WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-relocation baseline survey

  1. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    CERN Document Server

    Moldón, J; Wucknitz, O; Jackson, N; Drabent, A; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Kapińska, A D; McKean, P; Morabito, L; Varenius, E; Zarka, P; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Offringa, A R; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; White, S; Wise, M W; Yatawatta, S; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for International LOFAR is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods. We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full International LOFAR array. Sources were pre-selected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results. Over 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to sho...

  2. LBCS: The LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N.; Tagore, A.; Deller, A.; Moldón, J.; Varenius, E.; Morabito, L.; Wucknitz, O.; Carozzi, T.; Conway, J.; Drabent, A.; Kapinska, A.; Orrù, E.; Brentjens, M.; Blaauw, R.; Kuper, G.; Sluman, J.; Schaap, J.; Vermaas, N.; Iacobelli, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Shulevski, A.; ter Veen, S.; Fallows, R.; Pizzo, R.; Sipior, M.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, G. M.; Maat, P.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D. J.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wise, M. W.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2016-11-01

    We outline the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey (LBCS), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (≳ 50 - 100 mJy) at frequencies around 110-190 MHz on scales of a few hundred milliarcseconds. At least for the 200-300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas - typically a few degrees - around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200-600 km, with good calibrators on the longest baselines appearing only at the rate of 0.5 per sq. deg. Coherence times decrease from 1-3 min on 200-km baselines to about 1 min on 600-km baselines, suggesting that ionospheric phase variations contain components with scales of a few hundred kilometres. The longest median coherence time, at just over 3 min, is seen on the DE609 baseline, which at 227 km is close to being the shortest. We see median coherence times of between 80 and 110 s on the four longest baselines (580-600 km), and about 2 min for the other baselines. The success of phase transfer from calibrator to target is shown to be influenced by distance, in a manner that suggests a coherence patch at 150-MHz of the order of 1 deg. Although source structures cannot be measured in these observations, we deduce that phase transfer is affected if the calibrator source structure is not known. We give suggestions for calibration strategies and choice of calibrator sources, and describe the access to

  3. LBCS: the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, N; Deller, A; Moldón, J; Varenius, E; Morabito, L; Wucknitz, O; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Drabent, A; Kapinska, A; Orrù, E; Brentjens, M; Blaauw, R; Kuper, G; Sluman, J; Schaap, J; Vermaas, N; Iacobelli, M; Cerrigone, L; Shulevski, A; ter Veen, S; Fallows, R; Pizzo, R; Sipior, M; Anderson, J; Avruch, M; Bell, M; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brouw, W; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Garrett, M; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A; van Haarlem, M; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Intema, H; Juette, E; Kuniyoshi, M; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, G; Maat, P; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J; Mulcahy, D; Munk, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Polatidis, A; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A; Schwarz, D; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R; Wise, M; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2016-01-01

    (abridged). We outline LBCS (the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (50-100mJy) at frequencies around 110--190~MHz on scales of a few hundred mas. At least for the 200--300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas -- typically a few degrees -- around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200--600~km, with good calibrators on the longest...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  5. IODINE SALT CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: BASELINE HEALTH SURVEY 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Aryastami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine Deficiency Disorder (100 reduction program has been implemented since 1976. According to the National Economic Survey 2002, the average consumption of iodized salt was 6. 26 grams. The results of Iodine Salt Survey (SGY 2003 showed that the consumption of iodine salt at the household level was 73.2%, meanwhile, the baseline health survey (Riskesdas 2007 showed there was reduction of iodine salt consumption towards 60.2%. Methods: Type of study was secondary data analysis with cross-sectional design utilizing the Riskesdas 2007's data. Sample was selected purposively according to the previous SGY's survey based on the endemically criteria namely highly endemic, mediocre and non endemic. Results: The results of the analysis were there was discrepancy of iodine salt consumption among urban and rural areas as well as mother's education level. The iodine salt consumption was higher in the urban area (65.5% compare to the rural area (52.9%. The higher the education of mothers the better the iodine salt consumed. The usage of iodine salt in the households based on salt quick test was 60.2%, meanwhile, according to the salt titration it was only 23.4%. The results of Excretion Iodine Urine showed that the iodine intake among the school children (age of 6-12 years old was 12.8% and was still below the cut-off point prevalence, which is greater than 50%. The conclusion of this analysisis that there was evidence of iodine salt reduction consumed at the household level. Conversely, there was inclination of the percentage of iodine urine level among the school children in Indonesia in the year 2007. It is recommended that policy analysis need to be conducted due to the achievement of the Universal Salt iodization target, especially in the endemic areas to asses the existence of the IDO prevalence. Key words: Iodine salt at the households, Iodine salt consumption, urine iodine excretion

  6. GPS survey in long baseline neutrino-oscillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Noumi, H; Inagaki, T; Hasegawa, T; Katoh, Y; Kohama, M; Kurodai, M; Kusano, E; Maruyama, T; Minakawa, M; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Sakuda, M; Suzuki, Y; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K H; Yamanoi, Y; 10.1109/TNS.2004.836042

    2004-01-01

    We made a series of surveys to obtain neutrino beam line direction toward SuperKamiokande (SK) at a distance of 250 km for the long- baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at KEK. We found that the beam line is directed to SK within 0.03 mr and 0.09 mr (in sigma) in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. During beam operation, we monitored the muon distribution from secondary pions produced at the target and collected by a magnetic horn system. We found that the horn system functions like a lens of a point-to- parallel optics with magnification of approximately -100 and the focal length of 2.3 m. Namely, a small displacement of the primary beam position at the target is magnified about a factor -100 at the muon centroid, while the centroid position is almost stable against a change of the incident angle of the primary beam. Therefore, the muon centroid can be a useful monitor of the neutrino beam direction. We could determine the muon centroid within 6 mm and 12 mm in horizontal and vertical ...

  7. Single-baseline RTK GNSS Positioning for Hydrographic Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Alkan, Reha; Murat Ozulu, I.; Ilçi, Veli; Kahveci, Muzaffer

    2015-04-01

    Positioning with GNSS technique can be carried out in two ways, absolute and relative. It has been possible to reach a few meters absolute point positioning accuracies in real time after disabling SA permanently in May 2000. Today, accuracies obtainable from absolute point positioning using code observations are not sufficient for most surveying applications. Thus to meet higher accuracy requirements, differential methods using single or dual frequency geodetic-grade GNSS receivers that measure carrier phase have to be used. However, this method requires time-cost field and office works and if the measurement is not carried out with conventional RTK method, user needs a GNSS data processing software to estimate the coordinates. If RTK is used, at least two or more GNSS receivers are required, one as a reference and the other as a rover. Moreover, the distance between the receivers must not exceed 15-20 km in order to be able to rapidly and reliably resolve the carrier phase ambiguities. On the other hand, based on the innovations and improvements in satellite geodesy and GNSS modernization studies occurred within the last decade, many new positioning methods and new approaches have been developed. One of them is Network-RTK (or commonly known as CORS) and the other is Single-baseline RTK. These methods are widely used for many surveying applications in many countries. The user of the system can obtain his/her position within a few cm level of accuracy in real-time with only a single GNSS receiver that has Network RTK (CORS) capability. When compared with the conventional differential and RTK methods, this technique has several significant advantages as it is easy to use and it produces accurate, cost-effective and rapid solutions. In Turkey, establishment of a multi-base RTK network was completed and opened for civilian use in 2009. This network is called CORS-TR and consists of 146 reference stations having about 80-100 km interstation distances. It is possible

  8. Seier NWR second year baseline CCP preparation surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for a project to collect baseline biological information on John W. And Louise Seier National Wildlife Refuge, to aid in preparation of 2014...

  9. Imperial County baseline health survey potential impact of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deane, M.

    1981-06-01

    The survey purpose, methods, and statistical methods are presented. Results are discussed according to: area differences in background variables, area differences in health variables, area differences in annoyance reactions, and comparison of symptom frequencies with age, smoking, and drinking. Included in appendices are tables of data, enumeration forms, the questionnaire, interviewer cards, and interviewer instructions. (MHR)

  10. National baseline survey of soil quality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Lamé, F.P.J.; Nieuwenhuis, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    To determine background values of the 252 chemical compounds listed in Dutch legislation, a survey was designed with the aim of estimating percentiles of the cumulative frequency distributions and areal fractions exceeding the former, legislative reference values. Sampling locations were selected by

  11. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  12. A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  13. A Survey of Astronomical Research: An Astronomy for Development Baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, V A R M; Cardenas-Avendano, A

    2013-01-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed research research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a Gross National Income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in `astronomy development' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop astronomy it should invest in outside expert visits, send their staff abroad to study and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  14. Baseline Survey for an Impact Evaluation of the Greenbelt Transformation Initiative in South Sudan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set is derived from a 2013 household baseline survey in the country's Greenbelt region as part of an impact evaluation of the Food, Agribusiness, and Rural...

  15. A survey of the baseline correction algorithms for real-time spectroscopy processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanjie; Yu, Yude

    2016-11-01

    In spectroscopy data analysis, such as Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence and etc., baseline drift is a ubiquitous issue. In high speed testing which generating huge data, automatic baseline correction method is very important for efficient data processing. We will survey the algorithms from classical Shirley background to state-of-the-art methods to present a summation for this specific field. Both advantages and defects of each algorithm are scrutinized. To compare the algorithms with each other, experiments are also carried out under SVM gap gain criteria to show the performance quantitatively. Finally, a rank table of these methods is built and the suggestions for practical choice of adequate algorithms is provided in this paper.

  16. Environmental Baseline Survey for Installation of Five New Hydrogeologic Groundwater Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) provides the findings of a survey and assessment for termination of an existing easement granted to the Department of Energy (DOE) for the installation of 5 new hydrogeologic groundwater monitoring wells located on KAFB, New Mexico. The purpose of this EBS is to: Document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property. Identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property. Develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks. Ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property. Determine possible effects of contamination on property valuation, and serve as the basis for notice of environmental condition for applicable federal or local real property disclosure requirements.

  17. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Jones Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors

  18. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia reveal new threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ponti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  19. Long-Baseline Interferometric Multiplicity Survey of the Sco-Cen OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzuto, A C; Robertson, J G; Kok, Y; Tuthill, P G; Warrington, B A; Haubois, X; Tango, W J; Norris, B; Brummelaar, T ten; Kraus, A L; Jacob, A; Laliberte-Houdeville, C

    2013-01-01

    We present the first multiplicity-dedicated long baseline optical interferometric survey of the Scorpius-Centaurus-Lupus-Crux association. We used the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer to undertake a survey for new companions to 58 Sco-Cen B- type stars and have detected 24 companions at separations ranging from 7-130mas, 14 of which are new detections. Furthermore, we use a Bayesian analysis and all available information in the literature to determine the multiplicity distribution of the 58 stars in our sample, showing that the companion frequency is F = 1.35 and the mass ratio distribution is best described as a power law with exponent equal to -0.46, agreeing with previous Sco-Cen high mass work and differing significantly from lower-mass stars in Tau-Aur. Based on our analysis, we estimate that among young B-type stars in moving groups, up to 23% are apparently single stars. This has strong implications for the understanding of high-mass star formation, which requires angular momentum dispersal thr...

  20. A community-based integrated nutrition research programme to alleviate poverty: baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldewage-Theron, W H; Dicks, E G; Napier, C E; Rutengwe, R

    2005-04-01

    The United Nation's Children Fund (UNICEF) has indicated that urban poverty is primarily found in squatter settlements. At present, 13.5% of all South African households live in informal settlements. The main hypothesis for this empirical study was that micromechanisms would not negatively influence food, nutrition and health of residents in an informal settlement in the Vaal Triangle, South Africa. This hypothesis was tested empirically against the UNICEF framework of the immediate, underlying and basic causes of malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to establish a situation analysis of children and women before designing any intervention. The objectives covered in this paper include Phases I and II of the project, namely planning of the project and determining the demographic and health profile of the sample as part of a situation analysis. This is a community participatory project. After a strategic participatory planning workshop with stakeholders, a plan of operation document, guiding all field undertakings, was drawn up (Phase 1), followed by a cross-sectional baseline survey (Phase II), situation analysis (Phase III), and implementation of community-based intervention studies (Phase IV). Impact measurement will follow in Phase V. After the planning meeting and obtaining consent, a pretested, structured demographic and health questionnaire was used to obtain data from 357 randomly selected households in an informal settlement. Data were statistically analysed for means and standard deviations. The findings of the workshop evaluation indicated that 100% of the participants (n = 34) agreed that a need existed for this project, 74% (n = 24) understood the relevance, and 64% (n = 22) realized the importance for sustainable community development. In the baseline survey, 89% of the respondents lived in zinc shacks with two rooms or less (32.2%), three or four rooms (41.5%) or four rooms or more (26.3%). The household size was six people or more (33%), five

  1. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  2. Aquifers survey in the context of source rocks exploitation: from baseline acquisition to long term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bruno; Rouchon, Virgile; Deflandre, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Producing hydrocarbons from source rocks (like shales: a mix of clays, silts, carbonate and sandstone minerals containing matured organic matter, i.e. kerogen oil and gas, but also non-hydrocarbon various species of chemical elements including sometimes radioactive elements) requires to create permeability within the rock matrix by at least hydraulically fracturing the source rock. It corresponds to the production of hydrocarbon fuels that have not been naturally expelled from the pressurized matured source rock and that remain trapped in the porosity or/and kerogen porosity of the impermeable matrix. Azimuth and extent of developed fractures can be respectively determined and mapped by monitoring the associated induced microseismicity. This allows to have an idea of where and how far injected fluids penetrated the rock formation. In a geological context, aquifers are always present in the vicinity -or on fluid migration paths- of such shale formations: deep aquifers (near the shale formation) up to sub-surface and potable (surface) aquifers. Our purpose will be to track any unsuitable invasion or migration of chemicals specifies coming from matured shales of production fluids including both drilling and fracturing ones into aquifers. Our objective is to early detect and alarm of any anomaly to avoid any important environmental issue. The approach consists in deploying a specific sampling tool within a well to recover formation fluids and to run a panoply of appropriate laboratory tests to state on fluid characteristics. Of course for deep aquifers, such a characterization process may consider aquifer properties prior producing shale oil and gas, as they may contain naturally some chemical species present in the source rocks. One can also consider that a baseline acquisition could be justified in case of possible previous invasion of non-natural fluids in the formation under survey (due to any anthropogenic action at surface or in the underground). The paper aims

  3. Setting the Baseline: The National Literacy Trust's First Annual Survey into Young People's Reading--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2011-01-01

    18,141 young people aged 8 to 17 participated in this online survey in November/December 2010. While the survey focuses on young people's attitudes towards reading, writing, communication skills as well as technology use, this report focuses exclusively on the reading aspect of the survey. More specifically, it explores how much young people enjoy…

  4. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in holdings with breeding pigs in the EU, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bole-Hribovšek, Vojislava; Chriél, Mariann; Davies, Robert;

    Salmonella is a major cause of food-borne illness in humans. Farm animals and foods of animal origin are important sources of human Salmonella infections. This European Union-wide Salmonella baseline survey was conducted in 2008 in holdings with breeding pigs. A total of 1,609 holdings housing...... and selling mainly breeding pigs (breeding holdings) and 3,508 holdings housing breeding pigs and selling mainly pigs for fattening or slaughter (production holdings) from 24 European Union Member States and two non-Member States, were randomly selected and included in the survey. In each selected breeding...

  5. Challenges and opportunities of a paperless baseline survey in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Pearson, Melissa; Borgstrøm, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) have been shown to reduce costs associated with survey implementation and digitisation, and to improve data quality when compared to traditional paper based data collection. Few studies, however, have shared their experiences of the use of these devi...... as part of this study are even more important for the effective utilisation of these rapidly developing technologies in resource poor settings.......,000 households). We found that the PDA device and survey format was easy to use by inexperienced field staff, even though the survey was programmed in English. The device enabled the rapid digitisation of survey data, providing a good basis for continuous data quality assurance, supervision of staff and survey...... implementation. An unexpected advantage was the improved community opinion of the research project as a result of the device, because the use of the technology gave data collectors an elevated status amongst the community. In addition the global positioning system (GPS) functionality of the device allowed...

  6. Vegetable agroforestry system: Baseline survey results in Songco, Lantapan, Bukidnon, Philippines, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, M.R.; De Mesa, J. P. A.; Rola, Agnes C.

    2007-01-01

    This baseline study is part of the SANREM CRSP "Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production in Southeast Asia Watersheds" (VAF) project. This was conducted in Songco, Lantapan, Bukidnon, an upland barangay located at the foot of the Mt. Kitanglad Range National Park in the southern part of the Philippines, during January to February, 2007. The crop and household data pertain to January to February, 2006. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  7. Implementation of revised strategy of filaria control-baseline clinico-parasitological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Rai, R N; Mishra, R N

    2000-06-01

    A clinico-epidemiological study of filariasis was carried out in Varanasi District in October and November, 1997 to generate baseline data for assessing the impact of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in the district. Disease rate was found to be 6.6% (9.9% in males and 3.0% in females) and microfilaria rate was 5.3% (5.2% in males and 5.5% in females). Mean microfilaria density was found to be 9.86 per 20 Cu.mm blood. Genital manifestations (77.5%) outnumbered all other forms of clinical manifestations. Vector infectivity rate was found to be 0.93%.

  8. Baseline coral disease surveys within three marine parks in Sabah, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most significant threats to coral reefs worldwide are bleaching and disease. However, there has been a scarcity of research on coral disease in South-East Asia, despite the high biodiversity and the strong dependence of local communities on the reefs in the region. This study provides baseline data on coral disease frequencies within three national parks in Sabah, Borneo, which exhibit different levels of human impacts and management histories. High mean coral cover (55% and variable disease frequency (mean 0.25 diseased colonies m−2 were found across the three sites. Highest disease frequency (0.44 diseased colonies per m2 was seen at the site closest to coastal population centres. Bleaching and pigmentation responses were actually higher at Sipadan, the more remote, offshore site, whereas none of the other coral diseases detected in the other two parks were detected in Sipadan. Results of this study offer a baseline dataset of disease in these parks and indicate the need for continued monitoring, and suggest that coral colonies in parks under higher anthropogenic stressors and with lower coral cover may be more susceptible to contracting disease.

  9. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges and opportunities of a paperless baseline survey in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Pearson, Melissa; Borgstrøm, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants (PDAs) have been shown to reduce costs associated with survey implementation and digitisation, and to improve data quality when compared to traditional paper based data collection. Few studies, however, have shared their experiences of the use of these devi...

  11. A National Baseline Prevalence Survey of Schistosomiasis in the Philippines Using Stratified Two-Step Systematic Cluster Sampling Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion.

  12. A national baseline prevalence survey of schistosomiasis in the Philippines using stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Villacorte, Elena; Lebanan, May Antonnette; Crisostomo, Bobby; Hernandez, Leda; Baquilod, Mario; Erce, Edgardo; Martinez, Ruth; Velayudhan, Raman

    2012-01-01

    For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion.

  13. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Mohiuddin H; Akazawa Manabu; Dararath Eav; Kiet Heng B; Sovannarith Tey; Nivanna Nam; Yoshida Naoko; Kimura Kazuko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception o...

  14. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Rates and predictors of DUI across Hispanic national groups

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano, Raul; RAMISETTY-MIKLER, SUHASINI; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines rates of self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol and 12 month and lifetime DUI arrest rates among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans and South/Central Americans in the U.S. population. Using a multistage cluster sample design, a total of 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the U.S.: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston and Los Angeles. The survey weighted r...

  15. Baseline survey of health prophylaxis and management practices on Swiss dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, P; Kohler, S; Reist, M; van den Borne, B; Menéndez González, S; Doherr, M

    2012-09-01

    Health prophylaxis management practices have acquired a major role in the success of dairy herd health programs, however, little is known about the scope and level of implementation on Swiss dairy farms. The main objective of this study was therefore to provide a general overview of the most important preventive measures which are currently being used on these farms. In March 2011, an online survey with 75 questions was sent to 2'285 randomly selected Swiss dairy farmers. Response rate by question ranged from 35 to 53 %. Within this study, answers were compared between dairy farms with a tie-stall (n = 739) and farms with a free-stall (n = 458). Homeopathic treatments were used by 51 % of the dairy farmers and antibiotic dry cow treatments by 94 %. Farmers with a tie-stall tended to carry out more prophylactic treatments against external parasites, vaccinated their cows more frequently against Clostridium chauvoei and Moraxella bovis, and carried out claw trimming more frequently than dairy farmers with a free-stall. A higher proportion of dairy farmers with a free-stall had a written feeding plan, carried out regular feed analysis, wore an apron and rubber gloves during milking, and carried out post milking teat disinfection more frequently than dairy farmers with a tie-stall. The data collected in this survey could assist in improving future dairy health communication campaigns in Switzerland.

  16. Baseline assessment of fish and benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - present) using remotely operated vehicle (ROV) survey methods: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will...

  17. Baseline assessment of fish and benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - present) using remotely operated vehicle (ROV) survey methods: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will employ...

  18. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh-Asl Rahim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran Methods In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. Results All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly. The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless

  19. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiesi, Ahmad; Nikpour, Fatemeh; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Ranjbar, Mansoor; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Haghdost, Aliakbar; Taghizadeh-Asl, Rahim; Sakeni, Mohammad; Safari, Reza; Saffari, Mehdi

    2011-10-27

    Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages) were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly.The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless, only one-third of them [33% (95% CI: 0.00 - 67.8)] had

  20. Nottingham mothers stop smoking project -- baseline survey of smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeley, R J; Gillies, P A; Power, F L; Symonds, E M

    1989-05-01

    In the largest survey of smoking in pregnancy to date in the United Kingdom, 3882 women attending the two antenatal clinics in Nottingham during July and August 1986, were asked about their smoking habits. Thirty-seven per cent of pregnant women were smoking and only one in four of these was successful at stopping at some point during pregnancy. However, 55 per cent of the mothers who smoked at the start of pregnancy claimed to smoke less during pregnancy. No change was reported in the habits of one-quarter of the mothers who smoked during pregnancy and this proportion may represent an 'irreducible minimum'. Mothers were more likely to continue to smoke if younger (14-20 years), single, living with a partner who smoked, who left school at 16 years and were from manual working families. Those who succeeded in giving up smoking during pregnancy were more likely to be from professional and managerial families. Antenatal booklets about the dangers of smoking were the source of information cited most frequently. Half of the smoking mothers claimed not to have received advice from their family practitioners about the hazards of smoking nor information about how to give up the habit. Even fewer received such advice from hospital doctors, or midwives. This represents a major challenge to professional training in health education.

  1. Microplastics Baseline Surveys at the Water Surface and in Sediments of the North-East Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microplastic contamination was determined in sediments of the Southern North Sea and floating at the sea surface of North West Europe. Floating concentrations ranged between 0 and 1.5 microplastic/m3, whereas microplastic concentrations in sediments ranged between 0 and 3,146 particles/kg dry weight sediment. In sediments, mainly fibers and spheres were found, whereas at the sea surface fragments were dominant. At the sea surface, concentrations of microplastics are lower and more variable than in sediments, meaning that larger sample sizes and water volumes are required to find detectable concentrations. We have calculated the widths of the confidence intervals (CI for different sample sizes, to give a first indication of the necessary sample size for a microplastic survey at the water surface. Higher concentrations of floating microplastics were found near estuaries. In sediments, estuaries and areas with a high organic carbon content were likely hotspots. Standardization of monitoring methods within marine regions is recommended to compare and assess microplastics pollution over time.

  2. Baseline survey of root-associated microbes of Taxus chinensis (Pilger Rehd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Taxol (paclitaxel a diterpenoid is one of the most effective anticancer drugs identified. Biosynthesis of taxol was considered restricted to the Taxus genera until Stierle et al. discovered that an endophytic fungus isolated from Taxus brevifolia could independently synthesize taxol. Little is known about the mechanism of taxol biosynthesis in microbes, but it has been speculated that its biosynthesis may differ from plants. The microbiome from the roots of Taxus chinensis have been extensively investigated with culture-dependent methods to identify taxol synthesizing microbes, but not using culture independent methods.,Using bar-coded high-throughput sequencing in combination with a metagenomics approach, we surveyed the microbial diversity and gene composition of the root-associated microbiomefrom Taxus chinensis (Pilger Rehd. High-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed 187 fungal OTUs which is higher than any previously reported fungal number identified with the culture-dependent method, suggesting that T. chinensis roots harbor novel and diverse fungi. Some operational taxonomic units (OTU identified were identical to reported microbe strains possessing the ability to synthesis taxol and several genes previously associated with taxol biosynthesis were identified through metagenomics analysis.

  3. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Rates and predictors of DUI across Hispanic national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines rates of self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol and 12-month and lifetime DUI arrest rates among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans and South/Central Americans in the U.S. population. Using a multistage cluster sample design, a total of 5224 individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the U.S.: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston and Los Angeles. The survey weighted response rate was 76%. Among men, 21% of Mexican Americans, 19.9% of South/Central Americans, 11.6% of Puerto Ricans and 6.9% of Cuban Americans reported DUI. Rates were lower among women, ranging from 9.7% for Mexican Americans to 1.3% for Cuban Americans. Mexican American men had the highest 12-month arrest rate (1.6%) and the highest lifetime arrest rate (11.2%). Drinkers who reported DUI were heavier drinkers than those not reporting DUI according to a variety of indicators. However, most DUI incidents involved non-alcohol-dependent drivers. Mexican Americans and South Central/Americans, men, younger drivers, those with less than high school education, those with higher income and higher alcohol consumption were more likely to report DUI and DUI arrests. These findings show that Hispanic national groups in the U.S. are diverse regarding drinking and DUI-related experiences.

  4. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin H; Akazawa, Manabu; Dararath, Eav; Kiet, Heng B; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Yoshida, Naoko; Kimura, Kazuko

    2011-11-11

    Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7%) defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were.During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates.Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately from their packs/containers and who consider their

  5. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohiuddin H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8% registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7% defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were. During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates. Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately

  6. Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminths Distribution in Benin: A Baseline Prevalence Survey in 30 Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boko, Pelagie M.; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Onzo-Aboki, Ablawa; Tougoue, Jean-Jacques; Sissinto, Yollande; Batcho, Wilfrid; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothe; Kabore, Achille

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, Benin developed strategies to control neglected tropical diseases and one of the first step was the disease mapping of the entire country in order to identify endemic districts of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH). This study was carried out in 30 of the 77 districts of Benin. Of these 30 districts 22 were previously treated for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) using the Ivermectin and Albendazole combination. In each district, five schools were selected and 50 children aged 8 to 14 years were sampled in each school, making a total of 250 children sampled in the district. The schools were selected mainly according to their proximity to lakes or any bodies of water that were likely to have been used by the children. Samples of faeces and urine were collected from each pupil. Urinary schistosomiasis was identified using the urine filtration technique while STH and intestinal schistosomiasis were identified through the Kato Katz method. Overall a total of 7500 pupils were surveyed across 150 schools with a gender ratio of 1:1. Hookworm was identified in all 30 districts with a prevalence ranging from 1.2% (95%CI: 0.0–2.5) to 60% (95%CI: 53.9–66.1). Ascaris lumbricoides was detected in 19 districts with a prevalence rate between 1% (95%CI: 0.0–2.2) and 39% (95%CI: 32.9–45.0). In addition to these common STH, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Strongyloides stercoralis were found at low prevalence. Only 16 districts were endemic to Schistosoma mansoni, while 29 districts were endemic to S. haematobium. The S. haematobium prevalence ranged from 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0–1.9) to 56% (95% CI: 50.2–62.5) while the prevalence of S. mansoni varied from 0.4% (95%CI: 0.0–1.2) to 46% (95% CI: 39.8–52.2). The 22 districts, where LF was successfully eliminated, still require mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole indicating that school-based MDA would be needed even after LF elimination in districts co-endemic to LF and STH in

  7. A Radio Detection Survey of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies using Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry at 22 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Akihiro; Kono, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Aya; Suzuki, Syunsaku; Matsumoto, Naoko; Tazaki, Fumie

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a high-sensitivity radio detection survey for forty narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) at 22 GHz through phase-referencing long-time integration and using a newly developing recorder with a data rate of 8 Gbps, which is a candidate of the next generation VLBI data recording systems for the Japanese VLBI Network. The baseline sensitivity was typically a few mJy. The observations resulted in a detection rate of 12/40 for our radio-selected NLS1 sample; 11 out of the detected 12 NLS1s showed inverted radio spectra between 1.4 and 22 GHz on the basis of the Very Large Array flux densities and the VLBI detections. These high fractions suggest that a compact radio core with a high brightness temperature is frequently associated with NLS1 nuclei. On the other hand, at least half of the sample indicated apparently steep spectra even with the limited VLBI sensitivity. Both the inverted and steep spectrum radio sources are included in the NLS1 population.

