WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-rigor rapid chilling

  1. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Rapid cooling of products is of increasing importance for food preservation and for industrial processes. Slurry ice (Binary Ice) is a two-phase cooling fluid consisting of suspended ice crystals in an aqueous solution or mixture. Latent energy contained in the fluid yields rapid cooling which is...

  2. An investigation of the effect of rapid slurry chilling on blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R; Fanning, S; Whyte, P; Kerry, J; Bolton, D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if rapid slurry chilling would retard or prevent blown pack spoilage (BPS) of vacuum-packaged beef primals. Beef primals were inoculated with Clostridium estertheticum subspp. estertheticum (DSMZ 8809), C. estertheticum subspp. laramenise (DSMZ 14864) and C. gasigenes (DSMZ 12272), and vacuum-packaged with and without heat shrinkage (90°C for 3 s). These packs were then subjected to immediate chilling in an ice slurry or using conventional blast chilling systems and stored at 2°C for up to 100 days. The onset and progress of BPS was monitored using the following scale; 0-no gas bubbles in drip; 1-gas bubbles in drip; 2-loss of vacuum; 3-'blown'; 4-presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and 5-tightly stretched, 'overblown' packs/packs leaking. Rapid slurry chilling (as compared to conventional chilling) did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) the time to the onset or progress of BPS. It was therefore concluded that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals, using an ice slurry system, may not be used as a control intervention to prevent or retard blown pack spoilage. This study adds to our growing understanding of blown pack spoilage of vacuum-packaged beef primals and suggests that rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef primals is not a control option for the beef industry. The results suggest that neither eliminating the heat shrinkage step nor rapid chilling of vacuum-packaged beef retard the time to blown pack spoilage. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Rapid cold hardening improves recovery of ion homeostasis and chill coma recovery time in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findsen, Anders; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Calderon, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Chill tolerance of insects is defined as the ability to tolerate low temperature under circumstances not involving freezing of intracellular or extracellular fluids. For many insects chill tolerance is crucial for their ability to persist in cold environments and mounting evidence indicates that chill tolerance is associated with the ability to maintain ion and water homeostasis, thereby ensuring muscular function and preventing chill injury at low temperature. The present study describes the relationship between muscle and haemolymph ion homeostasis and time to regain posture following cold shock (CS, 2 h at -4°C) in the chill-susceptible locust Locusta migratoria. This relationship was examined in animals with and without a prior rapid cold-hardening treatment (RCH, 2 h at 0°C) to investigate the physiological underpinnings of RCH. CS elicited a doubling of haemolymph [K(+)] and this disturbance was greater in locusts pre-exposed to RCH. Recovery of ion homeostasis was, however, markedly faster in RCH-treated animals, which correlated well with whole-organism performance as hardened individuals regained posture faster than non-hardened individuals following CS. The present study indicates that loss and recovery of muscular function are associated with the resting membrane potential of excitable membranes as attested by the changes in the equilibrium potential for K(+) (EK) following CS. Both hardened and non-hardened animals regained movement once K(+) homeostasis had recovered to a fixed level (EK≈-41 mV). RCH is therefore not associated with altered sensitivity to ion disturbance but instead is correlated to a faster recovery of haemolymph [K(+)].

  4. The chilling of carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, J W; Mueller, S L; Baird, B E

    2005-07-01

    Biochemical processes and structural changes that occur in muscle during the first 24h postmortem play a great role in the ultimate quality and palatability of meat and are influenced by the chilling processes that carcasses are subjected to after slaughter. For beef and lamb, employing chilling parameters that minimize cold shortening is of greatest importance and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10°C before pH reaches 6.2. For pork, because of the impact of high muscle temperatures and low pH on the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork, a more rapid chilling process is needed to reduce PSE with the recommended internal muscle temperature of 10°C at 12h and 2-4°C at 24h. Spray chilling, a system whereby chilled water is applied to carcasses during the early part of postmortem cooling, is used to control carcass shrinkage and to improve chilling rates through evaporative cooling. Delayed chilling can be used to reduce or prevent the negative effects of cold shortening; however, production constraints in high-volume facilities and food safety concerns make this method less useful in commercial settings. Electrical stimulation and alternative carcass suspension programs offer processors the opportunity to negate most or all of the effects of cold shortening while still using traditional chilling systems. Rapid or blast chilling can be an effective method to reduce the incidence of PSE in pork but extreme chilling systems may cause quality problems because of the differential between the cold temperatures on the outside of the carcass compared to the warm muscle temperatures within the carcass (i.e., muscles that are darker in color externally and lighter in color internally).

  5. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John

    2014-01-01

    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  6. Pharmacokinetic analysis and comparison of caffeine administered rapidly or slowly in coffee chilled or hot versus chilled energy drink in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John R; Padowski, Jeannie M; Zhong, Yili; Chen, Gang; Luo, Shaman; Lazarus, Philip; Layton, Matthew E; McPherson, Sterling

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data describing the impact of type of beverage (coffee versus energy drink), different rates of consumption and different temperature of beverages on the pharmacokinetic disposition of caffeine. Additionally, there is concern that inordinately high levels of caffeine may result from the rapid consumption of cold energy drinks. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of caffeine under various drink temperature, rate of consumption and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) conditions. Five caffeine (dose = 160 mg) conditions were evaluated in an open-label, group-randomized, crossover fashion. After the administration of each caffeine dose, 10 serial plasma samples were harvested. Caffeine concentration was measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and those concentrations were assessed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The calculated mean pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed statistically by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA). If differences were found, each group was compared to the other by all pair-wise multiple comparison. Twenty-four healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 30 completed the study. The mean caffeine concentration time profiles were similar with overlapping SDs at all measured time points. The ANOVA revealed significant differences in mean Cmax and Vd ss/F, but no pair-wise comparisons reached statistical significance. No other differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were found. The results of this study are consistent with previous caffeine pharmacokinetic studies and suggest that while rate of consumption, temperature of beverage and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) may be associated with slightly different pharmacokinetic parameters, the overall impact of these variables is small. This study suggests that caffeine absorption and exposure from coffee and energy drink is similar irrespective of beverage temperature or rate of

  7. Therapeutic hypothermia for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction-combined analysis of the RAPID MI-ICE and the CHILL-MI trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Noc, Marko; Lang, Irene; Holzer, Michael; Clemmensen, Peter; Jensen, Ulf; Metzler, Bernhard; James, Stefan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Omerovic, Elmir; Koul, Sasha; Engblom, Henrik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Östlund, Ollie; Wallentin, Lars; Klos, Bradley; Harnek, Jan; Olivecrona, Göran K

    2015-06-01

    In the randomized rapid intravascular cooling in myocardial infarction as adjunctive to percutaneous coronary intervention (RAPID MI-ICE) and rapid endovascular catheter core cooling combined with cold saline as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction CHILL-MI studies, hypothermia was rapidly induced in conscious patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by a combination of cold saline and endovascular cooling. Twenty patients in RAPID MI-ICE and 120 in CHILL-MI with large STEMIs, scheduled for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within myocardial infarct size (IS) as a percentage of myocardium at risk (IS/MaR) assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 4±2 days. Patients randomized to hypothermia treatment achieved a mean core body temperature of 34.7°C before reperfusion. Although significance was not achieved in CHILL-MI, in the pooled analysis IS/MaR was reduced in the hypothermia group, relative reduction (RR) 15% (40.5, 28.0-57.6 vs. 46.6, 36.8-63.8, p=0.046, median, interquartile range [IQR]). IS/MaR was predominantly reduced in early anterior STEMI (0-4h) in the hypothermia group, RR=31% (40.5, 28.8-51.9 vs. 59.0, 45.0-67.8, p=0.01, median, IQR). There was no mortality in either group. The incidence of heart failure was reduced in the hypothermia group (2 vs. 11, p=0.009). Patients with large MaR (>30% of the left ventricle) exhibited significantly reduced IS/MaR in the hypothermia group (40.5, 27.0-57.6 vs. 55.1, 41.1-64.4, median, IQR; hypothermia n=42 vs. control n=37, p=0.03), while patients with MaRmyocardial IS and reduction in heart failure by 1-3 hours with endovascular cooling in association with primary PCI of acute STEMI predominantly in patients with large area of myocardium at risk. (ClinicalTrials.gov id NCT00417638 and NCT01379261).

  8. Effects of Salt Curing and Storage Condition on Functional Properties of Ground Pre-rigor Chicken Meat%腌制和储藏条件对僵直前鸡肉功能特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳; 张瑞红; 俞龙浩

    2013-01-01

    The functional properties of pre-rigor and post-rigor chicken meat was studied.58 broiler chickens were divided into pre-rigor and post-rigor groups. NaCl was immediately added to the pre-rigor group,which was then subdivided into three portions. The portions were subsequently vacuum-packaged and stored chilled at 0 ℃ for 3 days (T1),frozen at -20 ℃ for 3 days(T2),and frozen at-20 ℃for 10 days (T3)respectively. The post-rigor portion (C1)was vacuum-packaged and stored chilled at 0 ℃ for 3 days,after which equal amounts of salt were added. All groups were divided into fatted (C1-2,T1-2,T2-2,T3-2)or non-fatted (C1-1,T1-1,T2-1,T3-1)respectively. The ultimate pH values,water-holding capacities and protein solubility of T1,T2,and T3 were significantly higher than those of C1,regardless of storage condition,while the cooking loss of C1 was higher than that of T1, T2,and T3. Adding fat resulted in increased cooking loss and decreased protein solubility. The springiness,cohesiveness, gumminess,and chewiness of T1-1 were significantly higher than those of C1-1,T2-1,and T3-1;those of T2-2,and significantly higher than C1-2,T1-2,and T3-2.%对僵直前、后鸡肉功能特性进行研究。宰后将58只鸡分成僵直前和僵直后两组,僵直前组的鸡肉在宰后添加NaCl溶液,然后分成3组,分别在0℃的条件下冷冻3 d(T1)、-20℃冷冻3 d(T2)和-20℃冷冻10 d(T3)。僵直后组的肌肉(C1)在0℃条件下放3 d,然后添加同量的食盐。将所有组分分成含脂肪处理组(C1-2,T1-2,T2-2,T3-2)和无脂肪处理组(C1-1, T1-1,T2-1,T3-1)。结果表明,无论在哪种储存条件下,T1、T2和T3的最终pH值、保水性和蛋白溶解度显著高于C1组,但是C1组的蒸煮损失高于T1、T2和T3。加入脂肪致使蒸煮损失有所增加,同时蛋白溶解性有所降低。另外,T1-1的弹性、粘着性、粘性和咀嚼性显著高于C1-1、T2-1和T3-1;T2-2显著高于C1-2、T1

  9. Rapid Endovascular Catheter Core Cooling combined with cold saline as an Adjunct to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention For the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction (The CHILL-MI trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Lang, Irene;

    2014-01-01

    : In a multicenter study, 120 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (care. Hypothermia was initiated...... incidence of heart failure and a possible effect in patients with early anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions need confirmation. (Efficacy of Endovascular Catheter Cooling Combined With Cold Saline for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction [CHILL-MI]; NCT01379261)....

  10. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  11. Chilling Tendency and Chill of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Fra(s); M. Górny; W. Kapturkiewicz; H. López

    2008-01-01

    An analytical expression is presented for the susceptibility of liquid cast iron to solidify according tothe Fe-C-X metastable system (also known as the chilling tendency of cast iron, CT). The analysis incorpo-rates the nucleation and growth processes associated with the eutectic transformation. The CT is related tothe physicochemical state of the liquid, the eutectic cells in the flake graphite, and the number of nodules innodular cast iron. In particular, the CT can be related to the critical wall thickness, Scr, or the chill width, Wcr,in wedge shaped castings. Finally, this work serves as a guide for understanding the effect of technical fac-tors such as the melt chemistry, the spheroidizing and inoculation practice, and the holding time and tam-perature on the resultant CT and chill of the cast iron. Theoretical calculations of Scr and Wcr compare wellwith experimental data for flake graphite and nodular cast iron.

  12. Chilling injury in mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, L.A.E.T.

    2005-01-01

    At present, the value and production quantity of mango fruits are increasing worldwide. Many studies emphasize how chilling injury phenomena affect the quality of tropical fruits, such as mango, during postharvest handling, transport, and storage. Since mango is one of the most favored and popular f

  13. STUDY OF CYLPEBS CHILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of increasing the shock resistance of cast-iron grinding bodies are researched. The models of heat transfer in the process of casting and shock-abrasive wear are presented. Tooling to produce experimental samples of milling bodies chilling(gravity die casting is manufactured, samples of cylpebs are produced.

  14. ChillFish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate...

  15. Chilling injury in mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, L.A.E.T.

    2005-01-01

    At present, the value and production quantity of mango fruits are increasing worldwide. Many studies emphasize how chilling injury phenomena affect the quality of tropical fruits, such as mango, during postharvest handling, transport, and storage. Since mango is one of the most favored and popular f

  16. Rapid cold hardening increases cold and chilling tolerances more than acclimation in the adults of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Xiao, Yu-Yu; Li, Bo

    2011-11-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata is a new, invasive pest of Platanus trees in China. Although C. ciliata is often subjected to acute low temperatures in early winter and spring in northern and eastern China, the cold tolerance of C. ciliata has not been well studied. The objectives of this study were to determine whether adults of C. ciliata are capable of rapid cold hardening (RCH), and to compare the benefits of RCH vs. cold acclimation (ACC) in the laboratory. When the adult females incubated at 26°C were transferred directly to the discriminating temperature (-12°C) for 2 h, survival was only 22%. However, exposure to 0°C for 4 h before transfer to -12°C for 2 h induced RCH, i.e., increased survival to 68%. RCH could also be induced by gradual cooling of the insects at rates between 0.1 and 0.25°C min(-1). The protection against cold shock obtained through RCH at 0°C for 4 h was lost within 1h if the adults were returned to 26°C before exposure to -12°C. Survival at both -12 and -5°C was greater for RCH-treated than for ACC-treated adults (for ACC, adults were kept at 15°C for 5 days), and the lethal temperature (2 h exposure) was lower for RCH-treated than for ACC-treated adults. The results suggest that RCH may help C. ciliata survive the acute low temperatures that often occur in early winter and early spring in northern and eastern China.

  17. The Big Chills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G. C.; Dwyer, G. S.; Bauch, H. A.

    2002-12-01

    At the end of the last glacial, the Earth's climate system abruptly shifted into the Younger Dryas, a 1500-year long cold snap known in the popular media as the Big Chill. Following an abrupt warming ending the Younger Dryas about 11,600 years ago, the climate system has remained in an interglacial state, thought to have been relatively stable and devoid, with possibly one or two exceptions, of abrupt climate change. A growing amount of evidence suggests that this benign view of interglacial climate is incorrect. High resolution records of North Atlantic ice rafted sediment, now regarded as evidence of extreme multiyear sea ice drift, reveal abrupt shifts on centennial and millennial time scales. These have been traced from the end of the Younger Dryas to the present, revealing evidence of significant climate variability through all of the last two millennia. Correlatives of these events have been found in drift ice records from the Arctic's Laptev Sea, in the isotopic composition of North Grip ice, and in dissolved K from the GISP2 ice core, attesting to their regional extent and imprint in proxies of very different origins. Measurements of Mg/Ca ratios in planktic foraminifera over the last two millennia in the eastern North Atlantic demonstrate that increases in drifting multiyear sea ice were accompanied by abrupt decreases in sea surface temperatures, especially during the Little Ice Age. Estimated rates of temperature change are on the order of two degrees centigrade, more than thirty percent of the regional glacial to interglacial change, within a few decades. When compared at the same resolution, these interglacial variations are as abrupt as the last glacial's Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. The interglacial abrupt changes are especially striking because they occurred within the core of the warm North Atlantic Current. The changes may have been triggered by variations in solar irradiance, but if so their large magnitude and regional extent requires amplifying

  18. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers’ increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  19. "On-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing salicylic acid applied to maize seeds for chilling tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    Full Text Available Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of "on-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm and butylmethacrylate (BMA. Salicylic acid (SA was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive, to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w. The temperature of 12°C was considered the "on-off" temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C, higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA, a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds.

  20. "On-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing salicylic acid applied to maize seeds for chilling tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yajing; Li, Zhan; He, Fei; Huang, Yutao; Song, Wenjian; Hu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of "on-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate) (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA)) hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA) hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and butylmethacrylate (BMA). Salicylic acid (SA) was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA) was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive), to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w). The temperature of 12°C was considered the "on-off" temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C), higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA), a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds.

  1. Rapid Analysis and Evaluation of Freshness of Chilled Pork Based on Color Difference%冷却猪肉新鲜度的色差快速分析评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓亮; 王世平; 刘欢

    2012-01-01

    The variability during storage under 4℃ and 20℃of chilled pork (longissimus dorsi muscle) was studied in globulin precipitation, sensory evaluation, pH, water content and the color and color parameters of pork surface and extract. The results indicated that the variations of globulin precipitation and pH in chilled had a significant difference. The color changes such as L* of pork surface under 20 ℃ and L^*, b^*, C and △E^* of pork extract differ significantly (P〈0.05). The relationship between color changes and pH or storage time of chilled pork during storage was established. The CIE a^* under 20 ℃, b^* and C under 4℃ of pork surface as well as the L^*, b^*, C, and △E^* of pork extract under 20℃ and L^* under 4 ℃ were positively correlated with storage time. Moreover, the L^* of pork surface under 4℃, the L^*, b^*, C and △E^* of pork extract under both temperatures and a^* under 4 ~C were correlated positively with pH; when L^* 〉48.73, a^* 〉4.72 and b^* 〉9.18, chilled pork could be identified as fresh meat in cold chain.%为了得到冷却猪肉新鲜度的变化规律,本研究以冷却猪肉里脊部分为研究对象,进行球蛋白沉淀实验、感官评价、pH值、水分含量、肉浸液以及肌肉表面颜色值测定。结果表明:球蛋白沉淀实验、pH值能够较好地反应肉品新鲜度的变化,色差分析符合一定的规律:肌肉表面色差测定中,20℃条件下,a^*变化与贮藏时间显著相关(P〈0.05),L^*变化显著(P〈0.05);4℃条件下,b^*、C变化与贮藏时间极显著相关(P〈0.01),L^*值与pH值极显著相关(P〈0.01);对于肉浸液,L^*、6^*、C、△E^*均发生显著性变化(P〈0.05),20℃条件下L^*、b^*、C、△E^*与贮藏时间和pH值显著相关(P〈0.05),而4℃条件下,L^*、C、△E^*与贮藏时间显著相关(P〈0.05)

  2. Analysis and Evaluation Indicator Selection of Chilling Tolerance of Different Cotton Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    relatively high photo- synthetic electron transport capacity and high stomatal conductance after recovery treatment, which is contributed to gas exchange and recovery of photosynthetic ca- pacity. Determination of the six indicators under the same stress condition can be adopted for rapid identification and prediction of the chilling tolerance of other cotton varieties, which provides basis for the breeding, promotion, identification and screen- ing of chilling tolerant germplasms.

  3. Cook and Chill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Sherine; Steele, Dominic; Clarke, Sarah; Gribben, Cathryn; Bexley, Anne-Marie; Laan, Remmert; Kerr, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to extreme temperature can affect the performance of blood glucose monitoring systems. The aim was to determine the non-equilibrated performance of these systems at extreme high and low temperatures that can occur in daily life. Methods: The performances of 5 test systems, (1) Abbott FreeStyle Freedom Lite, (2) Roche AccuChek Aviva, (3) Bayer Contour, (4) LifeScan OneTouch Verio, and (5) Sanofi BG Star, were compared after “cooking” (50°C for 1 hour) or “chilling” (−5°C for 1 hour) with room temperature controls (23°C) using whole blood with glucose concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/dl. Results: The equilibration period (time from the end of incubation to when the test system is operational) was between 1 and 8 minutes, and each test system took between 15 and 30 minutes after incubation to obtain stable measurements at room temperature. Incubating the strips at −5°C or 50°C had little effect on the glucose measurement, whereas incubating the meters introduced bias in performance between 0 and 15 minutes but not subsequently, compared to room temperature controls and at all 3 glucose levels. Conclusions: Compensating technologies embedded within blood glucose monitoring systems studied here perform well at extreme temperatures. People with diabetes need to be alerted to this feature to avoid perceptions of malperformance of their devices and the possible inability to get blood glucose readings on short notice (eg, during time of suspected rapid change or before an unplanned meal). PMID:26292960

  4. The oxidative stability of chilled and frozen pilchards used as feed for captive southern bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitz-Gerald, C.H.; Bremner, Allan

    1998-01-01

    and flavour of cooked samples and by the chemical measures of peroxide value and levels of free fatty acids. There was considerable variability in fat content between individual fish with average content over all samples analysed in the trial being about 4 to 5%. In chilled storage, the pilchards exhibited...... demonstrated that the oil in the pilchards is very readily oxidised and careful handling, chilling, freezing and storage procedures need to be adopted to provide a product which is a nutritionally sound feed material for captive tuna. The demerit point scoring system was found to be a rapid evaluative...

  5. Internet surveillance, regulation, and chilling effects online: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon W. Penney

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With internet regulation and censorship on the rise, states increasingly engaging in online surveillance, and state cyber-policing capabilities rapidly evolving globally, concerns about regulatory “chilling effects” online—the idea that laws, regulations, or state surveillance can deter people from exercising their freedoms or engaging in legal activities on the internet have taken on greater urgency and public importance. But just as notions of “chilling effects” are not new, neither is skepticism about their legal, theoretical, and empirical basis; in fact, the concept remains largely un-interrogated with significant gaps in understanding, particularly with respect to chilling effects online. This work helps fill this void with a first-of-its-kind online survey that examines multiple dimensions of chilling effects online by comparing and analyzing responses to hypothetical scenarios involving different kinds of regulatory actions—including an anti-cyberbullying law, public/private sector surveillance, and an online regulatory scheme, based on the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA, enforced through personally received legal threats/notices. The results suggest not only the existence and significance of regulatory chilling effects online across these different scenarios but also evidence a differential impact—with personally received legal notices and government surveillance online consistently having the greatest chilling effect on people’s activities online—and certain online activities like speech, search, and personal sharing also impacted differently. The results also offer, for the first time, insights based on demographics and other similar factors about how certain people and groups may be more affected than others, including findings that younger people and women are more likely to be chilled; younger people and women are less likely to take steps to resist regulatory actions and defend themselves; and anti

  6. Gas Exchange and Co-regulation of Photochemical and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Bean during Chilling at Ambient and Elevated Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, Jeffrey; Owens, Thomas G; Wolfe, David W

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated (700 micromol mol(-1)) and ambient (350 micromol mol(-1)) CO(2) on gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) during 24 h chilling treatments at 6.5 degrees C. Consistent with previous research on this cultivar, photosynthetic decline during chilling was not significantly affected by CO(2) while post-chilling recovery was more rapid at elevated compared to ambient CO(2). Our primary focus was whether there were also CO(2)-mediated differences in demand on nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) processes during the chilling treatments. We found that photosystem II quantum yield and total NPQ were similar between the CO(2) treatments during chilling. In both CO(2) treatments, chilling caused a shift from total NPQ largely composed of q(E), the protective, rapidly responding component of NPQ, to total NPQ dominated by the more slowly relaxing q(I), related to both protective and damage processes. The switch from q(E) to q(I) during chilling was more pronounced in the elevated CO(2) plants. Using complementary plots of the quantum yields of photochemistry and NPQ we demonstrate that, despite CO(2) effects on the partitioning of NPQ into q(E) and q(I) during chilling, total NPQ was regulated at both CO(2) levels to maximize photochemical utilization of absorbed light energy and dissipate only that fraction of light energy that was in excess of the capacity of photosynthesis. Photodamage did occur during chilling but was repaired within 3 h recovery from chilling in both CO(2) treatments.

  7. [Music-induced chills as a strong emotional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience "chills," a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions.

  8. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  9. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  10. The inheritance of chilling tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon spp).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, J.H.; Linger, P.; Heusden, van A.W.; Hasselt, van P.R.; Bruggemann, W.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 25 years, chilling tolerance of the cultivated (chilling-sensitive) tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild, chilling-tolerant relatives L. peruvianum and L. hirsutum (and, less intensively studied, L. chilense) has been the object of several investigations. The final aim of thes

  11. The inheritance of chilling tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Linger, P; van Heusden, AW; van Hasselt, PR; Brueggemann, W

    2005-01-01

    During the past 25 years, chilling tolerance of the cultivated (chilling-sensitive) tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild, chilling-tolerant relatives L. peruvianum and L. hirsutum (and, less intensively studied, L. chilense) has been the object of several investigations. The final aim of thes

  12. Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saue, Triin

    2016-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperature (WCET) is used to define thermal discomfort in winter months. Directional distributions of winds, which are associated with uncomfortable weather, were composed of three climatologically different Estonian locations: Vilsandi, Kuusiku, and Jõhvi. Cases with wind chill equivalent temperature Estonia: W, SW, and NW bring warm air in winter from the North Atlantic, while winds from the East-European plain (NE, E, and SE) are associated with cold air. The eastern prevalence was stronger when a lower threshold was used. A directional approach may find several applications, such as building, agricultural, landscape, or settlement planning.

  13. Artificial selection on chill-coma recovery time in Drosophila melanogaster: Direct and correlated responses to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Alison R; Mackay, Trudy F C; Morgan, Theodore J

    2016-07-01

    Artificial selection can be used to create populations with extreme phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. When artificial selection is applied to a single component of a stress response, this selection may result in correlated responses in other stress responses, a phenomenon called cross-tolerance, which is ultimately controlled by the genetic correlations among traits. We selected for extreme responses to cold tolerance by selecting for chill-coma recovery time from a single temperate population of Drosophila melanogaster. Chill-coma recovery time is a common metric of low, but non-lethal, cold temperature tolerance. Replicated divergent artificial selection was applied to a genetically variable base population for 31 generations, resulting in two cold resistant, two cold susceptible, and two unselected control lines. To quantify the relationship between selection on chill-coma recovery and other metrics of thermal performance, we also measured survivorship after acute cold exposure, survivorship after chronic cold exposure, survivorship after cold exposure following a pre-treatment period (rapid cold hardening), starvation tolerance, and heat tolerance. We find that chill-coma recovery time is heritable within this population and that there is an asymmetric response to increased and decreased chill-coma recovery time. Surprisingly, we found no cross-tolerances between selection on chill-coma recovery time and the other environmental stress response traits. These results suggest that although artificial selection has dramatically altered chill-coma recovery time, the correlated response to selection on other stress response phenotypes has been negligible. The lack of a correlated response suggests that chill-coma recovery time in these selection lines is likely genetically independent from measures of cold survivorship tested here.

  14. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; van Well, Willy J. M

    2009-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2-10 degrees C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows...

  15. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  16. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  17. Argon purge gas cooled by chill box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Cooling argon purge gas by routing it through a shop-fabricated chill box reduces charring of tungsten inert gas torch head components. The argon gas is in a cooled state as it enters the torch and prevents buildup of char caused by the high concentrations of heat in the weld area during welding operations.

  18. Chilling- and Freezing-Induced Alterations in Cytosine Methylation and Its Association with the Cold Tolerance of an Alpine Subnival Plant, Chorispora bungeana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Song

    Full Text Available Chilling (0-18°C and freezing (<0°C are two distinct types of cold stresses. Epigenetic regulation can play an important role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. However, it is not yet clear whether and how epigenetic modification (i.e., DNA methylation mediates the adaptation to cold stresses in nature (e.g., in alpine regions. Especially, whether the adaptation to chilling and freezing is involved in differential epigenetic regulations in plants is largely unknown. Chorispora bungeana is an alpine subnival plant that is distributed in the freeze-thaw tundra in Asia, where chilling and freezing frequently fluctuate daily (24 h. To disentangle how C. bungeana copes with these intricate cold stresses through epigenetic modifications, plants of C. bungeana were treated at 4°C (chilling and -4°C (freezing over five periods of time (0-24 h. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment-length polymorphism markers were used to investigate the variation in DNA methylation of C. bungeana in response to chilling and freezing. It was found that the alterations in DNA methylation of C. bungeana largely occurred over the period of chilling and freezing. Moreover, chilling and freezing appeared to gradually induce distinct DNA methylation variations, as the treatment went on (e.g., after 12 h. Forty-three cold-induced polymorphic fragments were randomly selected and further analyzed, and three of the cloned fragments were homologous to genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, UDP-glucosyltransferase and polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein. These candidate genes verified the existence of different expressive patterns between chilling and freezing. Our results showed that C. bungeana responded to cold stresses rapidly through the alterations of DNA methylation, and that chilling and freezing induced different DNA methylation changes. Therefore, we conclude that epigenetic modifications can potentially serve as a rapid and flexible mechanism for C. bungeana

  19. Effects of Chilling Stress on Photosynthetic Rate and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter in Seedlings of Two Rice Cultivars Differing in Cold Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-li; GUO Zhen-fei

    2005-01-01

    A cold-tolerant cultivar, Xiangnuo 1, and a cold-sensitive cultivar, IR50, were used to study the influence of chilling on photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in rice seedlings. The photosynthetic rates declined dramatically during chilling, and decreased by 48.7% and 67.5% in Xiangnuo 1 and IR50 seedlings, respectively, after being subjected to chilling treatment for two days. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that relatively higher qP and qNP in Xiangnuo 1 were maintained to dissipate the redundant excitation energy and protect the reaction centers from chill injury; accordingly, redundant excitation energy accumulated less in the reaction centers, and antenna systems were less injured by chilling in Xiangnuo 1. On the contrary, in IR50, qP and qNP declined rapidly while Ex increased, as the chilling persisted. This result indicated that the reaction centers and antenna systems in IR50 were damaged severely by chilling, which led to the lower photosynthetic rate.

  20. Higher Chilling-Tolerance of Grafted-Cucumber Seedling Leaves upon Exposure to Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-yong; TIAN Hai-xia; LI Xin-guo; MENG Jing-jing; HE Qi-wei

    2008-01-01

    The roots of figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to low temperature. In this experiment, the root activity and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in the own-rooted and grafted-cucumber plants were studied at chilling temperature (4℃) under low irradiance (100 μmol m-2 s-1 PFD). Compared with dark adaptation seedlings, the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient curve and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both the own-rooted and grafted seedlings decreased, and PS2 and PSl of the own-rooted seedling leaves were more inhibited than that of grafted ones at the end of chilling stress. The reduced triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), which was used to reflect the root activity, kept stable in grafted seedling roots at the end of chilling stress, while it decreased noticeably in the own-rooted seedling roots. These results implied that the root system activity of the grafted seedling roots was higher than that of the own-rooted ones. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in both the grafted seedling roots and leaves than that in own-rooted seedlings at both room temperature and chilling temperature. Upon exposure to chilling stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which reflects the degree of lipid peroxidation, increased markedly in the own-rooted seedling roots and leaves and kept stable in the grafted-cucumber seedlings.

  1. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ping; Li Fengjun; Cai Anke

    2009-01-01

    The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citro雗 Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference ...

  2. Performance of a chill ATES system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, K.C.; Song, Y.K.; Schaetzle, W.J. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)] [and others

    1989-03-01

    An aquifer air-conditioning system has been installed to cool the Student Recreation Center on the University of Alabama Campus. This research program encompasses the monitoring of the operation of the aquifer system and provision of emplacements to the system. The monitoring includes establishing the instrumentation, acquiring data, and analyzing the results. The instrumentation allows the measurement of water flow rates and corresponding temperatures, electrical energy input, aquifer temperatures at nineteen monitoring wells, and aquifer levels at six monitoring wells. Recent acquifer performance data indicate that 76% of the chill energy stored was recovered for the period Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 70% for the period Oct/87 - Sep/88. This is a substantial improvement over recoveries of 38% for the 1985 season and 55% for 1986. The overall coefficient of performance was 5.4 for Oct/86 - Sep/87 and 4.6 for Oct/87 - Sep/88. THe system has supplied 100% of the cooling with only about one-half of the energy input required by a conventional system. Some of the increased recovery of chilled water is a result of modifying the production well operation to reduce the regional flow of water toward the northwest. All warm water is withdrawn form the southeast wells, chilled, and injected in northwest wells. The cold water then withdrawn from the cold wells is used for air-conditioning but not reinjected into the aquifer. Additional flow control is provided by pumping (and discarding) water out of a southeast well, although the complete results of this new strategy are as yet unclear.

  3. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review). Issued: February 17, 2012....

  4. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  5. Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

  6. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  7. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...... perspectives for decreasing the heat requirement. However, a scientific understanding of the processes is required. The thermodynamic properties of the NH3–CO2–H2O system were described using the extended UNIQUAC electrolyte model developed by Thomsen and Rasmussen in a temperature range from 0 to 110°C...

  8. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing.

  9. An early response regulatory cluster induced by low temperature and hydrogen peroxide in seedlings of chilling-tolerant japonica rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yulin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants respond to low temperature through an intricately coordinated transcriptional network. The CBF/DREB-regulated network of genes has been shown to play a prominent role in freeze-tolerance of Arabidopsis through the process of cold acclimation (CA. Recent evidence also showed that the CBF/DREB regulon is not unique to CA but evolutionarily conserved between chilling-insensitive (temperate and chilling-sensitive (warm-season plants. In this study, the wide contrast in chilling sensitivity between indica and japonica rice was used as model to identify other regulatory clusters by integrative analysis of promoter architecture (ab initio and gene expression profiles. Results Transcriptome analysis in chilling tolerant japonica rice identified a subset of 121 'early response' genes that were upregulated during the initial 24 hours at 10°C. Among this group were four transcription factors including ROS-bZIP1 and another larger sub-group with a common feature of having as1/ocs-like elements in their promoters. Cold-induction of ROS-bZIP1 preceded the induction of as1/ocs-like element-containing genes and they were also induced by exogenous H2O2 at ambient temperature. Coordinated expression patterns and similar promoter architectures among the 'early response' genes suggest that they belong to a potential regulon (ROS-bZIP – as1/ocs regulatory module that responds to elevated levels of ROS during chilling stress. Cultivar-specific expression signatures of the candidate genes indicate a positive correlation between the activity of the putative regulon and genotypic variation in chilling tolerance. Conclusion A hypothetical model of an ROS-mediated regulon (ROS-bZIP – as1/ocs triggered by chilling stress was assembled in rice. Based on the current results, it appears that this regulon is independent of ABA and CBF/DREB, and that its activation has an important contribution in configuring the rapid responses of rice seedlings

  10. Improvement of turkey breast meat quality and cooked gel functionality using hot-boning, quarter sectioning, crust-freeze-air-chilling and cold-batter-mincing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Erasmus, M A; Swanson, J C; Hong, H G; Kang, I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rapid carcass chilling on breast meat quality was evaluated using commercial (COMM) and random-bred (RB) turkeys. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min (TA-WIC), 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-(1)/4CFAC) of breast fillets at -12°C, and 4) HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-(1)/4CFAC). The TA increased carcass and fillet temperatures by ∼1.3 and ∼4.1°C, respectively, regardless of turkey line, whereas HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. During chilling, COMM breast pH rapidly reduced from 6.04 to 5.82, resulting in a significantly lower pH than RB after chilling (P 0.05). Significantly higher L* value and cooking yield (P 0.05). Higher values of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were found for RB, no TA, and HB-(1)/4CFAC gels than COMM, TA, and WIC, respectively. These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties of turkey fillets were improved, regardless of strains or temperature abuse, using HB-(1)/4CFAC technology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. High-resolution mapping of a major effect QTL from wild tomato Solanum habrochaites that influences water relations under root chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Erin M; Bloom, Arnold J; St Clair, Dina A

    2015-09-01

    QTL stm9 controlling rapid-onset water stress tolerance in S. habrochaites was high-resolution mapped to a chromosome 9 region that contains genes associated with abiotic stress tolerances. Wild tomato (Solanum habrochaites) exhibits tolerance to abiotic stresses, including drought and chilling. Root chilling (6 °C) induces rapid-onset water stress by impeding water movement from roots to shoots. S. habrochaites responds to such changes by closing stomata and maintaining shoot turgor, while cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum) fails to close stomata and wilts. This response (shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling) is controlled by a major QTL (designated stm9) on chromosome 9, which was previously fine-mapped to a 2.7-cM region. Recombinant sub-near-isogenic lines for chromosome 9 were marker-selected, phenotyped for shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling in two sets of replicated experiments (Fall and Spring), and the data were used to high-resolution map QTL stm9 to a 0.32-cM region. QTL mapping revealed a single QTL that was coincident for both the Spring and Fall datasets, suggesting that the gene or genes contributing to shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling reside within the marker interval H9-T1673. In the S. lycopersicum reference genome sequence, this chromosome 9 region is gene-rich and contains representatives of gene families that have been associated with abiotic stress tolerance.

  12. Physiological correlates of chill susceptibility in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mads Kuhlmann; Jensen, Signe Overgaard; Overgaard, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The majority of insects enter a state of reversible coma if temperature is lowered sufficiently. If the cold treatment is not too severe these insects recover gradually when returned to benign temperatures in a time-dependent manner that often depends on the duration and intensity of the cold exposure. Previous studies have associated these phenotypes to changes in membrane potential (Vm) and ion balance, and especially hemolymph [K(+)] is known to be of importance for the recovery time. In the present study we examined this link in three species of Lepidoptera as insects from this order are known to possess resting hemolymph [K(+)] that would severely compromise Vm in other insects. Specifically, we exposed larval and adult Manduca sexta, larval Bombyx mori, and adult Heliconius cydno to stressful cold (0°C) for extended periods of time. Subsequently we measured chill coma recovery time (CCRT), ion- and water balance, and muscle Vm. As expected we find that resting hemolymph [K(+)] is high and that resting hemolymph [Na(+)] is low compared to most other insect species. Muscle Vm depolarised considerably during acute cold exposure, but did so in a manner that was not associated with changes in ion balance. However, prolonged cold exposure coincided with an increase of hemolymph [K(+)] and further depolarisation of Vm which correlated well with prolongation of CCRT. Combined this demonstrates how insects with different ionic compositions generally suffer from similar consequences of cold stress as other species, such that cold tolerance of chill-susceptible insects within Lepidoptera is also intimately linked to maintenance of ion balance and membrane polarisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The involvement of mitochondrial phosphate transporter in accelerating bud dormancy release during chilling treatment of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Dai, Silan; Gai, Shupeng; Zheng, Guosheng; Zheng, Chengchao

    2008-09-01

    A cDNA clone was isolated from tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) subtractive cDNA library of burst buds and characterized with regard to its sequence, expression in response to chilling treatment during the release of bud dormancy, and its function in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The clone, designated as PsMPT, contains 1,615 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1,119 nucleotides, and the deduced amino acid sequence shows high homology with mitochondrial phosphate transporters (MPTs) from various organisms. The mRNA accumulation of PsMPT in tree peony was strongly induced by chilling treatment during the release of bud dormancy. When the treated plants were transferred to normal growth conditions, the level of PsMPT transcripts induced by sufficient chilling could be maintained high, whereas that induced by insufficient chilling decreased sharply. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress PsMPT showed rapid growth and earlier flowering than wild-type plants. ATP contents in the transgenic plants were much higher than that in wild-type plants through various developmental stages. Together, these results suggest that the product of PsMPT is a MPT and might play an important role during the release of bud dormancy in tree peony.

  14. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  15. SOME ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF CASTINGS IN COATED CHILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of technological process of pouring into coated iron chill is presented. It is shown that the process is very sensitive to the change of technological parameters, is rather complex in regulation and control.

  16. Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Your Summer Fun Print version Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun Summer ... adults involve the use of alcohol. 1 Swimmers can get in over their heads. Alcohol impairs judgment ...

  17. Lipid signalling mediated by PLD/PA modulates proline and H2O2 levels in barley seedlings exposed to short- and long-term chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppino Margutti, Micaela; Reyna, Matias; Meringer, María Verónica; Racagni, Graciela E; Villasuso, Ana Laura

    2017-04-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses phospholipids to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and a head group, and is involved in responses to a variety of environmental stresses, including chilling and freezing stress. Barley responses to chilling stress (induced by incubating seedlings at 4 °C) are dynamic and the duration of stress, either short (0-180 min) or long-term (24-36 h) had a significant impact on the response. We investigated the roles of PLD/PA in responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings to short and long-term chilling stress, based on regulation of proline and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Short-term chilling stress caused rapid and transient increases in PLD activity, proline level, and ROS levels in young leaves. PLD has the ability to catalyse the transphosphatidylation reaction leading to formation of phosphatidylalcohol (preferentially, to PA). Pre-treatment of seedlings with 1-butanol significantly increased proline synthesis but decreased ROS (H2O2) formation. These observations suggest that PLD is a negative regulator of proline synthesis, whereas PA/PLD promote ROS signals. Exogenous PA pre-treatment reduced the proline synthesis but enhanced H2O2 formation. Effects of long-term chilling stress on barley seedlings differed from those of short-term chilling stress. E.g., PLD activity was significantly reduced in young leaves and roots, whereas proline synthesis and ROS signals were increased in roots. Exogenous ROS application enhanced proline level while exogenous proline application reduced ROS level and modulated some effects of long-term chilling stress. Our findings suggest that PLD contributes to signalling pathways in responses to short-term chilling stress in barley seedling, through regulation of the balance between proline and ROS levels. In contrast, reduced PLD activity in the response to long-term chilling stress did not affect proline level. Increased ROS levels may reflect an antioxidant system that is affected by

  18. SolarChill - a solar PV refrigerator without battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.H.; Poulsen, S.; Katic, I. [Danish Technological Inst., Taastrup (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    A solar powered refrigerator (SolarChill) has been developed in an international project involving Greenpeace International, GTZ, UNICEF, UNEP, WHO, industrial partners and Danish Technological Institute. The refrigerator is able to operate directly on solar PV panels, without battery or additional electronics, and is therefore suitable for locations where little maintenance and reliable operation is mandatory. The main objective of the SolarChill Project is to help deliver vaccines and refrigeration to the rural poor. To achieve this objective, the SolarChill Project developed - and plans to make freely available a versatile refrigeration technology that is environmentally sound, technologically reliable, and affordable. SolarChill does not use any fluorocarbons in its cooling system or in the insulation. For domestic and small business applications, another type of solar refrigerator is under development. This is an upright type, suitable for cool storage of food and beverages in areas where grid power is non-existent or unstable. The market potential for this type is thus present in industrialised countries as well as in countries under development. The unique feature of SolarChill is that energy is stored in ice instead of in batteries. An ice compartment keeps the cabinet at desired temperatures during the night. The paper describes the product development, possible SolarChill applications and experience with the two types of solar refrigerators, as well as results from the laboratory and field test. (orig.)

  19. Cold-Cracking Assessment in AA7050 Billets during Direct-Chill Casting by Thermomechanical Simulation of Residual Thermal Stresses and Application of Fracture Mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalpoor, M.; Eskin, D.G.; Katgerman, L.

    2009-01-01

    Thermally induced strains and stresses developed during direct-chill (DC) semicontinuous casting of high strength aluminum alloys can result in formation of micro-cracks in different locations of the billet. Rapid propagation of such micro-cracks in tensile thermal stress fields can lead to

  20. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...

  1. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citro雗 Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference between them. The results showed that the fracture of the camshaft mainly results from white section in macrostructure and Ledeburite in microstructure; the crack in the fractured camshaft should be recognized to initiate at the boundary of coarser needle-like carbide and matrix, and then propagate through the transverse section. At the same time, the casting defects such as dendritic shrinkage, accumulated inclusion and initiated crack and abnormal external force might stimulate the fracture of camshaft as well. Based on failure analysis, some measures have been employed, and as a result, the fracture of home-made camshafts has been effectively prevented.

  2. Online chilling effects in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Townend

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Open and free internet-based platforms are seen as an enabler of global free expression, releasing writers from commercial and space constraints. However, many are working without the assistance of an in-house lawyer, or other legal resources. This may lead to undue suppression of public interest material, with important implications for freedom of expression and the democratic function of media. Two online surveys among digital and online journalists in England and Wales in 2013 indicated that the majority of encounters with defamation and privacy law take place outside the courts, with few formally recorded legal actions. This was particularly evident in a sample of ‘hyperlocal’ and local community publishers. In light of the results, this paper calls for a reappraisal of overly simplistic judicial and media applications of the ‘chilling effect’ doctrine, in order to expose its subjectivities and complexities. Additionally, attention needs to be paid to global and cross-jurisdictional media-legal environments, in order to help develop better internet policy and legal frameworks for protecting legitimate expression.

  3. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Li Fengjun; Cai Anke; Wei Bokang

    2009-01-01

    The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citroen Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference between them. The results showed that the fracture of the camshaft mainly results from white section in macrostructure and Ledeburite in microstructure; the crack in the fractured camshaft should be recognized to initiate at the boundary of coarser needle-like carbide and matrix, and then propagate through the transverse section. At the same time, the casting defects such as dendritic shrinkage, accumulated inclusion and initiated crack and abnormal external force might stimulate the fracture of camshaft as well. Based on failure analysis, some measures have been employed, and as a result, the fracture of home-made camshafts has been effectively prevented.

  4. Noninvasive Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Spoilage Attributes of Chilled Pork Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a rapid noninvasive method for quantitative and qualitative determination of chilled pork spoilage. Microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value, and color parameter L* were determined to appraise pork quality. The hyperspectral scattering characteristics from 54 meat samples were fitted by four-parameter modified Gompertz function accurately. Support vector machines (SVM) was applied to establish quantitative prediction model between scattering fitting parameters and reference values. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian analysis were utilized as supervised and unsupervised techniques for the qualitative identification of meat spoilage. All stored chilled meat samples were classified into three grades: "fresh," "semi-fresh," and "spoiled." Bayesian classification model was superior to PLS-DA with overall classification accuracy of 92.86%. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with SVM and Bayesian possessed a powerful capability for meat spoilage assessment rapidly and noninvasively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Exogenous application of glycinebetaine increases chilling tolerance in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eung-Jun; Jeknic, Zoran; Chen, Tony H H

    2006-06-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) plants are chilling sensitive, and do not naturally accumulate glycinebetaine (GB), a metabolite that functions as a stress protectant. We reported previously that exogenous GB application enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato. To understand its protective role better, we have further evaluated various parameters associated with improved tolerance. Although its effect was most pronounced in younger plants, this benefit was diminished 1 week after GB application. When administered by foliar spray, GB was readily taken up and translocated to various organs, with the highest levels being measured in meristematic tissues, including the shoot apices and flower buds. In leaves, the majority of endogenous GB was found in the cytosol; only 0.6-22.0% of the total leaf GB was localized in chloroplasts. Immediately after GB application, levels of H(2)O(2), catalase activity and expression of the catalase gene (CAT1) were all higher in GB-treated than in control plants. One day after exposure to chilling stress, the treated plants had significantly greater catalase activity and CAT1 expression, although their H(2)O(2) levels remained unchanged. During the following 2 d of this chilling treatment, GB-treated plants maintained lower H(2)O(2) levels but had higher catalase activity than the controls. These results suggest that, in addition to protecting macromolecules and membranes directly, GB-enhanced chilling tolerance may involve the induction of H(2)O(2)-mediated antioxidant mechanisms, e.g. enhanced catalase expression and catalase activity.

  6. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling temperatures (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  7. Chill-tolerant Gryllus crickets maintain ion balance at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello Alvarado, Litza E; MacMillan, Heath A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-06-01

    Insect cold tolerance is both phenotypically-plastic and evolutionarily labile, but the mechanisms underlying this variation are uncertain. Chill-susceptible insects lose ion and water homeostasis in the cold, which contributes to the development of injuries and eventually death. We thus hypothesized that more cold-tolerant insects will better maintain ion and water balance at low temperatures. We used rapid cold-hardening (RCH) and cold acclimation to improve cold tolerance of male Gryllus pennsylvanicus, and also compared this species to its cold-tolerant relative (Gryllus veletis). Cold acclimation and RCH decreased the critical thermal minimum (CTmin) and chill coma recovery time (CCR) in G. pennsylvanicus, but while cold acclimation improved survival of 0 °C, RCH did not; G. veletis was consistently more cold-tolerant (and had lower CCR and CTmin) than G. pennsylvanicus. During cold exposure, hemolymph water and Na(+) migrated to the gut of warm-acclimated G. pennsylvanicus, which increased hemolymph [K(+)] and decreased muscle K(+) equilibrium potentials. By contrast, cold-acclimated G. pennsylvanicus suffered a smaller loss of ion and water homeostasis during cold exposure, and this redistribution did not occur at all in cold-exposed G. veletis. The loss of ion and water balance was similar between RCH and warm-acclimated G. pennsylvanicus, suggesting that different mechanisms underlie decreased CCR and CTmin compared to increased survival at 0 °C. We conclude that increased tolerance of chilling is associated with improved maintenance of ion and water homeostasis in the cold, and that this is consistent for both phenotypic plasticity and evolved cold tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit mesocarp softening and chilling injury using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Vargas Reinaldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach fruit undergoes a rapid softening process that involves a number of metabolic changes. Storing fruit at low temperatures has been widely used to extend its postharvest life. However, this leads to undesired changes, such as mealiness and browning, which affect the quality of the fruit. In this study, a 2-D DIGE approach was designed to screen for differentially accumulated proteins in peach fruit during normal softening as well as under conditions that led to fruit chilling injury. Results The analysis allowed us to identify 43 spots -representing about 18% of the total number analyzed- that show statistically significant changes. Thirty-nine of the proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins that changed during postharvest had been related to peach fruit ripening and cold stress in the past. However, we identified other proteins that had not been linked to these processes. A graphical display of the relationship between the differentially accumulated proteins was obtained using pairwise average-linkage cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Proteins such as endopolygalacturonase, catalase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, pectin methylesterase and dehydrins were found to be very important for distinguishing between healthy and chill injured fruit. A categorization of the differentially accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'response to stress', 'cellular homeostasis', 'metabolism of carbohydrates' and 'amino acid metabolism' biological processes were affected the most during the postharvest. Conclusions Using a comparative proteomic approach with 2-D DIGE allowed us to identify proteins that showed stage-specific changes in their accumulation pattern. Several proteins that are related to response to stress, cellular homeostasis, cellular component organization and carbohydrate metabolism were detected as being

  9. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit mesocarp softening and chilling injury using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilo, Ricardo; Saffie, Carlos; Lilley, Kathryn; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Cambiazo, Verónica; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; González, Mauricio; Meisel, Lee A; Retamales, Julio; Silva, Herman; Orellana, Ariel

    2010-01-18

    Peach fruit undergoes a rapid softening process that involves a number of metabolic changes. Storing fruit at low temperatures has been widely used to extend its postharvest life. However, this leads to undesired changes, such as mealiness and browning, which affect the quality of the fruit. In this study, a 2-D DIGE approach was designed to screen for differentially accumulated proteins in peach fruit during normal softening as well as under conditions that led to fruit chilling injury. The analysis allowed us to identify 43 spots -representing about 18% of the total number analyzed- that show statistically significant changes. Thirty-nine of the proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins that changed during postharvest had been related to peach fruit ripening and cold stress in the past. However, we identified other proteins that had not been linked to these processes. A graphical display of the relationship between the differentially accumulated proteins was obtained using pairwise average-linkage cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Proteins such as endopolygalacturonase, catalase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, pectin methylesterase and dehydrins were found to be very important for distinguishing between healthy and chill injured fruit. A categorization of the differentially accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'response to stress', 'cellular homeostasis', 'metabolism of carbohydrates' and 'amino acid metabolism' biological processes were affected the most during the postharvest. Using a comparative proteomic approach with 2-D DIGE allowed us to identify proteins that showed stage-specific changes in their accumulation pattern. Several proteins that are related to response to stress, cellular homeostasis, cellular component organization and carbohydrate metabolism were detected as being differentially accumulated. Finally, a significant proportion of

  10. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees—a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package (`chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. `Payne') at Davis, California.

