WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-reflective self-awareness diminished

  1. Cell-phone use diminishes self-awareness of impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Biondi, Francesco; Behrends, Arwen A; Moore, Shannon M

    2016-04-01

    Multitasking diminishes the self-awareness of performance that is often essential for self-regulation and self-knowledge. Participants drove in a simulator while either talking or not talking on a hands-free cell phone. Following previous research, participants who talked on a cell phone made more serious driving errors than control participants who did not use a phone while driving. Control participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and general ability to drive safely while distracted were negatively correlated with the actual number of errors made when they were driving. By contrast, cell-phone participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and confidence in their driving abilities were uncorrelated with their actual errors. Thus, talking on a cell phone not only diminished the safeness of participants' driving, it diminished their awareness of the safeness of their driving.

  2. Cell phone use diminishes self-awareness of the adverse effects of cell phone use on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Multitasking may diminish the self-awareness of performance that is often essential for self-regulation : and self-knowledge. Participants in an experiment drove on a simulator while talking or not talking on a : cell phone. The errors they made whil...

  3. Reflective self-awareness and conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Nowak, Markus; Lou, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown precuneus, angular gyri, anterior cingulate gyri, and adjacent structures to be highly metabolically active in support of resting consciousness. We hypothesize that these regions constitute a functional network of reflective self-awareness thought to be a core...... function of consciousness. Seven normal volunteers were asked to think intensely on how they would describe the personality traits and physical appearance of themselves and a neutral reference person known to all the subjects (the Danish Queen). During each of the four conditions cerebral blood flow...... during reflective self-awareness. The commonality between the neural networks of the resting conscious state and self-awareness reflects the phenomenological concept of a fundamental contribution of reflective self-awareness to the contents and coherence of the conscious state....

  4. Self-Awareness of Cloud Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iosup, Alexandru; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Merchant, Arif; Kalyvianaki, Eva; Maggio, Martina; Spinner, Simon; Abdelzaher, Tarek; Mengshoel, Ole; Bouchenak, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cloud applications today deliver an increasingly larger portion of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services. To address the scale, growth, and reliability of cloud applications, self-aware management and scheduling are becoming commonplace. How are they used in practice? In this

  5. The Development of Body Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Chris; Mealiea, Jennifer; Garon, Nancy; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined toddlers' performance on a new task designed to examine the development of body self-awareness. The new task was conceived from observations by Piaget (1953/1977) and theoretical work from Povinelli and Cant (1995) and involved a toy shopping cart to the back of which a small mat had been attached. Children were asked to…

  6. Measuring the Effects of Self-Awareness: Construction of the Self-Awareness Outcomes Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sutton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispositional self-awareness is conceptualized in several different ways, including insight, reflection, rumination and mindfulness, with the latter in particular attracting extensive attention in recent research. While self-awareness is generally associated with positive psychological well-being, these different conceptualizations are also each associated with a range of unique outcomes. This two part, mixed methods study aimed to advance understanding of dispositional self-awareness by developing a questionnaire to measure its outcomes. In Study 1, expert focus groups categorized and extended an initial pool of potential items from previous research. In Study 2, these items were reduced to a 38 item self-report questionnaire with four factors representing three beneficial outcomes (reflective self-development, acceptance and proactivity and one negative outcome (costs. Regression of these outcomes against self-awareness measures revealed that self-reflection and insight predicted beneficial outcomes, rumination predicted reduced benefits and increased costs, and mindfulness predicted both increased proactivity and costs. These studies help to refine the self-awareness concept by identifying the unique outcomes associated with the concepts of self-reflection, insight, reflection, rumination and mindfulness. It can be used in future studies to evaluate and develop awareness-raising techniques to maximize self-awareness benefits while minimizing related costs.

  7. Physician self-awareness: the neglected insight.

    OpenAIRE

    Longhurst, M

    1988-01-01

    Self-awareness is vital to a physician's development. Understanding the impact of our internal subjective world on our attitudes and values and on the fantasies we have of reality is important to us as doctors. Some of the means of acquiring this self-knowledge include accurately perceiving the reflection of one's self in patients, understanding one's learning style, studying and enjoying the humanities, expressing one's self creatively, maintaining a sense of humour and examining one's react...

  8. Counteracting Age Stereotypes: A Self-Awareness Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Pethtel, Olivia; Ma, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    The major goals of the present study were to (a) examine age differences in susceptibility to age stereotypes and (b) test a self-awareness manipulation in counteracting age stereotypes. Young and older adults read two sets of descriptors that only differed in the to-be-ignored age-related information. In the high self-awareness condition,…

  9. Self-Awareness in Computer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Keller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet architecture works well for a wide variety of communication scenarios. However, its flexibility is limited because it was initially designed to provide communication links between a few static nodes in a homogeneous network and did not attempt to solve the challenges of today’s dynamic network environments. Although the Internet has evolved to a global system of interconnected computer networks, which links together billions of heterogeneous compute nodes, its static architecture remained more or less the same. Nowadays the diversity in networked devices, communication requirements, and network conditions vary heavily, which makes it difficult for a static set of protocols to provide the required functionality. Therefore, we propose a self-aware network architecture in which protocol stacks can be built dynamically. Those protocol stacks can be optimized continuously during communication according to the current requirements. For this network architecture we propose an FPGA-based execution environment called EmbedNet that allows for a dynamic mapping of network protocols to either hardware or software. We show that our architecture can reduce the communication overhead significantly by adapting the protocol stack and that the dynamic hardware/software mapping of protocols considerably reduces the CPU load introduced by packet processing.

  10. COUNTERACTING AGE STEREOTYPES: A SELF-AWARENESS MANIPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yiwei; Pethtel, Olivia; Ma, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    The major goals of the present study were to (a) examine age differences in susceptibility to age stereotypes and (b) test a self-awareness manipulation in counteracting age stereotypes. Young and older adults read two sets of descriptors that only differed in the to-be-ignored age-related information. In the high self-awareness condition, participants saw themselves via a computer video camera. In the low self-awareness condition, they saw prerecorded images of a stranger. Overall, older adu...

  11. Beyond Words: Leader Self-Awareness and Interpersonal Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery III, William H

    2007-01-01

    Being self aware and using interpersonal skills will be significant to leader success given the 2006 release of the Army's new mandate to create, develop, and nurture a different kind of Army leader...

  12. The effect of storytelling on self-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Phil. (Personal and Professional Leadership) People are storytelling beings and storytelling has been associated with improved self-awareness. It has also been indicated as a way to uncover patterns of culture, behaviour, communication, the sharing of knowledge, and understanding in different ways. If storytelling has such value, why is there so relatively little research on the effect of storytelling on self-awareness that could, in turn, lead to the development of personal mastery on l...

  13. A neuro-socio-cognitive model of self-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Presents a model of self-awareness that proposes the existence of three sources of self-information. (1) The social milieu includes self-relevant feedback, a social comparison mechanism leading to perspective-taking, and audiences. (2) The physical environment contains self-focusing and reflecting stimuli such as mirrors and video cameras. (3) The self can develop bodily awareness through proprioception and can reflect upon itself using imagery and inner speech. Furthermore, self-awareness i...

  14. Awareness and Self-Awareness for Multi-Robot Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kernbach, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Awareness and self-awareness are two different notions related to knowing the environment and itself. In a general context, the mechanism of self-awareness belongs to a class of co-called "self-issues" (self-* or self-star): self-adaptation, self-repairing, self-replication, self-development or self-recovery. The self-* issues are connected in many ways to adaptability and evolvability, to the emergence of behavior and to the controllability of long-term developmental processes. Self-* are ei...

  15. Precocious development of self-awareness in dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Morrison

    Full Text Available Mirror-self recognition (MSR is a behavioral indicator of self-awareness in young children and only a few other species, including the great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. The emergence of self-awareness in children typically occurs during the second year and has been correlated with sensorimotor development and growing social and self-awareness. Comparative studies of MSR in chimpanzees report that the onset of this ability occurs between 2 years 4 months and 3 years 9 months of age. Studies of wild and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have reported precocious sensorimotor and social awareness during the first weeks of life, but no comparative MSR research has been conducted with this species. We exposed two young bottlenose dolphins to an underwater mirror and analyzed video recordings of their behavioral responses over a 3-year period. Here we report that both dolphins exhibited MSR, indicated by self-directed behavior at the mirror, at ages earlier than generally reported for children and at ages much earlier than reported for chimpanzees. The early onset of MSR in young dolphins occurs in parallel with their advanced sensorimotor development, complex and reciprocal social interactions, and growing social awareness. Both dolphins passed subsequent mark tests at ages comparable with children. Thus, our findings indicate that dolphins exhibit self-awareness at a mirror at a younger age than previously reported for children or other species tested.

  16. Foundations for self-awareness: An exploration through autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Peter R; Chidambi, Gayathri; Lee, Anthony; Meyer, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology holds promise for elucidating the structure of self-awareness. Here we studied social emotions in matched groups of children and adolescents with and without autism. Our aims were to determine whether there are potentially dissociable aspects of self-awareness, and to reconsider how the qualities of young children's engagement with other persons influences the development of their sense of self. Parent interviews yielded evidence that children with autism are limited in social-relational and emotional domains of self-awareness; for example, few were reported to show guilt, embarrassment, or shame. Yet according to parent report, most were affected by the moods of others, showed some degree of pity and concern, and manifested jealousy. When presented with videotaped scenes, participants with autism were similar to those without autism in identifying pride, guilt, and shame, and they were able to describe their own experiences of pride and, more rarely, guilt. In situations designed to elicit emotions, participants with autism were rated as showing pride, but they manifested lesser degrees and atypical qualities of guilt and coyness. Relatively few showed personal forms of self-consciousness when asked to pose for a photograph. We argue that in order for children to achieve depth in self-awareness, and to relate to themselves as occupying a distinctive stance within a framework of mutual self-other relatedness, they need to identify with the attitudes of other people. We interpret the present studies in terms of dissociations among three forms of social emotion: "person-centered" qualities of relational self-awareness that require identification and are specifically limited among children with autism, more diffuse modes of relational self-consciousness, and a third group of social emotions, epitomized by jealousy, situated in a separate developmental line. We propose a rebalancing of emotion theory that gives greater prominence to

  17. Review of Self-Awareness and Its Clinical Application in Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel P. K.; Liu, Karen P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to explore, following a literature review, the concepts of self-awareness, its assessment, and intervention for self-awareness deficits, as well as its clinical significance in stroke rehabilitation; and (ii) to apply the concepts of self-awareness in the context of a rehabilitation program. The search was…

  18. The self-aware diabetic patient software agent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman

    2013-11-01

    This work presents a self-aware diabetic patient software agent for representing a human diabetic patient. To develop a 24h, stochastic and self-aware patient agent, we extend the original seminal work of Ackerman et al. [1] in creating a mathematical model of human blood glucose levels in three aspects. (1) We incorporate the stochastic and unpredictable effects of daily living. (2) The Ackerman model is extended into the period of night-time. (3) Patients' awareness of their own conditions is incorporated. Simulation results are quantitatively assessed to demonstrate the effectiveness of lifestyle management, such as adjusting the amount of food consumed, meal schedule, intensity of exercise and level of medication. In this work we show through the simulation that the average blood glucose can be reduced by as much as 51% due to careful lifestyle management. Self monitoring blood glucose is also quantitatively evaluated. The simulation results show that the average blood glucose is further dropped by 25% with the assistance of blood glucose samples. In addition, the blood glucose is perfectly controlled in the target range during the simulation period as a result of joint efforts of lifestyle management and self monitoring blood glucose. This study focuses on demonstrating how human patients' behavior, specifically lifestyle and self monitoring of blood glucose, affects blood glucose controls on a daily basis. This work does not focus on the insulin-glucose interaction of an individual human patient. Our conclusion is that this self-aware patient agent model is capable of adequately representing diabetic patients and of evaluating their dynamic behaviors. It can also be incorporated into a multi-agent system by introducing other healthcare components so that more interesting insights such as the healthcare quality, cost and performance can be observed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [Self-Awareness of Disease Stigma: Reflections of Healthcare Professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Wang, Ying-Ting; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2017-06-01

    People who suffer from disease frequently experience disease-related stigmas. Stigma presents in daily life during normal human interactions. The stereotypes promoted by the media often impact public opinion significantly. Moreover, healthcare professionals may exacerbate stigmatization due to their misunderstanding of patients and their disease issues. Therefore, the reflection on stigma of healthcare professionals cannot be ignored. The present article illustrates the issue of stigmas held by healthcare professionals, their related stigmas, and their self-awareness. It is hoped that all healthcare professionals may cooperate to develop an anti-stigma strategy and to become true spokespersons for their patients.

  20. Consequences of objective self-awareness during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Cornick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although exercise is recommended by healthcare professionals for nearly everyone, adverse reactions can occur following exercising for some overweight individuals. The reported study investigated the cardiovascular consequences of exercise in a stressful environment. In all, 60 females completed two baseline and one biking (i.e. ergometer periods while cardiovascular and self-report measures were recorded. Findings indicated that those who are more self-aware showed cardiovascular response patterns indicative of threat. Additionally, post-task exercise self-efficacy levels predicted intentions to exercise at a demanding level in the coming week. These findings suggest exercise may exacerbate health issues for some individuals for whom it is recommended.

  1. Objective Self Awareness, Self-Esteem and Causal Attributions for Success and Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2 (high vs. low self - esteem subjects) design was employed. Objective self -awareness was manipulated by exposing subjects to their image on a wall...The investigation has applied the theory of objective self awareness (Duval and Wicklund, 1972) to the study of causal attributions that actors make...for their past performance. A 2 (male vs. female subject) by 2 (success vs. failure) by 3 (objective self -awareness vs. control vs. time control) by

  2. External self-representations improve self-awareness in a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Nicholas B; Case, Laura K; Burrus, Caley J; Ramachandran, V S

    2015-01-01

    We have previously suggested that the social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be caused in part by a dysfunctional mirror neuron system (MNS). Since the recursive activity of a functioning MNS might enable the brain to integrate visual and motor sensations into a coherent body schema, the deficits in self-awareness often seen in ASD might be caused by the same mirror neuron dysfunction. CL is an autistic adolescent who is profoundly fascinated with his reflection, looking in mirrors at every opportunity. We demonstrate that CL's abnormal gait improves significantly when using a mirror for visual feedback. We also show that both the fascination and the happiness that CL derives from looking at a computer-generated reflection diminish when a delay is introduced between the camera input and screen output. We believe that immediate, real-time visual feedback allows CL to integrate motor sensations with external visual ones into a coherent body schema that he cannot internally generate, perhaps due to a dysfunctional MNS.

  3. Self-Awareness After Brain Injury : Relation with Emotion Recognition and Effects of Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, K. F.; Fasotti, L.; Boelen, D. H. E.; Spikman, J. M.

    Self-awareness is often impaired after acquired brain injury (ABI) and this hampers rehabilitation, in general: unrealistic reports by patients about their functioning and poor motivation and compliance with treatment. We evaluated a self-awareness treatment that was part of a treatment protocol on

  4. Theory of "Own" Mind in Autism: Evidence of a Specific Deficit in Self-Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that self-awareness is not a unitary phenomenon, and that one can be aware of different aspects of self at any one time, it follows that selective impairments in self-awareness can occur. This article explores the idea that autism involves a particular deficit in awareness of the "psychological self", or "theory of "own" mind". This…

  5. A Longitudinal, Mixed Method Evaluation of Self-Awareness Training in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Anna; Williams, Helen M.; Allinson, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether self-awareness, which is associated with general well-being and positive life outcomes, is also of specific benefit in the workplace. The authors tested the relationship between self-awareness and job-related well-being, and evaluated two different interventions designed to improve…

  6. True-personality-assisted self-awareness expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laleuf, M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on psychoanalytic theory, the Who am I? expert system explains in simple terms the individual's true personality, even it its unconscious or hidden aspects. Our overt personality traits are deeply rooted. The Who am I? expert system gives access to an individual's primary personality, starting from his habitual everyday-life behavior: (1) describes the individual's basic personality, (2) explains this personality through the individual's deeply rooted experience and motivation, and (3) makes links with other people with a similar profile. The following are the primary features of the system: easy individual access, results in <20 minutes, and guaranteed confidentiality. Business applications include the following: (1) Individual training: Self-awareness improves a person's ability to fit in and to succeed within the group. (2) Communication: a homogeneous team has a better chance of success. (3) Human reliability: A close-knit team remains reliable even when faced with serious difficulties. (4) Recruitment: This technique enables the selection of individuals who will fit an existing homogeneous team. The system also enables a psychological diagnosis to be confirmed

  7. The Central Neural Foundations of Awareness and Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, D.; Martin, E. M.; Weingarten, W.; Vimal, V.

    pathways, to higher levels of awareness. However, we must also consider `top down' approaches. Based on our thinking and our fantasies, arousal of the central nervous system may be modulated up or down to produce more or less awareness. And then, self-awareness results from our memory of our own behavioral activity.

  8. Prosocial self-schemas, self-awareness, and children's prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froming, W J; Nasby, W; McManus, J

    1998-09-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that a child's prosocial self-schema predicts prosocial behavior. In Study 1, only self-aware boys showed a self-schema-behavior relation. Study 2 altered both salience of donating opportunity and relationship of recipient to donor. The hypothesized Self-Awareness x Self-Schema interaction was significant, and there were no gender differences. Study 3 systematically manipulated the salience of the donating opportunity. All participants were self-aware. For boys in high and low salience conditions, prosocial self-schema predicted donating behavior. For girls, prosocial self-schema predicted behavior only in the high salience condition. The findings demonstrate that self-schemas can regulate behavior when participants are self-aware. Girls, however, may require higher salience of the donating opportunity for the self-schema to affect their behavior.

  9. Self-recognition, theory-of-mind, and self-awareness: what side are you on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alain

    2011-05-01

    A fashionable view in comparative psychology states that primates possess self-awareness because they exhibit mirror self-recognition (MSR), which in turn makes it possible to infer mental states in others ("theory-of-mind"; ToM). In cognitive neuroscience, an increasingly popular position holds that the right hemisphere represents the centre of self-awareness because MSR and ToM tasks presumably increase activity in that hemisphere. These two claims are critically assessed here as follows: (1) MSR should not be equated with full-blown self-awareness, as it most probably only requires kinaesthetic self-knowledge and does not involve access to one's mental events; (2) ToM and self-awareness are fairly independent and should also not be taken as equivalent notions; (3) MSR and ToM tasks engage medial and left brain areas; (4) other self-awareness tasks besides MSR and ToM tasks (e.g., self-description, autobiography) mostly recruit medial and left brain areas; (5) and recent neuropsychological evidence implies that inner speech (produced by the left hemisphere) plays a significant role in self-referential activity. The main conclusions reached based on this analysis are that (a) organisms that display MSR most probably do not possess introspective self-awareness, and (b) self-related processes most likely engage a distributed network of brain regions situated in both hemispheres.

  10. Self-talk and self-awareness: On the nature of the relation.

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Alain

    1993-01-01

    This article raises the question of how we acquire self-information through self-talk, i.e., of how self-talk mediates self-awareness. It is first suggested that two social mechanisms leading to self-awareness could be reproduced by self-talk: engaging in dialogues with ourselves, in which we talk to fictive persons, would permit an internalization of others' perspectives; and addressing comments to ourselves about ourselves, as others do toward us, would allow an acquisition of self-in...

  11. Robots with Internal Models: A Route to Self-Aware and Hence Safer Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Alan F. T.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Internal Models and Self-Awareness * Internal Model-Based Architecture for Robot Safety * The Internal Model * The Consequence Evaluator * The Object Tracker-Localizer * Towards an Ethical Robot * Challenges and Open Questions * Discussion: The Way Forward * Summary and Conclusions

  12. Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Kyle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

  13. Cultural Identity Forum: Enacting the Self-Awareness Imperative in Intercultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Lain, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Intercultural Communication; any course with an intercultural communication unit. Objectives: Students will demonstrate the self-awareness imperative in intercultural communication, explore their own cultural identities, and reflect on others cultural identities in order to build their intercultural communication competence.

  14. The Formation of Students' National Self-Awareness in EFL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmakeev, Iskander E.; Pimenova, Tatiana S.

    2014-01-01

    In the epoch of globalization it is urgently important to draw attention to the problem of the formation of national self-awareness of school students. Numerous researches in the Russian Federation show that there is a tendency of cultural level decreasing, according to which a great many school students are not aware not only of the world's…

  15. Enhancing Self-Awareness: Integrating Himalayan Art in a Career Planning Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The dilemma for many college students' job search process is their overwhelming desire to locate any job rather than to satisfy their true passions. Thus, a job search can become a highly instrumental, task-oriented process, preventing students' opportunity to discover themselves and their life's purpose. Self-awareness, however, is a central…

  16. The Relationship of Self-Awareness to Leadership Effectiveness for Experienced Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between leaders' self-awareness and their effectiveness. The population included leaders with at least five years of experience in a leadership role. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling methods; the researcher used a diverse network of professionals to recruit other…

  17. The effect of self-awareness and self-regulation on organizational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal utilization of employees and facilities is the primary goal of any organization and creation of a commitment and satisfaction in employees can have a major role to realize the goals. The aim of this study is to investigate The Effect of Self-awareness and Self-regulation on Organizational Commitment Employees of ...

  18. Self-Awareness and Leadership Skills of Female Students in Outdoor Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esentas, Melike; Özbey, Selhan; Güzel, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the role of youth camp practices, organised by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, in the development of self-awareness and leadership skills of female students participating in youth camps. As a result of analysis of the data collected with triangulation method--observation, focus group discussions and document…

  19. Studying self-awareness in children: validation of the Questionnaire of Executive Functioning (QEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Marie; Catale, Corinne; Geurten, Claire; Wansard, Murielle; Meulemans, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    People with accurate representations of their own cognitive functioning (i.e. cognitive self-awareness) tend to use appropriate strategies to regulate their behavior. Due to the lack of appropriate instruments, few studies have examined the development of this ability among children. This study tested the measurement properties of the self-rating and other-rating forms of the Questionnaire of Executive Functioning (QEF), designed to tap children's knowledge of their executive functioning. Specifically, the construct, convergent, and discriminant validities were investigated and a self-other discrepancy score was computed to assess children's executive self-awareness. Participants were 317 children aged 7-14 years old. Confirmatory factor analyses carried out on the QEF confirmed the eight-factor structure of both versions. There were significant correlations between the QEF and the parent versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, the Dysexecutive Questionnaire for Children, and the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory. Both forms of the QEF were able to distinguish between children who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and control participants. A statistical difference was observed between the TBI and control groups on this score, suggesting that TBI may trigger self-awareness impairments in children. The good psychometric properties of the two forms of the QEF were established. Furthermore, results of the analyses carried out on the different discrepancy scores seem to indicate that the QEF could help clinicians to detect patients with self-awareness deficits.

  20. Authentic Leadership: Practical Reflexivity, Self-Awareness, and Self-Authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This assignment provides a process to facilitate student engagement in practical reflexivity and self-authorship through which students develop the self-awareness that is required to be an authentic and effective leader. It facilitates the development of students' personal leadership principles, which help guide their decision making and actions,…

  1. Cultivating Self-Awareness in Counselors-in-Training through Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated processes, strategies, and frameworks that took place during group supervision classes, which best cultivate the self-awareness of Mental Health and Marriage and Family Counselors-in-Training (CITs). It was designed to explore factors across multiple theoretical models, which contributed to the cultivation of self-awareness…

  2. The Assumed Space: Pre-reflective Spatiality and Doctrinal Configurations in Juridical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Meccarelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to analyse, by means of the legal-historical perspective, the relationship between the pre-reflections of space and the configurations of legal concepts and categories. Three examples of the interplay between doctrinal configurations and the spatial dimension within the context of three different historical periods will be illustrated: given space in the Middle Ages, possible space in the Modern Age and decided space in the Contemporary Age. From this basis, the essay considers the heuristic importance of such an analytical approach – mindful of the profiles of presupposition, such as the space assumption, underlying the conceptualisation of ideas – for a history attentive to the constraints of the theoretical sustainability of legal concepts.

  3. My face, my heart: cultural differences in integrated bodily self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-01-01

    Body-awareness is produced by an integration of both interoceptive and exteroceptive bodily signals. However, previous investigations into cultural differences in bodily self-awareness have only studied these two aspects in isolation. We investigated the interaction between interoceptive and exteroceptive self-processing in East Asian and Western participants. During an interoceptive awareness task, self-face observation improved performance of those with initially low awareness in the Western group, but did not benefit the East Asian participants. These results suggest that the integrated, coherent experience of the body differs between East Asian and Western cultures. For Western participants, viewing one's own face may activate a bodily self-awareness which enhances processing of other bodily information, such as interoceptive signals. Instead, for East Asian individuals, the external appearance of the self may activate higher-level, social aspects of self-identity, reflecting the importance of the sociocultural construct of "face" in East Asian cultures.

  4. The Anatomical and Evolutionary Relationship between Self-awareness and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Kevin; Kelly, Karen; Romanowski, Jennifer; Vogeley, Kai; Platek, Steven M; Murray, Elizabeth; Keenan, Julian Paul

    2007-06-01

    Although theories that examine direct links between behavior and brain remain incomplete, it is known that brain expansion significantly correlates with caloric and oxygen demands. Therefore, one of the principles governing evolutionary cognitive neuroscience is that cognitive abilities that require significant brain function (and/or structural support) must be accompanied by significant fitness benefit to offset the increased metabolic demands. One such capacity is self-awareness (SA), which (1) is found only in the greater apes and (2) remains unclear in terms of both cortical underpinning and possible fitness benefit. In the current experiment, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the prefrontal cortex during a spatial perspective-taking task involving self and other viewpoints. It was found that delivery of TMS to the right prefrontal region disrupted self-, but not other-, perspective. These data suggest that self-awareness may have evolved in concert with other right hemisphere cognitive abilities.

  5. Theory of own mind in autism: Evidence of a specific deficit in self-awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David

    2010-09-01

    Assuming that self-awareness is not a unitary phenomenon, and that one can be aware of different aspects of self at any one time, it follows that selective impairments in self-awareness can occur. This article explores the idea that autism involves a particular deficit in awareness of the 'psychological self', or 'theory of own mind'. This hypothesised deficit renders individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at least as impaired at recognising their own mental states as at recognising mental states in other people. This deficit, it is argued, stands in contrast to an apparently typical awareness of the 'physical self' amongst people with autism. Theoretical implications of the empirical evidence are discussed.

  6. Descartes discarded? Introspective self-awareness and the problems of transparency and compositionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werning, Markus

    2010-09-01

    What has the self to be like such that introspective awareness of it is possible? The paper asks if Descartes's idea of an inner self can be upheld and discusses this issue by invoking two principles: the phenomenal transparency of experience and the semantic compositionality of conceptual content. It is assumed that self-awareness is a second-order state either in the domain of experience or in the domain of thought. In the former case self-awareness turns out empty if experience is transparent. In the latter, it can best be conceived of as a form of mental quotation. Various proposed analyses of direct and indirect quotation are discussed and tested regarding their applicability to thought. It is concluded that, on the assumption of compositionality, the inner self is only insofar accessible to awareness as it has an accessible phonological (or otherwise subsymbolic) structure, as apparently only inner speech does. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fire, wind, earth, and water: raising the education threshold through teacher self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolder, Mary Ellen; Hydo, Sharon K; Zorn, Cecelia R; Bottoms, Marjorie S

    2007-07-01

    The ancient Greeks, as well as current writers, prompt us to examine the self as teacher. Seeing the self as a border crosser is used to reveal both the light-side and shadow-side of self, as metaphorically suggested by fire, wind, earth, and water. Only through teacher self-awareness can respect be used to expand our lives as teachers and enrich students' learning and growth.

  8. Measure of significance of holotropic breathwork in the development of self-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja; Nielsen, Laila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design was a re......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design...... MEASURES: The novices (n = 9) underwent positive temperament changes and the experienced participants (n = 11) underwent positive changes in character. Overall, positive self-awareness changes were indicated; the participants' (n = 20) scores for persistence temperament, interpersonal problems, overly.......864; pre-during-test p = 0.0215, pre-post-test p = 0.021, pre-post-test d = 0.5). Pre-test hostility mean (50.50 ± 10.395) decreased at post-test (47.20 ± 9.001; p = 0.0185; d = 0.3). The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems total pre-test mean (59.05 ± 17.139) was decreased at post-test (54.8 ± 12.408; p...

  9. The Feeling of Agency: Empirical Indicators for a Pre-Reflective Level of Action Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Nicole; Stenzel, Anna; Schneider, Till R.; Engel, Andreas K.

    2011-01-01

    The sense of agency has been defined as the sense that I am the author of my own actions. This sense, however, is usually not reflected upon but instead pre-reflectively experienced. Experimental approaches usually measure the sense of agency by judgments or verbal reports, despite evidence that the sense of agency is not sufficiently assessed on such a reflective level. Here we sought to identify non-verbal measures of the sense of agency, particularly testing the relevance of physiological activity such as skin conductance and heart rate. Manipulating the visual feedback to an executed movement, we investigated how well physiological activity and other movement parameters differed between real and false feedback (i.e., between actual agency and non-agency), and how they related to accuracy of agency judgments. Skin conductance and heart rate did not differ between agency and non-agency situations; neither did they inform agency judgments. In contrast, movement onsets – particularly, discrepancies between feedback and movement onsets – were related to agency judgments. Overall, our results indicate weak visceral–somatic associations with the sense of agency. Thus, physiological activity did not prove to be an empirical indicator for the feeling of agency. PMID:21779268

  10. An Autonomous Self-Aware and Adaptive Fault Tolerant Routing Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Sani; Lee, Jeong-A

    2015-08-18

    We propose an autonomous self-aware and adaptive fault-tolerant routing technique (ASAART) for wireless sensor networks. We address the limitations of self-healing routing (SHR) and self-selective routing (SSR) techniques for routing sensor data. We also examine the integration of autonomic self-aware and adaptive fault detection and resiliency techniques for route formation and route repair to provide resilience to errors and failures. We achieved this by using a combined continuous and slotted prioritized transmission back-off delay to obtain local and global network state information, as well as multiple random functions for attaining faster routing convergence and reliable route repair despite transient and permanent node failure rates and efficient adaptation to instantaneous network topology changes. The results of simulations based on a comparison of the ASAART with the SHR and SSR protocols for five different simulated scenarios in the presence of transient and permanent node failure rates exhibit a greater resiliency to errors and failure and better routing performance in terms of the number of successfully delivered network packets, end-to-end delay, delivered MAC layer packets, packet error rate, as well as efficient energy conservation in a highly congested, faulty, and scalable sensor network.

  11. Self-awareness of prospective memory failure in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nadine L; Fleming, Jennifer M; Shum, David H K

    2002-11-01

    The frequency of prospective memory failure in individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) was investigated by comparison with a non-brain-injured control group. Self-awareness of prospective memory function was also assessed by comparing self-ratings with ratings by significant others. Study participants included 33 individuals with severe TBI and 29 non-brain-injured persons. Each participant nominated a close friend or relative who completed the informant's version of the questionnaire. Participants and their significant others both rated the participants' frequency of prospective memory lapses using the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM). An independent groups design was adopted to compare the TBI and control groups. No significant difference was found between the TBI and control participants' self-ratings of frequency of prospective memory failure, but ratings by significant others were significantly different. The TBI group demonstrated less self-awareness (i.e. underestimated the frequency of prospective memory failure compared to significant others) than the control group.

  12. Towards Self-Awareness Privacy Protection for Internet of Things Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Seng Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is now an emerging global Internet-based information architecture used to facilitate the exchange of goods and services. IoT-related applications are aiming to bring technology to people anytime and anywhere, with any device. However, the use of IoT raises a privacy concern because data will be collected automatically from the network devices and objects which are embedded with IoT technologies. In the current applications, data collector is a dominant player who enforces the secure protocol that cannot be verified by the data owners. In view of this, some of the respondents might refuse to contribute their personal data or submit inaccurate data. In this paper, we study a self-awareness data collection protocol to raise the confidence of the respondents when submitting their personal data to the data collector. Our self-awareness protocol requires each respondent to help others in preserving his privacy. The communication (respondents and data collector and collaboration (among respondents in our solution will be performed automatically.

  13. An Autonomous Self-Aware and Adaptive Fault Tolerant Routing Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Sani; Lee, Jeong-A

    2015-01-01

    We propose an autonomous self-aware and adaptive fault-tolerant routing technique (ASAART) for wireless sensor networks. We address the limitations of self-healing routing (SHR) and self-selective routing (SSR) techniques for routing sensor data. We also examine the integration of autonomic self-aware and adaptive fault detection and resiliency techniques for route formation and route repair to provide resilience to errors and failures. We achieved this by using a combined continuous and slotted prioritized transmission back-off delay to obtain local and global network state information, as well as multiple random functions for attaining faster routing convergence and reliable route repair despite transient and permanent node failure rates and efficient adaptation to instantaneous network topology changes. The results of simulations based on a comparison of the ASAART with the SHR and SSR protocols for five different simulated scenarios in the presence of transient and permanent node failure rates exhibit a greater resiliency to errors and failure and better routing performance in terms of the number of successfully delivered network packets, end-to-end delay, delivered MAC layer packets, packet error rate, as well as efficient energy conservation in a highly congested, faulty, and scalable sensor network. PMID:26295236

  14. Modifying Bodily Self-Awareness during Acupuncture Needle Stimulation Using the Rubber Hand Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seon Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rubber hand illusion (RHI is an experimental paradigm that manipulates important aspects of body self-awareness. Objectives. We were interested in whether modifying bodily self-awareness by manipulation of body ownership and visual expectations using the RHI would change the subjective perception of pain as well as the autonomic response to acupuncture needle stimulation. Methods. Acupuncture needle stimulation was applied to the real hand during the RHI with (experiment 1 or without (experiment 2 visual expectation while measuring concurrent autonomic changes such as the skin conductance response (SCR. Subjective responses such as perception of the RHI and perceived pain were measured by questionnaires. Results. In experiment 1, the amplitude of the increase in SCR was visibly higher during the synchronous session compared with that of the asynchronous session. In experiment 2, the amplitude of the increase of SCR was lower for the synchronous session compared with that for the asynchronous session. Comparing these two experiments, the visual expectation of needle stimulation produced a greater autonomic response to acupuncture stimulation. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the sympathetic response to acupuncture needle stimulation is primarily influenced by visual expectation rather than by modifications of body ownership.