  8. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the 'new ParticipACTION': A quantitative survey of Canadian organizational awareness and capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauman Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity (PA communications and social marketing organization that was relaunched in 2007 after a six-year hiatus. This study assesses the baseline awareness and capacity of Canadian organizations that promote physical activity, to adopt, implement and promote ParticipACTION's physical activity campaign. The three objectives were: (1 to determine organizational awareness of both the 'original' and 'new' ParticipACTION; (2 to report baseline levels of three organizational capacity domains (i.e., to adopt, implement and externally promote physical activity initiatives; and, (3 to explore potential differences in those domains based on organizational size, sector and primary mandate. Methods Organizations at local, provincial/territorial, and national levels were sent an invitation via email prior to the official launch of ParticipACTION to complete an on-line survey. The survey assessed their organization's capacity to adopt, implement and externally promote a new physical activity campaign within their organizational mandates. Descriptive statistics were employed to address the first two study objectives. A series of one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine the third objective. Results The response rate was 29.7% (268/902. The majority of responding organizations had over 40 employees and had operated for over 10 years. Education was the most common primary mandate, followed by sport and recreation. Organizations were evenly distributed between government and not-for-profits. Approximately 96% of respondents had heard of the 'original' ParticipACTION while 54.6% had heard of the 'new' ParticipACTION (Objective 1. Findings indicate good organizational capacity in Canada to promote physical activity (Objective 2 based on reported means of approximately 4.0 (on 5-point scales for capacity to adopt, implement, and externally promote new physical activity campaigns. Capacity to

  9. Reef communities in the Dry Tortugas (Florida, USA): Baseline surveys for the new no-take area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To understand the current community structure on reefs in the Dry Tortugas, we conducted specieslevel surveys of macroalgae, coral diversity, herbivorous and game fishes, urchins, and substratum composition (e.g., rugosity) in shallow (3- to 5-m depth) low-relief reef and hardbottom habitats in October 2007. We had particular interest in the ecological process of herbivory inside and outside of the “no-take” Research Natural Area (RNA) designated by the U.S. National Park Service in 2007, and establishing a baseline to assess future changes to trophic functioning. Diadema antillarum and herbivorous fish abundance, percent cover of macroalgae, and species richness of corals and gorgonians at the 18 randomly selected survey sites were not significantly different inside vs. outside of the RNA. Mean densities of D. antillarum ranged from 0.01 to 0.54 individuals m-2, with 11 of the 18 sites having densities above 0.10 individuals m-2. Both D. antillarum density and coral species richness were positively correlated to rugosity of the substratum. Diadema antillarum density was also positively related to percentage of the substratum composed of Acropora cervicornis rubble. Improved trophic functioning and increases in D. antillarum can improve reef condition in the Dry Tortugas, and the RNA is an important management tool to achieve increases in reef resilience to global-scale stressors.

  10. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between acculturation, birthplace and alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-09-01

    Acculturation to U.S. society has been associated with an increase in drinking and binge drinking among Hispanics. This paper examines the association between acculturation and three drinking-related outcomes: average number of drinks consumed, binge drinking, and drinking 12 drinks or more in a single day in four major Hispanic national groups. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5224 adult Hispanics (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The four national groups interviewed were: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans. The survey response rate was 76%. Data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between acculturation and volume of drinking, binge drinking, or drinking 12 or more drinks in a single day among men. Acculturation stress, however, was associated with drinking 12 or more in a day among men. Among women, high acculturation was associated with a higher volume of drinking, and it also interacted with national group to increase the likelihood of binge drinking. Acculturation does not have a homogeneous effect on drinking across gender and Hispanic national groups. The results confirm that acculturation has a more consistent association with increased drinking and binge drinking among women than among men. The effect of acculturation is therefore gender-specific. This heterogeneity across Hispanic national groups must be considered in future research, treatment, and prevention efforts.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV among Young People – A baseline Survey in Navsari and Dang Districts of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamtarani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Title of the article: Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV among Young People- A baseline Survey in Navsari and Dang Districts of Gujarat. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitudes and beliefs of young people of rural and tribal areas as regards reproductive health, sexuality, STIs and HIV/AIDS Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: rural and tribal areas of Navsari and Dang Districts of Gujarat Participants: young people of 15-24 years and 25-49 years age group. Methods: Using cluster sampling technique 30 Clusters (15 Navsari and 15 Dang were surveyed in January and February 2007. Data entry and analysis was done using Epi-info software. Results & Conclusion: Total of 2144 young people were interviewed. The major sources of information about HIV/AIDS were mass media and friends. Half (50% of young people had heard about HIV/AIDS. A majority of young people were aware of all four modes of transmission of it. About three-fourth of the young people (75% believed that it can be prevented. The results signify that although some amount of awareness is prevalent in the study area; further efforts are needed to bring awareness about reproductive health, sexuality and HIV/AIDS. The awareness programs need to focus on strategies of prevention especially emphasizing the role of condoms in preventing HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Education programs should focus on the most vulnerable groups – the adolescent girls and young women- who are less aware as compared to men about different methods of prevention

  12. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): The association between acculturation, birthplace and alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A.C.; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Acculturation to U.S. society has been associated with an increase in drinking and binge drinking among Hispanics. This paper examines the association between acculturation and three drinking-related outcomes: average number of drinks consumed, binge drinking, and drinking 12 drinks or more in a single day in four major Hispanic national groups. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5224 adult Hispanics (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The four national groups interviewed were: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans. The survey response rate was 76%. Data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between acculturation and volume of drinking, binge drinking, or drinking 12 or more drinks in a single day among men. Acculturation stress, however, was associated with drinking 12 or more in a day among men. Among women, high acculturation was associated with a higher volume of drinking, and it also interacted with national group to increase the likelihood of binge drinking. Acculturation does not have a homogeneous effect on drinking across gender and Hispanic national groups. The results confirm that acculturation has a more consistent association with increased drinking and binge drinking among women than among men. The effect of acculturation is therefore gender-specific. This heterogeneity across Hispanic national groups must be considered in future research, treatment, and prevention efforts. PMID:22613057

  13. Masculinities and condom use patterns among young rural South Africa men: a cross-sectional baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notions of ideal manhood in South Africa are potentially prescriptive of male sexuality thus accounting for the behaviors which may lead to men being at greater HIV risk. We tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa. Methods 1219 men aged 15–26 years completed a cross-sectional baseline survey from an IsiXhosa questionnaire asking about sexual behaviour and relationships. Univariate and bivariate analyses described condom use patterns and explanatory variables, and multinomial regression modeling assessed the factors associated with inconsistent versus consistent and non-condom use. Results 47.7% of men never used condoms, when 36.9% were inconsistent and 15.4% were consistent with any partner in the past year. Condom use patterns differed in association with gender relations attitudes: never users were significantly more conservative than inconsistent or consistent users. Three gender positions emerged indicating that inconsistent users were most physically/sexually violent and sexually risky; never users had more conservative gender attitudes but were less violent and sexually risky; and consistent users were less conservative, less violent and sexually risky with notably fewer sexual partners than inconsistent users. Conclusions The confluence of conservative gender attitudes, perpetration of violence against women and sexual risk taking distinguished inconsistent condom users as the most risky compared to never condom users, and rendered inconsistent use one of the basic negative attributes of dominant masculinities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This finding is important for the design of HIV prevention and gender equity interventions and emphasizes the need for a wider roll-out of interventions that promote progressive and healthy masculine practices in the country.

  14. Setting the Baseline--Young People's Writing in 2010: Findings from the National Literacy Trust's First Annual Survey 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2011-01-01

    There were 18,141 young people aged eight to 17 who participated in this online survey in November and December 2010. While the survey focuses on young people's attitudes towards reading, writing and communication skills as well as technology use, this report centers exclusively on the writing aspect of the survey. More specifically, it explores…

  15. The Well London program - a cluster randomized trial of community engagement for improving health behaviors and mental wellbeing: baseline survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Gemma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Well London program used community engagement, complemented by changes to the physical and social neighborhood environment, to improve physical activity levels, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing in the most deprived communities in London. The effectiveness of Well London is being evaluated in a pair-matched cluster randomized trial (CRT. The baseline survey data are reported here. Methods The CRT involved 20 matched pairs of intervention and control communities (defined as UK census lower super output areas (LSOAs; ranked in the 11% most deprived LSOAs in London by the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation across 20 London boroughs. The primary trial outcomes, sociodemographic information, and environmental neighbourhood characteristics were assessed in three quantitative components within the Well London CRT at baseline: a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered adult household survey; a self-completed, school-based adolescent questionnaire; a fieldworker completed neighborhood environmental audit. Baseline data collection occurred in 2008. Physical activity, healthy eating, and mental wellbeing were assessed using standardized, validated questionnaire tools. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data in the outcomes and other variables in the adult and adolescent surveys. Results There were 4,107 adults and 1,214 adolescent respondents in the baseline surveys. The intervention and control areas were broadly comparable with respect to the primary outcomes and key sociodemographic characteristics. The environmental characteristics of the intervention and control neighborhoods were broadly similar. There was greater between-cluster variation in the primary outcomes in the adult population compared to the adolescent population. Levels of healthy eating, smoking, and self-reported anxiety/depression were similar in the Well London adult population and the national Health Survey for England. Levels of

  16. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. Methods We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. Results The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. Conclusions We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:27001116

  17. Results of the 2004 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Cooper, Christy [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program focuses on overcoming critical barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen fuel cell technology. The transition to a new, hydrogen-based energy economy requires an educated human infrastructure. With this in mind, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted statistical surveys to measure and establish baselines for understanding and awareness about hydrogen, fuel cells, and a hydrogen economy. The baseline data will serve as a reference in designing an education program, and it will be used in comparisons with future survey results (2008 and 2011) to measure changes in understanding and awareness. Scientific sampling was used to survey four populations: (1) the general public, ages 18 and over; (2) students, ages 12-17; (3) state and local government officials; and (4) potential large-scale hydrogen users. It was decided that the survey design should include about 1,000 individuals in each of the general public and student categories, about 250 state and local officials, and almost 100 large-scale end users. The survey questions were designed to accomplish specific objectives. Technical questions measured technical understanding and awareness of hydrogen technology. Opinion questions measured attitudes about safety, cost, the environment, and convenience, as well as the likelihood of future applications of hydrogen technology. For most of the questions, "I don't know" or "I have no opinion" were acceptable answers. Questions about information sources assessed how energy technology information is received. The General Public and Student Survey samples were selected by random digit dialing. Potential large-scale end users were selected by random sampling. The State and Local Government Survey was of the entire targeted population of government officials (not a random sample). All four surveys were administered by computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). For each population, the length of the survey was less than

  18. Baseline Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Adrenal Incidentaloma from a Single Center in China: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the clinical and endocrinological characteristics of patients with adrenal incidentaloma (AI. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study enrolled 1941 AI patients hospitalized at the Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China, between January 1997 and December 2016. The patient gender, age at visits, imaging features, functional status, and histological results were analyzed. Results. Of the 1941 patients, 984 (50.70% were men. The median age was 52 years (interquartile range: 44–69 years. 140 cases had bilateral AI. Endocrine evaluation showed that 1411 (72.69% patients had nonfunctional tumor, 152 (7.83% had subclinical Cushing syndrome (SCS, and 82 (4.33% had primary hyperaldosteronism. A total of 925 patients underwent operation for removal of 496 cortical adenomas (53.62%, 15 adrenal cortical carcinomas (1.62%, and 172 pheochromocytomas (18.59%. The bilateral group had a higher proportion of SCS (18.57% versus 7.10%, P<0.001, P=0.006. A mass size of 46 mm was of great value in distinguishing malignant tumors from the benign tumors, with sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 95.5%. Conclusions. We reported the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with AI in a large series from a single center in China.

  19. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; F. R. Warshauer, frwvolcano@hotmail.com; Jonathan Price, jpprice@hawaii.edu

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  20. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  1. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jonker, W R

    2014-06-29

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent.

  2. The Importance of Baseline Surveys of Near-Surface Gas Geochemistry for CCS Monitoring, as Shown from Onshore Case Studies in Northern and Southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaubien Stan E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the integrity of onshore geological carbon capture and storage projects will require an approach that integrates various methods with different spatial and temporal resolutions. One method proven to be quite effective for site assessment, leakage monitoring, and leakage verification is near-surface gas geochemistry, which includes soil gas concentration and gas flux measurements. Anomalous concentrations or fluxes, relative to the natural background values, can indicate the potential occurrence of a leak. However the natural background can be quite variable, especially for CO2, due to biological production and accumulation in the soil that changes as a function of soil type, land use, geology, temperature, water content, and various other parameters. To better understand how these parameters influence natural, near-surface background values, and to examine the potential of different sampling strategies as a function of the survey goals, this paper reports results from two highly different case studies, one from northern Europe (Voulund, Denmark and one from southern Europe (Sulcis, Sardinia, Italy. The small Voulund site, with its homogeneous soil, climate, and topography, was surveyed twice (in fall and in spring within the EU-funded SiteChar project to examine the effects of different land use practices and seasons on baseline values. Forested land was found to have lower CO2 concentrations during both campaigns compared to cultivated and heath land, and higher CH4 values during the spring sampling campaign. Continuous monitoring probes showed much more detail, highlighting seasonal changes in soil gas CO2 concentrations linked primarily to temperature variations. The much larger Sulcis site, studied within an ENEA-funded project on potential CO2-ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane deployment, was surveyed at the regional scale and on detailed grids and transects for site assessment purposes. Despite the completely different soil

  3. Baseline evidence-based practice use, knowledge, and attitudes of allied health professionals: a survey to inform staff training and organisational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Shelley A; Hinchliffe, Fiona; Hough, Judith; Chang, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamental to improving patient outcomes. Universal adoption of EBP into the allied health clinical setting has not yet occurred. The primary aim of this project was to capture baseline measurements of the level of EBP self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, knowledge and use at our health service prior to training and organisational changes to support EBP. All allied health staff (n=252) employed across the campus were invited to participate in an online survey consisting of a battery of validated and reliable survey tools. Professional background, knowledge and previous training in EBP and research processes were collected. One hundred eighty-two allied health staff completed the survey (response rate 72%). One-way ANOVAs were used to compare levels of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, knowledge and use, according to allied health discipline and experience with EBP and research processes. Mean scores for EBP attitudes (self-efficacy and outcome expectancy) and knowledge were higher than for use. Professional group differences were noted in the post-hoc analysis of the significant EBP constructs. Regression analyses indicated that EBP course attendance as well as training in research design and analysis impacted positively on EBP construct scores. Despite positive attitudes about, a belief in and knowledge of EBP, self-reports of EBP processes do not indicate systematic application in the allied health workplace. The results of this research will inform a targeted intervention to foster ongoing training in EBP and research activity for allied health staff.

  4. A Systematic Search for Periodically Varying Quasars in Pan-STARRS1: An Extended Baseline Test in Medium Deep Survey Field MD09

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; Burgett, W; Chambers, K; Draper, P; Hodapp, K; Huber, M; Kudritzki, R -P; Magnier, E; Metcalfe, N; Tonry, J; Wainscoat, R; Waters, C

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic search for periodically varying quasars and supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidates in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey's MD09 field. From a color-selected sample of 670 quasars extracted from a multi-band deep-stack catalog of point sources, we locally select variable quasars and look for coherent periods with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. 3 candidates from our sample demonstrate strong variability for more than ~3 cycles, and their PS1 light curves are well fitted to sinusoidal functions. We test the persistence of the candidates' apparent periodic variations detected during the 4.2 years of the PS1 survey with archival photometric data from the SDSS Stripe 82 survey or new monitoring with the Large Monolithic Imager at the Discovery Channel Telescope. None of the 3 periodic candidates (including PSO J334.2028+1.4075, Liu et al. (2015)) remain persistent over the extended baseline of 7 - 14 years, corresponding to a detection rate of 5 cycles) is crucial to our sear...

  5. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAIC

    2010-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Parcel ED-9 at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). Parcel ED-9 consists of about 13 acres that DOE proposes to transfer to Heritage Center, LLC (hereafter referred to as 'Heritage Center'), a subsidiary of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). The 13 acres include two tracts of land, referred to as ED-9A (7.06 acres) and ED-9B (5.02 acres), and a third tract consisting of about 900 linear feet of paved road and adjacent right-of-way, referred to as ED-9C (0.98 acres). Transfer of the title to ED-9 will be by deed under a Covenant Deferral Request (CDR) pursuant to Section 120(h)(3)(C) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report provides a summary of information to support the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity.

  6. The "medicine in Australia: balancing employment and life (MABEL)" longitudinal survey--protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Catherine M; Scott, Anthony; Jeon, Sung-Hee; Humphreys, John; Kalb, Guyonne; Witt, Julia; Leahy, Anne

    2010-02-25

    While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750) were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less likely to respond. The distribution of hours worked was similar

  7. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" longitudinal survey - Protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. Methods/Design MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750 were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. Discussion The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less

  8. A Systematic Search for Periodically Varying Quasars in Pan-STARRS1: An Extended Baseline Test in Medium Deep Survey Field MD09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Gezari, S.; Burgett, W.; Chambers, K.; Draper, P.; Hodapp, K.; Huber, M.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E.; Metcalfe, N.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R.; Waters, C.

    2016-12-01

    We present a systematic search for periodically varying quasars and supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidates in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey’s MD09 field. From a color-selected sample of 670 quasars extracted from a multi-band deep-stack catalog of point sources, we locally select variable quasars and look for coherent periods with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Three candidates from our sample demonstrate strong variability for more than ˜3 cycles, and their PS1 light curves are well fitted to sinusoidal functions. We test the persistence of the candidates’ apparent periodic variations detected during the 4.2 years of the PS1 survey with archival photometric data from the SDSS Stripe 82 survey or new monitoring with the Large Monolithic Imager at the Discovery Channel Telescope. None of the three periodic candidates (including PSO J334.2028+1.4075) remain persistent over the extended baseline of 7-14 years, corresponding to a detection rate of monitoring (≳5 cycles) is crucial to our search for these systems.

  9. Report of the baseline survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administered the questionnaire, linee coordinators supervised die activities of .... operating in highly disadvantaged env- .... physician, one nurse and one sani- ..... room. Type of light. Number of rooms. House shared with animals*. No.

  10. Inverse correlation between coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome: baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Hidenobu; Nakamoto, Mariko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Sawachika, Fusakazu; Juta, Tomoya; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of coffee and green tea is associated with metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study enrolled 554 adults who had participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Consumption of coffee and green tea was assessed using a questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between consumption of coffee and green tea and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. After adjustment for sex, age, and other potential confounders, greater coffee consumption was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by NCEP ATP III criteria (P for trend = 0.03). Participants who drank more coffee had a lower odds ratio (OR) for high serum triglycerides (P for trend = 0.02), but not for increased waist circumference or high blood pressure. Using JASSO criteria, moderate coffee consumption (1.5 to components. Coffee consumption was inversely correlated with metabolic syndrome diagnosed using NCEP ATP III criteria, mainly because it was associated with lower serum triglyceride levels. This association highlights the need for further prospective studies of the causality of these relationships.

  11. Geochemical baselines for the radioelements K, U, and Th in the Campania region, Italy: a comparison of stream-sediment geochemistry and gamma-ray surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A. [Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: anlima@unina.it; Albanese, S. [Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Cicchella, D. [Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents new data on the baseline concentrations of U, Th and K in 2389 stream sediments over the whole Campania region. These data, based on systematic sampling and analysis, are compared with those obtained by gamma-ray spectrometry surveys. Variations in the U, Th and K concentration in the surficial environment of the Campania region appear to be related to bedrock lithology. Generally, high U, Th and K values in stream sediments correspond well with the occurrence of volcanic rocks in the central-western part of the region, whereas low values are found in areas characterized by silico-clastic and carbonate deposits, occurring mostly in the southern and eastern part of the region. Gamma-ray spectrometry maps show a similar pattern, although the distribution of the highest radioactivity levels define more restricted areas than the ones resulting from mapping stream sediment geochemistry. Particularly high {sup 40}K radioactivity levels delimit all the known eruptive centers (Roccamonfina, Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius), including the fissural sources of Campania Ignimbrites, much better than U and Th radioactivity. One of the concerns for human health in the Campania region is the total gamma radiation and Rn potential related mostly to alkaline volcanics of the Neapolitan volcanological province. In particular, geothermal activity occurring in all the Campanian volcanic areas represents a potential hazard for Rn gas.

  12. Sex and Socioeconomic Differentials in Child Health in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from a Baseline Survey for Evaluating Integrated Management of Childhood Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Victora, Cesar G.; Black, Robert E.; Bryce, Jennifer; Hoque, D.M.E.; Chowdhury, E.K.; Begum, N.; Akter, T.; Siddik, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a population-based sample survey of 2,289 children aged less than five years (under-five children) conducted in 2000 as a baseline for the Bangladesh component of the Multi-country Evaluation (MCE) of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy. Of interest were rates and differentials by sex and socioeconomic status for three aspects of child health in rural Bangladesh: morbidity and hospitalizations, including severity of illness; care-seeking for childhood illness; and home-care for illness. The survey was carried out among a population of about 380,000 in Matlab upazila (subdistrict). Generic MCE Household Survey tools were adapted, translated, and pretested. Trained interviewers conducted the survey in the study areas. In total, 2,289 under-five children were included in the survey. Results showed a very high prevalence of illness among Bangladeshi children, with over two-thirds reported to have had at least one illness during the two weeks preceding the survey. Most sick children in this population had multiple symptoms, suggesting that the use of the IMCI clinical guidelines will lead to improved quality of care. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of illness either by sex or by socioeconomic status. About one-third of the children with a reported illness did not receive any care outside the home. Of those for whom outside care was sought, 42% were taken to a village doctor. Only 8% were taken to an appropriate provider, i.e. a health facility, a hospital, a doctor, a paramedic, or a community-based health worker. Poorer children than less-poor children were less likely to be taken to an appropriate healthcare provider. The findings indicated that children with severe illness in the least poor households were three times more likely to seek care from a trained provider than children in the poorest households. Any evidence of gender inequities in child healthcare, either in terms

  13. Sanitation facilities, hygienic conditions, and prevalence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Baseline survey of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Metadel; Mengistie, Bezatu; Kloos, Helmut; Medhin, Girmay; Mulat, Worku

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, children under the age of five years who live in slums are highly vulnerable to diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions to acute diarrhea among under-five children in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study examines the sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions in the slums of Addis Ababa and identifies the main factors significantly associated with acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in those slums. A community-based cross-sectional household survey was carried out between September and November 2014, that then served as the baseline survey of a longitudinal study. For this survey, 697 children aged 0-50 months were recruited from two slum districts in Addis Ababa. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used for data collection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sanitation facilities and hygiene-related factors that were significantly associated with acute diarrhea by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic factors. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the strength of association. The prevalence of acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in the study area was 11.9% and 94.6% of the sanitation facilities were unimproved. Sharing of a sanitation facility by six or more households (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4-9.4), proximity of sanitation facilities within 15 meters of homes (AOR = 6.6; 95% CI: 2.5-17.0), presence of feces (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5-10.3) and flies (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-5.0) on the floor of and/or around sanitation facilities, and presence of uncollected garbage inside house compounds (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-8.4) were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. This study reveals the slum environment to be high risk for diarrhea due to close proximity

  14. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of Land Parcel ED-4 at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAIC

    2008-05-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of a land parcel referred to as 'ED-4' (ED-4) at the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). DOE is proposing to transfer the title of this land to the Heritage Center, LLC. Parcel ED-4 is a land parcel that consists of two noncontiguous areas comprising a total of approximately 18 acres located east of the ETTP. The western tract of ED-4 encompasses approximately 8.5 acres in the northeastern quadrant of the intersection of Boulevard Road and Highway 58. The eastern tract encompasses an area of approximately 9.5 acres in the northwestern quadrant of the intersection of Blair Road and Highway 58 (the Oak Ridge Turnpike). Aerial photographs and site maps from throughout the history of the ETTP, going back to its initial development in the 1940s as the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), indicate that this area has been undeveloped woodland with the exception of three support facilities for workers constructing the ORGDP since federal acquisition in 1943. These three support facilities, which were located in the western tract of ED-4, included a recreation hall, the Town Hall Camp Operations Building, and the Property Warehouse. A railroad spur also formerly occupied a portion of Parcel ED-4. These former facilities only occupied approximately 5 percent of the total area of Parcel ED-4. This report provides supporting information for the transfer of this government-owned property at ETTP to a non-federal entity. This EBS is based upon the requirements of Sect. 120(h) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). In order to support a Clean Parcel Determination (CPD) in accordance with CERCLA Sect. 120(h)(4)(d), groundwater and sediment samples were collected within, and adjacent to, the Parcel ED-4 study area. The potential for DOE to make a CPD for ED-4 is

  15. Environmental Baseline Survey Report for the Title Transfer of the K-792 Switchyard Complex at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAIC

    2009-12-01

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) documents the baseline environmental conditions of the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) K-792 Switchyard Complex, which includes the former K-792 Switchyard, the K-79 1-B building, the K-796-A building, and the K-792 Northern Expansion Area located in the northwestern portion of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The total area of the property is approximately 19.91 acres. DOE is proposing to transfer the title of this land area and buildings to the Heritage Center, LLC (Heritage Center), a subsidiary corporation of the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). This report provides supporting information for the transfer of this government-owned facility at ETTP to a non-federal entity. The area proposed for title transfer includes the former K-792 Switchyard, the K-792 Northern Expansion Area, Bldg. K-791-B, Bldg. K-796-A, and the underlying property known as the underlying fee. Located within the K-792 Switchyard footprint but not included in the transfer are Bldg. K-131 0-MP and Bldg. K- 131 0-MQ, two buildings owned by a private company that leases space in the northern portion of the Switchyard. The transfer footprint is bounded by Perimeter Road to the north and west, the parking area for Portal 8 to the south, and primarily the former K-792 Powerhouse Complex and Avenue 'U' North to the east; however, the eastern boundary along the Northern Expansion area has no physical features associated with it. Zone 2 remedial action objectives were developed by the DVS to support the future use of ETTP as a mixed-use commercial and industrial park. Therefore, remediation criteria were designed for the protection of the future industrial worker under the assumption the worker normally would not have the potential for exposure to soils at depths below 10 ft below ground surface (bgs). Accordingly, land use controls (LUCs) have been established to restrict disturbance of soils below 10

  16. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  17. Proposal: Baseline Survey for Bats, Specifically Rafinesque’s Big-eared Bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) and Southeastern Myotis (Myotis austroriparius) on the Savannah NWR and Santee NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this proposal is to perform a baseline inventory of bat species at Savannah NWR, and to target bat species of concern (Rafinesque’s...

  18. Small mammal trapping mark/recapture baseline surveys at Gas Rocks-Becharof Lake, Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Alaska, June-July 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In conjunction with baseline ecosystem data being gathered on the Becharof Lake drainage, a small mammal trapping project was undertaken at 1 of 2 field camps set up...

  19. A forensic and phylogenetic survey of Caulerpa species (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) from the Florida coast, local aquarium shops, and e-commerce : Establishing a proactive baseline for early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Zaleski, Susan Frisch; Murray, Steven N.; Brown, Katherine R.; Walters, Linda J.

    2006-01-01

    Baseline genotypes were established for 256 individuals of Caulerpa collected from 27 field locations in Florida (including the Keys), the Bahamas, US Virgin Islands, and Honduras, nearly doubling the number of available GenBank sequences. On the basis of sequences from the nuclear rDNA-ITS 1+2 and

  20. Baseline marine biological survey at the Peacock Point outfall and other point-source discharges on Wake Atoll, Pacific Ocean in 1998-06 (NODC Accession 0000247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC) in support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored a marine biological survey at Wake...

  1. Baseline survey and analysis of malaria prevalence in Chongqing City%重庆市疟疾流行状况基线调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成果; 罗兴建; 罗飞; 肖邦忠; 蒋诗国; 李珊珊; 李志锋

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解重庆市疟疾发病情况、防治工作、防治能力等现状,为开展疟疾防治和评估效果提供基线数据.方法 采用回顾性与现场调查相结合的方式,对重庆市疟疾发病情况、防治工作及防治能力等现状进行调查.结果 重庆市2009年1月~2010年6月共报告疟疾病例60例,分布在18个区县,其中恶性疟7例,间日疟18例,未分型35例,疟疾病例实验室检测率、确诊率、规范治疗率、疫点处置率、个案调查率分别为53.33%、36.67%、70.00%、10.00%和85.00%;村民(0.11%)和学生(0.26%)的疟疾抗体水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);疟防知识学生知晓率(59.76%)高于村民(49.29%)(x2=66.77,P<0.01);发热病人的血检率为0.16%.县级疾控机构、县级综合医院、乡镇卫生院的防保人员疟防知识近5年培训比例分别为45.16%、8.93%和23.16%;镜检人员疟原虫镜检技术培训比例分别为29.17%、71.88%和22.22%.县级和乡镇医院的医生疟防知识培训比例分别为11.65%和12.48%.结论 重庆市疟疾流行水平较低,但防治工作和防治能力有待进一步提高.%Objective To ascertain the actual status of malaria infection, control work, and control capability in Chongqing and to provide baseline data for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Methods The actual status of malaria infection, control work, and control capability was investigated retrospectively and by field surveys. Results There were 60 reported cases of malaria in Chongqing from January 2009 to June 2010. Malaria cases were distributed throughout 18 counties and included 7 cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, 18 of Plasmodium vivax malaria, and 35 of an unknown type. Of all of the cases, 53. 33% were detected by laboratory testing, 36. 67% had a definitive diagnosis, 70.00% involved patients given the standard treatment, 10. 00% involved treatment of the focus of infection, and 85. 00

  2. Sedimentary heavy metal(loid) contamination in the Veracruz shelf, Gulf of Mexico: A baseline survey from a rapidly developing tropical coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Hernandez, Omar; Rosales-Hoz, Leticia; Cundy, Andrew B; Carranza-Edwards, Arturo

    2017-06-30

    This study examines sediment texture, geochemistry and sediment accumulation in cores from four sites in the Veracruz shelf area of the Gulf of Mexico, to assess the inputs of heavy metal(loid)s (and their potential biological impacts) in this carbonate-dominated shelf system, and to examine the rate of sedimentation near to the mouths of the La Antigua and Jamapa Rivers. The use of different pollution indices showed enrichment with Pb in all cores studied, although based on sediment quality guidelines As was the only element that has potential to occasionally cause damage to the benthic organisms present in the area. Heavy metal(loid) and sediment input from terrestrial and coastal sources is limited compared to more proximal, near-shore areas. The sediment core data presented however give a baseline dataset for heavy metal(loid) concentrations in the Veracruz shelf, against which future anthropogenic inputs can be assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. BASELINE SURVEY ON NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS OF UNDERFIVE CHILDREN AT POOR COMMUNITIES IN DKI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, AND BOGOR YEAR 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Anhari Achadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of anemia and vitamin A deficiency among underfive children is related to their food intake and health status. The situation appeared worst after multiple crisis hit Indonesia in 1997/1998. To obtain factors affecting the nutritional status of children aged 1-5 years, a baseline study was conducted in DKI Jakarta, Bogor, and Tangerang in collaboration with UN-WFP. The sample size was 1337 underfive children consisting of 666 boys and 666 girls. The study showed that malnutrition among underfive children was still high which indicated the high prevalence ofunderweight and stunting, especially in Bogor District and Tangerang District. The micronutrient intake of vitamin A, iron, and zinc among underfive children were certainly below the Indonesian RDA. The level of poverty and the education of woman as well as husbands were two conditions that were obvious from all areas, mainly TangerangDistrict.