  11. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    to simulate direct solar load on the floor (270 W). The total heat load in the room was 56 W/m2. The air temperature around the workstation by the window was kept either 26 or 28 oC. The supplied air by the overhead mixing ventilation and the primary supply air of the localised chilled beam was kept at 13 L...... symptoms. Under 26 oC the localised chilled beam provided more local cooling compared to the chilled ceiling. The opposite trend between the two systems was noticed at 28 oC. However the local thermal acceptability votes were similar for the two systems. Majority of the occupants did not wish change...

  12. A global analysis of the comparability of winter chill models for fruit and nut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Brown, Patrick H

    2011-05-01

    Many fruit and nut trees must fulfill a chilling requirement to break their winter dormancy and resume normal growth in spring. Several models exist for quantifying winter chill, and growers and researchers often tacitly assume that the choice of model is not important and estimates of species chilling requirements are valid across growing regions. To test this assumption, Safe Winter Chill (the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of years) was calculated for 5,078 weather stations around the world, using the Dynamic Model [in Chill Portions (CP)], the Chilling Hours (CH) Model and the Utah Model [Utah Chill Units (UCU)]. Distributions of the ratios between different winter chill metrics were mapped on a global scale. These ratios should be constant if the models were strictly proportional. Ratios between winter chill metrics varied substantially, with the CH/CP ratio ranging between 0 and 34, the UCU/CP ratio between -155 and +20 and the UCU/CH ratio between -10 and +5. The models are thus not proportional, and chilling requirements determined in a given location may not be valid elsewhere. The Utah Model produced negative winter chill totals in many Subtropical regions, where it does not seem to be useful. Mean annual temperature and daily temperature range influenced all winter chill ratios, but explained only between 12 and 27% of the variation. Data on chilling requirements should always be amended with information on the location and experimental conditions of the study in which they were determined, ideally including site-specific conversion factors between winter chill models. This would greatly facilitate the transfer of such information across growing regions, and help prepare growers for the impact of climate change.

  13. [Visualization of the chilling storage time for turbot flesh based on hyperspectral imaging technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Le; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Shao, Yong-Ni; He, Yong

    2014-07-01

    This study proposed a new method using visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging for the detection and visualization of the chilling storage time for turbot flesh rapid and nondestructively. A total of 160 fish samples with 8 different storage days were collected for hyperspectral image scanning, and mean spectra were extracted from the region of interest (ROD inside each image. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied as calibration method to correlate the spectral data and storage time for the 120 samples in calibration set. Then the PLSR model was used to predict the storage time for the 40 prediction samples, which achieved accurate results with determination coefficient (R2) of 0.966 2 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.679 9 d. Finally, the storage time of each pixel in the hyperspectral images for all prediction samples was predicted and displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the aid of an IDL program. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging technique combined with chemometrics and image processing allows the determination and visualization of the chilling storage time for fish, displaying fish freshness status and distribution vividly and laying a foundation for the automatic processing of aquatic products.

  14. Meaningful wind chill indicators derived from heat transfer principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, N; Shacham, M

    1995-08-01

    The wind chill index (WCI) and the more widely used wind chill equivalent temperature represent an attempt to combine several weather-related variables (temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation) into a single index which can indicate human comfort. Since its introduction in 1945, the WCI has been criticized mainly on the ground that the underlying model does not comply with modern heat transfer theory. In spite of that, the WCI, "calibrated" to human comfort, has proven to be successful in predicting discomfort and tolerance of man to the cold. Nevertheless, neither the WCI nor the wind chill equivalent temperature can be actually measured and, therefore, without the additional 'calibration' they are meaningless. In this study we have shown that the WCI represents the instantaneous rate of heat loss from bare skin at the moment of exposure to the cold, and as such, it correlates reasonably well with measurable variables that represent a feeling of cold. Two new wind chill indicators have been introduced: exposed skin temperature and maximum exposure time. These indicators yield more information than the WCI provides, are measurable, have physical meaning and are based on established heat transfer principles.

  15. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed b

  16. Chilling-Induced Changes in Aroma Volatile Profiles in Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, Brian; Alarcón, Alberto Algarra; Papasotiriou, F.G.; Samudrala, D.; Cristescu, S.M.; Costa, Guglielmo; Harren, F.J.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetables are regularly stored by consumers in the refrigerator at temperatures that may be well below the recommended storage temperatures. Apart from causing visible symptoms such as watery, sunken areas on the skin, chilling may also induce changes in fruit textural properties and

  17. Determination of chilling temperature effects on nutrient elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... ground by hand in a ceramic mortar with liquid nitrogen to make the samples as ... parts of both control and chilling biological samples of Al, ..... Quality. Control of Commercial Tea by X-ray Fluorescence. X-Ray Spectrom.

  18. Chilling-Induced Changes in Aroma Volatile Profiles in Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, Brian; Alarcón, Alberto Algarra; Papasotiriou, F.G.; Samudrala, D.; Cristescu, S.M.; Costa, Guglielmo; Harren, F.J.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetables are regularly stored by consumers in the refrigerator at temperatures that may be well below the recommended storage temperatures. Apart from causing visible symptoms such as watery, sunken areas on the skin, chilling may also induce changes in fruit textural properties and f

  19. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed b

  20. Meaningful wind chill indicators derived from heat transfer principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Neima; Shacham, M.

    1995-03-01

    The wind chill index (WCI) and the more widely used wind chill equivalent temperature represent an attempt to combine several weather-related variables (temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation) into a single index which can indicate human comfort. Since its introduction in 1945, the WCI has been criticized mainly on the ground that the underlying model does not comply with modern heat transfer theory. In spite of that, the WCI, “calibrated” to human comfort, has proven to be successful in predicting discomfort and tolerance of man to the cold. Nevertheless, neither the WCI nor the wind chill equivalent temperature can be actually measured and, therefore, without the additional ‘calibration’ they are meaningless. In this study we have shown that the WCI represents the instantaneous rate of heat loss from bare skin at the moment of exposure to the cold, and as such, it correlates reasonably well with measurable variables that represent a feeling of cold. Two new wind chill indicators have been introduced: exposed skin temperature and maximum exposure time. These indicators yield more information than the WCI provides, are measurable, have physical meaning and are based on established heat transfer principles.

  1. [Climatic risk zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Huo, Zhi-guo; He, Nan; Xiao, Jing-jing; Wen, Quan-pei

    2010-05-01

    Based on the 1951-2006 climatic observation data from 224 meteorological stations in South China (Guangdong Province, Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Fujian Province) and the historical information about the chilling injury losses of banana and litchi, the accumulated harmful chilling for the processes with minimum daily temperature zoning for banana and litchi's chilling injury were drawn, and the spatial variation of climatic risk for banana and litchi's chilling injury was commented. The results indicated that in the study area, climate warming might lead to the decrease of cold resistance of banana and litchi, which could increase the disaster risk of chilling injury. The geographical distribution of climatic risk probability for banana and litchi's chilling injury showed a zonal pattern. According to the integrated climatic risk index, the banana and litchi's chilling injury region was divided into three risk types, i.e., high risk, moderate risk, and low risk, which provided an important basis for the adjustment of agricultural production structure.

  2. Spray chilling of deer carcasses--effects on carcass weight, meat moisture content, purge and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, E; Kemp, R M; leRoux, G J; Li, Y; Wu, G

    2010-12-01

    Twenty red deer carcasses were included in the study. Two treatments were applied to the carcasses; control (air chilling) and spray chilling (n=10 for each treatment). Carcass weight and temperature change were registered during over-night chilling. Meat moisture content was measured in the shoulder, loin, flap and leg before and after the chilling treatments; purge, cooking loss and tenderness were measured in loin samples stored at -1.5 °C for 3 and 9 weeks. Microbiological status was assessed on swabs taken at the lumbar end of the loin before and after the chilling treatments. Spray chilling reduced carcass weight loss significantly; air chilled and spray chilled carcasses lost 1 kg and less than 0.01 kg, respectively. No effects of spray chilling on tenderness, purge and cooking loss were found. Bacterial levels were low in general even after 9 weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage.

  3. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SAYYARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the seedlings were subjected to chilling 5 h/day at 4°C for 5 days. Statistical analysis showed significant effects of the application methods and SA concentrations on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, proline and chilling injury index. SA application improved growth parameters and increased chlorophyll content of watermelon seedling subjected to chilling stress and provided significant protection against chilling stress compared to non-SA-treated seedlings. Although two SA application methods improved chilling stress tolerance, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method. SA ameliorated the injury caused by chilling stress via inhibiting proline accumulation and leaf electrolyte leakage. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.5 mM SA application. Results indicate that SA could be used effectively to protect watermelon seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  4. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SAYYARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the seedlings were subjected to chilling 5 h/day at 4°C for 5 days. Statistical analysis showed significant effects of the application methods and SA concentrations on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, proline and chilling injury index. SA application improved growth parameters and increased chlorophyll content of watermelon seedling subjected to chilling stress and provided significant protection against chilling stress compared to non-SA-treated seedlings. Although two SA application methods improved chilling stress tolerance, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method. SA ameliorated the injury caused by chilling stress via inhibiting proline accumulation and leaf electrolyte leakage. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.5 mM SA application. Results indicate that SA could be used effectively to protect watermelon seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  5. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a......Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  6. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  7. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  8. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens.

  9. Impact of the sampling method and chilling on the Salmonella recovery from pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; De Zutter, Lieven; Berkvens, Dirk; Houf, Kurt

    2016-09-02

    Differences in recovery of Salmonella on pig carcasses using non-destructive and destructive sampling methods is not well understood in respect to the chilling processes applied in slaughterhouses. Therefore, in two slaughterhouses, four strains at two different concentrations were inoculated onto pork skin. Inoculated skin samples were sampled before and after chilling with two sampling methods: swabbing and destruction. Both slaughterhouses were visited three times and all tests were performed in triplicate. All samples were analysed using the ISO-method and recovered isolates were confirmed by PFGE. The chilling system (fast or conventional cooling) nor the sampling step (before and after chilling) did not significantly influence the recovery of Salmonella. However, swabbing after chilling leads to an underestimation of the real number of contaminated carcasses. Therefore, destructive sampling is the more designated sampling method after chilling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for Both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran;

    2013-01-01

    advantage of renewable energy. The results showed that the energy consumption was 3% less in the 2-pipe chilled beam system in comparison with the conventional 4-pipe system when moving cooled and heated water through the building, transferring the energy to where it is needed. Using free cooling (taking...... consumption and hence energy savings in the 2-pipe chilled beam system in comparison with the 4-pipe system. The 2-pipe chilled beam system used high temperature cooling and low temperature heating with a water temperature of 20°C to 23°C, available for free most of the year. The system can thus take......Simulations were performed to compare a conventional 4-pipe chilled beam system and a 2-pipe chilled beam system. The objective was to establish requirements, possibilities and limitations for a well-functioning 2-pipe chilled beam system for both cooling and heating of office buildings...

  11. Developing citizen science projects: Cut twigs for 'chilling' pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Matiu, Michael; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Citizen science projects mainly involve two aims, science and education. Depending on the setting, either the data delivery part for answering questions raised by scientists or the educating part e.g. on scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, application of core science contents or awareness for environmental problems prevails. In this respect, spring phenology is a grateful topic because it addresses both aspects nearly symmetrically. In science, it remains unresolved which factors besides spring warming also trigger spring bud development, namely chilling / photoperiod / humidity / nutrient availability. The appearance of fresh leaves in spring has been fascinating for humans; it is linked to cultural heritage, festivals and has always attracted nature lovers, from young children to senior citizens. In our study, we set up a twig experiment to study the chilling effect on bud burst of Corylus avellana L. which was conducted by trained citizen scientists at their home. We asked the scientific question if the effects of chilling can be analysed by the twig method, and how sampling and experimental setting should be designed. Furthermore we tested if the twig method is feasible for citizen scientist projects, and report minimum requirements, successes and drawbacks.

  12. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eFukui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the Dictator Game that an individual’s listening to preferred chill-inducing music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the In-group (IG and the Out-group (OG, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred chill-inducing music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the Dictator Game. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the Dictator Game both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred chill-inducing music promotes altruistic behavior.

  13. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred "chill-inducing" music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music promotes altruistic behavior.

  14. Corrosion of an aluminum alloy chilled in flowing seawater and the effect of cathodic prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Yabuki, Akihiro; Yasunaga, David T.; Shibutani, Toshihiro; Shinkai, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    A new type of jet-in-slit testing apparatus for a specimen, chilled with a peltier element, was developed to investigate corrosion on the heat transfer surface of an aluminum alloy heat exchanger, in contact with a liquefaction gas at cryogenic temperature and in flowing seawater. The specimen can be chilled, even under flowing conditions, using this apparatus. Corrosion tests and polarization measurements of a specimen chilled by a peltier element were carried out in flowing seawater at vari...

  15. Chilling Tolerance Improving of Watermelon Seedling by Salicylic Acid Seed and Foliar Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SAYYARI; Fardin GHANBARI; Sajad FATAHI; Fatemeh BAVANDPOUR

    2013-01-01

    Chilling temperatures lead to numerous physiological disturbances in the cells of chilling-sensitive plants and result in chilling injury and death of tropical and subtropical plants such as watermelon. In this study, the possibility of cold stress tolerance enhancing of watermelon seedling (Citrullus lanatus) by exogenous application of Salicylic acid (SA) was investigated. SA was applied through seed soaking or foliar spray at 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentration. After SA treatment, the see...

  16. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  17. THE EFFECTS OF SPRAY-CHILLING ASSOCIATED TO CONVENTIONAL CHILLING ON MASS LOSS, BACTERIOLOGYCAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF BEEF CARCASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of conventional air chilling associated to intermittent spray-chilling treatment, on weight loss, physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of beef carcasses. Two plants of commercial beef slaughterhouse located in Goiânia and fiscalized by the Federal Inspection Service were used to develop the research. The spray-chilling treatment was accomplished in an intermittent way, commanded by acontrolled logical program, with cycles of 90 seconds, in intervals of 30 minutes, during the first 4 hours of the chilling process. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis were made in spray-chilled water and carcasses samples, according to recommendation of the effective legislation.The average values of carcasses weight loss of treatment group were lower to the ones verified for the control group,in both plants, A and B, (P < 0,001, showing a high economic potential. As a conclusion of physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis results of water and meat samples, it is clear that the technology of chilling beef carcasses inthe conventional system associated to spraying did not interfere in the quality of meat, and it can become an analysis object on part of official organs for sanitary regulation and fiscalization, for its definitive adoption. KEY WORDS: Spray-chilling, shrinkage, beef carcass.

  18. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  19. In vitro propagation of the Garden Heliotrope, Valeriana officinalis L.: influence of pre-chilling and light on seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, B; Sharma, V D

    2015-03-01

    Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1 mg/L) and BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L).

  20. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  1. A chemical additive to limit potential bacterial contamination in chill tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler carcasses with different types and numbers of bacteria are commonly chilled together in an ice water bath which may lead to transfer of unwanted bacteria from carcass to carcass. Historically chill tanks have been chlorinated to help prevent cross contamination and recently other chemical a...

  2. Chilling privation during dormancy period and carbohydrate mobilization in Japanese pear trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The flower bud abortion is one of the main problems that limit commercial pear (Pyrus pyrifolia production in the southern region of Brazil. Insufficient chilling during the dormancy period is known as the main factor of this problem. One of the hypotheses to explain this problem is that the starch mobilization and carbohydrate fluxes to the buds are impeded when mild temperatures occurred during winter. This study compared the total soluble sugars (TSS and reducing sugars (RS concentrations, the cell wall acid invertase (CWAI - EC 3.2.1.26 and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS - EC 2.4.1.14 activities in wood of branches and floral buds of Japanese pear trees cv. Housui, grafted on Pyrus calleryana and submitted to chilling conditions during the dormancy period. Treatments were: (i natural conditions; (ii continuous artificial chilling; (iii alternating temperatures, and (iv total chilling privation. TSS and RS contents, as well as CWAI and SPS activities in tissues of branches that received insufficient chilling were lower than those that received sufficient chilling during winter. The starch concentration was superior in wood tissues of branches kept under chilling privation. The chilling privation disturbs carbohydrate mobilization in pear trees, reducing the sucrose synthesis capacity in wood tissues (source and sucrose importation by the floral buds (sink.

  3. Chilling Tolerance and Physiological Parameters as Influenced by Grafting in Watermelon Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-ying; ZHU Zhu-jun; LU Guo-hua; QIAN Qiong-qiu

    2003-01-01

    The influences of different rootstocks on chilling tolerance and physiological parameters in wa-termelon seedlings have been studied. The results showed that grafting improved the chilling tolerance. Com-pared with own-rooted watermelon seedlings, the grafted watermelon seedlings had lower chilling injury index,lower electrolytic leakage (%), lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, higher chlorophyll and proline con-tent, and higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (AsA-POD) and de-hydroascorbate reductase (DR) in the leaves under iow temperature stress. There was a considerable differenceof chilling tolerance among different grafted watermelon seedlings due to the difference of rootstock chillingtolerance. After low temperature treatment, the grafted seedling with higher chilling tolerance had lower elec-trolytic leakage ( %), lower MDA content, higher proline content and higher activities of SOD, AsA-POD andDR in the leaves compared with the grafted seedling with weaker chilling tolerance. From these, we could con-clude that chilling tolerance of watermelon seedlings may be related to higher antioxidative ability and mem-brane stability in the plants. The chilling tolerance of grafted seedling could be properly evaluated by compre-hensive physiological indexes but not a single physiological index.

  4. The Relationships between Rheological Properties and Structural Changes of Chilled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; ZHANG Zhaohui; TANG Zhixu; TASHIRO Yuri; OGAWA Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative correlation between theological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48 h.The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am,Rvm), and rheological properties (E1,τi,η1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlations. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristic values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  5. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... manufacturing of meat food products. As used in this section, the term “frozen” includes “chilled fresh,” and....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a)...

  6. Chills in Different Sensory Domains: Frisson Elicited by Acoustical, Visual, Tactile and Gustatory Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Katzur, Bjorn; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmuller, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    "Chills" (frisson manifested as goose bumps or shivers) have been used in an increasing number of studies as indicators of emotions in response to music (e.g., Craig, 2005; Guhn, Hamm, & Zentner, 2007; McCrae, 2007; Panksepp, 1995; Sloboda, 1991). In this study we present evidence that chills can be induced through aural, visual, tactile, and…

  7. Regulation of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in maize leaves at optimal and chilling temperatures : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foyer, C.H.; VanAcker, H.; Gomez, L.D.; Harbinson, J.

    2002-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a chilling (below 15 °C) sensitive plant that shows little capacity to acclimate to low growth temperatures. Maize leaves are extremely sensitive to chilling injury, which usually results in premature leaf senescence. Leaves exposed to temperatures below 10 °C in the light sho

  8. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods.......Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  9. Chills in Different Sensory Domains: Frisson Elicited by Acoustical, Visual, Tactile and Gustatory Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Katzur, Bjorn; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmuller, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    "Chills" (frisson manifested as goose bumps or shivers) have been used in an increasing number of studies as indicators of emotions in response to music (e.g., Craig, 2005; Guhn, Hamm, & Zentner, 2007; McCrae, 2007; Panksepp, 1995; Sloboda, 1991). In this study we present evidence that chills can be induced through aural, visual, tactile, and…

  10. Tomato chilling injury threshold defined by the volatile profiles of pink harvested tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh tomato fruit show visible symptoms of chilling injury (CI) when stored at temperatures lower than the reported chilling threshold of 12.5°C. However, their sensitivity has been reported to decrease as they ripen. Volatile profiles change during ripening and are affected by physiological change...

  11. A demonstration of chill block melt spinning of metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most exciting adventures in materials in recent times has been the discovery of amorphous metals and the pursuit of methods of manufacturing various alloys into various shapes which are amorphous. Some of these alloys possess electrical properties which are extremely beneficial, whereas others offer different benefits such as corrosion resistence and no solidification shrinkage anomalies. There are a number of techniques for producing such amorphous shapes, but one of the earliest systems used is referred to as chill block melt spinning. The object of this demonstration is to show the simplicity of the process. The equipment and procedures are described.

  12. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz;

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. Previous research was focused on combining PV with additional total volume air distribution, i.e. mixing ventilation or displacement ventilation...... temperature for chilled ceiling was 15,5/16,8°C at room air temperature of 26°C and 19,5/20,6°C at 28°C. During the experiment the subjects were performing typical office tasks at workstations with computers. Exposure included also increased activity level office work for a period of 25 min...

  13. Insights on the development, kinetics, and variation of photoinhibition using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging af a chilled, variegated leaf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, S.W.; Harbinson, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of chilling on photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was studied in the variegated leaves of Calathea makoyana, in order to gain insight into the causes of chilling-induced photoinhibition. Additionally, a relationship was revealed between (chilling) stress and variation in photosynthesis. Chi

  14. Influence of the ventilation system on thermal comfort of the chilled panel system in heating mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhe; Ding, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Yin, Xinglei; Wang, Menglei [Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In heating mode, fresh air is still essential for a chilled panel system in order to ensure the indoor air quality. In this paper, a chilled ceiling panel system was designed and built in a typical office room. The thermal environment and thermal comfort in the room were fully measured and evaluated by using the Fanger's PMV-PPD model and the standard of ISO 7730 respectively, when room was heated in two modes, one of which is the chilled panel heating mode and the other of which is the combined heating mode of chilled panel and supply air. The research results indicate that in the combined mode, ceiling ventilation improves the general thermal comfort and reduces the risk of local discomfort. Under the condition of same general thermal comfort, the heating supply upper limit of chilled panel can be increased by 12.3% because of air mixing effect caused by introduction of air ventilation. (author)

  15. An Inexpensive Radiosonde Chilled Mirror Sensor: An Old Technology With New Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The availability of an inexpensive chilled mirror dewpoint sensor has made improved atmospheric relative humidity measurements accessible. Comparisons between the chilled mirror sensor and routine radiosonde sensors have provided new information on the limitation and reliability of the routine measurements. The chilled mirror has observed detailed moisture profiles at cirrus cloud levels when cirrus was not visible, a feature that routine sensors fail to observe. Comparison measurements between the chilled mirror, the carbon resistive (hygristor) and, the capacitive sensors will be discussed. Measurements from three locations (Wallops Island; Andros Island, Bahamas; and Camborne, UK) will be highlighted. It is conceivable that the chilled mirror sensor, when its capability is fully understood, may be sufficiently reliable to serve as a reference.

  16. 冷却肉微生物腐败与冷链系统%Chilled meat microbial spoilage and chill chain system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2012-01-01

    冷却肉极易发生微生物腐败,温度是最关键的影响因素。冷链系统持续的低温能抑制微生物的生长繁殖,预防冷却肉腐败。本文简述了微生物代谢活动对冷却肉腐败的影响,重点将冷链系统分为加工冷链、运输冷链、销售冷链和家庭保藏四部分,分别从概念及存在的问题等方面加以阐述,并展望了其未来有待提高完善的地方。%Chilled meat highly prone to microbial spoilage,temperature seems to be the most important factor that influences the spoilage.Sustained low-temperature of chill chain can inhibit microbial growth and prevent chilled meat spoilage.The effect of microbial metabolism on chilled meat spoilage was briefly introduced.Attention was drawn to the chill chain system which divided into four parts of processing, transportation, retail and domestic storage,and separately discussed the concept and issues of each part. The advance of chilled meat were prosoected as well.

  17. Analysis of survival, gene expression and behavior following chill-coma in the medfly Ceratitis capitata: effects of population heterogeneity and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The medfly Ceratitis capitata is an agricultural pest distributed worldwide thanks, in part, to its phenotypic plasticity of thermal tolerance. Cold exposure has been shown to reduce C. capitata survival, which may affect its distribution in areas with subfreezing temperatures. When insects are increasingly cooled, they attain a critical thermal threshold and enter a chill-coma state characterized by cessation of movement. It is not clear how a rapid cold exposure affects the physiological state of medflies, and how this is influenced by age and population heterogeneity. In order to approach these questions, C. capitata single-sex laboratory populations of 15 and 30 days old were subjected to a chill-coma recovery assay, and separated according to their recovery time in three subgroups: Fast-Subgroups, Intermediate-Subgroups, and Slow-Subgroups. Thereafter, we analyzed their survival, behavioral, and gene expression outputs. In female and old male populations, we found that flies with the slowest recovery time had a reduced life expectancy, a higher initial mortality rate, and a worse climbing performance compared with flies that recovered faster. Therefore, we were able to separate subgroups that developed chilling-injury from subgroups that had a reversible full recovery after cold exposure. The gene expression analysis of the heat shock protein genes hsp70 and hsp83 showed no clear association with the parameters studied. Interestingly, thorax expression levels of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene were elevated during the recovery phase in the Fast-Subgroups, but remained constant in the Slow-Subgroups that developed chilling-injury. On the other hand, none of the young male subgroups seemed to have suffered irreversible damage. Thus, we concluded that depending on age and population heterogeneity, chill-coma recovery time points out significant differences on individual cold tolerance. Moreover, the inability to properly induce the antioxidant defense system

  18. Energetic optimization of the chilled water systems operation at hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reineris Montero Laurencio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hotel exploitation, while continuing to satisfy the customers, needs to decrease the requests of electric power as the principal energy carrier. Solving issues regarding the occupation of a hotel integrally, taking the air conditioning as center of attention, which demands the bigger consumptions of electricity, results in a complex task. To solve this issue, a procedure was implemented to optimize the operation of the water-chilled systems. The procedure integrates an energy model with a strategy of low occupation following energetic criteria based on combinatorial-evolutionary criteria. To classify the information, the formulation of the tasks and the synthesis of the solutions, a methodology of analysis and synthesis of engineering is used. The energetic model considers the variability of the local climatology and the occupation of the selected rooms, and includes: the thermal model of the building obtained by means of artificial neural networks, the hydraulic model and the model of the compression work. These elements allow to find the variable of decision occupation, performing intermediate calculations to obtain the velocity of rotation in the centrifugal pump and the output temperature of the cooler water, minimizing the requirements of electric power in the water-chilled systems. To evaluate the states of the system, a combinatorial optimization is used through the following methods: simple exhaustive, stepped exhaustive or genetic algorithm depending on the quantity of variants of occupation. All calculation tasks and algorithms of the procedure were automated through a computer application.

  19. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sumpf

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG, predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion.The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection.These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values. The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder.

  20. Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpf, Maria; Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG), predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion. Methodology/Principal Findings The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection. Conclusions/Significance These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values). The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder. PMID:26083383

  1. Phytic acid mobilization is an early response to chilling of the embryonic axes from dormant oilseed of hazel (Corylus avellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Smith, Susan B; Ross, James D

    2005-02-01

    Dormancy of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) seeds is alleviated by a chilling treatment during which cytological, hormonal, and biochemical changes occur. Phytic acid and phosphate mobilization have been examined during this treatment. Phytic acid accounted for 0.7% and up to 3.2% of dry weight in axiferous and cotyledonary tissue, respectively. Phytic acid levels in embryonic axes were reduced by 60% within the first 3 weeks of chilling, with little subsequent change, in contrast to warm-imbibed tissue where levels did not change significantly. In cotyledons, phytic acid was mobilized to a lesser extent. Phosphate levels expressed on a fresh weight basis remained almost unaltered suggesting either the operation of a homeostatic mechanism for intracellular concentration or rapid utilization due to active metabolism. Phytase activity increased during stratification in both axiferous and cotyledonary tissue. The initial rise observed was associated with dormancy alleviation, since it occurred before the realization of full germination potential by the seeds and not in warm-imbibed tissue. Protein bodies were isolated from hazel seeds by non-aqueous density gradients. Phytase activity was closely associated with the purified organelles, where phytic acid was located by light microscopy. Overall, these findings suggest that phytic acid mobilization by phytase and previously described processes associated with protein bodies, such as considerable proteolysis, are early participants in the plethora of events leading to seed dormancy relief and germination in hazel.

  2. Music chills: The eye pupil as a mirror to music's soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeng, Bruno; Eidet, Lise Mette; Sulutvedt, Unni; Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated whether music-induced aesthetic "chill" responses, which typically correspond to peak emotional experiences, can be objectively monitored by degree of pupillary dilation. Participants listened to self-chosen songs versus control songs chosen by other participants. The experiment included an active condition where participants made key presses to indicate when experiencing chills and a passive condition (without key presses). Chills were reported more frequently for self-selected songs than control songs. Pupil diameter was concurrently measured by an eye-tracker while participants listened to each of the songs. Pupil size was larger within specific time-windows around the chill events, as monitored by key responses, than in comparison to pupil size observed during 'passive' song listening. In addition, there was a clear relationship between pupil diameter within the chills-related time-windows during both active and passive conditions, thus ruling out the possibility that chills-related pupil dilations were an artifact of making a manual response. These findings strongly suggest that music chills can be visible in the moment-to-moment changes in the size of pupillary responses and that a neuromodulatory role of the central norepinephrine system is thereby implicated in this phenomenon.

  3. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response. PMID:28387335

  4. Effects of Short-Term Chilling Stress on the Photosystems and Chloroplast Ultrastructure in Sweet Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-guo; BI Yu-ping; ZHAO Shi-jie; MENG Qing-wei; HE Qi-wei; ZOU Qi

    2005-01-01

    By measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, composition of fatty acids, active oxygen species and activities of some antioxidant enzymes, effects of chilling stress (4℃) in the low light (100 μmol m-2 s-1) on chilling-sensitive plants were studied. After 6 h chilling stress (4℃) in the low light, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm) of sweet pepper leaves decreased by 35.6%, and the oxidizable P700 decreased by 60%. However, chilling stress in the dark had no effect on both of them. Unsaturation of fatty acids in thylakoid membrane was accelerated, which might be helpful to stabilize photosynthetic apparatus. Distortion and swelling of grana caused by chilling in the dark probably decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, which resulted in the accumulation of active oxygen species. On the contrary,photooxidation might be related to the disintegration and unstacking of grana. Chilling stress induced photoinhibition of PSⅡ and PSⅠ, and active oxygen species might be one of the factors causing the decrease of the oxidizable P700. PSⅠseemed to be more sensitive to chilling stress in the low light than PSⅡ.

  5. Reduction of Chilling Injury and Ultrastructural Damage in Cherry Tomato Fruits After Hot Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; FU Mao-run; ZHAO Yu-ying; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hot water treatment in alleviating chilling injury and reducing ultrastructural damage of mature-green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. cerasiform Alef) were investigated. Mature-green cherry tomato fruits were treated in water at 40℃ or 45℃ for 5 rain or 15 rain, and then stored at 5℃ for 19 days followed by ripening at 20℃. Water treatment at 40℃ for 15 rain increased tolerance of cherry tomato fruits to chilling stress, indicating as low outbreak of skin lesion, high color a* value, and low electrolyte leakage. Treated fi'uits showed typical climacteric respiration and developed normal red color with chlorophyll degradation and lyeopene accumulation during ripening, while fruits without treatment failed to develop red color and suffered skin lesion. After 19 days of chilling, heated fruits showed the conversion of chloroplast to ehromoplast with the disappearance of thylakoids. Mitochondria and other cell organelles were not adversely affected in treated fruits. However, ultrastruetures in periearp cells in control fruits severely damaged with extensive disorganization of cytoplasm, swelled chloroplasts, distorted and unstacked thylakoids. Chloroplast was the first and most severely impacted organelle by chilling stress. Hot water treatment (40℃ for 15 min) before storage alleviated chilling injury in cherry tomato fruits. The results suggest that chilling injury is related with the damage of cell structure under chilling stress.

  6. Insights into the Molecular Events That Regulate Heat-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Citrus Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, María T.; Establés-Ortíz, Beatriz; González-Candelas, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI), which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented. A transcriptomic analysis reveals that heat-conditioning has an important impact favoring the repression of genes in cold-stored fruit, and that long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance is an active process that requires activation of transcription factors involved in transcription initiation and of the WRKY family. The analysis also shows that chilling favors degradation processes, which affect lipids and proteins, and that the protective effect of the heat-conditioning treatment is more likely to be related to the repression of the genes involved in lipid degradation than to the modification of fatty acids unsaturation, which affects membrane permeability. Another major factor associated with the beneficial effect of the heat treatment on reducing CI is the regulation of stress-related proteins. Many of the genes that encoded such proteins are involved in secondary metabolism and in oxidative stress-related processes. PMID:28694818

  7. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of seed priming-induced chilling tolerance in rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam eHussain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18˚C and normal temperatures (28˚C in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress.

  8. Seed priming improves chilling tolerance in chickpea by modulating germination metabolism, trehalose accumulation and carbon assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Nawaz, Ahmad; Lee, Dong-Jin; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-02-01

    Chilling stress is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting chickpea productivity worldwide. This study evaluated the potential role of seed priming in improving resistance to chilling stress in chickpea (cv. Punjab, 2008). The priming treatments involved soaking seeds of chickpea cultivar Punjab 2008 in either water for 8 h (on-farm priming), aerated water (hydropriming) for 18 h, or CaCl2 solution (ψs -1.25 MPa; osmopriming) for 18 h. Primed and untreated seeds were grown either at 18/15 °C (control) or 13/10 °C (chilling stress). Chilling stress suppressed the growth of chickpea while seed priming mitigated the adverse effects of chilling stress by improving stand establishment, growth, water relations, photosynthesis, α-amylase activity, sugar metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, membrane stability, and leaf accumulation of proline, nitrogen, potassium and soluble phenolics. Seed priming also improved the performance of chickpea under optimal (control) conditions. The overall order of improvement in resistance to chilling by using seed priming was osmopriming > hydropriming > on-farm priming. Osmopriming improved seedling dry weight, specific leaf area, leaf CO2 net assimilation rate, maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII, α-amylase activity, trehalose content and leaf relative water content by 10, 22, 17, 20, 73, 48 and 7%, respectively, relative to the non-primed control under chilling stress. Under optimal temperature conditions, the corresponding values were 30, 32, 16, 10, 83, 75 and 5%, respectively. Sugar metabolism, especially trehalose content, was strongly linked with stand establishment, photosynthesis, antioxidant potential (under chilling stress) and plant biomass. Overall, seed priming improved chickpea performance under both optimal temperature conditions and chilling stress through better germination metabolism and the accumulation of trehalose, which protected from oxidative damage and helped to maintain carbon

  9. Human response to individually controlled micro environment generated with localized chilled beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Simon C.; Nygaard, Linette; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2014-01-01

    Indoor environment in a single-office room created by a localised chilled beam with individual control of the primary air flow was studied. Response of 24 human subjects when exposed to the environment generated by the chilled beam was collected via questionnaires under a 2-hour exposure including...... and local thermal sensation reported by the subjects with the two systems. Both systems were equally acceptable. At 26°C the individual control of the localised chilled beam lead to higher acceptability of the work environment. At 28°C the acceptability decreased with the two systems. It was not acceptable...

  10. Prediction of Pressure Drop in Chilled Water Piping System Using Theoretical and CFD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish P. Patil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, three dimensional models of chilled water piping system is created using design modeler of Ansys-13. Ansys-13 fluent is used to analyses flow through chilled water pipe for pressure drop prediction. Karman-Prandtl equation is used for defining velocity profile of turbulent flow with the help of user defined function. Result obtained from CFD analysis is compared with results of 3K, 2K, ISHARE and Carrier equivalent length methods. Statistical analysis of performance based relative error has been carried out and based on that optimum analytical method for pressure drop prediction in chilled water piping is suggested.

  11. Life cycle engineering of a system to deliver self-chilled beverages.

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    The chill-on-demand system is a technology designed to provide cooled products on demand, thereby avoiding any requirement for chilled storage. It uses the cooling effect provided by the endothermic desorption of carbon dioxide previously adsorbed onto a bed of activated carbon contained in an inner component of the self-chilling product. This has the potential to be applied to any type of product that needs to be cold at the point of consumption. The principles of life cycle engineering have...

  12. Respiratory Response of Dormant Nectarine Floral Buds on Chilling Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yue; GAO Dong-sheng; LI Ling; CHEN Xiu-de; XU Ai-hong

    2010-01-01

    Changes in main biochemical respiratory pathways in dormant nectarine floral buds were studied with nectarine trees (Prunus persica.var,nectariana cv.Shuguang) in order to determine the function of respiration in dormancy release.Oxygen-electrode system and respiratory inhibitors were used to measure total respiratory rates and rates of respiratory pathways.Results showed that chilling deficiency blocked the transition of respiratory mode,and made buds stay in a state of high level pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and low level tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA).The decline of PPP and activation of TCA occurred synchronously with the release of dormancy.In addition,the inhibition of PPP stimulated a respiration increase related with TCA.It could be concluded that the function of PPP activation in dormancy release might be limited and PPP declination inducing TCA activation might be part of respiration mode transition mechanism during bud sprouting.

  13. Development of the aerobic spoilage flora of chilled rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, José M; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés

    2005-06-01

    Even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is over 1,000,000ton, little information is available on rabbit meat microbiology. This paper reports on the microflora developing on chill-stored rabbit carcasses. Four different lots of 24h post-mortem rabbit carcasses dressed and kept at 0°C in a medium-size abattoir were collected and evaluated for sensory, physicochemical and microbiological changes during aerobic storage at 3±1°C. Mean initial pH value (pH(24)), extract-release volume (ERV) and lactate content of Biceps femoris muscle, were 6.26±0.20, 13.50±3.50ml and 0.70±0.07%, respectively. As with other muscle foods kept chilled in air, pH increased and ERV and lactate decreased as storage progressed. Initial levels (logcfu/g) of aerobes (APC), psychrotrophic flora, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were 4.76±0.31, 4.81±0.81, 3.39±1.12, 2.01±0.92, 2.76±0.51, 0.49±0.45 and 3.46±0.32, respectively. Pseudomonads, most of them fluorescent, and to a lesser extent B. thermosphacta and yeasts grew faster than the remaining microorganisms and became predominant at the end of the shelf life. Carcasses spoiled when mean APC, psychrotrophic and pseudomonads numbers were ca. 8logcfu/g, their mean shelf life being estimated at 6.8 days. A lot of DFD-like rabbit carcasses, with higher pH and lower ERV values but similar microbial loads to normal meat, developed a strong putrid odour after 4 days.

  14. The influence of controlled atmosphere and vacuum packaging upon chilled pork keeping quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, L E; Gibson, L L; Argnosa, G C

    1995-01-01

    A total of 48 pork loin section (1 kg) with normal inherent muscle quality were utilized to evaluate and compare the effects of a vacuum packaging system and a CO(2) controlled atmosphere packaging system on keeping quality of chilled pork stored at -1·5°C. Results indicated based upon appearance CO(2) packaged porl loin had a storage life of greated than 15 weeks and vacuum packaged pork loid had a storage life of slightly over 12 weeks. However, off-flavor development coinciding with lactic acid bacteria reaching maximum numbers presently restricts the actual storage life of pork loin stored at -1·5°C to 9 weeks in both packaging treatments. Therefore, if microbial contamination on the commercial product can be reduced significantly to prevent spoilage organisms, including lactics, from rapidly growing to maximum numbers, storage life of pork loin at -1·5°C can be extended sufficiently to accomodate all domestic and export applications using either vacuum or CO(2) packaging.

  15. GENERAL ALGORITHMIC SCHEMA OF THE PROCESS OF THE CHILL AUXILIARIES PROJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The general algorithmic diagram of systematization of the existing approaches to the process of projection is offered and the foundation of computer system of the chill mold arming construction is laid.

  16. Effect of Lanthanun on micructure and properties of a chilled iron camshaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Binfeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation can reduce the chill depth of a chilled iron, and therefore influence the microstructure and properties of the iron. In this paper, the effect of rare earth Lanthanun (La on the microstructure and properties of a chilled iron camshaft was studied. The results show that the La addition efficiently enhances the mechanical properties, yet with the unfavorable effect of decreasing the chilled depth and hardness. Moreover, La promotes graphite concentration and results in large graphite size, as well as A-type graphite. It is also found that excessive La destroys the interconnection and directivity of ledeburite. According to the experimental results, the optimum adding content of La should be no more than 0.02wt.%.

  17. Methyl jasmonate reduces chilling injury and maintains postharvest quality of mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aguilar, G A; Fortiz, J; Cruz, R; Baez, R; Wang, C Y

    2000-02-01

    Exposure of mango (Mangifera indica cv. Tommy Atkins) fruit to methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors (10(-)(4) M) for 24 h at 25 degrees C reduced chilling injury during subsequent storage for 21 days at 7 degrees C and after 5 days of shelf life at 20 degrees C. The chilling tolerance induced by MJ was positively correlated with the reduction in the percent ion leakage of mango tissue. The overall quality of MJ-treated fruit was also better than that of control fruit. MJ treatment increased the total soluble solids but did not affect titratable acidity or pH. MJ also did not change the normal climacteric rise in respiration, water loss, and softening rates. The efficacy of MJ to reduce chilling injury and decay of mango could be related to the tolerance induced at low temperature. It was concluded that MJ treatment may prevent chilling injury symptoms of mango without altering the ripening process.

  18. Determination of Chilling and Heat Requirement of Four Apricot Cultivars of Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohreh hoshyar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Dormancy is one of the most important stages in the life cycle of temperate plants and plants are required to exit from it with supply of chill unit. Flowering is defined with chilling and heat requirement. Owing to low chilling requirement, blooming happens too early and cold temperatures produce an important loss of yield by frost. In temperate fruits, awareness of the need buds to avoid winter frost is one of the main objectives in breeding programs. Studies concerning chilling and heat requirements are thus of special interest in these species, being very important for the choice of parents in breeding programs to create superior varieties of winter and spring frost (late flowering and resistant cold provide. Utah is one of the most important model was introduced in 1974 by Richardson and colleagues. Effective temperature on cold storage in Utah model is 1/9-5/2. This is 6/1-9/12 in North Carolina and 8/1-9/13 in low chilling. Temperatures above 16 have negative effect on accumulation in Utah model. Later models were developed according to the Utah model that the Low chilling requirement (18 and the North Carolina (31 models are among them. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. is belonging to warm temperate regions and due to the lack of compatibility and apricot spring frost in Khorasan Razavi province, the identification of varieties and genotypes with high compatibility and high thermal and cooling requirements to reduce the risk of early frost and increase production efficiency, seems important. The purpose of this study was to determine the need for chilling and heat requirement in apricot cultivars. Material and methods: In this research, chilling and heating requirements of four local cultivars of apricot were evaluated under field and laboratory conditions. This experiment was conducted at agricultural research station Golmakan. A factorial (two-factor experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with tree

  19. Neutrino oscillation provides clues to dark matter and signals from the chilled universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The new verification that oscillations exists and neutrinos have mass though not detectible easy provides the first clue to extra dimensions, dark matter, hyperspace and chilled universe acting as a platform below it. (1/2 page)

  20. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research.

  1. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.

  2. Effect of LaCI3 on the chilling tolerance of rice seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIMeiru; LIUHongxian; WANGYirou

    1997-01-01

    The rice variety Tesanai 2 is susceptible to chilling. Exposure of the seedlings grown at 28±1℃ and under a photo flux density(PFD) of 30 μmol/m2s to 1℃ and under a PFD of 150μmol/m2s for 2 d caused a physiological disorder called chilling injury which reduced the survival rate to 50%.

  3. Optimization protocol for storage of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos in chilled state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaluei, F; Imanpoor, M R; Shabani, A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2014-04-01

    A series of five experiments were conducted to explore suitable conditions for storing of goldfish embryos in a chilled state. The factors studied were embryo stage, storage temperature, physiological saline solutions and goldfish artificial coelomic fluid (GFACF) medium, antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C), buffer (Hepes, Tris) and BSA (bovine serum albumin). First, goldfish embryos at eight developmental stages were incubated in aerated and dechlorinated tap water at 0 °C for 24 h. Result shows that early developmental stages were most sensitive to chilling. Heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos were chilled at 0, 4 or 8 °C for up to 72 h in water, and chilled storage was possible only for up to 18, 24 and 48 h at 0, 4 and 8 °C, respectively, without a decrease in viability. Chilling of goldfish embryos at 8 °C in GFACF medium and Dettlaff's solution instead of water and other physiological saline solutions prolonged their viability (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, viability of chilled embryos in GFACF medium was slightly, but non-significantly, higher than in Dettlaff's solution. Supplementation of the GFACF medium with antibiotics, Hepes or BSA increased the viability of chilled embryos, but the tested vitamin E analogue Trolox, vitamin C or Tris concentration had no effect on embryo viability. The outcome of this series of experiments shows that heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos could be chilled for 60 h in GFACF supplemented with 25 mm Hepes, 100 U/ml penicillin, 10 μg/l streptomycin and 1 g/l BSA in such a way that embryonic development does not proceed, and viability is not lost.

  4. Feeding impairs chill coma recovery in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Findsen, Anders; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    Low temperature causes loss of neuromuscular function in a wide range of insects, such that the animals enter a state known as chill coma. The ability to recover from chill coma (chill coma recovery time) is often a popular phenotype to characterise chill tolerance in insects. Chill coma in insects has been shown to be associated with a decrease in haemolymph volume and a marked increase in [K(+)], causing dissipation of K(+) equilibrium potential and resting membrane potential. High potassium diet (wheat) has also previously been shown to increase haemolymph [K(+)] in Locusta migratoria leading to sluggish behaviour. The present study combined these two independent stressors of ion and water homeostasis, in order to investigate the role of K(+)- and water-balance during recovery from chill coma, in the chill sensitive insect L. migratoria. We confirmed that cold shock elicits a fast increase in haemolymph [K(+)] which is likely caused by a water shift from the haemolymph to the muscles and other tissues. Recovery of haemolymph [K(+)] is however not only reliant on recovery of haemolymph volume, as the recovery of water and K(+) is decoupled. Chill coma recovery time, after 2h at -4 °C, differed significantly between fasted animals and those fed on high K(+) diet. This difference was not associated with an increased disturbance of haemolymph [K(+)] in the fed animals, instead it was associated with a slowed recovery of muscle [K(+)], muslce water, haemolymph [Na(+)] and K(+)equilibrium potential in the fed animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chill-coma recovery time, age and sex determine lipid profiles in Ceratitis capitata tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Fagali, Natalia Soledad; Rabossi, Alejandro; Catalá, Ángel; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The remodeling of membrane composition by changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acids (FA) degree of unsaturation has been associated with the maintenance of membrane homeostasis under stress conditions. Overall lipid levels and the composition of cuticle lipids also influence insect stress resistance and tissue protection. In a previous study, we demonstrated differences in survival, behavior and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene expression between subgroups of Ceratitis capitata flies that had a reversible recovery from chill-coma and those that developed chilling-injury. Here, we analyzed lipid profiles from comparable subgroups of 15 and 30-day-old flies separated according to their recovery time after a chill-coma treatment. Neutral and polar lipid classes of chill-coma subgroups were separated by thin layer chromatography and quantified by densitometry. FA composition of polar lipids of chill-coma subgroups and non-stressed flies was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Higher amounts of neutral lipids such as triglycerides, diacylglycerol, wax esters, sterol esters and free esters were found in male flies that recovered faster from chill-coma compared to slower flies. A multivariate analysis revealed changes in patterns of storage and cuticle lipids among subgroups both in males and females. FA unsaturation increased after cold exposure, and was higher in thorax of slower subgroups compared to faster subgroups. The changes in neutral lipid patterns and FA composition depended on recovery time, sex, age and body-part, and were not specifically associated with the development of chilling-injury. An analysis of phospholipid classes showed that the phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine ratio (PC/LPC) was significantly higher, or showed a tendency, in subgroups that may have developed chilling-injury compared to those with a reversible recovery from coma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Life cycle engineering of production, use and recovery of self-chilling beverage cans

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, N; P Sinclair; Lee., J; Clift, R.

    2016-01-01

    The chill-on-demand system is a new technology designed to provide cooled products on demand, thereby avoiding chilled storage. It uses the cooling effect provided by endothermic desorption of carbon dioxide previously adsorbed onto a bed of activated carbon and has the potential to be applied to any type of product that needs to be cold at the point of consumption. The principles of life cycle engineering have been utilized to evaluate the overall environmental performance of one possible ap...

  7. The effect of lethal doses of X-rays on chilled and thyroidectomized animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, L.H.; Trujillo, T.T.; Knowlton, N.P. Jr.

    1949-04-19

    The chilling of animals has been shown to offer some protection from the lethal effects of radiation. An effort has been made to extend the study of the effects of chilling on the lethal effects of x radiation and to determine whether or not the lowering of the basal metabolic rate by thyroidectomy will give similar protection. Five experiments were carried out using mice and rats as the experimental animals.

  8. Conventional food preparation, cook and chill and sous-vide as optional methods for institutional kitchens. Perinteinen ruoanvalmistus, cook and chill ja sous-vide toimintavaihtoehdot suurkeittioessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeivaerinta, T., Reisbacka, A., Salminen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to clarify the situation concerning the energy consumption, economics and the appropriateness of the three options when applied in institutional households. The options included in the study were conventional (preparation-cooking-serving), cook and chill and sous-vide (vacuum cooking-chilling). A further aim was to compare industrially produced products to self-made products. Each option was studied in connection with several devices embodying latest technology. The overall price for a portion was found to be cheapest when using the conventional preparation method. The cook and chill method was only slightly more expensive. The result of this study also support the understanding that when appropriately planned, cook and chill and sous-vide food preparation options make possible the rationalisation of kitchen work. The appropriateness of different food preparation methods depends on the versatility of the functions and programmes built into cooking devices. A combination oven is appropriate and conserves energy when cooking or heating up large quantities. Significant waste of water (126-146 1/h) is possible because of the structural solutions and modes of use of such an oven. A microwave oven saves energy when used to heat up ready-made portions. The amount of energy consumed by an air-cooled chilling cabinet in the cooling of food makes it more economical to use than a water-cooled model. The amount of electricity consumed by a refrigerator or an equivalent cold storage is 5-14 times less than that consumed by chilling devices

  9. Deteksi Chilling Injury pada Buah Mangga Gedong Gincu dengan Menggunakan Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wulandari Zainal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chilling Injury is a major problem in storing mango fruit in low temperature wich is unavoidable in order to extend the shelf life of fruit. symptoms of chilling injury during storage associated with the change in pH due to ion leakage. Chilling injury can be detected during storage destructively, but it will require time and a lot of samples. Alternatively, the detection can be performed non-destructively by using near infrared (NIR. The purpose of this research is to build the NIR calibration models for predicting ion leakage relating with change in pH and the detection of chilling injury symptoms can be done through ion leakage storage. Reflectant NIR measurements conducted on mango fruit stored at a temperature of 8 ° C and 13 ° C. Determination of chilling injury symptoms was predicted based on change in pH and the rate of ion leakage. The analysis showed that NIR spectroscopy was able to predict the change in pH during storage of mango fruit at a temperature of 8 °C based on reflectance and PLS method. Moreover ion leakage could also be predicted properly through the pH of the NIR predictions. The developed method could detect the chilling injury on mangoes after three days storage at a temperature of 8 °C.

  10. Performance evaluation and analysis of a novel 300-mm combination bake-chill station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Arunn; Ramanan, Natarajan R.; Williams, Daniel J.