  15. Preventing errors in clinical practice: a call for self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Carrió, Francesc; Epstein, Ronald M

    2004-01-01

    While ascribing medical errors primarily to systems factors can free clinicians from individual blame, there are elements of medical errors that can and should be attributed to individual factors. These factors are related less commonly to lack of knowledge and skill than to the inability to apply the clinician's abilities to situations under certain circumstances. In concert with efforts to improve health care systems, refining physicians' emotional and cognitive capacities might also prevent many errors. In general, physicians have the sensation of making a mistake because of the interference of emotional elements. We propose a so-called rational-emotive model that emphasizes 2 factors in error causation: (1) difficulty in reframing the first hypothesis that goes to the physician's mind in an automatic way, and (2) premature closure of the clinical act to avoid confronting inconsistencies, low-level decision rules, and emotions. We propose a teaching strategy based on developing the physician's insight and self-awareness to detect the inappropriate use of low-level decision rules, as well as detecting the factors that limit a physician's capacity to tolerate the tension of uncertainty and ambiguity. Emotional self-awareness and self-regulation of attention can be consciously cultivated as habits to help physicians function better in clinical situations.

  16. Self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease relies on neural structures mediating reward-driven attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany-Ur, Tal; Lin, Nancy; Rosen, Howard J; Sollberger, Marc; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2014-08-01

    Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's tasks and goals to one's actual abilities. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those with right frontal involvement, often present with poor self-awareness of their functional limitations that may exacerbate their already jeopardized decision-making and behaviour. We studied the structural neuroanatomical basis for impaired self-awareness among patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy older adults. One hundred and twenty-four participants (78 patients with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, semantic variant and non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, and 46 healthy controls) described themselves on the Patient Competency Rating Scale, rating observable functioning across four domains (daily living activities, cognitive, emotional control, interpersonal). All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Informants also described subjects' functioning on the same scale. Self-awareness was measured by comparing self and informant ratings. Group differences in discrepancy scores were analysed using general linear models, controlling for age, sex and disease severity. Compared with controls, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia overestimated their functioning in all domains, patients with Alzheimer's disease overestimated cognitive and emotional functioning, patients with right-temporal frontotemporal dementia overestimated interpersonal functioning, and patients with non-fluent aphasia overestimated emotional and interpersonal functioning. Patients with semantic variant aphasia did not overestimate functioning on any domain. To examine the neuroanatomic correlates of impaired self-awareness, discrepancy scores were correlated with brain volume using voxel-based morphometry. To identify the unique neural correlates of overlooking

  17. Paradigm shift in consciousness research: the child's self-awareness and abnormalities in autism, ADHD and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hans C

    2012-02-01

    Self-awareness is a pivotal component of any conscious experience and conscious self-regulation of behaviour. A paralimbic network is active, specific and causal in self-awareness. Its regions interact by gamma synchrony. Gamma synchrony develops throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence into adulthood and is regulated by dopamine and other neurotransmitters via GABA interneurons. Major derailments of this network and self-awareness occur in developmental disorders of conscious self-regulation like autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. Recent research on conscious experience is no longer limited to the study of neural 'correlations' but is increasingly lending itself to the study of causality. This paradigm shift opens new perspectives for understanding the neural mechanisms of the developing self and the causal effects of their disturbance in developmental disorders. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Practical Strategy to Train Culturally Responsive Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini J. Negi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.

  19. Professional virtue and professional self-awareness: a case study in engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Preston

    2011-03-01

    This paper articulates an Aristotelian theory of professional virtue and provides an application of that theory to the subject of engineering ethics. The leading idea is that Aristotle's analysis of the definitive function of human beings, and of the virtues humans require to fulfill that function, can serve as a model for an analysis of the definitive function or social role of a profession and thus of the virtues professionals must exhibit to fulfill that role. Special attention is given to a virtue of professional self-awareness, an analogue to Aristotle's phronesis or practical wisdom. In the course of laying out my account I argue that the virtuous professional is the successful professional, just as the virtuous life is the happy life for Aristotle. I close by suggesting that a virtue ethics approach toward professional ethics can enrich the pedagogy of professional ethics courses and help foster a sense of pride and responsibility in young professionals.

  20. The mediating relationship of self-awareness on supervisor burnout and workgroup Civility & Psychological Safety: A multilevel path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hernandez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether managerial self-awareness (defined as degree of agreement between self and subordinate ratings of leaders’ behaviors mediates the relationship between supervisor burnout and supervised workgroup climate. Using an HLM approach, supervisor emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment exhibited significant indirect relationships with workplace Civility and Psychological Safety, via managerial self-awareness. No direct relationships between supervisor burnout and workgroup climate were found, suggesting that self-awareness may be an important mediator for individual characteristics of leaders previously thought to be non-significant. Additional post hoc comparisons indicated that workgroups with supervisors who over-rated their own performance behaviors reported the lowest levels of Civility and Psychological Safety compared to workgroups with supervisors who accurately rated or under-rated their own performance behaviors. However, supervisors that under-rated their own performance reported the highest levels of burnout, highlighting the importance of self-awareness (accurately rating oneself in relation to individual and group outcomes. The relationships between supervisor burnout, managerial self-awareness, and workgroup perceptions of Civility and Psychological Safety differed when considering the directionality of self-other rating agreement, with the negative impact of burnout at the supervisor level having a more direct impact on the workgroup level perceptions of Civility and Psychological Safety when the workgroup is managed by an under-rater, as opposed to an accurate- or over-rater. Practically, organizations should consider the role of managerial self-awareness in influencing subordinate performance and creating desirable work climates. Also, this study suggests the effects of burnout extend beyond the individual and have significant implications for the performance

  1. ETHNIC SELF-AWARENESS OF RUSSIANS IN THE DISCOURSE OF REGIONAL ELITES (THE CASE STUDY OF KRASNODAR TERRITORY

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    Natalya Vladimirovna Kruglik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines theoretical and methodological approaches to the problem of ethnic self-awareness. The purpose of the study is to analyze the concept and main methods of research into ethnic self-awareness of Russian people in the discourse of regional elites. In the paper the author outlines the views of psychologists and sociologists on the problem in question. Besides, it is particularly stressed that while studying ethnic awareness, it is necessary to analyze all the factors that influence its formation. The problem of national awareness determination has acquired great importance due to the current ethno-cultural processes. Ethnic self-awareness of Russian people in the regional elite discourse requires a discourse analysis of media texts and media talks of elite representatives in Krasnodar Territory. The official discourse of regional elites includes ideologemes that are strongly influenced by the situation in Ukraine. The conclusions of the study may be useful in further research into formation of Russian ethnic self-awareness in the modern world.

  2. Temporally extended self-awareness and affective engagement in three-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Silvia; Borasio, Francesca; Rivolta, Davide; Rositano, Luana; Scotti, Ilaria; Liccione, Davide

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the role of affective engagement during social interaction on the emergence of a temporally extended self (TES). A Delayed Self Recognition task was administered in two different social contexts: in presence of the mother ("Mother condition") or in presence of an unfamiliar person ("Experimenter condition"). The same sample of 71 tree-year-olds was tested twice in these two treatment conditions. Results showed higher self-recognition scores in the "Mother condition". These findings are consistent with developing-self theories that emphasize the impact of reciprocal social interaction on the emergence of self-awareness, and support a conception of the Self as a dialogic entity. We interpreted this link as a evidence that, when completing the procedure with their mother, children are aware of her attention, which corresponds to a familiar mode of self-perception, as well as to a peculiar affective consciousness of Self. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationships between interoception and alexithymic trait. The Self-Awareness Questionnaire in healthy subjects.

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    Mariachiara eLongarzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interoception is the basic process enabling evaluation of one’s own bodily states. Several previous studies suggested that altered interoception might be related to disorders in the ability to perceive and express emotions, i.e. alexithymia, and to defects in perceiving and describing one’s own health status, i.e. hypochondriasis. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymic trait and interoceptive abilities evaluated by the Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ, a novel self-report tool for assessing interoceptive awareness. Two hundred and fifty healthy subjects completed the SAQ, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items (TAS-20, and a questionnaire to assess hypochondriasis, the Illness Attitude Scale (IAS. The SAQ showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha= .88. We observed significant direct correlations between SAQ, TAS-20 and two of its subscales, and the IAS. Regression analysis confirmed that the difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions is significantly related with awareness for one’s own interoceptive feelings and with a tendency to misinterpret and amplify bodily sensations. From a clinical point of view, the assessment of interoceptive awareness by the SAQ could be pivotal in evaluating several psychopathological conditions, such as the somatoform disorders.

  4. Measuring Adolescent Self-Awareness and Accuracy Using a Performance-Based Assessment and Parental Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Zlotnik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of this study was to assess awareness of performance and performance accuracy for a task that requires executive functions (EF, among healthy adolescents and to compare their performance to their parent’s ratings.MethodParticipants: 109 healthy adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 1.86 years completed the Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA. The discrepancy between self-estimated and actual performance was used to measure the level of awareness. The participants were divided into high and low accuracy groups according to the WCPA accuracy median score. The participants were also divided into high and low awareness groups. A comparison was conducted between groups using WCPA performance and parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF.ResultsHigher awareness was associated with better EF performance. Participants with high accuracy scores were more likely to show high awareness of performance as compared to participants with low accuracy scores. The high accuracy group had better parental ratings of EF, higher efficiency, followed more rules, and were more aware of their WCPA performance.ConclusionOur results highlight the important contribution that self-awareness of performance may have on the individual’s function. Assessing the level of awareness and providing metacognitive training techniques for those adolescents who are less aware, could support their performance.

  5. Psychodrama: an innovative way of improving self-awareness of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflaz, F; Meriç, M; Yuksel, Ç; Ozcan, C T

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this educational session was to form a group interaction model for improving the self-awareness of nurses via psychodrama. The structured group interaction session was conducted three times, with three separate groups, during the 'Intensive Care Nursing' training programme at a teaching hospital in Ankara. An assessment was made using the written records and observations of the group director and co-directors and feedback from nurses regarding the session. The nurses were highly motivated, adapting readily to the learning environment and following the instructions without difficulty. They were able to describe their personal experience with a specific patient and also to identify the fundamental emotion engendered by that interaction. Their feedback regarding the session was favourable. The psychodrama technique helped the nurses to understand themselves, to explore the perspective of others and to make the connection between their own thoughts/feelings and those of their patients. Psychodrama can be an effective teaching tool in addressing the communication issues that arise in nursing. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  6. SACA: Self-Aware Communication Architecture for IoT Using Mobile Fog Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of things (IoT aims at bringing together large business enterprise solutions and architectures for handling the huge amount of data generated by millions of devices. For this aim, IoT is necessary to connect various devices and provide a common platform for storage and retrieval of information without fail. However, the success of IoT depends on the novelty of network and its capability in sustaining the increasing demand by users. In this paper, a self-aware communication architecture (SACA is proposed for sustainable networking over IoT devices. The proposed approach employs the concept of mobile fog servers which make relay using the train and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV networks. The problem is presented based on Wald’s maximum model, which is resolved by the application of a distributed node management (DNM system and state dependency formulations. The proposed approach is capable of providing prolonged connectivity by increasing the network reliability and sustainability even in the case of failures. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical and network simulations in terms of significant gains attained with lesser delay and fewer packet losses. The proposed approach is also evaluated against Sybil, wormhole, and DDoS attacks for analyzing its sustainability and probability of connectivity in unfavorable conditions.

  7. Self-Awareness and Cultural Identity as an Effort to Reduce Bias in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Augustus A; Logghe, Heather J; Goodenough, Dan A; Barnes, Linda L; Hallward, Anne; Allen, Irving M; Green, David W; Krupat, Edward; Llerena-Quinn, Roxana

    2018-02-01

    In response to persistently documented health disparities based on race and other demographic factors, medical schools have implemented "cultural competency" coursework. While many of these courses have focused on strategies for treating patients of different cultural backgrounds, very few have addressed the impact of the physician's own cultural background and offered methods to overcome his or her own unconscious biases. In hopes of training physicians to contextualize the impact of their own cultural background on their ability to provide optimal patient care, the authors created a 14-session course on culture, self-reflection, and medicine. After completing the course, students reported an increased awareness of their blind spots and that providing equitable care and treatment would require lifelong reflection and attention to these biases. In this article, the authors describe the formation and implementation of a novel medical school course on self-awareness and cultural identity designed to reduce unconscious bias in medicine. Finally, we discuss our observations and lessons learned after more than 10 years of experience teaching the course.

  8. Development and validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: a measure of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Kyle D

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to 1,406 undergraduate psychology students. The ESQ was reduced from 118 to 60 items via factor and reliability analyses, retaining 11 subscales and a normal score distribution with a reliability of .92. The ESQ had significant positive correlations with the Emotional Intelligence Test and positive affect, significant negative correlations with alexithymia and negative affect, and an insignificant correlation with cognitive ability. The ESQ accounted for 35% of the variance in life satisfaction over and above the Big Five, cognitive ability, and self-esteem, and demonstrated incremental validity in explaining GPA and leadership aspirations. The significance of emotional intelligence as a unique contributor to psychological well-being and performance, and applications for the ESQ in assessment and outcome research in couple and family therapy are discussed. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  9. "You Should Have Seen the Look on Your Face…": Self-awareness of Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangbing; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Li, Kaiyun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of facial expressions allows one to better understand, predict, and regulate his/her states to adapt to different social situations. The present research investigated individuals' awareness of their own facial expressions and the influence of the duration and intensity of expressions in two self-reference modalities, a real-time condition and a video-review condition. The participants were instructed to respond as soon as they became aware of any facial movements. The results revealed that awareness rates were 57.79% in the real-time condition and 75.92% in the video-review condition. The awareness rate was influenced by the intensity and (or) the duration. The intensity thresholds for individuals to become aware of their own facial expressions were calculated using logistic regression models. The results of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) revealed that video-review awareness was a significant predictor of real-time awareness. These findings extend understandings of human facial expression self-awareness in two modalities.

  10. Assessment of self-awareness among rural adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bilas Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is a period of biological, cognitive and social transition of such magnitude and rapidity that it is no surprise to find that it is associated with the onset or exacerbation of a number of health-related problems. It is the level of self-awareness among adolescents, which enables them to see where their thoughts and emotions take them. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the extent of awareness regarding adolescent changes/problems among school going adolescents. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Block Beri, District, Jhajjar (Haryana. Materials and Methods: A sample of 320 adolescent students of 9 th -12 th classes (80 from each school were selected from four randomly chosen large Government senior secondary schools with strength of more than 250 students (two girls and two boys/co-ed senior secondary schools. Data were collected on predesigned, pre-tested and semi-structured schedules by conducting in-depth interviews of selected study adolescents by the investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square test, Chi-square test with Yate′s correction and t-test. Results: Out of 320, 212 (66.3% study adolescents were aware of at least one adolescent change(s whereas, when probed and further asked to enumerate the changes taking place in them, 272/320 (85% adolescents could narrate at least one such change. Out of those 272, 24 (8.82% (95% CI 6.0-12.79 adolescents either did not consider these changes as normal or they did not know whether the changes were normal or abnormal. Conclusions: Adolescents greatly lack correct information related to their bodies′ physiological, psychological and sexual changes. There is an urgent need for regular adolescent friendly information, education and communication activities covering different aspects of adolescent knowledge needs/problems.

  11. The Helpfulness of Spiritually Influenced Group Work in Developing Self-Awareness and Self-Esteem: A Preliminary Investigation

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    Diana Coholic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an exploratory study that investigated the helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work with eight adult women who shared a history of substance abuse. The overall purpose of the group was to help participants develop their self-awareness and self-esteem. The group, which was contextualized in transpersonal theory, was organized around the following themes and experiential exercises: meditation, mindfulness practice, dream work, stream of consciousness writing, the shadow self, and other arts-based processes. Grounded-theory analysis of group sessions and individual interviews with the participants found that the participants perceived the group to be helpful in developing their self-awareness and self-esteem. While the participants identified different aspects of the group as spiritual, making-meaning was one practice that was consistently described as a spiritually sensitive process. The results of this study in this emergent field are promising and suggestions are provided for future research.

  12. The role of self-awareness and cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease with and without impulse-control disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Joel; Okai, David; Brown, Richard G; Askey-Jones, Sally; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Martin, Anne; Samuel, Michael; David, Anthony S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, neuropsychological, and self-awareness correlates of impulse-control disorder (ICD) in a group of 17 Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects with an active ICD and a comparison group of 17 PD subjects without ICD. Self-awareness was assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale and patient-caregiver discrepancy scores from ratings on the Dysexecutive Questionnaire and the Everyday Memory Questionnaire-Revised. Self-awareness was comparable or increased in those with ICD, versus those without, and measures of neuropsychological functioning did not differ between the two groups. Those with ICD had more motor complications of PD therapy and were more likely to be on an antidepressant than those without ICD, whereas dopaminergic medication profiles were comparable between the two groups. In this group, PD patients with current ICDs were aware of their impulsivity. Although executive dysfunction may contribute to ICD behavior, it is not a necessary component. The awareness of the inability to resist these motivated behaviors may be a source of increased depression.

  13. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Videogame-based group therapy to improve self-awareness and social skills after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Roberto; Noé, Enrique; Ferri, Joan; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2015-04-11

    This study determines the feasibility of different approaches to integrative videogame-based group therapy for improving self-awareness, social skills, and behaviors among traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims and retrieves participant feedback. Forty-two adult TBI survivors were included in a longitudinal study with a pre- and post-assessments. The experimental intervention involved weekly one-hour sessions conducted over six months. Participants were assessed using the Self-Awareness Deficits Interview (SADI), Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS), the Social Skills Scale (SSS), the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the System Usability Scale (SUS). Pearson's chi-squared test (χ (2)) was applied to determine the percentage of participants who had changed their clinical classification in these tests. Feedback of the intervention was collected through the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). SADI results showed an improvement in participant perceptions of deficits (χ (2) = 5.25, p videogame-based group therapy can improve self-awareness, social skills, and behaviors among individuals with chronic TBI, and the approach is considered effective and motivating.

  15. The Dual Self: First and third person categorisations of the self and the role of objective self-awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Peeters

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The classic duality of self-subject and self-object is related to the linguistic duality of self as a pronoun of the first and the third person. The latter duality is related to alternative ways of categorising people either as self versus other (SO categorisation or as objects conceived in the third person (3P categorisation. Research is reviewed showing that these categorisations underlie personalised and depersonalised representations, respectively. Nevertheless, depersonalising 3P categorisation has been found more prominent in self-other comparisons than in comparisons between hypothetical others. In search for an explanation Duval and Wicklund's theory of subjective and objective self-awareness as well as causal attribution theory are discussed. In an experiment it is shown that conditions associated with objective self-awareness (e.g., presence of a mirror, instructions stimulating self-evaluation increase 3P categorisation in self-other comparisons. The results add to our understanding of the role of objective self-awareness in self-other comparisons and in causal attributions from actors' and observers' perspectives.

  16. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes I, M.E.; Ramirez G, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  17. Mobile therapy: case study evaluations of a cell phone application for emotional self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Margaret E; Kathawala, Qusai; Leen, Todd K; Gorenstein, Ethan E; Guilak, Farzin; Labhard, Michael; Deleeuw, William

    2010-04-30

    Emotional awareness and self-regulation are important skills for improving mental health and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Cognitive behavioral therapy can teach these skills but is not widely available. This exploratory study examined the potential of mobile phone technologies to broaden access to cognitive behavioral therapy techniques and to provide in-the-moment support. We developed a mobile phone application with touch screen scales for mood reporting and therapeutic exercises for cognitive reappraisal (ie, examination of maladaptive interpretations) and physical relaxation. The application was deployed in a one-month field study with eight individuals who had reported significant stress during an employee health assessment. Participants were prompted via their mobile phones to report their moods several times a day on a Mood Map-a translation of the circumplex model of emotion-and a series of single-dimension mood scales. Using the prototype, participants could also activate mobile therapies as needed. During weekly open-ended interviews, participants discussed their use of the device and responded to longitudinal views of their data. Analyses included a thematic review of interview narratives, assessment of mood changes over the course of the study and the diurnal cycle, and interrogation of this mobile data based on stressful incidents reported in interviews. Five case studies illustrate participants' use of the mobile phone application to increase self-awareness and to cope with stress. One example is a participant who had been coping with longstanding marital conflict. After reflecting on his mood data, particularly a drop in energy each evening, the participant began practicing relaxation therapies on the phone before entering his house, applying cognitive reappraisal techniques to cope with stressful family interactions, and talking more openly with his wife. His mean anger, anxiety and sadness ratings all were lower in the second half

  18. On Witold Lutosławski’s Artistic Self-Awareness. A Survey of Very Recent Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skowron Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the most recent research concerning Witold Lutosławski’s artistic self-awareness, based on critical source editions of Lutosławski’s writings (publ. 2007–08. In the first part I discuss the edition of the composer’s ‘official’ writings contained in the collection Lutosławski on Music. These writings provide us with knowledge of the key elements of Lutosławski’s compositional technique and aesthetic principles, his attitude towards new music, and also to various problems of contemporary music culture in Poland and abroad. The second part of the article concerns Lutosławski’s notes contained in what is known as the Notebook of Ideas. Written in a characteristically personal tone, they illustrate the transformation of the composer’s artistic self-awareness that took place in the late 1950s and the early 1960s, when Lutosławski’s individual musical language was taking shape. The Notebook of Ideas sheds light, amongst other things, on the circumstances of composing Jeux vénitiens – the first work that puts into practice Lutosławski’s vision of twelve-tone harmony and controlled aleatorism.

  19. Teaching and Practicing Caring in the Classroom: Students' Responses to a Self-Awareness Intervention in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Shik; Patterson, Kathleen T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the assumption that caring could be taught by nurse educators in the classroom environment and that learning to be self-aware in a mindful state would facilitate students to listen more closely to their inner spirit, which would affect caring behaviors. A convenience sample of 238 students in the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing course in a baccalaureate program was obtained from 2007 to 2011. At the beginning of each class and throughout the semester, self-awareness was explained to the students, a reflection statement was read, and students were asked to take two minutes of quiet time, with their eyes closed. At the end of each semester, an author-composed Self-Awareness Questionnaire and Measurement Scale was administered to consenting students to assess whether self-awareness led to caring behaviors. Students' responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings were positive and supported the assumption that self-awareness and silence positively affected caring behaviors in nursing students in their psychiatric nursing rotation.

  20. Conditions associated with wandering in people with dementia from the viewpoint of self-awareness: five case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Teruo; Aoyama, Keiji; Ishida, Kie; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2012-05-01

    The conditions associated with wandering in people with dementia include purposeless activity, purposeful actions, irritation, and symptoms of depression. The words and actions of 5 people admitted to long-term health care facilities who often exhibited wandering behavior were observed, and the above conditions were studied based on our self-awareness model (consisting of "theory of mind," "self-evaluation," and "self-consciousness"). One person who had not passed the theory of mind task but had passed the self-evaluation task was aware of her wandering. However, she could not understand where she wanted to go or for what purpose. Four persons who had not passed the self-evaluation tasks were not aware of their wandering and had no purpose for their wandering.

  1. Deficits in facial emotion recognition indicate behavioral changes and impaired self-awareness after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spikman, Jacoba M; Milders, Maarten V; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J; Herben-Dekker, Meike; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and many patients provide unrealistically positive reports of their functioning due to impaired self-awareness. Accordingly, it is important to find performance based tests that allow objective and early identification of these problems. In the present study 51 moderate to severe TBI patients in the sub-acute and chronic stage were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (FEEST) and a questionnaire for behavioral problems (DEX) with a self and proxy rated version. Patients performed worse on the total score and on the negative emotion subscores of the FEEST than a matched group of 31 healthy controls. Patients also exhibited significantly more behavioral problems on both the DEX self and proxy rated version, but proxy ratings revealed more severe problems. No significant correlation was found between FEEST scores and DEX self ratings. However, impaired emotion recognition in the patients, and in particular of Sadness and Anger, was significantly correlated with behavioral problems as rated by proxies and with impaired self-awareness. This is the first study to find these associations, strengthening the proposed recognition of social signals as a condition for adequate social functioning. Hence, deficits in emotion recognition can be conceived as markers for behavioral problems and lack of insight in TBI patients. This finding is also of clinical importance since, unlike behavioral problems, emotion recognition can be objectively measured early after injury, allowing for early

  2. Deficits in facial emotion recognition indicate behavioral changes and impaired self-awareness after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoba M Spikman

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and many patients provide unrealistically positive reports of their functioning due to impaired self-awareness. Accordingly, it is important to find performance based tests that allow objective and early identification of these problems. In the present study 51 moderate to severe TBI patients in the sub-acute and chronic stage were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (FEEST and a questionnaire for behavioral problems (DEX with a self and proxy rated version. Patients performed worse on the total score and on the negative emotion subscores of the FEEST than a matched group of 31 healthy controls. Patients also exhibited significantly more behavioral problems on both the DEX self and proxy rated version, but proxy ratings revealed more severe problems. No significant correlation was found between FEEST scores and DEX self ratings. However, impaired emotion recognition in the patients, and in particular of Sadness and Anger, was significantly correlated with behavioral problems as rated by proxies and with impaired self-awareness. This is the first study to find these associations, strengthening the proposed recognition of social signals as a condition for adequate social functioning. Hence, deficits in emotion recognition can be conceived as markers for behavioral problems and lack of insight in TBI patients. This finding is also of clinical importance since, unlike behavioral problems, emotion recognition can be objectively measured early after injury

  3. The occurrence of early impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury and its relationship with emotional distress and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geytenbeek, Megan; Fleming, Jennifer; Doig, Emmah; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    To describe the occurrence of impaired self-awareness (ISA) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with emotional distress and psychosocial functioning following discharge. Prospective cohort design with data collection at discharge and 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-up. 81 adults with TBI. Self-awareness was measured using a discrepancy score generated from the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) Ability subscale, and significant other's ratings of Item 20 on the MPAI-4. Other measures were the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 and Sydney Psychosocial and Reintegration Scale. The discrepancy score method identified more cases of ISA than the single-item rating by significant others. Using discrepancy scores, the occurrence of ISA was 69.1% at discharge, and for those remaining in the study 6 months later, it was 54.3%. Better self-awareness was associated with greater anxiety at discharge, and stress at discharge, 3 and 6 months later, and better psychosocial functioning at all time points. Participants with ISA had significantly poorer relationships at 6 months post-discharge after controlling for injury severity. Whilst self-awareness is associated with greater stress in patients with TBI, it is also associated with better outcomes, indicating the importance of targeting ISA in rehabilitation.

  4. Development of self-awareness after severe traumatic brain injury through participation in occupation-based rehabilitation: mixed-methods analysis of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Emmah; Kuipers, Pim; Prescott, Sarah; Cornwell, Petrea; Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We examined participation in goal planning and development of self-awareness for people with impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury. METHOD. We performed a mixed-methods study of 8 participants recently discharged from inpatient rehabilitation. Self-awareness was measured using discrepancy between self and significant other ratings on the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) at four time points. We calculated effect size to evaluate the change in MPAI-4 discrepancy over time. RESULTS. Seven participants identified their own goals. We found a large reduction in mean MPAI-4 discrepancy (M = 8.57, SD = 6.59, N = 7, d = 1.08) in the first 6 wk and a further small reduction (M = 5.33, SD = 9.09, N = 6, d = 0.45) in the second 6 wk of intervention. Case data indicated that 7 participants demonstrated some growth in self-awareness. CONCLUSION. Engagement in occupation-based, goal-directed rehabilitation appeared to foster awareness of injury-related changes to varying extents. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Uncovering the unknown: A grounded theory study exploring the impact of self-awareness on the culture of feedback in residency education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramani, S.; Konings, K.; Mann, K.V.; Vleuten, C. van der

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Self-assessment and reflection are essential for meaningful feedback. We aimed to explore whether the well-known Johari window model of self-awareness could guide feedback conversations between faculty and residents and enhance the institutional feedback culture. METHODS: We had previously

  6. Evaluating the effect of self-awareness and communication techniques on nurses' assertiveness and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Sati

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a course on self-awareness and communication techniques on nursing students' assertiveness and self-esteem was examined. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were used to measure assertiveness and self-esteem in second-year students in an undergraduate nursing school. Seventy-nine students completed the course. The study was designed as a pre-test and post-test study. A significant difference between assertiveness and self-esteem scores of students in pre-test and post-test measurements was found. There was a positive relationship between assertiveness and self-esteem. The course lasted 14 weeks for a total of 3 h per week. The teaching methods focused mostly on active student participation, demonstration, role play, experience and experience sharing, homework, constructive feedback, and watching films. These educational approaches should be evaluated in future studies and adopted in the curriculum. This study provides a basis for the development of learner-centred teaching methods.

  7. Self-awareness moderates the relation between maternal mental state language about desires and children's mental state vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2016-04-01

    In this intervention study, we tested the differential effect of talking about children's desires versus talking about others' thoughts and knowledge on children's acquisition of mental state vocabulary for children who did and did not have mirror self-recognition. In a sample of 96 mother-toddler dyads, each mother was randomly assigned a specially constructed, interactive lift-the-flap book to read to her child three times a week for 4 weeks. In the child desire condition the story elicited comments regarding the child's desires, and in the cognitive condition the story elicited the mother's comments about her own thoughts and knowledge while reading the story. Children's mirror self-recognition and mental state vocabulary were assessed at pre- and post-test. Children in the condition that focused on the child's desires showed a significantly greater increase in their mental state vocabulary; however, this effect was moderated by their levels of self-awareness, with children benefitting more from the intervention if they also showed self-recognition at pre-test. We argue that the combination of specific types of maternal talk and children's prior insights facilitates gains in children's mental state vocabulary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. “You Should Have Seen the Look on Your Face…”: Self-awareness of Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangbing; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Li, Kaiyun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of facial expressions allows one to better understand, predict, and regulate his/her states to adapt to different social situations. The present research investigated individuals’ awareness of their own facial expressions and the influence of the duration and intensity of expressions in two self-reference modalities, a real-time condition and a video-review condition. The participants were instructed to respond as soon as they became aware of any facial movements. The results revealed that awareness rates were 57.79% in the real-time condition and 75.92% in the video-review condition. The awareness rate was influenced by the intensity and (or) the duration. The intensity thresholds for individuals to become aware of their own facial expressions were calculated using logistic regression models. The results of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) revealed that video-review awareness was a significant predictor of real-time awareness. These findings extend understandings of human facial expression self-awareness in two modalities. PMID:28611703

  9. On convexity and Schoenberg's variation diminishing splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yuyu; Kozak, J.

    1992-11-01

    In the paper we characterize a convex function by the monotonicity of a particular variation diminishing spline sequence. The result extends the property known for the Bernstein polynomial sequence. (author). 4 refs

  10. RiskSOAP: Introducing and applying a methodology of risk self-awareness in road tunnel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-05-01

    Complex socio-technical systems, such as road tunnels, can be designed and developed with more or less elements that can either positively or negatively affect the capability of their agents to recognise imminent threats or vulnerabilities that possibly lead to accidents. This capability is called risk Situation Awareness (SA) provision. Having as a motive the introduction of better tools for designing and developing systems that are self-aware of their vulnerabilities and react to prevent accidents and losses, this paper introduces the Risk Situation Awareness Provision (RiskSOAP) methodology to the field of road tunnel safety, as a means to measure this capability in this kind of systems. The main objective is to test the soundness and the applicability of RiskSOAP to infrastructure, which is advanced in terms of technology, human integration, and minimum number of safety requirements imposed by international bodies. RiskSOAP is applied to a specific road tunnel in Greece and the accompanying indicator is calculated twice, once for the tunnel design as defined by updated European safety standards and once for the 'as-is' tunnel composition, which complies with the necessary safety requirements, but calls for enhancing safety according to what EU and PIARC further suggest. The derived values indicate the extent to which each tunnel version is capable of comprehending its threats and vulnerabilities based on its elements. The former tunnel version seems to be more enhanced both in terms of it risk awareness capability and safety as well. Another interesting finding is that despite the advanced tunnel safety specifications, there is still room for enriching the safe design and maintenance of the road tunnel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uncovering the unknown: A grounded theory study exploring the impact of self-awareness on the culture of feedback in residency education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Subha; Könings, Karen; Mann, Karen V; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-10-01

    Self-assessment and reflection are essential for meaningful feedback. We aimed to explore whether the well-known Johari window model of self-awareness could guide feedback conversations between faculty and residents and enhance the institutional feedback culture. We had previously explored perceptions of residents and faculty regarding sociocultural factors impacting feedback. We re-analyzed data targeting themes related to self-assessment, reflection, feedback seeking and acceptance, aiming to generate individual and institutional feedback strategies applicable to each quadrant of the window. We identified the following themes for each quadrant: (1) Behaviors known to self and others - Validating the known; (2) Behaviors unknown to self but known to others - Accepting the blind; (3) Behaviors known to self and unknown to others - Disclosure of hidden; and (4) Behaviors unknown to self and others - Uncovering the unknown. Normalizing self-disclosure of limitations, encouraging feedback seeking, training in nonjudgmental feedback and providing opportunities for longitudinal relationships could promote self-awareness, ultimately expanding the "open" quadrant of the Johari window. The Johari window, a model of self-awareness in interpersonal communications, could provide a robust framework for individuals to improve their feedback conversations and institutions to design feedback initiatives that enhance its quality and impact.