  4. Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Tasnim; Chowdhury, Ezazul I; Reza, Masud; Ahmed, Munir; Uddin, Mohammed T; Khan, Repon; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Rahman, Motiur; Khandakar, Irona; Khan, Sharful I; Sack, David A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-11-17

    Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older) who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers) versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers) were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60%) had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%). Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively), but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively) and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively) in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively), more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively) and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively). Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of

  5. Baseline knowledge survey of restaurant food handlers in suburban Chicago: do restaurant food handlers know what they need to know to keep consumers safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Mindi R; Liu, Li C; Dworkin, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    In the U.S., foodborne disease causes millions of illnesses annually, resulting in thousands of deaths. To reduce food poisoning, restaurant food handlers need accurate knowledge of food safety principles as a starting point for the outcome of optimal food safety behavior. The study described in this article determined food safety knowledge gaps among suburban Chicago restaurant food handlers. A cross-sectional survey of 729 food handlers at 211 suburban Chicago restaurants was conducted from June 2009 through February 2010. A 50-question survey was administered by a trained interviewer in either English or Spanish. Mixed-effects regression analysis identified risk factors associated with an overall food safety knowledge score. The mean overall knowledge score was only 72% and substantial knowledge gaps related to cross contamination, cooking, and holding and storage of food were identified. Spanish-speaking food handlers scored significantly lower than English-speaking food handlers (p food managers scored significantly higher than noncertified food handlers, their score was only 79%. These data provide targets for educational interventions to remedy knowledge gaps in food handlers in order to prevent food poisoning from restaurants.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR WEST BLACK OAK RIDGE, EAST BLACK OAK RIDGE, MCKINNEY RIDGE, WEST PINE RIDGE, AND PARCEL 21D IN THE VICINITY OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. King

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. The goal is to obtain all media no-further-investigation (NFI) determinations for the subject parcels considering existing soils. To augment the existing soils-only NFI determinations, samples of groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment were collected to support all media NFI decisions. The only updates presented here are those that were made after the original issuance of the NFI documents. In the subject parcel where the soils NFI determination was not completed for approval (Parcel 21d), the full process has been performed to address the soils as well. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only NFI

  7. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  8. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  9. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS: results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lane

    Full Text Available The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%-35.3% in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%-19.6% in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%-72.9% vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%-23.9%, P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%-56.0% vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%-13.9%, P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%-47.9%, P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%-64.2%, P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%-46.4%, P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%-50.9%, P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%-74.0% in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%-76.8% in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%-41.4% in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%-37.8% in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni, or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively, or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively. MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use, regular HIV testing, and

  10. Towards Development of OER Derived Custom-Built Open Textbooks: A Baseline Survey of University Teachers at the University of the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Prasad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Textbook prices have soared over the years, with several studies revealing many university students are finding it difficult to afford textbooks. Fortunately, two innovations – open educational resources (OER and open textbooks – hold the potential to increase textbook affordability. Experts, though, have stated the obvious: that students can save money through open textbooks only if teachers are willing to develop and use them. Considering both the high price of textbooks and the benefits offered by OER and open textbooks, the aim of this study was to assess the University of the South Pacific (USP teachers’ willingness towards development of custom-built OER derived open textbooks for their courses with a focus on providing a foundation for strategies to promote open textbook development at USP. This paper reports the findings of an online survey of 39 USP teachers. The results show that 17 teachers were willing to develop OER derived custom-built open textbooks for their courses. Besides this, there are findings relating to six important areas: teachers’ motivation to develop open textbooks; the frequency of more than one prescribed textbook per course; teachers’ awareness of the costs of the prescribed textbooks; the average cost of prescribed textbooks in a course; teachers’ awareness and utilization of OER and open textbooks; and teachers’ perceived barriers to using OER and types of challenges they encounter while using OER. These findings have been discussed in relation to research studies on OER and open textbooks.

  11. Factors that influenced county system leaders to implement an evidence-based program: a baseline survey within a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown C Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the burgeoning number of well-validated interventions that have been shown in randomized trials to produce superior outcomes compared to usual services, it is estimated that only 10% of public systems deliver evidence-based mental health services. In California, for example, more than 15,000 children are placed in group homes or residential centers with some evidence of iatrogenic effects. The present study evaluates the willingness among county leaders of child public service systems to adopt a new evidence-based model, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, (MTFC, as a way to decrease the prevalence of out-of-home placements. Specifically, the study examines how county-level socio-demographic factors and child public service system leaders' perceptions of their county's organizational climate influence their decision of whether or not to consider adopting MTFC. Methods Two levels were examined in this study: Stable and historical factors from 40 California counties gathered from public records including population size, number of entries into out-of-home care, financing of mental health services, and percent minority population; and system leaders' perceptions of their county's organizational climate and readiness for change measured via a web-based survey. The number of days-to-consent was the primary outcome variable defined as the duration of time between being notified of the opportunity to implement MTFC and the actual signing of a consent form indicating interest in considering implementation. Survival analysis methods were used to assess the predictors of this time-to-event measure. The present study is part of a larger randomized trial comparing two methods of implementation where counties are randomized to one of three time cohorts and two implementation conditions. Results The number of entries into care was the primary predictor of days-to-consent. This variable was significantly correlated to county

  12. 天门市健康促进基线调查结果分析%Analysis of baseline survey results of health promotion in Tianmen city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义华; 乔正花

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and analyze the health status of residents and health promotion resources in Tianmen City,and to provide evidence for health education and health promotion.Methods:We randomly sampled to determine the objects of investigation,and took field observation and personal questionnaire for investigation,and the survey data were analyzed by SPSS software.Results:Tianmen residents’ health literacy level was low;the major health risk factors were smoking,drinking,unreasonable diet and nutrition and lack of exercise.The aging of the population,the increasing of morbidity of chronic diseases,the increasing of morbidity of traditional infectious diseases were the main factors affecting the health of residents.Conclusion:In view of the main health risk factors,we should innovate the form of health education.For the elderly,we carry out personalized health education,popularize the knowledge of chronic disease prevention and control.For the students,we focused on promoting the development of their good health habits.We should make reasonable allocation of health resources,mobilize departments to work together to build a health promotion and health education social network,to create a good environment for health promotion.%目的:调查,分析天门市居民健康状况和健康促进资源,为开展健康教育和健康促进工作提供依据。方法:随机抽样确定调查对象,采取现场观察、个人问卷方式进行调查,利用SPSS软件对调查数据进行分析。结果:天门市居民健康素养水平偏低,主要健康危险因素是吸烟、饮酒、饮食和营养方式不合理、缺乏锻炼等。人口老龄化、慢性病发病率增高、传统传染病抬头是影响居民健康状况的主要因素。结论:针对居民主要健康危险因素,创新健康教育形式,对老年人群进行个性化的健康教育,普及慢性病防治知识,对学生重点促进其良好卫生行

  13. Environmental baseline survey report for West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge and parcel 21D in the vicinity of the East Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-11-29

    This environmental baseline survey (EBS) report documents the baseline environmental conditions of five land parcels located near the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE?s) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), including West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, West Pine Ridge, and Parcel 21d. Preparation of this report included the detailed search of federal government records, title documents, aerial photos that may reflect prior uses, and visual inspections of the property and adjacent properties. Interviews with current employees involved in, or familiar with, operations on the real property were also conducted to identify any areas on the property where hazardous substances and petroleum products, or their derivatives, and acutely hazardous wastes may have been released or disposed. In addition, a search was made of reasonably obtainable federal, state, and local government records of each adjacent facility where there has been a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or their derivatives, including aviation fuel and motor oil, and which is likely to cause or contribute to a release of any hazardous substance or any petroleum product or its derivatives, including aviation fuel or motor oil, on the real property. A radiological survey and soil/sediment sampling was conducted to assess baseline conditions of Parcel 21d that were not addressed by the soils-only no-further-investigation (NFI) reports. Groundwater sampling was also conducted to support a Parcel 21d decision. Based on available data West Black Oak Ridge, East Black Oak Ridge, McKinney Ridge, and West Pine Ridge are not impacted by site operations and are not subject to actions per the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). This determination is supported by visual inspections, records searches and interviews, groundwater conceptual modeling, approved NFI reports, analytical data, and risk analysis results. Parcel 21d data, however, demonstrate impacts from site

  14. Attitudes and beliefs of Michigan emergency physicians toward tissue plasminogen activator use in stroke: baseline survey results from the INcreasing Stroke Treatment through INteractive behavioral Change Tactic (INSTINCT) trial hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Phillip A; Xu, Zhenzhen; Meurer, William J; Frederiksen, Shirley M; Haan, Mary N; Westfall, Michael W; Kothari, Sandip U; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Kalbfleisch, John D

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the baseline proportion of emergency physicians with favorable attitudes and beliefs toward intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) use in a cohort of randomly selected Michigan hospitals. Two hundred seventy-eight emergency physicians from 24 hospitals were surveyed. A confidential, self-administered, pilot-tested survey assessing demographics, practice environment, attitudes, and beliefs regarding tPA use in stroke was used. Main outcome measures assessed belief in a legal standard of care, likelihood of use in an ideal setting, comfort in use without a specialist consultation, and belief that science on tPA use is convincing. ORs with robust 95% CIs (adjusted for clustering) were calculated to quantify the association between responses and physician- and hospital-level characteristics. One hundred ninety-nine surveys completed (gross response rate 71.6%). Ninety-nine percent (95% CI: 97.8 to 100) indicated use of tPA in eligible patients represented either acceptable or ideal patient care. Twenty-seven percent (95% CI: 21.7 to 32.3) indicated use of tPA represented a legal standard of care. Eighty-three percent (95% CI: 78.5 to 87.5) indicated they were "likely" or "very likely" to use tPA given an ideal setting. When asked about using tPA without a consultation, 65% (95% CI: 59.3 to 70.7) indicated they were uncomfortable. Forty-nine percent (95% CI: 43.0 to 55.0) indicated the science regarding use of tPA in stroke is convincing with 30% remaining neutral. Characteristics associated with favorable attitudes included non-emergency medicine board certification; older age, and a smaller hospital practice environment. In this cohort, emergency physician attitudes and beliefs toward intravenous tPA use in stroke are considerably more favorable than previously reported.

  15. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    habitats in and around the port at different seasons. (Total and Viable bacteria, Pathogens, Phytoplankton (Micro, Nano and Pico), Zooplankton, fouling organisms, Mobile epifauna and Fish, Dinoflagellate cysts, Benthic fauna (Meio and Macro... and experiments (e.g. viability, toxicity, ecosystem manipulations, etc.) (Total and Viable bacteria, Pathogens, Virus, Phytoplankton (Micro, Nano and Pico), Zooplankton, fouling organisms, Mobile epifauna and Fish, Dinoflagellate cysts, Benthic fauna...

  16. Mozambique Cell Phone Savings Project: Baseline Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Smallholders in rural Mozambique are typically characterized by low agricultural productivity, which is in part caused by very low levels of input usage. In the...

  17. 河北省成安县消除疟疾试点基线调查结果%Baseline survey results about pilot malaria eradication in Cheng' an County of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚敏; 李雪红; 武书敏; 魏美丽; 刘一珉

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解河北省成安县消除疟疾试点工作启动初期基础能力状况、疟疾发病情况、蚊媒种类、人群疟疾防治知识知晓率,为消除疟疾提供基线数据.方法 于2010年五、六月份按河北省消除疟疾试点基线调查方案开展调查.结果 全县各级医疗机构593家无专兼职疟疾防保人员,无专用显微镜检查设备,医务人员诊治能力低;无该地感染病例;媒介调查5户,仅捕获126只淡色库蚊,未见按蚊;居民知晓疟疾流行区、传播途径和预防方法的仅占2.86%、5.71%和6.19%.结论 该县今后消除疟疾工作需完善基础能力建设、加强人员培训,提高医务人员诊治和检测能力;加强输入性病例监测;广泛开展知识宣传,提高群众知晓率.%[Objective]To understand the initial basic capabilities, malaria incidence, mosquito species, malaria prevention and treatment knowledge level of Cheng' an County at the beginning of malaria eradication pilot work, and provide baseline data for the elimination of malaria. [Methods] The investigation was based on the "Pilot Baseline Survey Program for malaria elimination in Hebei Province". [Results] There were no part-time or fulltime malaria control personnel and no special microscope in 593 medical institutions at all levels. No local infections were detected. A total of 126 Culex pipiens pallens were captured in 5 investigated families, without anopheles. The percentage of knowing malaria endemic areas, transmission and prevention methods only occupied 2. 86% , 5.71% and 6.19%. [Conclusion] Elimination of malaria work needs to be improved on the basis of capacity-building, personnel training, the diagnosis and treatment of medical personnel and detection capabilities in this county in the future. It is necessary to strengthen the monitoring of imported cases, to extensively carry out knowledge propaganda, and increase masses awareness.

  18. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  19. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  20. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  1. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  2. Small mammal trapping mark/recapture baseline surveys at Island Arm-Becharof Lake and Mother Goose Lake, Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Alaska, June-September 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In conjunction with baseline ecosystem data being gathered on the Becharof Lake drainage, a small mammal trapping project was undertaken at two of three field camps...

  3. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  4. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  5. The Gambia Impact Evaluation Baseline Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Government of The Gambia is implementing the Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Results Project (MCNHRP) to increase the utilization of community nutrition and primary maternal and child health services. In collaboration with the Government, the World Bank is conducting an impact evaluation (IE) to assess the impact of the project on key aspects of maternal and child nutrition and health. The baseline survey for the MCNHRP IE took place between November 2014 and February 2015. It c...

  6. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  7. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  8. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  9. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-09-30

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of September 30, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that dellinate the differences between this revision and revision 4 (May 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  10. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  12. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  14. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  15. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  16. Learning to Baseline Business Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available bills, sign multi-­‐year contracts, and make purchasing decisions without having an overall technology plan. That plan includes a technology baseline to fully assess existing technology. A CIO's goal is to align IT with business goals. Businesses must know total cost of ownership and the return on investment for all technology purchases and monthly costs. A business must also be able to manage technology assets and best utilize resources across the business. Teaching students to baseline technology will enable them to track and manage costs, discover errors and waste, and consolidate and improve existing technology.

  17. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC...Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electra y Electronica Universidad Publica de Navarra Pamplona, Spain Performing Organization Report

  18. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  19. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  20. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  1. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  2. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  3. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed along with maps combining

  4. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  5. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  6. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  7. Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge Baseline Contaminants Survey, 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located along the Pearl River in Louisiana and Mississippi, and includes some 37,028 acres of mixed bottomland...

  8. Baseline surveys of Lac Bay benthic and fish communities, Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Hylkema, A.; Vogelaar, W.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Engel, M.S.; Leon, R.; Prud'homme van Reine, W.F.; Nagelkerken, I.

    2012-01-01

    Lac Bay is a clear-water, 5 m deep shallow tropical lagoon of 7 km2 opening onto the wave and wind exposed east coast of the island of Bonaire, southern Caribbean. Over the last decades land reclamation by mangroves in Lac has been expanding the surface of turbid, saline backwaters into the bay at a

  9. Elided Populations: A Baseline Survey on Human Trafficking in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Trafficking in persons is a crime. It is gaining momentum in the continent and particularly in Kenya and also attracting the attention of actors who are working to combat it. This focus shows the multiplicity of actors working together to prosecute, prevent and protect. Evidence of both intra...

  10. Baseline Contaminant Survey of the Missouri River in Missouri

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inorganic Contaminants The following metals were determined to be at or below the detection limit in the fish samples: beryllium, boron, cadmium, lead, molybdenum,...

  11. Baseline survey of oral health of primary and secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the issues that determine the performance of a child at school is ... Sixteen percent of the pupils were found to have some degree of fluorosis of whom ... Conclusion: There is an upward trend in the caries prevalence when ...

  12. Washington Maritime - Invasives Species Baseline Survey/Inventory and Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Limited presence/absence data on vegetation have been collected on Protection Island NWR. In order to more accurately document the impacts, distribution, and percent...

  13. Baseline Surveys - Tecolote Canyon, San Diego Co. [ds655

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Various resource projects have been conducted in the City of San Diego's Open Space Parks as part of the implementation of the City's Multiple Species Conservation...

  14. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  15. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  16. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  17. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  18. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Baseline determination. 1042.825... Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.825 Baseline determination. (a) For the purpose of this... not valid. (f) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the baseline determination. We may...

  20. Re-Creating Missing Population Baselines for Pacific Reef Sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Marc O Nadon; Julia K. Baum; Ivor D Williams; Mcpherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Richards, Benjamin L.; Schroeder, Robert E.; Russell E Brainard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Abstract Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between ree...

  1. Baseline Scotland : the Lower Devonian aquifer of Strathmore

    OpenAIRE

    O Dochartaigh, B.E.; Smedley, P. L.; MacDonald, A M; Darling, W. G.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the groundwater chemistry of the Devonian sedimentary aquifer in Strathmore, eastern Scotland. The area covered by this study extends from Perth in the southwest to Stonehaven in the northeast. The survey forms part of the ongoing Baseline Scotland project. The Devonian sedimentary rocks of Strathmore form an important regional aquifer in an area of some of the most fertile agricultural land in Scotland, with a number of major urban settleme...

  2. Baseline assessment of benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - present): 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will employ...

  3. Baseline assessment of fish and benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (NODC Accession 0118358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will employ...

  4. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - present): 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will...

  5. Baseline assessment of benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - present): 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will...

  6. Baseline assessment of fish and benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (NODC Accession 0118358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will...

  7. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - present): 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will employ...

  8. Baseline assessment of fish and benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  9. Baseline assessment of the fish and benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (NODC Accession 0118358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will employ...

  10. Baseline assessment of the benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  11. Baseline Contaminants Study of the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this study was to develop a survey of baseline chemical residue data for sediment and sediment-associated organisms (e.g., forage fish and...

  12. 2007 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  13. 2013 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  14. 2009 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  15. 2011 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  16. 2005 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  17. Amchitka beach surveys, 1978-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of 16 beaches on Amchitka Island began 28 October 1978 as part of Alaska Beached Bird Survey. The purpose of the surveys is to provide baseline data on...

  18. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; McPherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-06-01

    Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (sharks observed in towed-diver surveys and human population in models that accounted for the influence of oceanic primary productivity, sea surface temperature, reef area, and reef physical complexity. We used these models to estimate the density of sharks in the absence of humans. Densities of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), whitetip reef sharks (Triaenodon obesus), and the group "all reef sharks" increased substantially as human population decreased and as primary productivity and minimum sea surface temperature (or reef area, which was highly correlated with temperature) increased. Simulated baseline densities of reef sharks under the absence of humans were 1.1-2.4/ha for the main Hawaiian Islands, 1.2-2.4/ha for inhabited islands of American Samoa, and 0.9-2.1/ha for inhabited islands in the Mariana Archipelago, which suggests that density of reef sharks has declined to 3-10% of baseline levels in these areas.

  19. Post Auction Coverage Baseline 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — FINAL TELEVISION CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION RELATED TO INCENTIVE AUCTION REPACKING. NOTE: This file provides new baseline coverage and population data for all...

  20. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  1. pASELINE SURVEY ON DRUG PRESCRIBING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline Survey On Drug Prescribing Indicators Wubeante K. 147 rr. RIGINAL ... Specialized Hospital where measured values could be used later as baseline data for further follow up of ..... drug management systems in hospital. Moreover the ...

  2. Coral reef baselines: how much macroalgae is natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F; Precht, William F; Vroom, Peter S; Aronson, Richard B

    2014-03-15

    Identifying the baseline or natural state of an ecosystem is a critical step in effective conservation and restoration. Like most marine ecosystems, coral reefs are being degraded by human activities: corals and fish have declined in abundance and seaweeds, or macroalgae, have become more prevalent. The challenge for resource managers is to reverse these trends, but by how much? Based on surveys of Caribbean reefs in the 1970s, some reef scientists believe that the average cover of seaweed was very low in the natural state: perhaps less than 3%. On the other hand, evidence from remote Pacific reefs, ecological theory, and impacts of over-harvesting in other systems all suggest that, historically, macroalgal biomass may have been higher than assumed. Uncertainties about the natural state of coral reefs illustrate the difficulty of determining the baseline condition of even well studied systems.

  3. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  4. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  5. NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  6. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-27

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available.

  7. 江苏省无锡市卫生系统单位控烟现状调查%Tobacco control baseline survey among health administration and public health departments in the urban are- as of Wuxi City of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪峰; 陈再芳; 陈健; 陆宏枫; 徐伟德; 罗健

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解江苏省无锡城区卫生系统单位的烟草流行和控烟状况,为实施盖茨中国控烟项目提供数据支持和科学依据.方法 以问卷方式对24家机关类单位和23家社区卫生服务机构的在岗员工分别进行全员调查.结果 总的吸烟率为16.25%,男、女吸烟率分别为45.08%和0.07%,二手烟暴露率为44.76%;吸烟员工在工作单位、在禁烟区域吸烟的分别占72.35%和58.94%,准备12个月以内(包括1个月内)戒烟的占36.31%;调查对象中认为医院、工作场所和本单位应室内禁烟的分别占98.14%、94.96%和94.14%,知晓本单位规定室内全面禁烟的占66.27%,希望本单位有更严格控烟规章的占87.15%.结论 47家目标单位员工的吸烟率,男、女性吸烟率和二手烟暴露率均低于全国总体水平,对烟草危害知识及单位室内禁烟规章的知晓率较低.%Objective To leam the prevalence of tobacco use and current tobacco control situation among health administrations in Wuxi' s urban areas, and to provide baseline information and scientific support for Wuxi' s Tobacco Free Cities-Gates China Tobacco Control program. Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted among all the staffs of 24 health administration departments and 23 community health service centers. Results The overall current smoking prevalence was 16. 25%. Current smoking prevalence among male and female staffs were 45. 08% and 0. 07% , respectively. 44. 76% of the staffs were exposed to second hand smoke. Among the smoking staffs, 72. 35% smoke in workplaces, and 58. 94% smoke in non-smoking areas. Only 36. 31% of the current smokers planed to quit smoking in 12 months. Among all the staffs, 98. 14% , 94. 96% and 94. 14% believed that hospitals, work sites and their own departments should ban smoking, respectively. In addition, 66. 27% of the staffs know the comprehensive tobacco control policy in their department, and 87. 15% of the staffs expected their department to

  8. High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN), Closed survey control network (between Order C class 1 and B depending on length of baseline) of 98 monumented points in Scott County - adjustment performed in NAD 1983/1996 HARN (conus), Published in 2005, Scott County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2005. It is described as 'Closed survey...

  9. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  10. The VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey, VIPS for short, is a combined 5 GHz and 15 GHz survey with the Very Long Baseline Array of ~1100 active galactic nuclei...

  11. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  12. Comparison of baseline results for the TI-4100 and Trimble 4000SDT geodetic GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    1992-10-01

    Many GPS networks which were initially surveyed with Texas Instruments TI-4100 receivers have now been resurveyed with mixtures of TI-4100 and Trimble 4000 receivers or exclusively with Trimble receivers. In order to make confident tectonic interpretation of displacements observed between such surveys, it is necessary to understand any biases which may be introduced by using different receiver types or by mixing receivers within a network. Therefore, one of the primary objectives of the Ecuador 1990 GPS campaign (February 1990) was to provide a direct long baseline comparison between the TI-4100 and Trimble 4000SDT GPS receivers. p ]During this campaign, TI and Trimble receivers were co-located at each end of a 1323 kilometer baseline (Jerusalen to Baltra). Solutions for this baseline show no variation with receiver type. Zero-length baseline solutions showed no evidence for any intrinsic bias caused by mixing the two receiver types. Short baseline solutions indicate a bias of -34±10 mm in the baseline vertical component; the sign of the bias indicates that either the assumed phase center location for the TI is too low or the assumed location for the Trimble is too high. The bias is explainable if the phase centers of the Trimble SDT and SST antennas are similarly located. p ]Solutions for baselines measured with codeless receivers (such as the Trimble) should be as precise as those for baselines measured with P-code receivers (such as the TI) as long as it is possible to resolve ambiguities. Resolution of the widelane ambiguity is the limiting factor in ambiguity resolution with any codeless receiver, and in the February 1990 campaigns it was not successful fore baselines longer than 100 km. Without explicit modeling of the ionospheric effect on the widelane, ambiguity resolution with codeless receivers will not be successful for baselines longer than about 100 km, depending on the local ionospheric conditions.

  13. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  14. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  15. Baseline assessment of benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - 2013) using technical diving operations: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  16. Biological Data for Biological Baseline Studies of Mobile Bay: Benthic Fauna 1980-1981 (NODC Accession 0116100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in late 1979, the Alabama Coastal Area Board (CAB) funded a series of baseline surveys on the coastal resources of Alabama, from which they could develop a...

  17. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - 2013) using technical diving operations: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will...

  18. Baseline assessment of benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - 2013) using technical diving operations: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will...

  19. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - 2013) using technical diving operations: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will employ...

  20. Baseline assessment of benthic communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - 2013) using technical diving operations: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The proposed work develop baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys will employ...

  1. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  2. How Valid Are the Portland Baseline Essays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Erich

    1991-01-01

    Portland, Oregon's "African-American Baseline Essays," widely used in creating multicultural curricula, inaccurately depicts ancient Egyptians as black people and Olmec civilization as derived from African influences. The authors advance racial theories long abandoned by mainline Africa scholars, attribute mystical powers to pyramids,…

  3. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, θ13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of θ23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomenon. Then, I will discuss our present global understanding of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters and will identify the major unknowns in this sector. After that, I will present the physics reach of current generation long-baseline experiments. Finally, I will conclude with a discussion on the physics capabilities of accelerator-driven possible future long-baseline precision oscillation facilities.

  4. Geochemical modelling baseline compositions of groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Kjøller, Claus; Andersen, Martin Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    Reactive transport models, were developed to explore the evolution in groundwater chemistry along the flow path in three aquifers; the Triassic East Midland aquifer (UK), the Miocene aquifer at Valreas (F) and the Cretaceous aquifer near Aveiro (P). All three aquifers contain very old groundwaters...... of the evolution in natural baseline properties in groundwater....

  5. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  6. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...

  7. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  8. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for the Spring Water Monitoring - Flow 1.02 survey at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This coop baseline monitoring survey has...

  9. Terrestrial and aquatic baseline study and monitoring programme for CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad

    OpenAIRE

    Grung, Merete; Garmo, Øyvind; Myking, Tor; Øyen, Bernt-Håvard; Blom, Hans H.; Ranneklev, Sissel; Wright, Richard Frederic; Heegaard, Einar; Schei, Fride Høistad

    2012-01-01

    CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad will be the world’s largest test centre for testing and development of CO2 capture technology. The emissions to the atmosphere from CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad contain amines and may in addition contain or lead to the formation of degradation products from amine-based CO2 capture technology. An environmental baseline survey was conducted in 2011 prior to the operation. The survey performed is broad, and describes in detail the environmental situation both in ...

  10. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  11. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  12. Dissipative Effect in Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Roberto L N

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using Lindblad Master Equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the probabilities behavior. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each decoherence parameters change the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using numeric and analytic approach.

  13. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  14. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  15. Geochemical baseline data, Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Johnson, V.G.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1975-04-01

    This report comprises one part of a final report to the Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay''. The data reported herein are the product of the geochemical baseline section of the project. The primary objectives of the geochemical study were: to provide a baseline record of fluoride and selected trace metal levels in Youngs Bay bottom sediment, to identify areas that might function as heavy metal traps, to attempt to determine the recent depositional history of sediment in the bay. In addition to these primary objectives, a number of secondary tasks were undertaken during the study. While time did not allow these additional studies to be carried to completion, preliminary results are included herein because of their potential usefulness in assessing the impact of environmental releases of fluoride to aquatic systems in the vicinity of Youngs Bay or elsewhere. This report is made up of two major sections. In the first, a description of sample collection and analytical procedures is followed by a discussion of the baseline results. Obvious vertical and horizontal patterns of elemental distribution are identified and their origins considered. Problems needed further research are also discussed. In the second section, the data are presented in interpretive, graphical form, as well as in tables. 35 refs., 29 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  17. BeLieving in Native Girls: Characteristics from a Baseline Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Deborah; Langhorne, Aleisha

    2012-01-01

    BeLieving In Native Girls (BLING) is a juvenile delinquency and HIV intervention at a residential boarding school for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescent girls ages 12-20 years. In 2010, 115 participants completed baseline surveys to identify risk and protective factors. Initial findings are discussed regarding a variety of topics, including…

  18. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  19. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  20. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  1. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; /Oxford U., JAI; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; /Daresbury; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; /Daresbury; Jackson, Frank; /Daresbury; Dalena, Barbara; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  2. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  3. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  4. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  5. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, theta13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of theta23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomeno...

  6. Baseline and benchmark model development for hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Edward T., Jr.

    The hotel industry currently faces rising energy costs and requires the tools to maximize energy efficiency. In order to achieve this goal a clear definition of the current methods used to measure and monitor energy consumption is made. Uncovering the limitations to the most common practiced analysis strategies and presenting methods that can potentially overcome those limitations is the main purpose. Techniques presented can be used for measurement and verification of energy efficiency plans and retrofits. Also, modern energy modeling tool are introduced to demonstrate how they can be utilized for benchmarking and baseline models. This will provide the ability to obtain energy saving recommendations and parametric analysis to explore energy savings potential. These same energy models can be used in design decisions for new construction. An energy model is created of a resort style hotel that over one million square feet and has over one thousand rooms. A simulation and detailed analysis is performed on a hotel room. The planning process for creating the model and acquiring data from the hotel room to calibrate and verify the simulation will be explained. An explanation as to how this type of modeling can potentially be beneficial for future baseline and benchmarking strategies for the hotel industry. Ultimately the conclusion will address some common obstacles the hotel industry has in reaching their full potential of energy efficiency and how these techniques can best serve them.

  7. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On June 9, 2011, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Beechcraft BE90 King Air (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) (152 meters (m)) and approximately 1,200 ft (366 m) offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  8. Radio sources - Very, Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.