    2003-06-01

    DUV resists are extremely sensitive to temperature variations on the wafer during bake and chill cycles. In resist-processing tracks today, the wafer is moved by a robot or transfer arm, from the bake to chill plate. During this move, since the resist is still above the activation temperature, the wafer temperature is uncontrolled until it is placed on a chill plate. In the new station design presented here, the wafer is heated to the desired bake temperature and chilled back to room temperature before being moved by the robot, resulting in a tight temperature control of the wafer, throughout the process. Two models, axi-symmetric and three-dimensional (geometrically similar to the new station), are generated for analyzing the thermal performance of the above station. The numerical simulations, solving the momentum and energy equations in the computational domain, are performed using the commercial CFD software Fluent. The simulated temporal evolution of temperature from the beginning to the end of the bake-chill process is verified with the experimental data as measured by a 42-point OnWafer temperature sensor wafer on the new station. Methods to improve wafer surface temperature uniformity, in light of bake-chill-station mechanical and thermal design losses are discussed. Higher throughput of the cluster, a major productivity improvement contribution of this new design, is also highlighted.

  11. An overnight chill induces a delayed inhibition of photosynthesis at midday in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D J; Ratner, K; Giller, Y E; Gussakovsky, E E; Shahak, Y; Ort, D R

    2000-11-01

    The effect of a cold night on photosynthesis in herbaceous chilling-sensitive crops, like tomato, has been extensively studied and is well characterized. This investigation examined the behaviour of the sub-tropical fruit tree, mango, to enable comparison with these well-studied systems. Unlike tomato, chilling between 5 degrees C and 7 degrees C overnight produced no significant inhibition of light-saturated CO(2) assimilation (A:) during the first hours following rewarming, measured either under controlled environment conditions or in the field. By midday, however, there was a substantial decline in A:, which could not be attributed to photoinhibition of PSII, but rather was associated with an increase in stomatal limitation of A: and lower Rubisco activity. Overnight chilling of tomato can cause severe disruption in the circadian regulation of key photosynthetic enzymes and is considered to be a major factor underlying the dysfunction of photosynthesis in chilling-sensitive herbaceous plants. Examination of the gas exchange of mango leaves maintained under constant conditions for 2 d, demonstrated that large depressions in A: during the subjective night were primarily the result of stomatal closure. Chilling did not disrupt the ability of mango leaves to produce a circadian rhythm in stomatal conductance. Rather, the midday increase in stomatal limitation of A: appeared to be the result of altered guard cell sensitivity to CO(2) following the dark chill.

  12. A missense mutation in CHS1, a TIR-NB protein, induces chilling sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuancong; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-08-01

    Low temperature is an environmental factor that affects plant growth and development and plant-pathogen interactions. How temperature regulates plant defense responses is not well understood. In this study, we characterized chilling-sensitive mutant 1 (chs1), and functionally analyzed the role of the CHS1 gene in plant responses to chilling stress. The chs1 mutant displayed a chilling-sensitive phenotype, and also displayed defense-associated phenotypes, including extensive cell death, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid, and an increased expression of PR genes: these phenotypes indicated that the mutation in chs1 activates the defense responses under chilling stress. A map-based cloning analysis revealed that CHS1 encodes a TIR-NB-type protein. The chilling sensitivity of chs1 was fully rescued by pad4 and eds1, but not by ndr1. The overexpression of the TIR and NB domains can suppress the chs1-conferred phenotypes. Interestingly, the stability of the CHS1 protein was positively regulated by low temperatures independently of the 26S proteasome pathway. This study revealed the role of a TIR-NB-type gene in plant growth and cell death under chilling stress, and suggests that temperature modulates the stability of the TIR-NB protein in Arabidopsis.

  13. Impact of Methyl Jasmonate on Enhancing Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saydpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a warm season crop that suffers from chilling injury at temperatures below 10°C. In recent years, jasmonates have been used for reduction of chilling injuries in plants. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to test whether methyl jasmonate (MeJA application at various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mM through seed soaking or foliar spray would protect cucumber seedlings, subjected to chilling stress. Results showed that MeJA application decreased chilling index, ion leakage, malondialdehyde content and hydrogen peroxide free radical and increased growth parameters, proline contents, chlorophylls contents and antioxidant activity. Although, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method, the highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.15mM MeJA application in both application methods that caused low level of chilling index (1.67, malondialdehyde content (0.11 nm g-1 FW, hydrogen peroxide free radical (0.22 nm g-1 FW and ion leakage (32.87%. In general, it may be concluded that MeJA could be used effectively to protect cucumber seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  14. Differential Transcriptional Regulation in Roots of Tomato Near-Isogenic Lines in Response to Rapid-Onset Water Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Erin M.; Yan, Zhanghang; St.Clair, Dina A.

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is susceptible to abiotic stresses, including drought and chilling stress, while its wild relative (Solanum habrochaites) exhibits tolerance to many abiotic stresses. Chilling roots to 6°C induces rapid-onset water stress by impeding water movement from roots to shoots. Wild S. habrochaites responds to root chilling by closing stomata and maintaining shoot turgor, while cultivated tomato fails to close stomata and wilts. This phenotypic response (shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling) is controlled by a major QTL stm9 on chromosome 9 from S. habrochaites that was previously high-resolution mapped to a 0.32 cM region, but its effects on transcriptional regulation were unknown. Here we used paired near isogenic lines (NILs) differing only for the presence or absence of the S. habrochaites introgression containing stm9 in an otherwise S. lycopersicum background to investigate global transcriptional regulation in response to rapid-onset water stress induced by root chilling. NIL175 contains the S. habrochaites introgression and exhibits tolerance to root chilling stress, while NIL163 does not contain the introgression and is susceptible. RNA from roots of the two NILs was obtained at five time points during exposure to root chilling and mRNA-Seq performed. Differential expression analysis and hierarchical clustering of transcript levels were used to determine patterns of and changes in mRNA levels. Our results show that the transcriptional response of roots exposed to chilling stress is complex, with both overlapping and unique responses in tolerant and susceptible lines. In general, susceptible NIL 163 had a more complex transcriptional response to root chilling, while NIL175 exhibited a more targeted response to the imposed stress. Our evidence suggests that both the tolerant and susceptible NILs may be primed for response to root-chilling, with many of these response genes located on chromosome 9. Furthermore

  15. Use of methanol as cryoprotectant and its effect on sox genes and proteins in chilled zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kunjan; Spikings, Emma; Zhang, Tiantian

    2015-08-01

    Methanol is a widely used cryoprotectant (CPA) in cryopreservation of fish embryos, however little is known about its effect at the molecular level. This study investigated the effect of methanol on sox gene and protein expression in zebrafish embryos (50% epiboly) when they were chilled for 3 h and subsequently warmed and cultured to the hatching stages. Initial experiments were carried out to evaluate the chilling tolerance of 50% epiboly embryos which showed no significant differences in hatching rates for up to 6 h chilling in methanol (0.2-, 0.5- and 1 M). Subsequent experiments in embryos that had been chilled for 3 h in 1 M methanol and warmed and cultured up to the hatching stages found that sox2 and sox3 gene expression were increased significantly in hatched embryos that had been chilled compared to non-chilled controls. Sox19a gene expression also remained above control levels in the chilled embryos at all developmental stages tested. Whilst stable sox2 protein expression was observed between non-chilled controls and embryos chilled for 3 h with or without MeOH, a surge in sox19a protein expression was observed in embryos chilled for 3 h in the presence of 1 M MeOH compared to non-chilled controls and then returned to control levels by the hatching stage. The protective effect of MeOH was increased with increasing concentrations. Effect of methanol at molecular level during chilling was reported here first time which could add new parameter in selection of cryoprotectant while designing cryopreservation protocol.

  16. Why do insects enter and recover from chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Petersen, Asbjørn G

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to low temperatures, many insect species enter a reversible comatose state (chill coma), which is driven by a failure of neuromuscular function. Chill coma and chill coma recovery have been associated with a loss and recovery of ion-homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K+]) and a......When exposed to low temperatures, many insect species enter a reversible comatose state (chill coma), which is driven by a failure of neuromuscular function. Chill coma and chill coma recovery have been associated with a loss and recovery of ion-homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K...

  17. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Ten Chilling Tolerance Indices at the Germination and Seedling Stages in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Huang; Jianhua Zhang; Wenzhen Li; Wei Hu; Lichao Duan; Yang Feng; Fazhan Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Maize seedlings are very sensitive to chilling,especially during the transition phase from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth.Genetic dissection of the genetic basis of chilling tolerance would provide useful information for genetic improvement of maize inbreds.In this study,genome-wide association analysis was conducted to explore the genetic architecture of maize chilling tolerance at the seed germination and seedling stages with an association panel of 125 inbreds.Ten tolerance indices (ratios of the performance of 10 germination rates and seedling growth-related traits under chilling stress and control conditions)were investigated to assess the ability of chilling tolerance of the inbreds,and a total of 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with chilling tolerance were detected,with none of them being related to chilling tolerance at both the germination and seedling stages simultaneously.Correlation analysis also revealed that the genetic basis of chilling tolerance at the seed germination stage is generally different from that at the seedling stage.In addition,a total of 40 candidate genes involving 31 of the 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms were predicted,and were grouped into five categories according to their functions.The possible roles of these candidate genes in chilling tolerance were also discussed.

  18. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures, and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance.

  19. Start of the big chill for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The cooling of Sector 7-8 of the LHC, the first to undergo the process, is under way to the 1.9 K necessary for superconductivity. During the night of 14 to 15 March, an important milestone was reached when the entire sector was cooled to 4.5 K, the temperature of liquid helium. The two graphs above show the progression of cooling in Sector 7-8. The first gives the status of the sector on Tuesday 6 March at 4:00 pm, the second on Wednesday 7 March at 10:00 am. Each square represents a magnet.It's the start of the big chill for the LHC. Since the middle of January, the teams from the Accelerator Cryogenics group have been working to cool down the first sector of the machine. Three kilometres of magnets between Point 7 (Ferney-Voltaire) and Point 8 (Prévessin) are to be cooled to 1.9 Kelvin (-271°C), colder than outer space. The first step in the process was to cool the sector to 80 K. Following mechanical and electrical integrity tests at this temperature, it was then further cooled to 20 K for additional e...

  20. Film with anthocyanins as an indicator of chilled pork deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Baptista Golasz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An indicator can be defined as a substance which indicates the presence or absence of another substance or the degree of a certain reaction through characteristic changes, especially color. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a bio-based film with anthocyanin as an indicator of chilled pork deterioration. A film made of cassava starch, glycerol, and grape anthocyanins was prepared using the casting technique. Pork loin samples were put in Petri dishes containing an anthocyanin film on the bottom and stored at 4 ºC. Psychrotrophic microorganism count and the pH of the pork loin samples were analyzed for a 14 day- period. At the same time, the films were subjected to colorimetric analysis using D65 illuminant and the CIELAB system. Chroma and hue angle data for these films were evaluated by Anova and Dunnett's test. An increase in the microbial population and in the pH was observed over the storage period as result of pork deterioration. Color changes were also identified in the film. However, only at the beginning of the storage period was it possible to establish a correlation between film color and pork deterioration. The shelf life end-point could not be clearly detected by the film.

  1. Running Club Warm Up Staves Off Winter's Chill

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Not deterred by winter's chill, over 900 runners met at the CERN Prévesin site for Escalade training. Think the sudden cold snap is a reason to stay indoors? Think again! The CERN running club has just recently had the honour of holding the November 11th Escalade training session, and with over 900 runners present at the Prévessin site it was clear that the chilly temperatures were no barrier whatsoever. The story behind Escalade training starts back in 1977 when a group of running enthusiasts from the Stade Genève club decided to organize a running race in the Old Town in conjunction with the Escalade festivities. They were told that no normal people would think of organizing a running race in the month of December, but fortunately they ignored the advice! From the initial 50 or so runners, these Escalade races have grown into an institution and now attract upwards of 15,000 people of all ages from 5 to over 80 each year. And with over 30% of each year's runners participat...

  2. Chilled disks in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Roberto; Kuncic, Zdenka; Gonçalves, Anabela C.

    2007-04-01

    The "soft-excess" component fitted to the X-ray spectra of many ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) remains a controversial finding, which may reveal fundamental information either on the black hole (BH) mass or on the state of the accretion flow. In the simplest model, it was explained as thermal emission from a cool accretion disk around an intermediate-mass BH (about 1000 solar masses). We argue that this scenario is highly implausible, and discuss and compare the two most likely alternatives. 1) The soft-excess does come from a cool disk; however, the temperature is low not because of a high BH mass but because most of the accretion power is drained from the inner disk via magnetic torques, and channelled into jets and outflows ("chilled disk" scenario). Using a phenomenological model, we infer that ULXs contain BHs of about 50 solar masses accreting gas at about 10 times their Eddington rate. 2) The soft excess is in fact a soft deficit, if the power-law continuum is properly fitted. Such broad absorption features are caused by smeared absorption lines in fast, highly ionized outflows. This scenario has already been successfully applied to the soft excess in AGN. If so, this spectral feature reveals details of disk outflows,but is unrelated to the BH mass.

  3. Changes in visual quality, physiological and biochemical parameters assessed during the postharvest storage at chilling or non-chilling temperatures of three sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; Cozzolino, Rosaria; De Giulio, Beatrice; Cozzolino, Autilia; d'Acierno, Antonio; Coppola, Raffaele; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2017-08-15

    Leaves of three different sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars (Italico a foglia larga, Cammeo, and Italiano classico) packed in macro-perforated polyethylene bags were stored at chilling (4°C) or non-chilling temperature (12°C) for 9days. During storage, visual quality, physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production, ammonium content) and chemical (antioxidant activity, total polyphenols and polyphenol profile) parameters were measured. Detached leaves stored at chilling temperature showed visual symptoms related to chilling injury, while ethylene production and ammonium content resulted associated to cultivar sensibility to damage at low temperature. Storage at 4°C caused a depletion in polyphenols content and antioxidant capability, which was preserved at 12°C. Regarding the polyphenols profile, stressful storage conditions did not enhance the phenolic metabolism. However, leaves stored at 12°C did not loss a significant amount of metabolites respect to fresh leaves, suggesting the possibility to extend the storability after the expiration date, for a possible recovery of bioactive compounds.

  4. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage.

  5. Prospective comparison of chilled versus room temperature saline irrigation in alcohol-assisted photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuffer, M C; Khalifa, Y M; Moshirfar, M; Miffin, M D

    2013-01-01

    Chilled saline is commonly used to irrigate the ocular surface after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and is often considered by the patients to be uncomfortable. Room temperature (non-chilled) saline may be a safe and less painful alternative. To compare pain and visual outcomes after irrigating the ocular surface with chilled saline versus room temperature saline in alcohol assisted PRK. In this prospective, single-masked, randomized, contralateral eye study, myopic eyes were treated with PRK. Immediately after laser ablation one eye was irrigated with chilled saline and the other with non-chilled saline. Primary outcomes measured were pain, haze, uncorrected (UCVA) and best-corrected (BCVA) visual acuities, and manifest refraction. Each group comprised of 40 eyes. There was no significant difference in pain between the groups at any point during five days after surgery. At 6 months the mean UCVA was -0.08 logMAR ± .077 [SD] (20/17) and -0.07 ± .074 logMAR (20/17) in the chilled and non-chilled groups respectively (p =.35). Both groups achieved 95% UCVA of 20/20 or better. The manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) was -0.05 ± 0.21 D and -0.025 ± 0.27 D respectively (p = .79). There were no lines lost of BCVA and no haze observed. Similar outcomes were observed with regard to pain and vision in both groups. The use of room temperature saline irrigation during PRK appears to be safe and effective. © NEPjOPH.

  6. A major QTL introgressed from wild Lycopersicon hirsutum confers chilling tolerance to cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Goodstal, F; Kohler, Glenn R; Randall, Leslie B; Bloom, Arnold J; St Clair, Dina A

    2005-09-01

    Many plants of tropical or subtropical origin, such as tomato, suffer damage under chilling temperatures (under 10 degrees C but above 0 degrees C). An earlier study identified several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for shoot turgor maintenance (stm) under root chilling in an interspecific backcross population derived from crossing chilling-susceptible cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and chilling-tolerant wild L. hirsutum. The QTL with the greatest phenotypic effect on stm was located in a 28 cM region on chromosome 9 (designated stm 9), and enhanced chilling-tolerance was conferred by the presence of the Lycopersicon hirsutum allele at this QTL. Here, near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used to verify the effect of stm 9, and recombinant sub-NILs were used to fine map its position. Replicated experiments were performed with NILs and sub-NILs in a refrigerated hydroponic tank in the greenhouse. Sub-NIL data was analyzed using least square means separations, marker-genotype mean t-tests, and composite interval mapping. A dominant QTL controlling shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling was confirmed on chromosome 9 using both NILs and sub-NILs. Furthermore, sub-NILs permitted localization of stm 9 to a 2.7 cM interval within the original 28 cM QTL region. If the presence of the L. hirsutum allele at stm 9 also confers chilling-tolerance in L. esculentum plants grown under field conditions, it has the potential to expand the geographic areas in which cultivated tomato can be grown for commercial production.

  7. Rapid donor liver procurement with only aortic perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Yuan Lin; KK Chui; AR-Nitin Rao

    2001-01-01

    ATM: to describe a rapid technique for procurement of donor liver with aortic perfusion only (APO). METHODS: Only the aorta is cannulated and perfused with chilled preservation solution. RESULTS: The quality of donor liver can ensure the grafted liver functions. CONCLUSION: The method of APO can simplify the operative procedure, compared with the dual cannulation. It also can minimize the danger of injuring vascular structures and involve less dissection.

  8. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  9. Determination of Chilling and Heat Requirements of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Rahemi; Zahra Pakkish

    2009-01-01

    Determination of chilling and heat requirements of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars is important for satisfactory growth and development, particularly when large-scale commercial production is desired. This experiment was conducted to determine chilling requirement inducing vegetative and flower buds of Kalle-Ghuchi, Owhadi, Ahmad-Ahgaei, and Akbari pistachio. Shoots with enough vegetative and flower buds were taken from pistachio trees during autumn 2007 and 2008 when temperature reached to≤15℃. Cuttings with flower buds were kept under (5±1)℃ for 0, 600, 650, 700, 750, 800, 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050, 1100, 1150, 1200, 1250, and 1300 h, respectively, and cuttings with vegetative buds were kept at 51℃ until 1 500 h. The results indicated that pistachio eultivars requite chilling time between 750-1 400 h and heat requirements between 8 852-15 420 growing degree hours (GDH). Consequently, Kalle-Ghuehi had the lowest chilling (750-950 h), and heat (8 852-9 768 GDH) requirements, Ahmad-Aghaei and Owhadi had intermediate (1 000-1 250 h, 10 656-13 320 GDH) and Akbari had the highest chilling (1 200-1 400 h) and heat (11 863-15420 GDH) requirement.

  10. Effect of Polyamine Priming on Chilling Tolerance of Lolium perenne during Seed Imbibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingfen WANG; Puchang WANG; Jiahai WU; Lili ZHAO; Bentian MO; Jun LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of potyamine priming on physiological and biochemical variations of Lolium perenne embryos and seed germination. [Method] With annual Lolium perenne (Diamond T and Grazing-8000) as experimental materials, after priming with 0.5 mmol/L putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) for 24 h and chilling imbibition at 5 ℃ for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h, the effect of Put, Spd and Spm priming on chilling tolerance and germination ability of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition was investigated. [Result] Put, Spd and Spm priming improved the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and content of soluble protein content under low temperature stress, significantly in-creased the germination rate, and shortened the average germination duration. After chilling imbibition for 48 h, compared with the control, the average germination rate of annual Lolium perenne seeds was improved by 15.5% and 12.0% after Put, Spd and Spm priming, and the average germination duration was shortened by 1.21 and 1.14 d. During seed imbibition, the chilling tolerance of Grazing-8000 was stronger than that of Diamond T. Overall, Put, Spd and Spm treatment could increase the chilling tolerance of annual Lolium perenne seeds during imbibition, and improve the germination ability of seeds under low temperature stress. [Conclusion] Results of this study provided theoretical basis for the application of seed priming technology in the production of annual ryegrass.

  11. Understanding the mechanisms of chilling injury in bell pepper fruits using the proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bel, Paloma; Egea, Isabel; Sánchez-Ballesta, María Teresa; Martinez-Madrid, Concepción; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Romojaro, Félix; Olmos, Enrique; Estrella, Emilio; Bolarín, Maria C; Flores, Francisco Borja

    2012-09-18

    In order to advance in the understanding of CI in pepper fruits, the cell ultrastructure alterations induced by CI and the physiological and metabolic changes have been studied along with the proteomic study. When stored at low temperatures bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits exhibited visual CI symptoms and important alterations within the cell ultrastructure, since peroxisomes and starch grains were not detected and the structure of the chloroplast was seriously damaged in chilled tissues. Physiological and metabolic disorders were also observed in chilled fruits, such as higher ethylene production, increased MDA content, changes in sugar and organic acids and enzymatic activities. The comparative proteomic analysis between control and chilled fruits reveals that the main alterations induced by CI in bell pepper fruits are linked to redox homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, protein abundance in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle is altered and catalase is down-regulated. Key proteins from glycolysis, Calvin cycle and Krebs cycle are also inhibited in chilled fruits. Enolase and GAPDH are revealed as proteins that may play a key role in the development of chilling injury. This study also provides the first evidence at the protein level that cytosolic MDH is involved in abiotic stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Backcross introgression of plastomic factors controlling chilling tolerance into elite cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm: Early generation recovery of recurrent parent phenotytpe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (matern...

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Winter Chilling Trend for Deciduous Fruit Trees (Case Study: Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. sabziparvar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction :Higher temperature as the result of climate change are likely to affect horticultural production. Deciduous fruit trees need winter chilling to break winter dormancy. Climate plays an important role in the successful production of deciduous fruit. Winter dormancy is one of the key factors of the annual cycle of deciduous fruit and nut trees along with the following breaking of the dormant state. This state is maintained through the winter period each year to protect against damaging cold temperatures. To be released from dormancy, trees require exposure to a predetermined quantity of cold temperatures in a process known as winter chilling or vernalization. Insufficient chilling can lead to sporadic and light bud break, poor fruit development, small fruit size and uneven ripening times. The main objective of this study is to investigate climate change effect on the winter chilling requirement (WCR in Hamadan. Materials and Methods:This research was performed based on the General Circulation Models (BCM2, HADCM3,GFCM2 and IPCM4 and different emission scenarios (A2, B1, A1B, as recommended by the Forth Report of the IPCC. The output of the GCMs was downscaled by LARS-WG model. The hourly weather data were generated as the inputs of three different Chilling Requirement Models (CRMs, and the winter chilling trend of deciduous fruit trees were predicted for Hamadan. The projected daily temperature time series were then converted into hourly temperatures. The projected hourly temperature data were run through each of the three chill models for all four GCMs in different scenarios. Three chill models [the 0.0–7.2°C (CH, the Utah (UT, and the Utah Positive (UTPos models] were used to investigate changes in chill accumulation in Hamadan, according to localized temperature change related to increases in global average temperatures. In addition, the winter chilling requirement time series were divided into two periods: baseline and future

  14. Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber During Germination is Related to Expression of Lysine Decarboxylase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming-hui; LI Xiao-ming; CHEN Jin-feng; CHEN Long-zheng; QIAN Chun-tao

    2005-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP technique, a specific fragment was isolated from cucumber cultivar Changchun mici possessing chilling tolerance induced at low temperature (15℃). This fragment, named cctr 132, could not be induced in the chilling sensitive cucumber cultivar Beijing jietou. After recovering the fragment, sequencing and translating, the results of blastx and blastp in GenBank of NCBI indicated that CCTR132 had 88.37% identities and 100% positives with Oryza sativa putative lysine decarboxylase-like protein respectively, and PGGXGTXXE, the putative conserved domain of lysine decarboxylase family, was detected from CCTR132, suggesting the cucumber chilling tolerance during germination is related to the expression of the lysine decarboxylase gene.

  15. Umami and related components in "chilled" pork for the Japanese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngapo, T M; Vachon, L

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate umami-related components and their evolution in Canadian pork destined for the Japanese market. Export quality pork loins for Japan were subjectively selected on-line for marbling, colour and firmness; remaining loins were retained for the domestic market. At 48h post-mortem, samples were aged 5d at 4.0°C (fresh) or 13, 28, 43 or 58d at -1.7°C (chilled). Meat qualities differed only in pH (exports to Japan. A lack of differences in EUC between domestic and export pork and between fresh and 43d chilled ageing demonstrates that Canadian chilled pork in Japan has the EUC of its fresh 5d counterpart.

  16. [The use of "sous vide" technology in the packaging of chilled and ready to serve food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, S

    1999-01-01

    As chilled precooked dishes show limited to 3-5 days shelf life several additional factors have to be applied to extend it up to 21 or even 42 days as is sometimes allowed for sous vide technology products. Those factors comprise high hygienic standards for raw materials and premises as well as technological steps and parameters that efficiently destroy microbial contamination, and do not allow for recontamination or bacterial growth. Such steps include precooking which also means pasteurisation in high vacuum or anaerobic atmosphere in sealed pouches, blast chilling, low temperature storage parameters as well as high temperature of reheating process and quick serving procedures. Paper specifies parameters for each technological steps and presents microbiological requirements for final products. Sous vide technology allows for good quality and high nutritional value in soups, meats in sauces and stewed vegetables. It is used for individual consumer in chilled "ready to eat" line dishes in supermarkets and supplies such dishes for catering units.

  17. Protection of ultrastructure in chilling-stressed banana leaves by salicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zhang; WANG Zheng-xun; XIA Kuai-fei; SUN Gu-chou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chilling tolerance of salicylic acid (SA) in banana seedlings (Musa acuminata cv., Williams 8818) was investigated by changes in ultrastructure in this study. Methods: Light and electron microscope observation. Results: Pretreatment with 0.5 mmol/L SA under normal growth conditions (30/22 ℃) by foliar spray and root irrigation resulted in many changes in ultrastructure of banana cells, such as cells separation from palisade parenchymas, the appearance of crevices in cell walls, the swelling of grana and stromal thylakoids, and a reduction in the number of starch granules. These results implied that SA treatment at 30/22 ℃ could be a type of stress. During 3 d of exposure to 7 ℃ chilling stress under low light, however, cell ultrastructure of SA-pretreated banana seedlings showed less deterioration than those of control seedlings (distilled water-pretreated). Conclusion:SA could provide some protection for cell structure of chilling-stressed banana seedling.

  18. Oxidative Stress Associated with Chilling Injury in Immature Fruit: Postharvest Technological and Biotechnological Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Manzano, Susana; Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2017-07-08

    Immature, vegetable-like fruits are produced by crops of great economic importance, including cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants and bell peppers, among others. Because of their high respiration rates, associated with high rates of dehydration and metabolism, and their susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), vegetable fruits are highly perishable commodities, requiring particular storage conditions to avoid postharvest losses. This review focuses on the oxidative stress that affects the postharvest quality of vegetable fruits under chilling storage. We define the physiological and biochemical factors that are associated with the oxidative stress and the development of CI symptoms in these commodities, and discuss the different physical, chemical and biotechnological approaches that have been proposed to reduce oxidative stress while enhancing the chilling tolerance of vegetable fruits.

  19. Chilling-induced tomato flavor loss is associated with altered volatile synthesis and transient changes in DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial tomatoes are widely perceived by consumers as lacking flavor. A major part of that problem is a postharvest handling system that chills fruit. Low-temperature storage is widely used to slow ripening and reduce decay. However, chilling results in loss of flavor. Flavor-associated volatiles...

  20. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging on chilling injury, and antioxidative defensive mechanism of sweet pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are chilling sensitive vegetable, and develop injury when stored at temperatures less than 7 C. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (650 ppb) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on chilling injuries of sweet pepper...

  1. RNA Expression and Post-Transcriptional Editing Analyses of Cucumber Plastids Reveals Genetic Differences Associated with Chilling Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolerance to chilling injury in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is associated with three plastomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (ptSNPs) at bp positions 4,813, 56,561, and 126,349 that are co-inherited. An understanding of the genetic expression of these ptSNPs as a response to chilling is critical...

  2. Why do insects enter chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard

    Many insect species enter a comatose state when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit (critical thermal minimum) but the physiological and cellular processes that underlie chill coma are still unresolved. Several studies have demonstrated that transition into chill-coma involves...

  3. Effects of chlorine or chlorine dioxide during immersion chilling on recovery of bacteria from broiler carcasses and chiller water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the microbiological impact of immersion chilling broiler carcasses with chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Eviscerated, pre-chill commercial broiler carcasses were cut into left and right halves along the keel bone, and each half was rinsed (HCR) in 100 mL of 0.1% pept...

  4. Chilling to zero degrees disrupts pollen formation but not meiotic microtubule arrays in Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Deborah A; Cantrill, Laurence C; Law, Andrew M K; Phillips, Collin G; Sutton, Bruce G; Overall, Robyn L

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the wheat-growing regions of Australia, chilling temperatures below 2 °C occur periodically on consecutive nights during the period of floral development in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wheat plants showed significant reductions in fertility when exposed to prolonged chilling temperatures in controlled environment experiments. Among the cultivars tested, the Australian cultivars Kite and Hartog had among the lowest levels of seed set due to chilling and their responses were investigated further. The developmental stage at exposure, the chilling temperature and length of exposure all influenced the level of sterility. The early period of booting, and specifically the +4 cm auricle distance class, was the most sensitive and corresponded to meiosis within the anthers. The response of microtubules to chilling during meiosis in Hartog was monitored, but there was little difference between chilled and control plants. Other abnormalities, such as plasmolysis and cytomixis increased in frequency, were associated with death of developing pollen cells, and could contribute to loss of fertility. The potential for an above-zero chilling sensitivity in Australian spring wheat varieties could have implications for exploring the tolerance of wheat flower development to chilling and freezing conditions in the field.

  5. Overexpression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene improves chilling tolerance in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Na; Li, Meng; Zhao, Shi-Jie; Li, Feng; Liang, Hui; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2007-10-01

    A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene (LeGPAT) was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed that LeGPAT contained four acyltransferase domains, showing high identities with GPAT in other plant species. A GFP fusion protein of LeGPAT was targeted to chloroplast in cowpea mesophyll protoplast. RNA gel blot showed that the mRNA accumulation of LeGPAT in the wild type (WT) was induced by chilling temperature. Higher expression levels were observed when tomato leaves were exposed to 4 degrees C for 4 h. RNA gel and western blot analysis confirmed that the sense gene LeGPAT was transferred into the tomato genome and overexpressed under the control of 35S-CaMV. Although tomato is classified as a chilling-sensitive plant, LeGPAT exhibited selectivity to 18:1 over 16:0. Overexpression of LeGPAT increased total activity of LeGPAT and cis-unsaturated fatty acids in PG in thylakoid membrane. Chilling treatment induced less ion leakage from the transgenic plants than from the WT. The photosynthetic rate and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) in transgenic plants decreased more slowly during chilling stress and recovered faster than in WT under optimal conditions. The oxidizable P700 in both WT and transgenic plants decreased obviously at chilling temperature under low irradiance, but the oxidizable P700 recovered faster in transgenic plants than in the WT. These results indicate that overexpression of LeGPAT increased the levels of PG cis-unsaturated fatty acids in thylakoid membrane, which was beneficial for the recovery of chilling-induced PS I photoinhibition in tomato.

  6. Microbiological shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat (M. longissimus dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study loin muscles (M. longissimus dorsi from six reindeer calves (aged 4 months were used to determine shelf life of fresh, chilled reindeer meat stored at +4 °C, measured as microbiological quality (aerobic microorganisms and Escherichia coli. The loins were collected at boning 3 days post slaughter and divided in five pieces that were randomly assigned to five different storage times; sampling directly after packaging and after chilled storage for 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks at +4 °C. Samples were vacuum packaged and transported chilled to Hjortens Laboratory in Östersund, Sweden (accredited by SWEDAC according to SS-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 for food analysis where the storage, microbiological sampling and analysis took place according to the protocols of Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL. The total amount of aerobic microorganisms at the first sampling directly after packaging (three days post slaughter was 3.4 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. After two and three weeks of vacuum packaged chilled storage at +4°C the microbiological quality of the samples was on the border-line to poor (6.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g. At four and five weeks of chilled storage the levels of aerobic microorganisms were significantly highest (P≤0.05 and the limit for acceptable quality of 7 log10 CFU/g aerobic bacteria had been passed (7.3 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g and 7.8 ± 0.3 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Very few of the reindeer meat samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli bacteria. The results from the present pilot study suggest that storage time for vacuum packaged fresh, chilled reindeer meat should not exceed 3 weeks at a temperature of +4 °C.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Pepper (Capsicum annuum Revealed a Role of 24-epibrassinolide in Response to Chilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR compared with the control (Chill only, including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs. We selected 20 genes out of the 656 DEGs for RT-qPCR analysis to confirm the RNA-Seq. Based on GO enrich and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that photosynthesis was significantly up-enriched in biological processes, accompanied by significant increases in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn, Fv/Fm and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the results indicate that EBR enhanced endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA while suppressing the ethylene (ETH biosynthesis pathway, suggesting that BRs function via a synergistic cross-talk with SA, JA and ETH signaling pathways in response to chilling stress. In addition, EBR induced cellulose synthase-like protein and UDP-glycosyltransferase, suggesting a contribution to the formation of cell wall and hormone metabolism. EBR also triggered the calcium signaling transduction in cytoplasm, and activated the expression of cellular redox homeostasis related genes, such as GSTX1, PER72, and CAT2. This work, therefor, identified the specific genes showed different expression patterns in EBR-treated pepper and associated with the processes of hormone metabolism, redox, signaling, transcription and defense. Our study provides the first evidence of the potent roles of BRs, at the transcription level, to induce the tolerance to chilling stress in pepper as a function of the combination of the

  8. Dorsoventral variations in dark chilling effects on photosynthesis and stomatal function in Paspalum dilatatum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cordeiro, Ana Sofia; Driscoll, Simon P.; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dark chilling on the leaf-side-specific regulation of photosynthesis were characterized in the C4 grass Paspalum dilatatum. CO2- and light-response curves for photosynthesis and associated parameters were measured on whole leaves and on each leaf side independently under adaxial and abaxial illumination before and after plants were exposed to dark chilling for one or two consecutive nights. The stomata closed on the adaxial sides of the leaves under abaxial illumination and no CO2 uptake could be detected on this surface. However, high rates of whole leaf photosynthesis were still observed because CO2 assimilation rates were increased on the abaxial sides of the leaves under abaxial illumination. Under adaxial illumination both leaf surfaces contributed to the inhibition of whole leaf photosynthesis observed after one night of chilling. After two nights of chilling photosynthesis remained inhibited on the abaxial side of the leaf but the adaxial side had recovered, an effect related to increased maximal ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation rates (Vcmax) and enhanced maximal electron transport rates (Jmax). Under abaxial illumination, whole leaf photosynthesis was decreased only after the second night of chilling. The chilling-dependent inhibition of photosynthesis was located largely on the abaxial side of the leaf and was related to decreased Vcmax and Jmax, but not to the maximal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation rate (Vpmax). Each side of the leaf therefore exhibits a unique sensitivity to stress and recovery. Side-specific responses to stress are related to differences in the control of enzyme and photosynthetic electron transport activities. PMID:21030386

  9. Mathematical modelling of growth of Listeria  monocytogenes in raw chilled pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, K; Wang, K; Liu, M; Liu, J; Zhu, L; Zhou, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated chilled pork. A cocktail of 26 meat-borne L. monocytogenes was inoculated to raw or sterile chilled pork to observe its growth at 4, 10, 16, 22 and 28°C respectively. The growth data were fitted by the Baranyi model and Ratkowsky square-root model. Results showed that the Baranyi model and Ratkowsky square-root model could describe the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes at different temperatures reasonably well in raw chilled pork (1·0 ≤ Bf ≤ Af ≤ 1·1). Compared with the growth of L. monocytogenes in sterile chilled pork, the background microflora had no impact on the growth parameters of L. monocytogenes, except for the lag phase at low temperature storage. The microbial predictive models developed in this study can be used to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes during natural spoilage, and construct quantitative risk assessments in chilled pork. This study simulated the actual growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chilled pork to the maximum extent, and described its growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes during natural spoilage. This study showed that the background microflora had no impact on the growth parameters of L. monocytogenes, except for the lag phase at low temperature storage. The models developed in this study can be used to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes during refrigerated storage. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. A Simple Algorithm for Predicting Bacteremia Using Food Consumption and Shaking Chills: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takahashi, Erika; Mishima, Kentaro; Toyoda, Takeo; Saitoh, Fumihiro; Yasuda, Akari; Matsuoka, Joe; Sugita, Manabu; Branch, Joel; Aoki, Makoto; Tierney, Lawrence; Inoue, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    Predicting the presence of true bacteremia based on clinical examination is unreliable. We aimed to construct a simple algorithm for predicting true bacteremia by using food consumption and shaking chills. A prospective multicenter observational study. Three hospital centers in a large Japanese city. In total, 1,943 hospitalized patients aged 14 to 96 years who underwent blood culture acquisitions between April 2013 and August 2014 were enrolled. Patients with anorexia-inducing conditions were excluded. We assessed the patients' oral food intake based on the meal immediately prior to the blood culture with definition as "normal food consumption" when >80% of a meal was consumed and "poor food consumption" when food consumption and shaking chills for the presence of true bacteremia, and subsequently built the algorithm by using recursive partitioning analysis. Among 1,943 patients, 223 cases were true bacteremia. Among patients with normal food consumption, without shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 2.4% (13/552). Among patients with poor food consumption and shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 47.7% (51/107). The presence of poor food consumption had a sensitivity of 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.4%-97.9%) for true bacteremia, and the absence of poor food consumption (ie, normal food consumption) had a negative likelihood ratio (LR) of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.17-0.19) for excluding true bacteremia, respectively. Conversely, the presence of the shaking chills had a specificity of 95.1% (95% CI, 90.7%-99.4%) and a positive LR of 4.78 (95% CI, 4.56-5.00) for true bacteremia. A 2-item screening checklist for food consumption and shaking chills had excellent statistical properties as a brief screening instrument for predicting true bacteremia.

  11. Overexpression of thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase shows enhanced resistance to chilling stress in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ming; Feng, Hai-Long; Wang, Li-Yan; Li, Dong; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2012-06-15

    Photosynthesis provides a strong reducing power and a high risk for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) particularly under chilling stress. Ascorbate peroxidases (APXs) reduce H(2)O(2) to water and play an important role in the antioxidant system of plants. Though thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX) has been thought to be key regulator of intracellular levels of H(2)O(2), its physiological significance in the response to chilling stress is still under discussion. To study the contribution of tAPX to the ROS scavenging, a tomato thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase gene (LetAPX) was isolated and transgenic tomatoes were obtained. The LetAPX-GFP fusion protein was targeted to chloroplast in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast. RNA blotting analysis revealed that the LetAPX transcript expression was up-regulated by chilling, high light, exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and methyl viologen (MV). Over expression of LetAPX in tomatoes conferred tolerance to chilling stress by maintaining higher reduced glutathione (GSH) content, chlorophyll and APX activities compared with wild type (WT) plants. Furthermore, transgenic plants showed lower levels of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ion leakage, lower malendialdehyde (MDA) content, higher net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and higher maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). The oxidizable P700 decreased more obviously in WT than that in transgenic plants under chilling stress in low irradiance. The results suggested that over expression of tAPX played a key role both in alleviating photo inhibition of PSI and PSII and enhancing their tolerance to chilling stress.

  12. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

    2014-11-15

    Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10μM MJ, 2mM SA or 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD.

  13. Small heat shock proteins and the postharvest chilling tolerance of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ré, Martín D; Gonzalez, Carla; Escobar, Mariela R; Sossi, María Laura; Valle, Estela M; Boggio, Silvana B

    2017-02-01

    Plants have the largest number of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) (15-42 kDa) among eukaryotes, but little is known about their function in vivo. They accumulate in response to different stresses, and specific sHsps are also expressed during developmental processes such as seed development, germination, and ripening. The presence of organelle-specific sHsps appears to be unique to plants. The sHsps expression is regulated by heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). In this work, it was explored the role of sHsps in the chilling injury of tomato fruit. The level of transcripts and proteins of cytoplasmic and organellar sHsps was monitored in fruit during ripening and after cold storage (4 weeks at 4°C). Expression of HsfA1, HsfA2, HsfA3, and HsfB1 was also examined. Two cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contrasting in chilling tolerance were assayed: Micro-Tom (chilling-tolerant) and Minitomato (chilling-sensitive). Results showed that sHsps were induced during ripening in fruit from both cultivars. However, sHsps were induced in Micro-Tom fruit but not in Minitomato fruit after storage at a low temperature. In particular, sHsp 17.4-CII and sHsp23.8-M transcripts strongly accumulated in Micro-Tom fruit and HsfA3 transcript diminished after cold storage. These data suggest that sHsps may be involved in the protection mechanisms against chilling stress and substantiate the hypothesis that sHsps may participate in the mechanism of tomato genotype chilling tolerance. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Modelling the effect of coating on the stresses and microstructure evolution in chill casting of wind turbine main shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Thorborg, J.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    . Simulations of the casting process are performed with four different heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) between the casting and the chill, and the resulting transient stress fields are reported in the chill. The microstructural evolution in the casting in terms of the nodule count is also modelled...... the HTC from 2000 to 500 W m−2 K−1. These results indicate that the lifetime of the chill will not be significantly improved by adding a thicker layer of coating. The microstructure evolution is not very much affected by the HTC value with a maximum reduction in nodule count of 6.5%. Therefore......The purpose of the present work is to quantify the effect of the inside coating on chills for casting of large wind turbine main shafts with respect to the evolution of internal stresses. These are known to affect the lifetime of the chills, and this is a major cost for the foundries today...

  15. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGY OF CHROMIUM IN CHILLED Cu-0.14%-2.0%Cr ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W.Yang; Z.K.Fan

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of chromium in chilled Cu-Cr alloys with 0.14%-2.0% Cr has been studied. The results showed that eutectic Cr phase takes a fibrous shape, and pre-eutectic Cr is dendritic in the studied chilled Cu-Cr alloy. During solute treatment of the eutectic and super-eutectic Cu-Cr alloys, only part of chromium particles dissolved in copper phase,some fiber and dendritic chromium still remained. Forging before solute treatment can reduce the size of primary Cr particles, which benefits the aging structure.

  16. Cook-chill, cook-freeze, cook-hold, sous vide: risks for hospital patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P J; Dart, S P; Hadlington, C J

    1991-06-01

    Changes in eating habits and developments in food technology are occurring at the same time as an upward trend in foodborne infection in Britain. Vulnerable people such as the elderly and hospital patients are increasingly likely to consume food produced by new systems such as 'cook-chill' and 'cuisson sous vide'. The microbiological hazards of these systems are assessed as negligible, provided that production is controlled by appropriate methods such as the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach. The occurrence and control of bacterial contamination in a hospital cook-chill system is reviewed in this context.

  17. The Relationship Between Heat-induced Chilling Tolerance and Endogenous ABA Levels in Mangoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-jiang; JI Zuo-liang

    2002-01-01

    Heating "Zhihua" mangoes (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zhihua) in hot air at 38℃ for 12hours significantly reduced the development of chilling injury following storage for 12days at 2℃. Prolonging the heating up to 72hours acquired similar results. During the 12 days' storage at 2℃ following heating for 72hours, the membrane leakage of the mango peels showed little change, while it increased with time for the control fruits, and the endogenous ABA levels in the heated fruits were higher than that in the control. These results indicated that higher ABA rates were linked with stronger chilling tolerance in mangoes.

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy in the monitoring of chilling injury in fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoluzza, Alessandro; Bottura, G.; Filippetti, P.; Tosi, M. R.; Vasina, M.

    1993-06-01

    Vegetable marrows (cv. Seme Bolognese) and peach fruits (cv. Suncrest) were stored at different chilling temperatures in order to evaluate, by vibrational spectroscopy, the unsaturation degree of the total lipidic component and other possible markers of chilling injuries. Capillary Gas Chromatography also has been applied to evaluate the unsaturation degree of the esterified fatty acids. Both methodologies indicate a general increase of the unsaturation degrees with storage time. This can be interpreted as a better adaptation capability of the fruits to low temperatures. Moreover, the FTIR-ATR methodology points out the onset of a hydrolysis reaction of the esteric phosphate group of phospholipids during storage.

  19. Changesin Myoglobin of Big Eye Tuna During Chilling Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevi Imelda Murniati Wodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Big eye tuna (Thunnus obesus is one of the species of tuna which is have some value added such as have potential to improve animal protein sources, have high economic values as well as an export commodity.Mishandling and misapplication of high temparatures on the tuna handling at the tropics and sub tropics climate was significantly decreasing the value of myoglobin and affecting the solubility of protein. Myoglobin is a globular protein that have small molecular weight size and it was an important factor for determining the quality of meat and influencing factors of purchasing power by the consumer. The purpose of this experiments is to determining the changes of myoglobin content and the water soluble proteins content at some parts of big eye tuna in 9 days chilling temperatures. The portion which is analized was the ventral area, dorsal area and tail area. Myoglobin content in all portion above, both light and dark meat was analized. The results shows the decreased value of myoglobin content from first handling (day zero until day ninth (days 9th experiment. Each myoglobin contentfrom white meat at at ventral, dorsal and tail meat was decreased from 121.68 mg/100 into 41.35 mg/100, 148.2 mg/100g into 52.01 mg/100g, 105.16 mg/100g into 31.34 gr/100gram, after day ninth. The myoglobin content from dark meat at ventral, dorsal and tail meat, was decreased, too ; from 418.64 mg/100 gr into 121.01 mg/100 g, 446.21 mg/100 g into 58.34 mg/100 r and 145.65 mg/100 gr into 87.98 mg/100g after day ninth.Water soluble protein was derived into protein bands with molecular weight 15,4 kDa and 14 kDa. Its suspected as the myoglobin protein. The molecular weight difference was caused from degradation of protein during the storage.Keywords: Big eye tuna, meat, storage, myoglobin

  20. Contrasting effect of dark-chilling on chloroplast structure and arrangement of chlorophyll-protein complexes in pea and tomato : Plants with a different susceptibility to non-freezing temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garstka, Maciej; Venema, Jan Henk; Rumak, Izabela; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Rosiak, Malgorzata; Koziol-Lipinska, Joanna; Kierdaszuk, Borys; Vredenberg, Wim J.; Mostowska, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    The effect of dark-chilling and subsequent photoactivation on chloroplast structure and arrangements of chlorophyll-protein complexes in thylakoid membranes was studied in chilling-tolerant (CT) pea and in chilling-sensitive (CS) tomato. Dark-chilling did not influence chlorophyll content and Chl a/

  1. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein accu

  2. Alternative Layouts for the Carbon Capture with the Chilled Ammonia Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valenti, Gianluca; Bonalumi, Davide; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2013-01-01

    Many alternatives are being investigated for the carbon capture, but none appears to have been proved as the choice for full-scale applications. This work considers the Chilled Ammonia Process for coal-fired Ultra Super Critical power plants. Three layouts are simulated with Aspen Plus...

  3. Assessment of chilling injury and molecular marker analysis in cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The responses to chilling temperature of 12 Korean cucumber varieties were compared to those of two U.S.A. (previously determined cold tolerant NC76 and 'Chipper'), and Chinese and Japanese germplasms. Seedlings of each entry were exposed to 4 degrees C (Experiment 1) and 1 degree C (Experiments 2 ...

  4. Tappet Chill Depth Measuring by Magnetic Permeability and Inductance Displacement Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is possible to measure different position along the axle direction of tappet. According to the maximum output of signal, the boundary of white iron structure and mottled iron structure can be deduced, and at the same time, it is possible to use inductance displacement meter to show the chill depth which is the distance from the boundary to the end.

  5. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein

  6. Can chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus be transferred to sugarcane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to investigate if chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus can be transferred to sugarcane. Net leaf CO2 uptake (Asat) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II ('PSII) were measured in warm conditions (25 °C/20 °C), and then during and following ...

  7. A systematic approach to preventing chilled-food waste at the retail outlet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Seth Oscar; Haijema, René; Rijgersberg, Hajo; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a systematic overview of interventions for preventing chilled-food waste at retail outlets, and to assess the impact of these interventions for a particular case of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce at a Dutch retail outlet. The structure of the simulation model as

  8. Evaluating the ChillFish Biofeedback Game with Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    . Our findings show tendencies that the game works in terms of having a calming effect. However, the study also highlighted issues of evaluating biofeedback games with children with ADHD that are not present when evaluating with adults. This work presents an iteration in the ChillFish development cycle...

  9. FORMATION OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROMIUM CAST IRON CASTING INTO THE CHILL MOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal processes of formation of castings from wearproof chromic cast irons for replaceable details of centrifugal mills and crushers is carried out. Influence of protective and dividing coverings on intensity of heating of the chill mold is investigated.

  10. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice at Filling Stage under Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wang; Weitong Cui; Shihua Shen

    2012-01-01

    Using comparative proteomic analysis,we carried out an investigation aiming at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chilling stress adaptation in rice (O.sativa L.ssp.indica cultivar 93-11) at early filling stage.The rice plants at early filling stage were exposed to 12℃ for 6 h,12 h,24 h,48 h.Analysis of the dynamic proteome profile of the uppermost internodes showed that 99 protein spots were differentially expressed during this process.Among them,45 protein spots were found to be up-regulated and 54 protein spots were down-regulated in responding to chilling stress.81 protein spots were successfully identified through MALDITOF MS and database searching.Those identified proteins were the products of 65 genes,and could be sorted into 8 functional categories.Among them,secondary metabolism related proteins such as S-adenosylmethionine synthetase were up-regulated.That lignification-related proteins were up-regulated by chilling stress indicated the uppermost internodes supporting ear would be enhanced to resist the chilling stress.

  11. Survivability of chilled water networks on board ships when using dincs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Fast reaction is required when a chilled water distribution network on board a naval ship is damaged. Without immediate isolation of the leakage area, all water supply is lost soon, with immense consequences for the ship’s operational state. The only solution for that is using an automated recovery

  12. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    The performance of diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with swirl jet (CSW) in heating mode (winter situation) was studied and compared with regard to the generated indoor environment. An office mock-up with one occupant was simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3 (L x W x H...

  13. [Customer satisfaction study in two roman hospitals: comparison between "cook & serve" and "cook & chill"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perata, E; Ferrari, P; Tarsitani, G

    2005-01-01

    We studied patient's satisfaction rate for hospital dishes comparing "cook & chill" method with "cook & serve". As principal instrument we used a comparative questionnaire, anonymous and self-compiled, which is able to evaluate the differences of customer satisfaction's rate between the two methods.

  14. Experimental Investigation of a Mechanical Vapour Compression Chiller at Elevated Chilled Water Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2017-05-18

    The performance of a Mechanical Vapour Compression (MVC) chiller is experimentally investigated under operating conditions suitable for sensible cooling. With the emergence of the energy efficient dehumidification systems, it is possible to decouple the latent load from the MVC chillers which can be operated at higher chilled water temperature for handling sensible cooling load. In this article, the performance of the chiller is evaluated at the elevated chilled water outlet temperatures (7 – 17° C) at various coolant temperatures (28 – 32° C) and flow rates (ΔT = 4 and 5° C) for both full- and part-load conditions. Keeping the performance at the AHRI standard as the baseline condition, the efficacy of the chiller in terms of compression ratio, cooling capacity and COP at aforementioned conditions is quantified experimentally. It is observed that for each one-degree Celsius increase in the chilled water temperature, the COP of the chiller improves by about 3.5% whilst the cooling capacity improvement is about 4%. For operation at 17° C chilled water outlet temperature, the improvements in COP and cooling capacity are between 37 – 40% and 40 – 45%, respectively, compared to the performance at the AHRI standards. The performance of the MVC chiller at the abovementioned operation conditions is mapped on the chiller performance characteristic chart.