  12. Diminished ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tuğrul Ayanoğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic inflammatory skin disease. Previous data suggests that women with some chronic inflammatory diseases have diminished ovarian reserve. This study explores ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: We prospectively analyzed 14 female patients with psoriasis and 35 healthy age and body mass index matched controls. An interview explored demographic characteristics, obstetrical history and menstrual characteristics. Psoriatic area severity index (PASI in patients was assessed. Estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone and with gynecologic ultrasonography, ovarian volume and antral follicular count (AFC were measured in both study and control groups. These values were analyzed with changes of the PASI in the patient group. Results: Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher levels of FSH and FSH/LH ratio than healthy controls (p = 0.039, p = 0.005 respectively. AFC of psoriasis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.002.There were no significant difference among other hormone levels and ovarian volumes (p > 0.05. The hormone levels, ovarian volume and AFC were not correlated with PASI of the patients. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that patients with psoriasis may have diminished ovarian reserve. Keywords: Psoriasis, Ovarian reserve, Psoriatic area severity index, Antral follicular count, Follicle-stimulating hormone

  13. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source

  14. Diminishing musyarakah investment model based on equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Maheran Mohd; Zain, Shaharir Mohamad; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2017-11-01

    Most of the mudharabah and musyarakah contract funds are involved in debt financing. This does not support the theory that profit sharing contract is better than that of debt financing due to the sharing of risks and ownership of equity. Indeed, it is believed that Islamic banking is a financial model based on equity or musyarakah which emphasis on the sharing of risks, profit and loss in the investment between the investor and entrepreneur. The focus of this paper is to introduce the mathematical model that internalizes diminishing musyarakah, the sharing of profit and equity between entrepreneur and investor. The entrepreneur pays monthly-differed payment to buy out the equity that belongs to the investor (bank) where at the end of the specified period, the entrepreneur owns the business and the investor (bank) exits the joint venture. The model is able to calculate the amount of equity at any time for both parties and hence would be a guide in helping to estimate the value of investment should the entrepreneur or investor exit before the end of the specified period. The model is closer to the Islamic principles for justice and fairness.

  15. Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation, and Self-Transcendence (S-ART: A Framework for Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Vago

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness - as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and creates a sustainable healthy mind. Mindfulness is described through systematic mental training that develops meta-awareness (self-awareness, an ability to effectively modulate one’s behavior (self-regulation, and the development of a positive relationship between self and other that transcends self-focused needs and increases prosocial characteristics (self-transcendence. This framework of self-awareness, regulation, and transcendence (S-ART illustrates a method for becoming aware of the conditions that cause (and remove distortions or biases. The development of S-ART through meditation is proposed to modulate self-specifying and narrative self-networks through an integrative fronto-parietal control network. Relevant perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral neuropsychological processes are highlighted, including intention and motivation, attention regulation, emotion regulation, extinction and reconsolidation, prosociality, non-attachment and decentering. The S-ART framework and neurobiological model is based on our growing understanding of the mechanisms for neurocognition, empirical literature, and through dismantling the specific meditation practices thought to cultivate mindfulness. The proposed framework will inform future research in the contemplative sciences and target specific areas for development in the treatment of psychological disorders.

  16. Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, David R; Silbersweig, David A

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness-as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and creates a sustainable healthy mind. Mindfulness is described through systematic mental training that develops meta-awareness (self-awareness), an ability to effectively modulate one's behavior (self-regulation), and a positive relationship between self and other that transcends self-focused needs and increases prosocial characteristics (self-transcendence). This framework of self-awareness, -regulation, and -transcendence (S-ART) illustrates a method for becoming aware of the conditions that cause (and remove) distortions or biases. The development of S-ART through meditation is proposed to modulate self-specifying and narrative self-networks through an integrative fronto-parietal control network. Relevant perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral neuropsychological processes are highlighted as supporting mechanisms for S-ART, including intention and motivation, attention regulation, emotion regulation, extinction and reconsolidation, prosociality, non-attachment, and decentering. The S-ART framework and neurobiological model is based on our growing understanding of the mechanisms for neurocognition, empirical literature, and through dismantling the specific meditation practices thought to cultivate mindfulness. The proposed framework will inform future research in the contemplative sciences and target specific areas for development in the treatment of psychological disorders.

  17. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assist them understand a crisis. The Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370 incident is selected as the context for this study, and data is collected following the incident. The results show that different types of motivation result in different participatory behaviours. Controlled motivation is positively related to browsing content, commenting and sharing content. Conversely, autonomous motivation is positively associated with browsing and sharing content. Besides, browsing content and commenting are positively related to people’s situational self-awareness. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.

  18. The social biofeedback theory of parental affect-mirroring: the development of emotional self-awareness and self-control in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, G; Watson, J S

    1996-12-01

    The authors present a new theory of parental affect-mirroring and its role in the development of emotional self-awareness and control in infancy. It is proposed that infants first become sensitised to their categorical emotion-states through a natural social biofeedback process provided by the parent's 'marked' reflections of the baby's emotion displays during affect-regulative interactions. They argue that this sensitisation process is mediated (similarly to that of adult biofeedback training) by the mechanism of contingency-detection and maximising. Apart from sensitisation, affect-mirroring serves three further developmental functions: (1) it contributes to the infant's state-regulation; (2) it leads to the establishment of secondary representations that become associated with the infant's primary procedural affect-states providing the cognitive means for accessing and attributing emotions to the self; (3) it results in the development of a generalised communicative code of "marked' expressions characterised by the representational functions of referential decoupling, anchoring and suspension of realistic consequences. They consider the clinical implications of our theory, relating it to current psychodynamic approaches to the functions of parental affect-mirroring. Using their model they identify various types of deviant mirroring styles and speculate about their developmental consequences. Finally, they discuss what role their social biofeedback model may play as a mediating mechanism in the therapeutic process.

  19. Clinical practice and self-awareness as determinants of empathy in undergraduate education: A qualitative short survey at three medical schools in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrweiler, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Study aim: Physician empathy constitutes an outcome-relevant aim of medical education. Yet, the factors promoting and inhibiting physician empathy have not yet been extensively researched, especially in Germany. In this study, we explored German medical students’ views of the factors promoting and inhibiting their empathy and how their experiences were related to their curricula. Methods: A qualitative short survey was conducted at three medical schools: Bochum University, the University of Cologne and Witten/Herdecke University. Students were invited to complete an anonymous written questionnaire comprised of open-ended questions inquiring about the educational content of and situations during their medical education that positively or negatively impacted their empathy. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis according to the methods of Green and Thorogood. Results: A total of 115 students participated in the survey. Respondents reported that practice-based education involving patient contact and teaching with reference to clinical practice and the patient’s perspective improved their empathy, while a lack of these inhibited it. Students’ internal reactions to patients, such as liking or disliking a patient, prejudice and other attitudes, were also considered to influence their empathy. Although each of the three schools takes a different approach to teaching interpersonal skills, no relevant differences were found in their students’ responses concerning the possible determinants of empathy. Conclusion: Providing more training in practice and more contact with patients may be effective ways of promoting student empathy. Students need support in establishing therapeutic relationships with patients and in dealing with their own feelings and attitudes. Such support could be provided in the form of reflective practice training in order to promote self-awareness. More research is needed to evaluate these

  20. Development and psychometric evaluation of a scale to measure impaired self-awareness of hyper- and hypokinetic movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Franziska; Ellereit, Anna L; Eggers, Carsten; Lewis, Catharine J; Pelzer, Esther A; Kalbe, Elke; Ernstmann, Nicole; Prigatano, George P; Fink, Gereon R; Timmermann, Lars

    2015-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can show impaired self-awareness of motor deficits (ISAm). We developed a new scale that measures ISAm severity of hyper- and hypokinetic movements in PD during medication on state and defined its psychometric criteria. Included were 104 right-handed, non-depressed, non-demented patients. Concerning ISAm, 38 motor symptoms were assessed using seven tasks, which were performed and self-rated concerning presence of deficit (yes/no) by all patients. The whole procedure was videotaped. Motor symptoms were then evaluated by two independent experts, blinded for patient's ratings, concerning presence, awareness of deficit, and severity. Exploratory principal component analysis (promax rotation) was applied to reduce items. Principal axis factoring was conducted to extract factors. Reliability was examined regarding internal consistency, split-half reliability, and interrater reliability. Validity was verified by applying two additional measures of ISAm. Of the initial 38 symptoms, 15 remained, assessed in five motor tasks and merged to a total severity score. Factor analysis resulted in a four factor solution (dyskinesia, resting tremor right hand, resting tremor left hand, bradykinesia). For all subscales and the total score, measures of reliability (values 0.64-0.89) and validity (effect sizes>0.3) were satisfactory. Descriptive results showed that 66% of patients had signs of ISAm (median 2, range 0-15), with ISAm being most distinct for dyskinesia. We provide the first validation of a test for ISAm in PD. Using this instrument, future studies can further analyze the pathophysiology of ISAm, the psychosocial sequelae, therapeutic strategies and compliance with therapy.

  1. Clinical practice and self-awareness as determinants of empathy in undergraduate education: a qualitative short survey at three medical schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrweiler, Florian; Scheffer, Christian; Roling, Gudrun; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hahn, Eckhart G; Neumann, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Physician empathy constitutes an outcome-relevant aim of medical education. Yet, the factors promoting and inhibiting physician empathy have not yet been extensively researched, especially in Germany. In this study, we explored German medical students' views of the factors promoting and inhibiting their empathy and how their experiences were related to their curricula. A qualitative short survey was conducted at three medical schools: Bochum University, the University of Cologne and Witten/Herdecke University. Students were invited to complete an anonymous written questionnaire comprised of open-ended questions inquiring about the educational content of and situations during their medical education that positively or negatively impacted their empathy. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis according to the methods of Green and Thorogood. A total of 115 students participated in the survey. Respondents reported that practice-based education involving patient contact and teaching with reference to clinical practice and the patient's perspective improved their empathy, while a lack of these inhibited it. Students' internal reactions to patients, such as liking or disliking a patient, prejudice and other attitudes, were also considered to influence their empathy. Although each of the three schools takes a different approach to teaching interpersonal skills, no relevant differences were found in their students' responses concerning the possible determinants of empathy. Providing more training in practice and more contact with patients may be effective ways of promoting student empathy. Students need support in establishing therapeutic relationships with patients and in dealing with their own feelings and attitudes. Such support could be provided in the form of reflective practice training in order to promote self-awareness. More research is needed to evaluate these hypothetical conclusions.

  2. Clinical practice and self-awareness as determinants of empathy in undergraduate education: A qualitative short survey at three medical schools in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrweiler, Florian; Scheffer, Christian; Roling, Gudrun; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Neumann, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Study aim: Physician empathy constitutes an outcome-relevant aim of medical education. Yet, the factors promoting and inhibiting physician empathy have not yet been extensively researched, especially in Germany. In this study, we explored German medical students’ views of the factors promoting and inhibiting their empathy and how their experiences were related to their curricula. Methods: A qualitative short survey was conducted at three medical schools: Bochum University, the University of Cologne and Witten/Herdecke University. Students were invited to complete an anonymous written questionnaire comprised of open-ended questions inquiring about the educational content of and situations during their medical education that positively or negatively impacted their empathy. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis according to the methods of Green and Thorogood. Results: A total of 115 students participated in the survey. Respondents reported that practice-based education involving patient contact and teaching with reference to clinical practice and the patient’s perspective improved their empathy, while a lack of these inhibited it. Students’ internal reactions to patients, such as liking or disliking a patient, prejudice and other attitudes, were also considered to influence their empathy. Although each of the three schools takes a different approach to teaching interpersonal skills, no relevant differences were found in their students’ responses concerning the possible determinants of empathy. Conclusion: Providing more training in practice and more contact with patients may be effective ways of promoting student empathy. Students need support in establishing therapeutic relationships with patients and in dealing with their own feelings and attitudes. Such support could be provided in the form of reflective practice training in order to promote self-awareness. More research is needed to evaluate these hypothetical conclusions. PMID:25489346

  3. Are there Diminishing Returns to R&D?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.

    Semi-endogenous models and, to some extent, also Schumpeterian models are based on the assumption of diminishing returns to R&D. This paper shows that the null hypothesis of constant returns to R&D cannot be rejected for the OECD countries......Semi-endogenous models and, to some extent, also Schumpeterian models are based on the assumption of diminishing returns to R&D. This paper shows that the null hypothesis of constant returns to R&D cannot be rejected for the OECD countries...

  4. Optimal decision making and matching are tied through diminishing returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, Jan

    2017-08-08

    How individuals make decisions has been a matter of long-standing debate among economists and researchers in the life sciences. In economics, subjects are viewed as optimal decision makers who maximize their overall reward income. This framework has been widely influential, but requires a complete knowledge of the reward contingencies associated with a given choice situation. Psychologists and ecologists have observed that individuals tend to use a simpler "matching" strategy, distributing their behavior in proportion to relative rewards associated with their options. This article demonstrates that the two dominant frameworks of choice behavior are linked through the law of diminishing returns. The relatively simple matching can in fact provide maximal reward when the rewards associated with decision makers' options saturate with the invested effort. Such saturating relationships between reward and effort are hallmarks of the law of diminishing returns. Given the prevalence of diminishing returns in nature and social settings, this finding can explain why humans and animals so commonly behave according to the matching law. The article underscores the importance of the law of diminishing returns in choice behavior.

  5. Effect of Yushen zhuyun decoction on rats with diminished ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Yushen zhuyun decoction (YSZYF) on rats with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the major phytochemical constituents of YSZYF. Rats with DOR (DOR rats) were prepared by administration of ...

  6. Incidental finding of hypertension and diminished femoral pulses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-08

    Jun 8, 2012 ... Case Study: Incidental finding of hypertension and diminished femoral pulses. 168. Vol 55 No 2. S Afr Fam Pract 2013. Introduction. Coarctation of the aorta is ... Surgery of the aorta and its branches. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 2000; p. 3-10. 2. Rao PS. Coarctation of the aorta. Curr Cardiol Rep.

  7. MINDFULNESS – MAY DIMINISH STRESS AND INCREASE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronicus TORP

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is increasingly being applied in companies as a means to increase, among others, employee wellbeing and energy, and in the same time to diminish stress. This paper argues that there seems to be scientific evidence showing that certain mindfulness techniques may diminish stress and increase energy, yet it seems that there is a period in the beginning of the mindfulness practice where the techniques have the opposite effects. These findings seem to be contradictory to past findings, which indicated that only two thirds of people practicing mindfulness techniques have positive effects from that practice. It may be that everybody can have positive effects from the practice of the mentioned techniques, just that some need to practice for a longer period before obtaining these positive effects. Further scientific studies seem to be needed in order to clarify the full spectrum of effects and consequences of practicing different mindfulness techniques, and just as important, if these effects are valid for everybody.

  8. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  9. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents; Elementos para disminuir accidentes radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes I, M.E.; Ramirez G, F.P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  10. Multi-layered see-through movie in diminished reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yuko; Hashimoto, Takanori; Inoue, Takuya; Shimizu, Naoki; Saito, Hideo

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents generating a multi-layered see-through movie for an auto-stereoscopic display. This work is based on Diminished Reality (DR), which is one of the research fields of Augmented Reality (AR). In the usual AR, some virtual objects are added on the real world. On the other hand, DR removes some real objects from the real world. Therefore, the background is visualized instead of the real objects (obstacles) to be removed. We use multiple color cameras and one TOF depth camera. The areas of obstacles are defined by using the depth camera based on the distance of obstacles. The background behind the obstacles is recovered by planarprojection of multiple cameras. Then, the recovered background is overlaid onto the removed obstacles. For visualizing it through the auto-stereoscopic display, the scene is divided into multiple layers such as obstacles and background. The pixels corresponding to the obstacles are not visualized or visualized semi-transparently at the center viewpoints. Therefore, we can see that the obstacles are diminished according to the viewpoints.

  11. The Group Reminiscence Approach Can Increase Self-Awareness of Memory Deficits and Evoke a Life Review in People With Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Kurihara Project Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kei; Kasai, Mari; Nakai, Megumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Meguro, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    The group reminiscence approach (GRA) and reality orientation (RO) are common psychosocial interventions for patients with dementia. As a qualitative evaluation of the reminiscence approach in patients with dementia, the Patient Report Outcome (PRO) is useful. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GRA-RO for participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the PRO. A cluster randomized controlled trial. Community-based study. Ninety-four patients with MCI (39 GRA-RO, 23 physical activity, and 32 cognitive training) described their impressions. Based on the database of the Kurihara Project, we retrospectively analyzed the participants' descriptions of their impressions as a PRO in the nonpharmacological interventions: GRA-RO, physical activity, and cognitive training. We categorized the descriptions according to the following 2 types: impression with content and reminiscence with life review. We assessed what they wrote regarding memory loss. The content on their life reviews was also a particular focus for the GRA-RO group. PRO. Compared with the physical activity and the clinical training groups, the GRA-RO patients described their reminiscence with life review and their own memory problems. There was no confusion of the order of events of their autobiographical memories. There was a significant time effect between the 2 family involvement groups in quality-of-life (QOL) scores, and the postintervention QOL scores were significantly better than preintervention. This study suggests that the GRA-RO in participants with MCI not only stimulates life review but also increases self-awareness of memory deficits without confusion of the order of events. Thus, the GRA-RO may improve self-esteem and develop self-awareness. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Family Structure and Subsequent Anxiety Symptoms; Minorities’ Diminished Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minorities’ Diminished Return (MDR theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP may have a smaller effect on health and well-being of members of the minority than the majority groups. Aim: Built on the MDR theory, this study compared Whites and African Americans for the effects of three family SEP indicators (family type, parental education, and parental employment during adolescence on subsequent symptoms of anxiety 18 years later during young adulthood. Methods: Flint Adolescents Study (FAS, 1994–2012, followed 359 youth (ages 13 to 17, 295 African American and 64 Whites for 18 years. The independent variables were family type, parental education, and parental employment during adolescence. The dependent variable was subsequent symptoms of anxiety, measured using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, 18 years later. Age and gender were the covariates and race/ethnicity was the focal effect modifier (moderator. Four linear regression models were estimated to investigate the effects of the three family SEP indicators at age 15 on subsequent symptoms of anxiety at age 33 in the pooled sample and also by race/ethnicity. Results: In the pooled sample, having married parents at age 15 was inversely associated with symptoms of anxiety at age 33. We found an interaction between race/ethnicity and family type, indicating a smaller protective effect of having married parents against symptoms of anxiety for African American compared to White participants. The other two SEP indicators did not show any effect and did not interact with race/ethnicity on the outcome. Conclusion: In support of the MDR theory, marital status of parents during adolescence protects White but not African American young adults against anxiety symptoms. Diminished return of SEP is one of many underlying mechanisms involved in shaping racial and ethnic disparities in anxiety, however, that is often overlooked. Future research that examines economic and social

  13. RECOMMENDATION OF FERTILIZERS BASED ON THE LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geicimara Guimarães

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to demonstrate the viability of making recommendation of fertilizers for corn and bean cultures based on models of saturation kinetics, following the Law of diminishing return, aiming to improve the efficiency of nutrient use, reducing the costs of production and avoiding the excessive use of non renewable natural resources. In the corn culture (grain hybrid they were utilized levels of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g/hole of fertilizer NPK 4-14-8 in seeding and same amounts of ammonium sulfate 34 days later. The space between plants was of 20 x 70 cm (71.429 plants/hectare, with eight replicates per each level, totalizing 72 plants in the experimental area. In bean culture (red variety they were utilized levels of 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g/hole of NPK 4-14-8 in planting. The space between plants was of 20 x 50 cm, with two grains per hole (71.429 plants/hectare, with eight holes per each level, totalizing 144 plants in the experimental area. The models of saturation kinetics of Lineweaver-Burk presented good adjustments for responses of corn and beans to fertilization, following the Law of diminishing return, in which 4 to 8 g of fertilizer per hole caused good part of the productive response for corn and 2 grams for bean. The employee of moderate level of fertilization leads to a more sustainable and economically viable agriculture to the household producer.

  14. Diminished fronto-limbic functional connectivity in child sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Jonas; Borchardt, Viola; Kärgel, Christian; Sinke, Christopher; Massau, Claudia; Tenbergen, Gilian; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M; Schiffer, Boris; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2018-02-22

    Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach. The focus of this investigation of rs-FC in CSO-P was put on prefrontal and limbic regions highly relevant for emotional and behavioral processing. Results revealed a significant reduction of rs-FC between the right centromedial amygdala and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in child sexual offenders compared to controls. Given that, in the healthy brain, there is a strong top-down inhibitory control of prefrontal over limbic structures, these results suggest that diminished rs-FC between the amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and may foster sexual deviance and sexual offending. A profound understanding of these concepts should contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence of child sexual offending, as well as further development of more differentiated and effective interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring mental illness stigma with diminished social desirability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-06-01

    For persons with mental illness, stigma diminishes employment and independent living opportunities as well as participation in psychiatric care. Public stigma interventions have sought to ameliorate these consequences. Evaluation of anti-stigma programs' impact is typically accomplished with self-report questionnaires. However, cultural mores encourage endorsement of answers that are socially preferred rather than one's true belief. This problem, social desirability, has been circumvented through development of faux knowledge tests (KTs) (i.e., Error-Choice Tests); written to assess prejudice. Our KT uses error-choice test methodology to assess stigmatizing attitudes. Test content was derived from review of typical KTs for façade reinforcement. Answer endorsement suggests bias or stigma; such determinations were based on the empirical literature. KT psychometrics were examined in samples of college students, community members and mental health providers and consumers. Test-retest reliability ranged from fair (0.50) to good (0.70). Construct validity analyses of public stigma indicated a positive relationship with the Attribution Questionnaire and inverse relationships with Self-Determination and Empowerment Scales. No significant relationships were observed with self-stigma measures (recovery, empowerment). This psychometric evaluation study suggests that a self-administered questionnaire may circumvent social desirability and have merit as a stigma measurement tool.

  16. COMBATING CYBERBULLYING AS STRATEGY TO DIMINISH THE STUDENTS’ AGGRESSIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ABU RIA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the relationship between cyberbullying and students’ behaviors. At present, cyber security is one of the most discussed topics in most countries of the world. Cyber space is characterized by lack of borders, dynamism and anonymity, generating both opportunities for the development of the information society and risks to its functioning and its beneficiaries. Noting the noxious impact of cyberbullying on youth behaviors, we propose tackling cyberbullying as a strategy to diminish students' aggressiveness in the school.COMBATEREA BULLYING-ULUI CIBERNETIC CA STRATEGIE DE DIMINUARE A AGRESIVITĂȚII ELEVILORÎn articol este abordată relația dintre bullying-ul cibernetic și comportamentele elevilor. La etapa actuală, securitatea cibernetică este unul dintre cele mai discutate subiecte în majoritatea țărilor lumii. Spaţiul cibernetic se caracterizează prin lipsa frontierelor, dinamism şi anonimat, generând atât oportunităţi de dezvoltare a societăţii informaţionale, cât şi riscuri la adresa funcţionării acesteia și a beneficiarilor săi. Constatând impactul nociv al bullying-ului cibernetic asupra comportamentelor tinerilor, propunem abordarea combaterii bullying-ului cibernetic ca strategie de diminuare a agresi­vității elevilor în școală.

  17. Image-Based Models for Specularity Propagation in Diminished Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Souheil Hadj; Tamaazousti, Mohamed; Bartoli, Adrien

    2018-07-01

    The aim of Diminished Reality (DR) is to remove a target object in a live video stream seamlessly. In our approach, the area of the target object is replaced with new texture that blends with the rest of the image. The result is then propagated to the next frames of the video. One of the important stages of this technique is to update the target region with respect to the illumination change. This is a complex and recurrent problem when the viewpoint changes. We show that the state-of-the-art in DR fails in solving this problem, even under simple scenarios. We then use local illumination models to address this problem. According to these models, the variation in illumination only affects the specular component of the image. In the context of DR, the problem is therefore solved by propagating the specularities in the target area. We list a set of structural properties of specularities which we incorporate in two new models for specularity propagation. Our first model includes the same property as the previous approaches, which is the smoothness of illumination variation, but has a different estimation method based on the Thin-Plate Spline. Our second model incorporates more properties of the specularity's shape on planar surfaces. Experimental results on synthetic and real data show that our strategy substantially improves the rendering quality compared to the state-of-the-art in DR.

  18. Diminishing self-disclosure to maintain security in partners' care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Melville, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Six studies demonstrate that perceivers' desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to misconstrue their own self-disclosure in ways that maintain perceivers' security in targets' care and commitment. Perceivers who strongly valued relationships with targets reported high levels of global self-disclosure, consistent with many findings suggesting salutary effects of disclosure. However, these same perceivers reported low self-disclosure of needs and desires in hypothetical (Study 1) and actual (Study 2) situations characterized by targets' unresponsive behavior. Similarly, in daily report (Study 3) and behavioral observation (Study 4) studies, perceivers who valued relationships with targets perceived high levels of self-disclosure when targets were responsive, but they perceived low self-disclosure when targets were unresponsive, and these perceptions seemed partly illusory. In turn, these perceptions of low self-disclosure in situations characterized by partners' unresponsive behavior predicted decreased perceptions of diagnosticity of targets' behavior (Studies 1-3) and buffered the negative affective and interpersonal effects of unresponsive behavior (Study 4). Experimental manipulations (Studies 5 and 6) demonstrated the motivational nature of perceived self-disclosure. Collectively, the results suggest that a desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to downplay the diagnosticity of targets' unresponsive behavior through diminishing their self-disclosure, in turn preserving perceivers' trust in targets' care and commitment.

  19. Overexpression of Catalase Diminishes Oxidative Cysteine Modifications of Cardiac Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Yao

    Full Text Available Reactive protein cysteine thiolates are instrumental in redox regulation. Oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, react with thiolates to form oxidative post-translational modifications, enabling physiological redox signaling. Cardiac disease and aging are associated with oxidative stress which can impair redox signaling by altering essential cysteine thiolates. We previously found that cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase (Cat, an enzyme that detoxifies excess H2O2, protected from oxidative stress and delayed cardiac aging in mice. Using redox proteomics and systems biology, we sought to identify the cysteines that could play a key role in cardiac disease and aging. With a 'Tandem Mass Tag' (TMT labeling strategy and mass spectrometry, we investigated differential reversible cysteine oxidation in the cardiac proteome of wild type and Cat transgenic (Tg mice. Reversible cysteine oxidation was measured as thiol occupancy, the ratio of total available versus reversibly oxidized cysteine thiols. Catalase overexpression globally decreased thiol occupancy by ≥1.3 fold in 82 proteins, including numerous mitochondrial and contractile proteins. Systems biology analysis assigned the majority of proteins with differentially modified thiols in Cat Tg mice to pathways of aging and cardiac disease, including cellular stress response, proteostasis, and apoptosis. In addition, Cat Tg mice exhibited diminished protein glutathione adducts and decreased H2O2 production from mitochondrial complex I and II, suggesting improved function of cardiac mitochondria. In conclusion, our data suggest that catalase may alleviate cardiac disease and aging by moderating global protein cysteine thiol oxidation.

  20. Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyoti; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-12-03

    Aging is associated with deficits in the ability to ignore distractions, which has not yet been remediated by any neurotherapeutic approach. Here, in parallel auditory experiments with older rats and humans, we evaluated a targeted cognitive training approach that adaptively manipulated distractor challenge. Training resulted in enhanced discrimination abilities in the setting of irrelevant information in both species that was driven by selectively diminished distraction-related errors. Neural responses to distractors in auditory cortex were selectively reduced in both species, mimicking the behavioral effects. Sensory receptive fields in trained rats exhibited improved spectral and spatial selectivity. Frontal theta measures of top-down engagement with distractors were selectively restrained in trained humans. Finally, training gains generalized to group and individual level benefits in aspects of working memory and sustained attention. Thus, we demonstrate converging cross-species evidence for training-induced selective plasticity of distractor processing at multiple neural scales, benefitting distractor suppression and cognitive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ambient groundwater flow diminishes nitrogen cycling in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, M.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Detwiler, R. L.; Boano, F.; Cook, P. L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling and experimental studies demonstrate that ambient groundwater reduces hyporheic exchange, but the implications of this observation for stream N-cycling is not yet clear. We utilized a simple process-based model (the Pumping and Streamline Segregation or PASS model) to evaluate N- cycling over two scales of hyporheic exchange (fluvial ripples and riffle-pool sequences), ten ambient groundwater and stream flow scenarios (five gaining and losing conditions and two stream discharges), and three biogeochemical settings (identified based on a principal component analysis of previously published measurements in streams throughout the United States). Model-data comparisons indicate that our model provides realistic estimates for direct denitrification of stream nitrate, but overpredicts nitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification. Riffle-pool sequences are responsible for most of the N-processing, despite the fact that fluvial ripples generate 3-11 times more hyporheic exchange flux. Across all scenarios, hyporheic exchange flux and the Damkohler Number emerge as primary controls on stream N-cycling; the former regulates trafficking of nutrients and oxygen across the sediment-water interface, while the latter quantifies the relative rates of organic carbon mineralization and advective transport in streambed sediments. Vertical groundwater flux modulates both of these master variables in ways that tend to diminish stream N-cycling. Thus, anthropogenic perturbations of ambient groundwater flows (e.g., by urbanization, agricultural activities, groundwater mining, and/or climate change) may compromise some of the key ecosystem services provided by streams.

  2. Hypoandrogenism in association with diminished functional ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kim, Ann; Weghofer, Andrea; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Shohat-Tal, Aya; Lazzaroni, Emanuela; Lee, Ho-Joon; Barad, David H

    2013-04-01

    Is diminished functional ovarian reserve (DFOR) associated with low androgen levels? Low androgen levels are associated with DFOR at all ages. Androgen supplementation via dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to improve functional ovarian reserve (FOR); pregnancy rates in IVF cycles are associated with how well DHEA converts to testosterone (T); and androgen effects through the androgen receptor have been demonstrated in mice to beneficially affect early stages of follicle maturation. In a controlled cohort study we investigated consecutive women presenting to our center with two forms of DFOR, premature ovarian aging/occult primary ovarian insufficiency (POA/OPOI) and physiologic diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). As controls for POA/OPOI patients, infertile women with normal age-specific FOR were recruited. The study involved 140 women with POA/OPOI, defined as age women with DOR, defined as women age >40 years. Forty-nine control patients women early morning cortisol levels were also assessed. DHEAS marginally varied between the three groups (P = 0.04), with older women with DOR actually demonstrating higher levels than controls (P = 0.03). TT differed between the three groups more profoundly (P = 0.005), with women with POA/OPOI demonstrating significantly lower levels than controls (P = 0.009). Adjustment for body mass index, age and race in principle maintained observed differences in TT between groups, while adjustment for FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) genotypes/sub-genotypes eliminated all differences. All three patient groups demonstrated low morning cortisol levels. While results support lower androgen levels in women with DOR, and even more so in women with POA/OPOI, presented data should be viewed as preliminary, considering the known variability of androgen levels and the small number of women in whom morning cortisol levels were available. Especially at young ages DFOR appears associated with significant hypoandrogenism (low T) in

  3. The Fate of Aspen in a World with Diminishing Snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Kemp, K. B.

    2010-12-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) productivity is tightly coupled with soil moisture. In the mountainous regions of the western USA, annual replenishment of soil moisture commonly occurs during snowmelt. Therefore, snow pack depth and duration can play an important role in sustaining aspen productivity. The presence of almost 50 years of detailed climate data across an elevational transect in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southwestern Idaho offers a novel opportunity to better understand the role of shifting precipitation patterns on aspen productivity. Over the past 50 years, the proportion of the precipitation falling in the form of snow decreased by almost a factor of 2 at mid to low elevations in the RCEW, coupled with a roughly four week advance of snow ablation, and decline of large snow drifts that release moisture into the early summer. Results from growth ring increment, stable isotope analysis, sapflux and a process model (Biome BGC), will be used to determine the impact of shifting precipitation patterns on tree productivity along this transect over the past 50 years. Aspen trees located on moist microsites continue to transpire water and maintain high stomatal conductance 21 days later in the growing season relative to individuals on drier microsites. Predictions of net primary productivity (NPP) in aspen are very sensitive to precipitation patterns. NPP becomes negative as early as day 183 (90 days post budbreak) for years with little winter and spring precipitation whereas, in years with ample winter and spring precipitation, NPP remains positive until day 260 when leaf fall occurs. These results give unique insight into the conditions that deciduous tree species will encounter in a warming climate where snow water equivalent continues to diminish and soil moisture declines soon after budbreak occurs.