    1983-03-01

    With resolution of a thousandth of an arcsecond, the radio technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) provides astronomers with their highest-resolution view of the universe. Data taken with widely-separated antennas are combined, with the help of atomic clocks, to form a Michelson interferometer whose size may be as great as the earth's diameter. Extraordinary phenomena, from the birth of stars as signaled by the brilliant flashes of powerful interstellar masers to the 'faster-than-light' expansion of the cores of distant quasars, are being explored with this technique. However, earth-bound VLBI suffers from several restrictions due to the location of the component antennas at fixed places on the earth's surface. The use of one or more antennas in space in concert with ground-based equipment will greatly expand the technical and scientific capabilities of VLBI, leading to a more complete and even higher resolution view of cosmic phenomena.

  9. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilquet, G.

    2008-05-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure vμ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported.

  10. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  11. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  12. Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.

  13. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  14. Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, long-baseline neutrino experiments played a fundamental role in confirming neutrino flavor change and in measuring the neutrino mixing matrix with high precision. This role will be amplified with the next generation of experiments, which will begin probing the possibility of CP violation in the leptonic sector and possibly pin down the neutrino mass hierarchy. An account of the most recent results from the MINOS experiment is presented, along with the earlier measurement from the K2K experiment. The next generation projects, T2K and NOvA, are described and their current status, schedule and physics reach discussed. Finally, we report on future efforts, currently in the R&D stage, such as the LBNE and T2KK projects.

  15. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  16. Octant degeneracy, CPV phase at Long Baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work by two of us, we have studied, how CP violation discovery potential can be improved at long baseline neutrino experiments (LBNE/DUNE), by combining with its ND (near detector) and reactor experiments. In this work, we discuss how this study can be further analysed to resolve entanglement of the quadrant of CPV phase and Octant of atmospheric mixing angle {\\theta}23, at LBNEs. The study is done for both NH (Normal hierarchy) and IH (Inverted hierarchy). We further show how leptogenesis can enhance this effect of resolving this entanglement. A detailed analytic and numerical study of baryogenesis through leptogenesis is performed in this framework in a model independent way. We then compare our result of the baryon to photon ratio with the the current observational data of the baryon asymmetry.

  17. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  18. Owning the program technical baseline for future space systems acquisition: program technical baseline tracking tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Hant, James J.; Kizer, Justin R.; Min, Inki A.; Siedlak, Dennis J. L.; Yoh, James

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has recognized the needs for owning the program and technical knowledge within the Air Force concerning the systems being acquired to ensure success. This paper extends the previous work done by the authors [1-2] on the "Resilient Program Technical Baseline Framework for Future Space Systems" and "Portfolio Decision Support Tool (PDST)" to the development and implementation of the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) Tracking Tool (PTBTL) for the DOD acquisition life cycle. The paper describes the "simplified" PTB tracking model with a focus on the preaward phases and discusses how to implement this model in PDST.

  19. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  1. Lorentz symmetry and very long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Hees, A.; Lambert, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard Model extension (SME). Recently, postfit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars led to an upper limit at the 10-4 level on the time-time coefficient s¯T T of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of s¯T T and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans, and with various Sun elongation cutoff angles, and by analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on s¯ T T=(-5 ±8 )×10-5 , directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor of 5 previous postfit analysis estimates.

  2. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  3. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  4. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895

  5. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  6. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  7. Lorentz symmetry and Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; lambert, S

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model extension (SME). Recently, post-fit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars lead to an upper limit at the $10^{-4}$ level on the time-time coefficient $\\bar s^{TT}$ of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then we implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of $\\bar s^{TT}$ and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and with analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on $\\bar s^{TT}=(-5\\pm 8)\\times 10^{-5}$, directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor 5 pr...

  8. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...

  9. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, William C. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  10. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-01

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the νμ → νe appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  11. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline baseline emissions determination. (a) Annual average baseline values. For any facility of a... gasoline volume of the facility, per § 80.91. (b) Baseline exhaust benzene emissions—simple model. (1) Simple model exhaust benzene emissions of conventional gasoline shall be determined using the following...

  12. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  13. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  14. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford`s solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents.

  15. Literature Review for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline Knowledge Assessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with future knowledge and opinion surveys. To assess the current understanding and establish the baseline, the HFCIT program plans to conduct scientific surveys of four target audience groups--the general public, the educational community, governmental agencies, and potential large users. The purpose of the literature review is to examine the literature and summarize the results of surveys that have been conducted in the recent past concerning the existing knowledge and attitudes toward hydrogen. This literature review covers both scientific and, to a lesser extent, non-scientific polls. Seven primary data sources were reviewed, two of which were studies based in Europe. Studies involved both closed-end and open-end questions; surveys varied in length from three questions to multi-page interviews. Populations involved in the studies were primarily adults, although one study involved students. The number of participants ranged from 13 to over 16,000 per study. In addition to the primary surveys, additional related studies were mined for pertinent information. The primary conclusions of the surveys reviewed are that the public knows very little about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies but is generally accepting of the potential for hydrogen use. In general, respondents consider themselves as environmentally conscious. The public considers safety as the primary issue surrounding hydrogen as a fuel. Price, performance, and convenience are also considerations that will have major impacts on purchase decisions.

  16. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  17. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S.K.; Aittola, M.; Alekou, A.; Andrieu, B.; Antoniou, F.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Autiero, D.; Besida, O.; Balik, A.; Ballett, P.; Bandac, I.; Banerjee, D.; Bartmann, W.; Bay, F.; Biskup, B.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Borriello, E.; Brancus, I.; Bravar, A.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calviani, M.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Cata-Danil, G.; Chakraborty, S.; Charitonidis, N.; Chaussard, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Chipesiu, F.; Crivelli, P.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Delbart, A.; Di Luise, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eliseev, A.; Emery, S.; Enqvist, T.; Enqvist, K.; Epprecht, L.; Erykalov, A.N.; Esanu, T.; Franco, D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gendotti, A.; Giganti, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Gomoiu, C.M.; Gornushkin, Y.A.; Gorodetzky, P.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Horikawa, S.; Huitu, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jipa, A.; Kainulainen, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kopylov, A.N.; Korzenev, A.; Kosyanenko, S.; Kryn, D.; Kudenko, Y.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lazanu, I.; Lazaridis, C.; Levy, J.M.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Mari, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Mirizzi, A.; Mitrica, B.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Narita, S.; Nesterenko, D.A.; Nguyen, K.; Nikolics, K.; Noah, E.; Novikov, Yu.; Oprima, A.; Osborne, J.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Pectu, M.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Popov, B.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Resnati, F.; Ristea, O.; Robert, A.; Rubbia, A.; Rummukainen, K.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez-Galan, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Saviano, N.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Slupecki, M.; Smargianaki, D.; Stanca, D.; Steerenberg, R.; Sterian, A.R.; Sterian, P.; Stoica, S.; Strabel, C.; Suhonen, J.; Suvorov, V.; Toma, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsenov, R.; Tuominen, K.; Valram, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Velotti, F.; Velten, P.; Venturi, V.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vincke, H.; Vorobyev, A.; Weber, A.; Wu, S.; Yershov, N.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  18. Baseline groundwater quality from 20 domestic wells in Sullivan County, Pennsylvania, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 domestic wells during August and September 2012 and analyzed for 47 constituents and properties, including nutrients, major ions, metals and trace elements, radioactivity, and dissolved gases, including methane and radon-222. This study, done in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for central and southern Sullivan County prior to drilling for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale.

  19. Geological, biological, and chemical data for Benthic Sediment Baseline Study of Mobile Bay from 3 Apr 1980 to 26 Aug 1981 (NODC Accession 0117430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Beginning in late 1979, the Alabama Coastal Area Board (CAB) funded a series of baseline surveys on the coastal resources of Alabama, from which they could...

  20. Offshore baseline for the exposed East Beaufort Sea, Alaska coastal region (U.S. Canadian Border to the Hulahula River) generated to calculate shoreline change rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a reference baseline used by the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to calculate rate-of-change statistics for the exposed north coast of...

  1. Offshore baseline for the sheltered East Beaufort Sea, Alaska coastal region (U.S. Canadian Border to the Hulahula River) generated to calculate shoreline change rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a reference baseline used by the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to calculate rate-of-change statistics for the sheltered north coast...

  2. Offshore baseline for the sheltered West Beaufort Sea, Alaska coastal region (Colville River to Point Barrow) generated to calculate shoreline change rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a reference baseline used by the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to calculate rate-of-change statistics for the sheltered north coast...

  3. Offshore baseline for the sheltered Central Beaufort Sea, Alaska coastal region (Hulahula River to the Colville River) generated to calculate shoreline change rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a reference baseline used by the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to calculate rate-of-change statistics for the sheltered north coast...

  4. Offshore baseline for the exposed West Beaufort Sea, Alaska coastal region (Colville River to Point Barrow) generated to calculate shoreline change rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a reference baseline used by the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to calculate rate-of-change statistics for the exposed north coast of...

  5. Offshore baseline for the exposed Central Beaufort Sea, Alaska coastal region (Hulahula River to the Colville River) generated to calculate shoreline change rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a reference baseline used by the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to calculate rate-of-change statistics for the exposed north coast of...

  6. Interim Report - Baseline Population Inventory of Amphibians on the Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge and Screening for the Amphibian Disease Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim report provides the initial results of baseline amphibian survey and surveillance for chytrid disease on the mountain Longleaf National wildlife Refuge.

  7. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  8. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  9. Dongfeng-Tongji cohort: methodology of the survey and the characteristics of baseline and initial population of follow-up program%东风-同济队列研究:研究方法及调查对象基线和第一次随访特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何美安; 张策; 朱江; 姚平; 李秀楼; 袁晶; 王峰; 刘跃伟; 陈卫红

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨环境、职业因素、个人生活方式、遗传因素和遗传-环境交互作用对某职业人群的主要慢性病发生和发展的影响.方法 东风-同济队列研究为一项建立有生物样本库的前瞻性开放式队列研究.2008-2009年对湖北省十堰市东风汽车公司退休职工进行基线调查,包括问卷调查、体格检查、生化指标检查和血液样本采集.计划每5年随访一次.2013年4-10月完成了第一次随访,再次进行了问卷调查、体格检查、生化指标检查和血液样本采集.结果 基线调查共邀请了31 000名东风汽车公司退休职工,其中27 009名(占87%)退休职工同意参加并提供了流行病学调查信息和基线血液样本.东风-同济队列研究入选人群的基线平均年龄为63.6岁,其中男性占44.6%.2013年第一次随访共纳入了38 295名退休职工,男性占44.7%.在2013年第一次随访研究人群中,40.5%的参与者为高中及以上学历.队列人群男性和女性的现在吸烟率分别为33.6%和2.0%,饮酒率分别为39.9%和10.6%;38 295人群中流行病学调查自我报告的慢性疾病患病率分别为高血压41.1%、高脂血症24.3%、糖尿病13.9%、冠心病16.7%、中风5.1%、慢性支气管炎12.7%和哮喘4.0%;男性高血压和中风的自我报告患病率高于女性.2008年基线人群中,共有25 978人随访到相关信息,2008年基线人群第一次的随访率为96.2%.结论 东风-同济队列的建立为研究遗传、环境及遗传-环境交互作用对慢性病发生和发展提供了重要资源.%Objective To explore the effects of related environment,occupational,lifestyle,genetic factors as well as their interactions on the etiology of major chronic diseases in an occupational population.Methods Dongfeng-Tongji cohort (DFTJ cohort),one of the large prospective cohort studies with biobank.Baseline study was conducted in Shiyan city,Hubei province from 2008 to 2009

  10. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  11. Revised CDM baseline study on fuel use and manure management at household level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buysman, E.; Bryan, S.; Pino, M.

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters. In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP's 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang. The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene. The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.

  12. LA_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Louisiana Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  13. AL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Alabama Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  14. TX_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Texas Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  15. FL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Florida Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  16. NC_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for North Carolina Atlantic Coast Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  17. GA_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Georgia Atlantic Coast Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  18. SC_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for South Carolina Atlantic Coast Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  19. FL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Florida Atlantic Coast Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  20. MS_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Mississippi Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  1. SOCAL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Southern California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  2. CENCAL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Central California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  3. NORCAL_BASELINES - Offshore Baseline for Northern California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  4. CENCAL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Central California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  5. NORCAL_BASELINES - Offshore Baseline for Northern California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  6. Gravitational lens surveys with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2008-01-01

    Deep surveys planned as a Key Science Project of LOFAR provide completely new opportunities for gravitational lens searches. For the first time do large-scale surveys reach the resolution required for a direct selection of lens candidates using morphological criteria. We briefly describe the strategies that we will use to exploit this potential. The long baselines of an international E-LOFAR are essential for this project.

  7. Re-Creating Missing Population Baselines for Pacific Reef Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; Mcpherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-01-01

    Summary Abstract Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (base) es obstaculizada por la falta de datos de series de tiempo pertinentes. Recientemente, los investigadores han utilizado muestreos visuales submarinos, de extensión espacial limitada o de diseño no estándar, para inferir asociaciones negativas entre la abundancia de tiburones de arrecife y las poblaciones humanas. Analizamos datos de 1607 muestreos por remolque de buzos (transectos >1ha muestreados por observadores remolcados por una lancha) realizados en 46 arrecifes en el Océano Pacífico centro-occidental, arrecifes que incluyeron algunos de los más prístinos del mundo. Las estimaciones de densidad de tiburones fue sustancialmente menor (<10%) que estimaciones publicadas a partir de muestreos a lo largo de transectos pequeños (<0.02 ha), lo cual no es consistente con las pirámides de biomasa invertidas (la biomasa de depredadores es mayor que la biomasa de presas) reportadas para arrecifes prístinos por otros autores. Examinamos la relación entre la densidad de tiburones de arrecife observados en los muestreos por remolque de buzos y la población humana en modelos y consideramos la influencia de la productividad

  8. Association of baseline bleeding pattern on amenorrhea with levonorgestrel intrauterine system use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Manuela; McNicholas, Colleen; Madden, Tessa; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of baseline bleeding patterns on rates of amenorrhea reported at 12 months in levonorgestrel (LNG) 52 mg intrauterine system (IUS) users. We also assessed the effect of baseline bleeding patterns at 3 and 6 months postinsertion. In this secondary analysis of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, we included participants who had an LNG-IUS inserted within 1 month of enrollment and continued use for 12 months. Using 12-month telephone survey data, we defined amenorrhea at 12 months of use as no bleeding or spotting during the previous 6 months. We used chi-square and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association of baseline bleeding pattern with amenorrhea while controlling for confounding variables. Of 1802 continuous 12-month LNG-IUS users, amenorrhea was reported by 4.9%, 14.8% and 15.4% of participants at 3, 6 and 12 months, receptively. Participants with light baseline bleeding or short duration of flow reported higher rates of amenorrhea at 3 and 6 months postinsertion (p<.03), while LNG-IUS users with heavy or prolonged flow were less likely to report amenorrhea at 3 and 6 months (p<.03). In a multivariable analysis, participants with self-reported heavy bleeding at baseline were less likely to report amenorrhea at 12 months than those who reported moderate bleeding (ORadj, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.69). Women with heavier menstrual bleeding are less likely than women with moderate flow to report amenorrhea following 12 months of LNG-IUS use. Baseline heavy menstrual flow reduces the likelihood of amenorrhea with LNG-IUS use, information that could impact contraceptive counseling. Anticipatory counseling can improve method satisfaction and continuation, an important strategy to continue to reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  10. Baseline groundwater quality from 34 wells in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Wayne County, Pennsylvania, is underlain by the Marcellus Shale, which currently (2014) is being developed elsewhere in Pennsylvania for natural gas. All residents of largely rural Wayne County rely on groundwater for water supply, primarily from bedrock aquifers (shales and sandstones). This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for Wayne County prior to development of the natural gas resource in the Marcellus Shale. Selected wells completed in the Devonian-age Catskill Formation, undifferentiated; the Poplar Gap and Packerton Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided; and the Long Run and Walcksville Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided, were sampled.

  11. 77 FR 26535 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 26, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions...

  12. 77 FR 31841 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  13. Adapting the M3 Surveillance Metrics for an Unknown Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abes, Jeff I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaramillo, Brandon Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The original M3 surveillance metrics assume that the baseline is known. In this article, adapted M3 metrics are presented when the baseline is not known and estimated by available data. Deciding on how much available data is enough is also discussed.

  14. 40 CFR 80.93 - Individual baseline submission and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) Refinery block flow diagram, showing principal refining units; (ii) Principal refining unit..., whether or not the auditor was retained through the baseline approval process. (ii) Identification of the... samples from batch processes, including volume of each batch sampled; and (G) Baseline fuel parameter...

  15. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline points are used by the BOEM to...

  16. Searching for neutrino oscillation parameters in long baseline experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vihonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Developing neutrino astronomy requires a good understanding of the neutrino oscillations mechanism. The European strategy for neutrino oscillation physics sets a high priority on future long baseline neutrino experiments with the aim to measure the intrinsic parameters that govern the neutrino oscillations. In this work we take a look at the next generation of long baseline experiments and discuss their prospects in future research.

  17. Using Baseline Studies in the Investigation of Test Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horak, Tania

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of "baseline studies" in investigations of test impact and to illustrate the type of thinking underlying the design and implementation of such studies by reference to a recent study relating to a high-stakes test of English language proficiency. Baseline studies are used to describe an educational…

  18. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALMA Partnership, [Unknown; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cox, P.; Amestica, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cotton, W.; Hales, A. S.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kern, J.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Marcelino, N.; Marson, R.; Mignano, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Nikolic, B.; Perez, J. E.; Pérez, L. M.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Butler, B.; Cortes, J.; Cortes, P.; Dhawan, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Mangum, J.; Marconi, G.; Nagai, H.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Gueth, F.; Tatematsu, K.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Karim, A.; Krips, M.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Martin, S.; Maud, L.; Morales, F.; Pietu, V.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Whyborn, N.; Alves, F.; Andreani, P.; Avison, A.; Barta, M.; Bedosti, F.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Bethermin, M.; Biggs, A.; Boissier, J.; Brand, J.; Burkutean, S.; Casasola, V.; Conway, J.; Cortese, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Davis, T. A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Fontani, F.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Fuller, G.; Galvan Madrid, R.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Graves, S. F.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hogerheijde, M.; Jachym, P.; Jimenez Serra, I.; Karlicky, M.; Klaasen, P.; Kraus, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lagos, C.; Longmore, S.; Leurini, S.; Maercker, M.; Magnelli, B.; Marti Vidal, I.; Massardi, M.; Maury, A.; Muehle, S.; Muller, S.; Muxlow, T.; O’Gorman, E.; Paladino, R.; Petry, D.; Pineda, J.; Randall, S.; Richer, J. S.; Rossetti, A.; Rushton, A.; Rygl, K.; Sanchez Monge, A.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Stanke, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Stoehr, F.; Urban, S.; van Kampen, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wang, K.; Wild, W.; Yang, Y.; Iguchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Saito, M.; Inatani, J.; Mizuno, N.; Asayama, S.; Kosugi, G.; Morita, K.-I.; Chiba, K.; Kawashima, S.; Okumura, S. K.; Ohashi, N.; Ogasawara, R.; Sakamoto, S.; Noguchi, T.; Huang, Y.-D.; Liu, S.-Y.; Kemper, F.; Koch, P. M.; Chen, M.-T.; Chikada, Y.; Hiramatsu, M.; Iono, D.; Shimojo, M.; Komugi, S.; Kim, J.; Lyo, A.-R.; Muller, E.; Herrera, C.; Miura, R. E.; Ueda, J.; Chibueze, J.; Su, Y.-N.; Trejo-Cruz, A.; Wang, K.-S.; Kiuchi, H.; Ukita, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Kawabe, R.; Hayashi, M.; Miyama, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kaifu, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Beasley, A. J.; Bhatnagar, S.; Braatz, J. A., III; Brisbin, D. G.; Brunetti, N.; Carilli, C.; Crossley, J. H.; D’Addario, L.; Donovan Meyer, J. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Evans, A. S.; Fisher, P.; Golap, K.; Griffith, D. M.; Hale, A. E.; Halstead, D.; Hardy, E. J.; Hatz, M. C.; Holdaway, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Jewell, P. R.; Kepley, A. A.; Kim, D.-C.; Lacy, M. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Liszt, H. S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Matthews, B.; McKinnon, M.; Mason, B. S.; Moellenbrock, G.; Moullet, A.; Myers, S. T.; Ott, J.; Peck, A. B.; Pisano, J.; Radford, S. J. E.; Randolph, W. T.; Rao Venkata, U.; Rawlings, M. G.; Rosen, R.; Schnee, S. L.; Scott, K. S.; Sharp, N. K.; Sheth, K.; Simon, R. S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried

  19. Esophageal impedance baseline according to different time intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummarino Dario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impedance baseline has been shown to reflect esophageal integrity, and to be decreased in patients with esophagitis. However, different methods for the determination of the impedance baseline have not been compared. Methods The median impedance baseline was calculated in 10 consecutive multichannel intraluminal impedance recordings in children with non-erosive reflux disease. All children underwent an endoscopy with a biopsy as part of the clinical work-up to exclude esophagitis. The impedance baseline was obtained both by including and excluding all impedance episodes (IE; reflux, swallows and gas episodes during the full recording, and during the first 1-minute period without an IE every hour (method 1, every 2 hours (method 2 or every 4 hours (method 3. The impedance baseline obtained during the full recording was set at 100%, and the variation (difference in impedance baseline for the different methods and variability (difference in impedance baseline during one analysis period were assessed. Results None of the participants had esophagitis. The mean difference over the six channels between the impedance baseline over the total recording with and without IE was approximately 2.5%, and comparable for each channel (range 0.47% to 5.55%. A mean of 1,028 IEs were excluded in each tracing, and it took between 4 and 24 hours to delete all events in one tracing. The difference in the impedance baseline obtained with and without IEs was mainly caused by the gas episodes in the upper channels and swallows in the lower channels. The median impedance baseline according to the three one-minute analysis methods was comparable to the median impedance baseline according to the 24 hour analysis. Conclusions The automatic determination of the median impedance baseline over the total tracing including IEs is an adequate method. In isolated tracings with numerous IEs, the calculation of the median impedance baseline over one minute

  20. Establishing a store baseline during interim storage of waste packages and a review of potential technologies for base-lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTeer, Jennifer; Morris, Jenny; Wickham, Stephen [Galson Sciences Ltd. Oakham, Rutland (United Kingdom); Bolton, Gary [National Nuclear Laboratory Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); McKinney, James; Morris, Darrell [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Angus, Mike [National Nuclear Laboratory Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Cann, Gavin; Binks, Tracey [National Nuclear Laboratory Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Interim storage is an essential component of the waste management lifecycle, providing a safe, secure environment for waste packages awaiting final disposal. In order to be able to monitor and detect change or degradation of the waste packages, storage building or equipment, it is necessary to know the original condition of these components (the 'waste storage system'). This paper presents an approach to establishing the baseline for a waste-storage system, and provides guidance on the selection and implementation of potential base-lining technologies. The approach is made up of two sections; assessment of base-lining needs and definition of base-lining approach. During the assessment of base-lining needs a review of available monitoring data and store/package records should be undertaken (if the store is operational). Evolutionary processes (affecting safety functions), and their corresponding indicators, that can be measured to provide a baseline for the waste-storage system should then be identified in order for the most suitable indicators to be selected for base-lining. In defining the approach, identification of opportunities to collect data and constraints is undertaken before selecting the techniques for base-lining and developing a base-lining plan. Base-lining data may be used to establish that the state of the packages is consistent with the waste acceptance criteria for the storage facility and to support the interpretation of monitoring and inspection data collected during store operations. Opportunities and constraints are identified for different store and package types. Technologies that could potentially be used to measure baseline indicators are also reviewed. (authors)

  1. Impact of Baseline Assessment Modality on Enrollment and Retention in a Facebook Smoking Cessation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Jacobs, Megan A; Zawistowski, Grace; Brookover, Jody; Stanton, Cassandra A; Graham, Amanda L

    2015-07-16

    Few studies have addressed enrollment and retention methods in online smoking cessation interventions. Fully automated Web-based trials can yield large numbers of participants rapidly but suffer from high rates of attrition. Personal contact with participants can increase recruitment of smokers into cessation trials and improve participant retention. To compare the impact of Web-based (WEB) and phone (PH) baseline assessments on enrollment and retention metrics in the context of a Facebook smoking cessation study. Participants were recruited via Facebook and Google ads which were randomly displayed to adult smokers in the United States over 27 days from August to September 2013. On each platform, two identical ads were randomly displayed to users who fit the advertising parameters. Clicking on one of the ads resulted in randomization to WEB, and clicking on the other ad resulted in randomization to PH. Following online eligibility screening and informed consent, participants in the WEB arm completed the baseline survey online whereas PH participants completed the baseline survey by phone with a research assistant. All participants were contacted at 30 days to complete a follow-up survey that assessed use of the cessation intervention and smoking outcomes. Participants were paid $15 for follow-up survey completion. A total of 4445 people clicked on the WEB ad and 4001 clicked on the PH ad: 12.04% (n=535) of WEB participants and 8.30% (n=332) of PH participants accepted the online study invitation (PFacebook app (66/114, 57.9% WEB vs 17/35, 49% PH) or that completed the 30-day follow-up survey (49/114, 43.0% WEB vs 16/35, 46% PH). A total of $6074 was spent on ads, generating 3,834,289 impressions and resulting in 8446 clicks (average cost $0.72 per click). Per participant enrollment costs for advertising alone were $27 WEB and $87 PH. A more intensive phone baseline assessment protocol yielded a lower rate of enrollment, equivalent follow-up rates, and higher

  2. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Key Largo, Florida, to the Florida/Georgia border, September 5-6, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2015-09-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 5-6, 2014, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Key Largo, Florida, to the Florida/Georgia border (Figure 1), aboard a Cessna 182 at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore (Figure 2). This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, flown October 1998, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  3. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Navarre Beach, Florida, to Breton Island, Louisiana, September 18–19, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On September 18–19, 2015, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Navarre Beach, Florida, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Maule MT57 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in September 2014. The data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  4. The MINK methodology: background and baseline. [USA - Midwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Crosson, P.R.; Frederick, K.D.; Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Bowes, M.D.; Sedjo, R.A.; Darmstadter, J.; Katz, L.A.; Lemon, K.M. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A four step methodology has been developed for study of the regional impacts of climate change and the possible responses thereto. First the region's climate sensitive sectors and total economy are described (Task A, current baseline). Next a scenario of climate change is imposed on the current baseline (Task B, current baseline with climate change). A new baseline describing the climate sensitive sectors and total regional economy is projected for some time in the future (Task C, future baseline, year 2030) in the absence of climate change. Finally, the climate change scenario is reimposed on the future baseline (Task D, future baseline with climate change). Impacts of the climate change scenario on the current and future regional economies are determined by means of simulation models and other appropriate techniques. These techniques are also used to assess the impacts of an elevated CO[sub 2] concentration (450 ppm) and of various forms of adjustments and adaptations. The region chosen for the first test of the methodology is composed of the four U.S. states of Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas. The climate change scenario is the actual weather of the 1930s decade in the MINK region. 'Current' climate is the actual weather of the period 1951-1980. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Trinocular Stereo Matching Based on Correlations Between Baselines and Disparities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYepeng; GUWeikang

    2004-01-01

    Gray correlation technique is utilized to take the multi-peak feature points with gray correlation coefficients less than a certain range of maximal correlation coefficient as a potential candidate matching set. There exists the maximal correlation between the correct disparities and their corresponding baselines. A trinocular stereo matching algorithm is proposed based on correlations between the baselines and disparities. After computing the correlations between the baselines and disparities, the unique matches can be determined by maximal correlation coefficient. It is proved that the algorithm proposed is valid and credible by 3-D reconstruction on two pairs of actual natural stereo images.

  6. Neutrino oscillations: what is magic about the "magic" baseline?

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    Physics interpretation of the ``magic'' baseline that can play important role in future oscillation experiments is given. The ``magic'' baseline coincides with the refraction length, $l_0$. The latter, in turn, approximately equals the oscillation length in matter at high energies. Therefore at the baseline $L = l_0$ the oscillation phase is $2\\pi$, and consequently, the ``solar'' amplitude of oscillations driven by the mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ and mass splitting $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ vanishes. As a result, in the lowest order (i) the interference of amplitudes in the $\

  7. Dynamic baseline detection method for power data network service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic baseline Traffic detection Method which is based on the historical traffic data for the Power data network. The method uses Cisco's NetFlow acquisition tool to collect the original historical traffic data from network element at fixed intervals. This method uses three dimensions information including the communication port, time, traffic (number of bytes or number of packets) t. By filtering, removing the deviation value, calculating the dynamic baseline value, comparing the actual value with the baseline value, the method can detect whether the current network traffic is abnormal.