  15. Thermal sensitivity of excitation-contraction-coupling in a chill susceptible insect, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Overgaard, Johannes

    Many insect species enter a state of neuromuscular paralysis when their body temperature is lowered to a critical limit but the physiological and cellular processes underlying this chill coma are largely unknown. Previous studies on locusts show that muscle force production is highly depressed at...

  16. Georgia Institute of Technology chilled water system evaluation and master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-15

    As the host of the Olympic Village for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, Georgia Tech has experienced a surge in construction activities over the last three years. Over 1.3 million square feet of new buildings have been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. This growth has placed a strain on the Georgia Tech community and challenged the facilities support staff charged with planning and organizing utility services. In concert with Olympic construction, utility planners have worked to ensure long term benefits for Georgia Tech facilities while meeting the short term requirements of the Olympic Games. The concentration of building construction in the northwest quadrant of the campus allowed planners to construct a satellite chilled water plant to serve the needs of this area and provide the opportunity to integrate this section of the campus with the main campus chilled water system. This assessment and master plan, funded in part by the US Department of Energy, has evaluated the chilled water infrastructure at Georgia Tech, identified ongoing problems and made recommendations for long term chilled water infrastructure development and efficiency improvements. The Georgia Tech office of Facilities and RDA Engineering, Inc. have worked together to assemble relevant information and prepare the recommendations contained in this document.

  17. Alleviation of chilling injury in postharvest tomato fruit by preconditioning with ultraviolet irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Jahangir, Muhammad Muzammil; Ying, Tiejin

    2012-12-01

    Tomato fruit is usually stored at low temperatures for delayed ripening and extended shelf life. However, tomato fruit is susceptible to chilling injury when exposed to low temperatures. In this study, the potential effects of preconditioning with UV-C or UV-B irradiation on chilling injury of postharvest tomato fruit were investigated. Mature-green tomato fruit were exposed to 4 kJ m(-2) UV-C or 20 kJ m(-2) UV-B irradiation and stored for 20 days at 2 °C and subsequently 10 days at 20 °C. UV irradiation was effective in reducing chilling injury index and delaying ethylene peak. Furthermore, UV irradiation preserved storage quality as manifested by reduced weight loss, better retention of firmness, and higher contents of total soluble solids, soluble protein and soluble sugar during subsequent storage at 20 °C. UV-C irradiation significantly delayed the development of the red colour after 10 days of storage at 20 °C. On the other hand, UV irradiation decreased total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity, suggesting possibly reduced stress response to low temperature resulted from enhanced physiological adaptation by UV preconditioning. Our results suggest that preconditioning with UV-C or UV-B irradiation in appropriate doses had a positive effect on alleviating chilling injury in postharvest tomato fruit. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Short-term chilled storage of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in cryoprotectant as an alternative to cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kunjan; Spikings, Emma; Zhang, Tiantian

    2015-02-01

    As zebrafish embryos have never been cryopreserved, we developed a protocol to store zebrafish embryos (50% epiboly-5.3 hour post fertilization) for up to 18 h at 0°C. Initial experiments to optimize the cryoprotectant (CPA) solution demonstrated improved embryo hatching rate following chilling at 0°C for 18 h with 1 M MeOH+0.1 M sucrose (56 ± 5%) compared with other combinations of methanol (0.2-0.5 M) and sucrose (0.05-0.1 M). This combination of CPAs that protects against chilling injury was further tested to assess its impact on sox gene and protein expression. Significant decreases in sox3 gene expression were observed in hatched embryos that had been chilled for 18 h in 1 M MeOH+0.1 sucrose compared with non-chilled controls, however the expression of both sox2 and sox3 proteins was unaffected. Significant decreases in sox2 protein expression were, however, observed in embryos that had been chilled without CPAs and these embryos also had lower hatching rates than those chilled with the optimal CPA solution. We, therefore, conclude that the CPA combination of 1 M MeOH+0.1 M sucrose facilitates chilled storage of early stage (50% epiboly) zebrafish embryos for up to 18 h without compromising transcriptional response.

  19. Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

    2012-06-01

    Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2 °C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems.

  20. Microbiological evaluation of chicken carcasses in an immersion chilling system with water renewal at 8 and 16 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L C T; Pereira, J G; Spina, T L B; Izidoro, T B; Oliveira, A C; Pinto, J P A N

    2012-05-01

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the leading exporter of chicken. Because of the importance of this sector in the Brazilian economy, food safety must be ensured by control and monitoring of the production stages susceptible to contamination, such as the chilling process. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in microbial levels on chicken carcasses and in chilling water after immersion in a chilling system for 8 and 16 h during commercial processing. An objective of the study was to encourage discussion regarding the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Food Supply regulation that requires chicken processors to completely empty, clean, and disinfect each tank of the chilling system after every 8-h shift. Before and after immersion chilling, carcasses were collected and analyzed for mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli. Samples of water from the chilling system were also analyzed for residual free chlorine. The results do not support required emptying of the chiller tank after 8 h; these tanks could be emptied after 16 h. The results for all carcasses tested at the 8- and 16-h time points indicated no significant differences in the microbiological indicators evaluated. These data provide both technical and scientific support for discussing changes in federal law regarding the management of immersion chilling water systems used as part of the poultry processing line.

  1. Antisense-mediated suppression of tomato thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase influences anti-oxidant network during chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ming; Ma, Na-Na; Li, Dong; Deng, Yong-Sheng; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lv, Wei; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2012-09-01

    Photosynthesis is a well-established source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants particularly under chilling stress. Ascorbate peroxidase (APXs) plays an important role in the anti-oxidant system by utilizing AsA as specific electron donor to reduce H(2)O(2) to water. In order to investigate the possible mechanisms of ascorbate peroxidsae (APX) in photoprotection under chilling stress, a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase gene (LetAPX) was isolated and antisense transgenic tomato plants were produced. Under chilling stress, transgenic plants accumulated more H(2)O(2), and showed higher levels of ion leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA), lower net photosynthetic rate (Pn), lower maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and less content of D1 protein compared with wild type (WT) plants. On the other hand, after chilling stress, transgenic plants showed higher reduced ascorbate (AsA) and activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) than those in WT plants, and the expression of several known stress-responsive and antioxidative genes was also higher at the end of chilling treatment. These results suggested that the suppression of LetAPX gene induced compensatory anti-oxidant mechanisms in tomato, and inactivation of tAPX may have a regulatory role in facilitating redox signaling pathways under chilling stress. Furthermore, transient increases in ROS levels also have a vital role in stress signaling and thereby in the survival of plants under chilling conditions.

  2. Modeling and Optimization Technique of a Chilled Water AHU Using Artificial Neural Network Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Rand Issa

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are widely used in buildings to provide occupants with conditioned air and acceptable indoor air quality. The chilled water system is one Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are widely used in buildings to provide occupants with conditioned air and acceptable indoor air quality. The design of these systems constitutes a large impact on the energy usage and operating cost of buildings they serve. The ability to accurately predict the performance of these systems is integral to designing more energy efficient and sustainable building systems. In this thesis the modeling of a chilled water air handling units using Artificial Neural Networks model is proposed. The Artificial neural network model was built using four inputs (1) Chilled water temperature (CHWT), (2) Chilled water valve position (CWVLV), (3) Mixed air temperature (MAT), and (4) Supply air flow (SAF). The output of the model is to predict supply air temperature. Moreover, another model was constructed to predict the fan power as a function of the fan air flow and fan speed. The data that were collected from a real building in a span of three months were processed. The ANN model was trained using the measured data and different model structure were then tested with various time delay, feedback time, and number of neurons to determine the best structure. In addition, an optimization method is developed to automate the process of finding the best model structure that can produce the best accurate prediction against the actual data. The Coefficient of variances which was used to determine the error value was recorded to be as low as 1.22 for the best model structure. The obtained results validate the Artificial neural network model created as an accurate tool for predicting the performance of a chilled water air handling unit.

  3. Determining the physiochemical changes and time of chilling injury incidence during cold storage of pomegranate fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Leila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent warming (IW is a good postharvest technique to prevent or alleviate chilling injuries during cold storage. Performing the warming treatment at the period of time before chilling injury is irreversible during storage, and it is the first prerequisite for a successful IW treatment. In order to determine the fruit physiochemical changes and time of irreversible chilling injury incidence during cold storage of pomegranate fruit (cv. Rabab-e-Neyriz, this research was conducted. Fruits were stored at 2 ± 0.5°C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity for 90 days. At 15-day intervals, 40 fruits (four replicates and 10 fruits in each replicate were sampled and further stored at 20°C for 3 days (shelf life. Chilling injury (CI index and weight loss (WL in intact fruits, electrolyte leakage (EL and K leakage (KL in peel samples, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio and pH in fruit juice were measured. With respect to quality parameters, TSS did not change significantly under cold storage. According to TA changes, the TSS/TA ratio was decreased up to 30 days but subsequently increased and the highest ratio was detected at the end of storage, which was significantly higher than the TSS/TA ratio at the harvest time. Results related to CI index, WL, EL and KL showed that pomegranate fruits could be stored cold without significant chilling damages up to 30 days. It was suggested that performing the IW treatment during this period could be concomitant with desired effects in long-term storage of this commercial cultivar.

  4. TRANSCRIPTOME DYNAMICS IN MANGO FRUIT PEEL REVEALS MECHANISMS OF CHILLING STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu Sivankalyani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C and suboptimal (5°C cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during chilling injury by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Chilling-Imbibed Embryo Revealed Membrane Recovery Related Genes in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Shen, Hangqi; Lin, Cheng; Fu, Hong; Sheteiwy, Mohamed S.; Guan, Yajing; Huang, Yutao; Hu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    The delayed seed germination and poor seedling growth caused by imbibitional chilling injury was common phenomenon in maize seedling establishment. In this study, RNA sequencing technology was used to comprehensively investigate the gene expressions in chilling-imbibed maize embryo and to reveal the underlying mechanism of chilling injury at molecular level. Imbibed seeds for 2 h at 5°C (LT2) were selected and transcriptomic comparative analysis was performed. Among 327 DEGs indentified between dry seed (CK0) and LT2, 15 specific genes with plasma membrane (PM) relevant functions belonging to lipid metabolism, stress, signaling and transport were characterized, and most of them showed down-regulation pattern under chilling stress. When transferred to 25°C for recovery (LT3), remarkable changes occurred in maize embryo. There were 873 DEGs including many PM related genes being identified between LT2 and LT3, some of which showing significant increase after 1 h recovery. Moreover, 15 genes encoding intracellular vesicular trafficking proteins were found to be exclusively differential expressed at recovery stage. It suggested that the intracellular vesicle trafficking might be essential for PM recovery through PM turnover. Furthermore, transcriptome analyses on imbibed embryos under normal condition (25°C) were also made as a contrast. A total of 651 DEGs were identified to mainly involved in protein metabolism, transcriptional regulation, signaling, and energy productions. Overall, the RNA-Seq results provided us a deep knowledge of imbibitional chilling injury on plasma membrane and a new view on PM repaired mechanism during early seed imbibition at transcriptional level. The DEGs identified in this work would be useful references in future seed germination research. PMID:28101090

  6. The efficacy of air spray chilling and its impact on microbial quality of broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Nagyová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the evaluation of the period necessary for chilling of poultry carcasses through recording of temperature in the breast muscles and microbial associations on the surface in relation to body weight (BW. The temperature was measured in sixty broiler carcasses divided into six equal weight categories (1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8 kg. For the temperature measurements the module ELPRO was used. The module was placed in the body cavity and the probe was inserted into breast muscle. The mean temperature of breast muscles immediately after slaughter ranged from +38.8 to 40.30°C. The mean temperatures after chilling of carcasses with average BW1.5 kg (5.10±1.231; 7.90±2.356; 9.30±2.966. Average total viable count (TVC on the surfaces before chilling was 3.99±0.19 log CFU/100 cm2 (1.2 to 1.5 kg, and 3.93±0.14 log CFU/100 cm2 (1.6 to 1.8 kg. A statistically significant increase (P<0.05 in TVC after chilling in both weight categories (n=6 was found. Average TVC after chilling was 4.28±0.11 CFU/100 cm2 (1.2 to 1.5 kg, and 4.33±0.08 (1.6 to 1.8 kg. Average Enterobacteriaceae count was reduced in the lower weight group (1.3 to 1.5 kg from 3.11±0.35 to 2.97±2.97 during chilling, but it significantly (P<0.05 increased (3.07±0.28 to 3.13±0.14 in the higher weight group (1.6 to 1.8. Salmonella was not detected in either of the samples.

  7. Effect of Nb on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Chilled Cast Iron at Room and Elevated Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijie ZHAI; Li FU; Huaying ZHAI

    2004-01-01

    Effect of Nb on microstructure and mechanical properties of chilled cast iron at room and elevated temperatures is studied in this research. The results demonstrate that the cast structure and mechanical properties of chilled cast iron at room and elevated temperatures are improved with the addition of trace amount of Nb. However, if Nb was added too much, the cast structure and mechanical properties of chilled cast iron would deteriorate. The suitable content of Nb in chilled cast iron is about 0.05% (mass fraction). Except the dissolution in the matrix of cast iron the excessive Nb will form Nb-rich phases in three morphologies. Those are lumpy NbC, complicated strip-like phase and compound with pearlite structure.

  8. Hazard identification and characterisation, and dose response assessment of spore forming pathogens in cooked chilled food containing vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusden FM van; MGB

    2001-01-01

    A hazard identification and characterisation, including a preliminary dose response assessment, of sporeforming pathogens in cooked chilled food containing vegetables was performed according to the structure and principles for a quantitative microbiological risk assessment as described by the Codex

  9. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie

    2001-01-01

    Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material...... frozen storage is more appropriate for manufacturing of thawed chilled MAP cod fillets. During chill storage of thawed MAP Barents Sea fillets previously kept at -30degreesC for 15 weeks, significant growth of Photobacterium phosphoreum and production of trimethylamine were observed. Oil the contrary, P....... phosphoreum growth and trimethylamine production in thawed and chill-stored MAP Baltic Sea cod fillets were strongly inhibited after as little as 4 weeks of frozen storage at -30degreesC. Contents of trimethylamine oxide and NaCl were substantially higher in fillets of Barents Sea cod compared to fillets...

  10. Low-temperature conditioning alleviates chilling injury in loquat fruit and regulates glycine betaine content and energy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Timin; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jia; Zheng, Yonghua

    2015-04-15

    The influence of low-temperature conditioning (LTC) treatment on chilling injury, glycine betaine content, and energy metabolism in loquat fruit at 1 °C storage was investigated. The results indicated that LTC treatment significantly reduced chilling injury index, ion leakage, and malondialdehyde content in loquat fruit. Betaine aldehyde hydrogenase (BADH) activity and endogenous glycine betaine (GB) content in loquats treated with LTC were significantly higher than those in control fruit. Moreover, LTC treatment induced activities of energy metabolism-associated enzymes, including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase. LTC treatment triggered obviously higher levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and energy charge in loquat fruit. These results showed that LTC possibly alleviated chilling injury and enhanced chilling tolerance of loquat fruit by enhancing endogenous GB content and energy status.

  11. Comparison of residual stresses in sand- and chill casting of ductile cast iron wind turbine main shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Frandsen, J. O.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    In this work, simulations of pouring, solidification and cooling, and residual stress evolution of sand and chill cast wind turbine main shafts is performed. The models are made in the commercial software MAGMAsoft. As expected, the cooling rate of the sand casting is shown to be much lower than...... for the chill casting, resulting in a very course microstructure.From the simulations the nodule count is found to be 17 nodules per mm2 and 159 nodules permm2 for the sand and chill casting, respectively, in the critical region of the main bearing seat.This is verified from nodule counts performed on the real...... cast main shafts. Residual stressevaluations show an overall increase of the maximum principal stress field for the chill casting,which is expected. However, the stresses are found to be in compression on the surface of thechill cast main shaft, which is unforeseen....

  12. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-ɑ-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon.

  13. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  14. Variation in chilling tolerance for photosynthesis and leaf extension growth among genotypes related to the C-4 grass Miscanthus xgiganteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacka, K; Adhikari, S; Peng, JH; Gifford, J; Juvik, JA; Long, SP; Sacks, EJ

    2014-09-08

    The goal of this study was to identify cold-tolerant genotypes within two species of Miscanthus related to the exceptionally chilling-tolerant C-4 biomass crop accession: M. xgiganteus 'Illinois' (Mxg) as well as in other Mxg genotypes. The ratio of leaf elongation at 10 degrees C/5 degrees C to that at 25 degrees C/25 degrees C was used to identify initially the 13 most promising Miscanthus genotypes out of 51 studied. Net leaf CO2 uptake (A(sat)) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II (Phi(PSII)) were measured in warm conditions (25 degrees C/20 degrees C), and then during and following a chilling treatment of 10 degrees C/5 degrees C for 11 d. Accessions of M. sacchariflorus (Msa) showed the smallest decline in leaf elongation on transfer to chilling conditions and did not differ significantly from Mxg, indicating greater chilling tolerance than diploid M. sinensis (Msi). Msa also showed the smallest reductions in A(sat) and Phi(PSII), and greater chilling-tolerant photosynthesis than Msi, and three other forms of Mxg, including new triploid accessions and a hexaploid Mxg 'Illinois'. Tetraploid Msa 'PF30153' collected in Gifu Prefecture in Honshu, Japan did not differ significantly from Mxg 'Illinois' in leaf elongation and photosynthesis at low temperature, but was significantly superior to all other forms of Mxg tested. The results suggested that the exceptional chilling tolerance of Mxg 'Illinois' cannot be explained simply by the hybrid vigour of this intraspecific allotriploid. Selection of chilling-tolerant accessions from both of Mxg's parental species, Msi and Msa, would be advisable for breeding new highly chilling-tolerant Mxg genotypes.

  15. Cold Stress Tolerance in Psychrotolerant Soil Bacteria and Their Conferred Chilling Resistance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) under Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Selvakumar, Gopal; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the culturable diversity of psychrotolerant bacteria persistent in soil under overwintering conditions, evaluate their ability to sustain plant growth and alleviate chilling stress in tomato. Psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from agricultural field soil samples colleced during winter and then used to study chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv Mill). Selective isolation after enrichment at 5°C yielded 40 bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic studies indicated their distribution in genera Arthrobacter, Flavimonas, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas. Strains OS211, OB146, OB155 and OS261 consistently improved germination and plant growth when a chilling stress of 15°C was imposed and therefore were selected for pot experiments. Tomato plants treated with the selected four isolates exhibited significant tolerance to chilling as observed through reduction in membrane damage and activation of antioxidant enzymes along with proline synthesis in the leaves when exposed to chilling temperature conditions (15°C). Psychrotolerant physiology of the isolated bacteria combined with their ability to improve germination, plant growth and induce antioxidant capacity in tomato plants can be employed to protect plants against chilling stress.

  16. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling*#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H2O2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato’s response to chilling stress. PMID:27921397

  17. MYC cis-Elements in PsMPT Promoter Is Involved in Chilling Response of Paeonia suffruticosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Zhang

    Full Text Available The MPT transports Pi to synthesize ATP. PsMPT, a chilling-induced gene, was previously reported to promote energy metabolism during bud dormancy release in tree peony. In this study, the regulatory elements of PsMPT promoter involved in chilling response were further analyzed. The PsMPT transcript was detected in different tree peony tissues and was highly expressed in the flower organs, including petal, stigma and stamen. An 1174 bp of the PsMPT promoter was isolated by TAIL-PCR, and the PsMPT promoter::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis was generated and analyzed. GUS staining and qPCR showed that the promoter was active in mainly the flower stigma and stamen. Moreover, it was found that the promoter activity was enhanced by chilling, NaCl, GA, ACC and NAA, but inhibited by ABA, mannitol and PEG. In transgenic plants harboring 421 bp of the PsMPT promoter, the GUS gene expression and the activity were significantly increased by chilling treatment. When the fragment from -421 to -408 containing a MYC cis-element was deleted, the chilling response could not be observed. Further mutation analysis confirmed that the MYC element was one of the key motifs responding to chilling in the PsMPT promoter. The present study provides useful information for further investigation of the regulatory mechanism of PsMPT during the endo-dormancy release.

  18. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H2O2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato's response to chilling stress.

  19. How membranes organize during seed germination: three patterns of dynamic lipid remodelling define chilling resistance and affect plastid biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiamei; Li, Aihua; Li, Weiqi

    2016-01-01

    Imbibitional chilling injury during germination causes agricultural losses but this can be overcome by osmopriming. It remains unknown how membranes reorganize during germination. Herein, we comparatively profiled changes of membrane lipids during imbibition under normal and chilling temperatures in chilling-tolerant and -sensitive soybean seeds. We found three patterns of dynamic lipid remodelling during the three phases of germination. Pattern 1 involved a gradual increase in plastidic lipids during phases I and II, with an abrupt increase during phase III. This abrupt increase was associated with initiation of photosynthesis. Pattern 3 involved phosphatidic acid (PA) first decreasing, then increasing, and finally decreasing to a low level. Pattern 1 and 3 were interrupted in chilling-sensitive seeds under low temperature, which lead a block in plastid biogenesis and accumulation of harmful PA respectively. However, they were rescued and returned to their status under a normal temperature after polyethylene glycol (PEG) osmopriming. We specifically inhibited phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated PA formation in chilling-sensitive seeds of soybean, cucumber, and pea and found their germination under low temperature was significantly improved. These results indicate that membranes undergo specific and functional reorganization of lipid composition during germination and demonstrate that PLD-mediated PA causes imibibitional chilling injury. PMID:25474382

  20. Evaluation of Disinfectants Used in Pre-Chilling water Tanks of Poultry Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHL Guastalli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In poultry processing plants, disinfectants are often added to pre-chilling water tanks to reduce microbial contamination. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of five disinfectants (acidified sodium chlorite, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid, and sodium hypochlorite on the populations of food quality indicator microorganisms and on Salmonella Enteritidis (SE in the presence and absence of organic matter. The results showed that chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite did not reduce microbial carcass counts. On the other hand, acidified sodium chlorite, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and peracetic acid reduced total and fecal coliform counts. Peracetic acid reduced the number of psychrotrophic microorganisms. All products were effective in reducing SE counts only in the absence of organic matter. Acidified sodium chlorite, alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and peracetic acid could be candidates for the replacement of sodium hypochlorite (commonly used in Brazil in pre-chilling tanks.

  1. Calculation of the Chilling Requirement for Air Conditioning in the Excavation Roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueping Qin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively improve the climate conditions of the excavation roadway in coal mine, the calculation of the chilling requirement taking air conditioning measures is extremely necessary. The temperature field of the surrounding rock with moving boundary in the excavation roadway was numerically simulated by using finite volume method. The unstable heat transfer coefficient between the surrounding rock and air flow was obtained via the previous calculation. According to the coupling effects of the air flow inside and outside air duct, the differential calculation mathematical model of air flow temperature in the excavation roadway was established. The chilling requirement was calculated with the selfdeveloped computer program for forecasting the required cooling capacity of the excavation roadway. A good air conditioning effect had been observed after applying the calculated results to field trial, which indicated that the prediction method and calculation procedure were reliable.

  2. Combining active chilled beams and air cleaning technologies to improve indoor climate in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2012-01-01

    in offices. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop was selected to be tested in a laboratory environment. The measurements included tests of the filter in a ductwork to study the efficiency of the filter. Moreover, the combined system of the filter and a chilled beam was tested...... in a room. The removal efficiency of the mechanical filter for ultrafine particles was examined using burning candles as sources for emission of particles. The measurements in the duct showed that the efficiency of the filter ranged between 54% and 78% and the pressure loss was less than 5 Pascal....... Furthermore, the measurement results of the combined system showed that adding the filter accelerated the removal rate of the particles by 2 (h-1). However, the efficiency of the chilled beam in exchanging the heat reduced by 38%....

  3. Combining active chilled beams and air-cleaning technologies to improve the indoor climate in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    of air in offices. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop was selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included tests of the filter in a ductwork to study the efficiency of the filter. Moreover, the combined system of the filter and a chilled beam...... was tested in a room. The efficiency of the mechanical filter to remove ultrafine particles was examined using pure wax candles and salt as sources of emission of particles. The measurements in the duct showed that the efficiency of the filter ranged between 54% and 78% and that the pressure loss was less...... than 5 Pa (0.104 Ibf /ft2). Furthermore, the measurement results of the combined system showed that adding the filter accelerated the removal rate of the particles by 2 h-1. However, the efficiency of the chilled beam in exchanging heat was reduced by 38%....

  4. Effect of Treatment with Natural Antioxidant on the Chilled Beef Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Y. Ivanov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superficial treatment of beef trimm ings and beef knuckles with bone with taxifolin solution (1 g/L on the lipid oxidation development during chilled storage was studied. Beef samples were airpacked or packaged in modified atmosphere consisting of 80%O2/20%CO2. It was found that the combined application of taxifolin treatment and MAP inhibited effectively formation of secondary derivates of lipid oxidation. The lipid hydroperoxides formation of these samples was reduced by 50-60% and accumulation of TBARS was significantly retarded in com parison with untreated w ith taxifolin, air-packed control samples. The MAP was found as the crucial factor for minimization of the FAME composition changes of chilled beef.

  5. Inhibition Effect of Herbal Preservatives on Listeria monocytogenes on Chilled Pork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liu; KONG Baohua; DIAO Xinping; LIU Jing

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the growth situation of Listeria monocytogenes on chilled pork and the effect of herbal preservatives on this pathogen.The inhibitions of herbal preservatives were identified. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of cinnamon and clove were all 0.79 mg·mL-1,while the rosemary was 1.58 mg.mL-1.And the composite herbal preservatives were got through orthogonal experiment.The optimum proportion was as following on agar medium:1.16 mg·mL-1 cinnamon+2.38 mg·mL-1 rosemary+3.17mg·mL-1 clove (herb combination number 5),while on chilled pork,the strong inhibition of L.monocytogenes was showed,which demonstrated that the surface application of herb combination resulted in an effective delay of L.monocytogenes growth.

  6. Effect of Package Type on Selected Parameters of Nutritional Quality of Chill-Stored White Sauerkraut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta-Duch Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica vegetables, including white cabbage, both fresh and sour (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L., contain a lot of valuable metabolites which are effective in chemoprevention of cancer as documented by numerous studies. This work investigates the effect of different packaging types; low density polyethylene (PE-LD and metalized polyethylene terephthalate (PET met/PE with polyethylene bags on selected quality parameters in chill-stored white sauerkraut. Sauerkraut was subjected to refrigerated storage for 4 months. Every month, stored sauerkraut was analyzed in terms of vitamin C, total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the type of packaging had a significant influence on the antioxidant activity of chilled stored sauerkraut.

  7. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase expression in four pineapple varieties (Ananas comosus L.) after a chilling injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Marie-Alphonsine, Paul-Alex; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Francois-Haugrin, Madlyn; Romuald, Karell; Soler, Alain

    2011-01-12

    Pineapple internal browning (IB) is a chilling injury that produces enzymatic browning associated with flesh translucency. Pineapple biodiversity allowed the investigation of how polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities with their different isoforms are involved in the IB mechanism. Fruits of four varieties that expressed IB symptoms differently, Smooth Cayenne (SCay) and the hybrids MD2, Flhoran 41 (Flh 41), and Flhoran 53 (Flh 53), were stressed by cold. The susceptible varieties showed classical brown spots but different patterns of IB, whereas MD2 and controls showed no IB. Enzymatic activities were measured on fruit protein extracts and PPO and POD isoforms separated on mini-gels (PhastSystem). Only PPO activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of IB. Up to six PPO isoforms were identified in the susceptible varieties. PPO was barely detectable in the nonsusceptible variety MD2 and in controls. The number of PPO isoforms and the total PPO activity after chilling are varietal characteristics.

  8. Evaluating the ChillFish Biofeedback Game with Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    Breathing exercises have been shown to have multiple benefits for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, these children can have issues retaining attention to such an exercise. In this paper we present a study of ChillFish, a respiration game for children with ADHD....... Our findings show tendencies that the game works in terms of having a calming effect. However, the study also highlighted issues of evaluating biofeedback games with children with ADHD that are not present when evaluating with adults. This work presents an iteration in the ChillFish development cycle...... that will hopefully result in a stable system that can assist children with ADHD in their everyday life....

  9. Convective and radiative components of wind chill in sheep: Estimation from meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D.; Mount, L. E.

    1987-06-01

    Wind chill is defined as the excess of sensible heat loss over what would occur at zero wind speed with other conditions unchanged. Wind chill can be broken down into a part that is determined by air temperature and a radiative part that comprises wind-dependent effects on additional long-wave radiative exchange and on solar radiation (by reducing solar warming). Radiative exchange and gain from solar radiation are affected by changes that are produced by wind in both surface and fleece insulations. Coefficients are derived for (a) converting the components of sensible heat exchange (air-temperature-dependent including both convective and associated long-wave radiative, additional long-wave radiative and solar) into the components of the total heat loss that are associated with wind and (b) for calculating equivalent air temperature changes. The coefficients contain terms only in wind speed, wetting of the fleece and fleece depth; these determine the external insulation. Calculation from standard meteorological records, using Plymouth and Aberdeen in 1973 as examples, indicate that in April September 1973 at Plymouth reduction in effective solar warming constituted 28% of the 24-h total wind chill, and 7% in the other months of the year combined; at Aberdeen the corresponding percentages were 25% and 6%. Mean hour-of-day estimates for the months of April and October showed that at midday reduction in solar warming due to wind rose to the order of half the air-temperature-dependent component of wind chill, with a much smaller effect in January. For about six hours at midday in July reduction in solar warming due to wind was similar in magnitude to the air-temperature-dependent component. It is concluded that realistic estimates of wind chill cannot be obtained unless the effect of solar radiation is taken into account. Failure to include solar radiation results not only in omitting solar warming but also in omitting the effects of wind in reducing that warming. The

  10. Innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system for simultaneous heating and cooling of office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    energy between zones with one hydronic circuit, operating with a water temperature between 20°C and 23°C. To calculate the energy performance of the system, simulation-based research was developed. The two-pipe system was modelled by using EnergyPlus, a whole building energy simulation program. Hourly......The aim of this paper was to investigate the energy savings potential of an innovative two-pipe system in an active chilled beam application for heating and cooling of office buildings. The characteristic of the system is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling by transferring...... heating, cooling and ventilation loads were calculated by the program and an annual energy consumption evaluation of the system was made. Simulation results showed that the innovative two-pipe active chilled beam system used approximately 5% less energy than a conventional four-pipe system....

  11. Resting physiological arousal is associated with the experience of music-induced chills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions.

  12. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Research progress in chilling injury of banana and its cultivation techniques against chilling%香蕉寒害及防寒栽培技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟海飞; 吴代东; 邹瑜; 林贵美; 张进忠

    2012-01-01

    Banana, sensitive to temperature, is vulnerable to chilling. Accordingly chilling resistance research, chilling forecast and prevention of banana is a long-standing critical challenge of banana production in China. Definition, symptoms and physiology of chilling injury together with meteorology and chilling-resistant cultivation measures were re-viewed based on relevant literaiure in recent 30 years. Key issues in this regard were described as follows: The first, critical concepts concerning banana chilling injury were mixed-up; the second, allogenic. materials could not he used to improve chilling resistance capability in practical production; the third, banana production was mainly distributed in less-suitable planting areas; the fourth, unbalance existed in banana demand and supply after cold injury; and the last, lack of cold-resistant banana cullivars. A series of corresponding countemeasures were put forward in order to provide references for chilling injury research, chilling resistance cultivation , post-disaster production recovery and chilling resistant varieties breeding.%香蕉对温度极为敏感,抗寒性差,香蕉抗寒的研究和预测防御是我国香蕉生产长期存在的关键性难题.文章参考近30年的有关文献,对香蕉的寒害定义、寒害症状、寒害生理学、气象学、防寒栽培措施等进行综述,指出我国香蕉寒害研究存在关键概念混淆、实际生产尚不能应用外源物质提高香蕉抗寒能力、香蕉生产主要分布于种植的次适宜区、香蕉寒害后产供失衡、缺乏抗寒品种等问题,并针对存在的问题提出了相应对策,以期为香蕉寒害的研究、防寒栽培、灾后恢复生产及抗寒品种选育提供参考依据.

  14. Necrotrophic fungi associated with epidermal microcracking caused by chilling injury in pickling cucumber fruit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to visualize the association between microcracking and other epidermal chilling injury symptoms, and to identify rots in cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L.) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Depressed epidermal areas and surface cracking due to damages of subepidermal cells characterized the onset of pitting in cucumber fruit. The germination of conidia of Alternaria alternata, with some of them evident on the fractures in the cultivar Trópico, occurred aft...

  15. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  16. Sensory quality control in the chilled and frozen ready meal, soup and sauce sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Swainson, Mark; McWatt, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of sensory evaluation in the assurance of product quality within the food production sectors of ready meals, soups and sauces. The chapter methodically reviews typical food processing stages, from recipe development through to end product supply, and considers how sensory assessment methods can be utilised to help assure the quality of the end products within these selected High Risk Chilled Food sectors.

  17. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit. PMID:27812364

  18. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Background In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. Results In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong doubl...

  19. Chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation system: Laboratory study with high cooling load

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, S.; Bauman, FS; Tully, B; Rimmer, J

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 ASHRAE.Radiant chilled ceilings with displacement ventilation represent a promising system that combines the energy efficiency of both subsystems with the opportunity for improved ventilation performance. Laboratory experiments were conducted for an interior zone office with a very high cooling load (91.0 W/m2) and with two different heat source heights to investigate their influence on thermal stratification and air change effectiveness. The results showed that displacement ventilatio...

  20. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Radiant chilled ceilings (CC) with displacement ventilation (DV) represent a promising integrated system design that combines the energy efficiency of both sub-systems with the opportunity for improved ventilation performance resulting from the thermally stratified environment of DV systems. The purpose of this study was to conduct laboratory experiments for a typical U.S. interior zone office to investigate how room air stratification is affected by the ratio of cooling load removed by a chi...

  1. Study of Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars at Seedling Stage Using Morphological and Physiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hedayatkhah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress is one of the most important environmental stresses for rice especially in temperate and high elevation areas. In present study, the effect of different temperatures, as the main plot, including 25 (control, 10 and 5°C on 12 rice cultivars (including Champa Yasouj, Gerde, Lenjan Askari, Kaamfirouz, Kohsar, Shafagh, Domsiya Mamassani, Dular, Gharib, Hasan saraei, Mosa Tarom and 304 as the sub plot, was investigated using a split plot experiment based on a completely randomized design with 3 replications. According to the results of ANOVA, the effects of temperature, cultivar and their interaction were significant for all measured traits, indicating that there was high genetic diversity among the studied cultivars. Means of all studied morphological traits decreased in cold stress condition relative to non-stress condition. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients showed that shoot (seedling related traits such as shoot fresh and dry weights and shoot length could be used for indirect selection for chilling tolerance in cold stress conditions at seedling stage. Based on cultivar grouping using the 3-dimensional plot of STI, YS and YP, Gharib and Champa Yasouj cultivars were identified as the most suitable cultivars in both cold stress and non stress conditions. Most of the studied cultivars including Gerde, Lenjan Askari, Kaamfirouz, Kohsar, Domsiya Mamassani, 304, Mosa Tarom and Hasan Saraei were found to be chilling sensitive cultivars at the seedling stage. Therefore, crosses between chilling resistant (Gharib and Champa Yasouj and chilling sensitive cultivars will be useful for detecting transgressive segregation and improving cold stress tolerance in rice breeding programs.

  2. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of 'Keitt' mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit.

  3. [Visible/NIR analysis of fat, protein and water in chilled pork].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui-Wu; Cheng, Fang; Lin, Hong-Jian; Sun, Tong; Xu, Kai; Hu, Lei-Xiu; Ying, Yi-Bin; Xu, Hui-Rong

    2009-01-01

    Fat, protein and water were determined by visible and NIR transmittance spectroscopy in chilled pork. After preprocessed by multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), the quantitative analysis models were developed based on the original, first derivative and second derivative spectra by using partial least squares (PLS) at the temperatures of 0-4 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. By comparing the correlation coefficient (r), RMSEC, and SEP, we found that the first derivative model was the best, and the performance for 0-4 degrees C was better than that for 20 degrees C. At 0-4 degrees C and 20 degrees C, the correlation coefficients were 0.950 and 0.924 for fat, 0.713 and 0.455 for protein and 0.944 and 0.914 for water respectively, SEP values were 2.41 and 2.95 for fat, 5.44 and 4.25 for protein, and 2.37 and 2.38 for water respectively. The results showed that the visible and NIR analysis could measure the fat and water contents in chilled pork well, but was bad for protein, and this was caused by processing line of chilled pork. What's more, the spectrum offset was found in the original spectra at about 770 nm to be about 10 nm.

  4. Extending Shelf Life of Chilled Pork by Combination of Chitosan Coating With Spice Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiufang; KONG Baohua

    2008-01-01

    The effects of spices (cinnamon, rosemary, clove) extracts and chitosan on microbiological growth, drip loss, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh chilled meat stored for 28 days at 4"C were investigated. There were four treatments: control, coated with spices(cimmamon 1.5g·L-1+rosemary 1.5·L-1+colve 1.0 g·L-1),coated with 0.5% chitosan,coated with spices and chitosan.Chitosan coating resulted in significant inhibition of microbial growth (P<0.05), while the lowest microbial counts were obtained in the samples containing both chitosan and spices, indicating a possible synergistic effect. Chitosan and its combinations with spices also showed the most intense antioxidative effect when compared to the controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, chitosan coating could decrease water loss and keep better color of chilled meat. The combined spice extracts and chitosan coating could effectively extend the shelf life of chilled meat.

  5. The effects of manganese phosphate coating wear resistance of chilled ductile iron camshafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarık Gün

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ductile iron camshafts are preferred due to high toughness and strength features in the automobile industry. Through the coolants used in the camshaft production high surface hardness is achieved. In this study, the wear resistance effects of ductile iron chill produced camshafts coated with manganese phosphate are researched. The camshaft surfaces produced as ductile iron chill are coated with manganese phosphate. The coating surfaces are observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM. The changes occurring on the cam profiles are measured with running the wear resistance of the manganese phosphate coating on the camshafts on the engine test rig with 30 minutes interval in 1000rpm. In order to compare the results of uncoated camshafts run on engines are checked against simultaneously. As result, the manganese phosphate coated cams were 2,8 times less worn up than the uncoated cams. The manganese phosphate coated ductile iron chill camshafts are less worn up according to uncoated camshafts because of the oil holding feature of manganese phosphate coating.

  6. Low-temperature conditioning induces chilling tolerance in stored mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengke; Zhu, Qinggang; Hu, Meijiao; Gao, Zhaoyin; An, Feng; Li, Min; Jiang, Yueming

    2017-03-15

    In this study, mango fruit were pre-treated with low-temperature conditioning (LTC) at 12°C for 24h, followed by refrigeration at 5°C for 25days before removal to ambient temperature (25°C) to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of LTC on chilling injury (CI). The results showed that LTC effectively suppressed the development of CI in mango fruit, accelerated softening, and increased the soluble solids and proline content. Furthermore, LTC reduced electrolyte leakage, and levels of malondialdehyde, O2(-) and H2O2, maintaining membrane integrity. To reveal the molecular regulation of LTC on chilling tolerance in mango fruit, a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) gene, MiCBF1, was identified and its expression in response to LTC was examined using RT-qPCR. LTC resulted in a higher MiCBF1 expression. These findings suggest that LTC enhances chilling tolerance in mango fruit by inducing a series of physiological and molecular responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on dog sperm longevity in chilling storage and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahashi, Yu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Higaki, Shogo; Nagano, Masashi; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble antioxidant, on dog sperm in chilling storage and cryopreservation. In Experiment 1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM BHT were added to egg yolk Tris extender (EYT), and sperm were stored at 4°C for 96 hr. Sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity and morphological abnormality in the BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control (0 mM BHT). In Experiment 2, the effect of BHT in EYT containing 0.75% Equex STM paste and 5% glycerol on survivability of cryopreserved sperm was examined after culture at 39°C for 3 hr. Sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity in the 0.2 to 0.8 mM BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control. However, sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity decreased when 1.6 mM BHT was added to the extender (PBHT did not affect characteristics of dog sperm in chilling storage and cryopreservation. Supplementation of 1.6 mM BHT did not affect characteristics of chilled sperm but impaired longevity of cryopreserved sperm in the dog.

  8. Effects of ascorbic acid on some physiological changes of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) under chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaci, Aysel; Kaya, A; Duman, Sevcan

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the changes caused by chilling stress on some physiological parameters of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) plant and the effects of ascorbic acid (100 mM) applied exogenously on these changes were examined. For this purpose, the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, malondialdehyde and proline contents in leaves of pepino taken on 5th and 10th days were determined. As a result of chilling stress, it was found that while the photosynthetic pigments and proline contents decreased in pepino leaves, the ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds and malondialdehyde contents increased. In plants which were subjected to pre-treatment of ascorbic acid on the 10th day of stress, ascorbic acid and proline contents increased while a decrease was observed in malondialdehyde content, compared to stress group without pre-treated. This study may be important for explaining resistance induced by treatment of exogenous ascorbic acid in pepino exposed to chilling stress.

  9. Relationship between cooling rate and microsegregation in bottom-chilled directionally solidified ductile irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang W.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between cooling rate and microsegregation of directionally solidified ductile iron. The unidirectional heat transfer system used in this research is made up of a copper mold kept chilled by circulating water and embedded in the bottom of Furan sand mold. Thermocouples are connected to the computer measuring system to record the cooling curves of the castings at a distance of 0, 30, 60 and 90 mm from the chilled copper mold surface. Alloys including Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni and Ti were added to the specimens. Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA was employed to examine distribution of elements between the dendrite arms and nodular graphite. Results show that unidirectional heat transfer affects directly the solidification mode and microstructure of the casting. The cooling curves reveal that local solidification time increases with increasing distance from the chilled copper mold surface. Different solidification rates with corresponding microstructure and element segregation were observed in the same unidirectionally solidified casting. Local solidification time was closely related to element segregation. The effective segregation coefficient (Keff calculated using the Scheil equation was found to vary, according to the stage of solidification. The actual segregation characteristics of complex alloys generally follow the Scheil equation.

  10. Experimental investigation on chill-down process of cryogenic flow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingxue; Park, Changgi; Cho, Hyokjin; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the cryogenic chill-down experiments that are conducted on a 12.7 mm outer diameter, 1.25 mm wall thickness and 7 m long stainless steel horizontal pipe with liquid nitrogen (LN2). The pipe is vacuum insulated during the experiment to minimize the heat leak from room temperature and to enable one to numerically simulate the process easily. The temperature and the pressure profiles of the chill-down line are obtained at the location which is 5.5 m in a distance from the pipe inlet. The mass flux range is approximately from 19 kg/m2 s to 49 kg/m2 s, which corresponds to the Reynolds numbers range from 1469 to 5240. The transient histories of temperature, pressure and mass flow rate during the line chill-down process are monitored, and the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux are computed by an inverse problem solving method. The amplitude of the pressure oscillation and the oscillating period become larger and longer at higher pressure conditions. In the low mass flux conditions, the critical heat flux in horizontal pipes is not sensitive to mass flux, and is higher than that in vertical pipes. Kutateladze's correlation with the constant coefficient, B = 0.029 , well matches the experimental data in the current work. In nucleate flow boiling regime, heat transfer coefficient, h , is proportional to (q″)n , and n is equal to 0.7.

  11. A cold-induced phytosulfokine peptide is related to the improvement of loquat fruit chilling tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huwei; Wang, Xinfeng; Hu, Weicheng; Yang, Xianghui; Diao, Enjie; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian

    2017-10-01

    A novel peptidomics approach was used to discover cold-induced peptides in loquat fruit. Twenty unique peptides derived from 18 proproteins were identified, and they were involved in sugar signalling, protein metabolism and stress response. The quantitative analysis revealed 7 peptides with more than 2-fold upregulation, especially a 4.96-fold increase detected in the phytosulfokine (PSK) peptide. To further evaluate effects of PSK1 on fruit chilling tolerance, weight loss, firmness and internal browning were investigated in PSK1-treated loquat fruit at 0°C. By contrast, these chilling injury symptoms were effectively reduced by PSK1. PSK1 markedly delayed decreases of ATP content and energy charge. The PSK1-treated fruit exhibited significantly lower activities of cell-wall degrading enzymes and transcripts of genes related to lignin synthesis. Our results demonstrated that PSK1 improves chilling tolerance of loquat fruit by maintaining high energy status and cell integrity. Peptidomics analysis provides a promising tool to discover some key peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Avaliação da necessidade de frio em pessegueiro Avaliation of chilling requirement in peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idemir Citadin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de frio de seis cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] foi estudada em plantas de um e dois anos, em vasos, submetidas a 150; 300; 450 e 600 horas a 2ºC, e em ramos coletados periodicamente em plantas sob condições de frio natural, a campo. Considerando os resultados obtidos nos dois experimentos, estima-se que a necessidade de frio de 'Precocinho' é em torno de 300 horas a 2ºC, equivalente a 150 unidades de frio (UF pelo modelo de Utah, ou próxima a 200 horas abaixo de 12ºC; para 'Eldorado' e 'Rio grandense', em 450 horas a 2ºC (225 UF ou 365 horas abaixo de 12ºC; para 'BR-1', em 450 horas a 2ºC (225 UF ou 418 horas abaixo de 12ºC; e para 'Planalto' e 'Della Nona', acima de 600 horas a 2ºC (>300 UF. Não foi possível estabelecer a necessidade de frio abaixo de 12ºC para 'Della Nona'.Chilling requirement was investigated in six peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] cultivars observing plants in containers, with one or two years, artificially chilled by 150, 300, 450, and 600 hours at 2ºC, and in excised shoots that were periodically taken from the orchard during the rest period. Chilling requirement of 'Precocinho' is 300 hours at 2ºC (around 150 chilling units - CU - using Utah Model or around 200 hours under 12ºC; 'Riograndense' and 'Eldorado' have 450 chilling hours at 2ºC (225 CU or 365 chilling hours under 12ºC; 'BR-1' is 450 chilling requirement at 2ºC (225 CU or 418 chilling hours under 12 ºC; and 'Planalto' and 'Della Nona' are over 600 chilling hours at 2ºC (>300 CU. It was not possible to estimate chilling requirement in 'Della Nona' using temperatures under 12 ºC.

  13. Delayed germination of Arabidopsis seeds under chilling stress by overexpressing an abiotic stress inducible GhTPS11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Li; Zhang, Shi-Cai; Qi, Sheng-Dong; Zheng, Cheng-Chao; Wu, Chang-Ai

    2016-01-10

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) plays an important role in metabolic regulation and stress responses in a variety of organisms. However information about cotton TPS is poor. Here a cotton TPS gene GhTPS11 was isolated and characterized. Expression analysis revealed that GhTPS11 was induced in 20-day old cotton seedlings by heat drought and high salt stresses as well as GA and ABA. Moreover GhTPS11 was induced by chilling stress and mannitol while was depressed by sucrose. Tissue expression analysis indicated that GhTPS11 expressed higher in leaves than in stems and roots of 20-day old cotton seedlings. The GhTPS11 overexpressing Arabidopsis seeds germinated slower than the wild-type (WT) under chilling stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) and trehalose contents were evidently higher in GhTPS11 overexpressing lines 3, 5, and 22 than in WT under normal germination condition as well as chilling stress. Further analysis demonstrated that the expression of ICE1 CBF3 and RCI2A was induced lower whereas that of CBF1 and CBF2 was induced higher under chilling stress in the GhTPS11 overexpressing seeds than WT respectively. These results suggested that GhTPS11 encoded a stress-responsive TPS protein and functioned in chilling stress during seed germination. Perhaps the chilling stress sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was caused by the expression changes of at least some chilling-related genes such as ICE1 CBFs and RCI2A other than HOS1. So this article provided the useful information for GhTPS11 usage for crop molecular breeding.

  14. The relationship between the expression of ethylene-related genes and papaya fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya.

  15. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    Full Text Available Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover

  16. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  17. Heterology expression of the sweet pepper CBF3 gene confers elevated tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Tang, Xian-Feng; Ma, Na-Na; Wang, Li-Yan; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2011-10-15

    Various studies have confirmed that the CBF (C-repeat binding factor) family of transcription factors has a key role in regulating many plants' responses to cold stress. Here we isolated CBF3 from sweet pepper (Capsicum frutescens). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein of CfCBF3 was targeted to the nucleus of the onion epidermis cell. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that CfCBF3 was expressed in leaves of sweet pepper and the expression was induced by low temperature, drought and salinity stresses but not by ABA. Overexpression of CfCBF3 under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in tobacco induced expression of orthologs of CBF3-targeted genes and increased chilling tolerance without a dwarf phenotype. Indeed it also led to multiple biochemical and physiological changes associated with chilling stress. Higher levels of proline (Pro) and soluble sugars and lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed in transgenic plants. Our results demonstrated that the increase in total unsaturated fatty acids, especially in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was detected by overexpression of CfCBF3. During exposure to chilling stress, the transgenic lines were less susceptible to chilling-induced photoinhibition than wild-type (WT) plants. These results suggest that overexpression of CfCBF3 led to modification of the fatty acid unsaturation and alleviated the injuries under chilling stress.

  18. Effect of Maturity Stage on the Gene Expression of Antioxidative Enzymes in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Fruits Under Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Chun-lu; MI Hong-bo; ZHAO Yu-ying; HE Zhi-ping; MAO Lin-chun

    2013-01-01

    The gene expression patterns of antioxidative enzymes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruits at four different maturity stages, immature (3-8 d after anthesis (DAA), mature (9-16 DAA), breaker (17-22 DAA), and yellow (35-40 DAA), were determined before and after cold storage at 2°C for 9 d and after subsequent rewarming at 20°C for 2 d. The electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content in cucumber fruits were increased after cold storage and subsequent rewarming. Increased expressions of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase after cold storage played an important role in cucumber fruits to cope with chilling injury. The elevated cyt-superoxide dismutase, catalase, APX and dehydroascorbate reductase after subsequent rewarming in cucumber fruits facilitated the recovery from chilling stress. The highest expression levels of all the seven antioxidative enzyme genes in yellow fruits might be responsible for the enhanced chilling tolerance. Cucumber fruits at earlier developmental stages was more susceptible to chilling stress than those at later stages. The relative higher gene expressions of antioxidative enzymes genes at earlier developmental stages may be the responses to the sever oxidative stress caused by chilling injury.