  4. Rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethal whole-body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahraus, Christopher D; Schemera, Bettina; Rynders, Patricia; Ramos, Melissa; Powell, Charles; Faircloth, John; Brawner, William R

    2010-07-01

    Terrorist attacks involving radiological or nuclear weapons are a substantial geopolitical concern, given that large populations could be exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Because of this, evaluating potential countermeasures against radiation-induced mortality is critical. Gut microflora are the most common source of systemic infection following exposure to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, suggesting that prophylactic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality after radiation exposure. The chemical stability, easy administration and favorable tolerability profile of the non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, make it an ideal potential candidate for use as a countermeasure. This study evaluated the use of rifaximin as a countermeasure against low-to-intermediate-dose whole-body radiation in rodents. Female Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were irradiated with 550 cGy to the whole body and were evaluated for 30 d. Animals received methylcellulose, neomycin (179 mg/kg/d) or variably dosed rifaximin (150-2000 mg/kg/d) one hour after irradiation and daily throughout the study period. Clinical assessments (e.g. body weight) were made daily. On postirradiation day 30, blood samples were collected and a complete blood cell count was performed. Animals receiving high doses of rifaximin (i.e. 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/d) had a greater increase in weight from the day of irradiation to postirradiation day 30 compared with animals that received placebo or neomycin. For animals with an increase in average body weight from irradiation day within 80-110% of the group average, methylcellulose rendered an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 211, neomycin rendered an ANC of 334, rifaximin 300 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 582 and rifaximin 1000 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 854 (P = 0.05 for group comparison). Exposure to rifaximin after near-lethal whole-body radiation resulted in diminished levels of neutropenia.

  5. Reflex peripheral vasoconstriction is diminished in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Armstrong, C G

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare reflex control of limb blood flow in healthy young (Y; 26 +/- 2 yr) and older (O;61 +/- 2 yr) men during whole body cooling under resting conditions. To better isolate the effect of chronological age, the two age groups (n = 6 per group) were closely matched for maximal oxygen uptake, body surface area, skinfold thickness, and fat-free weight. Subjects sat in an environmentally controlled chamber clad in standardized (0.6-clo) light cotton clothing at a dry-bulb temperature (Tdb) of 28 degrees C. After 30 min, Tdb was decreased by 2 degrees C every 5 min until Tdb = 10 degrees C, where it was held constant for the remainder of the 120-min session. Esophageal and mean skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured every 5 min by venous occlusion plethysmography by using a mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge while arm temperature between the wrist and elbow was clamped at 37.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C by localized warm air heating. In this way, limb vasoconstriction was driven solely by thermoregulatory reflexes and not by direct effects of localized cooling. Mean skin temperature decreased at a similar rate and to a similar extent (by approximately 6 degrees C over a 2-h period) in both age groups, whereas esophageal temperature was relatively unaffected. In response to the local heating, the Y group maintained a significantly higher FBF than did the O group during the initial 30 min but decreased FBF during the cooling phase at a greater rate and to a greater extent than did the O group, leading to a significantly lower FBF during the final 30 min (at Tdb = 10 degrees C). Because there was no age difference in the mean arterial pressure response, similar effects of age were seen on forearm vascular conductance (FBF/mean arterial pressure). It was concluded that older men have a diminished reflex limb vasoconstrictor response to skin cooling. Furthermore, this difference in control of peripheral

  6. How to diminish calcium loss and muscle atrophy in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    perfect relaxation when asleep or awake. We have to check in space if we can thus diminish the use of medicaments or even eliminate them. Slow Yoga exercises decrease also the amount on food required because life is not so energy demanding in space as it is here under the earth's gravitation. We can stay lean and healthy with such static yet most effective physical exercises. In addition it gives us for free a vegetarian life style, just another benefit so useful in space travel.

  7. Diminished Mercury Emission From Water Surfaces by Duckweed (Lemna minor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, J. L.; Peters, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    Aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (generally referred to as duckweeds) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and decreases the amount of exposed water surface. These two factors would be expected to reduce mercury emission by limiting a) direct photoreduction of Hg(II), b) indirect reduction via coupled DOC photooxidation-Hg(II) reduction, and c) gas diffusion across the water-air interface. Conversely, previous studies have demonstrated transpiration of Hg(0) by plants, so it is therefore possible that the floating vegetative mat would enhance emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether duckweed limits mercury flux to the atmosphere by shading and the formation of a physical barrier to diffusion, or whether it enhances emission from aquatic systems via transpiration of Hg(0). Deionized water was amended with mercury to achieve a final concentration of approximately 35 ng/L and allowed to equilibrate prior to the experiment. Experiments were conducted in rectangular polystyrene flux chambers with measured UV-B transmittance greater than 60% (spectral cutoff approximately 290 nm). Light was able to penetrate the flux chamber from the sides as well as the top throughout the experiment, limiting the effect of shading by duckweed on the water surface. Flux chambers contained 8L of water with varying percent duckweed cover, and perforated plastic sheeting was used as an abiotic control. Exposures were conducted outside on days with little to no cloud cover. Real time mercury flux was measured using atomic absorption (Mercury Instruments UT-3000). Total solar and ultraviolet radiation, as well as a suite of meteorological parameters, were also measured. Results indicate that duckweed diminishes mercury emission from the water surface

  8. Lhe law of diminishing elasticity of demand in Harrod’s trade cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Michaël Assous; Olivier Bruno; Muriel Dal-Pont

    2014-01-01

    In The Trade Cycle, Roy Harrod [1936a] propounded the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand. The present paper tries to clarify the precise role Harrod assigned to this law in his The Trade Cycle Theory. We discuss the micro and macro foundations of the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand and argue that it explains one of the main mechanisms that stabilize the economy during the trade cycle. In addition, we highlight how the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand allowed Harrod to micr...

  9. The Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand in Harrod’s Trade Cycle (1936)

    OpenAIRE

    Michaël Assous; Olivier Bruno; Muriel Dal-Pont Legrand

    2015-01-01

    In The Trade Cycle, Roy Harrod [1936a] propounded the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand. The present paper tries to clarify the precise role Harrod assigned to this law in order to understand his trade cycle theory. We discuss the micro and macro foundations of the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand and how, according to Harrod, it explains one of the main mechanisms that stabilize the economy during the trade cycle. In addition, we show how the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Dem...

  10. Hypo-egoic self-regulation: exercising self-control by diminishing the influence of the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Adams, Claire E; Tate, Eleanor B

    2006-12-01

    Theory and research dealing with self-regulation have focused primarily on instances of self-regulation that involve high levels of self-reflection and effortful self-control. However, intentionally trying to control one's behavior sometimes reduces the likelihood of achieving one's goals. This article examines the process of hypo-egoic self-regulation in which people relinquish deliberate, conscious control over their own behavior so that they will respond more naturally, spontaneously, or automatically. An examination of spontaneously occurring hypo-egoic states (such as flow, deindividuation, and transcendence) suggests that hypo-egoic states are characterized by lowered self-awareness and/or an increase in concrete and present-focused self-thoughts. In light of this, people may intentionally foster hypo-egoism via two pathways-(a) taking steps to reduce the proportion of time that they are self-aware (such as repeating a behavior until it is automatic or practicing meditation) or (b) increasing the concreteness of their self-thoughts (such as inducing a concrete mindset or practicing mindfulness). In this way, people may deliberately choose to regulate hypo-egoically when effortful control might be detrimental to their performance.

  11. Does too much work hamper innovation? Evidence for diminishing returns of work hours for patent grants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celbis, M.G.; Turkeli, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study suggests that individual time is an important factor that needs to be considered in innovation research. We define two types of time: work time and free time. We find that work time has a positive but diminishing effect on innovative output such that after a certain point the

  12. Diminishing Footprints: Exploring the Local and Global Challenges to Place-Based Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David

    2017-01-01

    An efficacious response to the ecological crisis requires a thorough examination of our material entitlements and a willingness to reduce our ecological impact by diminishing current levels of consumption. Drawing on the example of air pollution in China, I present a case for the reduction of consumption and impact as a worthy outcome of…

  13. Outcomes of first IVF/ICSI in young women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Mounsambote, Leonisse; Prier, Perrine; Mathieu d'ARGENT, Emmanuelle; Selleret, Lise; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Delarouziere, Vanina; Levy, Rachel; Darai, Emile; Antoine, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensual definition of diminished ovarian reserve and the best therapeutic strategy has not yet been demonstrated. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate outcomes following a first in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle in young women with diminished ovarian reserve. Women with tubal factor, endometriosis or previous stimulation cycle were excluded. We defined diminished ovarian reserve as women ≤38 years with an AMH ≤1.1 ng/mL or antral follicular count ≤7. Among 59 IVF/ICSI cycles (40% IVF/60% ICSI), the pregnancy rate was 17% (10/59) and live birth rate 8.5% (5/59). Miscarriage rate was 50%. Baseline characteristics and IVF outcomes of the pregnant and not pregnant women were compared. No differences in age, antral follicular count, AMH, protocol used or number of harvested oocytes were found between the groups. A higher gonadotropin starting dose in the pregnancy group (397.5±87 IU vs. 314.8±103 IU; P=0.02) and a trend to a higher total dose received (4720±1349 IU vs. 3871±1367 IU; P=0.07) were noted. The present study confirms that women with diminished ovarian reserve have low live birth rates after a first IVF-ICSI cycle and that a higher gonadotropin starting dose might be associated with better outcomes.

  14. Less Guilty by Reason of Adolescence: Developmental Immaturity, Diminished Responsibility, and the Juvenile Death Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Scott, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    The authors use a developmental perspective to examine questions about the criminal culpability of juveniles and the juvenile death penalty. Under principles of criminal law, culpability is mitigated when the actor's decision-making capacity is diminished, when the criminal act was coerced, or when the act was out of character. The authors argue…

  15. Rehearsal Strategies Can Enlarge or Diminish the Spacing Effect: Pure versus Mixed Lists and Encoding Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Peter F.; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Using 5 experiments, the authors explored the dependency of spacing effects on rehearsal patterns. Encouraging rehearsal borrowing produced opposing effects on mixed lists (containing both spaced and massed repetitions) and pure lists (containing only one or the other), magnifying spacing effects on mixed lists but diminishing spacing effects on…

  16. [Physical activity diminishes aging-related decline of physical and cognitive performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apor, Péter; Babai, László

    2014-05-25

    Aging-related decline of muscle force, walking speed, locomotor coordination, aerobic capacity and endurance exert prognostic impact on life expectancy. Proper use of training may diminish the aging process and it may improve the quality of life of elderly persons. This paper provides a brief summary on the impact of training on aging-related decline of physical and cognitive functions.

  17. Direct Instruction and Music Literacy: One Approach to Augmenting the Diminishing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoffrey; Belcher, Steven

    2012-01-01

    One of the many challenges facing music educators is diminishing class time in lower secondary school in the face of the increasingly crowded curriculum and the advent of arts "taster" courses. However, music educators are still expected to be able to produce musically literate students capable of completing high level music courses in…

  18. Nonsuicidal self-injury and diminished pain perception: the role of emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franklin, J.C.; Aaron, R.V.; Arthur, M.S.; Shorkey, S.P.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue in the absence of suicidal intent (e.g., cutting or burning the skin). Previous studies have found that people with a history of NSSI display diminished pain perception. However, it remains unclear why this effect

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Oral Health; Diminished Return among Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2018-04-24

    Background. An extensive body of knowledge has documented weaker health effects of socio-economic status (SES) for Blacks compared to Whites, a phenomenon also known as Blacks’ diminished return. It is, however, unknown whether the same diminished return also holds for other ethnic minorities such as Hispanics or not. Aim. Using a nationally representative sample, the current study aimed to compare Non-Hispanic and Hispanic Whites for the effects of SES on self-rated oral health. Methods. For the current cross-sectional study, we used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001⁻2003. With a nationally representative sampling, CPES included 11,207 adults who were either non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 7587) or Hispanic Whites ( n = 3620. The dependent variable was self-rated oral health, treated as dichotomous measure. Independent variables were education, income, employment, and marital status. Ethnicity was the focal moderator. Age and gender were covariates. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Results. Education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in the pooled sample. Although education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in non-Hispanic Whites, none of these associations were found for Hispanic Whites. Conclusion. In a similar pattern to Blacks’ diminished return, differential gain of SES indicators exists between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites, with a disadvantage for Hispanic Whites. Diminished return of SES should be regarded as a systemically neglected contributing mechanism behind ethnic oral health disparities in the United States. Replication of Blacks’ diminished return for Hispanics suggests that these processes are not specific to ethnic minority groups, and non-White groups gain less because they are not enjoying the privilege and advantage of Whites.

  20. Social exclusion modulates pre-reflective interpersonal body representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Blomberg, Olle; Mandrigin, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    social exclusion condition. The results were that the SAE that normally occurs when the mug is in the avatar’s reaching space is extinguished by the induced social exclusion. This indicates that judgments about one’s own social status modulate the effect of IBR.......Perception of an affordance is enhanced not only when the relevant object is located in one’s own peripersonal space, as compared to when it is located within extrapersonal space, but also when the object is located in another person’s peripersonal space (as measured by a Spatial Alignment Effect...... (SAE)). It has been suggested that this reflects the existence of an interpersonal body representation (IBR) that allows us to represent the perceptual states and action possibilities of others. Here, we address the question of whether IBR can be modulated by higher level/reflective social cognition...

  1. Impact of a program to diminish gender insensitivity and sexual harassment at a medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C D; Bergen, M R; Korn, D

    2000-05-01

    To measure the effect of an intervention to reduce gender insensitivity and sexual harassment at one medical school. Stanford University School of Medicine undertook a multifaceted program to educate faculty and students regarding gender issues and to diminish sexual harassment. The authors developed a survey instrument to assess the faculty's perceptions regarding environment (five scales) and incidences of sexual harassment. Faculty were surveyed twice during the interventions (1994 and 1995). Between the two years, the authors measured significant improvements in mean ratings for positive climate (p = .004) and cohesion (p = .006) and decreases in the faculty's perceptions of sexual harassment (p = 0006), gender insensitivity (p = .001), and gender discrimination (p = .004). The faculty also reported fewer observations of harassing behavior during the study period. An intervention program to diminish gender insensitivity and sexual harassment can measurably improve a medical school's environment.

  2. Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Whigham, Leah D.; Butz, Daniel E.; Dashti, Hesam; Tonelli, Marco; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Cook, Mark E.; Porter, Warren P.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Markley, John L.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Abbott, David H.; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common female endocrinopathy, is a complex metabolic syndrome of enhanced weight gain. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate metabolic differences between normal (n=10) and PCOS (n=10) women via breath carbon isotope ratio, urinary nitrogen and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined serum metabolites. Breath carbon stable isotopes measured by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) indicated diminished (p

  3. The association of neurocognitive impairment with diminished expression and apathy in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Kirschner, Matthias; Bischof, Martin; Kluge, Agne; Seifritz, Erich; Kaiser, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Negative symptoms can be grouped into the two dimensions of diminished expression and apathy, which have been shown to be dissociable regarding external validators, such as functional outcome. Here, we investigated whether these two dimensions differentially relate to neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia. 47 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 33 healthy control participants were subjected to a neurocognitive test battery assessing multiple cognitive domains (processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, verbal learning and memory, mental planning), which are integrated into a composite cognition score. Negative symptoms in patients were assessed using the Brief Negative Symptom Scale. We found that diminished expression significantly related to neurocognitive impairment, while severity of apathy symptoms was not directly associated with neurocognition. Other assessed clinical variables include chlorpromazine equivalents, positive symptoms, and depressive symptoms and did not influence the results. Our results are in line with a cognitive resource limitation model of diminished expression in schizophrenia and indicate that cognitive remediation therapy might be helpful to ameliorate expressive deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Selection of Parasites with Diminished Drug Sensitivity by Amodiaquine-Containing Antimalarial Regimens in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fatima; Nsobya, Samuel L.; Kiggundu, Moses; Joloba, Moses; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Amodiaquine (AQ) is paired with artesunate (AS) or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in recommended antimalarial regimens. It is unclear how readily AQ resistance will be selected with combination chemotherapy. Methods We collected 61 Plasmodium falciparum samples from a cohort of Ugandan children randomized to treatment with AQ/SP, AS/AQ, or artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for uncomplicated malaria. In vitro sensitivity to monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ) was measured with a histidine rich protein-2-based ELISA, and potential resistance-mediating polymorphisms pfmdr-1were evaluated. Results Parasites from subjects previously treated with AQ/SP or AS/AQ within 12 weeks were less sensitive to MDAQ (n=18; mean IC50 62.9 nM; range 12.7–158.3 nM) than parasites from those not treated within 12 weeks (n=43; mean IC50 37.5 nM; range 6.3–184.7 nM; p=0.0085) or only those in the treatment arm that did not contain AQ (n=20; mean IC50 28.8 nM; range 6.3–121.8 nM; p=0.0042). The proportion of strains with polymorphisms expected to mediate diminished response to AQ (pfmdr-1 86Y and 1246Y) increased after prior AQ therapy, although differences were not significant. Conclusions Prior therapy selected for diminished response to MDAQ, suggesting that AQ-containing regimens may rapidly lose efficacy in Africa. The mechanism of diminished MDAQ response is not fully explained by known mutations in pfmdr-1. PMID:19905933

  5. Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waterhouse, JS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Reviews 23 (2004) 803?810 Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations J.S. Waterhousea,*, V.R. Switsura,b, A.C. Barkera, A.H.C. Cartera,b,{, D.L. Hemmingc, N.J. Loaderd, I..., V.R., Waterhouse, J.S., Heaton, T.H.E., Carter, A.H.C., 1998. Climatic variation andthe stable carbon isotope composition of tree ring cellulose: an intercomparison of Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus silvestris. Tellus 50B, 25?33. J.ggi, M...

  6. On the random cascading model study of anomalous scaling in multiparticle production with continuously diminishing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lianshou; Zhang Yang; Wu Yuanfang

    1996-01-01

    The anomalous scaling of factorial moments with continuously diminishing scale is studied using a random cascading model. It is shown that the model currently used have the property of anomalous scaling only for descrete values of elementary cell size. A revised model is proposed which can give good scaling property also for continuously varying scale. It turns out that the strip integral has good scaling property provided the integral regions are chosen correctly, and that this property is insensitive to the concrete way of self-similar subdivision of phase space in the models. (orig.)

  7. The problem of social exclusion diminishing in the context of European parliament recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available European Parliament is one of the most significant EU institutions which are responsible for the tasks of social dimension‘s aims declaration and implementation. One of the most actual tasks, solved by European Parliament, is social security measures fitness to real minimal subsistence level and social inequality and exclusion diminishing in the member states. Strengthening of social dimension and lessening of social exclusion can also suffer from economic difficulties, which appeared in the member states after 2008–2009 economic crisis – when there is still no breaking with the crisis past and the new downfall is still possible. In the article the impact of crisis for social exclusion diminishing is analyzed in the context of European Parliament recommendations. Social security measures had only limited impact for stabilization in the member states, however, the author argues and the European Parliament documents prove, that social security measures are not the burden, but the reserve for development in the member states. In this case, European Parliament together with International Labour Organization, according the author, are the most socially exposed organizations in the world. In the end of the article there is suggested the significant social reintegration indicator for the measurement of social security‘s efficiency and effectiveness.

  8. When is diminishment a form of enhancement? Rethinking the enhancement debate in biomedical ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Earp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement debate in neuroscience and biomedical ethics tends to focus on the augmentation of certain capacities or functions: memory, learning, attention, and the like. Typically, the point of contention is whether these augmentative enhancements are permissible for individuals with no particular ‘medical’ disadvantage along any of the dimensions of interest. Less frequently addressed in the literature, however, is the fact that sometimes the diminishment of a capacity or function, under the right set of circumstances, could plausibly contribute to an individual’s overall well-being: more is not always better, and sometimes less is more. Such cases may be especially likely, we suggest, when trade-offs in our modern environment have shifted since the environment of evolutionary adaptation. In this article, we introduce the notion of diminishment as enhancement and go on to defend a welfarist conception of enhancement. We show how this conception resolves a number of definitional ambiguities in the enhancement literature, and we suggest that it can provide a useful framework for thinking about the use of emerging neurotechnologies to promote human flourishing.

  9. Diminished Antimicrobial Peptide and Antifungal Antibiotic Activities against Candida albicans in Denture Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M. Bates

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying causes of denture stomatitis may be related to the long-term use of adhesives, which may predispose individuals to oral candidiasis. In this study, we hypothesize that antimicrobial peptides and antifungal antibiotics have diminished anti-Candida activities in denture adhesive. To show this, nine antimicrobial peptides and five antifungal antibiotics with and without 1.0% denture adhesive were incubated with Candida albicans strains ATCC 64124 and HMV4C in radial diffusion assays. In gels with 1.0% adhesive, HNP-1, HBD2, HBD3, IP-10, LL37 (only one strain, histatin 5 (only one strain, lactoferricin B, and SMAP28 showed diminished activity against C. albicans. In gels with 1.0% adhesive, amphotericin B and chlorhexidine dihydrochloride were active against both strains of C. albicans. These results suggest that denture adhesive may inactivate innate immune mediators in the oral cavity increasing the risk of C. albicans infections, but inclusion of antifungal antibiotics to denture adhesive may aid in prevention or treatment of Candida infections and denture stomatitis.

  10. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation associated with diminished cell-mediated immunity in antarctic expeditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.; Cooley, H.; Dubow, R.; Lugg, D.

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were followed in 16 Antarctic expeditioners during winter-over isolation at 2 Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition stations. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing was used as an indicator of the CMI response, that was evaluated 2 times before winter isolation and 3 times during isolation. At all 5 evaluation times, 8 or more of the 16 subjects had a diminished CMI response. Diminished DTH was observed on every test occasion in 4/16 subjects; only 2/16 subjects exhibited normal DTH responses for all 5 tests. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect EBV DNA in saliva specimens collected before, during, and after the winter isolation. EBV DNA was present in 17% (111/642) of the saliva specimens; all 16 subjects shed EBV in their saliva on at least 1 occasion. The probability of EBV shedding increased (P = 0.013) from 6% before or after winter isolation to 13% during the winter period. EBV appeared in saliva during the winter isolation more frequently (P viruses.

  12. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Meytal; Ramot, Michal; Furman-Haran, Edna; Arzi, Anat; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Malach, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  13. Pregnancy causes diminished myogenic tone and outward hypotrophic remodeling of the cerebral vein of Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wijk, Anne-Eva; Schreurs, Malou P H; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2013-04-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of several complications associated with the cerebral veins, including thrombosis and hemorrhage. In contrast to the cerebral arteries and arterioles, few studies have focused on the effect of pregnancy on the cerebral venous side. Here, we investigated for the first time the effect of pregnancy on the function and structure of the cerebral vein of Galen in rats. Our major finding was that cerebral veins from late-pregnant (LP, n=11) rats had larger lumen diameters and thinner walls than veins from nonpregnant (NP, n=13) rats, indicating that pregnancy caused outward hypotrophic remodeling of the vein of Galen. Moreover, veins from NP animals had a small amount of myogenic tone at 10 mm Hg (3.9±1.0%) that was diminished in veins during pregnancy (0.8±0.3%; Ppregnancy. Using immunohistochemistry, we show that the vein of Galen receives perivascular innervation, and that serotonergic innervation of cerebral veins is significantly higher in veins from LP animals. Outward hypotrophic remodeling and diminished tone of cerebral veins during pregnancy may contribute to the development of venous pathology through elevated wall tension and wall stress, and possibly by promoting venous blood stasis.

  14. Diminished Dynamic Physical Performance Is Associated With Orthostatic Hypotension in Geriatric Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruïne, Eline S; Reijnierse, Esmee M; Trappenburg, Marijke C; Pasma, Jantsje H; de Vries, Oscar J; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2018-03-23

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH), a blood pressure drop after postural change, is a highly prevalent and disabling syndrome in older adults. Yet, the association between physical performance and OH is not clearly established. The aim of this study was to determine whether different types of physical performance are associated with OH in a clinically relevant population of geriatric outpatients. This cross-sectional study included 280 geriatric outpatients (mean age: 82.2 years, standard deviation: 7.1). Orthostatic hypotension was determined using intermittently measured blood pressure and continuously measured blood pressure in a random subgroup of 58 patients. Physical performance was classified into a dynamic type (4-m Walk Test, Chair Stand Test, and Timed Up and Go test) and a static type (standing balance tests, handgrip strength). Associations were analyzed using logistic regression models with adjustments for age, sex, weight, and height. Diminished physical performance on the Chair Stand Test was associated with OH measured intermittently. Diminished physical performance on all dynamic physical domains (4-m Walk Test, Chair Stand Test, and Timed Up and Go test) was associated with OH measured continuously. Static physical performance was not significantly associated with OH. Dynamic physical performance tests with a substantial postural change and center of mass displacement were significantly associated with OH. The influence of physical performance on OH in daily routine activities should be further explored to establish counteracting interventions.

  15. Income and Self-Rated Mental Health: Diminished Returns for High Income Black Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The minorities’ diminished return theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP generates smaller health gains for racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites. The current study was a Black–White comparison of the association between household income and self-rated mental health (SRMH. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2017 State of the State Survey (SOSS. With representative sampling, the SOSS generates results that are generalizable to the state of Michigan. This study included 881 adults, (n = 92 Black and (n = 782 White. The independent variable was household income. The dependent variable was SRMH, measured using a single item. Age, gender, and participation in the labor force were covariates. Race/ethnicity was the focal moderator. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Results: Overall, higher household income was associated with better SRMH, net of covariates. An interaction was found between race/ethnicity and household income on SRMH, suggesting a smaller, or nonexistent, protective effect for Blacks compared to Whites. In race/ethnicity-stratified models, higher household income was associated with better SRMH for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion: Supporting the minorities’ diminished return theory, our study documents differential effects for income on SRHM for Blacks and Whites, where Whites but not Blacks appear to benefit from their income. Given this, researchers and policy makers are cautioned against making assumptions that racial groups benefit equally from similar economic resources.

  16. Awe, the diminished self, and collective engagement: Universals and cultural variations in the small self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Maruskin, Laura A; Chen, Serena; Gordon, Amie M; Stellar, Jennifer E; McNeil, Galen D; Peng, Kaiping; Keltner, Dacher

    2017-08-01

    Awe has been theorized as a collective emotion, one that enables individuals to integrate into social collectives. In keeping with this theorizing, we propose that awe diminishes the sense of self and shifts attention away from individual interests and concerns. In testing this hypothesis across 6 studies (N = 2137), we first validate pictorial and verbal measures of the small self; we then document that daily, in vivo, and lab experiences of awe, but not other positive emotions, diminish the sense of the self. These findings were observed across collectivist and individualistic cultures, but also varied across cultures in magnitude and content. Evidence from the last 2 studies showed that the influence of awe upon the small self accounted for increases in collective engagement, fitting with claims that awe promotes integration into social groups. Discussion focused on how the small self might mediate the effects of awe on collective cognition and behavior, the need to study more negatively valenced varieties of awe, and other potential cultural variations of the small self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs = 0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography.

  18. Repeated exposure to media violence is associated with diminished response in an inhibitory frontolimbic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we found that repeated exposure to violent media, but not to other equally arousing media, led to both diminished response in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (right ltOFC and a decrease in right ltOFC-amygdala interaction. Reduced function in this network has been previously associated with decreased control over a variety of behaviors, including reactive aggression. Indeed, we found reduced right ltOFC responses to be characteristic of those subjects that reported greater tendencies toward reactive aggression. Furthermore, the violence-induced reduction in right ltOFC response coincided with increased throughput to behavior planning regions. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings establish that even short-term exposure to violent media can result in diminished responsiveness of a network associated with behaviors such as reactive aggression.

  19. CAN MELATONIN BE EFFECTIVELY USED TO DIMINISH SIDE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AND ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Aleksandrovich Bekker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study and summarize the existing evidence base for the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, and to provide the reader with relevant conclusions. Methodology. The authors have searched for the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, using the PubMed and Google Scholar as a search tool. Then the authors thoroughly reviewed the data they found. The resulting review is presented in this article. Results. The data we have obtained from this review of the literature indicate that melatonin can be effectively used both in monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutic means in order to reduce several different side effects of psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy. Melatonin also deserves further study in this regard. The evidence base for its use in this manner is very variable in quality for different side effects. For now, the greatest evidence base exists regarding the potential effectiveness of melatonin in the prevention and treatment of drug-induced insomnia, memory and cognitive impairment, akathisia, tardive dyskinesias, and metabolic syndrome. Practical implications. The results we have obtained can be widely applied in psychiatry, neurology and addiction medicine, as well as in all those areas of general medicine, which make use of psychotropic drugs.

  20. Punishment diminishes the benefits of network reciprocity in social dilemma experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Zhen; Li, Huijia; Shi, Lei; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2018-01-02

    Network reciprocity has been widely advertised in theoretical studies as one of the basic cooperation-promoting mechanisms, but experimental evidence favoring this type of reciprocity was published only recently. When organized in an unchanging network of social contacts, human subjects cooperate provided the following strict condition is satisfied: The benefit of cooperation must outweigh the total cost of cooperating with all neighbors. In an attempt to relax this condition, we perform social dilemma experiments wherein network reciprocity is aided with another theoretically hypothesized cooperation-promoting mechanism-costly punishment. The results reveal how networks promote and stabilize cooperation. This stabilizing effect is stronger in a smaller-size neighborhood, as expected from theory and experiments. Contrary to expectations, punishment diminishes the benefits of network reciprocity by lowering assortment, payoff per round, and award for cooperative behavior. This diminishing effect is stronger in a larger-size neighborhood. An immediate implication is that the psychological effects of enduring punishment override the rational response anticipated in quantitative models of cooperation in networks. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  1. Kafka, paranoic doubles and the brain: hypnagogic vs. hyper-reflexive models of disrupted self in neuropsychiatric disorders and anomalous conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishara Aaron L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kafka's writings are frequently interpreted as representing the historical period of modernism in which he was writing. Little attention has been paid, however, to the possibility that his writings may reflect neural mechanisms in the processing of self during hypnagogic (i.e., between waking and sleep states. Kafka suffered from dream-like, hypnagogic hallucinations during a sleep-deprived state while writing. This paper discusses reasons (phenomenological and neurobiological why the self projects an imaginary double (autoscopy in its spontaneous hallucinations and how Kafka's writings help to elucidate the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms. I further discuss how the proposed mechanisms may be relevant to understanding paranoid delusions in schizophrenia. Literature documents and records cognitive and neural processes of self with an intimacy that may be otherwise unavailable to neuroscience. To elucidate this approach, I contrast it with the apparently popularizing view that the symptoms of schizophrenia result from what has been called an operative (i.e., pre-reflective hyper-reflexivity. The latter approach claims that pre-reflective self-awareness (diminished in schizophrenia pervades all conscious experience (however, in a manner that remains unverifiable for both phenomenological and experimental methods. This contribution argues the opposite: the "self" informs our hypnagogic imagery precisely to the extent that we are not self-aware.

  2. Kafka, paranoic doubles and the brain: hypnagogic vs. hyper-reflexive models of disrupted self in neuropsychiatric disorders and anomalous conscious states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Aaron L

    2010-08-20

    Kafka's writings are frequently interpreted as representing the historical period of modernism in which he was writing. Little attention has been paid, however, to the possibility that his writings may reflect neural mechanisms in the processing of self during hypnagogic (i.e., between waking and sleep) states. Kafka suffered from dream-like, hypnagogic hallucinations during a sleep-deprived state while writing. This paper discusses reasons (phenomenological and neurobiological) why the self projects an imaginary double (autoscopy) in its spontaneous hallucinations and how Kafka's writings help to elucidate the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms. I further discuss how the proposed mechanisms may be relevant to understanding paranoid delusions in schizophrenia. Literature documents and records cognitive and neural processes of self with an intimacy that may be otherwise unavailable to neuroscience. To elucidate this approach, I contrast it with the apparently popularizing view that the symptoms of schizophrenia result from what has been called an operative (i.e., pre-reflective) hyper-reflexivity. The latter approach claims that pre-reflective self-awareness (diminished in schizophrenia) pervades all conscious experience (however, in a manner that remains unverifiable for both phenomenological and experimental methods). This contribution argues the opposite: the "self" informs our hypnagogic imagery precisely to the extent that we are not self-aware.

  3. Diminishing-cues retrieval practice: A memory-enhancing technique that works when regular testing doesn't.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Joshua L; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2017-08-28

    Retrieval practice has been shown to be a highly effective tool for enhancing memory, a fact that has led to major changes to educational practice and technology. However, when initial learning is poor, initial retrieval practice is unlikely to be successful and long-term benefits of retrieval practice are compromised or nonexistent. Here, we investigate the benefit of a scaffolded retrieval technique called diminishing-cues retrieval practice (Finley, Benjamin, Hays, Bjork, & Kornell, Journal of Memory and Language, 64, 289-298, 2011). Under learning conditions that favored a strong testing effect, diminishing cues and standard retrieval practice both enhanced memory performance relative to restudy. Critically, under learning conditions where standard retrieval practice was not helpful, diminishing cues enhanced memory performance substantially. These experiments demonstrate that diminishing-cues retrieval practice can widen the range of conditions under which testing can benefit memory, and so can serve as a model for the broader application of testing-based techniques for enhancing learning.