  8. Restoring ecological integrity in highly regulated rivers: the role of baseline data and analytical references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter W; Singer, Maia S; Orr, Bruce K; Diggory, Zooey E; Church, Tamara C; Stella, J C

    2011-10-01

    The goal of restoring ecological integrity in rivers is frequently accompanied by an assumption that a comparative reference reach can be identified to represent minimally impaired conditions. However, in many regulated rivers, no credible historical, morphological or process-based reference reach exists. Resilient restoration designs should instead be framed around naturalization, using multiple analytical references derived from empirically-calibrated field- and model-based techniques to develop an integrated ecological reference condition. This requires baseline data which are rarely collected despite increasing evidence for systematic deficiencies in restoration practice. We illustrate the utility of baseline data collection in restoration planning for the highly fragmented and regulated lower Merced River, California, USA. The restoration design was developed using various baseline data surveys, monitoring, and modeling within an adaptive management framework. Baseline data assisted in transforming conceptual models of ecosystem function into specific restoration challenges, defining analytical references of the expected relationships among ecological parameters required for restoration, and specifying performance criteria for post-project monitoring and evaluation. In this way the study is an example of process-based morphological restoration designed to prompt recovery of ecosystem processes and resilience. For the Merced River, we illustrate that project-specific baseline data collection is a necessary precursor in developing performance-based restoration designs and addressing scale-related uncertainties, such as whether periodic gravel augmentation will sustain bed recovery and whether piecemeal efforts will improve ecological integrity. Given the numerous impediments to full, historical, restoration in many river systems, it seems apparent that projects of naturalization are a critical step in reducing the deleterious impacts of fragmented rivers

  9. Are sawfishes still present in Mozambique? A baseline ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeney, Ruth H

    2017-01-01

    Sawfishes (Pristidae) were formerly abundant in the western Indian Ocean, but current data on sawfish presence and distribution are lacking for most of the region. This paper summarises historical records of sawfishes in Mozambican waters and presents the findings of the first assessment of the presence and status of sawfishes in Mozambique. A countrywide baseline assessment was undertaken between May and July 2014, using interviews with artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fishers, fish traders and fisheries monitoring staff as the primary source of information on sawfish distribution, recent catches, socio-economic value and cultural importance. Additional interviews were conducted via email or telephone with individuals running sport fishing operations or who otherwise had considerable experience interacting with the fishing sectors or the marine environment in Mozambique. Where encountered, sawfish rostra were photographed and a series of measurements and associated data were collected. In total, 200 questionnaire surveys and seven interviews with recreational fishing and dive operators were conducted, and 19 rostra were documented from museum archives and private collections, belonging to two sawfish species, the Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis) and Green Sawfish (P. zijsron). The most recent captures of sawfishes were reported to have occurred in 2014. Two key sites were identified where both recent encounters were reported and numerous Largetooth Sawfish rostra were documented. Gill nets were the fishing gear most commonly attributed to sawfish catches. Sawfishes did not hold any cultural importance in Mozambique, but they have at least some socio-economic importance to artisanal fishers, primarily through the sale of their fins. The meat did not appear to be held in high regard and was usually consumed locally. Sampling and further research is now required to confirm the presence of sawfishes and to assess the primary threats to sawfishes in those

  10. Advanced Neonatal Medicine in China: A National Baseline Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipenda-Dansokho, Selma; Lewin, Antoine; Abdelouahab, Nadia; Wei, Shu-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Previous surveys of neonatal medicine in China have not collected comprehensive information on workforce, investment, health care practice, and disease expenditure. The goal of the present study was to develop a national database of neonatal care units and compare present outcomes data in conjunction with health care practices and costs. We summarized the above components by extracting data from the databases of the national key clinical subspecialty proposals issued by national health authority in China, as well as publicly accessible databases. Sixty-one newborn clinical units from provincial or ministerial hospitals at the highest level within local areas in mainland China, were included for the study. Data were gathered for three consecutive years (2008–2010) in 28 of 31 provincial districts in mainland China. Of the 61 newborn units in 2010, there were 4,948 beds (median = 62 [IQR 43–110]), 1,369 physicians (median = 22 [IQR 15–29]), 3,443 nurses (median = 52 [IQR 33–81]), and 170,159 inpatient discharges (median = 2,612 [IQR 1,436–3,804]). During 2008–2010, the median yearly investment for a single newborn unit was US$344,700 (IQR 166,100–585,800), median length of hospital stay for overall inpatient newborns 9.5 (IQR 8.2–10.8) days, median inpatient antimicrobial drug use rate 68.7% (IQR 49.8–87.0), and median nosocomial infection rate 3.2% (IQR1.7–5.4). For the common newborn diseases of pneumonia, sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, and very low birth weight (hospital stay, daily costs, hospital costs, ratios of hospital cost to per-capita disposable income, and ratios of hospital cost to per-capita health expenditure, were all significantly different across regions (North China, Northeast China, East China, South Central China, Southwest China, and Northwest China). The survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (Birth weight hospitals where each unit had more than 20 admissions of ELBW infants in 2010; and the

  11. Baseline survey B11-5 on the German Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glorius, S.T.; Weide, van der B.E.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    A consortium, consisting of Wintershall Holding GmbH, GdF Suez, RWE Dea and EWE AG, is planning an exploration well in block B11-5, located within the Doggerbank (N2000 area). In order to assess any effect from this activity on the biological, physical and chemical properties of the seafloor Winters

  12. Ecological baseline survey of the Takoradi T2 expansion and a once ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    electricity generation and distribution has diversified the source of power ... Like all human endeavours, TPG has associated ecological ... The coastal zone of Ghana covers about 6.5% of the total area ... elevation of about 280 m above sea level (Garmin, GPSMAP 62). Collection of .... ecosystem of very viable populations.

  13. Baseline survey of anthropogenic pressures for the Lac Bay ecosystem, Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Lac Bay of Bonaire is a shallow non-estuarine lagoon of about 700 hectares, separated from the open sea by a shallow coral barrier-reef. It possesses the only major concentration of seagrass beds and mangroves of the island. It is a designated Ramsar wetland of international significance, an

  14. Baseline Survey for an Assessment of the Nitrate Problematic in Divjaka Region of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIA PLOECHL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available the whole EU legislation has to be implemented into Albanian law. Thus, the limit value of the nitrate concentration in groundwater is defined with 50 mg/l according to the EU Groundwater Directive. However, in a definite region in Albania that is called Divjaka area it is assumed that this limit value is exceeded due to intensive agricultural land use, whereas no measurements are currently available. Therefore, simulation results of the nitrogen discharge model EPIC are presented, including the annual nitrogen leaching and the nitrate concentration in percolation water. As the latter exceeded the limit value, the findings at least indicate the necessity to monitor groundwater quality as basis for further studies and potential measures to avoid pollution.

  15. Environmental Baseline Survey, Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado. Volume II - Appendices A-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    QUENTIN ST 128 F104 80011 1.28 NNW FINDS C00000710681 ALPHA MFG 3250 QUENTIN ST STE 136 F105 80011 1.28 NNW FINDS m 0000902 CHIPS DISTRIBUTING 2290...COD100711514 CRAWFORD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 1600 FLORENCE ST AURORA 3 80010 COD149382491 DAISY FABRICARE CENTER 9677 MONTVIEW BLVD AURORA 3 80010 C00000077180... FABRICARE CTR 1,3 9677 MONTVIEW BLVD AURORA 80010 COD149382491 ALKE’S LAUNDRY & DRY CLEANING INC. 1,3 8935 E COLFAX AVE AURORA 80010 CO0000077180 DD

  16. Baseline survey of concentrations of toxaphene congeners in fish from European waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHugh, B.; McGovern, E.; Nixon, E.; Klungsoeyr, J.; Rimkus, G.G.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Boer, de J.

    2004-01-01

    The European Union project "Investigation into the monitoring, analysis and toxicity of toxaphene'' ( MATT) began in 1997 involving participants from the Netherlands, Ireland, Norway and Germany. Concentration information, analytical methodology and statistical interpretation of 207 samples covering

  17. Environmental Baseline Survey for Three Sites at TRW Capistrano Test Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    INDUSTRIAS SAN CLEMENTE CA HAZNET 92672 S103676214 EOT 920 CALLE NEGOCIO STE C ** SAN CLEMENTE CA HAZNET 92672 S100630239 CAL000097651 EOT 920-C CALLE NEGOCIO ...S103676442 MINUTE MAN PRESS 927 CALLE NEGOCIO STE B ** SAN CLEMENTE CA HAZNET 92672 1000596240 I09#19901001 BIO-CURE, INC 927 CALLE NEGOCLO SAN CLEMENTE CA...FINDS 92672 S100940137 CAL923035804 MINUTE MAN PRESS 927-B CALLE NEGOCIO SAN CLEMENTE CA HAZNET 92672 S103676562 CAL000078683 FULL TILT OFF-ROAD

  18. Environmental Baseline Survey for JP-8 Pipeline Route Nellis Air Force Base Las Vegas, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Nellis AFB Monitoring well location and IRP site status Jim Pedrick Site inspection, IRP site status (702) 652-6103 Chief, Engineering, 99th CES/CEV...Manager 5 ST-27 trailer in Area III 644-7630 Bernd Schmidt IRP Manager 3 Nellis AFB EM 652-2882 Jim Pedrick EM Manager 5 Nellis AFB EM 652-6103...Contact Name Title Years Associated with Building Shop Name Telephone Number Bernd Schmidt IRP Manager 3 Nellis AFB EM 652-2882 Jim Pedrick EM Manager 5

  19. Environmental Assessment/Baseline Survey to Establish New Drop Zone (DZ) in Cadiz, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, or some other race. Information on minority populations based on the 2000 U.S...Division, 2008. Ecoregions of Indiana and Ohio http://www.epa.gov/ wed /pages/ecoregions/ohin_eco.htm U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1994. Military

  20. Creech Air Force Base Resort Property in Indian Springs, Nevada. Environmental Baseline Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    from the irrigation well system reacted vigorously with the hydrochloric acid (HCl) used to preserve the samples. This reaction to HCl was likely due...United States Post Office and a pizza place/bar. The casino was constru cted in 1984, the motel in 1988, and the Chevron station in 1989. Mr. Becker was...D Fed. Land Use: Wilde mess Areas, Wildlife Preserves .................... . Fed

  1. Envirenmental Baseline Survey, Manch Manor Housing Area, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Contact Contact Telephone Number: No Does not represent a Maquiladora (Mexican Facility) Active Not reported G & 0 Transportation, Inc. Not reported...NV Not reported No No Yes No Does not represent a Maquiladora (Mexican Facility) Active Not reported G & 0 Transportation, Inc. Not reported...rf!pOrt<>c1 No No Yes No Does not represent a Maquiladora (Mexican Facility) Active TC736310.3s Page4of47 MapiD Direction Distance Distance

  2. Investigation of neutrino oscillations in the T2k long-baseline accelerator experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izmaylov, A. O., E-mail: izmaylov@inr.ru; Yershov, N. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Matveev, V. A.; Mineev, O. V.; Musienko, Yu. V.; Khabibulliun, M. M.; Khotjantsev, A. N.; Shaykhiev, A. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    High-sensitivity searches for transitions of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos are the main task of the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) second-generation long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The present article is devoted to describing basic principles of T2K, surveying experimental apparatuses that it includes, and considering in detail the muon-range detector (SMRD) designed and manufactured by a group of physicists from the Institute of Nuclear Research (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The results of the first measurements with a neutrino beam are presented, and plans for the near future are discussed.

  3. Baseline inventory data recommendations for National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team recommends that each refuge have available abiotic “data layers” for topography, aerial photography, hydrography, soils, boundaries, and...

  4. Baseline Biomarkers for Outcome of Melanoma Patients Treated with Pembrolizumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Berking, Carola; Postow, Michael A.; Bisschop, Kees; Simeone, Ester; Mangana, Johanna; Schilling, Bastian; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Brenner, Nicole; Kaehler, Katharina; Heinzerling, Lucie; Gutzmer, Ralf; Bender, Armin; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Romano, Emanuela; Meier, Friedegund; Martus, Peter; Maio, Michele; Blank, Christian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Ascierto, Paolo A.; Hospers, Geke; Garbe, Claus; Wolchok, Jedd D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Biomarkers for outcome after immune-checkpoint blockade are strongly needed as these may influence individual treatment selection or sequence. We aimed to identify baseline factors associated with overall survival (OS) after pembrolizumab treatment in melanoma patients. Experimental Design:

  5. Baseline inventory data users guide to abiotic GIS layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team was chartered by the Fulfilling the Promises Implementation Team to recommend minimum abiotic and biotic inventories for the National...

  6. Butler Hollow Glades : Baseline assessment and vegetation monitoring establishment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several sampling and documentation protocols were implemented to establish baseline vegetation data. These data will provide a comparison point for future...

  7. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  8. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  9. Sterile Neutrino Fits to Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Conrad

    2013-01-01

    (3 + 2 and (3 + 3 fits, rather than (3 + 1 fits, for future neutrino oscillation phenomenology. These results motivate the pursuit of further short-baseline experiments, such as those reviewed in this paper.

  10. Baseline vegetation mapping : Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for the baseline vegetation mapping project on Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge. This project aims to create a vegetation map showing the...

  11. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arnay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle.

  12. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  13. MALDI-TOF Baseline Drift Removal Using Stochastic Bernstein Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic Bernstein (SB approximation can tackle the problem of baseline drift correction of instrumentation data. This is demonstrated for spectral data: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF data. Two SB schemes for removing the baseline drift are presented: iterative and direct. Following an explanation of the origin of the MALDI-TOF baseline drift that sheds light on the inherent difficulty of its removal by chemical means, SB baseline drift removal is illustrated for both proteomics and genomics MALDI-TOF data sets. SB is an elegant signal processing method to obtain a numerically straightforward baseline shift removal method as it includes a free parameter that can be optimized for different baseline drift removal applications. Therefore, research that determines putative biomarkers from the spectral data might benefit from a sensitivity analysis to the underlying spectral measurement that is made possible by varying the SB free parameter. This can be manually tuned (for constant or tuned with evolutionary computation (for .

  14. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  15. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: study design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥ 28 kg/m2, 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases.

  16. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  17. The American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study 3 (CPS-3): Recruitment, study design, and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alpa V; Jacobs, Eric J; Dudas, Daniela M; Briggs, Peter J; Lichtman, Cari J; Bain, Elizabeth B; Stevens, Victoria L; McCullough, Marjorie L; Teras, Lauren R; Campbell, Peter T; Gaudet, Mia M; Kirkland, Elizabeth G; Rittase, Melissa H; Joiner, Nance; Diver, W Ryan; Hildebrand, Janet S; Yaw, Nancy C; Gapstur, Susan M

    2017-06-01

    Prospective cohort studies contribute importantly to understanding the role of lifestyle, genetic, and other factors in chronic disease etiology. The American Cancer Society (ACS) recruited a new prospective cohort study, Cancer Prevention Study 3 (CPS-3), between 2006 and 2013 from 35 states and Puerto Rico. Enrollment took place primarily at ACS community events and at community enrollment "drives." At enrollment sites, participants completed a brief survey that included an informed consent, identifying information necessary for follow-up, and key exposure information. They also provided a waist measure and a nonfasting blood sample. Most participants also completed a more comprehensive baseline survey at home that included extensive medical, lifestyle, and other information. Participants will be followed for incident cancers through linkage with state cancer registries and for cause-specific mortality through linkage with the National Death Index. In total, 303,682 participants were enrolled. Of these, 254,650 completed the baseline survey and are considered "fully" enrolled; they will be sent repeat surveys periodically for at least the next 20 years to update exposure information. The remaining participants (n = 49,032) will not be asked to update exposure information but will be followed for outcomes. Twenty-three percent of participants were men, 17.3% reported a race or ethnicity other than "white," and the median age at enrollment was 47 years. CPS-3 will be a valuable resource for studies of cancer and other outcomes because of its size; its diversity with respect to age, ethnicity, and geography; and the availability of blood samples and detailed questionnaire information collected over time. Cancer 2017;123:2014-2024. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Pensacola, Florida, to Breton Islands, Louisiana, February 7, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Doran, Kara; Guy, Kristy K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On February 7, 2012, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Pensacola, Fla., to Breton Islands, La., aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. The photographs provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of the feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photos document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. The header of each photo is populated with time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, GPS position (latitude and longitude), keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information using EXIFtools (Subino and others, 2012). Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet. Table 1 provides detailed information about the assigned location, name, data, and time the photograph was taken along with links to the photograph. In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail. The KML files were created using the photographic navigation files (see the Photos and Maps page).

  19. Linearization problem in pseudolite surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellmer, Slawomir; Rapinski, Jacek

    2010-06-01

    GPS augmented with pseudolites (PL), can be used in various engineering surveys. Also pseudolite—only navigation system can be designed and used in any place, even if GPS signal is not available (Kee et al. Development of indoor navigation system using asynchronous pseudolites, 1038-1045, 2000). Especially in engineering surveys, where harsh survey environment is common, pseudolites have a lot of applications. Pseudolites may be used in construction sites, open pit mines, city canyons, GPS and PL baseline processing is similar, although there are few differences that must be taken into account. One of the major issues is linearization problem. The source of the problem is neglecting second terms of Taylor series expansion in GPS baseline processing software. This problem occurs when the pseudolite is relatively close to the receiver, which is the case in PL surveys. In this paper authors presents the algorithm for GPS + PL data processing including, neglected in classical GPS only approach, second terms of Taylor series expansion. The mathematical model of adjustment problem, detailed proposal of application in baseline processing algorithms, and numerical tests are presented.

  20. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  1. Way to increase the user access at the LCLS baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    The LCLS beam is meant for a single user, but the baseline undulator is long enough to serve two users simultaneously. To this end, we propose a setup composed of two elements: an X-ray mirrors pair for X-ray beam deflection, and a 4 m-long magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for mirrors pair installation in the middle of the baseline undulator. The insertable mirrors pair can separate spatially the X-ray beams generated in the first and in the second half of the baseline undulator. Rapid switching of the FEL amplification process allows deactivating one half and activating another half of the undulator. As proposed elsewhere, using a kicker installed upstream of the LCLS baseline undulator and an already existing corrector in the first half of the undulator, it is possible to rapidly switch the X-ray beam from one user to another. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline, and show that it is possible to generate two saturated SASE X-ray beams in the whole 0.8-8 keV photon energy range in the...

  2. Deformation Monitoring of the Submillimetric UPV Calibration Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Asenjo, Luis; Baselga, Sergio; Garrigues, Pascual

    2017-06-01

    A 330 m calibration baseline was established at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) in 2007. Absolute scale was subsequently transferred in 2012 from the Nummela Standard Baseline in Finland and distances between pillars were determined with uncertainties ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.3 mm. In order to assess the long-term stability of the baseline three field campaigns were carried out from 2013 to 2015 in a co-operative effort with the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), which provided the only Mekometer ME5000 distance meter available in Spain. Since the application of the ISO17123-4 full procedure did not suffice to come to a definite conclusion about possible displacements of the pillars, we opted for the traditional geodetic network approach. This approach had to be adapted to the case at hand in order to deal with problems such as the geometric weakness inherent to calibration baselines and scale uncertainty derived from both the use of different instruments and the high correlation between the meteorological correction and scale determination. Additionally, the so-called the maximum number of stable points method was also tested. In this contribution it is described the process followed to assess the stability of the UPV submillimetric calibration baseline during the period of time from 2012 to 2015.

  3. Detection of abrupt baseline length changes using cumulative sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic processes are usually monitored by collecting a time series of observations, which is then analysed in order to detect any motion or non-standard behaviour. Geodetic examples include the monitoring of dams, bridges, high-rise buildings, landslides, volcanoes and tectonic motion. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) test is recognised as a popular means to detect changes in the mean and/or the standard deviation of a time series and has been applied to various monitoring tasks. This paper briefly describes the CUSUM technique and how it can be utilised for the detection of small baseline length changes by differencing two perpendicular baselines sharing a common site. A simulation is carried out in order to investigate the expected behaviour of the resulting CUSUM charts for a variety of typical deformation monitoring scenarios. This simulation shows that using first differences (between successive epochs) as input, rather than the original baseline lengths, produces clear peaks or jumps in the differenced CUSUM time series when a sudden change in baseline length occurs. These findings are validated by analysing several GPS baseline pairs of a network deployed to monitor the propagation of an active ice shelf rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica.

  4. Combined GPS + BDS for short to long baseline RTK positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolinski, R.; Teunissen, P. J. G.; Odijk, D.

    2015-04-01

    The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has become fully operational in the Asia-Pacific region and it is of importance to evaluate what BDS brings when combined with the Global Positioning System (GPS). In this contribution we will look at the short, medium and long single-baseline real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning performance. Short baseline refers to when the distance between the two receivers is at most a few kilometers so that the relative slant ionospheric and tropospheric delays can be assumed absent, whereas with medium baseline we refer to when the uncertainty of these ionospheric delays can reliably be modeled as a function of the baseline length. With long baseline we refer to the necessity to parameterize the ionospheric delays and (wet) Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) as completely unknown. The GNSS real data are collected in Perth, Australia. It will be shown that combining the two systems allows for the use of higher than customary elevation cut-off angles. This can be of particular benefit in environments with restricted satellite visibility such as in open pit mines or urban canyons.

  5. Multiproject baselines for evaluation of electric power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; Lefranc, Maurice; Roy, Joyashree; Winkler, Harald; Spalding-Fecher, Randall

    2003-03-12

    Calculating greenhouse gas emissions reductions from climate change mitigation projects requires construction of a baseline that sets emissions levels that would have occurred without the project. This paper describes a standardized multiproject methodology for setting baselines, represented by the emissions rate (kg C/kWh), for electric power projects. A standardized methodology would reduce the transaction costs of projects. The most challenging aspect of setting multiproject emissions rates is determining the vintage and types of plants to include in the baseline and the stringency of the emissions rates to be considered, in order to balance the desire to encourage no- or low-carbon projects while maintaining environmental integrity. The criteria for selecting power plants to include in the baseline depend on characteristics of both the project and the electricity grid it serves. Two case studies illustrate the application of these concepts to the electric power grids in eastern India and South Africa. We use hypothetical, but realistic, climate change projects in each country to illustrate the use of the multiproject methodology, and note the further research required to fully understand the implications of the various choices in constructing and using these baselines.

  6. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  7. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  8. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  9. Shoulder functional performance status of National Collegiate Athletic Association swimmers: baseline Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, Lucas; Fronek, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Shoulder trouble, described in the literature as "swimmer's shoulder," has been associated with competitive swimmers. The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow Score is a validated survey used to define functional and performance measures of the upper extremity in overhead athletes. To date, no study has investigated the baseline functional scores for swimmers actively competing in the sport. To establish a baseline score for National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) swimmers actively competing in the sport. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. After institutional review board approval, the KJOC Shoulder and Elbow Score was administered to 5 NCAA swim teams (N = 99 participants; 46 men, 53 women). The results on 10 specific individual questions and on the total score were calculated according to the survey's original description. The mean scores were calculated for all participants. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences between sexes, years swimming, and self-reported injury status. The mean ± SD baseline KJOC score (out of a possible 100) for all participants was 79.0 ± 18.7; the mean score for men was 81.9 ± 15.6 and for women 76.6 ± 20.8. The score for athletes identifying themselves as injured at baseline was 53.9 ± 18.8, compared with 84.4 ± 13.6 for those not reporting as injured (P < .001). Athletes competing ≥11 years had a mean score of 72.0 ± 22.1; those competing ≤10 years scored 86.4 ± 11.4 (P = .007). Baseline scores for swimmers, which were lower than expected, were lower than baseline scores seen in studies of other overhead sports athletes. The data corroborate previous studies identifying swimmers as having a high level of shoulder trouble. Further research is indicated for improving shoulder symptoms and performance in competitive swimmers. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Association of Fetal Heart Rate Baseline Change and Neonatal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael; Stout, Molly J; López, Julia D; Colvin, Ryan; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2017-07-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of baseline change within normal range during labor and its prediction of neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cohort of singleton, nonanomalous, term neonates with continuous electronic fetal monitoring and normal baseline fetal heart rate throughout the last 2 hours of labor. We determined baseline in 10-minute segments using Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development criteria. We evaluated baseline changes of ≥ 20 and ≥ 30 bpm for association with acidemia (umbilical cord arterial pH ≤ 7.10) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis of normal neonates, excluding those with acidemia, NICU admission, or 5-minute Apgar bpm; 272 (9.0%) had ≥ 30 bpm. Among normal neonates (n = 2,939), 1,221 (41.5%) had change ≥20 bpm. Acidemia was not associated with baseline change of any direction or magnitude. NICU admission was associated with decrease ≥ 20 bpm (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19 - 7.21) or any direction ≥ 20 bpm (aOR: 4.06; 95% CI: 1.46-11.29). For decrease ≥ 20 bpm, sensitivity and specificity were 40.0 and 81.7%; for any direction ≥ 20 bpm, 75.0 and 58.3%. Conclusion Changes of normal baseline are common in term labor and poorly predict morbidity, regardless of direction or magnitude. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Detecting dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Pei-Hong; BI Xiao-Jun; FENG Bo; YOUNG Bing-Lin; ZHANG Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a possibility of studying properties of dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We consider two types of models of neutrino dark energy. For one type of models the scalar field is taken to be quintessence-like and for the other phantom-like. In these models the scalar fields couple to the neutrinos to give rise to spatially varying neutrino masses. We will show that the two types of models predict different behaviors of the spatial variation of the neutrino masses inside the Earth and consequently result in different signals in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  12. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayato, Yoshinari [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have been playing important roles in revealing the nature of neutrinos. However, it turned out that the current experiments are not sufficient to study two major remaining problems, the CP violation in the lepton sector and the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. Therefore, several new experiments have been proposed. Among of them, two accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, the J-PARC neutrino beam and Hyper-Kamiokande, and MOMENT, have been proposed in Asia. These two projects are reviewed in this article.

  13. Solar central electric power generation - A baseline design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the conceptual technical baseline design of a solar electric power plant using the central receiver concept, and derives credible cost estimates from the baseline design. The major components of the plant - heliostats, tower, receiver, tower piping, and thermal storage - are discussed in terms of technical and cost information. The assumed peak plant output is 215 MW(e), over 4000 daylight hours. The contribution of total capital investment to energy cost is estimated to be about 55 mills per kwh in mid-1974 dollars.

  14. Intermediate baseline appearance experiments and three-neutrino mixing schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Cardall, C Y; Cline, D; Cardall, Christian Y.; Fuller, George M.; Cline, David

    1997-01-01

    Three-neutrino mixing schemes suggested by Cardall \\& Fuller and Acker \\& Pakvasa are compared and contrasted. Both of these schemes seek to solve the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems {\\em and} to account for the possible neutrino oscillation signal in the LSND experiment. These neutrino oscillation schemes have different atmospheric and solar neutrino signatures that will be discriminated by Super-Kamiokande and SNO. They will also have different signatures in proposed long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments. In particular, both of these schemes would give dramatic (and dramatically different) signals in an ``intermediate baseline'' experiment, such as the proposed ICARUS detector in the Jura mountains 17 km from CERN.

  15. Subtracting Technique of Baselines for Capillary Electrophoresis Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; MO Jin-yuan; CHEN Zuan-guang; GAO Yan

    2004-01-01

    The drifting baselines of capillary electrophoresis affect the veracity of analysis greatly. This paper presents Threshold Fitting Technique(TFT) so as to subtract the baselines from the original signals and emendate the signals. In TFT, wav elet and curve fitting technique are applied synthetically, thresholds are decided by the computer automatically. Many experiments of signal processing indicate that TFT is simple for being used, there are few man-induced factors, and the results are satisfactory. TFT can be applied for noisy signals without any pre-processing.

  16. EQUIVALENT BASELINE AND INTERFEROMETRIC PHASE OF CLUSTER SATELLITE SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Min; Zhang Chuanwu; Huang Shunji

    2005-01-01

    The change of the equivalent baseline and interferometric phase of cluster SAR satellites is analyzed when the constellation circles around the Earth and the satellites rotate around the center at the same time. The letter provides assessment of baseline error and phase error which influence the precision of height measurement in the across-track interferometric mode. The mathematical model of cluster satellite movement is built, simulation analyses and the curve of height error are presented. The simulation results show that height measurement error can be compensated by the formulae derived in this letter, therefore, the Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) are recovered accurately.

  17. Addendum to the 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This report serves as an addendum to the report 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report (Amidan, Follum, and Freeman, 2015). This addendum report investigates the following: the impact of shorter record lengths and of adding a daily regularization term to the date/time models for angle pair measurements, additional development of a method to monitor the trend in phase angle pairs, the effect of changing the length of time to determine a baseline, when calculating atypical events, and a comparison between quantitatively discovered atypical events and actual events.

  18. A baseline study of the health status of the residents in Kalapana, Hawaii, January--June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David B.; Arbeit, William, R.

    1988-08-01

    A community health survey was conducted during the first five months of 1987 in Kalapana, Hawaii. Some 676 residents were interviewed during the study, which represents some 82% of all households in the community. The goal was to obtain base-line data on the health status of all community residents and ambient air quality, in order to evaluate any changes in health status of residents after geothermal development in the area.

  19. Lanai Nonindigenous Marine Species Surveys 2005 (NODC Accession 0002650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A baseline survey of the marine biota of the island of Lanai was conducted in May 2005. This was first comprehensive study that has been made on this island for all...

  20. Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge contaminant survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of a baseline contaminant survey of all National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) in Missouri, fish were collected at the Squaw Creek NWR from Davis and Squaw creeks...

  1. ECG baseline wander reduction using linear phase filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsté, van J.A.; Eck, van W.; Hermann, O.E.

    1986-01-01

    The continuous real time reduction of baseline wander is a considerable problem in electrocardiography during exercises. Our solution consists of spectral filtering. The legitimacy of high-pass filtering of the ECG by means of digital linear phase filters with a low cut-off frequency as high as the

  2. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  3. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  4. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  5. Treatment decisions based on scalar and functional baseline covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Adam; Petkova, Eva; Ogden, R Todd; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2015-12-01

    The amount and complexity of patient-level data being collected in randomized-controlled trials offer both opportunities and challenges for developing personalized rules for assigning treatment for a given disease or ailment. For example, trials examining treatments for major depressive disorder are not only collecting typical baseline data such as age, gender, or scores on various tests, but also data that measure the structure and function of the brain such as images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), or electroencephalography (EEG). These latter types of data have an inherent structure and may be considered as functional data. We propose an approach that uses baseline covariates, both scalars and functions, to aid in the selection of an optimal treatment. In addition to providing information on which treatment should be selected for a new patient, the estimated regime has the potential to provide insight into the relationship between treatment response and the set of baseline covariates. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of "advantage learning" to include both scalar and functional covariates. We describe our method and how to implement it using existing software. Empirical performance of our method is evaluated with simulated data in a variety of settings and also applied to data arising from a study of patients with major depressive disorder from whom baseline scalar covariates as well as functional data from EEG are available.