  19. Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Variasi Dimensi Cil Dalam (Internal Chill Terhadap Cacat Penyusutan (Shrinkage Pada Pengecoran Aluminium 6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Ginanjar Kusuma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium merupakan salah satu material yang semakin banyak dimanfaatkan terutama pada industri komponen mesin. Cacat pada hasil cor sangat dihindari karena akan berpengaruh pada kualitas hasil yang merubah dimensi dan sifat mekanik dari benda hasil cor. Shrinkage merupakan cacat yang terjadi karena perbedaan kecepatan pendinginan pada benda cor. Penambahan variasi ukuran dimensi cil dalam (internal chill bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh perubahan dimensi terhadap cacat shrinkage pada pengecoran. Penelitian pembuatan benda coran dilakukan dengan menggunakan bahan coran aluminium 6061 dengan menggunakan metode pengecoran pasir. Sistem saluran yang digunakan menggunakan ketentuan AFS. Jenis saluran yang digunakan adalah horizontal parting-line, serta pasir cetak dengan komposisi pasir silica 89%, bentonit 7,5%, dan air 3,5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengaruh penggunaan dimensi internal chill terhadap prosentase jumlah cacat shrinkage dengan diameter 15, 20, dan 25 secara berurutan sebesar 3,82, 1,28, dan 1,01%. Penggunaan variasi dimensi internal chill pada pengecoran benda yang semakin diperbesar dapat berfungsi dengan baik serta menggeser lokasi cacat penyusutan menjauhi internal chill. Grafik yang didapatkan dari pengukuran pada internal chill diameter 25 mm (daerah yang mengalami prosentase cacat terkecil memiliki kemampuan menyerap panas lebih baik daripada diameter 15 dan 20 mm.

  20. The influence of chilling requirement on the southern distribution limit of exotic Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Kimberly R.; Brown, C.S.; Friedman, J.M.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2012-01-01

    Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), a Eurasian tree now abundant along rivers in western North America, has an apparent southern distribution limit running through southern California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. We used field observations to precisely define this limit in relation to temperature variables. We then investigated whether lack of cold temperatures south of the limit may prevent the accumulation of sufficient chilling, inhibiting dormancy loss of seeds and buds. We found that Russian olive occurrence was more strongly associated with low winter temperatures than with high summer temperatures, and results of controlled seed germination and vegetative bud-break experiments suggest that the chilling requirements for germination and bud-break are partly responsible for the southern range limit. Both seed germination proportion and germination time decreased under conditions simulating those south of the range limit. Similarly, percentage bud break decreased when chilling dropped below values typical of the range limit. In 17–65% of the years from 1980 to 2000, the chilling accumulated at a site near the range limit (El Paso, TX) would lead to a 10% or more decrease in bud-break. The potential decline in growth could have large fitness consequences for Russian olive. If climate change exhibits a warming trend, our results suggest the chilling requirement for bud-break of Russian olive trees will not be met in some years and its southern range limit may retreat northward.

  1. Isolation and Expression Profile Analysis of Genes Relevant to Chilling Stress During Seed Imbibition in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Meer.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-bao; LI Shu-yan; HE Guang-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Germination of soybean seed is always arrested by chilling imbibitional stress,and this phenomenon is widespread in the plant seed kingdom,but has not been studied at molecular level.In this experiment,eDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique was applied to isolate genes relevant to chilling stress (4~C) during soybean seed imbibition.Eight genes were found to be up-regulated and two were down-regulated during chilling stress respectively.Four up-regulated genes were selected to analyze the expression profiles during imbibition under chilling condition.It was demonstrated that the four genes were induced significantly by 4℃ for 24 h,and decreased when the temperature was shifted from 4 to 22℃.GMCHI,a highly chilling stress-induced gene which responded to abseisic acid (ABA),polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl,showed great stress-resistance according to published reports.Cos78 was identified to be induced by PEG.However,Cos66 and Cos36 transcription showed no change to ABA,PEG,and NaCl.From the characteristic of genes isolated from the embryonic axis,we concluded that soybean seeds have different pathways to adapt to various biotic and abiotic stresses by regulating many signal transduction pathways.

  2. Simulation Study of Al-1Mn/Al-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin

    2016-02-01

    A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and Al-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of Al-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while Al-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 μm, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the Al-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of Al-1Mn alloy.

  3. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Pedroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04 were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g. The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  4. Response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants treated with triacontanol and Asahi SL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments on cucumber cv. Śremski F1, the effect of short-term chilling on plants earlier treated with triacontanol (TRIA and Asahi SL was investigated. These plants were grown in a phytotron at an air temperature of 27/22°C (day/night, using fluorescent light with far flux density of 220 µmol × m-2 × s-1, with a photoperiod 16/8. At the 4th true leaf stage, the respective experimental series were sprayed with: 1 H2O - control, 2 TRIA 0.01, 3 TRIA 0.1, 4 TRIA 1.0 mg × dm-3, 5 Asahi SL 0.2, 6 Asahi SL 0.3%. After 24 hours one half of the plants from each experimental series was treated for a period of 3 days at a temperature of 12/6°C, with all the other growth conditions unchanged. The obtained results have shown that short-term chilling stress caused a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, free proline content and in the activity of guaiacol peroxidase in leaves, but a decrease in chlorophyll a+b content, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis, leaf area and in the activity of catalase in leaves. The application of TRIA or ASAHI SL on leaves in the pre-stress period reduced the values of the traits which had been increased as a result of chilling and increased those which had reduced. Generally, TRIA was most effective at a concentration of 0.1 mg × dm-3, and Asahi SL at a concentration of 0.3%.

  5. The microbiology of beef carcasses and primals during chilling and commercial storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rachael; Fanning, Séamus; Whyte, Paul; Kerry, Joe; Lindqvist, Roland; Yu, Zhongyi; Bolton, Declan

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to characterise (microbiology and physical parameters) beef carcasses and primals during chilled storage. A minor aim was to compare observed growth of key spoilage bacteria on carcasses with that predicted by ComBase and the Food Safety Spoilage Predictor (FSSP). Total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriacae count (TEC), Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta and Clostridium spp. were monitored on beef carcasses (n = 30) and primals (n = 105) during chilled storage using EC Decision 2001/471/EC and ISO sampling/laboratory procedures. The surface and/or core temperature, pH and water activity (aw) were also recorded. Clostridium (1.89 log10 cfu/cm(2)) and Pseudomonas spp. (2.12 log10 cfu/cm(2)) were initially the most prevalent bacteria on carcasses and primals, respectively. The shortest mean generation time (G) was observed on carcasses with Br. thermosphacta (20.3 h) and on primals with LAB (G = 68.8 h) and Clostridium spp. (G = 67 h). Over the course of the experiment the surface temperature decreased from 37 °C to 0 °C, pH from 7.07 to 5.65 and aw from 0.97 to 0.93 The observed Pseudomonas spp. and Br. thermosphacta growth was more or less within the range of predictions of Combase. In contrast, the FSSP completely overestimated the growth of LAB. This study contributes to the very limited microbiological data on beef carcasses and primals during chilling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  7. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  8. Characteristics of Three Thioredoxin Genes and Their Role in Chilling Tolerance of Harvested Banana Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuwang; Li, Qing; Yan, Huiling; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Guoxiang; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small proteins with a conserved redox active site WCGPC and are involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. However, little information on the role of Trx in regulating low-temperature stress of harvested fruit is available. In this study, three full-length Trx cDNAs, designated MaTrx6, MaTrx9 and MaTrx12, were cloned from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments showed that MaTrx6 was grouped to h2 type with a typical active site of WCGPC, whereas MaTrx9 and MaTrx12 were assigned to atypical cys his-rich Trxs (ACHT) and h3 type with atypical active sites of GCAGC and WCSPC, respectively. Subcellular localization indicated that MaTrx6 and MaTrx12 were located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, whereas MaTrx9 showed a dual cytoplasmic and chloroplast localization. Application of ethylene induced chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, whereas 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, aggravated the development of chilling injury. RT-qPCR analysis showed that expression of MaTrx12 was up-regulated and down-regulated in ethylene- and 1-MCP-treated banana fruit at low temperature, respectively. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MaTrx12 in cytoplasmic Trx-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increased the viability of the strain under H2O2. These results suggest that MaTrx12 plays an important role in the chilling tolerance of harvested banana fruit, possibly by regulating redox homeostasis. PMID:27618038

  9. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D L; Dogenski, M; Thomazini, M; Heinemann, R J B; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10(3) CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  10. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  11. The effect of hot-rolling on chill-cast AI-AI3Ni, chill-cast AI-AI2Cu, and Unidirectionally Solidified AI-AI3Ni Eutectic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, F. S. J.; Cantor, B.

    1986-11-01

    The effect of hot-rolling on the mechanical properties and microstructures of chill-cast Al-Al3Ni, chill-cast Al-Al2Cu, and unidirectionally solidified Al-Al3Ni eutectic alloys has been studied. The chill-cast eutectic alloys were produced by casting into preheated mild steel molds placed on copper chills. This system promoted growth along the length of the ingot and not radially from the mold wall. Cellular microstructures resulted with good alignment of Al3Ni fibers or Al2Cu lamellae within the cells and an interfiber/lamellar spacing of ~ 1 /urn. In contrast, the Al-Al3Ni eutectic alloy was also unidirectionally solidified at a growth rate of 3 x 10-1 m s-1 in a conventional horizontal crystal grower. This produced well-aligned Al3Ni fibers with an interfiber spacing of 1.2 ώm. Both the unidirectionally solidified and chill-cast Al-Al3Ni eutectic alloy can be hot-rolled at 773 K to reductions in area of greater than 95 pct. Deformation was achieved by Al3Ni fiber fracturing followed by separation of the broken fiber fragments in the rolling direction. Additionally, for the chill-cast eutectic the cellular microstructure disappeared and the Al3Ni fibers were homogeneously distributed throughout the matrix, after area reductions of 60 to 70 pct. In both cases, the eutectic microstructure was deformed with a constant volume fraction of Al3Ni/unit volume being maintained during rolling. The chill-cast Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy can be hot-rolled at 773 K to an area reduction of ~50 pct, after the continuous brittle Al2Cu phase within the cells has been ‘broken up’ by coarsening at high temperature. The variations of room temperature tensile properties for the chill-cast and unidirectionally solidified eutectic alloys were measured as a function of reduction of thickness during hot-rolling and the results were compared with predicted strengths from discontinuous fiber reinforcement theory.

  12. Comparative evaluation of gum arabic coating and vacuum packaging on chilled storage characteristics of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Sahu, Upali; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2016-04-01

    The effect of edible coating using gum arabic on biochemical, microbiological, textural and sensory characteristics of fresh gutted mackerel stored at 4 °C was investigated. The results were further compared against the samples packed under vacuum (VP) and conventional polyethylene pouches (CP). Coating with gum arabic (GC) markedly retarded lipid oxidation process in gutted mackerel compared to VP and CP samples. Moreover, VP and CP samples showed higher degree of textural deterioration compared to GC samples. Microbiologically, the shelf life of chilled gutted Indian mackerel was estimated to be 7-8, 17 and 19-20 days for CP, GC and VP samples, respectively. The sensory analysis scores confirmed the efficacy of gum coating in retarding the spoilage process during chilled storage. The current study identifies the potential of edible coating with gum arabic to improve the overall quality of Indian mackerel and extend its storage life during chilled storage.

  13. Microbiological and shelf life characteristics of eviscerated and vacuum packed freshwater catfish (Ompok pabda) during chill storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Viji, P; Visnuvinayagam, S; Ninan, George; Sangeeta, G; Triveni, A; Ravishankar, C N

    2015-03-01

    The effect of vacuum packaging technique on the shelflife of eviscerated pabda catfish (Ompok pabda) during chill storage at 4 ± 2 °C was studied. The shelflife of pabda fish was predicted based on the cumulative observations of biochemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. There was no significant difference in the lipid quality parameters studied between the samples during the chill storage period, whereas, vacuum packaging significantly improved the sensory and microbiological quality. Based on microbiological parameters such as Total Viable Count, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Spp, total Vibrios, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, faecal Streptococcus and anaerobic sulphite reducers, the shelflife of chilled gutted pabda catfish was estimated to be 14-16 and 18-20 days for air packed and vacuum packed samples, respectively. The sensory parameters showed extended shelflife by four more days for both the samples.

  14. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations.

  15. Incidence of ripening and chilling injury on the oxidative activities and Fatty Acid compositions of the mitochondria from mango fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, O; Marcellin, P

    1978-04-01

    The succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria isolated from mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) stored at 4, 8, 12, and 20 C were investigated during storage. In normally ripening fruits (at 12 and 20 C) the oxidative capacities increased during the first 10 days and then decreased slowly. At lower temperatures (4 and 8 C), the fruits showed chilling injury symptoms, after about 10 days of storage and the succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria decreased progressively. Plots of succinate oxidation capacities as against storage temperature showed a marked discontinuity between 12 and 8 C, only when chilling injury was observed on fruits stored at low temperature.The variations of mitochondrial fatty acid composition during the storage of fruits at different temperatures were also investigated. A marked decrease of the molar ratio palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid, the predominant fatty acids in mitochondrial lipids, was observed to accompany both the succinate oxidation decrease and the induction of chilling injury.

  16. Freshness assessment of thawed and chilled cod fillets packed in modified atmosphere using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Andersen, Charlotte Møller;

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra was recorded of 105 samples of cod mince prepared from chill stored thawed cod fillets of varying quality in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Traditional chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory quality methods developed for assessing fresh fish...... of selected quality attributes as drip loss, water holding capacity and content of dimethylamine by NIR was evaluated. The results of the investigation were presented using multivariate modelling methods such as partial least- squares regression (PLSR) and discriminant partial least- squares regression (DPLSR......). Systematic differences in the NIR measurements on minced cod fillets were primarily due to the chill storage duration (days at 2 degreesC) on thawed-chilled MAP fillets. PLSR models based on wavelengths selected by a new Jack-knife method resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.90 between measured...

  17. A novel aspartic acid protease gene from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus): cloning, characterization and relation to postharvest chilling stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Soler, Alain; Cruz de Carvalho, Maria H

    2013-11-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding a putative aspartic acid protease (AcAP1) was isolated for the first time from the flesh of pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit. The deduced sequence of AcAP1 showed all the common features of a typical plant aspartic protease phytepsin precursor. Analysis of AcAP1 gene expression under postharvest chilling treatment in two pineapple varieties differing in their resistance to blackheart development revealed opposite trends. The resistant variety showed an up-regulation of AcAP1 precursor gene expression whereas the susceptible showed a down-regulation in response to postharvest chilling treatment. The same trend was observed regarding specific AP enzyme activity in both varieties. Taken together our results support the involvement of AcAP1 in postharvest chilling stress resistance in pineapple fruits.

  18. Chilling-dependent release of seed and bud dormancy in peach associates to common changes in gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Leida

    Full Text Available Reproductive meristems and embryos display dormancy mechanisms in specialized structures named respectively buds and seeds that arrest the growth of perennial plants until environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Dormancy shows common physiological features in buds and seeds. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy by molecular mechanisms that are still poorly understood. In order to find common transcriptional pathways associated to dormancy release, we analyzed the chilling-dependent expression in embryos of certain genes that were previously found related to dormancy in flower buds of peach. We propose the presence of short and long-term dormancy events affecting respectively the germination rate and seedling development by independent mechanisms. Short periods of chilling seem to improve germination in an abscisic acid-dependent manner, whereas the positive effect of longer cold treatments on physiological dwarfing coincides with the accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the seed.

  19. Simulation of biomass yield of regular and chilling tolerant Miscanthus cultivars and reed canary grass in different climates of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Hastings, Astley; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus and reed canary grass (RCG) are C4 and C3 perennial grasses which are popular in Europe as energy crops. Although Miscanthus is relatively chilling tolerant compared to other C4 species, its production in northern Europe is still constrained by cold temperature. A more chilling toleran...

  20. Light-dependent reversal of dark-chilling induced changes in chloroplast structure and arrangement of chlorophyll-protein complexes in bean thylakoid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garstka, M; Drozak, A; Rosiak, M; Venema, JH; Kierdaszuk, B; Simeonova, E; van Hasselt, PR; Dobrucki, J; Mostowska, A

    2005-01-01

    Changes in chloroplast structure and rearrangement of chlorophyll-protein (CP) complexes were investigated in detached leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Eureka), a chilling-sensitive plant, during 5-day dark-chilling at 1 degrees C and subsequent 3-h photoactivation under white light (200 mu

  1. Analysis of low-temperature tolerance of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cybrid with chloroplasts from a more chilling-tolerant L-hirsutum accession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Eekhof, M; van Hasselt, PR

    2000-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of an alloplasmic tomato (cybrid), i.e. line AH47, containing the nuclear genome of the chilling-sensitive cytoplasmic albino mutant of L. esculentum Mill. 'Large Red Cherry' (LRC) and the plastome of a more chilling-tolerant high-altitude accession of the related wild spec

  2. Effect of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Macrosegregation of Horizontal Direct Chill Casting Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihao ZHAO; Jianzhong CUI; Jie DONG; Beijiang ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The horizontal direct chill (HDC) casting process is a well-established production route for aluminum alloy ingot but the ingot may suffer from macrosegregation sometimes. In order to control the defect, a low frequency electromagnetic field has been applied in HDC casting process and the relevant influence has been studied. The results show that application of low frequency electromagnetic field can reduce macrosegregation in HDC casting process; and two main parameters of electromagnetic field density and frequency, have great influences on the solution distribution along the diameter of ingot. Moreover, the mechanisms of reduction of macrosegregation by electromagnetic field have been discussed.

  3. Macrosegregation in aluminum alloy ingot cast by the semicontinuous direct chill method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Granger, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model of the semicontinuous DC casting method is developed to predict the positive segregation observed at the subsurface and the negative segregation commonly found at the center of large commercial-size aluminum alloy ingot. Qualitative analysis of commercial-size aluminum alloy semicontinuous cast direct chill (DC) ingot is carried out. In the analysis, both positive segregation in the ingot subsurface and negative segregation at the center of the ingot are examined. Ingot subsurface macrosegregation is investigated by considering steady state casting of a circular cross-section binary alloy ingot. Nonequilibrium solidification is assumed with no solid diffusion, constant equilibrium partition ratio, and constant solid density.

  4. A computational study of low-head direct chill slab casting of aluminum alloy AA2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mainul; Begum, Latifa

    2016-04-01

    The steady state casting of an industrial-sized AA2024 slab has been modeled for a vertical low-head direct chill caster. The previously verified 3-D CFD code is used to investigate the solidification phenomena of the said long-range alloy by varying the pouring temperature, casting speed and the metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficient from 654 to 702 °C, 60-180 mm/min, and 1.0-4.0 kW/(m2 K), respectively. The important predicted results are presented and thoroughly discussed.

  5. The wind chill temperature effect on a large-scale PV plant—an exergy approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    disregarded atmospheric variables in planning new PV plants, in fact, do play a significant role on the plant's overall exergetic efficiency as wind chill temperature. The solar potential around a windy coastal hilly area was studied and presented on the basis of field measurements and simulations...... (PV) system. Atmospheric variables such as air temperature, humidity and wind speed and their effects, shadow effects, tracking losses, and low radiation losses of the PV power output were investigated aiming at identifying the real and net solar energy output. It was shown that some usually...

  6. Effect of high pressure treatment on microbiological quality of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-04-01

    High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p bacteria up to 6th and 9th day of storage, respectively in high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life.

  7. Transcriptome, carbohydrate and phytohormone analysis of Petunia hybrida reveals a complex disturbance of plant functional integrity under mild chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andreas Bauerfeind

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of chilling-tolerant ornamental crops at lower temperature could reduce the energy demands of heated greenhouses. To provide a better understanding of how sub-optimal temperatures (12°C vs. 16°C affect growth of the sensitive Petunia hybrida cultivar `SweetSunshine Williams´, the transcriptome, carbohydrate metabolism and phytohormone homeostasis were monitored in aerial plant parts over four weeks by use of a microarray, enzymatic assays and GC-MS/MS. The data revealed three consecutive phases of chilling response. The first days were marked by a strong accumulation of sugars, particularly in source leaves, preferential up-regulation of genes in the same tissue and down-regulation of several genes in the shoot apex, especially those involved in the abiotic stress response. The midterm phase featured a partial normalization of carbohydrate levels and gene expression. After three weeks of chilling exposure, a new stabilized balance was established. Reduced hexose levels in the shoot apex, reduced ratios of sugar levels between the apex and source leaves and a higher apical sucrose/hexose ratio, associated with decreased activity and expression of cell wall invertase, indicate that prolonged chilling induced sugar accumulation in source leaves at the expense of reduced sugar transport to and reduced sucrose utilization in the shoot. This was associated with reduced levels of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the apex and high numbers of differentially, particularly up-regulated genes, especially in the source leaves, including those regulating histones, ethylene action, transcription factors and a jasmonate-ZIM-domain protein. Transcripts of one Jumonji C domain containing protein and one expansin accumulated in source leaves throughout the chilling period. The results reveal a dynamic and complex disturbance of plant function in response to mild chilling, opening new perspectives for the comparative analysis of differently

  8. The effect of delay between heat treatment and cold storage on alleviation of chilling injury in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Xu, Lanying; Huang, Xuemei; Pang, Xuequn

    2012-10-01

    To understand the mechanisms leading to the enhanced chilling resistance of banana by hot-water dipping (HWD, 52 °C for 3 min), we investigated the effect of a 0.5-24 h delay between HWD and cold storage on chilling resistance and the change related to the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The HWD-treated fruit with a delay of less than 6 h exhibited markedly less chilling injury than the non-heated control fruit, while a delay more than 6 h resulted in significant loss in chilling resistance. Increased hydrogen peroxide content and rate of superoxide radical production were detected in the fruit at 0.5-1.5 h after HWD treatment, and the levels declined with a longer delay, which may be correlated with the enhanced gene expression levels of the gene coding for a ROS-generating related enzyme, NADPH oxidase (MaNOX). Enhanced activities and gene expression of an ascorbate peroxidase (MaAPX) were recorded in the fruit at 1.5-6 h after the treatment, and after 6 h the ascorbate peroxidase levels decayed to the levels as the control fruit. The higher APX gene expression was maintained in the treated fruit with a 3 h delay during the subsequent cold storage at 7 °C, correlating with the enhanced chilling resistance. The HWD-treated fruit left at ambient temperature up to 6 h prior to cold storage maintained the effect of heat treatment and transiently increased ROS content, and the ascorbate peroxidase activity that occurred 0.5-6 h after the treatment may be correlated with the elevated chilling resistance induced by HWD treatment. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. 冷鲜肉的保鲜技术研究进展%Research progress on keeping chilled meat fresh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永红; 张淑蓉

    2012-01-01

    综述了冷却肉保鲜技术的机理和特点,介绍了几种主要的冷却肉保鲜方法,为冷却肉保鲜技术的研究开发提供了理论基础。%The theory and characteristics of preservation of chilled meat were summarized.Some different kinds of preservation method were introduced.It was helpful for research and development on the preservation technology of chilled meat.

  10. The Role of Left Hemispheric Structures for Emotional Processing as a Monitor of Bodily Reaction and Felt Chill – a Case-Control Functional Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkina, Viktoria; Holtz, Katharina; Klepzig, Kai; Neubert, Jörg; Horn, Ulrike; Domin, Martin; Hamm, Alfons O.; Lotze, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The particular function of the left anterior human insula on emotional arousal has been illustrated with several case studies. Only after left hemispheric insula lesions, patients lose their pleasure in habits such as listening to joyful music. In functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) activation in the left anterior insula has been associated with both processing of emotional valence and arousal. Tight interactions with different areas of the prefrontal cortex are involved in bodily response monitoring and cognitive appraisal of a given stimulus. Therefore, a large left hemispheric lesion including the left insula should impair the bodily response of chill experience (objective chill response) but leave the cognitive aspects of chill processing (subjective chill response) unaffected. Methods: We investigated a patient (MC) with a complete left hemispheric media cerebral artery stroke, testing fMRI representation of pleasant (music) and unpleasant (harsh sounds) chill response. Results: Although chill response to both pleasant and unpleasant rated sounds was confirmed verbally at passages also rated as chilling by healthy participants, skin conductance response was almost absent in MC. For a healthy control (HC) objective and subjective chill response was positively associated. Bilateral prefrontal fMRI-response to chill stimuli was sustained in MC whereas insula activation restricted to the right hemisphere. Diffusion imaging together with lesion maps revealed that left lateral tracts were completely damaged but medial prefrontal structures were intact. Conclusion: With this case study we demonstrate how bodily response and cognitive appraisal are differentially participating in the internal monitor of chill response. PMID:28111546

  11. Effect of extracted housefly pupae peptide mixture on chilled pork preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Dang, Xiangli; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Wenqing

    2010-08-01

    The peptide mixture from housefly pupae has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. In this study, the preservation effects of a housefly pupae peptide mixture, nisin, and sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-S) on the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH value of chilled pork were compared. All results showed that a good preservation effect was observed among 3 treatments with the peptide mixture of housefly pupae, nisin, and DHA-S and that there was no significant difference among them. These results indicate that housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative. The results of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the primary mechanism of housefly pupae peptide mixture may be bacterial cytoplasmic membrane lysis and pores induced in the membranes. Practical Applications: Peptide mixture extracted from housefly pupae using low-cost and simple method has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. According to the effect on chilled pork preservation, extracted housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative.

  12. The importance of chill rate when characterising colour change of lamb meat during retail display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R H; Thomson, K L

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of two chilling rates (Con and Fast) on colour change of lamb meat during simulated retail display. Measurements were made on 3 muscles; LD (m. longisimuss dorsi), SM (m semimembranosus) and ST (m. semitendinous). Meat samples from 32 Merino crossbred lambs were vacuum packed and stored for 5 days at 2 °C, then cut and overwrapped in polyvinyl chloride film on black polystyrene trays, stored in a display cabinet at 4 °C with lights on and measured twice daily for 4 days, using a Hunterlab minilab 45/20L D65, aperture 10°. Sarcomere length was shorter, shear force higher and colour change greater in meat from the Fast treatment compared to the Con treatment. Colour differences between treatments were likely due to oxygenation (bloom) as well as oxidation effects. Chill rate is important when characterising colour change during display and should be considered in measurement protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary oxidized poultry offal fat: broiler performance and oxidative stability of thigh meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMC Racanicci

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC. Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b* was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances values were higher (P<0.05 in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.

  14. Economy of replacing a refrigerant in a cooling system for preparing chilled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulcar, B. [Nafta-Petrochem, d.o.o., Mlinska ulica 5, 9220 Lendava (Slovenia); Goricanec, D.; Krope, J. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Due to the negative impact of refrigerants containing Cl and Br on the ozone layer, these refrigerants are being replaced with refrigerants containing fluorine. The article describes the replacing of refrigerant R22 in a cooling system for preparing chilled water, used for cooling reactors producing phenol-formaldehyde resins. After analyzing the existing state and the capabilities of the cooling system, the refrigerant R22 was replaced with refrigerant R407C. For both refrigerants a calculation of the cooling system has been made, the results of which are given in the form of diagrams depending on the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant. Profitability evaluation of replacing a refrigerant was carried out using the method of the net present value (NPV), the coefficient of profitability and the period of time in which the investment is going to return itself. Also the calculations of the savings of electrical energy needed for the running of the compressors and the price of chilled water have been done, using the method of internal profitability level (IPL). (author)

  15. Characterisation and modelling of defect formation in direct-chill cast AZ80 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, D.; Robson, J.D.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Turski, M. [Magnesium Elektron UK, Rake Lane, Manchester, M27 8BF (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Wrought magnesium alloys for demanding structural applications require high quality defect free cast feedstock. The aim of this study was to first identify and characterise typical defects in direct chill cast magnesium–aluminium–zinc (AZ) alloy billet and then use modelling to understand the origins of these defects so they can be prevented. Defects were first located using ultrasonic inspection and were then characterised using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and serial sectioning, establishing the presence of oxide films and intermetallic particles Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} in all defects. A model was developed to predict the flow patterns and growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases during casting, which influence the formation of defects. Simulation of the growth of the intermetallic particles demonstrated that precipitation from the liquid occurs in the mould. The combination of the entrained oxide films and intermetallic particles recirculates in the liquid metal and continues to grow, until large enough to settle, which is predicted to occur at the centre of the mould where the flow is the slowest. Based on these predictions, strategies to reduce the susceptibility to defect formation are suggested. - Highlights: • Casting defects in magnesium direct chill casting have been imaged and characterised in 3-dimensions. • The occurrences of co-located clusters of particles and oxide films have been characterised and explained. • A coupled model has been developed to help interpret the observed trend for defects located towards the centre of billets.

  16. Methyl Jasmonate Reduces Chilling Injury and Maintains Postharvest Quality in Peaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Lei; ZHENG Yong-hua; ZHANG Yan-fen; WANG Feng; ZHANG Lan; LU Zhao-xin

    2003-01-01

    Zhaohui peaches (Prunus persica Batsch) were treated with 0 (CK), 1, 10 or 100 μmol L-1methyl jasmonate (MeJA) vapor at 20℃ for 24 h before stored at 0℃ for 35 d. The untreated fruits showed chilling injury (CI) symptoms after 4 wk of storage, as indicated by increased fruit firmness and reduced extractable juice, which is referred as leatheriness. Treatment with 1 and 10 μmol L-1 MeJA promoted normal ripening and softening, maintained higher levels of extractable juice, titratable acidity, pectinesterase (PE)and polygalacturonase (PG) activities, inhibited increases in fruit fresh weight loss, decay incidence, electrolyte leakage and MDA content, and improved color development, thereby preventing chilling injury symptoms development and maintaining edible quality. MeJA treatment also delayed the climacteric rise in respiratory rate, but promoted ethylene production during the later period of cold storage, suggesting that ethylene may involve in CI development of peaches. These results indicate that 1 and 10 μmol L-1 MeJA treatments could be used to reduce CI development and decay incidence in peaches.

  17. Medical chilling device designed for hypothermic hydration graft storage system: Design, thermohydrodynamic modeling, and preliminary testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Hwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Hypothermic hydration graft storage is essential to reduce the metabolic demand of cells in vitro. The alleviated metabolic demands reduce the emergence rate of anaerobic metabolism generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy that creates free radicals. The cessive free radicals can damage cells and tissues due to their highly oxidative power with molecules. Current cooling systems such as a conventional air cooling system and an ice pack system are inappropriate for chilling cell tissues in vitro because of inconvenience in use and inconsistent temperature sustainability caused by large size and progressive melting, respectively. Here, we develop a medical chilling device (MCD) for hypothermic hydration graft storage based on thermo-hydrodynamic modeling and thermal electric cooling technology. Our analysis of obtained hydrodynamic thermal behavior of the MCD revealed that the hypothermic condition of 4 .deg. C was continuously maintained, which increased the survival rates of cells in vitro test by reduced free radicals. The validated performance of the MCD promises future development of an optimal hypothermic hydration graft storage system designed for clinical use.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Pseudomonas Species Associated with Spoilage of Chilled Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osan Bahurmiz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from spoiled chilled tilapia (Oreochromis sp. was evaluated in this study. In the first stage of this study, red tilapia was subjected to chilled storage (4°C for 3 weeks, and spoilage bacteria were isolated and identified from the spoiled fish. Pseudomonas was the dominant bacteria isolated from the spoiled fish and further identification revealed that P. putida, P. fluorescens and Pseudomonas spp. were the main species of this group. In the second stage, methanolic extracts of 15 selected plant species were screened for their antimicrobial activity, by agar disc diffusion method, against the Pseudomonas isolates. Results indicated that most of the extracts had different degrees of activity against the bacterial isolates. The strongest activity was exhibited by bottlebrush flower (Callistemon viminalis extract. This was followed by extracts from guava bark (Psidium guajava and henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis. Moderate antimicrobial activities were observed in extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum, leaf and peel of tamarind (Tamarindus indica, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, wild betel leaf (Piper sarmentosum and fresh thyme (Thymus spp.. Weak or no antimicrobial activity was observed from the remaining extracts. The potential antimicrobial activity shown by some plant extracts in this study could significantly contribute to the fish preservation.

  19. Quality and sensory acceptability of a chilled functional apple ready-dessert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, D F; Brunton, N P; Gormley, T R; Butler, F

    2012-04-01

    An apple and dairy based ready-dessert with an added prebiotic was stored and chill temperatures and number of quality attributes were monitored during chill (4 °C) storage for 30 days. All ready-desserts were thermally processed by sous vide (P (90) > 10 min). The stability of the dairy component in ready-desserts was monitored by measuring volatile free fatty acids. Changes in these components were more evident in prebiotic-enriched samples compared to controls. However, no significant differences were observed over storage in control and prebiotic-enriched ready-desserts. This was supported by sensory analysis that showed no significant changes over storage in control or prebiotic-enriched samples. Of the other quality parameters, the addition of prebiotic inclusions resulted in lower L and b values and dry matter (p < 0.05), while increasing (p < 0.05) soluble solids content compared to control samples. Fluctuations in some of the quality parameters were also observed over storage. Rheological characteristics, i.e. flow behaviour (n), consistency index (K), storage (G'), loss (G″) and complex (G*) moduli were unaffected by prebiotic inclusion. However, storage affected the rheological characteristics of ready-desserts. A decrease (p < 0.05) in flow behaviour (n) led to concomitant increases in consistency index (K) and complex modulus (G*) values in control samples.

  20. Development of a convenience and safety chilled sous vide fish dish: Diversification of aquacultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, M C; López, G; Díaz, P; Linares, M B; Garrido, M D

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic expansion of the ready-to-eat seabream sector in its adaptation to new lifestyles has led to the search for new presentation formats in seabream (Sparus aurata). Green sauce (olive oil, wine vinegar, garlic, fresh parsley, black pepper, basil and salt) and 60 ℃ of cooking temperature were chosen by the panellists for the sous vide cooking process. Seabream fillet and sauce were packaged in polypropylene trays, cooked, chilled and stored at 2 ℃. Microbiological (total viable counts,Enterobacteriaceae,lactic acid bacteria, anaerobic psychrotrophic, moulds and yeasts, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes), chemical (pH and TBARs) and sensory parameters were determined at 0, 7, 17, 34, 48 and 62 days. In the conditions used, the microbiological counts remained stable, and Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were absent. The acidic sauce had a positive effect on the pH of the product, and low TBARs were obtained throughout storage. The processing conditions used in the present study allowed a chilled ready-to-eat seabream product of consistently high quality up to 62 days of storage to be obtained, representing an expansion of the products offered by the aquacultural industry. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A new method for chill and shrinkage control in ladle treated ductile iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Torbj(o)rn Skaland

    2006-01-01

    The paper is undertaken with the objective of describing a new method for treating ductile cast iron in a ladle process, where the main objective is to minimize formation of eutectic carbides and shrinkage porosity during solidification. The suppression of carbide formation is associated with the nucleating properties of the nodularizer and inoculant alloys. By nucleating properties it is understood the number and potency of nuclei formed by an alloy addition. The nodularizer and inoculant additions also influence ductile iron solidification shrinkage. Some alloys may give good protection against shrinkage while others tend to promote more shrinkage.The use of vanous rare earth elements is found to have a pronounced impact on these conditions. It has been discovered that the use of pure lanthanum as the primary rare earth source in the magnesium ferrosilicon nodularizer surprisingly further improves the performance of the ductile iron ladle treatment method compared to similar methods using cerium or mishmetal bearing nodularizers. The nucleating properties are substantially improved and the risk for carbides (chill) and shrinkage formation in the sandwich or tundish ladle treated ductile iron is then minimized.The paper describes this new ladle treatment concept in detail, and gives examples from successful testing of the new nodularizing technology and how it simultaneously affects and minimizes critical ductile iron chill and shrinkage tendencies.

  2. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance.

  3. Action of Cryogenic chill on Mechanical properties of Nickel alloy Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. K. Anil; Ananthaprasad, M. G.; GopalaKrishna, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the area of material science engineering, metallurgists may be at the forefront of new technologies, developing metals for new applications, or involved in the traditional manufacture. By doing so it is possible for metallurgist to apply their knowledge of metals to solve complex problems and looking for ways to improve the mechanical properties of the materials. Therefore, an investigation in the present research was made to fabricate and evaluate the microstructure and mechanical properties of composites developed using cryogenically cooled copper chills, consisting of nickel alloy matrix and garnet particles as the reinforcement. The reinforcement being added ranges from 3 to 12 wt.% in steps of 3%. A stir casting process was used to fabricate the nickel base matrix alloy fused with garnet reinforcement particle. The matrix alloy was melted in a casting furnace at around 1350°C, the garnet particulates which was preheated to 600°C, was introduced evenly into the molten metal alloy. An arrangement was made at one end of the mould by placing copper chill blocks of varying thickness brazed with MS hallow block in which liquid nitrogen was circulated for cryogenic effect. After solidification, the composite materials thus synthesized were examined for microstructural and mechanical properties as per ASTM standards.

  4. 6-Benzylaminopurine alleviates chilling injury of postharvest cucumber fruit through modulating antioxidant system and energy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingxia; Yang, Huqing

    2013-06-01

    6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA) has a close relationship with the stress resistance of plants. Little research has been carried out on the effects of 6-BA on the cold resistance of postharvest fruits and vegetables. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 6-BA on chilling injury (CI), antioxidant system and energy status in cucumber during storage. The results showed that 6-BA at 50 mmol L(-1) was most effective to restrain CI in cucumber fruit. Fruits treated with 50 mmol L(-1) 6-BA maintained higher levels of chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, this treatment reduced the increases in membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, delayed the increases in both rate of O2•- production and H2O2 content and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) under chilling stress. The treatment also increased the content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and resulted in a higher level of energy charge. These results indicated that 6-BA alleviated CI in cucumber fruit through improving antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity and maintaining higher levels of ATP content and energy charge. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on chilling injury and quality of peach fruit during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Shang, Haitao; Chen, Jingjing; Zhu, Hong; Zhao, Yingying; Zheng, Yonghua

    2011-10-01

    The effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μL/L) of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on chilling injury (CI), fruit quality, and antioxidant enzyme activities in cold-stored peach fruit (Prunus persica Batsch cv Baifeng) were investigated. The results showed that treatment with 0.5 μL/L 1-MCP significantly alleviated CI symptoms, including internal browing (IB) and flesh mealiness (FM), and maintained higher fruit quality. In addition, 1-MCP inhibited the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), maintained higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and kept the balance of the polygalacturonase (PG)/pectinmethylesterase (PME) ratio. The treatment of 1-MCP markedly inhibited the increase of electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide. Thus, 1-MCP (0.5 μL/L) treatment is effective in preventing CI and maintaining overall quality in peach fruit. The effect of 1-MCP on alleviating CI may be due to its capability to enhance antioxidant enzyme activities and to reduce oxidative damage. Practical Application:  Treatment with 0.5 μL/L 1-MCP significantly prevented chilling injury and maintained fruit quality in "Baifeng" peaches. In addition, 1-MCP could enhance antioxidant enzyme activities and alleviate oxidative damage. Thus, 1-MCP has the potential for application in the Asiatic peach industry. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Tolerance to chilling and postharvest quality of ‘Pedro Sato’ guavas submitted to thermal conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chechi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of thermal conditioning on the chilling tolerance and quality of ‘Pedro Sato’ guavas stored at 2ºC. The treatments evaluated were: 30 days at 10ºC (control; 30 days at 2ºC; one day at 45ºC + 29 days at 2ºC; two days at 45ºC + 28 days at 2ºC; two days at 35ºC + 28 days at 2ºC. After 30 days of storage plus three days at 20ºC, the firmness of the flesh and the titratable acidity were highest in the treatments with thermal conditioning. The incidence of rot was higher in fruits stored for 30 days at 10ºC and those kept for two days at 35ºC, and weight loss was higher in fruits kept for two days at 45ºC. Fruits stored for 30 days at 2ºC and those kept at 45ºC, before storage at 2ºC, did not show substantial alterations in the color of the peel during storage or shelf life, which can be associated with chilling injury.

  7. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Post harvest quality and chilling injury of plums: benefits of 1-methyl cyclopropene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candan, A. P.; Graell, J.; Larrigaudiere, C.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on the development of chilling injury (CI) symptoms in four plum cultivars and to determine the relationship between the climacteric behavior of the cultivar and its sensitivity to this disorder. Significant differences in ripening pattern were found between the cultivars after long-term storage. Among the climacteric cultivars, Royal Zee plums showed a higher ethylene production rate than Linda Rosa and Friar cultivars. On the other hand, the Angeleno cultivar behaved as a suppressed climacteric type. The development of translucency symptoms was higher in Royal Zee than in Linda Rosa and Friar plums, and was almost absent in the suppressed climacteric cultivar. 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced ethylene production and the percentage of fruit affected by translucency in all climacteric cultivars. This treatment also delayed the ripening of the fruit during shelf life. In contrast, 1-MCP treatment did not affect the quality of Angeleno plums. Collectively these results suggest that the development of chilling injury in plums is related to the climacteric behavior of the cultivar and demonstrated the beneficial effects of 1-MCP maintaining plum quality during storage. (Author) 29 refs.

  9. Modeling and Analysis of Chill and Fill Processes for the EDU Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; Leclair, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC), is a Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article, comprises a flight like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen in a space-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with liquid hydrogen as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the liquid hydrogen supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The modeling description and comparison of model predictions with the test data will be presented in the final paper.

  10. Microbial growth on broiler carcasses stored at different temperatures after air- or water-chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, B; Sireli, U T

    2008-04-01

    Poultry meat has a high risk of contamination during its processing. Storage temperature, type of packaging, and types and numbers of psychrotrophic bacteria are the major factors determining the spoilage of poultry meat. Before packaging, poultry carcasses are chilled by air or water currents in commercial slaughterhouses. The packaging material and methods are other factors influencing the spoilage of poultry meat. Although unpackaged carcasses had lower production costs, they were found to contain high numbers of microorganisms. The unpackaged carcasses are often not recommended for food safety and public health risks. The present study examines the growth of some spoilage microorganisms on unpackaged carcasses and on broiler carcasses packaged in polyethylene bags or synthetic plates. The carcasses examined in this study were collected from the slaughterhouses of the Bolu region of Turkey. All carcasses were subjected to an air or water chilling process in the slaughterhouse and then stored at 0, 4, or 7 degrees C for 14 d. Samples were taken on d 0, 4, 8, 10, and 14 of storage and analyzed for total bacterial count, and for Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts, and molds. The carcasses packaged in synthetic plates or polyethylene bags and kept at 0 degrees C were microbiologically safer and had longer shelf life, so they are found to be the most reliable for consuming. The shelf life of broiler carcasses could be further increased by improving hygiene and sanitation procedures at the slaughterhouse.

  11. An application of the gas-fired chilling and heating units to domestic houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.; Yang, Y.M.; Chae, J.M.; Bang, H.S.; Kwon, O.B.; Yoo, S.I.; Kim, T.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co. (Korea); Lee, T.W.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hwang, I.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, C.D.; Park, S.J. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Following researches and considerations were performed in this study for an efficient application of gas-fired chilling and heating units to the residential buildings. (1) Status of domestic cooling and heating for residential building. (2) Various introduction schemes of outdoor unit. (3) Design exclusive area for the gas appliance and installation of it. (4) Ventilation of exhaust gas and heat. (5) Prepare the installation specifications or standards for gas-fired chilling and heating units. (6) Design technique of plumbing for cooling and heating. (7) Evaluation of unit's capacity considering the thermal load of domestic buildings. (8) Cooling and heating system with the unit. (9) Fundamental test for evaluation of applicability. (10) Actual design and construction of experimental house for an application and a demonstration of the developed gas units. (11) Field test for cooling and heating. (12) Evaluation of economic efficiency. (13) Establish a business potential. (14) Establishment of legal and systematic support, energy rate. (15) Troubleshooting in the course of development and application of the new gas appliance. 41 refs., 214 figs., 52 tabs.

  12. Chilling and heating may regulate C6 volatile aroma production by different mechanisms in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexanal, Z-3-hexenal, E-2-hexenal, hexanol, and Z-3-hexenol are major tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) volatile aromas derived from oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Chilling and heating may suppress production of these C6 volatiles. The objective of this research was to determine the response...

  13. Microarray analysis of gene expression changes due to chilling injury in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, Na; Blomsma, Sylvia; Fahy, Gregory M.; Groothuis, Genoveva; de Graaf, Inge

    Successful cryopreservation of PCLS would allow the building of a tissue bank and reduce the use of laboratory animals. During vitrification, tissue may be damaged by toxicity of the cryoprotective agent (CPA), chilling injury (injury due to temperature reduction per se) and injury from ice crystal

  14. APPLICATION OF THE NUMERICAL MODELING METHODS TO THE TASK OF CHOICE OF THE CHILL ACCESSORY VENT HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method of choice of vent holes on the basis of numerical modeling, differing from the known ones by accounting of dynamics of gas phase, determined by modeling of the chill filling with metal, what allows to minimize the formation of gas defects in casting, is offered.

  15. Relationships between unsaturation of thylakoid membrane lipids and xanthophyll cycle in rice under chilling and high light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To explore the differences of chilling induced sensitivity to photoinhibition between indica and japonica, xanthophyll cycle component, activity of violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE), and unsaturation of thylakoid membrane lipids were measured. Varieties used were japonica 9516 and indica Shanyou 63 (SY 63).

  16. Use of electronic tongue for differentiation of tomato taste by cultivar, harvest maturity, and chilling or heating exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate whether an electronic-tongue (etongue) could differentiate “taste” profiles of tomato fruit between different cultivars, harvest maturities, and postharvest chilling or heating exposure. The four cultivars included: two common commercial cultivars, ‘Tyg...

  17. New approaches towards discrimination of fresh/chilled and frozen/thawed chicken breasts by HADH activity determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Alewijn, Martin; Weesepoel, Yannick; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Fresh/chilled chicken breasts retail at a higher price than their frozen/thawed counterparts. Verification of the fresh/thawed status of chicken meat is determined by measuring β-hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A-hydrogenase (HADH) activity present in meat intra-cellular liquids spectrophotometrically. Howe

  18. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis glutaredoxin gene AtGRXS17 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) confers tolerance to chilling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The monothiol glutaredoxin AtGRXS17 from "Arabidopsis" confers thermotolerance in yeast, "Arabidopsis", and tomato plants. Here, we report that AtGRXS17 also enhances tolerance to chilling stress in tomato and is associated with elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities, which are known to be invol...

  19. Laser-based trace gas detection of ethane as a result of photo-oxidative damage in chilled cucumber leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santosa, I.E.; Laarhoven, L.J.; Harbinson, J.; Driscoll, S.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    At low temperatures, high light intensity induces strong photooxidative lipid peroxidation in chilling sensitive cucumber leaves. A sensitive laser-based photoacoustic detector was employed to monitor on-line the evolution of ethane, one of the end products of lipid peroxidation. The Deltav=2 CO las

  20. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... The AsA-GSH cycle is also an important mechanism in the removal of ROS in .... the product's shelf life (Troncoso-Rojas and Tiznado-. Hernandez ..... treated squash started to decline after 6 or 9 days of cold storage to a level ...

  1. Chalillo chill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loverock, K. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2002-03-31

    The proposed $44-million Chalillo dam project in the Macal River Valley of western Belize is being met with criticism from ecological scientists who claim the project is a threat to endangered wildlife in one of Central America's most ecologically sensitive areas. Despite the criticism, Fortis Inc., a Canadian power company based in St. John's Newfoundland along with the government of Belize, is pressing ahead with the proposal claiming that it will bring in foreign investment, help alleviate poverty and decrease dependence on power imports from Mexico. Belize currently gets its energy from the Mollejon dam, from diesel generators and from the Mexican power grid. The Chalillo dam will be 49.5 metres high and will flood about 20 kilometres up the Macal River valley, destroying about 800 hectares of prime valley habitat including parts of the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve, Chiquibul Forest Reserve and Chiquibul National Park. Its generating capacity is expected to be only 8 megawatts and critics doubt that it will generate much power during the dry season. The Macal River Valley is habitat to a range of threatened species including the rare scarlet macaw, Central American river otters, Morelet's crocodiles, Central American spider monkeys, tapirs, ocelots and jaguars. In addition, the flooding would destroy 2 Mayan ruins. Eighteen leading scientists and naturalists from around the world have joined forces to protest the project. Former project partner Duke Energy of the United States decided to withdraw from the project, but Fortis, which owns 68 per cent of Belize's national electricity utility, Belize Electricity Limited, is still pressing ahead. The Prime Minister of Belize does not think it is fair for environmental groups to criticize the project when their own countries have so many dams. An independent economic analysis has shown that the dam may be profitable for Fortis but economically detrimental for Belizeans. Critics say the power would be sold to Belize Electricity at 15 cents per kilowatt hour, nearly double the current cost of power imported from Mexico. Alternative domestic supply options include electricity from bagasse units which can generate power at about 11 cents per kilowatt hour. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) contributed nearly half a million dollars to AMEC, a Canadian engineering firm, to ensure that a proper environmental assessment was carried out. Opponents say that while the assessment clearly recognizes the project would have adverse environmental effects, it includes inaccurate and misleading information on geology and hydrology. CIDA thinks it is unfortunate that the Belize government is not heeding the conclusion of the assessment, but that the decision is beyond CIDA's influence. 1 fig.

  2. Interaction of Polyamines, Abscisic Acid, Nitric Oxide, and Hydrogen Peroxide under Chilling Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qiannan; Song, Yongjun; Shi, Dongmei; Qi, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) play a vital role in the responses of higher plants to abiotic stresses. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the interplay between PAs and signal molecules. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cross-talk among PAs, abscisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under chilling stress conditions using tomato seedlings [(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Moneymaker]. The study showed that during chilling stress (4°C; 0, 12, and 24 h), the application of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) elevated NO and H2O2 levels, enhanced nitrite reductase (NR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like, and polyamine oxidase activities, and upregulated LeNR relative expression, but did not influence LeNOS1 expression. In contrast, putrescine (Put) treatment had no obvious impact. During the recovery period (25/15°C, 10 h), the above-mentioned parameters induced by the application of PAs were restored to their control levels. Seedlings pretreated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) showed elevated Put and Spd levels throughout the treatment period, consistent with increased expression in leaves of genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (LeADC. LeADC1), ornithine decarboxylase (LeODC), and Spd synthase (LeSPDS) expressions in tomato leaves throughout the treatment period. Under chilling stress, the Put content increased first, followed by a rise in the Spd content. Exogenously applied SNP did not increase the expression of genes encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (LeSAMDC) and Spm synthase (LeSPMS), consistent with the observation that Spm levels remained constant under chilling stress and during the recovery period. In contrast, exogenous Put significantly increased the ABA content and the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LeNCED1) transcript level. Treatment with ABA could alleviate the electrolyte leakage (EL) induced by D-Arg (an inhibitor of Put). Taken together, it is concluded that, under chilling

  3. The Current Situation and Prospects of Banana Chilling Stress%香蕉寒害研究现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安邦; 金志强; 刘菊华; 贾彩红; 张建斌; 苗红霞; 徐碧玉

    2014-01-01

    我国绝大部分香蕉种植区域属于香蕉非最适宜种植区,容易受到冬春寒流的侵袭而造成重大经济损失。寒害已成为制约我国香蕉产业健康发展的主要灾害之一。对香蕉寒害症状和类型、香蕉抗寒生理生化研究、防寒措施、抗寒相关基因的挖掘等方面进行了综述,简述了香蕉寒害研究存在的问题和发展现状,以期对香蕉寒害的基础研究及生产应用提供参考。%Most banana plantations in China belonging to the non-suitable growing areas often suffers from chilling stress caused significant economic losses. The banana chilling stress is one of the most principal natural disasters. The present paper reviewed the advances on such field as symptoms and types of chilling stress, physiological and biochemical research, chilling-resistant measures, cold resistance related genes in banana. The problems in banana chilling stress research and the prospect of the future research on banana chilling stress were simply discussed in order to provide references for chilling stress research and production.