  4. Diminished exercise capacity and mitochondrial bc1 complex deficiency in tafazzin-knockdown mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey ePowers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipid, cardiolipin, is essential for maintaining mitochondrial structure and optimal function. Cardiolipin-deficiency in humans, Barth syndrome, is characterized by exercise intolerance, dilated cardiomyopathy, neutropenia and 3-methyl-glutaconic aciduria. The causative gene is the mitochondrial acyl-transferase, tafazzin that is essential for remodeling acyl chains of cardiolipin. We sought to determine metabolic rates in tafazzin-deficient mice during resting and exercise, and investigate the impact of cardiolipin deficiency on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities. Tafazzin knockdown in mice markedly impaired oxygen consumption rates during an exercise, without any significant effect on resting metabolic rates. CL-deficiency resulted in significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity in neonatal cardiomyocytes that is likely to be caused by diminished activity of complex-III, which requires CL for its assembly and optimal activity. Our results may provide mechanistic insights of Barth syndrome pathogenesis.

  5. A short educational intervention diminishes causal illusions and specific paranormal beliefs in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberia, Itxaso; Tubau, Elisabet; Matute, Helena; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive biases such as causal illusions have been related to paranormal and pseudoscientific beliefs and, thus, pose a real threat to the development of adequate critical thinking abilities. We aimed to reduce causal illusions in undergraduates by means of an educational intervention combining training-in-bias and training-in-rules techniques. First, participants directly experienced situations that tend to induce the Barnum effect and the confirmation bias. Thereafter, these effects were explained and examples of their influence over everyday life were provided. Compared to a control group, participants who received the intervention showed diminished causal illusions in a contingency learning task and a decrease in the precognition dimension of a paranormal belief scale. Overall, results suggest that evidence-based educational interventions like the one presented here could be used to significantly improve critical thinking skills in our students.

  6. A short educational intervention diminishes causal illusions and specific paranormal beliefs in undergraduates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso Barberia

    Full Text Available Cognitive biases such as causal illusions have been related to paranormal and pseudoscientific beliefs and, thus, pose a real threat to the development of adequate critical thinking abilities. We aimed to reduce causal illusions in undergraduates by means of an educational intervention combining training-in-bias and training-in-rules techniques. First, participants directly experienced situations that tend to induce the Barnum effect and the confirmation bias. Thereafter, these effects were explained and examples of their influence over everyday life were provided. Compared to a control group, participants who received the intervention showed diminished causal illusions in a contingency learning task and a decrease in the precognition dimension of a paranormal belief scale. Overall, results suggest that evidence-based educational interventions like the one presented here could be used to significantly improve critical thinking skills in our students.

  7. Cp/Heph mutant mice have iron-induced neurodegeneration diminished by deferiprone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangliang; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Wang, Chenguang; Xu, Xueying; Song, Ying; Jinnah, H.A.; Wodzinska, Jolanta; Iacovelli, Jared; Wolkow, Natalie; Krajacic, Predrag; Weissberger, Alyssa Cwanger; Connelly, John; Spino, Michael; Lee, Michael K.; Connor, James; Giasson, Benoit; Harris, Z. Leah; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Brain iron accumulates in several neurodegenerative diseases and can cause oxidative damage, but mechanisms of brain iron homeostasis are incompletely understood. Patients with mutations in the cellular iron-exporting ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) have brain iron accumulation causing neurodegeneration. Here, we assessed the brains of mice with combined mutation of Cp and its homolog hephaestin. Compared to single mutants, brain iron accumulation was accelerated in double mutants in the cerebellum, substantia nigra, and hippocampus. Iron accumulated within glia, while neurons were iron deficient. There was loss of both neurons and glia. Mice developed ataxia and tremor, and most died by 9 months. Treatment with the oral iron chelator deferiprone diminished brain iron levels, protected against neuron loss, and extended lifespan. Ferroxidases play important, partially overlapping roles in brain iron homeostasis by facilitating iron export from glia, making iron available to neurons. PMID:26303407

  8. Growth hormone secretion is diminished and tightly controlled in humans enriched for familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Jansen, Steffy W; Akintola, Abimbola A

    2016-01-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) signaling has been consistently associated with increased health and lifespan in various mouse models. Here, we assessed GH secretion and its control in relation with human familial longevity. We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 19 middle-aged offspring of long......-living families from the Leiden Longevity Study together with 18 of their partners as controls. Circulating GH concentrations were measured every 10 min and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) every 4 h. Using deconvolution analysis, we found that 24-h.......39-0.53)] compared with controls [0.66 (0.56-0.77)], indicating tighter control of GH secretion. No significant differences were observed in circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP3 between offspring and controls. In conclusion, GH secretion in human familial longevity is characterized by diminished secretion rate...

  9. Discovery and Computational Rationalization of Diminishing Alternation in [n]Dendralenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Mehmet F; Fallon, Thomas; Paddon-Row, Michael N; Sherburn, Michael S

    2016-01-27

    The [n]dendralenes are a family of acyclic hydrocarbons which, by virtue of their ability to rapidly generate structural complexity, have attracted significant recent synthetic attention. [3]Dendralene through [8]dendralene have been previously prepared but no higher member of the family has been reported to date. Here, we describe the first chemical syntheses of the "higher" dendralenes, [9]dendralene through [12]dendralene. We also report a detailed investigation into the spectroscopic properties and chemical reactivity of the complete family of fundamental hydrocarbons, [3]dendralene to [12]dendralene. These studies reveal the first case of diminishing alternation in behavior in a series of related structures. We also report a comprehensive series of computational studies, which trace this dampening oscillatory effect in both spectroscopic measurements and chemical reactivity to conformational preferences.

  10. Diminishing Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Nutrition: A Current View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS II intervention trial should be particularly informative.

  11. Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whigham, Leah D.; Butz, Daniel E.; Dashti, Hesam; Tonelli, Marco; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Cook, Mark E.; Porter, Warren P.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Markley, John L.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Abbott, David H.; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common female endocrinopathy, is a complex metabolic syndrome of enhanced weight gain. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate metabolic differences between normal (n=10) and PCOS (n=10) women via breath carbon isotope ratio, urinary nitrogen and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined serum metabolites. Breath carbon stable isotopes measured by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) indicated diminished (pglucose tolerance test showed that a transient elevation in blood glucose levels decreased circulating levels of lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolic intermediates (acetone, 2-oxocaporate, 2-aminobutyrate, pyruvate, formate, and sarcosine) in PCOS women, whereas the 2 h glucose challenge led to increases in the same intermediates in normal women. These pilot data suggest that PCOS-related inflexibility in fasting-related switching between lipid and carbohydrate/protein utilization for carbon metabolism may contribute to enhanced weight gain. PMID:24765590

  12. A case of diminished pericardial effusion after treatment of a giant hepatic cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hiroshi; Tochio, Tomomasa; Kumazawa, Hiroaki; Isono, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Hiroki; Matsusaki, Shimpei; Sase, Tomohiro; Saito, Tomonori; Mukai, Katsumi; Nishimura, Akira; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Mori, Takuya

    2017-08-01

    A 75-year-old woman was discovered to have a pericardial effusion when she was admitted to our hospital because of a giant hepatic cyst. We could not detect the cause of the effusion and diagnosed idiopathic pericardial effusion. The patient underwent transcutaneous drainage of the hepatic cyst and an injection of antibiotics. There was no communication between the pericardial effusion and the hepatic cyst. Although the hepatic cyst was reduced in size, the pericardial effusion showed no remarkable change immediately after treatment; however, 5 months later, the pericardial effusion was found to be diminished. The pericardial effusion might have been caused by the physical pressure of the giant hepatic cyst and disturbance in the balance between the production and reabsorption of the pericardial fluid. When we experience a huge hepatic cyst, we should take into account its influence against the surrounding organs, including the intrapleural space.

  13. Diminishing Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Nutrition: A Current View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Molly; Weikel, Karen; Garber, Caren; Taylor, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) II intervention trial should be particularly informative. PMID:23820727

  14. Diminished stress resistance and defective adaptive homeostasis in age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomeli, Naomi; Bota, Daniela A; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2017-11-01

    Adaptive homeostasis is defined as the transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range following exposure to subtoxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events ( Mol. Aspects Med. (2016) 49, 1-7 ). Adaptive homeostasis allows us to transiently adapt (and then de-adapt) to fluctuating levels of internal and external stressors. The ability to cope with transient changes in internal and external environmental stress, however, diminishes with age. Declining adaptive homeostasis may make older people more susceptible to many diseases. Chronic oxidative stress and defective protein homeostasis (proteostasis) are two major factors associated with the etiology of age-related disorders. In the present paper, we review the contribution of impaired responses to oxidative stress and defective adaptive homeostasis in the development of age-associated diseases. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Mechanisms of diminished natural killer cell activity in pregnant women and neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baley, J.E.; Schacter, B.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Because alterations in natural killer (NK) activity in the perinatal period may be important in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy, the mechanisms by which these alterations are mediated in neonates and in pregnant and postpartum women was examined. NK activity, as measured in a 4-hr 51 Cr-release assay and compared with adult controls, is significantly diminished in all three trimesters of pregnancy and in immediately postpartum women. In postpartum women, NK activity appears to be higher than in pregnant women, although this does not reach statistical significance. Pregnant and postpartum women have normal numbers of large granular lymphocytes and normal target cell binding in an agarose single cell assay but decreased lysis of the bound target cells. NK activity of mononuclear cells from postpartum women, in addition, demonstrate a shift in distribution to higher levels of resistance to gamma-irradiation. Further, sera from postpartum women cause a similar shift to increased radioresistance in mononuclear cells from adult controls. Because radioresistance is a property of interleukin 2-stimulated NK, the shift to radioresistance may represent lymphokine-mediated stimulation occurring during parturition. In contrast, cord blood cells have a more profound decrease in NK activity as determined by 51 Cr-release assay and decreases in both binding and lysis of bound target cells in the single cell assay. The resistance of NK activity in cord cells to gamma-irradiation is also increased, as seen in postpartum women. Cord blood serum, however, did not alter radioresistance or inhibit NK activity. The results suggest that the observed diminished NK activity in pregnant women and neonates arise by different mechanisms: an absence of mature NK cells in the neonate and an alteration of the NK cell in pregnancy leading to decreased killing

  16. Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Eric R; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J

    2012-09-01

    Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3), also known as transducin β3 or Gβ3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of Gβ3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells (Ritchey et al., 2010). FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by Gβ3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and Gβ3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extreme cognitions are associated with diminished ability to use disconfirming evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Matthew; Dodd, Alyson L

    2017-03-01

    An Integrative Cognitive Model of mood swings and bipolar disorder proposes that cognitive styles characterized by extreme self-referent appraisals of internal states (e.g., 'If I have a bad night's sleep it means that I am about to have a breakdown') interfere with mood regulation. The aim of this study is to determine whether strong endorsement of such appraisals is predicted by a diminished ability to access disconfirming counterexamples. We examined whether the ability to access two different categories of counterexample (known as Disabling Conditions and Alternative Causes) would predict endorsement of extreme appraisals (measured by the Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory; HAPPI) and mania risk (measured by the Hypomanic Personality Scale; HPS). A non-clinical sample of 150 students completed the HAPPI, the HPS and a conditional reasoning task that indexed the ability to access Disabling Conditions and Alternative Causes. Current mood was controlled for using the Internal States Scale. The ability to make use of disabling counterexamples during the reasoning task was inversely related with scores on the HAPPI (r = -.19, p referent appraisals to a greater extent. There was no association between the use of alternative cause counterexamples and the HAPPI, and no association between either measure of counterexample generation and the HPS. A diminished ability to use disconfirming evidence when reasoning about the world may reinforce problematic cognitive styles such as extreme, personalized appraisals of experience, which can interfere with mood regulation. Problematic cognitive styles such as extreme, personalized appraisals of experience may be reinforced by the inability to produce or access evidence that disconfirms these maladaptive beliefs. This reasoning bias may be associated with cognitive styles underlying psychopathology. There may be clinical utility in exploring the use of disabler generation in psychological interventions, to

  18. Smoking Through a Topography Device Diminishes Some of the Acute Rewarding Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Juliano, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Smoking topography (ST) devices are an important methodological tool for quantifying puffing behavior (eg, puff volume, puff velocity) as well as identifying puffing differences across individuals and situations. Available ST devices are designed such that the smoker's mouth and hands have direct contact with the device rather than the cigarette itself. Given the importance of the sensorimotor aspects of cigarette smoking in smoking reward, it is possible that ST devices may interfere with the acute rewarding effects of smoking. Despite the methodological importance of this issue, few studies have directly compared subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device to naturalistic smoking. Smokers (N = 58; 38% female) smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes one time through a portable topography device and one time naturalistically, in counterbalanced order across two laboratory sessions. Smoking behavior (eg, number of puffs) and subjective effects (eg, urge reduction, affect, smoking satisfaction) were assessed. Negative affect reduction was greater in the natural smoking condition relative to the topography condition, but differences were not significant on measures of urge, withdrawal, or positive affect. Self-reported smoking satisfaction, enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, psychological reward, craving reduction, and other rewarding effects of smoking were also significantly greater in the naturalistic smoking condition. The effects of using a ST device on the smoking experience should be considered when it is used in research as it may diminish some of the rewarding effects of smoking. When considering the inclusion of a smoking topography device in one's research, it is important to know if use of that device will alter the smoker's experience. This study assessed affective and subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device compared to naturalistic smoking. We found that smoking satisfaction, psychological reward, enjoyment

  19. Diminished Economic Return of Socioeconomic Status at Birth among Black than White Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, socioeconomic status (SES systemically generates larger gains for Whites compared to Blacks. It is, however, unknown whether the effects of baseline SES on future family income also varies between Blacks and Whites. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the effects of family SES (i.e., family structure, maternal education, and income at birth on subsequent household income at age 15. Methods: This 15-year longitudinal study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, which followed 1471 non-Hispanic Black or White families from the time of birth of their child for 15 years. Two family SES indicators (maternal education and income at birth were the independent variables. Family income 15 years later was the outcome. Maternal age, child gender, and family structure at baseline were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, maternal education (b = 11.62, p < 0.001 and household income (b = 0.73, p < 0.001 at baseline were predictive of family income 15 years later. Race, however, interacted with maternal education (b = −12,073.89, p < 0.001 and household income (b = −312.47, p < 0.001 at birth on household income 15 years later, indicating smaller effects for Black compared to White families. These differential gains were independent of family structure, mother age, and child gender. Conclusions: The economic return of family SES is smaller for Black compared to White families, regardless of the SES indicator. Policies should specifically address structural barriers in the lives of racial and ethnic minorities to minimize the diminished return of SES resources across racial minority groups. Policies should also reduce extra cost of upward social mobility for racial minorities. As the likely causes are multi-level, solutions should

  20. Application of numerical method in calculating the internal rate of return of joint venture investment using diminishing musyarakah model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Siti Zaharah Mohd; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Islamic banking in Malaysia offers variety of products based on Islamic principles. One of the concepts is a diminishing musyarakah. The concept of diminishing musyarakah helps Muslims to avoid transaction which are based on riba. The diminishing musyarakah can be defined as an agreement between capital provider and entrepreneurs that enable entrepreneurs to buy equity in instalments where profits and losses are shared based on agreed ratio. The objective of this paper is to determine the internal rate of return (IRR) for a diminishing musyarakah model by applying a numerical method. There are several numerical methods in calculating the IRR such as by using an interpolation method and a trial and error method by using Microsoft Office Excel. In this paper we use a bisection method and secant method as an alternative way in calculating the IRR. It was found that the diminishing musyarakah model can be adapted in managing the performance of joint venture investments. Therefore, this paper will encourage more companies to use the concept of joint venture in managing their investments performance.

  1. Failure to demonstrate that playing violent video games diminishes prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Morgan J; Nielsen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in virtual environments, more connection with characters, etc.) and it may be that playing violent video games impacts prosocial behavior only when contemporary versions are used. Experiments 1 and 2 explored the effects of playing contemporary violent, non-violent, and prosocial video games on prosocial behavior, as measured by the pen-drop task. We found that slight contextual changes in the delivery of the pen-drop task led to different rates of helping but that the type of game played had little effect. Experiment 3 explored this further by using classic games. Again, we found no effect. We failed to find evidence that playing video games affects prosocial behavior. Research on the effects of video game play is of significant public interest. It is therefore important that speculation be rigorously tested and findings replicated. Here we fail to substantiate conjecture that playing contemporary violent video games will lead to diminished prosocial behavior.

  2. Failure to demonstrate that playing violent video games diminishes prosocial behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan J Tear

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in virtual environments, more connection with characters, etc. and it may be that playing violent video games impacts prosocial behavior only when contemporary versions are used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Experiments 1 and 2 explored the effects of playing contemporary violent, non-violent, and prosocial video games on prosocial behavior, as measured by the pen-drop task. We found that slight contextual changes in the delivery of the pen-drop task led to different rates of helping but that the type of game played had little effect. Experiment 3 explored this further by using classic games. Again, we found no effect. CONCLUSIONS: We failed to find evidence that playing video games affects prosocial behavior. Research on the effects of video game play is of significant public interest. It is therefore important that speculation be rigorously tested and findings replicated. Here we fail to substantiate conjecture that playing contemporary violent video games will lead to diminished prosocial behavior.

  3. Confronting diminished epistemic privilege and epistemic injustice in pregnancy by challenging a "panoptics of the womb".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lauren

    2015-02-01

    This paper demonstrates how the problematic kinds of epistemic power that physicians have can diminish the epistemic privilege that pregnant women have over their bodies and can put them in a state of epistemic powerlessness. This result, I argue, constitutes an epistemic injustice for many pregnant women. A reconsideration of how we understand and care for pregnant women and of the physician-patient relationship can provide us with a valuable context and starting point for helping to alleviate the knowledge/power problems that are symptomatic of the current system and structure of medicine. I suggest that we can begin to confront this kind of injustice if medicine adopts a more phenomenological understanding of bodies and if physicians and patients--in this case, pregnant women--become what I call "epistemic peers." © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Availability of neurotransmitter glutamate is diminished when beta-hydroxybutyrate replaces glucose in cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Trine M; Risa, Oystein; Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2009-07-01

    Ketone bodies serve as alternative energy substrates for the brain in cases of low glucose availability such as during starvation or in patients treated with a ketogenic diet. The ketone bodies are metabolized via a distinct pathway confined to the mitochondria. We have compared metabolism of [2,4-(13)C]beta-hydroxybutyrate to that of [1,6-(13)C]glucose in cultured glutamatergic neurons and investigated the effect of neuronal activity focusing on the aspartate-glutamate homeostasis, an essential component of the excitatory activity in the brain. The amount of (13)C incorporation and cellular content was lower for glutamate and higher for aspartate in the presence of [2,4-(13)C]beta-hydroxybutyrate as opposed to [1,6-(13)C]glucose. Our results suggest that the change in aspartate-glutamate homeostasis is due to a decreased availability of NADH for cytosolic malate dehydrogenase and thus reduced malate-aspartate shuttle activity in neurons using beta-hydroxybutyrate. In the presence of glucose, the glutamate content decreased significantly upon activation of neurotransmitter release, whereas in the presence of only beta-hydroxybutyrate, no decrease in the glutamate content was observed. Thus, the fraction of the glutamate pool available for transmitter release was diminished when metabolizing beta-hydroxybutyrate, which is in line with the hypothesis of formation of transmitter glutamate via an obligatory involvement of the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  5. Application of the Diminishing Returns Concept in the Hydroecologic Restoration of Riverscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, John R.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2012-01-01

    Principles for optimizing the number and placement of ecological restoration actions on rivers and coasts would be useful in project engineering design and program planning. This study demonstrated that the yield of inundated floodplain habitat area from dike breaching conforms to a diminishing returns model. The aggregate effects of establishing hydrologic connections between a tidally influenced main stem river and the floodplain were experimentally examined using a hydrodynamic model. Restoration clusters of size 1, 4, 8, and more, replicated and randomized within the landscape, yielded average wetted floodplain area conforming with an exponential rise to maximum curve2(0.99)r=. Analysis of the average incremental change in floodplain inundation produced per breach showed that opening 25 % of the channels crossing the dike provided the maximum return on investment as measured by wetted area. Midstream breaches yielded 60 % and upstream breaches 2 % of the wetted area produced by downstream breaches. Dike-breach restoration programs therefore can be optimized by strategic determination of the spatial configuration and number of demolitions, though biological factors such as the accessibility of floodplain habitat and total length of channels connected also need to be considered. These findings have implications for cost-benefit analyses in restoration program planning.

  6. Increased outdoor recreation, diminished ozone layer pose ultraviolet radiation threat to eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-24

    The long-term effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on the eye are of increasing concern as many people live longer and spend more of that time in outdoor recreation and as the diminishing ozone layer filters less UV light. Ultraviolet radiation is strongest at high altitude, low latitude, and open for reflective environments (sand, snow, or water). For people who lack an eye lens (aphakics), UV light is transmitted directly onto the retina. Cumulative exposure to the 300- to 400-nm range of UV light is one factor causing cataracts. Ophthalmologists say cataracts cause visual deficits for more than 3.5 million people in the United States. Cumulative UV exposure may lead to age-related macular degeneration. At a Research to Prevent Blindness conference in Arlington, VA, John S. Werner, PhD, professor of psychology and neurosciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, described how his group demonstrated the effects of UV light on retinal cones. Different types of intraocular lenses were placed in each eye of eight patients who had undergone bilateral cataract surgery. After five years, retinal cones chronically exposured to UV radiation had less sensitivity for short wavelengths (440 nm) by a factor of 1.7.

  7. A change will do us good: threats diminish typical preferences for male leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Diekman, Amanda B; Schneider, Monica C

    2011-07-01

    The current research explores role congruity processes from a new vantage point by investigating how the need for change might shift gender-based leadership preferences. According to role congruity theory, favorability toward leaders results from alignment between what is desired in a leadership role and the characteristics stereotypically ascribed to the leader. Generally speaking, these processes lead to baseline preferences for male over female leaders. In this research, the authors propose that a shift in gender-based leadership preferences will emerge under conditions of threat. Because the psychological experience of threat signals a need for change, individuals will favor candidates who represent new directions in leadership rather than consistency with past directions in leadership. Specifically, they find that threat evokes an implicit preference for change over stability (Experiment 1) and gender stereotypes align women with change but men with stability (Experiments 2a and 2b). Consequently, the typical preference for male leaders is diminished, or even reversed, under threat (Experiments 3 and 4). Moreover, the shift away from typical gender-based leadership preferences occurs especially among individuals who highly legitimize the sociopolitical system (Experiment 4), suggesting that these preference shifts might serve to protect the underlying system. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  8. Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Karen E; Ma, Wei Ji; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Chiu, Pearl H

    2015-06-01

    The duration and quality of human performance depend on both intrinsic motivation and external incentives. However, little is known about the neuroscientific basis of this interplay between internal and external motivators. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation, operationalized as the free-choice time spent on a task when this was not required, and tested the neural and behavioral effects of external reward on intrinsic motivation. We found that increased duration of free-choice time was predicted by generally diminished neural responses in regions associated with cognitive and affective regulation. By comparison, the possibility of additional reward improved task accuracy, and specifically increased neural and behavioral responses following errors. Those individuals with the smallest neural responses associated with intrinsic motivation exhibited the greatest error-related neural enhancement under the external contingency of possible reward. Together, these data suggest that human performance is guided by a "tonic" and "phasic" relationship between the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation (tonic) and the impact of external incentives (phasic).

  9. The relative effectiveness of extinction and counter-conditioning in diminishing children's fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, Carol; Watson, Tiffany; Grant, Kerry-Ann; Richardson, Rick

    2017-08-01

    Two behavioural strategies for reducing learned fear are extinction and counter-conditioning, and in this study we compared the relative effectiveness of the two procedures at diminishing fear in children. Seventy-three children aged 7-12 years old (M = 9.30, SD = 1.62) were exposed to pictures of two novel animals on a computer screen during the fear acquisition phase. One of these animals was paired with a picture of a scared human face (CS+) while the other was not (CS-). The children were then randomly assigned to one of three conditions: counter-conditioning (animal paired with a happy face), extinction (animal without scared face), or control (no fear reduction procedure). Changes in fear beliefs and behavioural avoidance of the animal were measured. Counter-conditioning was more effective at reducing fear to the CS + than extinction. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for behavioural treatments of childhood anxiety disorders. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Failure to Demonstrate That Playing Violent Video Games Diminishes Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Morgan J.; Nielsen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in virtual environments, more connection with characters, etc.) and it may be that playing violent video games impacts prosocial behavior only when contemporary versions are used. Methods and Findings Experiments 1 and 2 explored the effects of playing contemporary violent, non-violent, and prosocial video games on prosocial behavior, as measured by the pen-drop task. We found that slight contextual changes in the delivery of the pen-drop task led to different rates of helping but that the type of game played had little effect. Experiment 3 explored this further by using classic games. Again, we found no effect. Conclusions We failed to find evidence that playing video games affects prosocial behavior. Research on the effects of video game play is of significant public interest. It is therefore important that speculation be rigorously tested and findings replicated. Here we fail to substantiate conjecture that playing contemporary violent video games will lead to diminished prosocial behavior. PMID:23844191

  11. Do online reviews diminish physician authority? The case of cosmetic surgery in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Alka V

    2017-05-01

    This article analyzes the substance and perception of online physician reviews, which are qualitative and quantitative assessments of physicians written and shared by patients, in the case of U.S. cosmetic surgery. Like other cash-pay medical specialties, cosmetic surgery is elective and paid for largely out of pocket, with patients having latitude in their choice of surgeon. Drawing on qualitative data from interviews, observations of an American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery professional meeting, and online reviews from the platforms RealSelf and Yelp, I identify two interdependent contributors to physician authority: reputation and expertise. I argue that surgeons see reviews overwhelmingly as a threat to their reputation, even as actual review content often positively reinforces physician expertise and enhances physician reputation. I show that most online reviews linked to interview participants are positive, according considerable deference to surgeons. Reviews add patients' embodied and consumer expertise as a circumscribed supplement to surgeons' technical expertise. Moreover, reviews change the doctor-patient relationship by putting it on display for a larger audience of prospective patients, enabling patients and review platforms to affect physician reputation. Surgeons report changing how they practice to establish and maintain their reputations. This research demonstrates how physician authority in medical consumerist contexts is a product of reputation as well as expertise. Consumerism changes the doctor-patient relationship and makes surgeons feel diminished authority by dint of their reputational vulnerability to online reviews. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diminished facial emotion expression and associated clinical characteristics in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katie; Larsson, Emma E C; Mavromara, Liza; Simic, Mima; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-02-28

    This study aimed to investigate emotion expression in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and investigate the associated clinical correlates. One hundred and forty-one participants (AN=66, HC= 75) were recruited and positive and negative film clips were used to elicit emotion expressions. The Facial Activation Coding system (FACES) was used to code emotion expression. Subjective ratings of emotion were collected. Individuals with AN displayed less positive emotions during the positive film clip compared to healthy controls (HC). There was no significant difference between the groups on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). The AN group displayed emotional incongruence (reporting a different emotion to what would be expected given the stimuli, with limited facial affect to signal the emotion experienced), whereby they reported feeling significantly higher rates of negative emotion during the positive clip. There were no differences in emotion expression between the groups during the negative film clip. Despite this individuals with AN reported feeling significantly higher levels of negative emotions during the negative clip. Diminished positive emotion expression was associated with more severe clinical symptoms, which could suggest that these individuals represent a group with serious social difficulties, which may require specific attention in treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diminished adrenal sensitivity to endogenous and exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone in critical illness: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Margriet F C; Molenaar, Nienke; Beishuizen, Albertus; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2015-01-06

    Adrenal dysfunction may represent critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), as evidenced by a diminished cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but this concept and its clinical significance remain highly controversial. We studied the adrenal response to exogenous ACTH as a function of the endogenous cortisol-to-ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, and of clinical variables, during critical illness and recovery from the acute phase. We prospectively included 59 consecutive septic and nonseptic patients in the intensive care unit with treatment-insensitive hypotension in whom CIRCI was suspected; patients having received etomidate and prolonged corticosteroids were excluded. An ACTH test (250 μg) was performed, followed by a second test after ≥7 days in acute-phase survivors. Serum total and free cortisol, ACTH, and clinical variables were assessed. Patients were divided according to responses (delta, Δ) of cortisol to ACTH at the first and second tests. Patients with low (endogenous ACTH predicts a low increase of cortisol to exogenous ACTH, suggesting adrenal dysfunction, irrespective of the stage of disease. The data further suggest a role of disease severity and culture-positive sepsis.

  14. No Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns for the working memory and intelligence relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroczek Bartłomiej

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns (SLODR holds that correlation between general (g/fluid (Gf intelligence factor and other cognitive abilities weakens with increasing ability level. Thus, cognitive processing in low ability people is most strongly saturated by g/Gf, whereas processing in high ability people depends less on g/Gf. Numerous studies demonstrated that low g is more strongly correlated with crystallized intelligence/creativity/processing speed than is high g, however no study tested an analogous effect in the case of working memory (WM. Our aim was to investigate SLODR for the relationship between Gf and WM capacity, using a large data set from our own previous studies. We tested alternative regression models separately for three types of WM tasks that tapped short-term memory storage, attention control, and relational integration, respectively. No significant SLODR effect was found for any of these tasks. Each task shared with Gf virtually the same amount of variance in the case of low- and high-ability people. This result suggests that Gf and WM rely on one and the same (neurocognitive mechanism.

  15. Increased conformity offers diminishing returns for reducing total knee replacement wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregly, Benjamin J; Marquez-Barrientos, Carlos; Banks, Scott A; DesJardins, John D

    2010-02-01

    Wear remains a significant problem limiting the lifespan of total knee replacements (TKRs). Though increased conformity between TKR components has the potential to decrease wear, the optimal amount and planes of conformity have not been investigated. Furthermore, differing conformities in the medial and lateral compartments may provide designers the opportunity to address both wear and kinematic design goals simultaneously. This study used a computational model of a Stanmore knee simulator machine and a previously validated wear model to investigate this issue for simulated gait. TKR geometries with different amounts and planes of conformity on the medial and lateral sides were created and tested in two phases. The first phase utilized a wide range of sagittal and coronal conformity combinations to blanket a physically realistic design space. The second phase performed a focused investigation of the conformity conditions from the first phase to which predicted wear volume was sensitive. For the first phase, sagittal but not coronal conformity was found to have a significant effect on predicted wear volume. For the second phase, increased sagittal conformity was found to decrease predicted wear volume in a nonlinear fashion, with reductions gradually diminishing as conformity increased. These results suggest that TKR geometric design efforts aimed at minimizing wear should focus on sagittal rather than coronal conformity and that at least moderate sagittal conformity is desirable in both compartments.

  16. Akt1 deficiency diminishes skeletal muscle hypertrophy by reducing satellite cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Nobuki; Miyazaki, Mitsunori

    2018-02-14

    Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the net dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Although the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway plays an important role in promoting protein synthesis and subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the precise molecular regulation of mTOR activity by the upstream protein kinase Akt is largely unknown. In addition, the activation of satellite cells has been indicated as a key regulator of muscle mass. However, the requirement of satellite cells for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is still under intense debate. In this study, female germline Akt1 knockout (KO) mice were used to examine whether Akt1 deficiency attenuates load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy through suppressing mTOR-dependent signaling and satellite cell proliferation. Akt1 KO mice showed a blunted hypertrophic response of skeletal muscle, with a diminished rate of satellite cell proliferation following mechanical overload. In contrast, Akt1 deficiency did not affect the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling and the subsequent enhanced rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. These observations suggest that the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling occurs independently of Akt1 regulation and that Akt1 plays a critical role in regulating satellite cell proliferation during load-induced muscle hypertrophy.