  6. The Dutch CAFE baseline: In or out of line?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink BA; Folkert RJM; Thomas R; Beck JP; Eerdt MM van; Elzenga HE; Hoek KW van der; Hoen A; Peek CJ; LED; KMD; NMD; LVM; RIM; LDL

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is constructing a strategy on air pollution within the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. This strategy will be based on assessments using the RAINS model for different policy ambitions where the CAFE baseline scenario and control strategies are employed. The Netherlands

  7. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  8. An Overview of the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Vlahakis, C; Corder, S; Remijan, A; Barkats, D; Lucas, R; Hunter, T R; Brogan, C L; Asaki, Y; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Hills, R E; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Cox, P; Amestica, R; Broguiere, D; Cotton, W; Hales, A S; Hiriart, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kern, J; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Marcelino, N; Marson, R; Mignano, A; Nakanishi, K; Nikolic, B; Perez, J E; Pérez, L M; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Butler, B; Cortes, J; Cortes, P; Dhawan, V; Di Francesco, J; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Mangum, J; Marconi, G; Nagai, H; Nyman, L -A; Perley, R; Radiszcz, M; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; van Kempen, T; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Gueth, F; Tatematsu, K; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Chapillon, E; Dumas, G; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hibbard, J E; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Martin, S; Maud, L; Morales, F; Pietu, V; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Whyborn, N; Zwaan, M A; Alves, F; Andreani, P; Avison, A; Barta, M; Bedosti, F; Bendo, G J; Bertoldi, F; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A; Boissier, J; Brand, J; Burkutean, S; Casasola, V; Conway, J; Cortese, L; Dabrowski, B; Davis, T A; Trigo, M Diaz; Fontani, F; Franco-Hernandez, R; Fuller, G; Madrid, R Galvan; Giannetti, A; Ginsburg, A; Graves, S F; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hogerheijde, M; Jachym, P; Serra, I Jimenez; Karlicky, M; Klaasen, P; Kraus, M; Kunneriath, D; Lagos, C; Longmore, S; Leurini, S; Maercker, M; Magnelli, B; Vidal, I Marti; Massardi, M; Maury, A; Muehle, S; Muller, S; Muxlow, T; O'Gorman, E; Paladino, R; Petry, D; Pineda, J; Randall, S; Richer, J S; Rossetti, A; Rushton, A; Rygl, K; Monge, A Sanchez; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Stanke, T; Schmalzl, M; Stoehr, F; Urban, S; van Kampen, E; Vlemmings, W; Wang, K; Wild, W; Yang, Y; Iguchi, S; Hasegawa, T; Saito, M; Inatani, J; Mizuno, N; Asayama, S; Kosugi, G; Morita, K -I; Chiba, K; Kawashima, S; Okumura, S K; Ohashi, N; Ogasawara, R; Sakamoto, S; Noguchi, T; Huang, Y -D; Liu, S -Y; Kemper, F; Koch, P M; Chen, M -T; Chikada, Y; Hiramatsu, M; Iono, D; Shimojo, M; Komugi, S; Kim, J; Lyo, A -R; Muller, E; Herrera, C; Miura, R E; Ueda, J; Chibueze, J; Su, Y -N; Trejo-Cruz, A; Wang, K -S; Kiuchi, H; Ukita, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawabe, R; Hayashi, M; Miyama, S; Ho, P T P; Kaifu, N; Ishiguro, M; Beasley, A J; Bhatnagar, S; Braatz, J A; Brisbin, D G; Brunetti, N; Carilli, C; Crossley, J H; D'Addario, L; Meyer, J L Donovan; Emerson, D T; Evans, A S; Fisher, P; Golap, K; Griffith, D M; Hale, A E; Halstead, D; Hardy, E J; Hatz, M C; Holdaway, M; Indebetouw, R; Jewell, P R; Kepley, A A; Kim, D -C; Lacy, M D; Leroy, A K; Liszt, H S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, B; McKinnon, M; Mason, B S; Moellenbrock, G; Moullet, A; Myers, S T; Ott, J; Peck, A B; Pisano, J; Radford, S J E; Randolph, W T; Venkata, U Rao; Rawlings, M; Rosen, R; Schnee, S L; Scott, K S; Sharp, N K; Sheth, K J; Simon, R S; Tsutsumi, T; Wood, S J

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long...

  9. THE FIRST VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRIC SETI EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M., E-mail: hayden.rampadarath@icrar.org [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hr at 1230-1544 MHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The data set was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW Hz{sup -1} on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI including follow-up observations. The techniques presented are equally applicable to next-generation interferometers, such as the long baselines of the Square Kilometre Array.

  10. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  11. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  12. Attendance at Health Promotion Programs: Baseline Predictors and Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Catherine J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    As part of a family cardiovascular health promotion project, 111 Mexican-American and 95 Anglo-American families with fifth or sixth grade children were assigned to either a primary prevention program involving 18 sessions or to a control condition. Correlates of attendance were low baseline scores on physical activity and cardiovascular fitness…

  13. International Space Station EXPRESS Pallet. Ground Demonstration Baseline Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This publication is comprised of the viewgraphs from the presentations of the EXPRESS Pallet Baseline Design Review meeting held July 20, 1995. Individual presentations addressed general requirements and objectives; mechanical, electrical, and data systems; software; operations and KSC (Kennedy Space Center) integration; payload candidates; thermal considerations; ground vs. flight demo; and recommended actions.

  14. Magical properties of 2540 km baseline Superbeam Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umasankar, Sankagiri; Raut, Sushant [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology - I.I.T. Bombay, Mumbai, 400076 Maharashtra (India); Singh, Ravi Shanker [Department of Physics, Barus-Holley building, 184 Hope Street, Brown University, Box 1843, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The determination if the neutrino mixing matrix and mass-squared differences is one of the aims of neutrino physics today. This is a complicated affair, owing to the various parameter degeneracies. While the proposed 7500 km long 'magic baseline' experiment simplifies the task considerably, the intense beam required for such an experiment seems futuristic by current standards. As an alternative, we highlight the 'magical' properties of the 2540 km baseline. We propose a Superbeam experiment at this much shorter baseline with a narrow band NuMI-like beam, and demonstrate the ability of this single setup to distinguish between the two mass hierarchies. This, we show, is possible with a moderate exposure and by running the experiment in the neutrino mode only. Our results hold up to fairly small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and irrespective of the value of the CP violating parameter. Unlike the magic baseline, it may also be possible to use this setup to measure CP violation in neutrino oscillation experiments. (authors)

  15. Baseline correction of intraoperative electromyography using discrete wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampp, Stefan; Prell, Julian; Thielemann, Henning; Posch, Stefan; Strauss, Christian; Romstöck, Johann

    2007-08-01

    In intraoperative analysis of electromygraphic signals (EMG) for monitoring purposes, baseline artefacts frequently pose considerable problems. Since artefact sources in the operating room can only be reduced to a limited degree, signal-processing methods are needed to correct the registered data online without major changes to the relevant data itself. We describe a method for baseline correction based on "discrete wavelet transform" (DWT) and evaluate its performance compared to commonly used digital filters. EMG data from 10 patients who underwent removal of acoustic neuromas were processed. Effectiveness, preservation of relevant EMG patterns and processing speed of a DWT based correction method was assessed and compared to a range of commonly used Butterworth, Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian filters. Butterworth and DWT filters showed better performance regarding artefact correction and pattern preservation compared to Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian filters. Assuming equal weighting of both characteristics, DWT outperformed the other methods: While Butterworth, Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian provided good pattern preservation, the effectiveness was low and vice versa, while DWT baseline correction at level 6 performed well in both characteristics. The DWT method allows reliable and efficient intraoperative baseline correction in real-time. It is superior to commonly used methods and may be crucial for intraoperative analysis of EMG data, for example for intraoperative assessment of facial nerve function.

  16. The Dutch CAFE baseline: In or out of line?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink BA; Folkert RJM; Thomas R; Beck JP; Eerdt MM van; Elzenga HE; Hoek KW van der; Hoen A; Peek CJ; LED; KMD; NMD; LVM; RIM; LDL

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is constructing a strategy on air pollution within the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. This strategy will be based on assessments using the RAINS model for different policy ambitions where the CAFE baseline scenario and control strategies are employed. The Netherlands

  17. Baseline design of an OTEC pilot plantship. Volume C. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosten, L. R.; Bringloe, Thomas; Soracco, Dave; Fenstermacher, Earl; Magura, Donald; Sander, Olof; Richards, Dennis; Seward, Jerry

    1979-05-01

    Volume C is part of a three-volume report that presents a baseline engineering design of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plantship. This volume provides the specifications for the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers.

  18. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  19. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Eleventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.; Wagner, C.E.

    1975-07-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed initial heat balance testing of a baseline engine. An additional 450 hours were run on ceramic regenerators and seals. Seal wear rates are very good, and the elastomeric mounting system was satisfactory. An engine/control oil supply system based on the power steering pump is successfully operating in baseline vehicles. The design of the upgraded engine power turbine nozzle actuator was finalized, and layouts of the inlet guide vane actuator are in process. A lock-up torque converter was installed in the free rotor vehicle. Baseline engine and vehicle testing of water injection and variable inlet guide vanes was completed. A thermal analysis of the gas generator is in process. A steady-state, full power analysis was made. A three-dimensional stress analysis of the compressor cover was made. The power turbine nozzle actuating system layout was completed. The analytical studies of the power turbine rotor bearings were completed. MTI completed the design of the gas generator rotor simulation fixture and is starting to build it. Optimized reduction gears were successfully tested in a baseline engine.

  20. The Second VLBA Calibrator Survey: VCS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomalont, E. B.; Petrov, L.; MacMillan, D. S.; Gordon, D.; Ma, C.

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Very Long Baseline Array Calibrator Survey, called VCS2, containing 276 sources. This survey fills in regions of the sky that were not completely covered by the previous VCS1 calibrator survey. The VCS2 survey includes calibrator sources near the Galactic plane, -30deganalysis of the group delays measured at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz using the Goddard Space Flight Center CALC/SOLVE package. From the VLBA snapshot observations, images of the calibrators are available, and each source is given a quality code for anticipated use. The VCS2 catalog is available from the NRAO Web site.

  1. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky has contracted with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build and operate a first-of-its-kind plant demonstrating the economic, environmental, socioeconomic and technical feasibility of the direct coal liquefaction process known as SRC-I. ICRC has made a massive commitment of time and expertise to design processes, plan and formulate policy, schedules, costs and technical drawings for all plant systems. These fully integrated plans comprise the Project Baseline and are the basis for all future detailed engineering, plant construction, operation, and other work set forth in the contract between ICRC and the DOE. Volumes I and II of the accompanying documents constitute the updated Project Baseline for the SRC-I two-stage liquefaction plant. International Coal Refining Company believes this versatile plant design incorporates the most advanced coal liquefaction system available in the synthetic fuels field. SRC-I two-stage liquefaction, as developed by ICRC, is the way of the future in coal liquefaction because of its product slate flexibility, high process thermal efficiency, and low consumption of hydrogen. The SRC-I Project Baseline design also has made important state-of-the-art advances in areas such as environmental control systems. Because of a lack of funding, the DOE has curtailed the total project effort without specifying a definite renewal date. This precludes the development of revised accurate and meaningful schedules and, hence, escalated project costs. ICRC has revised and updated the original Design Baseline to include in the technical documentation all of the approved but previously non-incorporated Category B and C and new Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals.

  2. Baseline Q-values for streams in intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Wall, David; Mellander, Per-Erik; Mechan, Sarah; Shortle, Ger

    2010-05-01

    The effectiveness of regulations introduced in Ireland in 2006 in response to the European Union Nitrates Directives for minimising nutrient loss to waterways from farms is being studied by Teagasc, the Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority as part of an Agricultural Catchments Programme from 2008 - 2011. The regulations in Ireland require that during winter, green cover is established and maintained on arable farms, manure is stored and not spread, ploughing is not conducted and that chemical fertiliser is not spread. The regulations also require buffer zones between fields and water courses when applying organic or chemical fertilisers and that nutrient application rates and timing match crop requirements. An upper limit for livestock manure loading of 170 kg ha-1 organic N each year is also set. The biophysical research component of the Agricultural Catchments Programme is focussed on quantifying nutrient source availability, surface and subsurface transport pathways and stream chemical water quality. A baseline description of stream ecological quality was also sought. Stream ecology was measured in autumn 2009 at 3-5 locations within four surface water catchments and at the spring emergence of a catchment underlain by karst limestone. Landuse in each catchment is dominated by medium to high intensity grassland or cereal farming and annual average rainfall ranges from 900 - 1200 mm. Surveys were conducted in 1st to 3rd order streams throughout each catchment at locations which had minimal observed point source inputs for 100m upstream, incomplete shade, a hard streambed substrate and riffle conditions suitable for the sampling methods. Benthic macroinvertebrates were identified and quantified and used to calculate the biological indices Small Stream Risk Score, Q-value, Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), Average Score Per Taxa (ASPT) and EQR (Observed Q-value/Reference Q-value). Diatom community assemblages were identified from samples

  3. ALMA Long Baseline Campaigns: Phase Characteristics of Atmosphere at Long Baselines in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Fomalont, Edward B.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Barkats, Denis; Hills, Richard E.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maud, Luke T.; Nikolic, Bojan; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Vlahakis, Catherine; Whyborn, Nicholas D.

    2017-03-01

    We present millimeter- and submillimeter-wave phase characteristics measured between 2012 and 2014 of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array long baseline campaigns. This paper presents the first detailed investigation of the characteristics of phase fluctuation and phase correction methods obtained with baseline lengths up to ∼15 km. The basic phase fluctuation characteristics can be expressed with the spatial structure function (SSF). Most of the SSFs show that the phase fluctuation increases as a function of baseline length, with a power-law slope of ∼0.6. In many cases, we find that the slope becomes shallower (average of ∼0.2–0.3) at baseline lengths longer than ∼1 km, namely showing a turn-over in SSF. These power law slopes do not change with the amount of precipitable water vapor (PWV), but the fitted constants have a weak correlation with PWV, so that the phase fluctuation at a baseline length of 10 km also increases as a function of PWV. The phase correction method using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) works well, especially for the cases where PWV > 1 {mm}, which reduces the degree of phase fluctuations by a factor of two in many cases. However, phase fluctuations still remain after the WVR phase correction, suggesting the existence of other turbulent constituent that cause the phase fluctuation. This is supported by occasional SSFs that do not exhibit any turn-over; these are only seen when the PWV is low (i.e., when the WVR phase correction works less effectively) or after WVR phase correction. This means that the phase fluctuation caused by this turbulent constituent is inherently smaller than that caused by water vapor. Since in these rare cases there is no turn-over in the SSF up to the maximum baseline length of ∼15 km, this turbulent constituent must have scale height of 10 km or more, and thus cannot be water vapor, whose scale height is around 1 km. Based on the characteristics, this large scale height turbulent constituent is

  4. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  5. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  6. Salud Mesoamérica 2015 Initiative: design, implementation, and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokdad, Ali H; Colson, Katherine Ellicott; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Palmisano, Erin B; Alfaro-Porras, Eyleen; Anderson, Brent W; Borgo, Marco; Desai, Sima; Gagnier, Marielle C; Gillespie, Catherine W; Giron, Sandra L; Haakenstad, Annie; Romero, Sonia López; Mateus, Julio; McKay, Abigail; Mokdad, Ali A; Murphy, Tasha; Naghavi, Paria; Nelson, Jennifer; Orozco, Miguel; Ranganathan, Dharani; Salvatierra, Benito; Schaefer, Alexandra; Usmanova, Gulnoza; Varela, Alejandro; Wilson, Shelley; Wulf, Sarah; Hernandez, Bernardo; Lozano, Rafael; Iriarte, Emma; Regalia, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Health has improved markedly in Mesoamerica, the region consisting of southern Mexico and Central America, over the past decade. Despite this progress, there remain substantial inequalities in health outcomes, access, and quality of medical care between and within countries. Poor, indigenous, and rural populations have considerably worse health indicators than national or regional averages. In an effort to address these health inequalities, the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 Initiative (SM2015), a results-based financing initiative, was established. For each of the eight participating countries, health targets were set to measure the progress of improvements in maternal and child health produced by the Initiative. To establish a baseline, we conducted censuses of 90,000 households, completed 20,225 household interviews, and surveyed 479 health facilities in the poorest areas of Mesoamerica. Pairing health facility and household surveys allows us to link barriers to care and health outcomes with health system infrastructure components and quality of health services. Indicators varied significantly within and between countries. Anemia was most prevalent in Panama and least prevalent in Honduras. Anemia varied by age, with the highest levels observed among children aged 0 to 11 months in all settings. Belize had the highest proportion of institutional deliveries (99%), while Guatemala had the lowest (24%). The proportion of women with four antenatal care visits with a skilled attendant was highest in El Salvador (90%) and the lowest in Guatemala (20%). Availability of contraceptives also varied. The availability of condoms ranged from 83% in Nicaragua to 97% in Honduras. Oral contraceptive pills and injectable contraceptives were available in just 75% of facilities in Panama. IUDs were observed in only 21.5% of facilities surveyed in El Salvador. These data provide a baseline of much-needed information for evidence-based action on health throughout Mesoamerica. Our baseline

  7. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  8. Long-Baseline Neutrino Physics in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Sacha E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NO{nu}A experiment will search for the transition {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented.

  9. Ultrasonic Techniques for Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debaditya

    This research presents ultrasonic techniques for baseline-free damage detection in structures in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Conventional SHM methods compare signals obtained from the pristine condition of a structure (baseline signals) with those from the current state, and relate certain changes in the signal characteristics to damage. While this approach has been successful in the laboratory, there are certain drawbacks of depending on baseline signals in real field applications. Data from the pristine condition are not available for most existing structures. Even if they are available, operational and environmental variations tend to mask the effect of damage on the signal characteristics. Most important, baseline measurements may become meaningless while assessing the condition of a structure after an extreme event such as an earthquake or a hurricane. Such events may destroy the sensors themselves and require installation of new sensors at different locations on the structure. Baseline-free structural damage detection can broaden the scope of SHM in the scenarios described above. A detailed discussion on the philosophy of baseline-free damage detection is provided in Chapter 1. Following this discussion, the research questions are formulated. The organization of this document and the major contributions of this research are also listed in this chapter. Chapter 2 describes a fully automated baseline-free technique for notch and crack detection in plates using a collocated pair of piezoelectric wafer transducers for measuring ultrasonic signals. Signal component corresponding to the damage induced mode-converted Lamb waves is extracted by processing the originally measured ultrasonic signals. The damage index is computed as a function of this mode-converted Lamb wave signal component. An over-determined system of Lamb wave measurements is used to find a least-square estimate of the measurement errors. This error estimate serves as the

  10. Statistical Mechanics of Node-perturbation Learning with Noisy Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato

    2017-02-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. It estimates the gradient of an objective function by using the change in the object function in response to the perturbation. The value of the objective function for an unperturbed output is called a baseline. Cho et al. proposed node-perturbation learning with a noisy baseline. In this paper, we report on building the statistical mechanics of Cho's model and on deriving coupled differential equations of order parameters that depict learning dynamics. We also show how to derive the generalization error by solving the differential equations of order parameters. On the basis of the results, we show that Cho's results are also apply in general cases and show some general performances of Cho's model.

  11. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  12. Hepatitis C treatment response kinetics and impact of baseline predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, M; Arnholm, B; Eilard, A

    2011-01-01

    Summary. The optimal duration of treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is highly variable but critical for achieving cure (sustained virological response, SVR). We prospectively investigated the impact of age, fibrosis, baseline viraemia and genotype on the early viral kinetics...... above 400 000 IU/mL were strongly associated with slower second phase declines of HCV RNA. Genotype 2/3 infections responded more rapidly than genotype 1, reaching week 4 negativity (RVR) in 59%vs 22%. We conclude that baseline response predictors such as age, fibrosis and viral load were well reflected...... by the early viral kinetics as assessed by repeated HCV RNA quantifications. The kinetic patterns and the high relapse rate in genotype 2/3 patients without RVR suggest that this group might benefit from treatment durations longer than 24 weeks....

  13. NA61/SHINE Data For Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hälser, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator based long baseline neutrino experiments require precise neutrino fl ux predictions to reach their physics goals. These experiments are commonly based on a set of two detectors. At the near detector, cross section measurements are performed and the neutrino fl ux can be observed before oscillation, while at the far detector the signal for neutrino oscillations is studied. An accurate knowledge on hadron production is mandatory in order to predict the neutrino fluxes. The NA61/SHINE facility at the CERN SPS has proven its ability to deliver high quality measurements of hadron production for the long baseline neutrino experiments. In this paper, the latest results from N A61 /SHINE for the neutrino physics programme are reviewed and future plans are presented.

  14. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, as a predictor of individual adaptive capabilities.

  15. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter­-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate. Therefore it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, and adaptability in two oculomotor systems (see Preliminary Results). We now propose an analogous predictive mechanisms in the locomotor system.

  16. Configurations of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, Vernon; Chatterjee, Animesh; Gandhi, Raj; Marfatia, Danny; Masud, Mehedi

    2014-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the ability of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) to answer outstanding questions in the neutrino sector. We consider the sensitivities to the mass hierarchy, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and to CP violation using data from beam and atmospheric neutrinos. We evaluate the dependencies on the precision with which $\\theta_{13}$ will be measured by reactor experiments, on the detector size, beam power and exposure time, on detector magnetization, and on the systematic uncertainties achievable with and without a near detector. We find that a 35 kt LBNE with a near detector will resolve the eight-fold degeneracy that is intrinsic to long baseline experiments and will meet the primary goals of oscillation physics that it is designed for.

  17. Centimeter repeatability of the VLBI estimates of European baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Antonio; Zarraoa, Nestor; Sardon, Esther; Ma, Chopo

    1992-01-01

    In the last three years, the European Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network has grown to a total of six fixed antennas placed in Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden, all equipped with the standard geodetic VLBI instrumentation and data recording systems. During this period of time, several experiments have been carried out using this interferometer providing data of very high quality due to the excellent sensitivity and performance of the European stations. The purpose of this paper is to study the consistency of the VLBI geodetic results on the European baselines with respect to the different degrees of freedom in the analysis procedure. Used to complete this study were both real and simulated data sets, two different software packages (OCCAM 3.0 and CALC 7.4/SOLVE), and a variety of data analysis strategies.

  18. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  19. Implementing wide baseline matching algorithms on a graphics processing unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Larson, Kurt W.; Gonzales, Antonio Ignacio; Myers, Daniel S.

    2007-10-01

    Wide baseline matching is the state of the art for object recognition and image registration problems in computer vision. Though effective, the computational expense of these algorithms limits their application to many real-world problems. The performance of wide baseline matching algorithms may be improved by using a graphical processing unit as a fast multithreaded co-processor. In this paper, we present an implementation of the difference of Gaussian feature extractor, based on the CUDA system of GPU programming developed by NVIDIA, and implemented on their hardware. For a 2000x2000 pixel image, the GPU-based method executes nearly thirteen times faster than a comparable CPU-based method, with no significant loss of accuracy.

  20. The Fermilab Short-Baseline Program: MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment is the first of three detectors of the Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program that started operation in the Booster Neutrino Beamline in October 2015 [1]. When completed, the three-detector lineup will explore short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will be sensitive to sterile neutrino scenarios. MicroBooNE in itself is now starting its own physics program, with the measurement of neutrino-argon cross sections in the ~1GeV range being one of its main physics goals. These proceedings describe the status of the detector, the start of operation, and the automated reconstruction of the first neutrino events observed with MicroBooNE. Prospects for upcoming cross section measurements are also given.

  1. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  2. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  3. GPS dynamic cycle slip detection and correction with baseline constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenkun; Huang Ahunji

    2009-01-01

    When the cycle slips take place in the attitude determination of a moving platform, the precision of the attitude will be impaired badly. A method of cycle slip detection and correction is proposed, which is suitable to the dynamic measurement using GPS carrier phase: the cycle slips detection is first achieved by triple difference observables, then the cycle slips correction is performed with baseline length constraint. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective to the dynamic cycle slips problem.

  4. A Resilient Program technical baseline framework for future space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Matsunaga, Sumner S.

    2015-05-01

    Recent Better Buying Power (BBP) initiative for improving DoD's effectiveness in developing complex systems includes "Owning the Technical Baseline" (OTB). This paper presents an innovative approach for the development of a "Resilient Program" Technical Baseline Framework (PTBF). The framework provides a recipe for generating the "Resilient Program2" Technical Baseline (PTB) components using the Integrated Program Management (IPM) approach to integrate Key Program Elements (KPEs)3 with System Engineering (SE) process/tools, acquisition policy/process/tools, Cost and Schedule estimating tools, DOD Architecture Framework (DODAF) process/tools, Open System Architecture (OSA) process/tools, Risk Management process/tools, Critical Chain Program Management (CCPM) process, and Earned Value Management System (EVMS) process/tools. The proposed resilient framework includes a matrix that maps the required tools/processes to technical features of a comprehensive reference U.S. DOD "owned" technical baseline. Resilient PTBF employs a new Open System Approach (OSAP) combining existing OSA4 and NOA (Naval Open Architecture) frameworks, supplemented by additional proposed OA (Open Architecture) principles. The new OSAP being recommended to SMC (Space and Missiles Systems Center) presented in this paper is referred to as SMC-OSAP5. Resilient PTBF and SMC-OSAP conform to U.S. DOD Acquisition System (DAS), Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS), and DODAF processes. The paper also extends Ref. 21 on "Program Resiliency" concept by describing how the new OSAP can be used to align SMC acquisition management with DOD BBP 3.0 and SMC's vison for resilient acquisition and sustainment efforts.

  5. Logistics Operations Management Center: Maintenance Support Baseline (LOMC-MSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurrus, R.; Stump, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Logistics Operations Management Center Maintenance Support Baseline is defined. A historical record of systems, applied to and deleted from, designs in support of future management and/or technical analysis is provided. All Flight elements, Ground Support Equipment, Facility Systems and Equipment and Test Support Equipment for which LOMC has responsibilities at Kennedy Space Center and other locations are listed. International Space Station Alpha Program documentation is supplemented. The responsibility of the Space Station Launch Site Support Office is established.

  6. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  7. Degeneracies in long-baseline neutrino experiments from nonstandard interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jiajun; Whisnant, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We study parameter degeneracies that can occur in long-baseline neutrino appearance experiments due to nonstandard interactions (NSI). For a single off-diagonal NSI parameter, and neutrino and antineutrino measurements at a single L/E, there exists a continuous four-fold degeneracy (related to the mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{23}$ octant) that renders the mass hierarchy, octant, and CP phase unknowable. Even with a combination of NO$\

  8. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: User guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States); Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.; Wood, B.M.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This User Guide explains how to start and use the IBS Program, which is designed to help civilian emergency management personnel to plan for and support their responses to a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. The intended audience for this document is all users of the IBS, especially emergency management planners and analysts.

  9. Linking solar and long baseline terrestrial neutrino experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, E K; Branco, G C; Rebelo, M N

    2000-04-17

    We show that, in the framework of three light neutrino species with hierarchical masses and assuming no fine tuning between the entries of the neutrino mass matrix, one can use the solar neutrino data to obtain information on the element U(e3) of the lepton mixing matrix. Conversely, a measurement of U(e3) in atmospheric or long baseline accelerator or reactor neutrino experiments would help discriminate between possible oscillation solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  10. Challenges of collecting baseline data in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schlecht

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the humanitarian community acknowledgesthe need for good quality data in programme design andmonitoring, the challenges and demands of field settingshave too often led to the argument that “we just don’thave time” or “it is too difficult”. Yet without the allocationof time and resources to the collection of baseline andmonitoring data, project activities cannot be groundedin strong evidence from programme evaluation.

  11. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  12. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Etienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) has applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times of seconds. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 .10-10 m/ s2 with sub-ppb inaccuracy. Operation as a gradiometer will allow to resolve the gravity gradient at a resolution of 5 .10-10 1/ s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of Yb and Rb atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level, with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date. We report on a quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39 K and 87 Rb, reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond.

  13. Baseline brain activity predicts response to neuromodulatory pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Sherlin, Leslie H; Fregni, Felipe; Gianas, Ann; Howe, Jon D; Hakimian, Shahin

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between baseline electroencephalogram (EEG)-assessed brain oscillations and subsequent response to four neuromodulatory treatments. Based on available research, we hypothesized that baseline theta oscillations would prospectively predict response to hypnotic analgesia. Analyses involving other oscillations and the other treatments (meditation, neurofeedback, and both active and sham transcranial direct current stimulation) were viewed as exploratory, given the lack of previous research examining brain oscillations as predictors of response to these other treatments. Randomized controlled study of single sessions of four neuromodulatory pain treatments and a control procedure. Thirty individuals with spinal cord injury and chronic pain had their EEG recorded before each session of four active treatments (hypnosis, meditation, EEG biofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation) and a control procedure (sham transcranial direct stimulation). As hypothesized, more presession theta power was associated with greater response to hypnotic analgesia. In exploratory analyses, we found that less baseline alpha power predicted pain reduction with meditation. The findings support the idea that different patients respond to different pain treatments and that between-person treatment response differences are related to brain states as measured by EEG. The results have implications for the possibility of enhancing pain treatment response by either 1) better patient/treatment matching or 2) influencing brain activity before treatment is initiated in order to prepare patients to respond. Research is needed to replicate and confirm the findings in additional samples of individuals with chronic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Optimized Two-Baseline Beta-Beam Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya; Donini, Andrea; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    We propose a realistic Beta-Beam experiment with four source ions and two baselines for the best possible sensitivity to theta_{13}, CP violation and mass hierarchy. Neutrinos from 18Ne and 6He with Lorentz boost gamma=350 are detected in a 500 kton water Cerenkov detector at a distance L=650 km (first oscillation peak) from the source. Neutrinos from 8B and 8Li are detected in a 50 kton magnetized iron detector at a distance L=7000 km (magic baseline) from the source. Since the decay ring requires a tilt angle of 34.5 degrees to send the beam to the magic baseline, the far end of the ring has a maximum depth of d=2132 m for magnetic field strength of 8.3 T, if one demands that the fraction of ions that decay along the straight sections of the racetrack geometry decay ring (called livetime) is 0.3. We alleviate this problem by proposing to trade reduction of the livetime of the decay ring with the increase in the boost factor of the ions, such that the number of events at the detector remains almost the same....