  4. Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky isolated from pre- and post-chill whole broilers carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tagelsir; Zhao, Shaohua; White, David G; Parveen, Salina

    2014-04-01

    There is conflicting data regarding whether commercial chilling has any effect on persistence of Salmonella serovars, including antibiotic resistant variants, on chicken carcasses. A total of 309 Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky isolates recovered from pre- and post-chill whole broiler carcasses were characterized for genetic relatedness using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and for the presence of virulence factors (invA, pagC, spvC) by PCR and for aerobactin and colicin production by bioassays. A subset of these isolates (n = 218) displaying resistance to either sulfisoxazole and/or ceftiofur [S. Typhimurium (n = 66) and S. Kentucky (n = 152)] were further tested for the presence of associated antibiotic resistance elements (class-I integrons and blaCMY genes) by PCR. All 145 ceftiofur resistant S. Kentucky and S. Typhimurium isolates possessed blaCMY genes. Class-I integrons were only detected in 6.1% (n = 4/66) of sulfisoxazole resistant S. Typhimurium isolates. The PFGE analysis revealed the presence of genetically diverse populations within the recovered isolates but clusters were generally concordant with serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profiles. At a 100% pattern similarity index, thirty-six percent of the undistinguishable S. Typhimurium and 22% of the undistinguishable S. Kentucky isolates were recovered from the same chilling step. All isolates possessed the invA and pagC genes, but only 1.4%possessed spvC. Irrespective of the chilling step, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the production of aerobactin and colicin between S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky isolates. Taken together, these results indicate that chilling impacted the recovery of particular Salmonella clonal groups but had no effect on the presence of class-I integrons, blaCMY genes, and tested virulence factors.

  5. Exogenous Melatonin Mitigates Photoinhibition by Accelerating Non-photochemical Quenching in Tomato Seedlings Exposed to Moderate Light during Chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin plays an important role in tolerance to multiple stresses in plants. Recent studies have shown that melatonin relieves photoinhibition in plants under cold stress; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a key process thermally dissipating excess light energy that plants employ as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II. Here, we report the effects of exogenous melatonin on NPQ and mitigation of photoinhibition in tomato seedlings exposed to moderate light during chilling. In response to moderate light during chilling, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and the effective photochemical efficiency (F′v/F′m) of PSII were both substantially reduced, showing severe photoinhibition in tomato seedlings, whereas exogenous application of melatonin effectively alleviated the photoinhibition. Further experiment showed that melatonin accelerated the induction of NPQ in response to moderate light and maintained higher level of NPQ upon longer exposure to light during chilling. Consistent with the increased NPQ was the elevated de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments in melatonin-pretreated seedlings exposed to light during chilling. Enzyme activity assay showed that violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which catalyzes the de-epoxidation reaction in the xanthophyll cycle, was activated by light and the activity was further enhanced by application of melatonin. Further analysis revealed that melatonin induced the expression of VDE gene in tomato seedlings under moderate light and chilling conditions. Ascorbic acid is an essential cofactor of VDE and the level of it was found to be increased in melatonin-pretreated seedlings. Feeding tomato seedlings with dithiothreitol, an inhibitor of VDE, blocked the effects of melatonin on the de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments and the induction of NPQ. Collectively, these results suggest that exogenous melatonin mitigates photoinhibition by

  6. Coupling of physiological and proteomic analysis to understand the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S Minas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson, cv. ‘Hayward’ is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. To understand the biological basis of this ‘dilemma’, kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20 oC following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μL L-1, 20 oC, 24 h or/and chilling temperature (0 oC, 10 d. All treatments elicited kiwifruit ripening and induced softening and endogenous ethylene biosynthesis, as determined by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC content and ACC synthase (ACS and ACC oxidase (ACO enzyme activities after 10 d of ripening at 20 oC. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE-PAGE and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS revealed 81 kiwifruit proteins associated with ripening. Thirty-one kiwifruit proteins were identified as commonly regulated by the three treatments accompanied by dynamic changes of 10 proteins specific to exogenous ethylene, 2 to chilling treatment and 12 to their combination. Ethylene and/or chilling-responsive proteins were mainly involved in disease/defense, energy, protein destination/storage and cell structure/cell wall. Interactions between the identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, allowing a more complete insight into biological pathways and molecular functions affected by ripening. The present approach provides a quantitative basis for understanding the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening and climacteric fruit ripening in general.

  7. Effect of foliar-applied silicon on photochemistry, antioxidant capacity and growth in maize plants subjected to chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader HABIBI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the major adverse climatic factors that suppress plant growth and sustainable agricultural development. In these climate conditions, silicon (Si can mitigate various abiotic stresses including low temperature. In this study, the roles of foliar-applied silicon (10 mM potassium metasilicate in enhancing tolerance to chilling stress were investigated in maize (Zea mays ‘Fajr’ plants. The low temperature stress caused significant reduction of plant growth and relative water content; however, Si ameliorated these effects. Si supply in maize exhibited a significantly positive effect on accumulation of free amino acids, and reduced the necrotic leaf area. The decrease in maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm was reversible during recovery, but not in the non-Si-treated leaves. This can be explained by enhancement of protective pigments; carotenoid and anthocyanin leading to the protection of PSII from damage. Additionally, analysis of OJIP transients revealed that Si reduced cold damaging effect on performance index (PIabs and Fv/Fm through improvement of excitation energy trapping (TR0/CS and electron transport (ET0/CS per excited cross-section of leaf. The malondialdehyde (MDA concentration, which was significantly increased under chilling stress, was decreased by Si. The reduced glutathione and ascorbate concentrations were higher in Si-treated plants as compared to those without application of Si under chilling stress. These results indicated that Si could enhance the chilling stress tolerance of maize plants through improving the biomass accumulation, maintaining a high level of glutathione, ascorbic acid, protein, protective pigments, and enhancing the photochemical reactions. This study also suggests that the foliar-applied Si increases recovery ability from chilling injury.

  8. Improvement of the chilling tolerance of ‘Monika’ cucumber seedlings by short-term temperature and seed conditioning with plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górnik Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to improve the chilling tolerance of cucumber seedlings. The conditioned seeds in solutions of salicylic or jasmonic acid in concentrations of 10-2, 10-3 or 10-4 M or brassinolide in concentrations of 10-6, 10-8 or 10-10 M were subjected to temperature shock of 0, 2.5, 5, 35, 40 or 45°C for 1, 2 or 4 hours. Seedlings with 3 mm roots were chilled at 0°C for three days. The chilling susceptibility was evaluated by measurements of roots lengths, electrolyte leakage and total dehydrogenase activity.

  9. Quality effect of freeze-chilling in cod and rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    at the satellite kitchens the quality was also followed during a storage period. The quality changes were evaluated on the basis of the results from descriptive sensory analysis and analysis of different chemical parameters. The high quality shelf life was determined from these results. As the quality changes...... are known to differ among fish species, the present study included the popular species cod (Gadus Morhua) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss). Principal component analysis of the sensory results clearly showed that after frozen storage at -30 °C for 1 month and subsequent chill storage at +2 °C, trout...... had a shelf life of approximately 10 days as a high quality product which was perceived indistinctly from the freshly thawed samples by the sensory panel. The corresponding high quality shelf life for cod was 6 days. In conclusion, the consistent quality during storage and the high quality shelf life...

  10. Avocado waste for finishing pigs: Impact on muscle composition and oxidative stability during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Grageola-Nuñez, Fernando; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of agricultural waste materials for pig feeding may be an interesting option for reducing production costs and contributing to sustainability and environmental welfare. In the present study, a mixed diet enriched with avocado waste (TREATED) is used for finishing industrial genotype pigs. The muscle longissimus thoracis et lomborum (LTL) from TREATED pigs was analyzed for composition and oxidative and color stability and compared with muscles obtained from pigs fed a CONTROL diet. Dietary avocado had significant impact on the content and composition of intramuscular fat (IMF), reducing the lipid content in LTL muscles and increasing the degree of unsaturation. This did not increase the oxidative instability of samples. On the contrary, muscles from TREATED pigs had significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation rates during chilled storage. The color of the muscles from TREATED pigs was also preserved from oxidation.

  11. Accumulated chilling hours during endodormancy impact blooming and fruit shape developmentin peach (Prunus persicaL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; FANG Wei-chao; ZHU Geng-rui; CAO Ke; CHEN Chang-wen; WANG Xin-wei; WANG Li-rong

    2016-01-01

    Winter chil is essential for the growth and development of deciduous species. To understand the relationship between accumulated chiling hours during endodormancy and blooming and fruit shape development, we controled chiling hours and investigated their effects on blooming date and fruit shape of peaches. The results showed that the number of days to full bloom date and the heat requirement for blooming were negatively correlated with accumulated chilling hours. Accumulated chiling hours were signiifcantly negatively correlated with fruit shape index and fruit tip lengths, suggesting that the number of chiling hours affect the fruit shape development. Fewer accumulated chiling hours may be the major reason for longer fruit shape and protruding fruit tips. In conclusion, our results indicate speciifcaly that decreased winter chiling hours can delay the bloom date and may lead to aberrant fruit shape development in peaches. Our study provides preliminary insights into the response of temperate fruit species to global climate change.

  12. Laser Surface Remelting of Medium Ni-Cr Infinite Chilling Cast Iron Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jian-hua; ZHANG Qun-li; XIE Song-jing

    2004-01-01

    Laser surface remelting of medium Ni-Cr infinite chilling cast iron was performed with a continuous wave CO2 laser beam with the power of 7 KW under the argon shielding. The microstructural analysis of the laser remelted layer by optical microscope shows that the laser remelted layer consists of three zones, which is the melting zone, the transition zone and the heat affected zone. The size of the dendrite of the melting zone is only in the 1/10 to 1/30 range of that of the substrate. The distribution of the hardness of the laser remelted layer was detected, and the carrying capacity of rolling steel was also field-tested. The results show that both the hardness of the remelted layer and the carrying capacity all increase,especially, the carrying capacity was 50% increased compared with the substrate.

  13. Laser Surface Remelting of Medium Ni-Cr Infinite Chilling Cast Iron Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOJian-hua; ZHANGQun-li; XIESong-jing

    2004-01-01

    Laser surface remelting of medium Ni-Cr infinite chilling cast iron was performed with a continuous wave CO2 laser beam with the power of 7 KW under the argon shielding. The microstructural analysis of the laser remelted layer by optical microscope shows that the laser remelted layer consists of three zones, which is the melting zone, the transition zone and the heat affected zone. The size of the dendrite of the melting zone is only in the 1/10 to 1/30 range of that of the substrate. The distribution of the hardness of the laser remelted layer was detected, and the carrying capacity of rolling steel was also field-tested. The results show that both the hardness of the remelted layer and the carrying capacity all increase, especially, the carrying capacity was 50% increased compared with the substrate.

  14. Chilled milk-based desserts as emerging probiotic and prebiotic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia C A; Saad, Susana M I

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, food companies are endeavoring to differentiate their products through creative segmentation and positioning strategies based on superior functionality and quality. Some kinds of dairy desserts have shown a great market potential, as a function of consumers interested in healthier and functional products with fine taste and mouthfeel. In this context, chilled dairy desserts are emerging as attractive options for the incorporation of probiotic cultures and prebiotic ingredients, as seen in the previous launches from the food industry, as well as in the growing number of scientific studies dealing with this subject published in the last years. The main aspects involved in the development of probiotic and/or prebiotic dairy desserts for storage under refrigerated conditions are presented in this review.

  15. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli on broiler carcasses after chilling in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Perdoncini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli have been associated with gastrointestinal disorders in human beings, due mainly to the consumption of chicken meat. Despite control measures for reducing contamination by these bacteria, the detection of Campylobacter in carcasses after chilling remains high. A total of 105 carcasses were assessed by the horizontal detection method in five federally inspected slaughterhouses in southern Brazil in 2012 and in the first three months of 2013. Campylobacterwas isolated in 37.1% of the carcasses, of which 97.5% contained C. jejuni and 2.5% were infected by C. coli. The rate of positive carcasses across the slaughterhouses ranged from 0 to 71.4%. Determining the occurrence of Campylobacter among flocks is crucial for estimating the microbial load at specific points along the slaughtering process and for minimizing the risk of contamination of end products by Campylobacter.

  16. Finite element model for beef chilling using CFD-generated heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Q.T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Trujillo, F.J. [Food Science Australia, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); McPhail, N. [Food Science Australia, P.O. Box 3312, Tingalpa DC, Brisbane, QLD 4173 (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    A combined model of the beef chilling process is presented, in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to estimate the local heat and mass transfer coefficients, assuming uniform surface temperatures, and a set of 2-D finite element grids was used to solve the heat transfer equation in the product, which has an elongated shape. Another set of 1-D grids was used to solve the water transport equation near the surface of the meat. The surface transfer coefficients were calculated for various combinations of air orientations and speeds, and summarised in a set of regression equations. The model was verified by existing and new data on heat load, temperatures, weight loss and surface water activity. (author)

  17. A thermodynamic evaluation of chilled water central air conditioning systems using artificial intelligence tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Armas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  An analysis of a chilled water central air conditioning system is presented. The object was to calculate main cycle component irreversibility, as well as evaluating this indicator’s sensitivity to operational variations. Artificial neural networks (ANN, genetic algorithms (GA and Matlab tools were used to calculate refrigerant thermodynamic properties during each cycle stage. These tools interacted with equations describing the system’s thermodynamic behaviour. Refrigerant temperature, when released from the compressor, was determined by a hybrid model combining the neural model with a simple genetic algorithm used as optimisation tool; the cycle’s components which were most sensitive to changes in working conditions were identified. It was concluded that the compressor, evaporator and expansion mechanism (in that order represented significant exergy losses reaching 85.62% of total system irreversibility. A very useful tool was thus developed for evaluating these systems. 

  18. Microstructures of electromagnetic casting and direct chill casting LY12 aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志强; 金俊泽; 郝海; 贾非

    2003-01-01

    LY12 aluminum alloys made by electromagnetic casting (EMC) and direct chill casting (DCC), were analyzed by optical microscope, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the surface and subsurface quality of the ingot is improved largely due to the absence of an ingot mold, which is impossible to achieve with conventional DCC. It is also found that the intense forced convection can promote the fast superheat evacuation and break the dendrite arms, leading to the grain multiplication and the appearance of a fine equiaxed grains over the whole cross section. As a result, the hardness of EMC specimens increases one time than that from DCC in the as-cast state. Even though after the solid solution treatment and the artificial aging, the DCC ingot still can not get the same hardness as EMC ones.

  19. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu Sivankalyani

    Full Text Available Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags, methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C. A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  20. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  1. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  2. Chilling-enhanced photooxidation: evidence for the role of singlet oxygen and superoxide in the breakdown of pigments and endogenous antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, R.R.; Naylor, A.W.

    1987-02-01

    Chilling temperatures (5/sup 0/C) and high irradiance (1000 microeinsteins per square meter per second) were used to induce photooxidation in detached leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a chilling-sensitive plant. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, ..beta.. carotene, and three xanthophylls were degraded in a light-dependent fashion at essentially the same rate. Lipid peroxidation (measured as ethane evolution) showed an O/sub 2/ dependency. The levels of three endogenous antioxidants, ascorbate, reduced glutathione, and ..cap alpha.. tocopherol, all showed an irradiance-dependent decline. ..cap alpha..-Tocopherol was the first antioxidant affected and appeared to be the only antioxidant that could be implicated in long-term protection of the photosynthetic pigments. Results from the application of antioxidants having relative selectivity for /sup 1/O/sub 2/, O/sub 2//sup +/, or OH indicated that both /sup 1/O/sub 2/ and O/sub 2//sup -/ were involved in the chilling- and light-induced lipid peroxidation which accompanied photooxidation. Application of D/sub 2/O (which enhances the lifetime of /sup 1/O/sub 2/) corroborated these results. Chilling under high light produced no evidence of photooxidative damage in detached leaves of chilling-resistant pea (Pisum sativum L.). Their results suggest a fundamental difference in the ability of pea to reduce the destructive effects of free-radical and /sup 1/O/sub 2/ production in chloroplasts during chilling in high light.

  3. 基于作物生长模型的玉米生殖期冷害致灾因子研究%Chilling Disaster Factors in Maize Reproductive Stage Based on Crop Growth Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉平; 王石立; 李维京

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, temperature in the northeast of China has been significantly increasing with global wanning. However, since planting areas of relatively late-maturing varieties of maize are shifting towards north, the frequency and intensity of maize chilling disaster are increased in some areas and some years. The prevention and mitigation of chilling disaster of maize in the Northeast depend on our understanding about chilling disaster factors and the degrees of impacts. In this paper, using North East China Maize Growth Model (NEC_MaGM) and historical chilling disaster data, we analyzed temporal and spatial variations of low temperature during the grain filling period and the first frost day, and discussed the match relations between chilling years based on the two disaster factors and actual chilling years. The results indicated that NEC_MaGM had a satisfied outcome in simulating maize growth and development. The absolute deviation at simulated tasseling and maturity stages calculated by NEC_MaGM was 3.6 d and 5.9 d, respectively. The root mean square error of simulated weight of storage organ (WSO) was 839.5 kg ha-1. The average temperature in grain filling stage of maize in the Northeast was 16.7-23.5℃. However, the rapid decrease of temperature (<16℃) that usually occurred in the late period of maize development stage had a great impact on grain filling. The average temperature on the first frost day in the northeast was 7.4-9.2℃, which was below the threshold for maize growth. In addition, the first frost day in the Northeast had a trend of delay with time. However, maturity of new maize variety also delayed with global warming, so the first frost frequently occurred before maturity. When the average daily temperature of five successive days lower than 16℃ occurred before DVS =1.9 (development stage), there was a severe impact on WSO. The years with above situation were consistent with those actually occurred in historical record. The partial

  4. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P preservative in chilled pork patties.

  5. Use of smart photochromic indicator for dynamic monitoring of the shelf life of chilled chicken based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of a photochromic time temperature indicator (TTI) to monitor the time-temperature history and shelf life of chilled boneless chicken breast. The results showed that the smart indicator showed good reproducibility during the discoloring process in all the conditions investigated. The response was not only visibly interpretable but also well adaptable to measurement using appropriate equipment. For an activation configuration of 4 s of ultraviolet light (UV) per label, the TTI's rate of discoloration was similar to the quality loss of the meat samples analyzed. Thus, the photochromic label (4 s UV/label) attached to the samples set out to be a dynamic shelf-life label, assuring consumers the final point of quality of chilled boneless chicken breast in an easy and precise form, providing a reliable tool to monitor the supply chain of this product.

  6. Raw-appearing Restructured fish models made with Sodium alginate or Microbial transglutaminase and effect of chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Moreno

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Restructuring by adding Sodium Alginate or Microbial Transglutaminase (MTGase using cold gelation technology make it possible to obtain many different raw products from minced and/or chopped fish muscle that are suitable for being used as the basis of new restructured products with different physicochemical properties and even different compositions. Special consideration must be given to their shelf-life and the changes that may take place during chilling, both in visual appearance and physicochemical properties. After chilled storage, the restructured models made with different muscular particle size and composition at low temperature (5 °C, it was observed that microbial growth limited the shelf-life to 7-14 days. Mechanical properties increased (p 0.05 was detected during storage.

  7. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    (ventilation effectiveness of 0.4) and the air flow rate had to be above minimum to safeguard the indoor air quality. The radial swirl jet of chilled beam also was not capable of creating complete mixing at high and concentrated heat load (ventilation effectiveness of 0.7)....... (L x W x H)). A window (6.5 m2) was simulated by radiant panels. Four chilled beam units were installed symmetrically on the suspended ceiling together with two exhaust vents. The diffuse ceiling inlet was made of standard perforated acoustic tiles (0.5% total degree of perforation). The room air...... temperature was controlled at 24 °C. The quality of the generated indoor environment as defined in ISO standard 7730 (2005) was assessed based on comprehensive physical measurements. The systems created Category A thermal environment in cooling situations at heat load of 50 W∙m−2 and 78 W∙m−2 (office room...

  8. Effects of grape pomace extract on the quality and shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix fillets during chill storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hasani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of grape pomace extract (0, 2 and 4% on quality and shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix fillets during chill storage (4°C were investigated. The control and the treated fillets were analyzed periodically for microbiological (TVC and PTC, chemical (TVB-N, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that grape pomace-treated samples have lower TVB-N (24.2 and 21.2 mg N/100 g, respectively, TVC (7.33 and 7.09 log cfu/g, respectively and PTC (7.26 and 7.03 log cfu/g, respectively at the end of the storage period. The results revealed that the addition of grape pomace extract has a positive effect on the sensory quality of silver carp fillets by retaining proper quality characteristics for a longer time and extends their shelf life during chill storage.

  9. Chillán, una ciudad morfológica y socialmente fragmentada en busca del desarrollo sustentable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Anabalón Pinto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chillán, una ciudad intermedia, se ubica en la depresión intermedia de Chile Central, a poco más de cien kilómetros de Concepción, capital de la región del Biobío, y a cuatrocientos kilómetros de la ciudad de Santiago. Es el centro funcional y espacial de la provincia de Ñuble donde los habitantes de las comunas rurales convergen para satisfacer sus necesidades de servicio y equipamiento. La población comunal asciende a 156.537 habitantes, de los cuales el 88% se concentra en la ciudad de Chillán y un 12% en las zonas rurales de la comuna.

  10. Effect of Heat Shock Treatment and Aloe Vera Coating to Chilling Injury Symptom in Tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to determine the effect of length in heat shock and edible coating as pre-storage treatment to Chilling Injury (CI symptom reflected by ion leakage induced and quality properties in tomato (Lycopersicon asculantum Mill.. Heat Shock Treatment (HST was conducted at three different levels of length, which were, 20; 40 and 60 min. Edible coating was conducted using aloe vera gel. The result showed that HST and Aloe Vera Coating (AVC were more effective to reduce CI symptom at lower chilling storage. Prolong exposure to heated water may delay climacteric peak. The length of heat shock, AVC treatment and low temperature storage significantly affected the tomato quality parameter but not significantly different for each treatment except weight loss. HST for 20 min at ambient temperature was significantly different to other treatment.

  11. 冷冻水管道腐蚀缺陷超声导波检测%Ultrasonic Guided Wave for Chilled Water Pipelines Corrosion Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马柯; 张胜军; 曹建群

    2013-01-01

    采用超声导波检测方法,对中央空调冷冻水管道腐蚀缺陷进行了检测.对导波反射回波信号进行标定,拆除保温层对疑似缺陷进行验证,计算缺陷处管道周向腐蚀减薄率,并分析了影响缺陷回波信号的因素.结果表明,超声导波检测能够实现腐蚀缺陷的快速检测与定位;波包在支管与大小头处发生模态转换与发散,使得其后的区域成为检测盲区;导波信号在管道外壁腐蚀层的吸收作用下迅速衰减,沿长度方向的反射回波强度迅速下降.%Corrosion defects in central air-condition chilled water pipelines were tested using ultrasonic guided wave.Reflection signals were marked and suspected defects were verified after removal of the insulating layer.The corrosion rate of the defects in the circumferential direction was calculated,and different factors affecting the reflection signals were studied.The results show that the ultrasonic guided wave method can test and locate the corrosion defects rapidly.Guided wave modes transform and wave packets disperse in the branch and adjustable tube,so the testing results in the areas behind such structures are invalid.Guided wave weakens rapidly due to the corrosion layer's absorb leading to the decline of reflection signals along pipelines.

  12. Effects of low-frequency magnetic field on grain boundary segregation in horizontal direct chill casting of 2024 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Effects of low frequency electromagnetic field on grain boundary segregation in horizontal direct chill (HDC)casting process was investigated experimentally. The grain boundary segregation and microstructures of the ingots,which manufactured by conventional HDC casting and low frequency electromagnetic HDC casting were compared.Results show that low frequency electromagnetic field significantly refines the microstructures and reduces grain boundary segregation. Decreasing electromagnetic frequency or increasing electromagnetic intensity has great effects in reducing grain boundary segregation. Meanwhile, the governing mechanisms were discussed.

  13. Increased heat requirement for leaf flushing in temperate woody species over 1980-2012: effects of chilling, precipitation and insolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongshuo H; Piao, Shilong; Vitasse, Yann; Zhao, Hongfang; De Boeck, Hans J; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Hui; Weber, Ulrich; Hänninen, Heikki; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-10

    Recent studies have revealed large unexplained variation in heat requirement-based phenology models, resulting in large uncertainty when predicting ecosystem carbon and water balance responses to climate variability. Improving our understanding of the heat requirement for spring phenology is thus urgently needed. In this study, we estimated the species-specific heat requirement for leaf flushing of 13 temperate woody species using long-term phenological observations from Europe and North America. The species were defined as early and late flushing species according to the mean date of leaf flushing across all sites. Partial correlation analyses were applied to determine the temporal correlations between heat requirement and chilling accumulation, precipitation and insolation sum during dormancy. We found that the heat requirement for leaf flushing increased by almost 50% over the study period 1980-2012, with an average of 30 heat units per decade. This temporal increase in heat requirement was observed in all species, but was much larger for late than for early flushing species. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the heat requirement negatively correlates with chilling accumulation. Interestingly, after removing the variation induced by chilling accumulation, a predominantly positive partial correlation exists between heat requirement and precipitation sum, and a predominantly negative correlation between heat requirement and insolation sum. This suggests that besides the well-known effect of chilling, the heat requirement for leaf flushing is also influenced by precipitation and insolation sum during dormancy. However, we hypothesize that the observed precipitation and insolation effects might be artefacts attributable to the inappropriate use of air temperature in the heat requirement quantification. Rather than air temperature, meristem temperature is probably the prominent driver of the leaf flushing process, but these data are not available

  14. Influence of melt feeding scheme and casting parameters during direct-chill casting on microstructure of an AA7050 billet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L; T. Subroto; Katgerman, L.; Eskin, DG; Miroux, A

    2012-01-01

    © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012 Direct-chill (DC) casting billets of an AA7050 alloy produced with different melt feeding schemes and casting speeds were examined in order to reveal the effect of these factors on the evolution of microstructure. Experimental results show that grain size is strongly influenced by the casting speed. In addition, the distribution of grain sizes across the billet diameter is mostly determined by melt feeding scheme. Grains...

  15. Investigation on the cause of tomato fruit discoloration and damage under chilling condition using external antioxidants and hot water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nardos Tadesse, T.; Farneti, B.; Woltering, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit turns to red from green during ripening. The accumulated lycopene content of red tomato fruits is reduced when the fruits stored in the refrigerator. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate the reason why red color tomato turns to light red when the fruit is stored at chilling temperature. A tomato variety (cv Rotarno) grown under greenhouse condition and harvested at red stage was used to assess color and firmness. Before storage at these tempera...

  16. Effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on establishment of dry direct-seeded early rice under chilling stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weiqin; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Qian; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Our study revealed that priming treatments significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling growth of dry direct-seeded early rice under chilling stress. The improved emergence and vigorous seedling growth induced by the seed priming treatments were associated with increased α-amylase activity and total soluble sugar contents in the primed seedlings. These findings will have practical implications for the sustainability and productivity of dry direct-seeded early rice.

  17. Transcript profiling of Paoenia ostii during artificial chilling induced dormancy release identifies activation of GA pathway and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng Gai

    Full Text Available Endo-dormant flower buds must pass through a period of chilling to reinitiate growth and subsequent flowering, which is a major obstacle to the forcing culture of tree peony in winter. Customized cDNA microarray (8×15 K element was used to investigate gene expression profiling in tree peony 'Feng Dan Bai' buds during 24 d chilling treatment at 0-4°C. According to the morphological changes after the whole plants were transferred to green house, endo-dormancy was released after 18 d chilling treatment, and prolonged chilling treatment increased bud break rate. Pearson correlation hierarchical clustering of sample groups was highly consistent with the dormancy transitions revealed by morphological changes. Totally 3,174 significantly differentially-expressed genes (P<0.05 were observed through endo-dormancy release process, of which the number of up-regulated (1,611 and that of down-regulated (1,563 was almost the same. Functional annotation of differentially-expressed genes revealed that cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, regulation of biological process and development process were well-represented. Hierarchical clustering indicated that activation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (Glycolysis, Citrate cycle and Pentose phosphate pathway, energy metabolism and cell growth. Based on the results of GO analysis, totally 51 probes presented in the microarray were associated with GA response and GA signaling pathway, and 22 of them were differently expressed. The expression profiles also revealed that the genes of GA biosynthesis, signaling and response involved in endo-dormancy release. We hypothesized that activation of GA pathway played a central role in the regulation of dormancy release in tree peony.

  18. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  19. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  20. [Insertion of gluteus maximus tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped for the treatment of severe gluteal muscle contracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-shi; Yang, Xiao-long

    2015-06-01

    To investigate clinical curative effects of gluteal muscle contracture release combined with insertion of gluteus maximus tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped in treating severe gluteal muscles contracture. From 2006 May to 2011 May, 20 patients (35 sides) with severe gluteal muscle contracture were collected, including 12 males and 8 females, aged from 8 to 34 years old with an average of 13 years old; the courses of disease ranged from 3 to 21 years. All patients manifested abnormal gait at different degree, knees close together cannot squat,positive syndrome of Ober, positive test of alice leg. Gluteus contracture fascia release were performed firstly in operation, then insertion of tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped were carried out. Preoperative and postoperative gait, and knee flexion hip extensor squat test, cross leg test, adduction and internal rotary activity of hip joint, stretch strength and motor ability after hip abduction were observed and compared. Twenty patients were followed up for 1 to 5 years. Gluteus maximus were released thoroughly, and snapping hip was disappeared, Ober syndrome were negative. There was significant differences in knee flexion hip extensor squat test, adduction and internal rotary activity of hip joint,stretch before and after operation (Pcontracture,insertion of gluteus maximus tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped performed after gluteus contracture fascia release could release gluteal muscle contracture to the greatest extent and obtain postoperative curative effect without resection of normal hip muscle fibers and destroy joint capsule.

  1. Effect of chitosan on shelf life of restructured fish products from pangasius (pangasianodon hypophthalmus) surimi during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumari A; George Ninan; Joshy C G; Parvathy U; Zynudheen A A; Lalitha K V

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, restructured products were prepared from pangasius surimi and their qualities were analysed under chilled storage. Pangasius surimi had 75.82 % moisture, 16.91 % protein, 2.76 % fat and 0.95 % ash. Restructured products were prepared in three different formulations by incorporating corn starch (10 %) and chitosan (0.75 %). Formulation containing only corn starch (10 %) was served as control. In all the formulations, mono unsaturated fatty acids were higher (45.14 %). The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) showed an increasing trend and it was found to be higher in control (4.8 mg/100 g) on 10(th) day than the chitosan incorporated sample (3.5-4.2 mg/100 g) on 17(th) day during chill storage. Similarly, peroxide value (PV) was found to higher (8.85 milliequivalent of O2/kg) in control than the chitosan incorporated sample (4.5-6.8 milliequivalent of O2/kg) on 10(th) day. All the three formulations had an acceptable level of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value that ranged between 0.023-0.098 mg of malanoldehyde/kg during chilled storage. Based on the sensory and microbiological analysis, products prepared without chitosan had a shelf life of 10 day whereas, products incorporated with chitosan had an extended shelf life of 17 day.

  2. Sperm DNA fragmentation and morphological degeneration in chilled elephant (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta Africana) semen collected by transrectal massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Robeck, T R

    2013-05-01

    Ejaculates from nine Asian and two African elephants were analysed to gain a further understanding of mechanisms underlying variable semen quality after transrectal massage. Semen analysis was performed after collection (0 h; subjective motility parameters only) and after 24 h of chilled storage at 10 °C (24 h; all ejaculate and sperm characteristics). Ejaculates with ≤50% total motility (TM) at 24 h, which represented >90% of collection attempts, contained a sperm population with a high degree of DNA damage (64.2 ± 19.2% fragmented DNA) and an elevated incidence of detached heads (43.3 ± 22.5%). In contrast, good quality ejaculates designated as those with >50% TM at 24 h displayed higher (p < 0.05) values of sperm kinetic parameters, DNA integrity and normal morphology. Fertility potential was high for good quality ejaculates from two males (one Asian and one African bull) based on in vitro characteristics after chilled storage for up to 48 h post-collection. Urine contamination of semen, as assessed quantitatively by creatinine concentration, was confirmed as a significant factor in reduced elephant ejaculate quality. However, the identification of considerable DNA damage and morphological degeneration in the majority of ejaculates after only 24 h of chilled storage indicates that sperm ageing could be a primary contributor to inconsistent semen quality in the elephant.

  3. The effect of seedling chilling on glutathione content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the possible relationship between Brassica oleracea var. italica seedlings stored at 2°C in the dark for seven and fourteen days, respectively, and the level of certain antioxidant parameters in particular organs. A parallel objective of the experiment was to determine if the reaction of seedlings to low temperature might be persistent in fully developed plants until harvest time. After 14 days of chilling a significant increase in the glutathione content was observed in the seedling leaves in comparison to the non-chilled plants. During vegetation in field conditions this effect was maintained in leaves up to the stage of formation of flower buds. At harvest the highest content of glutathione was demonstrated in broccoli heads, obtained from plants, which were previously chilled in the seedling phase for two weeks. Peroxidase activity in broccoli seedlings increased each year of the three-year study due to the duration of the cooling time, whereas in the case of catalase the changes were not so distinct. At harvest time the activity of both enzymes in the leaves and flower buds fluctuated according to the particular year of study.

  4. Factors affecting microbial spoilage and shelf-life of chilled vacuum-packed lamb transported to distant markets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, John; Donnison, Andrea; Brightwell, Gale

    2014-09-01

    Vacuum-packaging and stringent control of storage temperatures enable the export of meat to distant markets, supplying a chilled product that can favourably compete with local fresh meats. To save fuel and reduce emissions, the speed of ships travelling to international markets has decreased resulting in requirement for the shelf-life of chilled lamb to be extended beyond the recognised time of 60-70 days. Growth of microorganisms and ability to cause spoilage of vacuum-packed lamb are dependent on many factors, including the type and initial concentration of spoilage bacteria, meat pH, water activity, availability of substrates, oxygen availability and, most importantly, storage time and temperature of the packaged product. This paper reviews the existing knowledge of the spoilage bacteria affecting vacuum-packed lamb, discusses the impact of these bacteria on product quality, shelf-life and spoilage, and concludes that under specified conditions the shelf-life of chilled lamb can be extended to beyond 70 days.

  5. Modified wind chill temperatures determined by a whole body thermoregulation model and human-based facial convective coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan

    2014-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation: Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h-1, were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h-1/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h-1/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.

  6. A meta-analysis study of the effect of chilling on prevalence of Salmonella on pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales Barron, U; Bergin, D; Butler, F

    2008-07-01

    In the field of food safety, meta-analysis can be used to combine results of prevalence studies of pathogens at critical stages within the food processing chain so that policy makers can access reliable and concise information on the effectiveness of interventions for controlling and preventing foodborne illnesses in humans. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of a parametric approach of meta-analysis to the specific case of determining the overall effect of chilling on Salmonella prevalence on pig carcasses. A meta-analysis was performed on each of two parameters measuring effect size for binary outcomes (relative risk and risk difference). Both meta-analyses confirmed that the chilling operation has a significant beneficial effect (P pig carcasses. Because risk difference is a parameter sensitive to the differences across studies in carcass swab areas and Salmonella detection methods, its meta-analysis highly reflected this heterogeneity (P meta-analysis solution, which is deemed more suitable for compilations based on a small number of individual studies (n = 9). Because of the systematic approach of meta-analysis (i.e., individual studies are weighed according to precision) and its reliance for actual data, the output distribution of the relative risk effect size (approximately eN(-0.868,0.166)) merits consideration for inclusion in the chilling stage of quantitative risk assessments modeling the prevalence of this pathogen along the pork production chain.

  7. The Expression of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene from Nelumbo nucifera Responds Strongly to Chilling and Oxidative Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Li; Lin Qi; Xiaodong Lin; Huhui Chen; Zhanqi Ma; Keqiang Wu; Shangzhi Huang

    2009-01-01

    A manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene, NnMSD1, was identified from embryonic axes of the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). The NnMSD1 protein contains all conserved residues of the Mn-SOD protein family, including four consensus metal binding domains and a signal peptide for mitochondrial targeting. Southern blot analysis suggests the existence of two Mn-SOD genes in sacred lotus. NnMSD1 was highly expressed in developing embryonic axes during seed development, but appeared in cotyledons only at the early stage of development and became undetectable in the cotyledons during late embryogenesis. The expression of the NnMSD1 gene in germinating embryonic axes, in response to various stresses such as heat shock, chilling, and exposure to stress-related chemicals, was also studied. Heat shock strongly inhibited the expression of the NnMSD1 gene, whereas the NnMSD1 transcript level increased strongly in chilling stress treatment. An increase in expression was also highly induced by H2O2 in germinating embryonic axes. The results suggest that the expression pattern of the NnMSD1 gene differed between developing axes and cotyledons, and that the NnMSD1 gene expression responds strongly to chilling and oxidative stress.

  8. MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE MAGELLANIC PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS) USING CHILLED-STORED SEMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Justine K; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Steinman, Karen J; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-03-01

    Research was performed to increase our understanding of male Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) reproductive biology and to develop artificial insemination (AI) technology to assist with maintaining the species' genetic diversity. Seminal traits were characterized from seven males with noncontaminated ejaculates (n = 123) displaying high in vitro motion parameters, membrane integrity, and morphology. Seven females were maintained in nest sites that permitted visual, auditory, and tactile contact with their paired male but not copulation for 18.3 ± 2.4 days before egg lay. After cloacal AI (2.6 ± 0.4 inseminations/female) with semen chilled for up to 20.5 hr at 5°C, all females produced one to two fertile eggs, with the first oviposition occurring within 7 days of plasma progesterone concentrations exceeding 0.8 ng/ml. Overall fertility was 91.7%, hatchability was 63.6%, and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by AI males. The heterospermic AI design demonstrated that eggs were fertilized by spermatozoa chilled for 1.5-19.8 hr before AI and were laid 4.5-11.5 days post AI. These results contribute new data on Magellanic penguin sperm biology and demonstrate that high fertility rates after AI of chilled semen can be achieved with females remaining in proximity to their paired mate.

  9. Involvement of energy metabolism to chilling tolerance induced by hydrogen sulfide in cold-stored banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Limwachiranon, Jarukitt; Li, Li; Du, Ruixue; Luo, Zisheng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on energy metabolism in postharvest banana fruit under chilling stress was investigated. Banana fruit, fumigated with optimal concentration (0.5mM) of aqueous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) solution for 24h, were initially stored at 7°C for 14d and 20°C for another 6d. H2S treated banana fruit showed both higher value of firmness and Hue angle, as well as lower value of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ethylene production. These indicated slower development of chilling injury compared with the control. Decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and energy charge was not noticeable in H2S treated banana fruit. Moreover, the activity of H(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), associated with energy metabolism, were significantly enhanced by H2S treatment. Therefore, it can be deduced that H2S can potentially alleviate chilling development in banana fruit by increasing enzymes activities, involved in energy metabolism, to maintain energy charge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of PSI recovery after chilling-induced photoinhibition in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zishan; Jia, Yujiao; Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Litao; Li, Haidong; Meng, Qingwei

    2011-11-01

    By simultaneously analyzing the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient and light absorbance at 820 nm as well as chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, we investigated the effects of different photon flux densities (0, 15, 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) with or without 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) on the repair process of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves after treatment with low temperature (6°C) combined with moderate photon flux density (200 μmol m(-2 )s(-1)) for 6 h. Both the maximal photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII) (F (v)/F (m)) and the content of active P700 (ΔI/I (o)) significantly decreased after chilling treatment under 200 μmol m(-2 )s(-1) light. After the leaves were transferred to 25°C, F (v)/F (m) recovered quickly under both 200 and 15 μmol m(-2 )s(-1) light. ΔI/I (o) recovered quickly under 15 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light, but the recovery rate of ΔI/I (o) was slower than that of F (v)/F (m). The cyclic electron transport was inhibited by chilling-light treatment obviously. The recovery of ΔI/I (o) was severely suppressed by 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light, whereas a pretreatment with DCMU effectively relieved this suppression. The cyclic electron transport around PSI recovered in a similar way as the active P700 content did, and the recovery of them was both accelerated by pretreatment with DCMU. The results indicate that limiting electron transport from PSII to PSI protected PSI from further photoinhibition, accelerating the recovery of PSI. Under a given photon flux density, faster recovery of PSII compared to PSI was detrimental to the recovery of PSI or even to the whole photosystem.

  11. Effect of different icing conditions on lipid damage development in chilled horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the effect of including a mixture of natural organic acids (citric, ascorbic and lactic in the icing medium employed during the chilled storage of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. To this end, two aqueous solutions including 0.005% and 0.020% (w/v of each acid (P-1 and P-2 conditions, respectively were employed as icing systems. The effects on lipid damage development in fish muscle were monitored for up to a 13- day storage period; complementary chemical quality and sensory acceptance analyses were carried out. According to peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assessment, a slight inhibitory effect was concluded as a result of the acid mixture present in the chilling medium. At the same time, P-2-treated fish showed a longer shelf life than their counterparts belonging to P-1 and control conditions. No effect of the acid presence in the icing system could be outlined on the nucleotide degradation or the free fatty acid formation.Se estudió el empleo de hielo conteniendo una mezcla de ácidos orgánicos naturales (cítrico, ascórbico, láctico como método de refrigeración en jurel (Trachurus trachurus. Para ello, se aplicó hielo incluyendo dos concentraciones (0.005 y 0.020 %; p/v de cada ácido (condiciones P-1 y P-2, respectivamente. Se estudiaron los efectos producidos sobre el desarrollo de la alteración lipídica en el músculo de pescado conservado durante 13 días; asimismo, se realizaron análisis químicos complementarios de calidad y de aceptación sensorial. Como resultado de la presencia de los ácidos, se observó un pequeño efecto inhibidor de la formación de peróxidos y de sustancias reactivas con ácido tiobarbitúrico. Asimismo, las muestras correspondientes al tratamiento P-2 reflejaron un tiempo de vida útil mayor que las pertenecientes a las condiciones P-1 y control. La presencia de ácidos en el hielo no produjo diferencias en la degradación de nucle

  12. PENGARUH CaCl2 DAN EDIBLE FILM TERHADAP PENGHAMBATAN CHILLING INJURY BUAH NANGKA KUPAS [Effect of CaCl2 and Edible Film on Chilling Injury Inhibition of fresh-cut Jackfruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Banyuro Partha1

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of CaCl2 soaking and edible film coating to delay or inhibit chilling injury of freshly-cut jackfruit has been studied. The onset of chilling injury was monitored based on sadden increase of ethylene emission as measured on-line using CO2-laser driven photoacoustic spectrometer. Freshly cut edible part of ripe jackfruit was used as the research material. The fruit was soaked in 0%, 1%, 1,5%, 2% of CaCl2 for 15 minutes. After rinsing, sample were divided into two parts each for edible coating and control. The edible film was prepared by soaking of the samples for 30 seconds in solution of white bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L. edible coating, which was derived from our previous research. The samples were devided into two parts for destructive and non destructive analysis. Both were then stored at 4oC for 3 days, at which time the normal fruit suffer from chilling injury. For the non-destructive analysis, the samples were individually put in special cuvet and a flow-trough air system was connected to each cuvet for on-line ethylene monitoring. Data of real-time ethylene emission were collected automatically every 120 minutes during the three day cold storage. The other set of samples were put in a plascic bag and stored at 4oC for 3 days period. At the end of cold stored, the samples were let to adjust to room temperature for 1 hr before subjected to respiration rate, reducing sugars, total acidity, and texture analysis. Result indicated that soaking with CaCl2 and edible film coating of freshly-cut jackfruit delayed the on-set of chilling injury as indicated by late increase of ethylene emission. Based on pattern of ethylene emission during the three day storage and their respiration rate, the best treatment to delay chilling injury of fresly-cut jackfruit was soaking in CaCl2 2% in combination with edible film coating.

  13. Prevalence and Serogroup Diversity of Salmonella for Broiler Neck Skin, Whole Carcass Rinse, and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies following Air or Immersion Chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, D V; Holmes, J M; Cason, J A; Cox, N A; Rigsby, L L; Buhr, R J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck skin (NS), whole carcass rinse (WCR), and whole carcass enrichment (WCE) sampling procedures for Salmonella isolation and serogroup identification from the same broiler chicken carcass treated with air or immersion chilling. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant, individually bagged, and transported to the pilot processing plant. In experiment 1, carcasses were air chilled to 4°C. In experiment 2, carcasses were immersion chilled with or without chlorine. After air chilling, Salmonella was detected on 78% of NS and 89% of WCE samples. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive NS samples, and two serogroups were detected on 1 Salmonella-positive NS sample. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from each of 13 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, and two serogroups were detected from 3 Salmonella-positive WCE samples. After immersion chilling without chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 38% of NS, 45% of WCR, and 100% of WCE samples. Without chlorine, the 15 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 14 samples with one serogroup and 1 sample with two serogroups. Only one Salmonella serogroup was detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling. Of 40 Salmonella-positive WCE samples, 23 had a one, 14 had two, and 3 had three Salmonella serogroups. After immersion chilling with chlorine, Salmonella was detected on 35% of NS, 0% of WCR, and 90% of WCE samples. With chlorine, the 14 Salmonella-positive NS samples included 11 samples with one serogroup and 3 samples with two serogroups. No Salmonella serogroups were detected from WCR samples after immersion chilling with 20 mg/liter free chlorine. The 36 Salmonella-positive WCE samples included 21 samples with one serogroup and 15 samples with two serogroups. NS and WCE sampling methodologies yielded similar prevalence and serogroup diversity after air chilling. However

  14. Changes in Unsaturated Levels of Fatty Acids in Thylakoid PSⅡ Membrane Lipids During Chilling-induced Resistance in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Qin Zhu; Chun-Mei Yu; Xin-Yan Liu; Ben-Hua Ji; De-Mao Jiao

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is one of the abiotic factors limiting growth and productivity of plants. In the present work, the effect of low non-freezing temperature, as an inducer of "chilling resistance", was studied in three cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.), japonica cv. 9516 (j-9516), the two parental lines of superhigh-yield hybrid rice between subspecies,Peiai/E32 (ji-PE), and the traditional indica hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (i-SY63). Leaves of chill-treated rice showed chilling-induced resistance, as an increase of their low-temperature tolerance was measured using chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, revealing a change in photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) efficiency. After 5 d of exposure to 11℃ under low light (100 μ mol·m-2·s-1), levels of unsaturated fatty acids in PSⅡ thylakoid membrane lipids decreased during the initial 1-2 d, then increased slowly and reached 99.2%, 95.3% and 90.1% of the initial value (0 d) in j-9516,ji-PE and i-SY63, respectively, on the fifth day. However, under medium light (600 μmol·m-2·s-1), all cultivars experienced similar substantial photoinhibition, which approached steady state levels after a decline in levels of unsaturated fatty acids in PSII thylakoid membrane lipids to about 57.1%, 53.8% and 44.5% of the initial values (0 d) in j-9516,ji-PE and i-SY63 on the fifth day. Under either chilling-induced resistance (the former) or low temperature photoinhibition (the latter) conditions, the changes of other physiological parameters such as D1 protein contents,electron transport activities of PSII (ETA), Fv/Fm, xanthophyl cycle activities expressed by DES (deepoxide state)were consistent with that of levels of unsaturated fatty acids in PSⅡ thylakoid membrane lipids. So there were negative correlations between saturated levels of fatty acids (16:1(3t), 16:0, 18:0), especially the 16:1(3t) fatty acid on thylakoid membrane and other physiological parameters, such as D1 protein contents, ETA and (A+Z)/(A+V+Z). A specific role of

  15. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Nitric Oxide Synthase Associated Gene1 (CsNOA1) Plays a Role in Chilling Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingwang; Liu, Bin; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanlinq; Qi, Wenzhu; Jian, Chen; Xu, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule in plants, transducing information as a result of exposure to low temperatures. However, the underlying molecular mechanism linking NO with chilling stress is not well understood. Here, we functionally characterized the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) nitric oxide synthase-associated gene, NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED 1 (CsNOA1). Expression analysis of CsNOA1, using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter assay, revealed that it is expressed mainly in the root and shoot apical meristem (SAM), and that expression is up-regulated by low temperatures. A CsNOA1-GFP fusion protein was found to be localized in the mitochondria, and ectopic expression of CsNOA1 in the A. thaliana noa1 mutant partially rescued the normal phenotype. When overexpressing CsNOA1 in the Atnoa1 mutant under normal condition, no obvious phenotypic differences was observed between its wild type and transgenic plants. However, the leaves from mutant plant grown under chilling conditions showed hydrophanous spots and wilting. Physiology tolerance markers, chlorophyll fluorescence parameter (Fv/Fm), and electrolyte leakage, were observed to dramatically change, compared mutant to overexpressing lines. Transgenic cucumber plants revealed that the gene is required by seedlings to tolerate chilling stress: constitutive over-expression of CsNOA1 led to a greater accumulation of soluble sugars, starch, and an up-regulation of Cold-regulatory C-repeat binding factor3 (CBF3) expression as well as a lower chilling damage index (CI). Conversely, suppression of CsNOA1 expression resulted in the opposite phenotype and a reduced NO content compared to wild type plants. Those results suggest that CsNOA1 regulates cucumber seedlings chilling tolerance. Additionally, under normal condition, we took several classic inhibitors to perform, and detect endogenous NO levels in wild type cucumber seedling. The results

  16. Preservability of rabbit semen after chilled storage in tris based extender enriched with different concentrations of Propolis ethanolic extract (PEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam El-Sayed El-Seadawy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To maintain semen quality of male rabbits during chilled storage by enrichment the tris based diluent with different concentrations of propolis ethanolic extracts. Methods: Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activity was determined in propolis ethanolic extract (PEE. The extract was analysed by HPLC for separation and identification of target metabolites. Semen was collected from 10 rabbit bucks, pooled, then divided into five aliquots (each of 500 µL and diluted each in 5 mL Tris-citric acid-glucose-egg yolk extender (TCGY. The 1st aliquot served as control while PEE was added at concentration of 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 mg/5 mL tris extender in the aliquot 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Diluted semen samples were subjected to cooling at 4 ℃ for 72 h. Sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm abnormality, sperm membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were evaluated in chilled semen allover the chilling period. Results: The resluts revealed presence of a considerable amount of total phenolic compounds (98.67 mg GAE/g extract and total flavonoids (70.16 mg CE/g extract which were parallel to an antioxidant activity assessed as ABTS, DPPH and FRAP (198.65, 180.18 and 306.17 mM TE/g extract respectively. The dominant phenolic acid was chlorogenic acids (3.959 mg/g extract. Other compounds were found in less amounts rosmarinic acid (3.959 mg/g extract, myrcetin (1.946 mg/g extract, kaempferol (1.089 mg/g extract and apeginin-7 glucoside (1.113 mg/g extract. Obtained results clearly demonstrated that the addition of (1.2-1.6 mg PEE in the chilled extended rabbit semen proved to be beneficial for maintaining semen characteristics compared to control and the addition of 0.8 and 2 mg PEE. Conclusions: The enrichment of rabbit semen tris basic extender with (1.2-1.6 mg PEE/5 mL tris-extender (as the best and safe concentrations maintain the sperm characteristics in good condition all over 72 h of chilling.