  17. CGG repeat length and AGG interruptions as indicators of fragile X-associated diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekovich, Jovana; Man, Limor; Xu, Kangpu; Canon, Chelsea; Lilienthal, Debra; Stewart, Joshua D; Pereira, Nigel; Rosenwaks, Zev; Gerhardt, Jeannine

    2017-12-21

    PurposeFragile X premutation (PM) carriers may experience difficulties conceiving a child probably due to fragile X-associated diminished ovarian reserve (FXDOR). We investigated which subgroups of carriers with a PM are at higher risk of FXDOR, and whether the number of AGG interruptions within the repeat sequence further ameliorates the risk.MethodsWe compared markers of ovarian reserve, including anti-Müllerian hormone, antral follicle count, and number of oocytes retrieved between different subgroups of patients with a PM.ResultsWe found that carriers with midrange repeats size (70-90 CGG) demonstrate significantly lower ovarian reserve. Additionally, the number of AGG interruptions directly correlated with parameters of ovarian reserve. Patients with longer uninterrupted CGG repeats post-AGG interruptions had the lowest ovarian reserve.ConclusionThis study connects AGG interruptions and certain CGG repeat length to reduced ovarian reserve in carriers with a PM. A possible explanation for our findings is the proposed gonadotoxicity of the FMR1 transcripts. Reduction of AGG interruptions could increase the likelihood that secondary RNA structures in the FMR1 messenger RNA are formed, which could cause cell dysfunction within the ovaries. These findings may provide women with guidance regarding their fertility potential and accordingly assist with their family planning.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 21 December 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.220.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  19. Two Days' Sleep Debt Causes Mood Decline During Resting State Via Diminished Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Yuki; Katsunuma, Ruri; Yoshimura, Michitaka; Mishima, Kazuo

    2017-10-01

    Sleep debt (SD) has been suggested to evoke emotional instability by diminishing the suppression of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Here, we investigated how short-term SD affects resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC, self-reported mood, and sleep parameters. Eighteen healthy adult men aged 29 ± 8.24 years participated in a 2-day sleep control session (SC; time in bed [TIB], 9 hours) and 2-day SD session (TIB, 3 hours). On day 2 of each session, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed, followed immediately by measuring self-reported mood on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale (STAI-S). STAI-S score was significantly increased, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC was significantly decreased in SD compared with SC. Significant correlations were observed between reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced left amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity (FCL_amg-MPFC) and between reduced FCL_amg-MPFC and increased STAI-S score in SD compared with SC. These findings suggest that reduced MPFC functional connectivity of amygdala activity is involved in mood deterioration under SD, and that REM sleep reduction is involved in functional changes in the corresponding brain regions. Having adequate REM sleep may be important for mental health maintenance. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Ageing diminishes the modulation of human brain responses to visual food cues by meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y S; Lee, S; Ashoor, G; Nathan, Y; Reed, L J; Zelaya, F O; Brammer, M J; Amiel, S A

    2014-09-01

    Rates of obesity are greatest in middle age. Obesity is associated with altered activity of brain networks sensing food-related stimuli and internal signals of energy balance, which modulate eating behaviour. The impact of healthy mid-life ageing on these processes has not been characterised. We therefore aimed to investigate changes in brain responses to food cues, and the modulatory effect of meal ingestion on such evoked neural activity, from young adulthood to middle age. Twenty-four healthy, right-handed subjects, aged 19.5-52.6 years, were studied on separate days after an overnight fast, randomly receiving 50 ml water or 554 kcal mixed meal before functional brain magnetic resonance imaging while viewing visual food cues. Across the group, meal ingestion reduced food cue-evoked activity of amygdala, putamen, insula and thalamus, and increased activity in precuneus and bilateral parietal cortex. Corrected for body mass index, ageing was associated with decreasing food cue-evoked activation of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and precuneus, and increasing activation of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), bilateral temporal lobe and posterior cingulate in the fasted state. Ageing was also positively associated with the difference in food cue-evoked activation between fed and fasted states in the right DLPFC, bilateral amygdala and striatum, and negatively associated with that of the left orbitofrontal cortex and VLPFC, superior frontal gyrus, left middle and temporal gyri, posterior cingulate and precuneus. There was an overall tendency towards decreasing modulatory effects of prior meal ingestion on food cue-evoked regional brain activity with increasing age. Healthy ageing to middle age is associated with diminishing sensitivity to meal ingestion of visual food cue-evoked activity in brain regions that represent the salience of food and direct food-associated behaviour. Reduced satiety sensing may have a role in the greater risk of

  1. Food image-induced brain activation is not diminished by insulin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort-DeAguiar, R; Seo, D; Naik, S; Hwang, J; Lacadie, C; Schmidt, C; Constable, R T; Sinha, R; Sherwin, R

    2016-11-01

    The obesity epidemic appears to be driven in large part by our modern environment inundated by food cues, which may influence our desire to eat. Although insulin decreases food intake in both animals and humans, the effect of insulin on motivation for food in the presence of food cues is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intravenous insulin infusion on the brain response to visual food cues, hunger and food craving in non-obese human subjects. Thirty-four right-handed healthy non-obese subjects (19F/15M, age: 29±8 years.; BMI: 23.1±2.1 kg m -2 ) were divided in two groups matched by age and BMI; the insulin group (18 subjects) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp, and the control group (16 subjects) received an intravenous saline infusion, while viewing high and low-calorie food and non-food pictures during a functional MRI scan. Motivation for food was determined via analog scales for hunger, wanting and liking ratings. Food images induced brain responses in the hypothalamus, striatum, amygdala, insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsolateral PFC and occipital lobe (whole brain correction, Pinsulin and saline infusion groups. Hunger ratings increased throughout the MRI scan and correlated with preference for high-calorie food pictures (r=0.70; Pbrain activity nor food cravings were affected by hyperinsulinemia or hormonal status (leptin and ghrelin levels) (P=NS). Our data demonstrate that visual food cues induce a strong response in motivation/reward and cognitive-executive control brain regions in non-obese subjects, but that these responses are not diminished by hyperinsulinemia per se. These findings suggest that our modern food cue saturated environment may be sufficient to overpower homeostatic hormonal signals, and thus contribute to the current obesity epidemic.

  2. Evaluation of diminished microbial contamination in handling of a novel daily disposable flat pack contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomachi, Miya; Sakanishi, Kotaro; Ichijima, Hideji; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a novel daily disposable (DD) flat package in regard to microbial contamination on the anterior and posterior surfaces of a contact lens (CL) during handling of the lens for insertion. Four kinds of commercially available general blister-packed daily disposable contact lenses (DD CLs) as controls and a novel Magic 1-day Menicon Flat Pack as a test lens were used for this in vitro study. Lenses were removed from their packages using fingers coated with fluorescein 3 to 5 μm beads or an approximately 7×10(2) to 2×10(3) colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL Staphylococcus aureus suspension. The transfer of fluorescein beads to the surface of the lenses was then observed by fluorescence microscopy. Microbial contamination on the lenses was observed by light microscopy after a 2-day incubation period; and, the number of colonies isolated from the contaminated lenses was determined after 4 days of incubation. The number of fluorescein beads on the Magic lens was significantly less (p<0.05) than that of the general blister-packed control lenses. Adherence of microbial colonies was observed on both inner and outer surfaces of general blister-packed lenses, whereas no colony formation was found on the inner surface of the Magic lens, and the lowest bacterial adherence was observed for the Magic lens. The data demonstrated that placement of the Magic DD lens onto the eye is accompanied by diminished microbial contamination compared with general blister-packed DD CLs. Eye care professionals; however, should instruct patients to comply with intended use of DD CLs to prevent CL-associated microbial keratitis. In all cases, hand washing is mandated prelens insertion.

  3. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kropp

    Full Text Available Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2-24 hours post-injection, Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the "infertility index" (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health

  4. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. ► AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. ► AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPARγ-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPARγ-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological situations; one is a supportive response against nutritional deprivation achieved by

  5. Associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and childhood asthma diminish with child age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrskyj, A L; Letourneau, N L; Kang, L J; Salmani, M

    2017-03-01

    Affecting 19% of women, postpartum depression is a major concern to the immediate health of mothers and infants. In the long-term, it has been linked to the development of early-onset asthma at school entry, but only if the depression persists beyond the postnatal period. No studies have tested whether associations with postpartum depressive symptoms and early-onset asthma phenotypes persist into later school age. To determine associations between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and childhood asthma between the ages of 5-10 by using a nested longitudinal design. Data were drawn from the 1994-2004 administrations of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which tracks the health of a nationally representative sample of children in Canada. Child asthma was diagnosed by a health professional, and maternal depressive symptoms were assessed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Analyses were conducted by using a multilevel modelling approach, in which longitudinal assessments of asthma in 1696 children were nested within the exposure of postpartum depression. Postpartum depressive symptoms had a 1.5-fold significant association with childhood asthma between the ages 6-8. This was independent of male sex, maternal asthma, non-immigrant status, low household socioeconomic status, being firstborn, low birthweight, low family functioning and urban-rural residence, of which the first 4 covariates elevated the risk of asthma. Statistical significance was lost at age 8 when maternal prenatal smoking replaced urban-rural residence as a covariate. At ages 9-10, an association was no longer evident. Women affected by postpartum depressive symptoms are concerned about long-term health effects of their illness on their infants. Although postpartum depressive symptoms were associated with school-age asthma at ages 6 and 7, this association diminished later. Both home and school life stress should be considered in future studies

  6. Achievement of the charge exchange work diminishing of an internal combustion engine in part load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines, used for driving of different cars, occurs not only at full load, but mostly at the part load. The relative load exchange work at the full (nominal engine load is significantly low. At the part load of the IC engine its energy efficiency ηe is significantly lower than in the optimal (nominal field range of the performance parameters. One of the numerous reasons of this effect is regular growing of the relative load exchange work of the IC engine. It is directly connected with the quantitative regulation method commonly used in the IC engines. From the thermodynamic point of view - the main reason of this effect is the throttling process (causing exergy losses occurring in the inlet and outlet channels. The known proposals for solving of this problem are based on applying of the fully electronic control of the motion of inlet, outlet valves and new reference cycles.The idea presented in the paper leads to diminishing the charge exchange work of the IC engines. The problem can be solved using presented in the paper a new concept of the reference cycle (called as eco-cycle of IC engine. The work of the engine basing on the eco-cycle occurs in two 3-stroke stages; the fresh air is delivered only once for both stages, but in range of each stage a new portion of fuel is burned. Normally the charge exchange occurs once during each engine cycle realized. Elaborated proposition bases on the elimination of chosen charge exchange processes and through this the dropping of the charge exchange work can be achieved.

  7. The diminished expression of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in gastric ulcers of cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Peng, Yen-Ling; Hou, Ming-Chih; Huang, Kuang-Wei; Huang, Hui-Chun; Wang, Ying-Wen; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the higher occurrence of peptic ulcer disease in cirrhotic patients is complex. Platelets can stimulate angiogenesis and promote gastric ulcer healing. We compared the expressions of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in the gastric ulcer margin between cirrhotic patients with thrombocytopenia and those of non-cirrhotic patients to elucidate possible mechanisms. Eligible cirrhotic patients (n = 55) and non-cirrhotic patients (n = 55) who had gastric ulcers were enrolled. Mucosa from the gastric ulcer margin and non-ulcer areas were sampled and the mRNA expressions of the proangiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], platelet derived growth factor [PDGF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF]) and their receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1, FGFR2) were measured and compared. Platelet count and the expressions of these growth factors and their receptors were correlated with each other. The two groups were comparable in terms of gender, ulcer size and infection rate of Helicobacter pylori. However, the cirrhotic group were younger in age, had a lower platelet count than those in the non-cirrhotic group (pexpressions of PDGFB, VEGFR2, FGFR1, and FGFR2 in gastric ulcer margin when compared with those of the non-cirrhotic patients (pexpressions of PDGFB and VEGFR2, FGFR1, and FGFR2 were well correlated with the degree of thrombocytopenia in these cirrhotic patients (ρ>0.5, pimplied that diminished activity of proangiogenic factors and their receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers in cirrhotic patients.

  8. Diminished metal accumulation in riverine fishes exposed to acid mine drainage over five decades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Jeffree

    Full Text Available Bony bream (Nematalosa erebi and black catfish (Neosilurus ater were sampled from the fresh surface waters of the Finniss River in tropical northern Australia, along a metal pollution gradient draining the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine, a contaminant source for over five decades. Paradoxically, populations of both fish species exposed to the highest concentrations of mine-related metals (cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, uranium and zinc in surface water and sediment had the lowest tissue (bone, liver and muscle concentrations of these metals. The degree of reduction in tissue concentrations of exposed populations was also specific to each metal and inversely related to its degree of environmental increase above background. Several explanations for diminished metal bioaccumulation in fishes from the contaminated region were evaluated. Geochemical speciation modeling of metal bioavailability in surface water showed no differences between the contaminated region and the control sites. Also, the macro-nutrient (calcium, magnesium and sodium water concentrations, that may competitively inhibit metal uptake, were not elevated with trace metal contamination. Reduced exposure to contaminants due to avoidance behavior was unlikely due to the absence of refugial water bodies with the requisite metal concentrations lower than the control sites and very reduced connectivity at time of sampling. The most plausible interpretation of these results is that populations of both fish species have modified kinetics within their metal bioaccumulation physiology, via adaptation or tolerance responses, to reduce their body burdens of metals. This hypothesis is consistent with (i reduced tissue concentrations of calcium, magnesium and sodium (macro-nutrients, in exposed populations of both species, (ii experimental findings for other fish species from the Finniss River and other contaminated regions, and (iii the number of generations exposed to likely

  9. Diminished Neural Processing of Aversive and Rewarding Stimuli During Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ciara; Mishor, Zevic; Cowen, Philip J.; Harmer, Catherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are popular medications for anxiety and depression, but their effectiveness, particularly in patients with prominent symptoms of loss of motivation and pleasure, has been questioned. There are few studies of the effect of SSRIs on neural reward mechanisms in humans. Methods We studied 45 healthy participants who were randomly allocated to receive the SSRI citalopram, the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, or placebo for 7 days in a double-blind, parallel group design. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the neural response to rewarding (sight and/or flavor of chocolate) and aversive stimuli (sight of moldy strawberries and/or an unpleasant strawberry taste) on the final day of drug treatment. Results Citalopram reduced activation to the chocolate stimuli in the ventral striatum and the ventral medial/orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, reboxetine did not suppress ventral striatal activity and in fact increased neural responses within medial orbitofrontal cortex to reward. Citalopram also decreased neural responses to the aversive stimuli conditions in key “punishment” areas such as the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Reboxetine produced a similar, although weaker effect. Conclusions Our findings are the first to show that treatment with SSRIs can diminish the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli. The ability of SSRIs to decrease neural responses to reward might underlie the questioned efficacy of SSRIs in depressive conditions characterized by decreased motivation and anhedonia and could also account for the experience of emotional blunting described by some patients during SSRI treatment. PMID:20034615

  10. Exteroceptive and Interoceptive Body-Self Awareness in Fibromyalgia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Moguillansky, Camila; Reyes-Reyes, Alejandro; Gaete, María I.

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a widespread chronic pain disease characterized by generalized musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. It substantially affects patients' relationship with their bodies and quality of life, but few studies have investigated the relationship between pain and body awareness in fibromyalgia. We examined exteroceptive and interoceptive aspects of body awareness in 30 women with fibromyalgia and 29 control participants. Exteroceptive body awareness was assessed by a body-scaled action-anticipation task in which participants estimated whether they could pass through apertures of different widths. Interoceptive sensitivity (IS) was assessed by a heartbeat detection task where participants counted their heartbeats during different time intervals. Interoceptive awareness was assessed by the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA). The “passability ratio” (the aperture size for a 50% positive response rate, divided by shoulder width), assessed by the body-scaled action-anticipation task, was higher for fibromyalgia participants, indicating disrupted exteroceptive awareness. Overestimating body size correlated positively with pain and its impact on functionality, but not with pain intensity. There was no difference in IS between groups. Fibromyalgia patients exhibited a higher tendency to note bodily sensations and decreased body confidence. In addition, the passability ratio and IS score correlated negatively across the whole sample, suggesting an inverse relationship between exteroceptive and interoceptive body awareness. There was a lower tendency to actively listen to the body for insight, with higher passability ratios across the whole sample. Based on our results and building on the fear-avoidance model, we outline a proposal that highlights possible interactions between exteroceptive and interoceptive body awareness and pain. Movement based contemplative practices that target sensory-motor integration and foster non-judgmental reconnection with bodily sensations are suggested to improve body confidence, functionality, and quality of life. PMID:28348526

  11. Organizational Self-Awareness in the Key to Knowledge Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Gabriel, and Robert J Jensen. 2008. “Growing Through Copying: The Negative Consequences of Innovation on Franchise Network Growth.” Research Policy...be successful. If one takes Szulanski’s (2002, 2008) franchise model approach of exact duplication of successful working templates, the appropriate...does not necessarily mean success for these stakeholders at the individual level, making their buy -in critical to their support of the initiative

  12. Teaching Emotional Self-Awareness through Inquiry-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how graduate students' understanding about their own emotions and regulatory patterns influenced their ability to co-regulate young children's emotions. The study also explored the effectiveness of creating a learning context in which the students could learn the value of self-reflection and thoughtful inquiry…

  13. Grounding Robot Autonomy in Emotion and Self-awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ricardo; Hernández, Carlos; Hernando, Adolfo; Gómez, Jaime; Bermejo, Julita

    Much is being done in an attempt to transfer emotional mechanisms from reverse-engineered biology into social robots. There are two basic approaches: the imitative display of emotion —e.g. to intend more human-like robots— and the provision of architectures with intrinsic emotion —in the hope of enhancing behavioral aspects. This paper focuses on the second approach, describing a core vision regarding the integration of cognitive, emotional and autonomic aspects in social robot systems. This vision has evolved as a result of the efforts in consolidating the models extracted from rat emotion research and their implementation in technical use cases based on a general systemic analysis in the framework of the ICEA and C3 projects. The desire for generality of the approach intends obtaining universal theories of integrated —autonomic, emotional, cognitive— behavior. The proposed conceptualizations and architectural principles are then captured in a theoretical framework: ASys — The Autonomous Systems Framework.

  14. Constructing Self Awareness Using Education Human Value In School Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wija Astawa Dewa Nyoman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The big number of poverty in Indonesia impact to the hope of having a free learning service, especially education for early age and elementary school students from the less fortunate families. Many people usually ask the quality of such kinds of free of charge schools. The low price makes a low standard for the students. Sathya Sai School in Denpasar has proven that the free learning service does not mean the standard quality of the school is low. This study will explain how the teachers and the members of the foundation build the awareness of the students and parents by socializing and internalizing the value that empower their collective awareness to help the school achievement. By using local cultural approach, the school builds a program that involves the parents especially the woman.

  15. Beyond Words: Leader Self-Awareness and Interpersonal Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery III, William H

    2007-01-01

    ...". Success in the future Army environment will be measured by the leader's ability to build relationships with various governmental interagency, military multinational and non-governmental organizations...

  16. Supervisory training: From self awareness to leadership skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.

    1991-01-01

    This presentation will trace the development of the New York Power Authority's three-phase first line supervisory training curriculum. In twenty-two days of classroom training, this program follows our new supervisors though their first two years on the job. The objectives of this presentation are to: share the ups and downs experienced during the three years it took to design and fully implement the program; describe the rationale for, and content of, each of the program's three phases; and describe the corporate impact of the training, including the unexpected demand by higher level staff for similar comprehensive management development programs. Topics covered will include management support, needs assessment, program design and evolution, and training impact

  17. Self-Aware Aerospace Vehicle Contingency Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences, with Agent Oriented Software, proposes to develop a contingency management system that dynamically performs decision-making based on both...

  18. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa [Genomic Science Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugadenaka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0022 (Japan); Arai, Satoko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Miyazaki, Toru, E-mail: tm@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  19. Furosemide diminishes {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine uptake in prostate cancer in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischke, H.C. [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Beck, Teresa; Wieser, Gesche; Meyer, Philipp T. [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Vach, Werner [University of Freiburg, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Grosu, Anca L. [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Jilg, Cordula A. [University of Freiburg, Department of Urology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    choline uptake in tumour lesions, especially significant in pelvic lymph node metastases. Although furosemide administration improved image quality, optimal image quality may also be obtained by adequate hydration without the risk of diminishing choline uptake in PCa lesions. Therefore a controlled hydration protocol seems more appropriate than administration of furosemide. (orig.)

  20. Furosemide diminishes 18F-fluoroethylcholine uptake in prostate cancer in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rischke, H.C.; Beck, Teresa; Wieser, Gesche; Meyer, Philipp T.; Vach, Werner; Grosu, Anca L.; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Jilg, Cordula A.

    2014-01-01

    tumour lesions, especially significant in pelvic lymph node metastases. Although furosemide administration improved image quality, optimal image quality may also be obtained by adequate hydration without the risk of diminishing choline uptake in PCa lesions. Therefore a controlled hydration protocol seems more appropriate than administration of furosemide. (orig.)

  1. Chronic fatigue syndrome: illness severity, sedentary lifestyle, blood volume and evidence of diminished cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Barry E; Coryell, Virginia T; Parker, Meela; Martin, Pedro; Laperriere, Arthur; Klimas, Nancy G; Sfakianakis, George N; Bilsker, Martin S

    2009-10-19

    The study examined whether deficits in cardiac output and blood volume in a CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome) cohort were present and linked to illness severity and sedentary lifestyle. Follow-up analyses assessed whether differences in cardiac output levels between CFS and control groups were corrected by controlling for cardiac contractility and TBV (total blood volume). The 146 participants were subdivided into two CFS groups based on symptom severity data, severe (n=30) and non-severe (n=26), and two healthy non-CFS control groups based on physical activity, sedentary (n=58) and non-sedentary (n=32). Controls were matched to CFS participants using age, gender, ethnicity and body mass. Echocardiographic measures indicated that the severe CFS participants had 10.2% lower cardiac volume (i.e. stroke index and end-diastolic volume) and 25.1% lower contractility (velocity of circumferential shortening corrected by heart rate) than the control groups. Dual tag blood volume assessments indicated that the CFS groups had lower TBV, PV (plasma volume) and RBCV (red blood cell volume) than control groups. Of the CFS subjects with a TBV deficit (i.e. > or = 8% below ideal levels), the mean+/-S.D. percentage deficit in TBV, PV and RBCV were -15.4+/-4.0, -13.2+/-5.0 and -19.1+/-6.3% respectively. Lower cardiac volume levels in CFS were substantially corrected by controlling for prevailing TBV deficits, but were not affected by controlling for cardiac contractility levels. Analyses indicated that the TBV deficit explained 91-94% of the group differences in cardiac volume indices. Group differences in cardiac structure were offsetting and, hence, no differences emerged for left ventricular mass index. Therefore the findings indicate that lower cardiac volume levels, displayed primarily by subjects with severe CFS, were not linked to diminished cardiac contractility levels, but were probably a consequence of a co-morbid hypovolaemic condition. Further study is needed to address

  2. Reconciling the Mitscherlich's law of diminishing returns with Liebig's law of the minimum. Some results on crop modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Iuri E P; Zocchi, Silvio S; Baron, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Reliable fertilizer recommendations depend on the correctness of the crop production models fitted to the data, but generally the crop models are built empirically, neglecting important physiological aspects related with response to fertilizers, or they are based in laws of plant mineral nutrition seen by many authors as conflicting theories: the Liebig's Law of the Minimum and Mitscherlich's Law of Diminishing Returns. We developed a new approach to modelling the crop response to fertilizers that reconcile these laws. In this study, the Liebig's Law is applied at the cellular level to explain plant production and, as a result, crop models compatible with the Law of Diminishing Returns are derived. Some classical crop models appear here as special cases of our methodology, and a new interpretation for Mitscherlich's Law is also provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gesturing more diminishes recall of abstract words when gesture is allowed and concrete words when it is taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Saugstad, Krista M; Raymakers, Erik P; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G

    2017-07-01

    Gesture during speech can promote or diminish recall for conversation content. We explored effects of cognitive load on this relationship, manipulating it at two scales: individual-word abstractness and social constraints to prohibit gestures. Prohibited gestures can diminish recall but more so for abstract-word recall. Insofar as movement planning adds to cognitive load, movement amplitude may moderate gesture effects on memory, with greater permitted- and prohibited-gesture movements reducing abstract-word recall and concrete-word recall, respectively. We tested these effects in a dyadic game in which 39 adult participants described words to confederates without naming the word or five related words. Results supported our expectations and indicated that memory effects of gesturing depend on social, cognitive, and motoric aspects of discourse.

  4. Diminished insulin-mediated forearm blood flow and muscle glucose uptake in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M P; Højbjerre, L; Alibegovic, A C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in young men with LBW (n = 22) and controls (n = 22). METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and endothelial function was studied...... with venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of adenosine and acetylcholine, before and during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. RESULTS: Forearm blood flow response to systemic hyperinsulinemia was diminished in LBW compared to controls (p ... extraction was similar, and consequently insulin-stimulated forearm glucose clearance was diminished in LBW compared with controls (0.8 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.36 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), respectively, p

  5. Mitigating Diminishing Manufacturing Sources Material Shortages (DMS/MS) and Obsolescence for the T-6 Canopy Fracturing Initiation System (CFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the extra effort to nurse dwindling industries to sustain them becomes a case of diminishing returns. The added cost would be better spent...safety stock is not a prudent or tolerable in the current environment stressing increased efficiencies in defense procurement. Nor should this...NAVAIR, Interview by Author. Interview with NAVAIR JPATS Egress Engineer (2010). Olleros, Francisco-Javier. "Emerging industries and the burnout of

  6. Diminished alternative reinforcement as a mechanism linking conduct problems and substance use in adolescence: a longitudinal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddam, Rubin; Cho, Junhan; Jackson, Nicholas J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2018-06-01

    To determine whether diminished alternative reinforcement (i.e. engagement and enjoyment from substance-free activities) mediated the longitudinal association of conduct problems with substance use in early-mid-adolescence. Structural equation modeling tested whether the association between wave 1 (baseline) conduct problems and wave 3 (24-month follow-up) substance use outcomes was mediated by diminished alternative reinforcement at wave 2 (12-month follow-up). Additional analyses tested whether sex and socio-economic status moderated this association. Ten high schools in Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2013-15. Students (n = 3396, 53.5% female, mean [standard deviation (SD)] age at wave 1 baseline = 14.1 (0.42) years). Self-reported conduct problems (11-item questionnaire), alternative reinforcement (44-item questionnaire) and use of alcohol, marijuana and combustible cigarettes during the past 6 months (yes/no) and the past 30 days (nine-level ordinal response based on days used in past 30 days). Significant associations of wave 1 conduct problems with wave 3 marijuana use during the past 6 months (β = 0.25) and past 30 days (β = 0.26) were mediated by wave 2 diminished alternative reinforcement (β indirect effect : 6 months = 0.013, 30 days = 0.017, Ps alternative reinforcement. All associations did not differ by sex and socio-economic status. Diminished alternative reinforcement may be a modifiable mechanism linking early adolescent conduct problems and subsequent marijuana use that could be targeted in prevention programs to offset the adverse health and social sequelae associated with comorbid conduct problems and marijuana use in early-mid adolescence. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. The immune receptor Trem1 cooperates with diminished DNA damage response to induce preleukemic stem cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Amarachintha, S; Wilson, A; Pang, Q

    2017-02-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome with extremely high risk of leukemic transformation. Here we investigate the relationship between DNA damage response (DDR) and leukemogenesis using the Fanca knockout mouse model. We found that chronic exposure of the Fanca -/- hematopoietic stem cells to DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C in vivo leads to diminished DDR, and the emergence/expansion of pre-leukemia stem cells (pre-LSCs). Surprisingly, although genetic correction of Fanca deficiency in the pre-LSCs restores DDR and reduces genomic instability, but fails to prevent pre-LSC expansion or delay leukemia development in irradiated recipients. Furthermore, we identified transcription program underlying dysregulated DDR and cell migration, myeloid proliferation, and immune response in the Fanca -/- pre-LSCs. Forced expression of the downregulated DNA repair genes, Rad51c or Trp53i13, in the Fanca -/- pre-LSCs partially rescues DDR but has no effect on leukemia, whereas shRNA knockdown of the upregulated immune receptor genes Trem1 or Pilrb improves leukemia-related survival, but not DDR or genomic instability. Furthermore, Trem1 cooperates with diminished DDR in vivo to promote Fanca -/- pre-LSC expansion and leukemia development. Our study implicates diminishing DDR as a root cause of FA leukemogenesis, which subsequently collaborates with other signaling pathways for leukemogenic transformation.

  8. Overexpression of CRF in the BNST diminishes dysphoria but not anxiety-like behavior in nicotine withdrawing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia; Yang, Zhihui; Febo, Marcelo; Shan, Zhiying; Wang, Kevin K W; Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W

    2016-09-01

    Smoking cessation leads to dysphoria and anxiety, which both increase the risk for relapse. This negative affective state is partly mediated by an increase in activity in brain stress systems. Recent studies indicate that prolonged viral vector-mediated overexpression of stress peptides diminishes stress sensitivity. Here we investigated whether the overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) diminishes nicotine withdrawal symptoms in rats. The effect of nicotine withdrawal on brain reward function was investigated with an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. Anxiety-like behavior was investigated in the elevated plus maze test and a large open field. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) pseudotype 2/5 vector was used to overexpress CRF in the lateral BNST and nicotine dependence was induced using minipumps. Administration of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine and cessation of nicotine administration led to a dysphoria-like state, which was prevented by the overexpression of CRF in the BNST. Nicotine withdrawal also increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test and large open field test and slightly decreased locomotor activity in the open field. The overexpression of CRF in the BNST did not prevent the increase in anxiety-like behavior or decrease in locomotor activity. The overexpression of CRF increased CRF1 and CRF2 receptor gene expression and increased the CRF2/CRF1 receptor ratio. In conclusion, the overexpression of CRF in the BNST prevents the dysphoria-like state associated with nicotine withdrawal and increases the CRF2/CRF1 receptor ratio, which may diminish the negative effects of CRF on mood. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Spearman's "law of diminishing returns" and the role of test reliability investigated in a large sample of Danish military draftees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, Thomas William; Hartmann, P.

    2005-01-01

    The present article investigates Spearman's "Law of Diminishing Returns" (SLODR), which hypothesizes that the g saturation for cognitive tests is lower for high ability subjects than for low ability subjects. This hypothesis was tested in a large sample of Danish military draftees (N = 6757) who...... were representative of the young adult male population, aged 18-19, and tested with a group-administered intelligence test comprised of four subtests. The aim of the study was twofold. The first was to reproduce previous SLODR findings by the present authors. This was done by replicating...... in reliability could account for the difference in g saturation across ability groups. The results showed that the reliability was larger for the High ability group, thereby not explaining the present findings....

  10. Fragile X-Associated Diminished Ovarian Reserve and Primary Ovarian Insufficiency from Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Man

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS, is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome, which leads to the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in males and the leading single-gene defect associated with autism. A full mutation (FM is represented by more than 200 CGG repeats within the FMR1 gene, resulting in FXS. A FM is inherited from women carrying a FM or a premutation (PM; 55–200 CGG repeats allele. PM is associated with phenotypes distinct from those associated with FM. Some manifestations of the PM are unique; fragile-X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, and fragile-X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, while others tend to be non-specific such as intellectual disability. In addition, women carrying a PM may suffer from subfertility or infertility. There is a need to elucidate whether the impairment of ovarian function found in PM carriers arises during the primordial germ cell (PGC development stage, or due to a rapidly diminishing oocyte pool throughout life or even both. Due to the possibility of expansion into a FM in the next generation, and other ramifications, carrying a PM can have an enormous impact on one’s life; therefore, preconception counseling for couples carrying the PM is of paramount importance. In this review, we will elaborate on the clinical manifestations in female PM carriers and propose the definition of fragile-X-associated diminished ovarian reserve (FXDOR, then we will review recent scientific findings regarding possible mechanisms leading to FXDOR and FXPOI. Lastly, we will discuss counseling, preventative measures and interventions available for women carrying a PM regarding different aspects of their reproductive life, fertility treatment, pregnancy, prenatal testing, contraception and fertility preservation options.

  11. Luteal-phase ovarian stimulation increases the number of mature oocytes in older women with severe diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtian, Justin; Zhang, John

    2018-03-22

    In older women with severe diminished ovarian response (DOR), in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is much less successful due to the low number of mature oocytes collected. The objective of this study was to assess whether follicular-phase stimulation (FPS) and luteal-phase stimulation (LPS) in the same menstrual cycle (double ovarian stimulation) in older women with severe DOR will produce a higher number of oocytes compared to FPS alone. Women with DOR (n = 69; mean age = 42.4) who underwent double ovarian stimulation for IVF were included. Women underwent ovarian stimulation in FPS using clomiphene citrate, letrozole, and gonadotropins followed by oocyte retrieval. The next day following oocyte retrieval, women underwent a second ovarian stimulation (LPS) using the same medications followed by a second oocyte retrieval. T-test was performed in order to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome in the same participant between FPS and LPS. Although antral follicle count at the start of FPS tended to be higher than at the start of the LPS cycle, there was no statistically significant difference between the duration of ovarian stimulation, peak estradiol levels, number of small (FPS alone. The addition of LPS to the conventional FPS increases the number of mature oocytes retrieved in the same IVF cycle, thus potentially increasing the chances of pregnancy in older women with severe DOR. AFC: antral follicle count; BMI: body mass index; DOR: diminished ovarian reserve; E2: estradiol; FPS: follicular-phase stimulation; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone; HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; IRB: institutional review board; IVF: in vitro fertilization; LH: luteinizing hormone; LPS: luteal-phase stimulation; MII: metaphase II.

  12. Diminished physical function in older HIV-infected adults in the Southeastern U.S. despite successful antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey L Khoury

    Full Text Available As antiretroviral therapy efficacy improves, HIV is gradually being recognized more as a chronic disease within the aging HIV-infected population. While these individuals are surviving into old age, they may, however, be experiencing "accelerated aging" with greater declines in physical function than that observed among comparably matched individuals free of HIV. This decline is not well understood and it remains unclear if physical decline correlates with the degree of immunosuppression based on CD4 lymphocyte nadir.In a cross-sectional study of accelerated aging in the older HIV-infected population on antiretroviral therapy (ART, physical performance evaluations were completed on a cohort of 107 HIV-infected subjects, age 50 years or older (with no HIV-1 RNA >200 copies/mL in the prior 12 months, and compared to reference ranges for age- and gender-matched HIV-uninfected persons. Physical performance testing consisted of four validated assessments: the 2.4-meter walk, 30-second chair stand, grip strength and 6-minute walk test.When compared to age- and gender-matched HIV-uninfected reference controls, older HIV-infected persons had diminished physical function. No correlation was found between physical function and degree of immunosuppression as determined by pre-ART CD4 nadir.Despite improved survival, HIV-infected adults on suppressive ART have diminished physical function compared to HIV-uninfected persons. The degree of HIV-associated immunosuppression does not correlate with the observed degree of physical function decline in older HIV-infected persons, suggesting the decline is mediated by other mechanisms.

