaching practices that first year students will be taught in different subjects, comparing Pre-school with Primary Education degree at Burgos University. For that purpose, we have analysed data obtained from 120 surveys (60 others the Pre-school degree and 60 from the Primary Education degree, the surveys are based on the five basic aspects that we consider fundamental of a university education: personal and professional characteristics, evaluation, tutorial, information and communications technology (ICT and methodologies of education/learning. The results show that the student body values more the professional characteristics of its teaching staff than the personal ones; and the image transmitted by the teaching staff that uses ICT is always positive, creating a favourable opinion of his teaching, and the student body reaches to consider that ICTs are indispensable to nowadays education.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE OF HIV INFECTED CHILDREN BY TRANSMISSION AND SCANNING ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Araujo Chaves LEITE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To describe HIV children's small intestinal ultrastructural findings. Methods Descriptive, observational study of small intestine biopsies performed between August 1994 and May 1995 at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This material pertained to 11 HIV infected children and was stored in a laboratory in paraffin blocks. Scanning and transmission electronic microscopy were used to view those intestine samples and ultrastructural findings were described by analyzing digitalized photos of this material. Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Results In most samples scanning microscopy showed various degrees of shortening and decreasing number of microvilli and also completes effacements in some areas. Derangement of the enterocytes was seen frequently and sometimes cells well defined borders limits seemed to be loosened. In some areas a mucous-fibrin like membrane with variable thickness and extension appeared to partially or totally coat the epithelial surface. Fat drops were present in the intestinal lumen in various samples and a bacterium morphologically resembling bacilli was seen in two occasions. Scanning microscopy confirmed transmission microscopy microvilli findings and also showed little “tufts” of those structures. In addition, it showed an increased number of vacuoles and multivesicular bodies inside various enterocytes, an increased presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes, mitochondrial vacuolization and basement membrane enlargement in the majority of samples analyzed. However, some samples exhibited normal aspect. Conclusions Our study showed the common occurrence of various important intestinal ultrastructural alterations with variable degrees among HIV infected children, some of them in our knowledge not described before.

  15. Four Year Old Children's Acquisition of Print Knowledge during Electronic Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiyu; Levy, Betty Ann

    2009-01-01

    The experiment reported here explored the importance of engaging 4-year-old children's interest in the print itself during storybook reading. We explored the effect of computer animation of the print in order to draw the child's attention to each word as it was read. We also investigated the influence of illustrating that not all visual displays…

  16. Atomoxetine versus Stimulants in the Community Treatment of Children with ADHD: An Electronic Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Carol K.; Henker, Barbara; Ishikawa, Sharon S.; Emmerson, Natasha A.; Swindle, Ralph; Johnston, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the morning and afternoon/evening functioning of children with ADHD treated in the community with either atomoxetine or long-acting stimulants and reported to be doing well. Method: 109 8- to 12-year-olds and their mothers participated in one of three groups: stimulants (STIM, N = 26), atomoxetine (ATMX, N = 25), or…

  17. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. Methods: The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Results: Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day. Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β = −4.798 and the combination TV + computer (β = −3.233 were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Resumo: Objetivo: Descrever a associação entre equipamentos eletrônicos no quarto com tempo sedentário e atividade f

  18. Efficacy of Handheld Electronic Visual Supports to Enhance Vocabulary in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Boles, Margot B.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Although electronic tools such as handheld computers have become increasingly common throughout society, implementation of such tools to improve skills in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities has lagged in the professional literature. However, the use of visual scripts for individuals with disabilities, particularly those…

  19. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. Subjects: From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre......Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Design: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children......-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (schooling), 285 children completed the intervention and had complete information on dietary intake. Results: Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P...

  20. Dyadic and Triadic Behaviours in Infancy as Precursors to Later Social Responsiveness in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between dyadic (eye contact and affect) and triadic (joint attention) behaviours in infancy, and social responsiveness at pre-school age, was investigated in 36 children with Autistic Disorder. Measures of eye contact and affect, and joint attention, including requesting behaviours, were obtained retrospectively via parental…