  15. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  16. COMSATCOM service technical baseline strategy development approach using PPBW concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to develop a Commercial Satellite Communications (COMSATCOM) service Technical Baseline (TB) and associated Program Baseline (PB) strategy using Portable Pool Bandwidth (PPBW) concept. The concept involves trading of the purchased commercial transponders' Bandwidths (BWs) with existing commercial satellites' bandwidths participated in a "designated pool bandwidth"3 according to agreed terms and conditions. Space Missile Systems Center (SMC) has been implementing the Better Buying Power (BBP 3.0) directive4 and recommending the System Program Offices (SPO) to own the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) [1, 2] for the development of flexible acquisition strategy and achieving affordability and increased in competition. This paper defines and describes the critical PTB parameters and associated requirements that are important to the government SPO for "owning" an affordable COMSATCOM services contract using PPBW trading concept. The paper describes a step-by-step approach to optimally perform the PPBW trading to meet DoD and its stakeholders (i) affordability requirement, and (ii) fixed and variable bandwidth requirements by optimizing communications performance, cost and PPBW accessibility in terms of Quality of Services (QoS), Bandwidth Sharing Ratio (BSR), Committed Information Rate (CIR), Burstable Information Rate (BIR), Transponder equivalent bandwidth (TPE) and transponder Net Presence Value (NPV). The affordable optimal solution that meets variable bandwidth requirements will consider the operating and trading terms and conditions described in the Fair Access Policy (FAP).

  17. USGS Map service: National Shoreline Change - Offshore Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow, and community infrastructures are...

  18. USGS Map service: National Shoreline Change - Offshore Baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow, and community infrastructures are...

  19. Summary of gender baseline study in Nghia Trung, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nong Lam University Team

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the role of women and women organization in vegetable production and agro-forestry enterprises. A gender survey questionnaire was developed to collect important information needed for gender analysis for identifying women's roles in farming and marketing. The survey was completed with interviews of key informants and group discussions to collect information and gather data on gender issues in agricultural production and marketing, structure and perf...

  20. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  1. Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) Trial: Baseline Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Ager, Joel; Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Baker, Valerie; Usadi, Rebecca; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Bates, G. Wright; Rosen, R. Mitchell; Haisonleder, Daniell; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Barnhart, Kurt; Trussell, J.C.; Jin, Yufeng; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify baseline characteristics of women with unexplained infertility to determine whether treatment with an aromatase inhibitor will result in a lower rate of multiple gestations than current standard ovulation induction medications. Design Randomized, prospective clinical trial Patients 900 couples with unexplained infertility Interventions: Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins, clomiphene citrate, or letrozole in conjunction with intrauterine insemination. Setting Multicenter University based clinical practices. Main Outcome Measures Demographic, laboratory, imaging, and survey characteristics. Interventions Collection of baseline demographics, blood samples, and ultrasonographic assessments. Results Demographic characteristics of women receiving clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation were very consistent. Their mean age was 32.2 ± 4.4 years and infertility duration was 34.7± 25.7 months, with 59% primary infertility. More than 1/3 of the women were current or past smokers. The mean BMI was 27 and mean AMH level was 2.6; only 11 women (1.3%) had antral follicle counts of less than 5. Similar observations were identified for hormonal profiles, ultrasound characterization of the ovaries, semen parameters, and quality of life assessments in both male and female partners. Conclusion The cause of infertility in the couples recruited to this treatment trial is elusive, as the women were regularly ovulating and had evidence of good ovarian reserve both by basal FSH, AMH levels, and antral follicle counts; the male partners had normal semen parameters. The three treatment subgroups have common baseline characteristics, thereby providing comparable patient populations for testing the hypothesis that use of letrozole for ovarian stimulation can reduce the rates of multiples from that observed with gonadotropin and clomiphene citrate treatment. PMID:25707331

  2. Perceived stress and freshman weight change: the moderating role of baseline body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2015-02-01

    The transition from high-school to university is a critical period of weight change. Popular media suggest that freshman students gain 15 lb (6.80 kg) of body weight during their first year at university (i.e., the freshman 15). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis calculated freshman weight gain to be 1.75 kg, with statistics suggesting that only a proportion of freshman students are prone to gain weight. Researchers are beginning to investigate how certain variables and interactions between such variables predict freshman weight status. The current study focused on body mass index (BMI) and psychological stress. In isolation, previous research has tested how these two variables predict freshman student's weight status. However, because BMI and stress interact to predict weight gain and weight loss in adult samples, the current study tested the interaction between student's baseline BMI and baseline stress levels to predict weight change in a New Zealand sample of freshman students (N=65). Participants completed two separate online surveys in March and October 2012 (i.e., New Zealand's academic year). Although only three students gained over 6.80 kg (i.e., the freshman 15), participants did gain a statistically significant 1.10 kg of body weight during the year. Consistent with previous research, students with a higher baseline BMI gained a higher amount of body weight. However, this main effect was qualified by an interaction between stress and BMI. Students who entered university with high levels of stress gained weight if they also had high BMIs; if they had lower BMIs then they lost weight. In order to reduce unhealthy levels of freshman weight change, vulnerable students need to be taught stress-reduction techniques and coping strategies early in the academic year.

  3. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  4. The use of the Long Baseline Array in Australia for precise geodesy and absolute astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid; Bertarini, Alessandra; Deller, Adam; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Mujunen, Ari

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of a successful 12 hour 22 GHz VLBI experiment using a heterogeneous network that includes radio telescopes of the Long Baseline Array (LBA) in Australia and several VLBI stations that regularly observe in geodetic VLBI campaigns. We have determined positions of three VLBI stations, ATCA-104, Ceduna and Mopra, with an accuracy of 3-30 mm using a novel technique of data analysis. These stations have never before participated in geodetic experiments. We observed 105 radio sources, and amongst them 5 objects which have not previously been observed with VLBI. We have determined positions of these new sources with the accuracy of 2-6 mas. We make conclusion that the LBA network is capable of conducting absolute astrometry VLBI surveys with accuracy better than 5 mas.

  5. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Greece: aims, design and baseline characteristics of the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysohoou Christina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to evaluate the levels of several cardiovascular risk factors in Greece we conducted a population-based health and nutrition survey, the "ATTICA study". In this work we present the design and the methodology of the study, as well as the status of various baseline characteristics of the participants. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 adult women, stratified by age – gender (census 2000, from the greater area of Athens. More than 300 demographic, lifestyle, behavioral, dietary, clinical and biochemical variables have been recorded. Results Regarding the frequency of the classical cardiovascular risk factors we observed that 51% of men and 39% of women reported smokers (p Conclusions The prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors in our population seems high. As a consequence a considerable proportion of Greek adults are at "high-risk" for future cardiovascular events.

  6. Baselines and degradation of coral reefs in the Northern Line Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Demartini, Edward E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Donner, Simon D; Friedlander, Alan M; Konotchick, Talina; Malay, Machel; Maragos, James E; Obura, David; Pantos, Olga; Paulay, Gustav; Richie, Morgan; Rohwer, Forest; Schroeder, Robert E; Walsh, Sheila; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Knowlton, Nancy; Sala, Enric

    2008-02-27

    Effective conservation requires rigorous baselines of pristine conditions to assess the impacts of human activities and to evaluate the efficacy of management. Most coral reefs are moderately to severely degraded by local human activities such as fishing and pollution as well as global change, hence it is difficult to separate local from global effects. To this end, we surveyed coral reefs on uninhabited atolls in the northern Line Islands to provide a baseline of reef community structure, and on increasingly populated atolls to document changes associated with human activities. We found that top predators and reef-building organisms dominated unpopulated Kingman and Palmyra, while small planktivorous fishes and fleshy algae dominated the populated atolls of Tabuaeran and Kiritimati. Sharks and other top predators overwhelmed the fish assemblages on Kingman and Palmyra so that the biomass pyramid was inverted (top-heavy). In contrast, the biomass pyramid at Tabuaeran and Kiritimati exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pattern. Reefs without people exhibited less coral disease and greater coral recruitment relative to more inhabited reefs. Thus, protection from overfishing and pollution appears to increase the resilience of reef ecosystems to the effects of global warming.

  7. Baselines and degradation of coral reefs in the Northern Line Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Sandin

    Full Text Available Effective conservation requires rigorous baselines of pristine conditions to assess the impacts of human activities and to evaluate the efficacy of management. Most coral reefs are moderately to severely degraded by local human activities such as fishing and pollution as well as global change, hence it is difficult to separate local from global effects. To this end, we surveyed coral reefs on uninhabited atolls in the northern Line Islands to provide a baseline of reef community structure, and on increasingly populated atolls to document changes associated with human activities. We found that top predators and reef-building organisms dominated unpopulated Kingman and Palmyra, while small planktivorous fishes and fleshy algae dominated the populated atolls of Tabuaeran and Kiritimati. Sharks and other top predators overwhelmed the fish assemblages on Kingman and Palmyra so that the biomass pyramid was inverted (top-heavy. In contrast, the biomass pyramid at Tabuaeran and Kiritimati exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pattern. Reefs without people exhibited less coral disease and greater coral recruitment relative to more inhabited reefs. Thus, protection from overfishing and pollution appears to increase the resilience of reef ecosystems to the effects of global warming.

  8. Rapidly shifting environmental baselines among fishers of the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Roberts, Callum M; Torre, Jorge; Cariño-Olvera, Micheline; Enríquez-Andrade, Roberto R

    2005-01-01

    Shifting environmental baselines are inter-generational changes in perception of the state of the environment. As one generation replaces another, people's perceptions of what is natural change even to the extent that they no longer believe historical anecdotes of past abundance or size of species. Although widely accepted, this phenomenon has yet to be quantitatively tested. Here we survey three generations of fishers from Mexico's Gulf of California (N=108), where fish populations have declined steeply over the last 60 years, to investigate how far and fast their environmental baselines are shifting. Compared to young fishers, old fishers named five times as many species and four times as many fishing sites as once being abundant/productive but now depleted (Kruskal–Wallis tests, both p<0.001) with no evidence of a slowdown in rates of loss experienced by younger compared to older generations (Kruskal–Wallis test, n.s. in both cases). Old fishers caught up to 25 times as many Gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani as young fishers on their best ever fishing day (regression r2=0.62, p<0.001). Despite times of plentiful large fish still being within living memory, few young fishers appreciated that large species had ever been common or nearshore sites productive. Such rapid shifts in perception of what is natural help explain why society is tolerant of the creeping loss of biodiversity. They imply a large educational hurdle in efforts to reset expectations and targets for conservation. PMID:16191603

  9. A baseline study characterizing the municipal solid waste in the State of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jarallah, Rawa; Aleisa, Esra

    2014-05-01

    This paper provides a new reference line for municipal solid waste characterization in Kuwait. The baseline data were collected in accordance with the Standard Test Method for the Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste (ASTM). The results indicated that the average daily municipal waste generation level is 1.01 kg/person. Detailed waste stream surveys were conducted for more than 600 samples of municipal solid waste (MSW). The waste categories included paper, corrugated fibers, PET bottles, film, organic matter, wood, metal, glass, and others. The results indicated that organic waste dominated the characterization (44.4%), followed by film (11.2%) and then corrugated fibers (8.6%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the influence of season and governorate on waste composition. A significant seasonal variation was observed in almost all waste categories. In addition, significant differences in proportions between the current level and 1995 baseline were observed in most waste categories at the 95% confidence level.

  10. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  11. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  12. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  13. Towards a sustainable sugarcane industry in India : baseline results on Solidaridad’s programme: Increasing water use efficiency in sugarcane growing in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, C.; Rijn, van F.; Ende, van der H.; Koster, T.

    2017-01-01

    Wageningen Economic Research conducts a study to evaluate the socioeconomic impact on sugarcane farmers of the Solidaridad programme. A pipeline approach was used, which clusters the farmers in cohorts based on the year they receive support and training: 2016, 2017 and 2018. A baseline survey was

  14. Stream geomorphic and habitat data from a baseline study of Underwood Creek, Wisconsin, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin M.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Blount, James D.

    2015-12-07

    Geomorphic and habitat data were collected along Underwood Creek as part of a larger study of stream water quality conditions in the greater Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area. The data were collected to characterize baseline physical conditions in Underwood Creek prior to a potential discharge of wastewater return flow to the stream from the city of Waukesha, Wis. Geomorphic and habitat assessments were conducted in the summer and fall of 2012 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. The assessments used a transect based, reach scale assessment at a total of eight reaches—six reaches along Underwood Creek and two reaches along the Menomonee River upstream and downstream of its confluence with Underwood Creek. The reach scale assessment was an updated version of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program habitat assessment integrated with an intensive geomorphic assessment. Channel cross sections and longitudinal profiles were surveyed along each of the eight reaches, and discharge and water temperature were measured. Additionally, a geomorphic river walk-through was completed along a 10 kilometer reach that spanned the individual assessment reaches and the sections of channel between them. The assessments and river walk-through described channel and bank stability, channel shape and size, sediment and riparian conditions along these areas of Underwood Creek and the Menomonee River. Since the time of the data collection, focus has turned to other Lake Michigan tributary watersheds for possible Waukesha return-flow discharges; however, the data collected for this effort remains a valuable asset for the baseline characterization, design, and prioritization of planned stream rehabilitation activities in Underwood Creek. The data files presented in this report include a variety of formats including geographic information system files, spreadsheets, photos, and scans of field forms.

  15. Baseline sediment trace metals investigation: Steinhatchee River estuary, Florida, Northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, C.A.; Hoenstine, R.W.; Highley, A.B.; Donoghue, J.F.; Ragland, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    This Florida Geological Survey/U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service Cooperative Study provides baseline data for major and trace metal concentrations in the sediments of the Steinhatchee River estuary. These data are intended to provide a benchmark for comparison with future metal concentration data measurements. The Steinhatchee River estuary is a relatively pristine bay located within the Big Bend Wildlife Management Area on the North Central Florida Gulf of Mexico coastline. The river flows 55 km through woodlands and planted pines before emptying into the Gulf at Deadman Harbor. Water quality in the estuary is excellent at present. There is minimal development within the watershed. The estuary is part of an extensive system of marshes that formed along the Florida Gulf coast during the Holocene marine transgression. Sediment accretion rate measurements range from 1.4 to 4.1 mm/yr on the basis of lead-210 measurements. Seventy-nine short cores were collected from 66 sample locations, representing four lithofacies: clay- and organic-rich sands, organic-rich sands, clean quartz sands, and oyster bioherms. Samples were analyzed for texture, total organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, clay mineralogy, and major and trace-metal content. Following these analyses, metal concentrations were normalized against geochemical reference elements (aluminum and iron) and against total weight percent organic matter. Metals were also normalized granulometrically against total weight percent fines (stress to young planted pines on tree farms within the watershed.The Florida Geological Survey/US Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service Cooperative Study provides baseline data for major and trace metal concentrations in the sediments of the Steinhatchee River estuary. The data are intended to provide a benchmark for comparison with metal concentration data measurements. Seventy nine short cores were collected from 66 sample locations

  16. HATTERAS_BASELINE: Offshore baseline for Hatteras Island from Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras Point, North Carolina (geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shoreline of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is experiencing long-term coastal erosion. In order to better understand and monitor the changing coastline,...

  17. Kahekili, West Maui, Hawaii Fish and Benthic Data from Surveys in January and August 2008 (NODC Accession 0065597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish and benthos baseline surveys were made at 155 sites of the near shore region off Kahekili Beach Park, West Maui in January and August, 2008. Survey sites were...

  18. Kahekili, West Maui, Hawaii Fish and Benthic Data from Surveys in January and August 2008 (NODC Accession 0065597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish and benthos baseline surveys were made at 155 sites of the near shore region off Kahekili Beach Park, West Maui in January and August, 2008. Survey sites were...

  19. A baseline algorithm for face detection and tracking in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Vasant; Soundararajan, Padmanabhan; Korzhova, Valentina; Boonstra, Matthew; Goldgof, Dmitry; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-10-01

    Establishing benchmark datasets, performance metrics and baseline algorithms have considerable research significance in gauging the progress in any application domain. These primarily allow both users and developers to compare the performance of various algorithms on a common platform. In our earlier works, we focused on developing performance metrics and establishing a substantial dataset with ground truth for object detection and tracking tasks (text and face) in two video domains -- broadcast news and meetings. In this paper, we present the results of a face detection and tracking algorithm on broadcast news videos with the objective of establishing a baseline performance for this task-domain pair. The detection algorithm uses a statistical approach that was originally developed by Viola and Jones and later extended by Lienhart. The algorithm uses a feature set that is Haar-like and a cascade of boosted decision tree classifiers as a statistical model. In this work, we used the Intel Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) implementation of the Haar face detection algorithm. The optimal values for the tunable parameters of this implementation were found through an experimental design strategy commonly used in statistical analyses of industrial processes. Tracking was accomplished as continuous detection with the detected objects in two frames mapped using a greedy algorithm based on the distances between the centroids of bounding boxes. Results on the evaluation set containing 50 sequences (~ 2.5 mins.) using the developed performance metrics show good performance of the algorithm reflecting the state-of-the-art which makes it an appropriate choice as the baseline algorithm for the problem.

  20. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Étienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-04-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) represents a new class of atom optics experiments with applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to several meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times on the order of seconds, which will implemented in the Hannover Institut für Technologie (HITec) of the Leibniz Universität Hannover. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 ṡ 10-10 m/s2 with an inaccuracy < 10-9 m/s2. Operation as a gravity-gradiometer will allow to resolve the first-order gravity gradient with a resolution of 5 ṡ 10-10 1/s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of ytterbium and rubidium atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level [1], with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date [2]. We report on the first quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39K and 87Rb [3], reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond. References J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011- (2015) S. Schlamminger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 041101- (2008) D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203002 (2014)

  1. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

  2. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzak, T. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2015-07-15

    Since about a decade the european physics community interested in neutrino and neutrino-astrophysics develops a plan to conceive the next generation large underground neutrino observatory. Recently, the LAGUNA-LBNO collaboration made the outcome of the FP7 design study public which shows a clear path for the realization of such experiment. In this paper the LAGUNA and LAGUNA-LBNO Design studies, resulting in a proposal for the LBNO experiment, will be discussed. The author will focus on the long baseline neutrino oscillation search, especially on the potential to discover the neutrino mass ordering and the search for CP violation in the lepton sector.

  3. Implications of 3+1 short-baseline neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunti, Carlo, E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Laveder, Marco, E-mail: laveder@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-12-06

    We present an upgrade of the 3+1 global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data obtained with the addition of KARMEN and LSND {nu}{sub e}+{sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}N{sub g.s.}+e{sup -} scattering data. We discuss the implications for the measurements of the effective neutrino mass in {beta}-decay and neutrinoless double-{beta}-decay experiments. We find respective predicted ranges of about 0.1-0.7 eV and 0.01-0.1 eV.

  4. A FPGA Implementation of JPEG Baseline Encoder for Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the JPEG baseline image compression encoder is presented for wearable devices in health and wellness applications. In order to gain flexibility in developing FPGA-specific software and balance between real-time performance and resources utilization, A High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool is utilized in our system design. An optimized dataflow configuration with a padding scheme simplifies the timing control for data transfer. Our experiments with a system-on-chip multi-sensor system have verified our FPGA implementation with respect to real-time performance, computational efficiency, and FPGA resource utilization.

  5. Long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2000-01-01

    A nu /sub mu / disappearance effect has been seen in atmospheric neutrino experiments. This has led to the "evidence for neutrino oscillations". The next problem in neutrino physics is to perform the right experiment(s) to elucidate in a comprehensive way the pattern of neutrino masses and mixings. The long baseline experiments will play a fundamental role at settling definitively the question of flavor oscillation and at measuring with good precision the oscillation parameters. The CERN-NGS beam coupled with the proposed ICANOE and OPERA detectors is the only programme capable of sensitive tau and electron appearance searches. (14 refs).

  6. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 1.03: Utilities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Pottier, M.C.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Utilities Guide explains how to operate utility programs that are supplied as a part of the IBS. These utility programs are chiefly for managing and manipulating various kinds of IBS data and system administration files. Many of the utilities are for creating, editing, converting, or displaying map data and other data that are related to geographic location.

  7. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  8. Project W-320 thermal hydraulic model benchmarking and baselining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1998-09-28

    Project W-320 will be retrieving waste from Tank 241-C-106 and transferring the waste to Tank 241-AY-102. Waste in both tanks must be maintained below applicable thermal limits during and following the waste transfer. Thermal hydraulic process control models will be used for process control of the thermal limits. This report documents the process control models and presents a benchmarking of the models with data from Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. Revision 1 of this report will provide a baselining of the models in preparation for the initiation of sluicing.

  9. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  10. Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O`Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as

  11. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  12. Application of small baseline subsets D-InSAR technique to estimate time series land deformation of Jinan area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangtong; Cao, Qiuxiang; Xiong, Zhuguo; Yin, Haitao; Xiao, Genru

    2016-04-01

    Jinan, located in the South of the North China Plain, is an area where underground water has been exploited excessively. However, land deformation surveys only focus on the small district obtained by GPS and Leveling. Here, we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time-series of ASAR data to resolve land subsidence in the entire Jinan region. In our research, we get 20 interferograms with a temporal threshold of 700 days and spatial-baseline threshold of 300 m from 14 ASAR satellite images on a descending orbit, and then get the surface displacement using Small Baseline InSAR (SBAS D-InSAR) retrained with a periodic model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of our work is proved by the results of GPS measurements. Finally, several settlement funnels are observed with extreme values of -20 cm, and their generation is related to massive groundwater extraction.

  13. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in the Great Plains region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Michelle; Butman, David; Hawbaker, Todd; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; McDonald, Cory; Reker, Ryan; Sayler, Kristi; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2011-01-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 and to improve understanding of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in the Great Plains region in the central part of the United States. The assessment examined carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and other GHG fluxes (methane and nitrous oxide) in all major terrestrial ecosystems (forests, grasslands/shrublands, agricultural lands, and wetlands) and freshwater aquatic systems (rivers, streams, lakes, and impoundments) in two time periods: baseline (generally in the first half of the 2010s) and future (projections from baseline to 2050). The assessment was based on measured and observed data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and many other agencies and organizations and used remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models.

  14. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  15. EMD-based GPS baseline solution and validation test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jing-xiang; WANG Jin-ling; XU Chang-hui

    2008-01-01

    A GPS baseline solution model is presented, based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), which has the advantage of eliminating the error effects outside the model. The EMD technique is a new signal processing method for non-linear time series, which decomposes a time series into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The decomposition procedure is adaptive and data-driven which is suitable for non-linear data series analysis. A multi-scale decomposition and reconstruction architecture is defined on the basis of the EMD theory and the error mitigation model is demonstrated as well. A standard of the scale selection for the elimination of errors, outside the model, was given in terms of the mean of the accumulated standardized modes. Thereafter, the scheme of the GPS baseline solution based on the EMD is suggested. The float solution residuals of the Double-Difference (DD) observation equation are used to extract the errors outside the model applied to modify the GPS DD measurements. Then the float solution was given again and the fixed solution was obtained by a Lambda algorithm. Three schemes are designed to test the proposed model and the experimental results show that the proposed model dramatically improves the relia- bility of ambiguity resolution after the elimination of errors outside the model.

  16. Study of neutrino oscillations in long-baseline accelerator experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudenko, Yurii G [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-30

    A review of the title subject is given. The phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in the framework of the so-called neutrino Standard Model ({nu}SM) with three active neutrinos is considered. The recently completed long-baseline accelerator experiment K2K and currently in-progress MINOS and OPERA experiments are described in detail. The oscillation parameters obtained from the global analysis of all oscillation data are given. The short-baseline experiment MiniBooNE and its results on the search for light sterile neutrinos are discussed in detail. Considerable attention is given to searching for {nu}{sub {mu}{yields}{nu}e} oscillations and measuring the {theta}{sub 13} angle in muon neutrino experiments. The concept of the off-axis neutrino beam is reviewed. The T2K experiment, collecting statistics since early 2010, is described for its details and objectives. The NO{nu}A experiment under construction and the next-generation beta beam and neutrino factory experiments are also discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Airborne infection control in India: Baseline assessment of health facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malik M.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Rade, Kiran; Ghedia, Mayank; Bansal, Avi; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Willis, Matthew D.; Misquitta, Dyson P.; Nair, Sreenivas A.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Dewan, Puneet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis transmission in health care settings represents a major public health problem. In 2010, national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines were adopted in India. These guidelines included specific policies for TB prevention and control in health care settings. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of these guidelines have not been assessed in routine practice. This study aimed to conduct baseline assessments of AIC policies and practices within a convenience sample of 35 health care settings across 3 states in India and to assess the level of implementation at each facility after one year. Method A multi-agency, multidisciplinary panel of experts performed site visits using a standardized risk assessment tool to document current practices and review resource capacity. At the conclusion of each assessment, facility-specific recommendations were provided to improve AIC performance to align with national guidelines. Result Upon initial assessment, AIC systems were found to be poorly developed and implemented. Administrative controls were not commonly practiced and many departments needed renovation to achieve minimum environmental standards. One year after the baseline assessments, there were substantial improvements in both policy and practice. Conclusion A package of capacity building and systems development that followed national guidelines substantially improved implementation of AIC policies and practice. PMID:26970461

  18. Baseline urologic surgical skills among medical students: Differentiating trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishaal; Lantz, Andrea G; Alzharani, Tarek; Foell, Kirsten; Lee, Jason Y

    2014-07-01

    Urology training programs seek to identify ideal candidates with the potential to become competent urologic surgeons. It is unclear whether innate technical ability has a role in this selection process. We aimed to determine whether there are any innate differences in baseline urologic technical skills among medical students. Second-year medical students from the University of Toronto were recruited for this study and stratified into surgical and non-surgical cohorts based on their reported career aspirations. After a pre-test questionnaire, subjects were tested on several urologic surgical skills: laparoscopy, cystoscopy and robotic surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared test, student t-tests and Spearman's correlation where appropriate. A total of 29 students participated in the study and no significant baseline differences were found between cohorts with respect to demographics and prior surgical experience. For laparoscopic skills, the surgical cohort outperformed the non-surgical cohort on several exercises: Lap Beans Missed (4.9 vs. 9.3, p robotic surgery performance metrics: Task Time (50.6 vs. 76.3, p robotics, may differ between early trainees interested in a surgical career compared to those interested in a non-surgical career. Further studies are required to illicit what impact such differences have on future performance and competence.

  19. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.Smith; Shaun Reeder; Alecos Demetriades

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines,operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences(IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry(IAGC),has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's surface or near-surface environment.The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified.In order to accomplish this long-term goal,the activities of the Task Group include:(1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies;(2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses;(3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community;(4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database;(5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization;(6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects;and(7) preparing,ultimately,a global geochemical database.This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  20. Model Order Selection in Multi-baseline Interferometric Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Gini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR is a powerful technique to derive three-dimensional terrain images. Interest is growing in exploiting the advanced multi-baseline mode of InSAR to solve layover effects from complex orography, which generate reception of unexpected multicomponent signals that degrade imagery of both terrain radar reflectivity and height. This work addresses a few problems related to the implementation into interferometric processing of nonlinear algorithms for estimating the number of signal components, including a system trade-off analysis. Performance of various eigenvalues-based information-theoretic criteria (ITC algorithms is numerically investigated under some realistic conditions. In particular, speckle effects from surface and volume scattering are taken into account as multiplicative noise in the signal model. Robustness to leakage of signal power into the noise eigenvalues and operation with a small number of looks are investigated. The issue of baseline optimization for detection is also addressed. The use of diagonally loaded ITC methods is then proposed as a tool for robust operation in the presence of speckle decorrelation. Finally, case studies of a nonuniform array are studied and recommendations for a proper combination of ITC methods and system configuration are given.

  1. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  2. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  3. Does Baseline Heart Rate Variability Reflect Stable Positive Emotionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Jackson, Bryonna A; Sopko, Rachel S

    2014-11-01

    Several recent studies have found significant correlations, medium in effect size, between baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and measures of positive functioning, such as extraversion, agreeableness, and trait positive affectivity. Other research, however, has suggested an optimal level of HRV and found nonlinear effects. In the present study, a diverse sample of 239 young adults completed a wide range of measures that reflect positive psychological functioning, including personality traits, an array of positive emotions (measured with the Dispositional Positive Emotions Scale), and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (measured with the DASS and CESD). HRV was measured with a 6-minute baseline period and quantified using many common HRV metrics (e.g., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, root mean square of successive differences, and others), and potentially confounding behavioral and lifestyle variables (e.g., BMI, caffeine and nicotine use, sleep quality) were assessed. Neither linear nor non-linear effects were found, and the effect sizes were small and near zero. The findings suggest that the cross-sectional relationship between HRV and positive experience deserves more attention and meta-analytic synthesis.

  4. Verification and optimization of the CFETR baseline scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Lao, L. L.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Smith, S. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Prater, R.; Chen, X.; Chan, V. S.; Li, J.; Chen, J.; Shi, N.; Guo, W.; Pan, C.; Jian, X.

    2016-10-01

    The baseline scenario of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) was designed starting from 0D calculations. The CFETR baseline scenario satisfies the minimum goal of Fusion Nuclear Science Facility aimed at bridging the gaps between ITER and DEMO. 1.5D calculations are presented to verify the on-going efforts in higher-dimensional modeling of CFETR. Steady-state scenarios are calculated self-consistently by the OMFIT integrated modeling framework that includes EFIT for equilibrium, ONETWO for sources and current, TGYRO for transport. With 68MW of neutral beam power and 8MW of ECH injected to the plasma, the average ion temperature is maintained at 15keV, while 150MW fusion power is produced. The neutral beams also drive 55% of the plasma current. Modest fast ion diffusion will reduce NBCD and affect the profile substantially. Top-launch ECH will increase the current drive and the power absorption rate. EPED model are being included. Work supported by U.S. DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and the USTC CFETR contract.

  5. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  6. [Strategy for determining a baseline in areas of vector interruption for Chagas disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Diego; Vera, Mauricio; Zuleta, Liliana; Llanos, Violeta; Junqueira, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Present a strategy to determine the baseline in endemic areas in the process of vector interruption for Chagas disease (CHD). Methods A social and environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey evaluated the physical conditions of dwellings, the inhabitants' knowledge of CHD, the entomological triatomine indicators and the statistical relationship among these variables. Results Colonization and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi exist in Rhodnius prolixus, the principal vector of CHD in Colombia. Colonization was related to palm-thatched houses constructed with adobe or wattle and daub. The Panstrongylus geniculatus vector was found to be colonizing. Almost 50% of the surveyed population associated the term CHD with human disease and 37%, with triatomines. Conclusions R. prolixus can be considered to be the principal vector of T. cruzi in domestic environments and the process of interruption is feasible within the prioritized municipality. New studies are needed to verify the existence of wild populations of R. prolixus that could affect future stages of the process and demonstrate whether P. geniculatus is a factor in the transmission of T. cruzi. These scenarios can be made viable by including the inhabitants throughout the process, since they have been highly sensitive in vector detection inside their houses. The study design presented here can be adapted to other endemic areas of the Region of the Americas.