  13. Fragile X-Associated Diminished Ovarian Reserve and Primary Ovarian Insufficiency from Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Limor; Lekovich, Jovana; Rosenwaks, Zev; Gerhardt, Jeannine

    2017-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome, which leads to the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in males and the leading single-gene defect associated with autism. A full mutation (FM) is represented by more than 200 CGG repeats within the FMR1 gene, resulting in FXS. A FM is inherited from women carrying a FM or a premutation (PM; 55-200 CGG repeats) allele. PM is associated with phenotypes distinct from those associated with FM. Some manifestations of the PM are unique; fragile-X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile-X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI), while others tend to be non-specific such as intellectual disability. In addition, women carrying a PM may suffer from subfertility or infertility. There is a need to elucidate whether the impairment of ovarian function found in PM carriers arises during the primordial germ cell (PGC) development stage, or due to a rapidly diminishing oocyte pool throughout life or even both. Due to the possibility of expansion into a FM in the next generation, and other ramifications, carrying a PM can have an enormous impact on one's life; therefore, preconception counseling for couples carrying the PM is of paramount importance. In this review, we will elaborate on the clinical manifestations in female PM carriers and propose the definition of fragile-X-associated diminished ovarian reserve (FXDOR), then we will review recent scientific findings regarding possible mechanisms leading to FXDOR and FXPOI. Lastly, we will discuss counseling, preventative measures and interventions available for women carrying a PM regarding different aspects of their reproductive life, fertility treatment, pregnancy, prenatal testing, contraception and fertility preservation options.

  14. How We Diminish Ourselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham H.

    1991-01-01

    Presents previously unpublished paper written by Abraham Maslow, written in November 1966, in which Maslow confronts the issue why so few people are truly self-actualizing. Discusses the Jonah Complex, the willful evasion of personal capacity for growth and accomplishment in life. (Author/ABL)

  15. High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott M; Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Aron, Adam R

    2016-05-18

    Motor affordances occur when the visual properties of an object elicit behaviorally relevant motor representations. Typically, motor affordances only produce subtle effects on response time or on motor activity indexed by neuroimaging/neuroelectrophysiology, but sometimes they can trigger action itself. This is apparent in "utilization behavior," where individuals with frontal cortex damage inappropriately grasp affording objects. This raises the possibility that, in healthy-functioning individuals, frontal cortex helps ensure that irrelevant affordance provocations remain below the threshold for actual movement. In Experiment 1, we tested this "frontal control" hypothesis by "loading" the frontal cortex with an effortful working memory (WM) task (which ostensibly consumes frontal resources) and examined whether this increased EEG measures of motor affordances to irrelevant affording objects. Under low WM load, there were typical motor affordance signatures: an event-related desynchronization in the mu frequency and an increased P300 amplitude for affording (vs nonaffording) objects over centroparietal electrodes. Contrary to our prediction, however, these affordance measures were diminished under high WM load. In Experiment 2, we tested competing mechanisms responsible for the diminished affordance in Experiment 1. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex to measure long-interval cortical inhibition. We found greater long-interval cortical inhibition for high versus low load both before and after the affording object, suggesting that a tonic inhibition state in primary motor cortex could prevent the affordance from provoking the motor system. Overall, our results suggest that a high WM load "sets" the motor system into a suppressed state that mitigates motor affordances. Is an irrelevant motor affordance more likely to be triggered when you are under low or high cognitive load? We examined this using physiological measures

  16. Physiological Levels of Nitric Oxide Diminish Mitochondrial Superoxide. Potential Role of Mitochondrial Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes and Nitrosothiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Dikalov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide radicals and superoxide overproduction contributes to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction and diminished nitric oxide levels are early steps in the development of these pathological conditions. It is known that physiological production of nitric oxide reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of “antioxidant” effect of nitric oxide is not clear. In this work we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of nitric oxide diminish mitochondrial superoxide production without inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. In order to test this hypothesis we analyzed effect of low physiological fluxes of nitric oxide (20 nM/min on superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production by ESR spin probes and Amplex Red in isolated rat brain mitochondria. Indeed, low levels of nitric oxide substantially attenuated both basal and antimycin A-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species in the presence of succinate or glutamate/malate as mitochondrial substrates. Furthermore, slow releasing NO donor DPTA-NONOate (100 μM did not change oxygen consumption in State 4 and State 3. However, the NO-donor strongly inhibited oxygen consumption in the presence of uncoupling agent CCCP, which is likely associated with inhibition of the over-reduced complex IV in uncoupled mitochondria. We have examined accumulation of dinitrosyl iron complexes and nitrosothiols in mitochondria treated with fast-releasing NO donor MAHMA NONOate (10 μM for 30 min until complete release of NO. Following treatment with NO donor, mitochondria were frozen for direct detection of dinitrosyl iron complexes using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR while accumulation of nitrosothiols was measured by ferrous-N-Methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate complex, Fe(MGD2, in lysed mitochondria. Treatment of mitochondria with NO-donor gave rise to ESR signal of dinitrosyl iron complexes while ESR

  17. Ginger extract diminishes chronic fructose consumption-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Liu, Changjin; Jiang, Jian; Zuo, Guowei; Lin, Xuemei; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2014-05-27

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Renal inflammation is well known to play an important role in the initiation and progression of tubulointerstitial injury of the kidneys. Ginger, one of the most commonly used spices and medicinal plants, has been demonstrated to improve diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. However, the efficacy of ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated kidney injury remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of ginger on fructose consumption-induced adverse effects in the kidneys. The fructose control rats were treated with 10% fructose in drinking water over 5 weeks. The fructose consumption in ginger-treated rats was adjusted to match that of fructose control group. The ethanolic extract of ginger was co-administered (once daily by oral gavage). The indexes of lipid and glucose homeostasis were determined enzymatically, by ELISA and/or histologically. Gene expression was analyzed by Real-Time PCR. In addition to improve hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, supplement with ginger extract (50 mg/kg) attenuated liquid fructose-induced kidney injury as characterized by focal cast formation, slough and dilation of tubular epithelial cells in the cortex of the kidneys in rats. Furthermore, ginger also diminished excessive renal interstitial collagen deposit. By Real-Time PCR, renal gene expression profiles revealed that ginger suppressed fructose-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2. In accord, overexpression of two important macrophage accumulation markers CD68 and F4/80 was downregulated. Moreover, overexpressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-beta1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were downregulated. Ginger treatment also restored the downregulated ratio of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to PAI-1. The present results

  18. Diminished Dentate Gyrus Filtering of Cortical Input Leads to Enhanced Area Ca3 Excitability after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folweiler, Kaitlin A; Samuel, Sandy; Metheny, Hannah E; Cohen, Akiva S

    2018-04-06

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area Cornu Ammonis (CA3). Although injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3. In this study, we assessed hippocampal function, specifically the interaction between the dentate gyrus and CA3, using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques in ex vivo brain slices 1 week following mild lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI). Behaviorally, LFPI mice were found to be impaired in an object-place recognition task, indicating that spatial information processing in the hippocampus is disrupted. Extracellular recordings and voltage-sensitive dye imaging demonstrated that perforant path activation leads to the aberrant spread of excitation from the dentate gyrus into area CA3 along the mossy fiber pathway. These results suggest that after mTBI, the dentate gyrus has a diminished capacity to regulate cortical input into the hippocampus, leading to increased CA3 network excitability. The loss of the dentate filtering efficacy reveals a potential mechanism by which hippocampal-dependent spatial information processing is disrupted, and may contribute to memory dysfunction after mTBI.

  19. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks’ Diminished Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although higher socioeconomic status (SES indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. Aims: To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. Methods: This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2017 (n = 3217. HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites (n = 1868; 82% or Blacks (n = 409; 18%. The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Results: In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. Conclusions: In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  20. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks' Diminished Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Mistry, Ritesh

    2018-04-16

    Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217). HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites ( n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks ( n = 409; 18%). The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day) smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender) were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  1. Diminished but Not Abolished Effect of Two His351 Mutants of Anthrax Edema Factor in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Taoran; Zhao, Xinghui; Liu, Ju; Meng, Yingying; Feng, Yingying; Fang, Ting; Zhang, Jinlong; Yang, Xiuxu; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Edema toxin (ET), which is composed of a potent adenylate cyclase (AC), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA), is one of the major toxicity factors of Bacillus anthracis. In this study, we introduced mutations in full-length EF to generate alanine EF(H351A) and arginine EF(H351R) variants. In vitro activity analysis displayed that the adenylyl cyclase activity of both the mutants was significantly diminished compared with the wild-type EF. When the native and mutant toxins were administered subcutaneously in a mouse footpad edema model, severe acute swelling was evoked by wild-type ET, while the symptoms induced by mutant toxins were very minor. Systemic administration of these EF variants caused non-lethal hepatotoxicity. In addition, EF(H351R) exhibited slightly higher activity in causing more severe edema than EF(H351A). Our findings demonstrate that the toxicity of ET is not abolished by substitution of EF residue His351 by alanine or arginine. These results also indicate the potential of the mouse footpad edema model as a sensitive method for evaluating both ET toxicity and the efficacy of candidate therapeutic agents. PMID:26848687

  2. Will sacubitril-valsartan diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in acute cardiac care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Johannes; Lindahl, Bertil; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Huber, Kurt; Thygesen, Kristian; Plebani, Mario; Möckel, Martin; Müller, Christian; Jaffe, Allan S

    2017-06-01

    Since the approval of sacubitril-valsartan for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, a commonly raised suspicion is that a wider clinical use of this new drug may diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing as sacubitril may interfere with B-type natriuretic peptide clearance. In this education paper we critically assess this hypothesis based on the pathophysiology of the natriuretic peptide system and the limited published data on the effects of neprilysin inhibition on natriuretic peptide plasma concentrations in humans. As the main clinical application of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in acute cardiac care is and will be the rapid rule-out of suspected acute heart failure there is no significant impairment to be expected for B-type natriuretic peptide testing in the acute setting. However, monitoring of chronic heart failure patients on sacubitril-valsartan treatment with B-type natriuretic peptide testing may be impaired. In contrast to N-terminal-proBNP, the current concept that the lower the B-type natriuretic peptide result in chronic heart failure patients, the better the prognosis during treatment monitoring, may no longer be true.

  3. Diminished social reward anticipation in the broad autism phenotype as revealed by event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anthony; Kohls, Gregor; Naples, Adam J; Mukerji, Cora E; Coffman, Marika C; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; McPartland, James C

    2015-10-01

    Diminished responsivity to reward incentives is a key contributor to the social-communication problems seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Social motivation theories suggest that individuals with ASD do not experience social interactions as rewarding, leading to negative consequences for the development of brain circuitry subserving social information. In this study, we examined neural responses to social and non-social reward anticipation in 35 typically developing young adults, examining modulation of reward sensitivity by level of autistic traits. Using an Event-related potential incentive-delay task incorporating novel, more ecologically valid forms of reward, higher expression of autistic traits was associated with an attenuated P3 response to the anticipation of social (simulated real-time video feedback from an observer), but not non-social (candy), rewards. Exploratory analyses revealed that this was unrelated to mentalizing ability. The P3 component reflects motivated attention to reward signals, suggesting attenuated motivation allocation specific to social incentives. The study extends prior findings of atypical reward anticipation in ASD, demonstrating that attenuated social reward responsiveness extends to autistic traits in the range of typical functioning. Results support the development of innovative paradigms for investigating social and non-social reward responsiveness. Insight into vulnerabilities in reward processing is critical for understanding social function in ASD. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Amniotic Membrane and Umbilical Cord Can Diminish Immunological Response in an in vitro Allograft Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Filip A; Burdzinska, Anna; Kulesza, Agnieszka; Chlebus, Marcin; Kaleta, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Zolocinska, Aleksandra; Paczek, Leszek; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gaining rising interest in gynecology and obstetrics. MSCs immunomodulatory properties are suitable enough to reduce perinatal morbidity caused by inflammation in premature neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the ability to inhibit allo-activated lymphocytes proliferation by MSCs derived from different sources: amniotic membrane (AM), umbilical cord (UC) and adipose tissue (AT). MSCs were isolated from AM (n = 7) and UC (n = 6) and AT (n = 6) of healthy women. Cells were characterized by flow cytometry and differentiation assay. To evaluate the potential of fetal and adult MSCs to diminish immunological response, mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR) was performed. Amnion and UC-derived cells displayed typical MSCs characteristics. Addition of MSCs to MLR significantly inhibited the proliferation of stimulated lymphocytes. The effect was observed regardless of the MSCs type used (p < 0.01 in all groups). Comparative analysis revealed no significant differences in this action between tested MSCs types. Additionally, no type of MSCs significantly stimulated allogeneic lymphocytes. The results prove the immunosuppressive capacities of fetal-derived MSCs in vitro. In the future, they may be potentially used to treat premature newborn as well as in immunomodulation in post-transplant therapy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Shifting paradigms in diminished ovarian reserve and advanced reproductive age in assisted reproduction: customization instead of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly G; Babayev, Samir N; Bukulmez, Orhan

    2015-05-01

    As women are increasingly delaying childbearing into their 30s and beyond, diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) and advanced reproductive age (ARA) patients are bound to become a large proportion of all assisted reproductive technology practices. Traditional controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols for DOR and/or ARA have had some limited success, but pregnancy rates are lower and cycle cancellation rates are higher than their younger counterparts with normal ovarian reserve. Though many physicians have a selection of favorite standard protocols that they use, patients with DOR may require closer monitoring and customization of the treatment cycle to address the common problems that come with low ovarian reserve. Frequent issues that surface in women with DOR and/or ARA include poor follicular response, premature luteinizing hormone surge, and poor embryo quality. Limited published evidence exists to guide treatment for DOR. However, use of minimal or mild doses of gonadotropins, avoidance of severe pituitary suppression, and consideration for luteal phase stimulation and a "freeze all" approach are possible customized treatment options that can be considered for such patients who have failed more traditional COS protocols. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Mice heterozygous for the Mdr2 gene demonstrate decreased PEMT activity and diminished steatohepatitis on the MCD diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igolnikov, Alexander C; Green, Richard M

    2006-03-01

    The administration of a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet to mice serves as an animal model of NASH. The multidrug resistant 2 (Mdr2) P-glycoprotein encodes for the canalicular phospholipid transporter, and Mdr2 (+/-) mice secrete 40% less phosphatidylcholine than wild-type mice. We have hypothesized that phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase (PEMT) up-regulation is a consequence of MCD diet administration, and is important for the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis in this model. However, the effect of decreased phosphatidylcholine secretion and modulation of PEMT on the development of diet-induced steatohepatitis in Mdr2 (+/-) mice has not been explored. Thus, the purpose of the study is to examine the effects of the MCD diet on Mdr2 (+/-) mice. Mdr2 (+/-) and Mdr2 (+/+) mice were treated with an MCD or control diet for up to 30 days, and the severity of steatohepatitis, PEMT activity and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels were measured. Serum ALT levels, hepatic inflammation, and PEMT activity were significantly lower, and hepatic SAM:SAH ratios were significantly higher in Mdr2 (+/-) mice at 7 and 30 days on the MCD diet. Mdr2 (+/-) mice have diminished susceptibility to MCD diet-induced NASH, which is associated with a relative decrease in PEMT activity and increased SAM:SAH ratios.

  7. Diminished response to furosemide in I-123 Hippuran renal studies of renovascular hypertension caused by unilateral renal artery stenosis

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    Flueckiger, F.M.; Fueger, G.F.; Einspieler, R.; Hausegger, K. (Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria))

    1990-09-01

    Dynamic I-123 Hippuran renal studies to measure furosemide response (FR) were performed in three groups of patients: (1) 57 patients with renovascular hypertension due to a poststenotic, ischemic kidney; (2) 23 patients with essential hypertension; and (3) 50 nonhypertensive patients with healthy kidneys (control group). FR was observed as renal parenchymal tracer washout within 10 minutes after the injection of 40 mg of furosemide. The retention index (RI) took into consideration the renal parenchymal tracer content before and 10 minutes after furosemide injection. In the control group, the FR was greater than 50% and the RI was less than 20. Patients with essential hypertension revealed no differences in the amounts of FR and RI compared with the control group. In renovascular hypertension, the FR was diminished and the RI was raised significantly. The values of FR and RI showed a good correlation to the degree of the renal artery stenosis before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. It is concluded that the stimulation of diuresis with furosemide and its quantification represent an important additional step in the evaluation of dynamic I-123 Hippuran studies to detect renal ischemia.

  8. Psychological and emotional concomitants of infertility diagnosis in women with diminished ovarian reserve or anatomical cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoloro-SantaBarbara, Jennifer M; Lobel, Marci; Bocca, Silvina; Stelling, James R; Pastore, Lisa M

    2017-07-01

    To examine the magnitude and predictors of emotional reactions to an infertility diagnosis in two groups of women: those with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and those clinically diagnosed with an anatomical cause of infertility (ACI). Cross-sectional study. Academic and private fertility clinics. Women diagnosed with DOR (n = 51) and women diagnosed with ACI (n = 51). Not applicable. Fertility Problem Inventory (infertility distress), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Health Orientation Scale (emotional reactions to receiving a diagnosis). Women with DOR had statistically significantly higher infertility distress scores than women with ACI and higher scores on subscales assessing distress from social concerns, sexual concerns, and a need for parenthood. In both groups, higher self-esteem was associated with lower infertility distress. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that for women with DOR and those with ACI lower infertility distress but not self-esteem predicted a more positive emotional reaction toward receiving a fertility diagnosis. Women diagnosed with DOR have greater infertility distress but similar self-esteem and emotional reactions to their diagnosis compared with women who have an anatomical cause of infertility. These results suggest that for both groups distress surrounding infertility itself may influence the way women respond to learning the cause of their infertility. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clonidine, an alpha2-receptor agonist, diminishes GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Kerry E; Bateman, Ryan J; Mendelowitz, David

    2010-08-06

    In hypertension, there is an autonomic imbalance in which sympathetic activity dominates over parasympathetic control. Parasympathetic activity to the heart originates from cardiac vagal neurons located in the nucleus ambiguus. Presympathetic neurons that project to sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord are located in the ventral brainstem in close proximity to cardiac vagal neurons, and many of these presympathetic neurons are catecholaminergic. In addition to their projection to the spinal cord, many of these presympathetic neurons have axon collaterals that arborize into neighboring cardiorespiratory locations and likely release norepinephrine onto nearby neurons. Activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system evokes a diverse range of physiological effects, including reducing blood pressure. This study tests whether clonidine, an alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist, alters excitatory glutamatergic, and/or inhibitory GABAergic or glycinergic synaptic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. Cardiac vagal neurons were identified in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation, and synaptic events were recording using whole cell voltage clamp methodologies. Clonidine significantly inhibited GABAergic neurotransmission but had no effect on glycinergic or glutamatergic pathways to cardiac vagal neurons. This diminished inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons would increase parasympathetic activity to the heart, decreasing heart rate and blood pressure. The results presented here provide a cellular substrate for the clinical use of clonidine as a treatment for hypertension as well as a role in alleviating posttraumatic stress disorder by evoking an increase in parasympathetic cardiac vagal activity, and a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of intensity modulated beam radiotherapy (IMBXRT) to diminish dose to the parotid gland in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, W. Woo; Grant, Walter H.; Butler, E. Brian

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine if intensity conformal modulated radiotherapy could diminish the radiation dose to the parotid gland in the treatment of primary head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: The NOMOS Peacock treatment system was utilized in the planning and delivery of conformal radiotherapy for the following diseases: 1) an oropharyngeal cancer that extends from the soft palate to the tonsillar fossa without nodal disease, 2) laryngeal hypopharyngeal cancer without nodal disease, 3) and adenocystic carcinoma, that originated in the hard palate. Patients were treated to areas suspicious for microscopic disease (nodal disease in 1 and 2, perineural spread in 3) at 2 Gy per fraction for a tc of 50 Gy in five weeks. The primary disease was treated at 2.4 Gy per fraction for a total of 60 Gy over five weeks. The percent of the volume of each parotid gland receiving < 20 Gy, <25 Gy and <30 Gy retrospectively was determined for each of the above mentioned optimized plans. The patients were observed for the clinical development of xerostomia. Results: No patient developed clinically apparent xerostomia within one month of completion of radiotherapy. Conclusion: IMBXRT could reduce the volume to parotid glands receiving high radiation doses. Sparing of the parotid glands appear to be most easily accomplished when irradiating head and neck tumors that do not require regional nodal treatment. For head and neck cancer that requires nodal treatment it is possible to spare a significant portion of the parotid glands if the disease originates below the hyoid bone where the primary site is not in close proximity to the parotid glands. Objective salivary flow data are being obtained pre ar post treatment, to confirm the subjective impression of lack of clinical xerostomia. IMBXRT is potentially beneficial in decreasing the morbidity of xerostomia related to head and neck irradiation

  11. ICA-based artifact removal diminishes scan site differences in multi-center resting-state fMRI.

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    Rogier Alexander Feis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI has shown considerable promise in providing potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and drug response across a range of diseases. Incorporating R-fMRI into multi-center studies is becoming increasingly popular, imposing technical challenges on data acquisition and analysis, as fMRI data is particularly sensitive to structured noise resulting from hardware, software and environmental differences. Here, we investigated whether a novel clean up tool for structured noise was capable of reducing center-related R-fMRI differences between healthy subjects.We analyzed 3 Tesla R-fMRI data from 72 subjects, half of whom were scanned with eyes closed in a Philips Achieva system in The Netherlands, and half of whom were scanned with eyes open in a Siemens Trio system in the UK. After pre-statistical processing and individual Independent Component Analysis (ICA, FMRIB’s ICA-based X-noiseifier (FIX was used to remove noise components from the data. GICA and dual regression were run and non-parametric statistics were used to compare spatial maps between groups before and after applying FIX.Large significant differences were found in all resting-state networks between study sites before using FIX, most of which were reduced to non-significant after applying FIX. The between-center difference in the medial/primary visual network, presumably reflecting a between-center difference in protocol, remained statistically different.FIX helps facilitate multi-center R-fMRI research by diminishing structured noise from R-fMRI data. In doing so, it improves combination of existing data from different centers in new settings and comparison of rare diseases and risk genes for which adequate sample size remains a challenge.

  12. Pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation of urothelial cells induces apoptosis and diminishes necrosis: new insight to magnetic therapy in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, K; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J; Thor, P J

    2012-08-01

    The evidence of electromagnetic therapy (EMT) efficacy in stress and/or urge urinary incontinence, as well as in detrusor overactivity is generally lacking in the literature. The potential EMT action of neuromuscular tissue depolarization has been described. Because there is no data on the influence of pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the urothelium, we evaluated the effect of PEMF stimulation on rat urothelial cultured cells (RUCC). In our study 15 Wistar rats were used for RUCC preparation. RUCC were exposed to PEMF (50 Hz, 45±5 mT) three times for 4 hours each with 24-hour intervals. The unexposed RUCC was in the same incubator, but in a distance of 35 cm from the PEMF generator. Annexin V-APC (AnV+) labelled was used to determine the percentage of apoptotic cells and propidium iodide (PI+), as standard flow cytometric viability probe to distinguish necrotic cells from viable ones. The results are presented in percentage values. The flow cytometric analysis was carried out on a FACS calibur flow cytometer using Cell-Quest software. In PEMF-unstimulated RUCC, the percentage of AnV+, PI+, and AnV+PI+ positive cells were 1.24±0.34%, 11.03±1.55%, and 12.43±1.96%, respectively. The percentages of AnV+, PI+, and AnV+PI+ positive cells obtained after PEMF stimulation were 1.45±0.16% (p=0.027), 7.03±1.76% (p<0.001), and 9.48±3.40% (p=0.003), respectively. The PEMF stimulation of RUCC induces apoptosis (increase of AnV+ cells) and inhibits necrosis (decrease of PI+ cells) of urothelial cells. This leads us to the conclusion that a low-frequency pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation induces apoptosis and diminishes necrosis of rat urothelial cells in culture.

  13. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

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    Franziska Peter

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter. In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore

  14. Carbon assimilation and transfer through kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is diminished under a warmer ocean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessarrodona, Albert; Moore, Pippa J; Sayer, Martin D J; Smale, Dan A

    2018-06-03

    Global climate change is affecting carbon cycling by driving changes in primary productivity and rates of carbon fixation, release and storage within Earth's vegetated systems. There is, however, limited understanding of how carbon flow between donor and recipient habitats will respond to climatic changes. Macroalgal-dominated habitats, such as kelp forests, are gaining recognition as important carbon donors within coastal carbon cycles, yet rates of carbon assimilation and transfer through these habitats are poorly resolved. Here, we investigated the likely impacts of ocean warming on coastal carbon cycling by quantifying rates of carbon assimilation and transfer in Laminaria hyperborea kelp forests-one of the most extensive coastal vegetated habitat types in the NE Atlantic-along a latitudinal temperature gradient. Kelp forests within warm climatic regimes assimilated, on average, more than three times less carbon and donated less than half the amount of particulate carbon compared to those from cold regimes. These patterns were not related to variability in other environmental parameters. Across their wider geographical distribution, plants exhibited reduced sizes toward their warm-water equatorward range edge, further suggesting that carbon flow is reduced under warmer climates. Overall, we estimated that Laminaria hyperborea forests stored ~11.49 Tg C in living biomass and released particulate carbon at a rate of ~5.71 Tg C year -1 . This estimated flow of carbon was markedly higher than reported values for most other marine and terrestrial vegetated habitat types in Europe. Together, our observations suggest that continued warming will diminish the amount of carbon that is assimilated and transported through temperate kelp forests in NE Atlantic, with potential consequences for the coastal carbon cycle. Our findings underline the need to consider climate-driven changes in the capacity of ecosystems to fix and donate carbon when assessing the impacts of

  15. Diminished humoral responses against and reduced gene expression levels of human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Michaud, Henri-Alexandre; Zeng, Xue; Debbaneh, Maya; Arron, Sarah T; Jones, R Brad; Ormsby, Christopher E; Nixon, Douglas F; Liao, Wilson

    2014-09-16

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial, chronic disease of skin affecting 2-3% of the world's population. Genetic studies of psoriasis have identified a number of susceptibility genes that are involved in anti-viral immunity. Furthermore, physiological studies have also found an increase in anti-viral proteins in psoriatic skin. These findings suggest the presence of an anti-viral state in psoriatic skin. However, the triggers for this anti-viral cascade and its consequences for host immunity are not known. Endogenous retroviruses have previously been described in many autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. In the present study we examined the humoral immune response against human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) proteins and the cutaneous expression levels of multiple HERV-K genes in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. In psoriatic sera we observed a significant decrease in IgM response against three HERV-K proteins: Env surface unit (SU), Env transmembrane protein (TM), and Gag capsid (CA) in comparison to sera obtained from blood bank healthy controls. A decrease in IgG response was also observed against CA. Furthermore, using quantitative RT-PCR we observed a decrease in the expression of HERV-K Env, Gag, Pol and Rec as well as ERV-9 genes in lesional psoriatic skin as compared to healthy skin. Together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory, anti-viral state in psoriasis is associated with diminished expression of HERV-K gene transcripts and a concomitant decrease in humoral responses to HERV-K. Our results indicate that a simple model where continuous, minimally changing HERV-K expression serves as an antigenic trigger in psoriasis might not be correct and further studies are needed to decipher the possible relationship between psoriasis and HERVs.

  16. Association of diminished expression of RASSF1A with promoter methylation in primary gastric cancer from patients of central China

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    Zhou Feng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although methylation-mediated inactivation of expression of RASSF1A, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, has been observed in several human cancers, the data concerning alteration of RASSF1A expression and methylation in Chinese primary gastric cancer are scarce. Moreover, direct evidence showing the association between protein expression of RASSF1A and primary human cancers is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate RASSF1A expression in tissue of primary gastric cancer (GC at mRNA and protein levels, and to establish the possible relationship between DNA methylation status and protein expression of RASSF1A in Chinese. Methods Fifty-four patients with primary gastric cancers were included in the study of RASSF1A mRNA expression and methylation status between the cancer tissue and the corresponding adjacent normal tissue. 20 out of 54 patients were included for study of RASSF1A protein expression. The expression of RASSF1A at mRNA and protein levels was determined by RT-PCR and Western-blotting, respectively. The RASSF1A promoter methylation was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Results RASSF1A mRNA and protein expressions in GC were reduced significantly with comparison to the corresponding normal tissues (OD value: 0.2589 ± 0.2407 vs 0.5448 ± 0.2971, P P P P Conclusion Expression of RASSF1A was reduced in tissue of GC at mRNA and protein levels. Diminished expression of RASSF1A was associated with the promoter methylation.

  17. Inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha diminishes desmoplasia and inflammation to overcome chemoresistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianda; Fan, Wei; Xu, Zhigao; Chen, Honglei; He, Yuyu; Yang, Gui; Yang, Gang; Hu, Hanning; Tang, Shihui; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Peipei; Yu, Mingxia

    2016-12-06

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common cancer death reasons. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antibodies have shown promising effects in PDAC pre-clinical models. However, the prognostic values of TNF-α, underlying mechanisms by which anti-TNF-α treatments inhibit PDAC, and potential synergistic effects of anti-TNF-α treatments with chemotherapy are still unclear. To identify the targeting values of TNF-α in PDAC, we measured TNF-α expression in different stages of PDAC initiation and evaluated its prognostic significance in a pancreatic cancer cohort. We found that TNF-α expression elevated in PDAC initiation process, and high expression of TNF-α was an independent prognostic marker of poor survival. We further evaluated anti-tumor effects of anti-TNF-α treatments in PDAC. Anti-TNF-α treatments resulted in decreased cell viability in both PDAC tumor cells and pancreatic satellite cells in similar dose in vitro. In vivo, anti-TNF-α treatments showed effects in reducing desmoplasia and the tumor promoting inflammatory microenvironment in PDAC. Combination of anti-TNF-α treatments with chemotherapy partly overcame chemoresistance of PDAC tumor cells and prolonged the survival of PDAC mouse model. In conclusion, our findings indicated that TNF-α in PDAC can be a prognostic and therapeutic target. Inhibition of TNF-α synergized with chemotherapy in PDAC resulted in better pre-clinical responses via killing tumor cells as well as diminishing desmoplasia and inflammation in PDAC tumor stroma.

  18. Acute hypoxia diminishes the relationship between blood pressure and subarachnoid space width oscillations at the human cardiac frequency.

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    Magdalena Wszedybyl-Winklewska

    Full Text Available Acute hypoxia exerts strong effects on the cardiovascular system. Heart-generated pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid motion is recognised as a key factor ensuring brain homeostasis. We aimed to assess changes in heart-generated coupling between blood pressure (BP and subarachnoid space width (SAS oscillations during hypoxic exposure.Twenty participants were subjected to a controlled decrease in oxygen saturation (SaO2 = 80% for five minutes. BP and heart rate (HR were measured using continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography, oxyhaemoglobin saturation with an ear-clip sensor, end-tidal CO2 with a gas analyser, and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV, pulsatility and resistive indices with Doppler ultrasound. Changes in SAS were recorded with a recently-developed method called near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the relationship between BP and SAS oscillations.Gradual increases in systolic, diastolic BP and HR were observed immediately after the initiation of hypoxic challenge (at fifth minute +20.1%, +10.2%, +16.5% vs. baseline, respectively; all P<0.01, whereas SAS remained intact (P = NS. Concurrently, the CBFV was stable throughout the procedure, with the only increase observed in the last two minutes of deoxygenation (at the fifth minute +6.8% vs. baseline, P<0.05. The cardiac contribution to the relationship between BP and SAS oscillations diminished immediately after exposure to hypoxia (at the fifth minute, right hemisphere -27.7% and left hemisphere -26.3% vs. baseline; both P<0.05. Wavelet phase coherence did not change throughout the experiment (P = NS.Cerebral haemodynamics seem to be relatively stable during short exposure to normobaric hypoxia. Hypoxia attenuates heart-generated BP SAS coupling.

  19. The pervasive crisis of diminishing radiation therapy access for vulnerable populations in the United States, part 1: African-American patients

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    Shearwood McClelland, III, MD

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: African Americans in the United States have diminished access to RT compared with Caucasian patients, independent of but often in concert with low socioeconomic status. These findings underscore the importance of finding systemic and systematic solutions to address these inequalities to reduce the barriers that patient race provides in receipt of optimal cancer care.

  20. Amino acid infusion during anesthesia attenuates the surgery induced decline in IGF-1 and diminishes the "diabetes of injury"

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    Eksborg Staffan

    2007-01-01

    infusion to the volunteers did not affect any of the variables studied. Conclusion Amino acid infusion during surgery attenuates the decrease in IGF-1 and diminishes the "diabetes of injury".