  17. Use of the spray chilling method to deliver hydrophobic components: physical characterization of microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Food industry has been developing products to meet the demands of increasing number of consumers who are concerned with their health and who seek food products that satisfy their needs. Therefore, the development of processed foods that contain functional components has become important for this industry. Microencapsulation can be used to reduce the effects of processing on functional components and preserve their bioactivity. The present study investigated the production of lipid microparticles containing phytosterols by spray chilling. The matrices comprised mixtures of stearic acid and hydrogenated vegetable fat, and the ratio of the matrix components to phytosterols was defined by an experimental design using the mean diameters of the microparticles as the response variable. The melting point of the matrices ranged from 44.5 and 53.4 ºC. The process yield was melting point dependent; the particles that exhibited lower melting point had greater losses than those with higher melting point. The microparticles' mean diameters ranged from 13.8 and 32.2 µm and were influenced by the amount of phytosterols and stearic acid. The microparticles exhibited spherical shape and typical polydispersity of atomized products. From a technological and practical (handling, yield, and agglomeration points of view, lipid microparticles with higher melting point proved promising as phytosterol carriers.

  18. Properties of PAN Fibers Solution Spun into a Chilled Coagulation Bath at High Solvent Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ashley Morris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, multifilament, continuous polyacrylonitrile (PAN fiber tow was solution spun mimicking industrial processing at the small pilot scale (0.5 k tow, while carefully altering the composition of the coagulation bath, in order to determine the effect on the resulting fiber shape, density, orientation, and tensile properties at varying points in the spinning process. Novel here are the abnormally high coagulation bath solvent compositions investigated, which surpass those often reported in the literature. In addition, the coagulation bath was maintained at a slightly chilled temperature, contrary to reported methods to produce round fibers. Further, by altering the composition of the bath in a step-wise fashion during a single spinning run, variations in all other process parameters were minimized. We found that with increasing solvent composition in the coagulation bath, the fibers not only became round in cross section, but also became smaller in diameter, which persisted down the spin line. With this decrease in diameter, all else equal, came an accompanying increase in apparent fiber density via a reduction in microvoid content. In addition, molecular orientation and tensile properties also increased. Therefore, it was found that inadequate understanding of the coagulation bath effects, and spinning at low coagulation bath solvent compositions, can hinder the ability of the fiber to reach optimum properties.

  19. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among adolescents in Chillán, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez V, Ruth; Barrales C, Ingrid; Jara P, Jenny; Palma R, Virla; Ceballos M, Alejandra

    2008-12-01

    to analyse adolescents' knowledge of preventive sexual practices related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by means of a questionnaire recommended by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical investigation. four schools in Chillán, Chile, 2005. a total of 480 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years. Students completed a questionnaire recommended by UNAIDS in order to develop basic indicators. the indicator of preventive sexual practices related to HIV/AIDS was 32.5%; forms of prevention (62.5%) were better known than erroneous ideas about transmission (46%). Adolescents from the only private school in the study demonstrated greater knowledge (43.3%) than students from the public schools (25%) (peducational level. adolescents have poor knowledge of preventive sexual practices related to HIV and AIDS. It is necessary to implement an indicator of knowledge that allows for the creation and monitoring of sexual education programmes.

  20. Differential Metabolic Rearrangements after Cold Storage Are Correlated with Chilling Injury Resistance of Peach Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Claudia A.; Monti, Laura L.; Gabilondo, Julieta; Scossa, Federico; Valentini, Gabriel; Budde, Claudio O.; Lara, María V.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Drincovich, María F.

    2016-01-01

    Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI) symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp, and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI. PMID:27746802

  1. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHILLED CHICKEN MEAT AFTER FEEDING OF SELECTED PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Martonová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  The effect of feeding of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L and combination of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L and hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L on oxidative stability and sensory properties of produced poultry meat was investigated. Sixty one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (ROSS 308 were used in our experiment, divided into 3 groups, and fed 41 days, as follows: control (K was fed with standard diet without supplementation of plants; second group (M was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded lemon balm in concentration 2 % per 1 kg; and third group was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded yarrow (2 % and hawthorn (1 %. Results showed that supplementation with lemon balm, and mainly combination of yarrow and hawthorn in the diet significantly caused reduction of lipid oxidation processes in thigh meat during chilling storage of samples. In addition, supplementation of plants in the diet had positive effect on sensory quality of meat of broiler chickens.    doi:10.5219/38 

  2. Compact cold stage for micro-computerized tomography imaging of chilled or frozen samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullar, Ted; Paige, David F.; Rowland, Douglas J.; Anastasio, Cort

    2014-04-01

    High resolution X-ray microCT (computerized tomography) can be used to image a variety of objects, including temperature-sensitive materials. In cases where the sample must be chilled or frozen to maintain sample integrity, either the microCT machine itself must be placed in a refrigerated chamber, or a relatively expensive commercial cold stage must be purchased. We describe here the design and construction of a low-cost custom cold stage suitable for use in a microCT imaging system. Our device uses a boron nitride sample holder, two-stage Peltier cooler, fan-cooled heat sink, and electronic controller to maintain sample temperatures as low as -25 °C ± 0.2 °C for the duration of a tomography acquisition. The design does not require modification to the microCT machine, and is easily installed and removed. Our custom cold stage represents a cost-effective solution for refrigerating CT samples for imaging, and is especially useful for shared equipment or machines unsuitable for cold room use.

  3. Assessment of the effects of environmental radiation on wind chill equivalent temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, Avraham

    2008-09-01

    Combinations of wind-driven convection and environmental radiation in cold weather, make the environment "feel" colder. The relative contributions of these mechanisms, which form the basis for estimating wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs), are studied over a wide range of environmental conditions. Distinction is made between direct solar radiation and environmental radiation. Solar radiation, which is not included in the analysis, has beneficial effects, as it counters and offsets some of the effects due to wind and low air temperatures. Environmental radiation effects, which are included, have detrimental effects in enhancing heat loss from the human body, thus affecting the overall thermal sensation due to the environment. The analysis is performed by a simple, steady-state analytical model of human-environment thermal interaction using upper and lower bounds of environmental radiation heat exchange. It is shown that, over a wide range of relevant air temperatures and reported wind speeds, convection heat losses dominate over environmental radiation. At low wind speeds radiation contributes up to about 23% of the overall heat loss from exposed skin areas. Its relative contributions reduce considerably as the time of the exposure prolongs and exposed skin temperatures drop. At still higher wind speeds, environmental radiation effects become much smaller contributing about 5% of the total heat loss. These values fall well within the uncertainties associated with the parameter values assumed in the computation of WCETs. It is also shown that environmental radiation effects may be accommodated by adjusting reported wind speeds slightly above their reported values.

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF FRESH PACKAGED TILAPIA FILLETS STORED UNDER DIFFERENT CHILL TEMPERATURES

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    Odoli Cyprian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus farmed in recirculation aquaculture system (RAS was filleted and packaged in 100% air and 50% CO2: 50% N2 modified atmosphere (MA prior to storage at 1˚C and -1˚C for up to 27 days. Fillets were sampled regularly and analysed for headspace gas composition, sensory and microbial changes. Shelf life varied with apparent relation to storage temperature, package atmosphere and microflora. Pseudomonads were reported as the main spoilage organisms in tilapia fillets during chilled storage conditions. Sensory analysis of cooked samples as well as microbial growth indicated fillets packaged in 100% air had a shelf life of 13-15 days during storage at 1˚C and 20 days at -1˚C. At the end of shelf life in 100% air packaged groups, TVC and pseudomonads counts reached log 7 colony-forming units g-1 in flesh. Whereas in 50% CO2: 50% N2 packaged fillets, the lag phase and generation time of bacteria was extended and recorded counts of < log 4 colony-forming units g-1 up to 27 days of storage at both 1˚C and -1˚C. However, 50% CO2 : 50% N2 conditions restricted fillets shelf life to 23 days based on sensorial changes mainly fillets colour characteristics.

  5. Differential metabolic rearrangements after cold storage are correlated with chilling injury resistance of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Bustamante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI

  6. Differential Metabolic Rearrangements after Cold Storage Are Correlated with Chilling Injury Resistance of Peach Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Claudia A; Monti, Laura L; Gabilondo, Julieta; Scossa, Federico; Valentini, Gabriel; Budde, Claudio O; Lara, María V; Fernie, Alisdair R; Drincovich, María F

    2016-01-01

    Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI) symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp, and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI.

  7. Ethylene signal transduction elements involved in chilling injury in non-climacteric loquat fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Li, Xian; Xu, Changjie; Yin, Xueren; Shan, Lanlan; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2010-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit, with some cultivars such as 'Luoyangqing' (LYQ) susceptible to chilling injury (CI), while others such as 'Baisha' (BS) are resistant. Although loquats are non-climacteric, modulation of ethylene has an effect on ripening-related post-harvest CI. Therefore the role of ethylene signalling in the development of CI was investigated in fruit of both the LYQ and BS cultivars. Three ethylene receptor genes, one CTR1-like gene, and one EIN3-like gene were isolated and characterized in ripening fruit. All of these genes were expressed differentially within and between fruit of the two cultivars. Transcripts either declined over fruit development (EjERS1a in both cultivars and EjEIL1 in LYQ) or showed an increase in the middle stages of fruit development before declining (EjETR1, EjERS1b, and EjCTR1 in both cultivars and EjEIL1 in BS). The main cultivar differences were in levels rather than in patterns of expression during post-harvest storage. EjETR1, EjCTR1, and EjEIL1 genes showed increased expression in response to low temperature and this was particularly notable for EjETR1, and EjEIL1 during CI development in LYQ fruit. The genes were also differentially responsive to ethylene treatment, 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) and low temperature conditioning, confirming a role for ethylene in regulation of CI in loquat fruit.

  8. Effect of different concentrations of soybean lecithin and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tarig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of soybean lecithin (SL and virgin coconut oil (VCO in Tris-based extender on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen quality parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 ejaculates were collected from four bulls via an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 2% VCO in Tris-based extender which consists of various concentrations of SL (1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%. A 20% egg yolk in Tris used as a positive control (C+. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions; one for chilling which were stored at 4°C for 24, 72, and 144 h before evaluated for semen quality parameters. The second fraction used for freezing was chilled for 3 h at 4°C, packed into 0.25 mL straws and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The samples were then evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Chilled and frozen semen samples were thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology (eosin-nigrosin stain, membrane integrity, and lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reaction test. Results: The results showed that all the quality parameters assessed were significantly (p<0.05 improved at 1.5% SL concentration in chilled semen. Treatment groups of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75% SL were higher in quality parameters than the control group (C+ in chilled semen. However, all the quality parameters in frozen-thawed semen were significantly higher in the C+ than the treated groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, supplementation of 1.5% SL in 2% VCO Tris-based extender enhanced the chilled bull semen. However, there was no marked improvement in the frozen-thawed quality parameters after treatment.

  9. Effects of simulated dry and wet chilling and aging of beef fat and lean tissues on the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittor, A W; Tittor, M G; Brashears, M M; Brooks, J C; Garmyn, A J; Miller, M F

    2011-02-01

    The efficacy of dry and wet chilling and aging of beef as methods for the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on lean and fat tissues was studied. Samples were obtained from a harvest facility prior to antimicrobial interventions and were inoculated with a cocktail mixture of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella to achieve a target inoculation of 6 log CFU/cm(2). Wet chilled and aged samples were then suspended, sprayed (10 °C) continuously for 15 min and then sprayed for 1 min every 17 min for 17 h, and vacuum packed after 48 h. Dry chilled and aged samples were suspended in refrigeration (3 °C) with an air velocity of 0.25 m/s and a relative humidity of 80%. A large initial reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was observed, regardless of tissue type and chilling method. Fewer E. coli O157:H7 microorganisms were detected on wet chilled samples at 24 and 36 h; however, plate counts were higher from wet aged samples excised at 7 through 28 days. The final plate counts were 1.03 and 3.67 log CFU/cm(2) for dry and wet aged samples, respectively. Fewer E. coli O157:H7 microorganisms were detected on fat samples from each sampling time, with the exception of 28 days, compared with lean samples. Similar trends were observed in the reduction of Salmonella for chilling or aging method and tissue type, resulting in final plate counts of 1.25 and 3.67 log CFU/cm(2) for dry and wet aged samples, respectively. The findings reaffirmed wet or dry chilling and aging as potential interventions for small plants as a critical control point.

  10. Effects of chilling and ABA on (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Rajasekaran, K.; Mullins, M.G.

    1987-06-01

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 10/sup 19/ becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free (/sup 3/H)GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 26/sup 0/C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble (/sup 3/H) metabolites formed at 26/sup 0/C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA/sub 12/ aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ treatment at 26/sup 0/C, reduced the uptake of (/sup 3/H) GA/sub 4/ but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs).

  11. Low-temperature conditioning induces chilling tolerance in 'Hayward' kiwifruit by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and regulating en-dogenous hormones levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingzhen; Zhang, Zhengke; Rao, Jingping; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Zhenying; Ma, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqing

    2013-12-01

    To understand the mechanisms leading to the enhanced chilling tolerance of kiwifruit by low-temperature conditioning (LTC, 12 °C for 3 days), this study investigated the effect of LTC on chilling tolerance and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and endogenous hormones. LTC significantly alleviated chilling injury in kiwifruit. Fruits treated with LTC maintained lower respiration and ethylene production and higher firmness. Furthermore, this treatment inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde, superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide and the increase in membrane permeability and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase under chilling stress. The treatment also maintained higher levels of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and zeatin riboside (ZR), lower gibberellic acid (GA3) levels and higher ABA/GA3 and ABA/IAA ratios. The results suggested that LTC alleviated chilling injury in kiwifruit by improving antioxidant enzyme activities and maintaining higher levels of endogenous ABA, IAA and ZR, lower GA3 levels and higher ABA/GA3 and ABA/IAA ratios. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in chilled garfish (Belone belone belone)--effect of modified atmosphere packaging and previous frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, P; Madsen, H L; Samieian, N; Emborg, J

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in fresh and thawed chilled garfish. Storage trials were carried out with fresh and thawed garfish fillets at 0 or 5 degrees C in air or in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 40% CO2 and 60% N2). During storage, sensory, chemical and microbial changes were recorded and histamine formation by isolates from the spoilage microflora was evaluated at 5 degrees C. Photobacterium phosphoreum was responsible for histamine formation (>1000 ppm) in chilled fresh garfish. The use of MAP did not reduce the histamine formation. Strongly histamine-producing P. phosphoreum isolates formed 2080-4490 ppm at 5 degrees C, whereas below 60 ppm was formed by other P. phosphoreum isolates. Frozen storage inactivated P. phosphoreum and consequently reduced histamine formation in thawed garfish at 5 degrees C markedly. Photobacterium phosphoreum can produce above 1000 ppm of histamine in chilled fresh garfish stored both in air and in MAP. Freezing inactivates P. phosphoreum, extends shelf life and markedly reduces histamine formation in thawed MAP garfish during chilled storage. At 5 degrees C, more than 1000 ppm of histamine was formed in garfish; thus even when it is chilled this product represents a histamine fish-poisoning risk.

  13. Effect of Changing Climatic Conditions on Chill Units Accumulation and Productivity of Apple in Mid Hill Sub Humid Zone of Western Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hukam Chand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during 2014-15 in the Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh, which is situated between 31º52’00” to 31º58’00” North latitude and 76º13’00” to 77º44’00” East longitudes.The cumulative chill units hours available for apple crop were calculated by using UTAH model for the period of 1986 to 2015 and a decrease of 6.38 chill units(CU hours per year was recorded at Kullu Valley of Himachal Pradesh. Chill units for the last three decades i.e. 1986-1995, 1996-2005 and 2006-2015 also revealed a decreasing trend of the order of 63.79 CU decreased per decade.Monthly accumulation of chill unit hours during the same period for each winter month (November, December, January and February revealed maximum decrease of 2.186 CU per year was observed for the month of February. Trend analysis of last five years 2011-2015 showed there was a huge decrease of 14.98 chill units per year. Data on apple productivity in Kullu district for last decade (2005-2014 showed a decreasing trend of the order of 0.183 tons/ha /year as per the regression equation y = -0.183x + 5.745. Thus the climatic conditions for apple cultivation in the Kullu district will be becoming unfavorable in the coming years.

  14. Effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment on proline accumulation and chilling injury in peach fruit after long-term cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Haitao; Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

    2011-02-23

    The effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on chilling injury of peach fruit was investigated. Freshly harvested peaches were treated with 1, 5, or 10 mM GABA at 20 °C for 10 min and then stored at 1 °C for up to 5 weeks. The results showed that all of the GABA treatments could reduce chilling injury of peach fruit with 5 mM being the most effective concentration. GABA treatment significantly enhanced the accumulation of endogenous GABA and proline, which resulted from the increased activities of glutamate decarboxylase, Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, and ornithine δ-aminotransferase and decreased proline dehydrogenase activity. Our results revealed that GABA treatment may be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury in cold-stored peach fruit, and the reduction in chilling by GABA may be due to the induction of endogenous GABA and proline accumulation. These data are the first evidence that exogenous GABA induced chilling tolerance in postharvest horticultural products.

  15. Hot air treatment-induced arginine catabolism is associated with elevated polyamines and proline levels and alleviates chilling injury in postharvest tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhua; Shen, Lin; Li, Fujun; Meng, Demei; Sheng, Jiping

    2013-10-01

    To understand whether arginine catabolism might be involved in hot air (HA)-induced chilling tolerance mechanism in tomato fruit, we investigated the effect of HA treatment on endogenous arginine catabolism in relation to chilling injury. Tomato fruit were harvested at mature green stage and treated with HA at 38°C for 12 h and then stored at 2°C for 21 days. The effects of HA treatment on fruit chilling injury and gene expression levels or enzyme activity, and metabolites related to arginine catabolism were evaluated. HA treatment reduced the chilling injury symptoms of tomato fruit and enhanced the accumulation of endogenous polyamines, especially putrescine and proline. This accumulation is associated with the increased transcript levels of genes encoding arginase (LeARG1 and LeARG2), arginine decarboxylase (LeADC), ornithine decarboxylase (LeODC) and ornithine aminotransferase (LeOAT) at most sampling times. However, HA treatment had little effect on nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide concentration. These results revealed that the reduction in chilling injury by HA treatment may be due to the accumulation of putrescine and proline induced primarily by activating the catabolism of endogenous arginine. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Chilling Stress Upregulates α-Linolenic Acid-Oxidation Pathway and Induces Volatiles of C6 and C9 Aldehydes in Mango Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Maoz, Itay; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2017-01-25

    Mango-fruit storage period and shelf life are prolonged by cold storage. However, chilling temperature induces physiological and molecular changes, compromising fruit quality. In our previous transcriptomic study of mango fruit, cold storage at suboptimal temperature (5 °C) activated the α-linolenic acid metabolic pathway. To evaluate changes in fruit quality during chilling, we analyzed mango "Keitt" fruit peel volatiles. GC-MS analysis revealed significant modulations in fruit volatiles during storage at suboptimal temperature. Fewer changes were seen in response to the time of storage. The mango volatiles related to aroma, such as δ-3-carene, (Z)-β-ocimene, and terpinolene, were downregulated during the storage at suboptimal temperature. In contrast, C6 and C9 aldehydes and alcohols-α-linolenic acid derivatives 1-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-2-hexenal, and nonanal-were elevated during suboptimal-temperature storage, before chilling-injury symptoms appeared. Detection of those molecules before chilling symptoms could lead to a new agro-technology to avoid chilling injuries and maintain fruit quality during cold storage at the lowest possible temperature.

  17. Preservation of Chilled Buffalo Meat%冷鲜水牛肉保鲜技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亮; 江祈雨; 马元元; 廖菊杏; 方凹焕; 黄艾祥

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different packaging styles such as vacuum packaging and heat shrinkable film packaging alone or in conjugation with preservative treatment on the storage quality of chilled buffalo meat was examined in this study.The packaged samples stored for different periods at 0-4 ℃ were analyzed for tenderness,pH value,total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N),total bacterial count,coliform bacteria and sensory attributes.The shelf-lives of control group (vacuum packaging) and test groups 1,2 and 3 (with blanching at 85 ℃ for 2 s or at 90 ℃ for 1 s following heat shrinkable film packaging,and preservative treatment followed by heat shrinkable film packaging and blanching at 90 ℃ for 1 s,respectively) were 9,15,18 d and 27 d,respectively.Hence,the combined use of heat shrinkable film packaging and preservative treatment is the most effective in preserving buffalo meat.%采用真空包装、热收缩膜包装、保鲜剂配合热收缩膜包装冷鲜水牛肉,在0~4℃条件贮藏.通过分析贮藏期间的嫩度、pH值、挥发性盐基氮、菌落总数、大肠菌群和感官评定等,研究包装方式对水牛肉保鲜效果的影响.结果表明:对照组、实验组1、2、3的货架期分别为9、15、18、27d.采用热收缩膜配合复合保鲜剂包装能有效延长保质期(27d),保鲜效果最好.

  18. Evaluation of Chill Cast Co-Cr Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Ramirez-Ledesma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Binary Co-Cr alloys containing various Cr contents were vacuum induction melted and cast into wedge-shaped copper molds. It was intended to develop a microstructure (1 free from interdendritic segregation and porosity; (2 having minimal intermetallic precipitates; and (3 suitable for biomedical applications. The resultant microstructures were evaluated from sections obtained longitudinally and centrally in the plane normal to the diverging wedge faces. All ingots showed a dendritic microstructure with some characteristic features. For instance, in Co-20–30 wt. % Cr alloys, the chilled cast microstructures consisted of columnar dendrites without interdendritic segregation, a minimum of intermetallic precipitates, and the presence of a predominantly athermal HCP ε-martensite (>80 vol. %. In addition, the metastable FCC γ-Co phase was identified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In the case of 35–44 wt. % Cr cobalt alloys, a eutectic constituent including the σ-phase were found to develop in the interdendritic regions. From this work, a Co-20 wt. % Cr alloy was chosen for further investigation after heat treating below the γ/ε transition temperature. The resultant tensile strength and ductility were further improved after applying a heat treatment at 730 °C for 30 min, obtaining values of elongation of 26% as compared with 2.55 < 5 of elongation in the as cast condition. Also, the alloy corrosion resistance in artificial saliva was investigated. It was found that the exhibited corrosion rates for the as-cast and heat-treated conditions are between those reported for other similar systems.

  19. Intermittent warming of 'Tahiti' lime to prevent chilling injury during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluge Ricardo Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of 'Tahiti' limes (Citrus latifolia at low temperature allows the marketing period to be extended. However, the loss of the green skin color and the occurrence of chilling injury (CI prevent this extension. The purpose of this work was to verify the efficiency of intermittent warming (IW in 'Tahiti' lime quality maintenance during cold storage. Fruit were submitted to IW (20ºC for 48 hours every 7 or 14 days or 38ºC for 24 hours every 14 days during cold storage at 5ºC. Fruit were also stored at 5 and 10ºC continuously. The evaluations were carried out after 30 and 60 days of storage (+ 3 days of simulated marketing at 20ºC. CI occurrence on fruit was not verified after 30 days of storage. However, after 60 days of storage 60% of the fruit kept continuously at 5ºC presented CI, while fruit intermittently warmed had 10 to 12.5% CI. Fruit stored at 10ºC did not present CI, but they showed high degreening after 30 days of storage. Fruit warmed at 38ºC for 24 hours every 14 days developed rot, loss of green skin color and vitamin C, high respiratory rates, as well as high levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the juice. Fruit can be stored at 5ºC during 30 days, without risk of CI, while IW can be used to reduce CI after 60 days of storage.

  20. Provenance effect on carbon assimilation, photochemistry and leaf morphology in Mediterranean Cistus species under chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglielli, G; Cuevas Román, F J; Catoni, R; Moreno Rojas, J M; Gratani, L; Varone, L

    2017-07-01

    The potential resilience of shrub species to environmental change deserves attention in those areas threatened by climate change, such as the Mediterranean Basin. We asked if leaves produced under different climate conditions through the winter season to spring can highlight the leaf traits involved in determining potential resilience of three Cistus spp. to changing environmental conditions and to what extent intraspecific differences affect such a response. We analysed carbon assimilation, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv /Fm ) and leaf morphological control of the photosynthetic process in leaves formed through the winter season into spring in C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus (CE), C. salvifolius (CS) and C. monspeliensis (CM) grown from seed of different provenances under common garden conditions. Intraspecific differences were found in Fv /Fm for CE and CS. Carbon assimilation-related parameters were not affected by provenance. Moreover, our analysis highlighted that the functional relationships investigated can follow seasonal changes and revealed patterns originating from species-specific differences in LMA arising during the favourable period. Cistus spp. have great ability to modify the structure and function of their leaves in the mid-term in order to cope with changing environmental conditions. The Fv /Fm response to chilling reveals that susceptibility to photoinhibition is a trait under selection in Cistus species. Concerning carbon assimilation, differing ability to control stomatal opening was highlighted between species. Moreover, seasonal changes of the functional relationships investigated can have predictable consequences on species leaf turnover strategies. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momar Talla Seck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness and livestock (nagana. An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts.Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group. To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding. Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group. The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters.The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  2. Evaluation of olive flowering at low latitude sites in Argentina using a chilling requirement model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybar, V.E.; Melo-Abreu, J.P. de; Searles, P.S.; Matias, A.G.; Del Rio, C.; Caballero, C. M.; Rousseaux, M.C.

    2015-07-01

    Olive production has expanded significantly from the Mediterranean Basin into the New World over the last two decades. In some cases, cultivars of European origin have been introduced at a large commercial scale with little previous evaluation of potential productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a temperature-driven simulation model developed in the Mediterranean Basin to predict normal flowering occurrence and flowering date using cultivar-specific thermal requirements was suitable for the low latitude areas of Northwest Argentina. The model was validated at eight sites over several years and a wide elevation range (350–1200 m above mean sea level) for three cultivars (‘Arbequina’, ‘Frantoio’, ‘Leccino’) with potentially different chilling requirements. In ‘Arbequina’, normal flowering was observed at almost all sites and in all years, while normal flowering events in ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Leccino’ were uncommon. The model successfully predicted if flowering would be normal in 92% and 83% of the cases in ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Frantoio’, respectively, but was somewhat less successful in ‘Leccino’ (61%). When flowering occurred, the predicted flowering date was within ± 7 days of the observed date in 71% of the cases. Overall, the model results indicate that cultivar-specific simulation models may be used as an approximate tool to predict whether individual cultivars will be successful in new growing areas. In Northwest Argentina, the model could be used to identify cultivars to replace ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Leccino’ and to simulate global warming scenarios. (Author)

  3. False codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera,Tortricidae) larvae are chill-susceptible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leigh Boardman; Tim G.Grout; John S.Terblanche

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the low temperature tolerance and cold hardiness of larvae of false codling moth,Thaumatotibia leucotreta.We found that larvae have mean critical thermal minima (lower limits of activity) of 6.7℃ which was influenced by feeding status.The effects of low temperature exposure and duration of exposure on larval survival were assessed and showed that the temperature at which 50% of the population survives is -11.5 ± 0.3℃ after 2 h exposure.The supercooling point (SCP,i.e.,freezing temperature) was investigated using a range of cooling rates and under different conditions (feeding and hydration status) and using inoculative freezing treatments (in contact with water or orange juice).The SCP decreased significantly from - 15.6 ℃ to - 17.4℃ after larvae were fasted for 24 h.Twenty-four hour treatments at either high or low relative humidity (95.9% or 2.4%) also significantly decreased SCP to -17.2℃ and -18.2℃ respectively.Inoculative freezing (by water contact) raised SCP from - 15.6℃ to -6.8℃which could have important implications for post-harvest sterilization.Cooling rates did not affect SCP which suggests that there is limited phenotypic plasticity of SCP during the larval life-stage,at least over the short time-scales investigated here.In conclusion,larvae of T.leucotreta are chill-susceptible and die upon freezing.These results are important in understanding this pest's response to temperature variation,understanding pest risk status and improving post-harvest sterilization efficacy.

  4. Does the recent warming hiatus exist over northern Asia for winter wind chill temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Wind chill temperature (WCT) describes the joint effect of wind velocity and air temperature on exposed body skin and could support policy makers in designing plans to reduce the risks of notably cold and windy weather. This study examined winter WCT over northern Asia during 1973-2013 by analyzing in situ station data. The winter WCT warming rate over the Tibetan Plateau slowed during 1999-2013 (-0.04 °C/decade) compared with that during 1973-1998 (0.67 °C/decade). The winter WCT warming hiatus has also been observed in the remainder of Northern Asia with trends of 1.11 °C/decade during 1973-1998 but -1.02 °C/decade during 1999-2013, except for the Far East of Russia (FE), where the winter WCT has continued to heat up during both the earlier period of 1973-1998 (0.54 °C/decade) and the recent period of 1999-2013 (0.75 °C/decade). The results indicate that the influence of temperature on winter WCT is greater than that of wind speed over northern Asia. Atmospheric circulation changes associated with air temperature and wind speed were analyzed to identify the causes for the warming hiatus of winter WCT over northern Asia. The distributions of sea level pressure and 500 hPa height anomalies during 1999-2013 transported cold air from the high latitudes to middle latitudes, resulting in low air temperature over Northern Asia except for the Far East of Russia. Over the Tibetan Plateau, the increase in wind speed offset the increase in air temperature during 1999-2013. For the Far East, the southerly wind from the Western Pacific drove the temperature up during the 1999-2013 period via warm advection.

  5. Gene expression and metabolism preceding soft scald, a chilling injury of 'Honeycrisp' apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel S; Gapper, Nigel E; Mattheis, James P; Sullivan, Nathanael L; Watkins, Christopher B; Giovannoni, James J; Schaffer, Robert J; Johnston, Jason W; Hanrahan, Ines; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2016-10-12

    'Honeycrisp' is an apple cultivar that is susceptible to soft scald, a chilling injury expressed as necrotic patches on the peel. Improved understanding of metabolism associated with the disorder would improve our understanding of soft scald and contribute to developing more effective management strategies for apple storage. It was expected that specific gene expression and specific metabolite levels in the peel would be linked with soft scald risk at harvest and/or specific time points during cold storage. Fruit from nine 'Honeycrisp' apple orchards that would eventually develop different incidences of soft scald between 4 and 8 weeks of cold air storage were used to contrast and determine differential transcriptomic and metabolomic changes during storage. Untargeted metabolic profiling revealed changes in a number of distinct pathways preceding and concurrent with soft scald symptom development, including elevated γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA), 1-hexanol, acylated steryl glycosides, and free p-coumaryl acyl esters. At harvest, levels of sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid acyl esters were relatively higher in peel of fruit that did not later develop the disorder. RNA-seq driven gene expression profiling highlighted possible involvement of genes and associated metabolic processes with soft scald development. These included elevated expression of genes involved in lipid peroxidation and phenolic metabolism in fruit with soft scald, and isoprenoid/brassinosteroid metabolism in fruit that did not develop soft scald. Expression of other stress-related genes in fruit that developed soft scald included chlorophyll catabolism, cell wall loosening, and lipid transport while superoxide dismutases were up-regulated in fruit that did not develop the disorder. This study delineates the sequential transcriptomic and metabolomic changes preceding soft scald symptom development. Changes were differential depending on susceptibility of fruit to the disorder and could be attributed to

  6. Fffect of Nisin on Chilled Pork Preservation%Nisin对冷鲜肉保质期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍

    2012-01-01

    [目的]考察乳酸链球菌素(Nisin)对冷鲜肉保藏过程中品质的影响.[方法]将Nisin和山梨酸钾分别置于装有200 g鲜肉的保鲜袋中,放在4℃冰箱中保藏.通过对保藏期的冷鲜肉理化指标和感官指标的评价,考察了Nisin对冷鲜肉保存过程中的汁液损失率、菌落总数、pH、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、硫代巴比妥酸反应物(TBARS)和感官特性等品质指标的影响.[结果]冷鲜肉储藏过程中,加入Nisin后,可使肉体汁液流失较慢,能更有效地使肉体保鲜;可使冷鲜肉保存的时间最长,保质期可达12 d,比加入山梨酸钾的延长了2d.感官评价表明,加入Nisin的肉体在感官上仍呈红色,肉体的弹性和组织状态都较好.[结论]Nisin对冷鲜肉延长保藏期的效果更加明显,可延长冷鲜肉的鲜度和货架期.%[ Objective] The study aimed to investigate the effect of Nisin on the quality of the chilled pork during the preservation. [ Method] The Nisin and potassium sorbet were respectively put into the fresh-keeping bags with 200 g meat and preserved in the refrigerator at 4 ℃. Through the evaluation on the physical and chemical indexes and the senses index of the chilled pork in the preservation period, the effects of the Nisin on the quality parameters such as the loss rate of meat juice,total bacterial count,pH values,total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) ,thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and the sensory characteristics of the chilled pork in the preservation were investigated. [Result] During the preservation of the chilled pork,adding Nisin could make the lower loss of meat juice,thus more effectively keeping the meat freshness and could make the cold meat preserve the longest period,with the shelf life of 12 d,being extended by 2 d compared with the potassium sorbet. The sensory evaluation showed that after adding the Nisin the meat body was still red on the sensory and was better on the flexibility and

  7. Effects of peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite or lactic acid solutions on the microflora of chilled beef carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; Badoni, M

    2004-02-15

    The effects of solutions of 0.02% peroxyacetic acid, acidified 0.16% sodium chlorite, 2% lactic acid and 4% lactic acid on the natural flora of the distal surfaces of pieces of brisket, from chilled beef carcass quarters delivered from two slaughtering plants to a processing plant, were investigated. Peroxyacetic acid and acidified sodium chlorite solutions had little effect on the numbers of aerobes, coliforms or Escherichia coli on meat from one plant, and were less effective than 4% lactic acid for reducing the numbers of bacteria on meat from the other plant. With meat from both plants, treatment of meat with 4% lactic acid and holding for 5 or 60 min at 7+/-1 degrees C before sampling resulted in reductions of all three groups of bacteria by >/=1.5 log unit. Treatment with 2% lactic acid resulted in similar reductions when meat was sampled 5 min after the treatment, but reductions were about 1 log unit when meat was sampled 60 min after the treatment. Treatment of carcass quarters with 4% lactic acid resulted in reductions of bacterial numbers of >/=2 log units at distal surfaces, but chilled meat from different sources and to different types of meat surface, and that bacteria injured by application of an antimicrobial solution may recover during processing of meat at temperatures about 7 degrees C. However, 4% lactic acid may be generally useful as a decontaminant for chilled, raw meat.

  8. Chilled ceiling displacement ventilation design charts correlations to employ in optimized system operation for feasible load ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keblawi, A.; Ghaddar, N.; Ghali, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Jensen, L. [Department of Building Services Engineering, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    This paper expands Ghaddar et al. [N. Ghaddar, K. Ghali, R. Saadeh, A. Keblawi, Design charts for combined chilled ceiling displacement ventilation system (1438-RP), ASHRAE Transactions, 143 (2) (2008) 574-587] design charts of combined chilled ceiling (CC) displacement ventilation (DV) system to operating sensible load ranges from 40 W/m{sup 2} to 100 W/m{sup 2}. It develops a global correlation of system load and operational parameters, with comfort measured by vertical temperature gradient and indoor air quality measured by the stratification height. The correlations are used for a known transient load profile in generating optimal settings of the CC/DV system operational parameters and associated energy consumption. An example is illustrated to show how the correlation could be used to size the system and to provide optimized control of the CC/DV system operation at low computational cost. Results of the current model are compared to the published case study of an optimized operation based on transient simulations of the space thermal model to achieve minimum operation cost [M. Mossolly, N. Ghaddar, K. Ghali, L. Jensen, Optimized operation of combined chilled ceiling displacement ventilation system using genetic algorithm, ASHRAE Transactions, 143 (2) (2008) 541-554]. The design correlations resulted in good agreement with published data (within 3% error in energy consumption and average 6% error in predictions of comfort and stratification height) at 1/4 of the computational time. The presented methodology provides an alternative for using the correlation for supervisory online controllers for the CC/DV system based on physically derived correlations. (author)

  9. The effect of chilled storage and cryopreservation on the sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics of a captive population of koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen D; Zee, Yeng Peng; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    This experiment documented the incidence and variability of sperm characteristics found in freshly collected and ex vivo-manipulated semen samples from a population of disease-free captive koalas with a special emphasis on the dynamic aspects of DNA fragmentation. These changes were analyzed in light of the putative negative effect of iatrogenic damage after chilled storage and cryopreservation with respect to different semen extender compositions to maximize sperm longevity. Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) dynamics (SDF assessment after a varying period of time) was investigated with the sperm chromatin dispersion assay after either dilution in tris-citrate media and chilled preservation at 4°C for upward of 16 days or cryopreservation in either glycerol or dimethylacetamide (DMA) tris-citrate-based cryoprotectant media; corresponding data on progressive sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, and the proportion of koala sperm with relaxed chromatin were also recorded. SDF analysis of the captive koala population revealed a low mean (± SEM) basal level of only 6.7% ± 0.9%. The percentage of progressive sperm motility, percentage of intact sperm plasma membranes, and the percentage of relaxed chromatin did not correlate significantly with that of basal SDF. Moreover, despite the absence of cysteine residues in marsupial protamines, koala spermatozoa showed remarkable stability in terms of their DNA integrity after the incubation of either fresh, chilled, or frozen-thawed semen samples; observations of progressive motility (P koala spermatozoa declined after 4 days, whereas the incidence of relaxed chromatin increased after 8 days. Although koala SDF increased significantly (P koala sperm chromatin tended to decondense; however, the incidence of sperm DNA fragmentation was not correlated with the incidence of sperm chromatin relaxation after glycerol (R = .2) or DMA (R = -.04) cryopreservation.

  10. A full-scale experimental set-up for assessing the energy performance of radiant wall and active chilled beam for cooling buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    in decreasing the cooling need of the radiant wall compared to the active chilled beam. It has also been observed that the type and repartition of heat load have an influence on the cooling demand. Regarding the comfort level, both terminals met the general requirements, except at high solar heat gains......Full-scale experiments under both steady-state and dynamic conditions have been performed to compare the energy performance of a radiant wall and an active chilled beam. From these experiments, it has been observed that the radiant wall is a more secure and efficient way of removing heat from...... the test room than the active chilled beam. The energy saving, which can be estimated to around 10%, is due to increased ventilation losses. The asymmetry between air and radiant temperature, the air temperature gradient and the possible short-circuit between inlet and outlet play an equally important role...

  11. Can the exceptional chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis found in Miscanthus × giganteus be exceeded? Screening of a novel Miscanthus Japanese germplasm collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glowacka, Katarzyna; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to search for genotypes with greater potential than Mxg for photosynthesis and frost survival under these conditions. Methods A total of 864 accessions representing 164 local populations of M. sacchariflorus (Msa), M. sinensis (Msi) and M. tinctorius (Mti) collected across Japan were studied...... at chilling temperatures were identified. Msa accession ‘73/2’ developed leaves in the spring that survived night-time frost, and during growth under chilling maintained a statistically significant 79 % higher ΦCO2,max, as a measure of light-limited photosynthesis, and a 70 % higher Asat, as a measure...... of light-saturated photosynthesis. A second Msa accession, ‘73/3’ also showed significantly higher rates of leaf uptake of CO2. Conclusions As remarkable as Mxg has proved in its chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis, this study shows that there is still value and potential in searching for yet more...

  12. Effects of Temperature, Light and Pre-Chilling on Seed Germination of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Angelini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni is a perennial shrub of the Asteraceae family native to Paraguay and Brazil where it has been used for several years as a sweetener. It is a short-day species, with a critical light requirement for flowering of roughly 13 hours. In plants whose biological cycle is strongly photoperiod-dependent, latitude is one of the major factors influencing reproduction. Late flowering may adversely affect seed production if this occurs during a season that is unfavorable to pollination. At Italian latitudes, this species often gives scanty seed production, with low germination rate and poor germination energy of seeds produced. In 2001 four accessions have been grown for seed production in a field plot experiment in Central Italy. The various accessions were found to exhibit noticeably different photoperiod requirements, which affected flowering time (from late August to the end of September and consequently also the conditions of achene filling and ripening. Late flowering and seed ripening occurred during autumn season, unfavourable to complete seed formation, leading to an increase in the empty seed percentage recorded for each accession. Detailed germination trials were therefore undertaken using seeds collected from plants of the different accessions in order to assess the quality of the seeds produced. Various germination methods have been tested in a controlled environment adopting four different temperatures (20° C, 25° C constant temperature and 15/25° C, 20/30° C (16/8h alternating temperature in light or darkness with or without pre-chilling. Germination rates varied over an extensive range (germination percentage from 9 to 83%, mainly due to the divergent specific characteristics of the material examined and the different treatments studied. At all temperatures tested, the most earlier accession, showed the higher germination percentages (54-83% while the latest accession was among those with the lowest

  13. Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on microstructures and macrosegregation of horizontal direct chill casting aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志浩; 崔建忠; 董杰; 张海涛; 张北江

    2004-01-01

    The influences of low frequency electromagnetic field on cast surface, microstructures and macrosegregation in horizontal direct chill(HDC) casting process were investigated experimentally. The cast surfaces, microstructures and macrosegregation of the ingots manufactured by conventional HDC and low frequency electromagnetic HDC casting were compared. The results show that low frequency electromagnetic field significantly improves the surface quality, refines the microstructures and reduces macrosegregation. Further more, increasing electromagnetic intensity or decreasing frequency is beneficial to the improvement. In the range of ampere-turns and frequency employed in the experiments, the optimum ampere-turns is found to be 10 000 A · turn and the frequency to be 30 Hz.

  14. Jet Mixing in Direct-Chill Casting of Aluminum: Crater Effects and its Consequence on Centerline Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Samuel R.; Allanore, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated the possibility of mitigating macrosegregation during the Direct-Chill casting of rolling slab ingots using an impinging jet. Herein, an analytical model is presented to predict the shape of the crater formed due to the impact of the jet on the slurry region. The model takes into account alloy composition, physical dimension, and casting speed on the distribution of forces and crater shape. The calculated shape of the crater profile is used to explain the centerline depletion in the impingement region previously reported.

  15. Effect of a previous high hydrostatic pressure treatment on lipid damage in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maluenda, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid damage evolution was analyzed in chilled Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi previously treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP technology. Different pressure levels and pressure holding times were tested. In addition, fish corresponding to pre- and post-rigor mortis (RM stages were comparatively studied. Previous HHP treatment led to a marked lipid hydrolysis inhibition in chilled fish. Increasing the pressure level and pressure holding time led to a lower free fatty acid content, with the effect of pressure being more relevant. According to the analysis of different types of lipid oxidation indexes, no effect of the previous HHP treatment on the lipid oxidation development could be determined in chilled jack mackerel. Concerning the effect of the RM stage of raw fish, a higher primary and secondary lipid oxidation development was observed in fish corresponding to the post-RM condition throughout the chilled storage; although a definite effect on lipid hydrolysis could not be found.Se estudió la evolución de la alteración lipídica en jurel chileno (Trachurus murphyi refrigerado previamente tratado a altas presiones hidrostáticas (HHP. Se aplicaron distintos valores de presión y tiempo de presurización; asimismo, se analizó de forma comparativa la respuesta al proceso del pescado inicial en estados pre- y post-rigor mortis (RM. El tratamiento previo por HHP produjo inhibición de la hidrólisis lipídica en pescado refrigerado, siendo más intenso el efecto de la presión que el del tiempo de presurización. De acuerdo con el análisis de distintos índices de oxidación, no se concluyó un efecto determinante sobre la oxidación lipídica por parte del tratamiento previo de HHP. En relación al efecto del estado de RM del pescado inicial, se observó una oxidación primaria y secundaria mayor en jurel correspondiente a la condición post-RM durante la conservación en refrigeración; sin embargo, no se detectó un efecto

  16. Coconut chilling and Phenology analysis of Hainan%海南椰子寒害类型初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 黄光瑞; 孙程旭; 范海阔

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a kind of tropica l ligneous oil crop and is also an excellent kind of fresh-edible fruit. However, its requirement for temperature is demanding and it's sensitive to varying degrees of low temperature which will affect its flowering and fruiting, even harvest. Thorough understanding of the regularity has an important significance for the guidance of agriculture production and scientific research. This thesis carries out relevant analysis and researches by an eight-city-covered survey in Hainan on the Chilling Injury of coconut trees and the combination of the phenological data. The survey and the combination mentioned above showed that chilling injury of coconut trees is closely related to coldness and rainfall. It's considered that coldness is the main factor of coconut fruit cracking and the rainy climate is the inducing one through the analysis. The chilling injury has a serious effect on the growth of tropical crops. The causing types of chilling injury of the coconuts are as follows: the microthermal type and the microthermal-rainy type. While producing, aimed avoiding measures should be taken or the cultivation management should be strengthened in order to alleviating the harm.%椰子是重要的热带木本油料作物,对温度条件要求高。通过对海南省8个市(县)开展椰子寒害调查,并结合部分市(县)的物候资料研究影响椰子叶片生长和裂果的主要原因。结果表明,椰子寒害及其形成与低温多雨关系密切,是椰子裂果的主要因素,雨水是椰子裂果的诱发因素。寒害对热带作物的生长发育影响严重,引起椰子寒害的类型为低温型、低温-多雨型,二者的危害程度及时效不同,采取不同的栽培措施,对椰子的抗寒栽培具有重要意义。

  17. Influence of Cooling Conditions on a Slab’s Chill Zone Formation During Continuous Casting of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drożdż P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The cooling conditions of a slab during continuous casting of steel have an impact on the crystalline structure formation. Numerical methods allow real processes to be modelled. Professional computer programs are available on the market, so the results of their simulations allow us to understand the processes that occur during the casting and solidification of the slab. The study attempts to evaluate the impact of the intensity of the secondary cooling on the chilled zone size. The calculations show the differences in the structure of a slab cast with various speeds while maintaining industrial cooling parameters during operation of a continuous casting machine.

  18. It’s Time to Take the Chill Out of Cost Containment and Re-energize Key Acquisition Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Lockheed Martin ? ? ? ? ZCORE Cost Oriented Resource  Estimating Model USAF ? ? ? ? ACEIT Automated Cost  Estimating  Integrated  Tools  (USAF, USA...and Logistics) Milestone III chair LCCH Criticisms of high cost, ASD (Acquisition and Logistics) Milestone III chair ACEIT (86 USAF at Hanscom...w/Tecolote Research) ACEIT (86 USAF at Hanscom w/Tecolote Research) ?? It’s Time to Take the Chill Out of Cost Containment and Re-energize a

  19. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  20. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Genes Regulated by Application of Exogenous Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L. Leaves under Chilling Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Guo

    Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the major factors limiting pepper (Capsicum annuum L. production during winter and early spring in non-tropical regions. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA effectively alleviates the symptoms of chilling injury, such as wilting and formation of necrotic lesions on pepper leaves; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially up- or downregulated in ABA-pretreated hot pepper seedlings incubated at 6°C for 48 h, using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. A total of 235 high-quality ESTs were isolated, clustered and assembled into a collection of 73 unigenes including 18 contigs and 55 singletons. A total of 37 unigenes (50.68% showed similarities to genes with known functions in the non-redundant database; the other 36 unigenes (49.32% showed low similarities or unknown functions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the 37 unigenes could be classified into nine functional categories. The expression profiles of 18 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR; the expression levels of 10 of these genes were at least two-fold higher in the ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress than water-pretreated (control plants under chilling stress. In contrast, the other eight genes were downregulated in ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress, with expression levels that were one-third or less of the levels observed in control seedlings under chilling stress. These results suggest that ABA can positively and negatively regulate genes in pepper plants under chilling stress.

  1. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Genes Regulated by Application of Exogenous Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L.) Leaves under Chilling Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Li; Chen, Ru-Gang; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Yin, Yan-Xu; Li, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the major factors limiting pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production during winter and early spring in non-tropical regions. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) effectively alleviates the symptoms of chilling injury, such as wilting and formation of necrotic lesions on pepper leaves; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially up- or downregulated in ABA-pretreated hot pepper seedlings incubated at 6°C for 48 h, using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 235 high-quality ESTs were isolated, clustered and assembled into a collection of 73 unigenes including 18 contigs and 55 singletons. A total of 37 unigenes (50.68%) showed similarities to genes with known functions in the non-redundant database; the other 36 unigenes (49.32%) showed low similarities or unknown functions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the 37 unigenes could be classified into nine functional categories. The expression profiles of 18 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR; the expression levels of 10 of these genes were at least two-fold higher in the ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress than water-pretreated (control) plants under chilling stress. In contrast, the other eight genes were downregulated in ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress, with expression levels that were one-third or less of the levels observed in control seedlings under chilling stress. These results suggest that ABA can positively and negatively regulate genes in pepper plants under chilling stress.

  2. A TIR-NBS protein encoded by Arabidopsis Chilling Sensitive 1 (CHS1) limits chloroplast damage and cell death at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Porfirova, Svetlana; Griebel, Thomas; Melzer, Michael; Parker, Jane E; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Survival of plants at low temperature depends on mechanisms for limiting physiological damage and maintaining growth. We mapped the chs1-1 (chilling sensitive1-1) mutation in Arabidopsis accession Columbia to the TIR-NBS gene At1g17610. In chs1-1, a single amino acid exchange at the CHS1 N-terminus close to the conserved TIR domain creates a stable mutant protein that fails to protect leaves against chilling stress. The sequence of another TIR-NBS gene (At5g40090) named CHL1 (CHS1-like 1) is related to that of CHS1. Over-expression of CHS1 or CHL1 alleviates chilling damage and enhances plant growth at moderate (24°C) and chilling (13°C) temperatures, suggesting a role for both proteins in growth homeostasis. chs1-1 mutants show induced salicylic acid production and defense gene expression at 13°C, indicative of autoimmunity. Genetic analysis of chs1-1 in combination with defense pathway mutants shows that chs1-1 chilling sensitivity requires the TIR-NBS-LRR and basal resistance regulators encoded by EDS1 and PAD4 but not salicylic acid. By following the timing of metabolic, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural changes in chs1-1 leaves during chilling, we have established that alterations in photosynthetic complexes and thylakoid membrane integrity precede leaf cell death measured by ion leakage. At 24°C, the chs1-1 mutant appears normal but produces a massive necrotic response to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection, although this does not affect bacterial proliferation. Our results suggest that CHS1 acts at an intersection between temperature sensing and biotic stress pathway activation to maintain plant performance over a range of conditions.