  7. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle to establish dune reactivation baseline

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Gareth; Blackwell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Kenfig NNR is a large coastal dune system located in South Wales, UK. Major works Repeat surveys are planned, with the aim of identifying landcover change, principally to reactivate the dunes were carried out in the winter of 2012/2013. changes in vegetation, open sand and water filled slacks.

  8. Happiness Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.

  9. Spontaneous Neural Oscillations Bias Perception by Modulating Baseline Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemi, Luca; Chaumon, Maximilien; Crouzet, Sébastien M; Busch, Niko A

    2017-01-25

    The brain exhibits organized fluctuations of neural activity, even in the absence of tasks or sensory input. A prominent type of such spontaneous activity is the alpha rhythm, which influences perception and interacts with other ongoing neural activity. It is currently hypothesized that states of decreased prestimulus α oscillations indicate enhanced neural excitability, resulting in improved perceptual acuity. Nevertheless, it remains debated how changes in excitability manifest at the behavioral level in perceptual tasks. We addressed this issue by comparing two alternative models describing the effect of spontaneous α power on signal detection. The first model assumes that decreased α power increases baseline excitability, amplifying the response to both signal and noise, predicting a liberal detection criterion with no effect on sensitivity. The second model predicts that decreased α power increases the trial-by-trial precision of the sensory response, resulting in improved sensitivity. We tested these models in two EEG experiments in humans where we analyzed the effects of prestimulus α power on visual detection and discrimination using a signal detection framework. Both experiments provide strong evidence that decreased α power reflects a more liberal detection criterion, rather than improved sensitivity, consistent with the baseline model. In other words, when the task requires detecting stimulus presence versus absence, reduced α oscillations make observers more likely to report the stimulus regardless of actual stimulus presence. Contrary to previous interpretations, these results suggest that states of decreased α oscillations increase the global baseline excitability of sensory systems without affecting perceptual acuity. Spontaneous fluctuations of brain activity explain why a faint sensory stimulus is sometimes perceived and sometimes not. The prevailing view is that heightened neural excitability, indexed by decreased α oscillations, promotes

  10. Use of traditional and complementary medicine in Malaysia: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti, Z M; Tahir, A; Farah, A Ida; Fazlin, S M Ami; Sondi, S; Azman, A H; Maimunah, A H; Haniza, M A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Zulkarnain, A K; Zakiah, I; Zaleha, W C Wan

    2009-01-01

    The increasing popularity and use of traditional and complementary medicine (TCAM) in both developed and developing countries, including Malaysia, have raised significant public health policy issues. However, currently, there is a paucity of baseline data on such usage by the Malaysian community. This study was conducted to identify and describe the prevalence and frequency of various TCAM modalities that are being used by the Malaysian population by age, gender, marital and working status, educational level and ethnic group for health issues and maintenance. A nationwide interviewer-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in August 2004. An open-ended questionnaire pertaining to TCAM modalities was used to increase the probability of capturing maximum data. This survey implemented a multistage design, stratified by state and urban/rural random sampling, proportionate to the size of the state population and was representative of the Malaysian population. Post-survey classification of modalities was done accordingly. Complex data analysis was carried out using SPSS 13.0. Various TCAM modalities that were used by the Malaysian population were identified and categorised. Biological-based therapies, which included herbal therapy, were most commonly used for health problems (88.9%) and for health maintenance (87.3%). Under this category, herb-based application/herb-based beauty product/herb-based hygiene product group was most commonly used for health issues (23.6%) while pure herbs were the ones most commonly used for health maintenance (29.6%). There was no significant difference across all groups in the usage of biological-based therapies for health issues. The study showed that there is a high prevalence of TCAM use by the Malaysian population, particularly in the use of herb-based therapies for both health issues and health maintenance. Thus, a strict guideline for herbal commercialisation as well as public education is important.

  11. Level III baseline risk evaluation for Building 3505 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostella, W.B. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    The Level III Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) for Building 3505, the ORNL Metal Recovery Facility, provides an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects, current or future, associated with the presence of hazardous substances in the building. The Metal Recovery Facility was used from 1952 through 1960 to process large quantities of radioactive material using the PUREX process for the recovery of uranium-238, plutonium-239, neptunium-237, and americium-241. The facility consists of seven process cells (A through G), a canal, a dissolver room, a dissolver pit, an office, locker room, storage area, control room, electrical gallery, shop, and makeup area. The cells were used to house the nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, and the canal was constructed to be used as a water-shielded transfer canal. Currently, there are no known releases of radioactive contaminants from Building 3505. To perform the BRE, historical radiological survey data were used to estimate the concentration of alpha- and beta/gamma emitting radionuclides in the various cells, rooms, and other areas in Building 3505. Data from smear surveys were used to estimate the amount of transferable contamination (to which receptors can be exposed via inhalation and ingestion), and data from probe surveys were used to estimate the amount of both fixed and transferable contamination (from which receptors can receive external exposure). Two land use scenarios, current and future, and their subsequent exposure scenarios were explored in the BRE. Under the current land use scenario, two exposure scenarios were evaluated. The first was a worst-case industrial exposure scenario in which the receptor is a maintenance worker who works 8 hours/day, 350 days/year in the building for 25 years. In the second, more realistic exposure scenario, the receptor is a surveillance and maintenance (S&M) worker who spends two 8-hour days/year in the building for 25 years.

  12. Baseline Requirements and Architecture for Cloud Computing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rahim Choudhary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Government initiatives such as the “Cloud First” policy are bringing the cloud computing services into Federal Agencies. Further, many of the sectors in the Critical Infrastructure of the nation already use cloud computing. Although cloud computing services are slowly coming to age, many issues remain. This paper therefore takes a closer look at the cloud computing services. First it establishes a baseline by specifying high level requirements for cloud computing services. Next it improves upon the current architecture for the cloud computing services by adding new modules to the current architecture. The new modules are gleaned from an analysis of the telecommunications cloud and security in distributed systems. The new modules include a management and control network, a set of trust domains, and a set of proxies. The improved architecture is more ready for primetime use and supports a richer operational model.

  13. Report of the US long baseline neutrino experiment study

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Bogert, D; Bromberg, C; Curioni, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M; Dufour, F; Finley, D; Fleming, B T; Gallardo, J; Heim, J; Huber, P; Jung, C K; Kahn, S; Kearns, E; Kirk, H; Kirk, T; Lande, K; Laughton, C; Lee, W Y; Lesko, K; Lewis, C; Litchfield, P J; Mann, A K; Marchionni, A; Marciano, W; Marfatia, D; Marino, A D; Marshak, M; Menary, S; McDonald, K; Messier, M; Pariseau, W; Parsa, Z; Pordes, S; Potenza, R; Rameika, R; Saoulidou, N; Simos, N; Van Berg, R; Viren, B; Whisnant, K; Wilson, R; Winter, W; Yanagisawa, C; Yumiceva, F; Zimmerman, E D; Zwaska, R

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability could be unique compared to anywhere else in the world because of the available beam intensity and baseline distances. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and, as the study evolved, it also provided responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the ...

  14. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  15. Impact of selected energy conservation technologies on baseline demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doernberg, A

    1977-09-01

    This study is an application of the modeling and demand projection capability existing at Brookhaven National Laboratory to specific options in energy conservation. Baseline energy demands are modified by introducing successively three sets of conservation options. The implementation of improved building standards and the use of co-generation in industry are analyzed in detail and constitute the body of this report. Two further sets of energy demands are presented that complete the view of a low energy use, ''conservation'' scenario. An introduction to the report covers the complexities in evaluating ''conservation'' in view of the ways it is inextricably linked to technology, prices, policy, and the mix of output in the economy. The term as used in this report is narrowly defined, and methodologies are suggested by which these other aspects listed can be studied in the future.

  16. Development of baseline random vibration criteria for STS pallet payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical evaluation of measured random vibration response data obtained from the Office of Space Science-1 (OSS-1) pallet payload. The data were measured during the acoustic test simulation (September 1980) and the ascent phase of the flight of STS-3, Orbiter 102 (launched from the Kennedy Space Center on March 22, 1982). Acoustic test efficiency factors are evaluated based on the Dynamic, Acoustic and Thermal Environments (DATE) instrumentation as the source of the measured vibration data. Test efficiency correction to test data is applied in the extrapolation of non-DATE acoustic test data to increase sample population size for improved statistical evaluation. For baseline criteria evaluation and development, data are grouped in accordance with the payload 'zone' in which the component is mounted.

  17. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  18. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  19. Precise geodesy with the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid; Gipson, John; MacMillan, Dan; Ma, Chopo; Fomalont, Ed; Walker, R Craig; Carabajal, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    We report on a program of regular measurements between 1994 and 2007 which used the Very Long Baseline Array and up to 10 additional stations. One of the goals of these sessions was to monitor positions of the array at 1 millimeter level of accuracy and to tie the VLBA into the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The large number of stations and the many competing goals made scheduling these sessions manually difficult, and lead to advances in scheduling software. We describe the analysis of these data, which is non-standard, and involves translating the data into a form useful for geodetic VLBI. We also describe several interesting geophysical results including measured station displacement due to crustal motion, earthquakes, and antenna tilt. In terms of both formal errors and observed scatter, these sessions are among the very best geodetic VLBI sessions.

  20. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head, James Colson. This document is the second of a two-part analysis on Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2016 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2016 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. The 2013 BNA was approved by NNSA’s Livermore Field Office on January 22, 2014.

  1. Baseline patient characteristics and mortality associated with longitudinal intervention compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Julia Y; Ten Have, Thomas R; Bogner, Hillary R; Elliott, Michael R

    2007-12-10

    Lin et al. (http://www.biostatsresearch.com/upennbiostat/papers/, 2006) proposed a nested Markov compliance class model in the Imbens and Rubin compliance class model framework to account for time-varying subject noncompliance in longitudinal randomized intervention studies. We use superclasses, or latent compliance class principal strata, to describe longitudinal compliance patterns, and time-varying compliance classes are assumed to depend on the history of compliance. In this paper, we search for good subject-level baseline predictors of these superclasses and also examine the relationship between these superclasses and all-cause mortality. Since the superclasses are completely latent in all subjects, we utilize multiple imputation techniques to draw inferences. We apply this approach to a randomized intervention study for elderly primary care patients with depression.

  2. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  3. Social Baseline Theory: The Social Regulation of Risk and Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A.; Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe Social Baseline Theory (SBT), a perspective that integrates the study of social relationships with principles of attachment, behavioral ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and perception science. SBT suggests the human brain expects access to social relationships that mitigate risk and diminish the level of effort needed to meet a variety of goals. This is accomplished in part by incorporating relational partners into neural representations of the self. By contrast, decreased access to relational partners increases cognitive and physiological effort. Relationship disruptions entail re-defining the self as independent, which implies greater risk, increased effort, and diminished well being. The ungrafting of the self and other may mediate recovery from relationship loss. PMID:25825706

  4. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  5. Laser-Ranging Long Baseline Differential Atom Interferometers for Space

    CERN Document Server

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    High sensitivity differential atom interferometers are promising for precision measurements in science frontiers in space, including gravity field mapping for Earth science studies and gravitational wave detection. We propose a new configuration of twin atom interferometers connected by a laser ranging interferometer (LRI-AI) to provide precise information of the displacements between the two AI reference mirrors and a means to phase-lock the two independent interferometer lasers over long distances, thereby further enhancing the feasibility of long baseline differential atom interferometers. We show that a properly implemented LRI-AI can achieve equivalent functionality to the conventional differential atom interferometer measurement system. LRI-AI isolates the laser requirements for atom interferometers and for optical phase readout between distant locations, thus enabling optimized allocation of available laser power within a limited physical size and resource budget. A unique aspect of LRI-AI also enables...

  6. Compression phase study of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, Ph; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)

    2008-02-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al (2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 052702). We study here the robustness of this target during the compression phase and define pulse shape tolerances for a successful fuel assembly. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter allows one to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbations due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g cm{sup -2} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g cm{sup -2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60.

  7. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, P; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: ribeyre@celia.u-bordeaux1

    2008-05-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF) using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter one allows to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbation under Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with to a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and to a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 55.

  8. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X.; Nicolai, Ph.; Schurtz, G.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Breil, J.; Maire, P.H.; Feugeas, J.M.; Hallo, L.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CNRS, CEA, 33 - Talence (France)

    2009-08-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The radiative transport have a minor effect on the peak areal density but decreased by 20% the peak density. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60. (authors)

  9. Adapting a Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Doeleman, Sheperd; Rogers, Alan; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael; Nand, Nitin; 10.1086/660156

    2011-01-01

    Extension of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to observing wavelengths shorter than 1.3mm provides exceptional angular resolution (~20 micro arcsec) and access to new spectral regimes for the study of astrophysical phenomena. To maintain phase coherence across a global VLBI array at these wavelengths requires that ultrastable frequency references be used for the heterodyne receivers at all participating telescopes. Hydrogen masers have traditionally been used as VLBI references, but atmospheric turbulence typically limits (sub) millimeter VLBI coherence times to ~1-30 s. Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators (CSO) have better stability than Hydrogen masers on these time scale and are potential alternatives to masers as VLBI references. Here, We describe the design, implementation and tests of a system to produce a 10 MHz VLBI frequency standard from the microwave (11.2 GHz) output of a CSO. To improve long-term stability of the new reference, the CSO was locked to the timing signal from the Global Positionin...

  10. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The technologies being tested for concrete decontamination are targeted for alpha contamination. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  11. Updated results of the OPERA long baseline neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Artem

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino detector built in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory is designed to detect (mu) -> (tau) oscillations in direct appearance mode. The hybrid apparatus consists of an emulsion/lead target complemented by electronic detectors. It is placed in the long-baseline CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam (CNGS) 730 km away from the source. The experimental setup and ancillary facilities used to extract data recorded in the emulsion will be described, with the special procedures used to locate the interactions vertices and detect short decay topologies. OPERA is taking data since 2008. A first (tau) interaction candidate was already published in 2010. An improved analysis scheme associated with a more detailed simulation has been developed and new results with increased statistics will be presented.

  12. Baseline concentration of Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in tuna fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin

    2016-06-15

    Several species of tuna fish were analyzed for (210)Po content in their edible muscle tissues. This study was carried out as a part of baseline data generation around a large nuclear power plant situated at Kudankulam, southeast coast of India. The concentration of (210)Po in the muscle tissue ranged from 40.9±5.2 to 92.5±7.9Bq/kg of fresh fish, and the highest activity was recorded for the tuna Euthynnus affinis and the lowest for Auxis thazard. The committed effective dose to the local residents was calculated to be 62.7-141.8μSvyear(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Short-baseline neutrino oscillations, Planck, and IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    We examine a framework with light new physics, which couples to the Standard Model only via neutrino mixing. Taking the hints from the short-baseline anomalies seriously and combining them with modern cosmological data and recent IceCube measurements, we obtain surprisingly effective constraints on the hidden force: keV $\\lesssim M \\lesssim0.3$ GeV for the mediator mass and $g_{h}>10^{-6}-10^{-3}$ for the coupling constant. Flavor equilibration between the hidden and active neutrinos can be delayed until temperatures of $\\sim 1$ MeV, but not below $\\sim 100$ keV. This scenario can be tested with next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background, IceCube, and oscillation experiments.

  14. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  15. Design and baseline characteristics of the LANDMARK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Hirakata, Hideki; Kaneda, Hideaki; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-06-01

    Calcium (Ca)-based phosphate (P) binders, compared to non-Ca-based P binders, contribute to vascular calcification, which is associated with cardiovascular events. The LANDMARK study is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel comparative study of lanthanum carbonate (LC) and calcium carbonate (CC) in hemodialysis patients. Stable hemodialysis patients with intact parathyroid hormone ≤240 pg/mL meeting ≥1 of the following criteria (age >65 years, postmenopause, diabetes mellitus) were randomized into the LC and CC groups. LC group patients initially received LC 750 mg/day or the previously used dose and were titrated up to a maximum 2250 mg/day to achieve serum P levels of 3.5-6.0 mg/dL. CC group patients received CC 3 g/day or the previously used dose and were titrated to achieve the same P range. If the target serum P level was not achieved, non-Ca-based P binders (other than LC) could also be added. The primary endpoint is survival time free of cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke, and unstable angina. Overall, 2309 patients were allocated to the LC (N = 1154) or CC group (N = 1155). At baseline, the mean age was 68.4 years, 40.4 % were women, 55.9 % had diabetes, 18.3 % had a history of ischemic heart disease, and 13.9 % had cerebrovascular disease. A total of 184 patients (8.4 %) had undergone coronary intervention procedures. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between groups. The LANDMARK study will determine whether LC, a non-Ca-based P binder, reduces cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  16. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This is nal report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is fo- cussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using in- tense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino exper- iment [6], currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design e ort for a future Long-Baseline Neu- trino Facility (LBNF) in the US.1 She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that e ort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos ( ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos ( e), using a beam of muon neu- trino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K rst reported indications of e appearance [2], a pre- viously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of disappearance and e appearance [1], and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the uni- verse. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This e ort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  17. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (νμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (νe), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  18. Automated baseline change detection -- Phases 1 and 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byler, E.

    1997-10-31

    The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust.

  19. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program seventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.

    1974-07-30

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. All of the baseline vehicles are now operational and are performing Program tests. Vehicle tests completed in this quarter include noise reduction, heater, air conditioning, and underhood temperature evaluations. Testing was completed on the original endurance engine. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) has commenced. Vendor A and Vendor B ceramic regenerator cores were rig tested with an improved elastomeric drive. Vendor A cores with the elastomeric drive are being engine tested. Ceramic regenerator seal wear test rig results are showing promise of achieving a low friction, non-nickel-oxide rubbing surface. The first preprototype integrated control system was delivered and placed in operation on a baseline engine in a test cell. Six ribbed compressor turbine wheels made of IN 792/Hf by the AiResearch Airefrac process were received. Rig testing of the variable inlet guide Vanes was completed and engine testing initiated. Vehicle evaluations of the torque converter lock-up were completed . Specifications for the Upgraded Engine aerodymanic components were made. A subcontract is currently being arranged with Mechanical Technology Inc. (MTI) for design and development of the upgraded engine gas generator bearings and shaft system. An initial feasibility study for gas bearings was completed. Analytical design of the upgraded engine power turbine reduction gears and bearings has commenced. Engine and vehicle accessory drive studies for the upgraded engine are well underway.

  20. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program eighth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1974-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Major preparations for engine heat balance tests by NASA were completed. EPA laboratories completed Baseline vehicle emissions, noise, and odor tests. Assembly of the program endurance engine is nearing completion. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) verified steady state emissions to be extremely low. Initial engine tests of Vendor A ceramic regenerator cores with an elastomeric drive verified performance predictions. Efforts towards developing a non-nickel oxide regenerator seal show extreme sensitivity to porosity differences between cores of different suppliers. All three preprototype integrated control systems were built. Modifications are being worked out to achieve a stable low speed operation. Two prototype compressor turbine wheels made from the reuseable pattern process are being inspected and processed for testing. The engine housing modified for operation at higher cycle temperatures and pressures was received. The baseline engine converted to free rotor is completing test cell check out. The modified vehicle is ready for engine installation. The upgraded engine characterization was updated to include the latest information on V.I.G.V., rotors, and bearings. The upgraded engine housing is being modeled physically and analytically for design and stress studies. An accessory drive system for the upgraded engine was selected, and a final layout is in process.

  1. GLoBES: General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim; Lindner, Manfred; Rolinec, Mark; Winter, Walter

    2007-09-01

    GLoBES (General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator) is a flexible software package to simulate neutrino oscillation long baseline and reactor experiments. On the one hand, it contains a comprehensive abstract experiment definition language (AEDL), which allows to describe most classes of long baseline experiments at an abstract level. On the other hand, it provides a C-library to process the experiment information in order to obtain oscillation probabilities, rate vectors, and Δχ-values. Currently, GLoBES is available for GNU/Linux. Since the source code is included, the port to other operating systems is in principle possible. GLoBES is an open source code that has previously been described in Computer Physics Communications 167 (2005) 195 and in Ref. [7]). The source code and a comprehensive User Manual for GLoBES v3.0.8 is now available from the CPC Program Library as described in the Program Summary below. The home of GLobES is http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/~globes/. Program summaryProgram title: GLoBES version 3.0.8 Catalogue identifier: ADZI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 145 295 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 811 892 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: GLoBES builds and installs on 32bit and 64bit Linux systems Operating system: 32bit or 64bit Linux RAM: Typically a few MBs Classification: 11.1, 11.7, 11.10 External routines: GSL—The GNU Scientific Library, www.gnu.org/software/gsl/ Nature of problem: Neutrino oscillations are now established as the leading flavor transition mechanism for neutrinos. In a long history of many experiments, see, e.g., [1], two oscillation frequencies have been identified: The fast atmospheric

  2. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Baseline Monitoring Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-19

    species, such as the seabeach amaranth , may even be enhanced by such perturbations. The dune and shrub plants of the coastal barrier suffer...sampling and modeling to determine the wetland areas at greatest risk and where mitigation may be needed. Species at Risk - beach amaranth Coastal...Species Sea beach amaranth surveys Annual Log book/GIS layer Wetlands (training areas monitored for impacts) Ongoing Log book/spreadsheet Training

  3. The Deployment Life Study: Methodological Overview and Baseline Sample Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    service members and spouses are also asked whether the service member or spouse is pregnant or trying to get pregnant, whether the pregnancy was...more drinks for women ) in the past 30 days. All items come from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. – Illegal drugs. Abuse of illegal...Tobacco use is assessed with three items that ask service members and spouses the number of days they smoked part or all of a cigarette (in the past 30

  4. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Weale

    2005-01-01

    This paper focusses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focusses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. ...

  5. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, M.H.; Weale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  6. Survey expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, Mohammad Hashem; Weale, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  7. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D Rittenhouse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years. Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary

  8. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a rele...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.......In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...

  9. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and

  10. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at the INL. Additionally, the INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE-sponsored national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federally-sponsored agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL’s FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in Federal recommendations and an as-yet-unpublished Technical and Support Document (TSD) using operational control boundary. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 114,256 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during fiscal year 2008 (FY08). The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL

  11. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sink KM

    2014-08-01

    adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7 had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001. The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the area of prevention of cognitive decline, the LIFE Study will also likely serve as a model for exercise and other behavioral intervention trials in older adults. Keywords: exercise, physical activity, older adults, dementia

  12. Baseline characteristics influencing quality of life in women undergoing gynecologic oncology surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenison Eric L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL measurements are important in evaluating cancer treatment outcomes. Factors other than cancer and its treatment may have significant effects on QoL and affect assessment of treatments. Baseline data from longitudinal studies of women with endometrial or ovarian cancer or adnexal mass determined at surgery to be benign were analyzed to determine the degree to which QoL is affected by baseline differences in demographic variables and health. Methods This study examined the effect of independent variables on domains of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-G pre-operatively in gynecologic oncology patients undergoing surgery for pelvic mass suspected to be malignant or endometrial cancer. Patients also completed the Short Form Medical Outcomes Survey (SF-36 questionnaire (a generic health questionnaire that measures physical and mental health. Independent variables were surgical diagnosis (ovarian or endometrial cancer, benign mass, age, body mass index (BMI, educational level, marital status, smoking status, physical (PCS and mental (MCS summary scores of the SF-36. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the influence of these variables on FACT-G domain scores (physical, functional, social and emotional well-being. Results Data were collected on 157 women at their pre-operative visit (33 ovarian cancer, 45 endometrial cancer, 79 determined at surgery to be benign. Mean scores on the FACT-G subscales and SF-36 summary scores did not differ as a function of surgical diagnosis. PCS, MCS, age, and educational level were positively correlated with physical well-being, while increasing BMI was negatively correlated. Functional well-being was positively correlated with PCS and MCS and negatively correlated with BMI. Social well-being was positively correlated with MCS and negatively correlated with BMI and educational level. PCS, MCS and age were positively correlated with emotional well

  13. Highlights of the LINEAR survey

    CERN Document Server

    Palaversa, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research asteroid survey (LINEAR) observed approximately 10,000 deg$^2$ of the northern sky in the period roughly from 1998 to 2013. Long baseline of observations combined with good cadence and depth ($14.5 < r_{SDSS}< 17.5$) provides excellent basis for investigation of variable and transient objects in this relatively faint and underexplored part of the sky. Details covering the repurposing of this survey for use in time domain astronomy, creation of a highly reliable catalogue of approximately 7,200 periodically variable stars (RR Lyrae, eclipsing binaries, SX Phe stars and LPVs) as well as search for optical signatures of exotic transient events (such as tidal disruption event candidates), are presented.

  14. Advanced DSP Technique to Remove Baseline Noise from ECG Signal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Heart diseases, which are one of the death reasons, are among the several serious problems in this century and as per the latest survey, 60% of the patients die due to Heart problems. In 2011, 10 crores people are suffering from heart diseases in India. Many individuals remain unaware of the symptoms of heart attack or dismiss possible symptoms as being unrelated or not important enough to visit a doctor. Early diagnosis and medical treatment of heart diseases can prevent sudden death of th...

  15. Subtask 12D2: Baseline impact properties of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the baseline impact properties of vanadium-base alloys as a function of compositional variables. Up-to-date results on impact properties of unirradiated V, V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti and V-Ti-Si alloys are presented and reviewed in this paper, with an emphasis on the most promising class of alloys, i.e., V-(4-5)Cr-(3-5)Ti containing 400-1000 wppm Si. Database on impact energy and ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) has been established from Charpy impact tests on small laboratory as well as production-scale heats. DBTT is influenced most significantly by Cr contents and, to a lesser extent, by Ti contents of the alloys. When combined contents of Cr and Ti were {le}10 wt.%, V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit excellent impact properties, i.e., DBTT<-200{degrees}C and upper shelf energies of {approx}120-140 J/cm{sup 2}. Impact properties of the production-scale heat of the U.S. reference alloy V-4Cr- 4Ti were as good as those of the laboratory-scale heats. Optimal impact properties of the reference alloy were obtained after annealing the as-rolled products at 1000{degrees}C-1050{degrees}C for 1-2 h in high-quality vacuum. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Fort Irwin Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Irwin, a US Army Forces Command facility near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL has designed to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Irwin. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, propane gas, and vehicle fuel use for a typical operating year. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Irwin by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  17. Investigation of Baseline Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in Pocillopora damicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and valuable ecosystems in the world. Vital for maintaining ecological balance in coastal tropical environments, they also stand as the foundation for enormous cultural and economic resources. However, the continued degradation of coral reefs around the world, particularly within NOAA's Hawaii Marine Sanctuary, is an alarming call for action towards the identification of stressors and subsequent rehabilitation of these national treasures. Aligned with the goals of NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary to protect areas of the marine environment that are of special national significance to cultural, scientific, educational, and ecological values, this research targets addressing and standardizing antioxidant enzyme stress levels in Hawaiian coral over reproductive cycles in order to increase management aptitude and efficiency. By developing a greater understanding for biochemical biomarkers of stress in corals, specifically through the study of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity and expression, my research will aid in the adaptation and further development of biochemical tests to understand baseline thresholds of stress on coral reefs within Sanctuary waters. Slight, but significant variations in enzyme expression over reproductive time points alert us to modifications that must be made to consider fluctuating levels of coral susceptibility when sampling corals under stress. These findings will be applied to diagnostic tests describing the effect of different chemical pollutants on coral health in order to identify ecological issues and expand the knowledge of local communities and NOAA, so that steps can be taken to mitigate human Sanctuary impacts.

  18. APOC impact assessment studies: baseline ophthalmological findings in Morogoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, O E; Maegga, B; Katenga, S; Ogbuagu, F K; Umeh, R E; Seketeli, E; Braide, E

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) is to eliminate Onchocerciasis as a disease of public Health significance and an important constraint to socio-economic development in the 19 none OCP (Onchocerciasis Control Project) countries covered through Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin, CDTI. In 1998, impact assessment studies were carried out in Morogoro, Tanzania during which baseline ophthalmological parameters were established. The hypothesis being tested is that CDTI will prevent or delay progression of onchocercal eye lesions and blindness. A total of 425 subjects aged 10 years or more from 14 villages within Bwakira district ofMorogoro region in Tanzania were examined for Snellen visual acuity, ocular microfilaria, lens opacities, uveitis and posterior segment disease especially chorioretinitis and optic nerve disease. Motion Sensitivity Screening Test (MSST) was carried out as well. Microfilaria was present in the anterior chamber of nearly half (49.2%) of all subjects examined. Prevalence of blindness was extremely high at 15.2%. Onchocercal lesions were responsible for blindness in 41.5% of these, followed by cataracts (27.7%), glaucoma (10.8%) and trachoma (6.2%). The main pathway to onchocercal blindness in this population was anterior uveitis with or without secondary cataracts. There is an urgent need to get CDTI underway and institute other horizontal primary eye care measures, especially cataract backlog reduction, in order to reduce the excessive burden of avoidable blindness in this community.

  19. Accelerator-based Short-baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gollapinni, Sowjanya

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, several experiments have reported anomalous results that could be hinting at the exciting possibility of sterile neutrino states in the $eV^{2}$ mass scale. Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are a particularly promising technology to explore this physics due to their fine-grained tracking and exceptional calorimetric capabilities. The MicroBooNE experiment, a 170 ton LArTPC scheduled to start taking data very soon with Fermilab's Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), will combine LArTPC development with the main physics goal of understanding the low-energy electromagnetic anomaly seen by the MiniBooNE experiment. Looking towards the future, MicroBooNE will become a part of the \\textit{short-baseline neutrino} program which expands the physics capabilities of the BNB in many important ways by adding additional LArTPC detectors to search for light sterile neutrinos and bring a definitive resolution to the set of existing experimental anomalies. This paper will give an overview of...

  20. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Robert J., E-mail: wilson@colostate.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1875 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.