  3. The Synergistic Priming Effect of Exogenous Salicylic Acid and H2O2 on Chilling Tolerance Enhancement during Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Xu, Jungui; Gao, Yue; Wang, Chun; Guo, Genyuan; Luo, Ying; Huang, Yutao; Hu, Weimin; Sheteiwy, Mohamed S; Guan, Yajing; Hu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seedling establishment in the field. To examine the role of salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in response to chilling stress, we investigated the effects of seed priming with SA, H2O2, and SA+H2O2 combination on maize resistance under chilling stress (13°C). Priming with SA, H2O2, and especially SA+H2O2 shortened seed germination time and enhanced seed vigor and seedling growth as compared with hydropriming and non-priming treatments under low temperature. Meanwhile, SA+H2O2 priming notably increased the endogenous H2O2 and SA content, antioxidant enzymes activities and their corresponding genes ZmPAL, ZmSOD4, ZmAPX2, ZmCAT2, and ZmGR expression levels. The α-amylase activity was enhanced to mobilize starch to supply metabolites such as soluble sugar and energy for seed germination under chilling stress. In addition, the SA+H2O2 combination positively up-regulated expressions of gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis genes ZmGA20ox1 and ZmGA3ox2, and down-regulated GA catabolism gene ZmGA2ox1 expression; while it promoted GA signaling transduction genes expressions of ZmGID1 and ZmGID2 and decreased the level of seed germination inhibitor gene ZmRGL2. The abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism gene ZmCYP707A2 and the expressions of ZmCPK11 and ZmSnRK2.1 encoding response receptors in ABA signaling pathway were all up-regulated. These results strongly suggested that priming with SA and H2O2 synergistically promoted hormones metabolism and signal transduction, and enhanced energy supply and antioxidant enzymes activities under chilling stress, which were closely relevant with chilling injury alleviation and chilling-tolerance improvement in maize seed. Highlights:Seed germination and seedling growth were significantly improved under chilling stress by priming with SA+H2O2 combination, which was closely relevant with the change of reactive oxygen species, metabolites and energy supply, hormones metabolism and

  4. Impact of dry chilling on the genetic diversity of Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and on the survival of E. coli and E. coli O157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xianqin

    2017-03-06

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dry chilling on the genetic diversity of naturally occurring Escherichia coli on beef carcasses, and to examine whether two populations of E. coli recovered from carcasses during chilling and E. coli O157 differed in their response to desiccation. Isolates of E. coli were obtained from beef carcasses during a 67h dry chilling process and were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Ten E. coli genotypes found only at 0h (group A) and found more than once (group B), as well as five strains of E. coli O157 (group C) were inoculated on stainless steel coupons and their survival was examined after exposure to 75 and 100% relative humidity (RH) at 0 or 35°C for 67h. A total of 450 E. coli isolates were obtained, with 254, 49, 49, 51, 23, 20, and 4 from 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24h of chilling, respectively. No E. coli were recovered at 67h. MLVA of the isolates revealed 173 distinct genotypes. Genetic diversity of E. coli isolates, defined as ratio of the number of isolates to the number of genotypes, remained between 2.3 and 1.3 during the 24h of chilling. All strains inoculated on stainless steel coupons and exposed to 75% RH at 35°C were completely inactivated, irrespective of their groups. Inactivation of E. coli of the three groups was not significantly (P>0.05) different by exposure to 75% RH at 0°C. The findings indicate that the genetic diversity of E. coli on beef carcasses was not affected by dry chilling. In addition, inactivation of E. coli genotypes and E. coli O157 by desiccation on stainless steel simulating dry chilling conditions did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Thus, dry chilling may be used as an effective antimicrobial intervention for beef carcasses. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The aquifer chill storage project at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa: Progress report for 1985 and 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaetzle, W.J.; Brett, C.E.

    1989-05-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is predicted to be the most cost-effective technology for seasonal storage of low-grade thermal energy. Approximately 60% of the US is underlain with aquifers potentially suitable for underground energy storage. Under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, has managed numerical modeling, laboratory studies, evaluation of environmental and institutional issues, and field testing of ATES at several sites. This report describes the monitoring and evaluation (under the auspices of PNL) of an ATES chill system constructed and operated by the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The system is the first such system to be monitored in a comprehensive manner. Results support both the promise and problems likely to be encountered in such systems. Chill ATES has the potential to substantially reduce energy consumption and, especially, summer peak cooling electrical demand. However, the geohydrologic environment that the system will use must be a major element in system design and operation. 9 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Applying different methods to evaluate the freshness of large yellow croacker (Pseudosciaena crocea) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Li, Jianrong; Wang, Jinlin; Lv, Weijin

    2012-11-14

    The freshness of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea ) fillets was evaluated over 20 days of chilled storage under vacuum packaging. The physicochemical properties [pH, K value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), texture profile analyses (TPA), color], microbiological properties [total viable count (TVC)], sensory attributes, transcriptomics (levels of transcripts coding for cathepsin L), and functional properties of proteins [emulsion activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES)] were assessed at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days of storage. This study also investigated the effect of the storage time on fish muscle proteome in large yellow croaker using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS). The parameters that were the most sensitive to storage duration were color (C*(ab)), TPA (springiness, chewiness, and resilience), pH, K value, TVC, levels of transcripts coding for cathepsin L, EA, ES, and sensory attributes. The three altered proteins were successfully identified. Therefore, these parameters might be considered suitable indicators for evaluating the freshness of large yellow croaker fillets during chilled storage under vacuum packaging.

  7. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  8. Effect of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Physiological Parameters of Cucumber and Tomato Fruits During Chilling Injury Temperature Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Tao; LI Li-ping; FENG Shuang-qing

    2002-01-01

    Harvested tomato( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)and cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L. )were immersed in 0, 0.01 g/L, 0.05 g/L, 0.1 g/L or 0 g/L, 0.001 g/L, 0.01 g/L, 0.05 g/L, 0.1 g/L salicylic acid solutions for 15 min, respectively. Some of physiological parameters of the fruits related to chilling injury were measured during cold storage (2℃±1℃). It showed that the cell membrane electrolyte leakage, MDA content and free proline content in tomato with 0.01 g/L and 0.1 g/L SA were lower than those of control to a various extent. The immersion in 0. 001 g/L SA could significantly decrease the cell membrane electrolyte leakage and MDA content of cucumber stored at chilling injury temperature as well as decrease free proline content to some extent.

  9. Microbial deterioration of vacuum-packaged chilled beef cuts and techniques for microbiota detection and characterization: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucila Hernández-Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas production from microbial deterioration in vacuum-packs of chilled meat leads to pack distension, which is commonly referred as blown pack. This phenomenon is attributed to some psychrophilic and psychrotrophic Clostridium species, as well as Enterobacteria. The ability of these microorganisms to grow at refrigeration temperatures makes the control by the meat industry a challenge. This type of deterioration has been reported in many countries including some plants in the Midwestern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. In addition to causing economic losses, spoilage negatively impacts the commercial product brand, thereby impairing the meat industry. In the case of strict anaerobes species they are difficult to grow and isolate using culture methods in conventional microbiology laboratories. Furthermore, conventional culture methods are sometimes not capable of distinguishing species or genera. DNA-based molecular methods are alternative strategies for detecting viable and non-cultivable microorganisms and strict anaerobic microorganisms that are difficult to cultivate. Here, we review the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the deterioration of vacuum-packaged chilled meat and address the use of molecular methods for detecting specific strict anaerobic microorganisms and microbial communities in meat samples.

  10. Effective prevention of chill-haze in beer using an acid proline-specific endoprotease from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Michel; Edens, Luppo

    2005-10-05

    Chill-haze formation during beer production is known to involve polyphenols that interact with proline-rich proteins. We hypothesized that incubating beer wort with a proline-specific protease would extensively hydrolyze these proline-rich proteins, yielding a peptide fraction that is unable to form a haze. Predigestion of the proline-rich wheat gliadin with different proteases pointed toward a strong haze-suppressing effect by a proline-specific enzyme. This finding was confirmed in small-scale brewing experiments using a recently identified proline-specific protease with an acidic pH optimum. Subsequent pilot plant trials demonstrated that, upon its addition during the fermentation phase of beer brewing, even low levels of this acidic enzyme effectively prevented chill-haze formation in bottled beer. Results of beer foam stability measurements indicated that the enzyme treatment leaves the beer foam almost unaffected. In combination with the enzyme's cost-effectiveness and regulatory status, these preliminary test results seem to favor further industrial development of this enzymatic beer stabilization method.

  11. Modeling and analysis of chill and fill processes for the cryogenic storage and transfer engineering development unit tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center, is a cryogenic fluid management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article comprises a flight-like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a test-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with LH2 as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during the summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the LH2 supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The test setup, modeling description, and comparison of model predictions with the test data are presented.

  12. Mediterranean Berries as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Porcine Burger Patties Subjected to Cooking and Chilled Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Ganho; Mario Estvez; Mnica Armenteros; David Morcuende

    2013-01-01

    The efifciency of extracts from Arbutus unedo L. (AU), Crataegus monogyna L. (CM), Rosa canina L. (RC), and Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (RU) to inhibit lipid oxidation in raw, cooked and cooked and chilled (2°C/12 d) porcine burger patties, was investigated. The modiifcation of the fatty acid proifle during processing treatments (cooking and chilling), the quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS), and lipid-derived volatiles, were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) gradually decreased during cooking and the subsequent storage of cooked burger patties with this decrease being signiifcantly greater (P<0.05) in control patties than in those with added berry extracts. In accordance, the control patties showed signiifcantly higher TBA-RS numbers and counts of lipid-derived volatiles in all treatments when compared to the berry-added counterparts (P<0.05). Results from the present work show, for the ifrst time, that extracts from A. unedo, C. monogyna, R. canina, and R. ulmifolius are promising antioxidants which could enhance the nutritional, safety and sensory properties of porcine burger patties.

  13. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  14. Steviol glycosides targeted analysis in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) from plants cultivated under chilling stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufi, Sihem; D'Urso, Gilda; Pizza, Cosimo; Rezgui, Salah; Bettaieb, Taoufik; Montoro, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana is an important agricultural crop for the production of a high-potency natural sweetener, sensitive to low temperature during the developmental stage. Stimulation of chilling stress with a pre-treatment with endogenous signalling components and in particular with salicylic acid (SA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) could induce tolerance to chilling and could constitute a suitable way to maintain quality and quantity of steviol glycosides under controlled artificial environment. In the present work the effects of different putative signalling molecules on the morpho-physiological parameters were evaluated, and a specific method for the quali-quantitative analysis of steviol glycosides in S. rebaudiana plants cultivated under controlled conditions was developed, by using LC-ESI-FT (Orbitrap) MS, LC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS and multivariate data analysis. This approach underlined that the pre-treatment has influence on the production of secondary metabolites. In particular Stevia plants characterised by higher contents of rebaudioside A and stevioside, were identified.

  15. Crucial roles of membrane stability and its related proteins in the tolerance of peach fruit to chilling injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changfeng; Ding, Zhansheng; Xu, Xiangbing; Wang, Qing; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2010-06-01

    Proteome patterns in peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) stored at different low temperatures were examined in order to gain a better understanding why peach fruit is less prone to chilling injury when stored at 0 degrees C than at 5 degrees C. Some differently expressed proteins in peach fruit stored at 0 and 5 degrees C were identified using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, four membrane stability related proteins, i.e., enolase, temperature-induced lipocalin, major allergen Pru p 1, and type II SK2 dehydrin were enhanced, but three proteins related to phenolic compounds metabolization, cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase 5, cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase 1, and chorismate mutase, were repressed in peach fruit at 0 degrees C as compared to that at 5 degrees C. The abundance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, and NADP-dependent malic enzyme, which catalyze the reactions during sugar metabolism and energy pathways, was found to decrease in peach fruit stored at 0 degrees C. In addition, our data revealed that low temperature of 0 degrees C might regulate the endogenous H(2)O(2) level, resulting in activating the transcriptional level of genes encoding the proteins related to membrane stability. These results provide a comprehensive knowledge to understand the mechanisms by which peach fruit stored at 0 degrees C showed a higher chilling tolerance than that at 5 degrees C.

  16. The effects of non-vacuum packaging systems on drip loss from chilled beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, S R; Durham, C J; Scott, S M; Devine, C E

    1998-07-01

    This study investigated drip loss in chilled beef (hot-boned m. longissimus lumborum (LL)) under conventional packaging systems, in which a vacuum is applied, and non-vacuum packaging systems. The use of vacuum during the packaging process (vacuum packaging, CO(2) atmosphere packaging) was associated with increased drip. Drip was lower in heat-shrunk vacuum packaging than in non-shrunk vacuum packaging. A slow vacuum onset had no effect on drip formation, or may have increased it. The extent of pressure reduction (vacuum; range 0-1 atm) did not significantly affect drip formation, although the standard vacuum pressure (0 atm) tended to cause more drip loss than higher pressures. The three non-vacuum anaerobic packaging systems tested were: flushed with carbon dioxide without the pressure being reduced below atmospheric (Flush), or the same system with no CO(2) flush but a proprietary oxygen absorber added (Scavenger), or a combination of both (Flush/Scavenger). Storage was at -1.5 °C for up to 20 weeks. The Flush and Flush/Scavenger systems had considerably lower drip loss than the CAP standard system (6.4%, 6.5%, and 9.1% respectively); the Scavenger system had the lowest drip loss (5.2%). Drip losses generally increased with storage period, irrespective of packaging system. All non-vacuum packaging systems except the Flush system had very low oxygen levels (<0.l% v v ). The Flush system had considerably higher levels of oxygen (0.9%) with associated browning of meat samples. All packaging systems gave a hygienic shelf-life of at least 16 weeks. At 16 weeks, microbial numbers were highest (5 × 10(6)) in the Scavenger system. The meat from all packaging systems was acceptable to taste panels even after 16 weeks of storage at -1.5 °C. There were no significant differences between any of the packaging systems for any of the sensory attributes tested. The packaging systems with the best all round performance were the Flush/Scavenger and the Scavenger systems

  17. Biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in chilled garfish ( Belone belone belone ) - effect of modified atmosphere packaging and previous frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Madsen, H.L.; Samieian, N.;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To evaluate biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in fresh and thawed chilled garfish. Methods and Results: Storage trials were carried out with fresh and thawed garfish fillets at 0 or 5oC in air or in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 40% CO2 and 60% N2). During storage...

  18. Psychrotolerant Endophytic Pseudomonas sp. Strains OB155 and OS261 Induced Chilling Resistance in Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) by Activation of Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Yi; Sa, Tongmin

    2015-10-01

    Studies on chilling stress damage and its mitigation through microorganisms in members of family Solanaceae is limited, despite their economic importance. We studied chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants colonized by psychrotolerant bacterial strains Pseudomonas vancouverensis OB155-gfp and P. frederiksbergensis OS261-gfp. Log phase cultures of bacterial strains were coated on surface-sterilized seeds (bacterization) before sowing and nonbacterized (control) seeds were coated with sterile bacterial growth medium. All plants were grown at temperatures of 30 and 25°C and at the end of 4 weeks, chilling treatment (12 and 10°C) was imposed for 1 week on half of the bacterized and control plants. Under normal conditions (30 and 25°C), no significant difference was observed in antioxidant activity, proline accumulation, and expression of cold acclimation genes in tomato leaf tissues of both control and bacterized plants. However, plants exposed to temperatures of 12 and 10°C were found to decrease in robustness and nutrient uptake, accompanied by increased membrane damage. Chilling resistance in bacterized plants was evident from reduced membrane damage and reactive oxygen species levels, improved antioxidant activity in leaf tissues, and high expression of cold acclimation genes LeCBF1 and LeCBF3 compared with control plants. Confocal microscopy confirmed effective colonization and intercellular localization of cold-adapted bacterial strains OB155-gfp and OS261-gfp.

  19. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat and milk and milk products) derived from ruminants or swine...

  20. Differential response of domestic and wild Lycopersicon species to chilling under low light : Growth, carbohydrate content, photosynthesis and the xanthophyll cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Posthumus, F; van Hasselt, PR; de Vries, Michal

    1999-01-01

    The response of five Lycopersicon species to 14 days moderate chilling at 10 degrees C under low light (75 mu mol m(-2) s(-1)) and subsequent recovery was examined by measurements on relative shoot growth rate, leaf dry matter and carbohydrate content, CO2-exchange and pigment composition. In additi

  1. Chilled and post-thawed semen characteristics of buffalo semen diluted in tris extender enriched with date palm pollen grains (TPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda I. El-Sheshtawy

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The aqueous cold infusion or extract of the DPPG, added to the TCF extender with or without the addition of egg yolk, proved its good preserving and maintaining capacity of chilled and thawed buffalo bull sperms which was expressed mainly by the sperm motility.

  2. Pathogenesis-related protein 1b1 (PR1b1) is a major tomato fruit protein responsive to chilling temperature and upregulated in high polyamine transgenic genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants execute an array of mechanisms in response to stress which include upregulation of defense-related proteins and changes in specific metabolites. A group of commonly found metabolites implicated in protection against stresses such as chilling stress constitute ubiquitous biogenic amines calle...

  3. Pre-sowing Seed Treatments in Direct-seeded Early Rice: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth and Associated Metabolic Events under Chilling Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqin; Chen, Qian; Hussain, Saddam; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-19

    Double direct-seeding for double rice cropping is a simplified, labor saving, and efficient cropping system to improve multiple-crop index and total rice production in central China. However, poor crop establishment of direct-seeded early rice due to chilling stress is the main obstacle to wide spread of this system. A series of experiments were conducted to unravel the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events of direct-seeded early rice under chilling stress. Two seed priming treatments and two seed coating treatments were used in all the experiments. A non-treated control treatment was also maintained for comparison. In both the field and growth chamber studies, seed priming with selenium or salicylic acid significantly enhanced the emergence and seedling growth of rice compared with non-treated control. Nevertheless, such positive effects were not apparent for seed coating treatments. Better emergence and vigorous seedling growth of rice after seed priming was associated with enhanced α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars contents, and greater respiration rate in primed rice seedlings under chilling stress. Taking together, these findings may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced chilling tolerance in direct-seeded early rice in double rice cropping system.

  4. Proteome changes in tomato fruits prior to visible symptoms of chilling injury are linked to defensive mechanisms, uncoupling of photosynthetic processes and protein degradation machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Egea, Isabel; Sanchez-Ballesta, María Teresa; Sevillano, Laura; Del Carmen Bolarin, Maria; Flores, Francisco B

    2012-02-01

    A comparative proteomic analysis between tomato fruits stored at chilling and non-chilling temperatures was carried out just before the appearance of visible symptoms of chilling injury. At this stage of the stress period it was possible to discriminate between proteins involved in symptoms and proteins implicated in response. To investigate the changes in the tomato fruit proteome under this specific stressful condition, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis coupled with spot identification by mass spectrometry was applied. This proteomic approach allowed the identification of differentially expressed proteins which are involved in two main biological functions: (i) defensive mechanisms represented by small heat shock and late embryogenesis proteins; and (ii) reaction to the uncoupling of photosynthetic processes and the protein degradation machinery. One of the first changes observed in chilled fruits is the down-regulation of ATP synthase, 26S proteasome subunit RPN11 and aspartic proteinase, whereas the first responses in order to deal with the stress are mainly multifunctional proteins involved not only in metabolism but also in stress regulation such as glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and invertase. In addition, our data seem to indicate a possible candidate to be used as a protein marker for further studies on cold stress: aldose-1-epimerase, which seems to have an important role in low temperature tolerance.

  5. A Rice CaMBP Gene is Induced in Organ-Specific Manner by Both Chilling and Heat-Shock Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia WAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A rice CaMBP gene, OsCaMBP (AB363406, was isolated from a chilling treated rice using the fluorescent differential display (FDD screening method. Its cDNA sequence (2094 bp contains an opening reading frame (ORF encoding a 569 amino acids protein (63.2 kD. OsCaMBP has the typical structural features of the CaMBP family, including the conserved IQ calmodulin-binding motif at the N-terminus. Homology analysis revealed 38.25%–47.28% identities of OsCaMBP with other CaMBPs in plants. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of OsCaMBP was remarkably inducible under the chilling (8°C and heat-shock (42°C treatments. OsCaMBP was undetectable under the normal conditions, and induced under the chilling treatment for 1 h, as well as the heat-shock treatment for 15 min, suggesting that the gene plays important roles in the signaling pathway in rice under both chilling and heat-shock stresses.

  6. 两段式冷却对牛肉食用品质的影响%Effect of two-stage chilling on eating quality of beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淑娟; 毛衍伟; 王秀江; 胡铁军; 罗欣

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of two-stage chilling on eating quality of beef. Twenty crossbred cattle were selected (Yanbian cattle X Simmental cattle) to study the effect of two-stage chilling (TC -13--15℃ for 2 h, air velocity of 3 m/s, then changed into conventional chilling till 24 h) and conventional chilling (CC 0-4℃ for 24 h) on eating quality value of beef. The test results showed: Two-stage chilling increased the rate of the carcass temperature drop, decreased the rate of pH value drop, decreased evaporative loss of carcasses, helped to improve the color of beef, and increased shear stress, but had no significant effect on water holding capacity of beef, In the cattle slaughter process, the separate two-stage chilling treatment could decrease the tenderness of meat. With the increase of aging time, shear stress value would decrease. Electrical stimulation treatment should be combined with two-stage chilling to improve the eating quality of meat.%为探讨两段式冷却对牛肉食用品质的影响,以20头杂交牛胴体(延边牛×西门塔尔牛)按试验设计进行两段式冷却(温度-13~-15℃、时间2 h,风速3 m/s,随后转入常规冷却间至24 h)和常规冷却处理(温度0~4℃、时间24 h)相比较,研究不同处理对牛肉食用品质的影响.表明:两段式冷却处理加快胴体温度下降速率,减缓pH值下降速率,显著降低胴体冷却质量损失,使肉的色泽鲜红,提高肉的剪切力,对背最长肌的保水性无影响.可以认为在肉牛屠宰加工流程中,单独采用两段式冷却处理能降低肉的嫩度,但随时间的增加,剪切力值会有所降低,建议应用时结合电刺激处理来同时改善肉的食用品质.

  7. Can the exceptional chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis found in Miscanthus × giganteus be exceeded? Screening of a novel Miscanthus Japanese germplasm collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacka, Katarzyna; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens B; Kørup, Kirsten; Spitz, Idan; Sacks, Erik J; Long, Stephen P

    2015-05-01

    A clone of the hybrid perennial C4 grass Miscanthus × giganteus (Mxg) is known for achieving exceptionally high rates of leaf CO2 uptake during chilling. This is a requisite of success in the early spring, as is the ability of the leaves to survive occasional frosts. The aim of this study was to search for genotypes with greater potential than Mxg for photosynthesis and frost survival under these conditions. A total of 864 accessions representing 164 local populations of M. sacchariflorus (Msa), M. sinensis (Msi) and M. tinctorius (Mti) collected across Japan were studied. Accessions whose leaves survived a natural late frost in the field were screened for high maximum photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) following chilling weather, as an indicator of their capacity for light-limited photosynthesis. Those showing the highest Fv/Fm were transferred to a high-light-controlled environment and maintained at chilling temperatures, where they were further screened for their capacities for high-light-limited and light-saturated leaf uptake of CO2 (ΦCO2,max and Asat, respectively). For the first time, relatives of Mxg with significantly superior capacities for photosynthesis at chilling temperatures were identified. Msa accession '73/2' developed leaves in the spring that survived night-time frost, and during growth under chilling maintained a statistically significant 79 % higher ΦCO2,max, as a measure of light-limited photosynthesis, and a 70 % higher Asat, as a measure of light-saturated photosynthesis. A second Msa accession, '73/3' also showed significantly higher rates of leaf uptake of CO2. As remarkable as Mxg has proved in its chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis, this study shows that there is still value and potential in searching for yet more superior tolerance. Msa accession '73/2' shows rates of light-limited and light-saturated photosynthesis at chilling temperatures that are comparable with those of the most cold-tolerant C3 species. This adds

  8. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata slaughtered and chilled under different icing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pena, Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the slaughtering and chilled storage (up to 14 days related to the commercialization of fresh farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. A slurry ice (SI system was applied and evaluated in comparison to traditional flake ice (FI. Lipid hydrolysis and oxidation were analyzed and compared to sensory acceptance and trimethylamine (TMA formation. An important quality loss could be assessed in fish during slaughtering and chilling storage, according to sensory assessment and TMA formation. However, lipid damage development was found relatively low, in agreement to the different lipid quality indexes checked (lipid hydrolysis; primary, secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation. No development of rancid odor and no polyunsaturated fatty acid losses were detected. The employment of SI as a slaughtering and chilling strategy was found useful to inhibit quality loss in gilthead seabream resulting in a shelf life increase and a TMA and free fatty acid formation inhibition.Este trabajo estudia el sacrificio y conservación en hielo (hasta 14 días de dorada (Sparus aurata. Para ello, se aplicó hielo líquido (SI de forma comparativa con hielo tradicional (FI en escamas. Se analizó el desarrollo de hidrólisis y oxidación lipídicas, procediéndose a su comparación con la evaluación sensorial y la formación de trimetilamina (TMA. Se observó una importante pérdida de calidad de acuerdo con la valoración sensorial y la formación de TMA. Sin embargo, la alteración lipídica fue baja, a tenor de los índices ensayados (hidrólisis lipídica; oxidación lipídica primaria, secundaria y terciaria. No se detectaron desarrollo de olor rancio ni pérdida de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. El empleo de SI en esta especie resultó ser útil al objeto de inhibir la pérdida de calidad; así, se observó un incremento en el tiempo de vida útil y una inhibición en la formación de TMA y ácidos grasos libres.

  9. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  10. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Tan

    Full Text Available Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp. is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18% had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  11. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  12. 玉米萌发期种子耐低温鉴定指标的筛选%Effects of Chilling Stress on Chill-resistance Physiological Indexes of Maize Germinating Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪峰; 张立军; 胡滨

    2011-01-01

    16个玉米品种通过建立5、10℃低温下萌发的种子活力指标综合体系表明,玉米种子萌发对低温的敏感期在萌发后12 h,玉米耐低温萌发能力鉴定可在此期间进行.根据5℃和10℃低温对各品种种子萌发的发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数和活力指数的综合变化,郑单958和吉单415为萌发期耐低温强的品种,铁单18和辽单632为耐低温性差的品种.10℃低温下4项指标可以构建综合活力指标,郑单958和吉单415能维持低温下细胞膜结构和功能的稳定性,铁单18和辽单632种子萌发的低温耐性弱,细胞膜受到损伤.低温耐性强的品种在萌发早期积累高水平的可溶性糖和脯氨酸,维持细胞膜的渗透压,以抵御低温伤害,低温耐性弱的品种在后期脯氨酸含量的大幅度升高可能是受到低温伤害所致.%Sixteen varieties are used to study the effect on vigor of seed germination stage for maize chilling tolerance and its physiological mechanism under different low temperature.The results showed that seed germination index and vigor index can reflect the difference of chilling tolerance between low temperatures (5,10 ℃ ).The indexes of 10 ℃ is well corresponding with their ability of low temperature tolerance.The optional identification stage is during 12 h after normal temperature germinating.And the relative elongation rate of germinating seed can well reflect the chilling tolerance ability of low temperature tolerance.So the relative elongation rate of seed under low temperature can show the difference temperature tolerance among varieties.Seed vigor comprehensive index may also constitute an appraisal system that can explore maize germinating seed low temperature tolerance.zhengdan958 and jidan415 is the strongest resistance; tiedanl8 and liaodan632 is the weakest resistance.The high chilling-resistance cultivar showed small raising trend of these indexes,lower permeability of plasma membrane and production of

  13. Chilling stress--the key predisposing factor for causing Alternaria alternata infection and leading to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqing Zhao

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and overall capacity to assimilate carbon dioxide. Cotton premature leaf senescence, often accompanied with unexpected short-term low temperature, has been occurring with an increasing frequency in many cotton-growing areas and causes serious reduction in yield and quality of cotton. The key factors for causing and promoting cotton premature leaf senescence are still unclear. In this case, the relationship between the pre-chilling stress and Alternaria alternata infection for causing cotton leaf senescence was investigated under precisely controlled laboratory conditions with four to five leaves stage cotton plants. The results showed short-term chilling stress could cause a certain degree of physiological impairment to cotton leaves, which could be recovered to normal levels in 2-4 days when the chilling stresses were removed. When these chilling stress injured leaves were further inoculated with A. alternata, the pronounced appearance and development of leaf spot disease, and eventually the pronounced symptoms of leaf senescence, occurred on these cotton leaves. The onset of cotton leaf senescence at this condition was also reflected in various physiological indexes such as irreversible increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage, irreversible decrease in soluble protein content and chlorophyll content, and irreversible damage in leaves' photosynthesis ability. The presented results demonstrated that chilling stress acted as the key predisposing factor for causing A. alternata infection and leading to cotton leaf senescence. It could be expected that the understanding of the key factors causing and promoting cotton leaf senescence would be helpful for taking appropriate management steps to prevent cotton premature leaf senescence.

  14. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C. 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL.

  15. Rapid response systems update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Fiona; Castex, Julie; Campbell, Anita

    2013-06-01

    Rapid response is a mature concept that is undergoing metamorphosis. The ideal structure and function of these safety teams has not yet been realized but new developments in the field of rapid response systems are evolving.

  16. Rapid Reading, Yes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Harvey

    1971-01-01

    Recommends instruction in rapid reading fo high school and college students and asserts that flexibility of speed and reasoning provide the foundation for effective rapid reading. Describes the components of rapid reading as orientation, selection, clarification, arrangement, review, and study. (RW)

  17. NUCLEOTIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS, TOTAL VOLATILE BASIC NITROGEN, SENSORY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF NILE PERCH (LATES NILOTICUS FILLETS UNDER CHILLED STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kiri Amegovu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Degradation products of adenosine nucleotide and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN concentration provide means of ascertaining freshness of commercial fish products. A complementary sensory analysis has also been adopted by export markets for assessing the quality of fresh fish. Nucleotide breakdown products and TVBN was determined in fresh fillets from beach seined and gill netted Nile perch, a highly commercialized freshwater fish from Lake Victoria (Uganda, under chilled storage. Microbiological and sensory qualities were also evaluated. Total plate and Pseudomonas spp. counts positively correlated with TVBN. Basing on sensory, microbiological and biochemical attributes of the fillets, shelf-life of gill netted Nile perch was lower (13 days than that of the beach seined (17 days. Fillets of beach seined Nile perch have a better keeping quality than that of the gill netted.

  18. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-01-01

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e(−x/k). Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg−1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg−1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg−1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend. PMID:27819337

  19. Assessing chilling and drought tolerance of different plant genera on extensive green roofs in an arid climate region in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdati, Navid; Tehranifar, Ali; Kazemi, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    The harsh and stressful growing environment of extensive green roofs especially in arid environments allows a limited range of plant species to survive. Therefore, achieving plantings to survive in such conditions is a significant challenge. This paper describes an experiment investigating plant selections for extensive green roofs based on chilling (cold season) and drought (warm season) conditions of Iran. Nine species were selected from the three major taxonomic and functional plant groups that are commonly used on extensive green roofs including grasses, groundcovers and sedums. The species namely Agropyron cristatum, Festuca aurundinacea, Festuca ovina, Potentila sp., Frankinia thymifolia, Vinca minor, Sedum acre, Sedum spurinum, Carpobrotus edulis were imposed to natural chilling in autumn and winter using a randomized complete block design. For spring and summer, irrigation regimes at levels (48, 72 and 96 h intervals) in a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with four replications were applied. The results showed that Agropyron cristatum, Frankinia thymifolia and Carpobrotus edulis were the best plants from each class. Carpobrotus edulis was the best choice for cold and warm seasons and this was followed by Frankinia thymifolia and Potentila sp. Vinca minor performed well in the cold seasons and Sedum spurinum appeared to be excellent in the warm seasons. The plants of the experiment showed significantly different appearances in different watering regimes. Little differences in drought tolerances were observed among the forbs and grasses, which must be watered during warm seasons. However, the succulents responded very well to the drought and low watering regimes. Overall, succulents and groundcovers were considered more appropriate for application in warm and cold seasons, respectively. According to the findings, drought and cold weather conditions cannot be a major obstacle for developing extensive green roofs in Iran if

  20. Cambio en los patrones de crecimiento en una ciudad intermedia: el caso de Chillán en Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Azócar

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Se identifican los patrones del crecimiento urbano de la ciudad de Chillán (Chile Central, el uso del suelo asociado a cada uno de ellos y los factores que guían el proceso de expansión urbana. Se cuantificaron los cambios en la superficie urbana construida en un período de 57 años (de 1943 hasta el 2000. Entre 1997 y el año 2000, se analizó el cambio en relación con el uso del suelo, la densidad de población y la condición socio-económica de los hogares. Se utilizaron fotografías aéreas, SIG (Arcview 3.2 y Arc-Info N.T e índice de análisis espacial (Spatially Explicit Landscape Index. Un análisis de regresión permitió estudiar la relación entre crecimiento urbano y crecimiento de poblaciónThe patterns of urban growth of Chillán city (Central Chile, the land use associated to each of them and the factors which guide the urban expansion process are identified. Changes in the built urban surface during a period of 57 years (from 1943 until 2000 were quantified. Between 1997 and 2000 were analyzed the changes of land use, population density and home socioeconomic conditions, utilizing aerial photographs, SIG (Arcview 3.2 and Arc-Info N.T and Spatially Explicit Landscape Index. A regression analysis allowed to study the relation between urban growth and population growth

  1. Wind-chill-equivalent temperatures: regarding the impact due to the variability of the environmental convective heat transfer coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, Avraham

    2006-03-01

    The wind-chill index (WCI), developed in Antarctica in the 1940s and recently updated by the weather services in the USA and Canada, expresses the enhancement of heat loss in cold climates from exposed body parts, e.g., face, due to wind. The index provides a simple and practical means for assessing the thermal effects of wind on humans outdoors. It is also used for indicating weather conditions that may pose adverse risks of freezing at subfreezing environmental temperatures. Values of the WCI depend on a number of parameters, i.e, temperatures, physical properties of the air, wind speed, etc., and on insolation and evaporation. This paper focuses on the effects of various empirical correlations used in the literature for calculating the convective heat transfer coefficients between humans and their environment. Insolation and evaporation are not included in the presentation. Large differences in calculated values among these correlations are demonstrated and quantified. Steady-state wind-chill-equivalent temperatures (WCETs) are estimated by a simple, one-dimensional heat-conducting hollow-cylindrical model using these empirical correlations. Partial comparison of these values with the published "new" WCETs is presented. The variability of the estimated WCETs, due to different correlations employed to calculate them, is clearly demonstrated. The results of this study clearly suggest the need for establishing a "gold standard" for estimating convective heat exchange between exposed body elements and the cold and windy environment. This should be done prior to the introduction and adoption of further modifications to WCETs and indices. Correlations to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients between exposed body parts of humans in windy and cold environments influence the WCETs and need to be standardized.

  2. A chilled margin of komatiite and Mg-rich basaltic andesite in the western Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W. D.; Barnes, S.-J.; Karykowski, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    A chill sequence at the base of the Lower Zone of the western Bushveld Complex at Union Section, South Africa, contains aphanitic Mg-rich basaltic andesite and spinifex-textured komatiite. The basaltic andesite has an average composition of 15.2 % MgO, 52.8 % SiO2, 1205 ppm Cr, and 361 ppm Ni, whereas the komatiite has 18.7 % MgO, 1515 ppm Cr, and 410 ppm Ni. Both rock types have very low concentrations of immobile incompatible elements (0.14-0.72 ppm Nb, 7-31 ppm Zr, 0.34-0.69 ppm Th, 0.23-0.27 wt% TiO2), but high PGE contents (19-23 ppb Pt, 15-16 ppb Pd) and Pt/Pd ratios (Pt/Pd 1.4). Strontium and S isotopes show enriched signatures relative to most other Lower Zone rocks. The rocks could represent a ~20 % partial melt of subcontinental lithospheric mantle. This would match the PGE content of the rocks. However, this model is inconsistent with the high SiO2, Fe, and Na2O contents and, in particular, the low K2O, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Th, LREE, Rb, and Ba contents of the rocks. Alternatively, the chills could represent a komatiitic magma derived from the asthenosphere that underwent assimilation of the quartzitic floor accompanied by crystallization of olivine and chromite. This model is consistent with the lithophile elements and the elevated Sr and S isotopic signatures of the rocks. However, in order to account for the high Pt and Pd contents of the magma, the mantle must have been twice as rich in PGE as the current estimate for PUM, possibly due to a component of incompletely equilibrated late veneer.

  3. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-01

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e(‑x/k). Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg‑1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg‑1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg‑1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  4. Rapid Solidification of AB{sub 5} Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulbrandsen-Dahl, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with rapid solidification of AB{sub 5} materials suitable for electrochemical hydrogen storage. The primary objective of the work has been to characterise the microstructure and crystal structure of the produced AB{sub 5} materials as a function of the process parameters, e.g. the cooling rate during rapid solidification, the determination of which has been paid special attention to. The thesis is divided into 6 parts, of which Part I is a literature review, starting with a short presentation of energy storage alternatives. Then a general review of metal hydrides and their utilisation as energy carriers is presented. This part also includes more detailed descriptions of the crystal structure, the chemical composition and the hydrogen storage properties of AB{sub 5} materials. Furthermore, a description of the chill-block melt spinning process and the gas atomisation process is given. In Part II of the thesis a digital photo calorimetric technique has been developed and applied for obtaining in situ temperature measurements during chill-block melt spinning of a Mm(NiCoMnA1){sub 5} hydride forming alloy (Mm = Mischmetal of rare earths). Compared with conventional colour transmission temperature measurements, this technique offers a special advantage in terms of a high temperature resolutional and positional accuracy, which under the prevailing experimental conditions were found to be {+-}29 K and {+-} 0.1 mm, respectively. Moreover, it is shown that the cooling rate in solid state is approximately 2.5 times higher than that observed during solidification, indicating that the solid ribbon stayed in intimate contact with the wheel surface down to very low metal temperatures before the bond was broken. During this contact period the cooling regime shifted from near ideal in the melt puddle to near Newtonian towards the end, when the heat transfer from the solid ribbon to the wheel became the rate controlling step. In Part III of the

  5. Therapeutic hypothermia for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction-combined analysis of the RAPID MI-ICE and the CHILL-MI trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Noc, Marko

    2015-01-01

    of 33°C. The primary endpoint was myocardial infarct size (IS) as a percentage of myocardium at risk (IS/MaR) assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 4±2 days. Patients randomized to hypothermia treatment achieved a mean core body temperature of 34.7°C before reperfusion. Although significance...... intervention (PCI) within temperature...

  6. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those (6.1-6.3) of HB-NC, HB-CO2, and HB-1/4;CFAC, with the intermediate pH (6.0) seen for the HB-CFAC. When meat batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values.

  7. Microbiological standards and handling codes for chilled and frozen foods. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELLIOTT, R P; MICHENER, H D

    1961-09-01

    gram. On the other hand, these same workers found Salmonella on meats with very low total viable count. The assumption by many that low total count indicates safety has been shown to be not always true. Furthermore, high counts of nonpathogenic organisms, such as psychrophilic saprophytes would have no public health significance. The relation between bacterial level and quality is open to less controversy. Some authorities have pointed to bacterial level as a measure of sanitation, adequacy of refrigeration, or speed of handling. Others have indicated that to determine which of these factors caused a high count would be impossible with only a total count on the product as a guide. Some investigators have said a high count affects flavor adversely before actual spoilage is evident, and this may be a factor in competition on today's market. It is well established that initial bacterial level will affect the shelf-life of a chilled product. Methods of analysis are more nearly adequate for counts than for pathogens, but they need improvement, and should be clearly specified as part of any bacteriological standard. Foods with high count could sometimes be brought into compliance merely by storing them for a sufficient period frozen, or by heating them slightly. This has been cited by some authors as a disadvantage of bacteriological standards. The enterococci and the coliform group (except Escherichia coli) have been shown to be ubiquitous and therefore should not be used alone to indicate fecal contamination. Although E. coli has greater significance, its source should be determined each time it is found. Various reviewers have expressed the need for caution in the application of standards. The principal precautionary arguments we have found are as follows:1) A single set of microbiological standards should not be applied to foods as a miscellaneous group, such as "frozen foods" or "precooked foods."2) Microbiological standards should be applied first to the more hazardous

  8. Modeling and Optimization of Direct Chill Casting to Reduce Ingot Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Subodh K.

    2006-01-09

    A successful four-year project on the modeling and optimization of direct chill (DC) casting to reduce ingot cracking has been completed. The project involved close collaboration among private industries, national laboratories, and universities. During the four-year project, 16 quarterly meetings brought the industrial partners and the research team together for discussion of research results and research direction. The industrial partners provided guidance, facilities, and experience to the research team. The research team went to two industrial plants to measure temperature distributions in commercial 60,000-lb DC casting ingot. The collaborative research resulted in several major accomplishments or findings: (1) Surface cracks were shown to be a result of hot tearing rather than cold cracks, as was thought before this project. These cracks form on the surface of a DC cast ingot just above the impingement point of the secondary cooling water jets. The cracks form along dendrite and grain boundaries, where solute and impurity elements are highly segregated. This understanding led to the development of a new technique for determining the mechanical properties in the nonequilibrium mushy zone of alloys and to thermodynamic predictions of the hot tearing propensity of DC cast ingots. (2) The apparent heat transfer coefficient (HTC) at the ingot surface in the water cooling region during DC casting was determined on the basis of temperature measurements in commercial DC casting ingots and an inverse heat transfer analysis. HTCs were calculated as a function of temperature and time, and covered the different regimes of heat transfer expected during DC casting. The calculated values were extrapolated to include the effect of water flow rate. The calculated HTCs had a peak at around 200 C, corresponding to the high heat transfer rates during nucleate boiling, and the profile was consistent with similar data published in the literature. (3) A new method, termed the

  9. Modeling and Optimization of Direct Chill Casting to Reduce Ingot Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K.; Ningileri, S.; Long, Z.; Saito, K.; Khraisheh, M.; Hassan, M.H.; Kuwana, K.; Han, Q.; Viswanathan, S.; Sabau, A.S.; Clark, J.; Hyrn, J. (ANL)

    2006-08-15

    Approximately 68% of the aluminum produced in the United States is first cast into ingots prior to further processing into sheet, plate, extrusions, or foil. The direct chill (DC) semi-continuous casting process has been the mainstay of the aluminum industry for the production of ingots due largely to its robust nature and relative simplicity. Though the basic process of DC casting is in principle straightforward, the interaction of process parameters with heat extraction, microstructural evolution, and development of solidification stresses is too complex to analyze by intuition or practical experience. One issue in DC casting is the formation of stress cracks [1-15]. In particular, the move toward larger ingot cross-sections, the use of higher casting speeds, and an ever-increasing array of mold technologies have increased industry efficiencies but have made it more difficult to predict the occurrence of stress crack defects. The Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap [16] has recognized the challenges inherent in the DC casting process and the control of stress cracks and selected the development of 'fundamental information on solidification of alloys to predict microstructure, surface properties, and stresses and strains' as a high-priority research need, and the 'lack of understanding of mechanisms of cracking as a function of alloy' and 'insufficient understanding of the aluminum solidification process', which is 'difficult to model', as technology barriers in aluminum casting processes. The goal of this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project was to assist the aluminum industry in reducing the incidence of stress cracks from the current level of 5% to 2%. Decreasing stress crack incidence is important for improving product quality and consistency as well as for saving resources and energy, since considerable amounts of cast metal could be saved by eliminating ingot cracking, by reducing the scalping thickness of

  10. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  11. Impact of chilling injury and global warming on rice yield in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省冷害与全球变暖对水稻产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaofei; ZHANG Zhao; SHUAI Jiabing; WANG Pin; SHI Wenjiao; TAO Fulu; CHEN Yi

    2013-01-01

    @@%This study is focused on indexes for the rice chilling injury in Heilongjiang Province during 1960-2009.Firstly,we compared a new derived climate data weighted by rice planting density with the traditional method,and found that the new one is more reasonable to assess the impact of climate change on crop yields.Considering the frequency and intensity of rice chilling in the province,secondly,chilling indexes defined by meteorological,national and international levels were assessed.The result showed that the meteorological standards were suitable for the delayed-type injury,while the international one,so-called sum of Growing Degree Day below threshold (GDDn-),characterized best the sterile-type chilling injury for rice.The explanation ability of the rice yield time series model including both injury types as two independent variables reached approximately 92% (p < 0.05).Finally,we concluded that the contribution rates of human and weather factors to rice yields are about 87.2% and 12.8%respectively,and as light increasing trend for sterile-type chilling injury was found during heading to flowing period in recent years,indicating a high chilling risk for rice planting in Heilongjiang Province in the future global warming.

  12. Consumer acceptance of high pressure processed beef-based chilled ready meals: the mediating role of food-related lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Douglas; Henchion, Maeve; Marcos, Begonya; Ward, Paddy; Mullen, Anne Maria; Allen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of high pressure processing (HPP) on consumer acceptance for chilled ready meals manufactured using a low-value beef cut. Three hundred consumers evaluated chilled ready meals subjected to 4 pressure treatments and a non-treated control monadically on a 9-point scale for liking for beef tenderness and juiciness, overall flavour, overall liking, and purchase intent. Data were also collected on consumers' food consumption patterns, their attitudes towards food by means of the reduced food-related lifestyle (FRL) instrument, and socio-demographics. The results indicated that a pressure treatment of 200 MPa was acceptable to most consumers. K-means cluster analysis identified 4 consumer groups with similar preferences, and the optimal pressure treatments acceptable to specific consumer groups were identified for those firms that would wish to target attitudinally differentiated consumer segments.

  13. Avocado by-products as inhibitors of color deterioration and lipid and protein oxidation in raw porcine patties subjected to chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, J G; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2011-10-01

    Processing of avocados generates an important amount of by-products such as peels and seeds that are rich in bioactive substances with proven radical suppressing activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of peel and seed extracts from two avocado varieties-'Hass' and 'Fuerte'-as inhibitors of lipid and protein oxidation and color deterioration of raw porcine patties during chilled storage (4 °C/15 days). Avocado extracts significantly (pHass' extracts. Patties treated with avocado extracts had significantly lower amounts of TBA-RS than control ones throughout the storage. 'Hass' avocado extracts significantly inhibited the formation of protein carbonyls in chilled patties at day 15. The present results highlight the potential usage of extracts from avocado by-products as ingredients for the production of muscle foods with enhanced quality traits.

  14. Super climate for Vodafone Italia. Utilization of active chilled beams for a monument protected sanitation; Prima Klima fuer Vodafone Italia. Einsatz aktiver Kuehlbalken fuer ein denkmalgeschuetztes Sanierungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefker, T.; Joneleit, R. [Trox GmbH, Neukirchen-Vluyn (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Vodafone Italia moved as a new user into the former Olivetti headquarter (ICO) at the Italian Ivrea. A total sanitation was done of the outer envelope and facility management of the monument protected building. To secure a best possible comfort in the as call-center used open-plan offices and in the single bureaus the responsibles decided for an active chilled beam system with fresh air inlet and secondary air cooling. Chilled beams can save energy by delivering sensible cooling directly to spaces, decoupling maximum air delivery from the cooling load and reducing ventilation fan energy consumption; meet standard ventilation requirements with less ventilation airflow; has lower temperature lift and operates at higher efficiency; and reduces the need for energy-consuming reheat of cooled air. (GL)

  15. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of chilled water distribution stations for the SPS accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of chilled water distribution stations for the SPS accelerator. Following a market survey carried out among 82 firms in eighteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2742/ST/SPS) was sent on 17 January 2000 to 10 firms and seven consortia in nine Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received ten tenders from five firms and five consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of chilled water distribution stations for the SPS Accelerator, for an amount of 1 775 127 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT) has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT-100%.

  16. Effect of modified atmosphere and temperature abuse on the growth from spores and cereulide production of Bacillus weihenstephanensis in a cooked chilled meat sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Koch, Anette Granly;

    2009-01-01

    demonstrates that MAP can be used to inhibit growth of a psychrotolerant toxin producing Bacillus spp. during chill storage at 8 °C, and substantially reduce the risk of emetic food poisoning at abuse condition. Results are of relevance for improving safety of ready to eat processed chilled foods of extended...... and temperature abuse for 1.5 h daily at 20 °C during 1 week resulted in increased cell counts and variable cereulide production in the meat sausage. A pre-history at 8 °C for 1 week inMAP with OTR of 1.3 or 40ml/m2/24 h and 2% O2 resulted in cereulide concentrations of 0.816-1.353 µg/gmeat sausage, while a pre-history...

  17. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    storage periods up to 21 d at 2 C were evaluated for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod fillets. Sensory, chemical, microbiological and physical quality attributes were evaluated and multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least- squares regression) applied for identification of key...... parameters in good manufacturing practice for this product. Frozen storage of up to 12 mo had no significant effect on quality attributes and shelf-life at 2degreesC was above 14 d irrespective of the time of frozen storage. As compared to a previous study with Baltic Sea, cod drip losses during chill...... storage was low for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod and this fish raw material seemed the more appropriate for production of thawed chilled MAP products. Frozen storage inactivation of the spoilage bacteria of Photobacterium phosphorcum was modest in Barnets Sea cod, possibly due to high trimethylamine oxide...

  18. The effect of the method of application and concentration of asahi sl on the response of cucumber plants to chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments conducted on cucumber cv. Śremski F1, the effect was studied of short-term chilling stress on plants which had grown from seeds germinating in the solution of Asahi SL or treated with this biostimulator during the early growth period. The plants were grown in a phytotron at an air temperature of 27/22°C (day/night, using fluorescent light with FAR flux density of 220 μmol x m-2 x s-1 and with a photoperiod of 16/8. The biostimulator was applied using the following methods: a germination of seeds in 0.01% and 0.05% solution, b watering of plants twice with 0.01% or 0.05% solution, c spraying leaves with 0.3% or 0.5% solution. Plants sprayed with distilled water were the control. After 24 hours from foliar or root application of Asahi SL, one half of the plants from each experimental series was treated for a period of 3 days at a temperature of 12/6°C, with all the other growth conditions unchanged. The obtained results show that short-term chilling stress caused a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, free proline content and in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in leaves, but a decrease in the content of chlorophyll, its maximum fluorescence (Fm and quantum yield (Fv/Fm, carotenoid content, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis, leaf biomass and in the activity of catalase in leaves. Foliar or root application of Asahi SL in the pre-stress period decreased the values of the traits which increased as a result of chilling or increased those which decreased. Higher concentrations of the biostimulator solutions, applied using this method, were more effective. The application of the biostimulator during seed germination did not result in significant changes in the response of plants to chilling stress.

  19. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-frozen air-chilled turkey breast allows for reduced sodium content in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Medellin-Lopez, M; Singh, P; Sansawat, T; Chin, K B; Kang, I

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate sodium reduction in the protein gels that were prepared with turkey breasts after hot boning (HB), quarter (¼) sectioning, crust-frozen air-chilling (CFAC), and cold temperature mincing. For each of 4 replications, 36 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. One-half of the carcasses were randomly assigned to water immersion chilling for chill boning (CB), whereas the remaining carcasses were immediately HB and quarter-sectioned/crust-frozen air-chilled (HB-¼CFAC) in a freezing room (-12°C, 1.0 m/s). After deboning, CB fillets were conventionally minced, whereas HB-¼CFAC fillets were cold minced up to 27 min with 1 or 2% salt. From the beginning of mincing, the batter temperatures of HB-¼CFAC were lower (P 0.05) from the pH of CB batters, except for the 1% salt HB-¼CFAC batter after 15 min of mincing. The pattern of pH was not changed when the batters were stored overnight. The protein of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P < 0.05) than that of CB fillets at 9, 12, 18, and 24 min. Similarly, the protein of 1% salt HB-¼CFAC fillets was more extractable (P < 0.05) than that of CB fillets from 12 min. Stress values of 2% salt HB-¼CFAC gels were higher (P < 0.05) than those of 1 and 2% salt CB gels, with intermediate values for 1% salt HB-¼CFAC gels. In the scanning electron microscope image, prerigor batter appears to have more open space, less protein aggregation, and more protein-coated fat particles than those of postrigor batters. Based on these results, the combination of HB-¼CFAC and cold-batter-mincing technologies appear to improve protein functionality and sodium reduction capacity. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Characterisation of non-toxigenic Clostridium spp. strains, to use as surrogates for non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum in chilled food challenge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M D; Barrett, P I; Shepherd, J; Price, L J; Bull, S D

    2015-01-01

    Under many of the conditions studied, a two-strain cocktail of non-toxigenic Clostridium spp. was found to be suitable as a surrogate for non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum, and has the potential for use in chilled food challenge tests measuring growth. Non-toxigenic surrogates could also be used in thermal process screening studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.