  1. Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin for Treatment of Cholera Associated with Diminished Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin to Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wasif Ali; Saha, Debasish; Ahmed, Sabeena; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bennish, Michael Louis

    2015-01-01

    We identified a poor clinical response to treatment of cholera with a single 1 g dose of ciprofloxacin, a standard treatment for cholera. To determine reasons for the poor response and better therapeutic approaches we examined the minimal inhibitor concentration (MIC, n = 275) and disc-diffusion zone sizes (n = 205) for ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in Bangladesh from 1994 to 2012, and reexamined data from 161 patients infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 recruited in four clinical trials who received single- or multiple-dose ciprofloxacin for treatment of cholera and compared their clinical response to the V. cholerae O1 susceptibility. Although all 275 isolates of V. cholerae O1 remained susceptible to ciprofloxacin using standard MIC and disc-diffusion thresholds, the MIC90 to ciprofloxacin increased from 0.010 in 1994 to 0.475 μgm/ml in 2012. Isolates became frankly resistant to nalidixic with the MIC90 increasing from 21 μgm/ml in 1994 to >256 μgm/ml and 166 of 205 isolates from 1994 to 2005 being frankly resistant using disc-diffusion testing. Isolates resistant to nalidixic acid by disc-diffusion testing had a median ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.190 μgm/ml (10th-90th centiles 0.022 to 0.380); nalidixic acid-susceptible isolates had a median ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.002 (0.002 to 0.012).The rate of clinical success with single-dose ciprofloxacin treatment for nalidixic acid-susceptible strains was 94% (61 of 65 patients) and bacteriologic success 97% (63/65) compared to 18% (12/67) and 8% (5/67) respectively with nalidixic acid-resistant strains (Ptreatment with ciprofloxacin had 86% and 100% clinical and bacteriologic success rates respectively in patients infected with nalidixic acid-susceptible strains of V. cholerae O1 compared to clinical success 67% and bacteriologic success 60% with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. Single-dose ciprofloxacin is not effective for treating cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 with diminished

  2. The cytotoxicity of organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom in the molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kumiko; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Fujie, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid molecules, which are composed of an organic structure and metal(s), are indispensable for synthetic chemical reactions; however, their toxicity has been incompletely understood. In the present study, we discovered two cytotoxic organobismuth compounds whose cytotoxicity diminished upon replacement of the intramolecular bismuth atom with an antimony atom. The intracellular accumulation of the organobismuth compounds was much higher than that of the organoantimony compounds with the corresponding organic structures. We also showed that both the organic structure and bismuth atom are required for certain organobismuth compounds to exert their cytotoxic effect, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of such a compound is a result of an interaction between the organic structure and the bismuth atom. The present data suggest that organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures exhibit cytotoxicity via an interaction between the molecular structure and the bismuth atom, and this cytotoxicity can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom, resulting in lower intracellular accumulation.

  3. A beer game simulation model for studying the impact of information sharing to diminish the bullwhip effect in supply chains: an educational support tool in supply chain management

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    Éder Vasco Pinheiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates the Beer Distribution Game using object oriented simulation software. A five echelon supply chain with bidirectional relationships is reproduced, employing simulation to demonstrate the impact of information on the generation of the bullwhip effect. In doing so, this study intends to provide a simple didactic tool to assist academically in supply chain management. As the result of the simulations, it was possible to demonstrate the occurrence of the bullwhip effect and how information sharing can diminish it.

  4. Pollutant tracking for 3 Western North Atlantic sea grasses by remote sensing: Preliminary diminishing white light responses of Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Berlyn, Graeme P.; Poulos, Helen M.; Goodale, Uromi M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sea grass accessory pigments are more important than Chl at medium to low light intensity. • Partial absorption changes in Thalassia and also in Halodule at low intensity visible light ranges. • NDVI and chlNDI do not detect these changes or low light responses of sea grasses. • Intertidal sea grasses are less stressed than the subtidal species at low and high light. • Chl b is an important photosynthetic pigment in tropical/subtropical species. - Abstract: Sea grasses are foundation species for estuarine ecosystems. The available light for sea grasses diminishes rapidly during pollutant spills, effluent releases, disturbances such as intense riverine input, and tidal changes. We studied how sea grasses’ remote-sensing signatures and light-capturing ability respond to short term light alterations. In vivo responses were measured over the entire visible-light spectra to diminishing white-light on whole-living-plants’ spectral reflectance, including 6 h of full oceanic-light fluences from 10% to 100%. We analyzed differences by various reflectance indices. We compared the sea grasses species responses of tropical vs. temperate and intertidals (Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina) vs. subtidal (Thalassia testudinum). Reflectance diminished with decreasing light intensity that coincided with greater accessory pigment stimulation (anthocyanin, carotenoids, xanthins). Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b differed significantly among species (Thalassia vs. Halodule). Photosynthetic efficiency diminished at high light intensities. The NDVI index was inadequate to perceive these differences. Our results demonstrate the leaf-level utility of data to remote sensing for mapping sea grass and sea grass stress

  5. Comparison of characteristics parameters in the evaluation of wall thickness diminishing in admiralty brass tubes of the steam condenser, tested by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, Alba E.; Mendez, Jorge A.; Acosta, Cesar D.; Scopelliti, Jose D.

    1999-01-01

    This work is aimed to appraise the measure of the wall thickness diminishing in the signals evaluation obtained in the inspection of steam condenser by eddy currents. In the analysis of the obtained signals were observed in the brass tubes a great quantity of internal defects whose signal indicates that there were diminishing of the wall thickness between 80% and 100%. With all this information and analyzing the data acquired, the tubes with more important indications were selected to make a more exhaustive study of the found defectology. As first test, it was measured the thickness of the worn tubes, comparing them with the original ones that are in stock. It was verified that the tubes separated for this study presented a 30% less thickness in comparison with the new tubes. A semiquantitative chemical test (EDAX) was made to verify if it was the same material. One of the extracted tubes (066 Y1) was reinspected in order to isolate the area with indications. Once this was performed, it was decided to cut the tube to make a visual inspection and to evaluate to what type of defect corresponds to the signals obtained. In the metallography it was confirm that it was a horseshoe type defect. When performing a dimensional control test of the found real defect, it was checked that the information obtained by eddy currents regarding the diminishing of the wall thickness diminishing was valid. At a last stage of the test, it was proceed to make an study and verification of the used parameters, probes, standards and finally determine which shall be the convenient modifications to minimize errors. (author)

  6. Assisted Hatching and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection are not Associated with Improved Outcomes in ART Cycles for Diminished Ovarian Reserve: An Analysis of US Cycles from 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Samantha F.; Owen, Carter; Mainigi, Monica; Senapati, Suneeta; Seifer, David B.; Dokras, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and assisted hatching (AH) on ART outcomes in cycles with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) as the primary diagnosis. Design Retrospective cohort study of cycles from the SART-CORS database. Setting NA. Patient(s) A total of 422,949 fresh, non-donor, initial ART cycles of which 8,597 were diagnosed with only elevated FSH and 38,926 were diagnosed with only DOR according to the SART DOR categorization. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and clinical pregnancy rates. Result(s) ICSI and AH were associated with diminished odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles (AOR, 95% CI 0.88, 0.81–0.96 for ICSI; AOR, 95% CI 0.77 0.71–0.84 for AH). No association between either ICSI or AH in Elevated FSH only cycles was observed. The combination of ICSI and AH resulted in significantly lower odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles but not in Elevated FSH only cycles. Conclusion(s) In initial ART cycles for which the only indication relates to a diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve, assisted hatching and ICSI are not associated with improved live birth rates. PMID:25086790

  7. Diminished mental- and physical function and lack of social support are associated with shorter survival in community dwelling older persons of Botswana

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    Molebatsi Robert M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates for older persons in Botswana have been unavailable and little is known of predictors of mortality in old age. This study may serve as a precursor for more detailed assessments. The objective was to assess diminished function and lack of social support as indicators of short term risk of death. Methods A national population based prospective survey was undertaken in Botswana; twelve rural areas and three urban centers were included. 372 community-dwelling persons aged sixty years and over, were included; 265 were followed-up. Sixteen subjects were deceased at follow-up. Subjects were interviewed and clinically assessed at home. Measures of cognitive function, depression and physical function and sociodemographic information were collected. Subjects were followed-up at average 6.8 months after baseline. Results Overall mortality rate was 10.9 per 100 person years. Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR for death during follow-up were; 4.2 (CI 1.4–12.5 and 3.6 (CI 1.0–12.7 for those with diminished physical- and cognitive function, respectively. Indicators of limited social support; household with only 1 or 2 persons and eating alone, yielded age adjusted ORs of 4.3 (CI 1.5–12.5 and 6.7 (CI 2.2–20, respectively, for death during follow-up. Conclusion Older community dwelling persons with diminished cognitive- or physical function, solitary daily meals and living in a small household have a significantly increased risk of rapid deterioration and death. Health policy should include measures to strengthen informal support and expand formal service provisions to older persons with poor function and limited social networks in order to prevent premature deaths.

  8. Work to diminish the danger of forest fires in the municipalities San Antonio del Sur and Imías, Guantánamo

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmys Perez Pereda; Lianet Ramírez Fernández; Jessika Massó Matos; Francisco Duran Manual

    2017-01-01

    The research was carried out in the forest patrimony in San Antonio and Imías municipality in the province of Guantánamo, with the aim to propose actions to diminish the occurrence and propagation of the forest fires in the municipalities objects of study. For this, the temporal distribution of fires and burned areas, in the period 2006-2015, through the year, the week and the day was taken into account and also the causes that povoque the fires. With these elements, the activities to be carr...

  9. Marketing Research on the Retail Market in Braşov with a View to Obtaining Solutions to Diminish the Negative Effects of the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăşescu S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the present circumstances of the economic crisis, studying the retail market is a must. The tendencies emphasize a diminution of consumption. Retailers face a long series of problems in the present context. These problems refer to the reduction of turnover, as the number of clients reduces as well. The research in the domain shows what instruments retailers use in order to diminish the negative effects of the crisis. The present work presents some of the results of the qualitative research, as well as of the quantitative one.

  10. Public health intervention over four decades for the children in the Australian Capital Territory: Have we reached the point of diminishing returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, I; Kruger, E; Tennant, M

    2017-06-01

    Most of the developed world has seen some substantial improvements in the dental health of children over the past four decades owing to advances in service access, fluoride exposure, socio-economic development and improved diets, with the DMFT score of 12 year-olds dropping from well over 10 down to around one. To examine the question of advancing dental health for children even further using the same set of tools as we have to date by asking the question: Have we come to a point of diminishing returns? The study examines the long-term, near optimum settings of the known public dental health variables in the Australian Capital Territory. Despite having the most ideal and persistent dental health optimised situation, there remains underlying dental caries at a severity level of just below 1 DMFT (12 year olds), and over the last decade the rate of diminishing incidence and prevalence of decay has slowed and arguably stopped. This suggests that rather than toiling to eliminate dental decay completely, the focus might usefully be reoriented towards those small known pockets of society with persistent higher levels of disease and looking for new ways to address these difficult clusters, while simultaneously advancing the understanding that a small residual level of decay will always exist in society. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  11. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography, and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli.

  12. Syndrome of diminished vasodilator reserve of the coronary microcirculation (microvascular angina or syndrome X): Diagnosis by combined atrial pacing and thallium 201 imaging--a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magarian, G.J.; Palac, R.; Reinhart, S.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with angina-like chest pain without evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease or coronary arterial vasospasm are becoming increasingly recognized. These are often related to noncardiac causes including esophageal, musculoskeletal, and hyperventilatory or panic states. However, recently a subgroup of such patients are being recognized as having true myocardial ischemia and chest pain on the basis of diminished coronary microvascular vasodilatory reserve (microvascular ischemia or Syndrome X). The authors describe such a patient who was found to have replication of anginal pain associated with a reversible ischemic defect on thallium 201 imaging during atrial pacing, suggesting ischemia in this myocardial segment. Resolution of angina and ST segment electrocardiographic changes of ischemia occurred with cessation of pacing. We believe this is the first report of a patient with this form of myocardial ischemia diagnosed by this method and should be considered in patients with anginal chest pain after significant coronary artery disease and coronary vasospasm have been excluded

  13. Papers of the Canadian Institute's forum on natural gas purchasing strategies : critical information for natural gas consumers in a time of diminishing natural gas supplies and higher prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference provided insight into how to prosper in an increasingly complex natural gas marketplace. The presentations from key industry players offered valuable information on natural gas purchasing strategies that are working in the current volatile price environment. Diminishing natural gas supplies in North America mean that higher prices and volatility will continue. Other market challenges stem from potential cost increases in gas transportation, unbundling of natural gas services, and the changing energy marketing environment. The main factors that will affect prices for the winter of 2004 were outlined along with risk management and the best pricing strategies for businesses. The key strategies for managing the risks associated with natural gas purchase contracts were also reviewed, along with the issue of converging natural gas and electricity markets and the impact on energy consumers. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Reversible diminished renal sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake during converting-enzyme inhibition in a patient with renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer Hovinga, T K; Beukhof, J R; Donker, A J.M.; Luyk, W H.J. van; Piers, D A

    1984-03-01

    A patient is described who had accelerated hypertension and unilateral renal artery stenosis, and who developed further deterioration in renal function during treatment with captopril, an angiotension-I (AI) converting-enzyme inhibitor. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake was greatly diminished in the stenotic kidney, although renal blood flow and handling of /sup 131/I hippurate was preserved. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA in the affected kidney returned after substitution of captopril by the vasodilator minoxidil, while a comparable degree of blood pressure control was maintained. This, caution must be taken when interpreting results of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in patients with proven or suspected renal artery stenosis treated with an AI converting-enzyme inhibiting drug. Moreover, our finding points to the importance of glomerular filtration in the renal handling of /sup 99/Tc-DMSA.

  15. Reversible diminished renal sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake during converting-enzyme inhibition in a patient with renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer Hovinga, T.K.; Beukhof, J.R.; Donker, A.J.M.; Luyk, W.H.J. van; Piers, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A patient is described who had accelerated hypertension and unilateral renal artery stenosis, and who developed further deterioration in renal function during treatment with captopril, an angiotension-I (AI) converting-enzyme inhibitor. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake was greatly diminished in the stenotic kidney, although renal blood flow and handling of 131 I hippurate was preserved. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA in the affected kidney returned after substitution of captopril by the vasodilator minoxidil, while a comparable degree of blood pressure control was maintained. This, caution must be taken when interpreting results of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in patients with proven or suspected renal artery stenosis treated with an AI converting-enzyme inhibiting drug. Moreover, our finding points to the importance of glomerular filtration in the renal handling of 99 Tc-DMSA. (orig.)

  16. Probing the implicit suicidal mind: does the Death/Suicide Implicit Association Test reveal a desire to die, or a diminished desire to live?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Dominique P; Stritzke, Werner G K; Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark; Hudaib, Abdul-Rahman

    2014-09-01

    Assessment of implicit self-associations with death relative to life, measured by a death/suicide implicit association test (d/s-IAT), has shown promise in the prediction of suicide risk. The current study examined whether the d/s-IAT reflects an individual's desire to die or a diminished desire to live and whether the predictive utility of implicit cognition is mediated by life-oriented beliefs. Four hundred eight undergraduate students (285 female; Mage = 20.36 years, SD = 4.72) participated. Participants completed the d/s-IAT and self-report measures assessing 6 indicators of suicide risk (suicide ideation frequency and intensity, depression, nonsuicidal self-harm thoughts frequency and intensity, and nonsuicidal self-harm attempts), as well as survival and coping beliefs and history of prior suicide attempts. The d/s-IAT significantly predicted 5 out of the 6 indicators of suicide risk above and beyond the strongest traditional indicator of risk, history of prior suicide attempts. However, the effect of the d/s-IAT on each of the risk indicators was mediated by individuals' survival and coping beliefs. Moreover, the distribution of d/s-IAT scores primarily reflected variability in self-associations with life. Implicit suicide-related cognition appears to reflect a gradual diminishing of the desire to live, rather than a desire to die. Contemporary theories of suicide and risk assessment protocols need to account for the dynamic relationship between both risk and life-oriented resilience factors, and intervention strategies aimed at enhancing engagement with life should be a routine part of suicide risk management. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Arsenic transformation predisposes human skin keratinocytes to UV-induced DNA damage yet enhances their survival apparently by diminishing oxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yang; Kojima, Chikara; Chignell, Colin; Mason, Ronald; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark of UV-induced skin cancer. In the current work, inorganic arsenite exposure (100 nM) did not induce ODD during the 30 weeks required for malignant transformation. Although acute UV-treatment (UVA, 25 J/cm 2 ) increased ODD in passage-matched control cells, once transformed by arsenic to As-TM cells, acute UV actually further increased ODD (> 50%). Despite enhanced ODD, As-TM cells were resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. The response of apoptotic factors and oxidative stress genes was strongly mitigated in As-TM cells after UV exposure including increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and reduced Caspase-3, Nrf2, and Keap1 expression. Several Nrf2-related genes (HO-1, GCLs, SOD) showed diminished responses in As-TM cells after UV exposure consistent with reduced oxidant stress response. UV-exposed As-TM cells showed increased expression of cyclin D1 (proliferation gene) and decreased p16 (tumor suppressor). UV exposure enhanced the malignant phenotype of As-TM cells. Thus, the co-carcinogenicity between UV and arsenic in skin cancer might involve adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure generally mitigating the oxidative stress response, allowing apoptotic by-pass after UV and enhanced cell survival even in the face of increased UV-induced oxidative stress and increased ODD. - Highlights: → Arsenic transformation adapted to UV-induced apoptosis. → Arsenic transformation diminished oxidant response. → Arsenic transformation enhanced UV-induced DNA damage.

  18. Modeling the Potential for Vaccination to Diminish the Burden of Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Disease in Young Children in Mali, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Bornstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, systematic surveillance of young children with suspected invasive bacterial disease (e.g., septicemia, meningitis has revealed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS to be a major pathogen exhibiting high case fatality (~20%. Where infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been introduced to prevent invasive disease caused by these pathogens, as in Bamako, Mali, their burden has decreased markedly. In parallel, NTS has become the predominant invasive bacterial pathogen in children aged <5 years. While NTS is believed to be acquired orally via contaminated food/water, epidemiologic studies have failed to identify the reservoir of infection or vehicles of transmission. This has precluded targeting food chain interventions to diminish disease transmission but conversely has fostered the development of vaccines to prevent invasive NTS (iNTS disease. We developed a mathematical model to estimate the potential impact of NTS vaccination programs in Bamako.A Markov chain transmission model was developed utilizing age-specific Bamako demographic data and hospital surveillance data for iNTS disease in children aged <5 years and assuming vaccine coverage and efficacy similar to the existing, successfully implemented, Hib vaccine. Annual iNTS hospitalizations and deaths in children <5 years, with and without a Salmonella Enteritidis/Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine, were the model's outcomes of interest. Per the model, high coverage/high efficacy iNTS vaccination programs would drastically diminish iNTS disease except among infants age <8 weeks.The public health impact of NTS vaccination shifts as disease burden, vaccine coverage, and serovar distribution vary. Our model shows that implementing an iNTS vaccine through an analogous strategy to the Hib vaccination program in Bamako would markedly reduce cases and deaths due to iNTS among the pediatric population. The model can be adjusted for

  19. Luzindole but not 4-phenyl-2- propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT) diminishes the inhibitory effect of melatonin on murine Colon 38 cancer growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winczyk, Katarzyna; Fuss-Chmielewska, Julita; Lawnicka, Hanna; Pawlikowski, Marek; Karasek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Our earlier studies have shown that MLT exerts the inhibitory effect on murine cancer via membrane and nuclear receptors. We have found that the antagonist of MT1 receptors does not diminish the antiproliferative effect of MLT on Colon 38 cells, and the contribution of MT2 receptors has been suggested to be responsible. Therefore, in the present study we have examined the influence of the 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT), which is a selective antagonist of MT2 membrane receptor, and luzindole - an antagonist of both membrane receptors, on an oncostatic action of MLT. The murine cancer cell line Colon 38 was used in the experiments. In 48 hrs cell culture the effects of MLT, 4P-PDOT and luzindole administered alone and MLT applied jointly with either 4P-PDOT or luzindole were examined. The growth of cancer cells was assessed using the modified colorimetric Mosmann method. Melatonin at both examined concentrations (10-7, 10-9 M) significantly decreased the viability of cancer cells. The selective antagonist of MT2 membrane receptor, namely 4P-PDOT and luzindole applied separately did not have an effect on the growth of Colon 38 cells. The addition of 4P-PDOT to MLT did not change the inhibitory effect of MLT, whereas luzindole given together with MLT diminished, but failed to block totally, the oncostatic properties of MLT. The obtained data and our previous studies conducted on Colon 38 cancer indicate that membrane melatonin receptors are not indispensable to the oncostatic action of melatonin and thus other pathways such as nuclear signaling and receptor-independent mechanism may be also involved.

  20. Multiple educational programs improves glycemic control, quality of life with diminishing the impact of diabetes in poorly controlled type 1 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Chintan; Dalal, Lopa; Talaviya, Praful; Saboo, Banshi

    2017-12-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the outcomes of multiple educational programs on glycemic control, quality of life and impact of diabetes in poorly controlled Type 1 Diabetic patients. A 12 months diabetes education programs were conducted every week for first one month then followed by every 3 months with follow up on improvement of HbA1c and QOL in T1D patients (n=54). Clinical characteristics were recorded at baseline visit. The QOL was evaluated by 15 set DQOL questionnaires in 40 consecutive patients at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after education programs. The HbA1c level (%) was evaluated at same time point. Decrease in DQOL score was reported as improvement in QOL. The rate of patients response to educational programs was noted 74.07% (n=40) at end of the study (12 months). The prevalence of T1D was reported higher in men than in women. The overall DQOL score and HbA1c% level was significantly (Peducational programs. Patients exhibited greater satisfaction and diminished impact of diabetes after educational programs was observed after 3 months and it was continue up to end of study. The frequencies of self-monitoring of blood glucose were increased. Numbers of hypoglycemic and DKA events were decreased after educational programs when compared to baseline. Results of study revealed that the appropriate education and counseling diminish impact of diabetes, improve QOL and help to achieve desired glycemic (HbA1c) level in poorly control T1D patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Exogenous Thyropin from p41 Invariant Chain Diminishes Cysteine Protease Activity and Affects IL-12 Secretion during Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Zavašnik-Bergant

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC play a pivotal role as antigen presenting cells (APC and their maturation is crucial for effectively eliciting an antigen-specific immune response. The p41 splice variant of MHC class II-associated chaperone, called invariant chain p41 Ii, contains an amino acid sequence, the p41 fragment, which is a thyropin-type inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes. The effects of exogenous p41 fragment and related thyropin inhibitors acting on human immune cells have not been reported yet. In this study we demonstrate that exogenous p41 fragment can enter the endocytic pathway of targeted human immature DC. Internalized p41 fragment has contributed to the total amount of the immunogold labelled p41 Ii-specific epitope, as quantified by transmission electron microscopy, in particular in late endocytic compartments with multivesicular morphology where antigen processing and binding to MHC II take place. In cell lysates of treated immature DC, diminished enzymatic activity of cysteine proteases has been confirmed. Internalized exogenous p41 fragment did not affect the perinuclear clustering of acidic cathepsin S-positive vesicles typical of mature DC. p41 fragment is shown to interfere with the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in LPS-stimulated DC. p41 fragment is also shown to reduce the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12/p70 during the subsequent maturation of treated DC. The inhibition of proteolytic activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases in immature DC and the diminished capability of DC to produce IL-12 upon their subsequent maturation support the immunomodulatory potential of the examined thyropin from p41 Ii.

  2. Retigabine diminishes the effects of acetylcholine, adrenaline and adrenergic agonists on the spontaneous activity of guinea pig smooth muscle strips in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Elisaveta; Zagorchev, Plamen; Kokova, Vesela; Peychev, Lyudmil

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of retigabine on the smooth muscle response to acetylcholine, adrenaline, α-and β-adrenoceptor agonists. We studied the change in the spontaneous smooth muscle contraction of guinea pig gastric corpus strips before and after 20-min treatment with 2μM retigabine. We also evaluated the effect of retigabine on the smooth muscle response to 10μM acetylcholine, 1 and 10μM adrenaline, 1μM methoxamine, 0.1μM p-iodoclonidine and 10μM isoproterenol. We observed a significant reduction in the effects of all studied mediators and agonists when they were added to organ baths in the presence of retigabine. Retigabine diminished the effect of acetylcholine on the spontaneous smooth muscle activity. The effect was fully antagonized by XE-991 (Kv7 channel blocker), which supports our hypothesis about the role of KCNQ channels in the registered changes. The increase in the contraction force after adding of 1μM adrenaline, methoxamine, and 0.1μM p-iodoclonidine was also significantly smaller in presence of retigabine. However, comparing the effect of 10μM adrenaline on the contractility before and after treatment with retigabine, we observed increased contractility when retigabine was present in the organ baths. A possible explanation for the observed diminished effects of mediators and receptor agonists is that the effect of retigabine on smooth muscle contractility is complex. The membrane hyperpolarization, the interaction between Kv7 channels and adrenoceptors, and the influence on signaling pathways may contribute to the summary smooth muscle response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultural Self-Awareness as a Crucial Component of Military Cross-Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    the interpersonal skills to interact appropriately with individuals from other cultures and then when presented unfamiliar cultural cues adapt their...Maribel, Liv Egholm Feldt, and Michael Jakobsen. "If Only Cultural Chameleons Could Fly Too: A Critical Discussion of the Concept of Cultural

  4. Cultivating Self-Awareness with Team-Teaching: Connections between Classroom Learning and Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    The Honors College program prepares leaders for the 21st century to become forces for positive change through problem-solving, scholarship, service, teamwork, and leadership. Its structure involves nine sequenced courses familiarizing students with challenges facing communities. Courses are team-taught by professors in different disciplines to…

  5. Terapi Rational Emotive Behavior Berbasis Konseling Islam Untuk Meningkatkan Self Awareness Pengemis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Mustaqim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This writing would like to offer rational emotive behavior concept based on Islamic counseling. Rational emotive behavior focused on changing behavior based on mind. Behavior changing stressed on mind then emotion or action. Mental awareness is using Islamic Counseling, by giving Islamic material and values inside the counseling services.The result is beggar has two factors internal and external as cause. In Islamic counseling perspective, beggar categorized as a man without believing “kufurnikmat”, they doesn’t use fitrah or potential self that given by Allah to work. The core problems on changing beggar action focused on changing mentalities. Rational emotive and Islamic counseling, has a same perspective about human, human has a goodness and positive. Rational emotive behavior based on Islamic counseling is reeducate client to change their irrational believe to rational believe. Counseling stages is exploring the background of problem, awareness, mind modification and disputing mind through habituation.

  6. Privacy Preserved Self-Awareness on the Community via Crowd Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In social activities, people are interested in some statistical data, such as purchase records, monthly consumption, and health data, which are usually utilized in recommendation systems. And it is seductive for them to acquire the ranking of these data among friends or other communities. In the meantime, they want their privacy data to be confidential. Therefore, a strategy is presented to allow users to obtain the result of calculating their privacy data while preserving these data. In this method, firstly a polynomial approximation function model is set up for each user. Afterwards, “fragment” the coefficients of each model into pieces. Eventually “blend” all scraps to build the global model of all users. Users can use the global model to gain their corresponding ranking results after a special computing. Security analyses of three aspects elaborate the validity of proposed privacy method, even if some spiteful attackers try to steal private data of users, no matter who they are (users or someone outside the community. Experiments results manifest that the global model competently fits all users data and all privacy data are protected.

  7. The ‘prediction imperative’ as the basis for self-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Roy, Sisir

    2009-01-01

    Here, we propose that global brain function is geared towards the implementation of intelligent motricity. Motricity is the only possible external manifestation of nervous system function (other than endocrine and exocrine secretion and the control of vascular tone).

  8. The ‘prediction imperative’ as the basis for self-awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Roy, Sisir

    2009-01-01

    Here, we propose that global brain function is geared towards the implementation of intelligent motricity. Motricity is the only possible external manifestation of nervous system function (other than endocrine and exocrine secretion and the control of vascular tone). The intelligence component of motricity requires, for its successful wheeling, a prediction imperative to approximate the consequences of the impending motion. We address how such predictive function may originate from the dynamic properties of neuronal networks. PMID:19528011

  9. The effectiveness of a leadership development program on self-awareness in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello-Cicciu, Joan M; Weatherford, Barbara; Gemme, Donna; Glass, Bonnell; Seymour-Route, Paulette

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the changes in behaviors as reported by nursing leaders following participation in a leadership development program (LDP). There is a scarcity of research examining changes in leadership behaviors following LDP participation. A growing body of literature links critical behaviors and traits to outcomes among nurse managers and executives. Literature supports that leadership behaviors can be learned in educational programs if the environment is right and if the talent and capacity are present. Focus groups and online responses were guided by a structured interview protocol to elicit responses from the participants of the behavioral changes that have occurred in them as a result of their participation in an LDP. Seven themes describing leadership behaviors were identified. These self-reported behaviors were present 5 to 9 months after completion of the LDP.

  10. Induction of self awareness in dreams through frontal low current stimulation of gamma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Hobson, Allan; Paulus, Walter; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Klimke, Ansgar; Nitsche, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Recent findings link fronto-temporal gamma electroencephalographic (EEG) activity to conscious awareness in dreams, but a causal relationship has not yet been established. We found that current stimulation in the lower gamma band during REM sleep influences ongoing brain activity and induces self-reflective awareness in dreams. Other stimulation frequencies were not effective, suggesting that higher order consciousness is indeed related to synchronous oscillations around 25 and 40 Hz.

  11. Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…

  12. Context Mining of Sedentary Behaviour for Promoting Self-Awareness Using a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Muhammad; Baker, Thar; Khattak, Asad Masood; Shah, Babar; Aleem, Saiqa; Chow, Francis

    2018-03-15

    Sedentary behaviour is increasing due to societal changes and is related to prolonged periods of sitting. There is sufficient evidence proving that sedentary behaviour has a negative impact on people's health and wellness. This paper presents our research findings on how to mine the temporal contexts of sedentary behaviour by utilizing the on-board sensors of a smartphone. We use the accelerometer sensor of the smartphone to recognize user situations (i.e., still or active). If our model confirms that the user context is still, then there is a high probability of being sedentary. Then, we process the environmental sound to recognize the micro-context, such as working on a computer or watching television during leisure time. Our goal is to reduce sedentary behaviour by suggesting preventive interventions to take short breaks during prolonged sitting to be more active. We achieve this goal by providing the visualization to the user, who wants to monitor his/her sedentary behaviour to reduce unhealthy routines for self-management purposes. The main contribution of this paper is two-fold: (i) an initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification; (ii) testing and evaluation of the framework, which suggest that our application is capable of substantially reducing sedentary behaviour and assisting users to be active.

  13. Growing Better Leaders for the Future: A Study in Optimizing Self-Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bassett, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... If that isn't enough, the Army continues to fight the figurative war of transformation. Success of the transformation effort lies within the Doctrine Organization Training Materiel Leadership and Education Personnel and Facilities (DOTMLPF) framework...

  14. A Self-Aware Machine Platform in Manufacturing Shop Floor Utilizing MTConnect Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    INTRODUCTION Sparked by IT megatrends , manufacturers are currently un- dergoing an operational transformation with increased agility and efficiency. Key...turned by a query may contain some data that was also re- turned as part of a previous query. To avoid data redundancy, we check the sequence numbers...4353- 4364. Coble, J., & Hines, J. W. (2009). Identifying optimal prog- nostic parameters from data: a genetic algorithms ap- proach. In Proceedings of

  15. Coming to Self-Awareness--In Search of an Education for Non-Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudien, Crain

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on intentionality systems theory to begin a discussion about the relationship between the act of violence and thinking. The context against which the paper is developed is the widespread incidence of violence amongst young male South Africans. With the objective of beginning a discussion about an education which responds to this…

  16. Shame as a Cultural Artifact: A Call for Self-Awareness and Reflexivity in Personality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschieri, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    It has become common for assessors to face therapeutic impasses and dilemmas when practicing within the Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model. This is due to the explicit goal of producing therapeutic changes in clients. In this article the author discusses the importance of assessors being aware of how their clinical practices relate to their assessment outcomes. To enhance such awareness, the author reviews the characteristics of psychological assessment practices as derived from 3 paradigms developed almost 1.5 centuries ago in Europe by the forefathers of psychology as a scientific discipline. Current assessment practices are deeply ingrained in specific cultural, social, and political frameworks originating in these paradigms. Being aware of such a historical and cultural background might help the assessor avoid blindly reenacting the values, norms, and latent relational schemas implied by different assessment methods, and instead use assessment tools as potent aids in the service of clients' change. Finally, the author illustrates how the experience of clients' shame in psychological assessment might also be understood as a by-product of the specific cultural and historical background of certain common assessment practices.

  17. Interactive Check System for Facilitating Self-awareness of Dorm Students in Upper Secondary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Akamatsu , Shigenori; Yoshida , Masanobu; Satoh , Hironobu; Yamaguchi , Takumi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We describe a new interactive system using a social learning platform to provide dormitory students with the ability to communicate with teachers/advisors in a timely manner to promote self-active awareness of the dormitory environment. Our system comprises tablet PCs, cloud computing services, and application and server software to enable collaboration over a high-speed wireless local area network that covers the campus, dormitory, and teachers’ homes. The purpose of ...

  18. Overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA with Diminished PAI-1 Related to Metastasis in Ductal Breast Cancer Patients Attending a Public Hospital in Mexico City

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    Luis Miguel Barajas-Castañeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix metalloproteases and the fibrinolytic system are important protease systems interacting with each other in charge of remodeling and recycling of tissues. Their role in tumor invasion and metastasis is often discussed. In this study several metalloproteases such as MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 together with molecules from the fibrinolytic system like uPA, its receptor uPAR, and its inhibitor, PAI-1, were studied by immune-histochemistry to establish a comparison with and without metastasis. From the (118 primary tumors of Mexican patients with ductal breast cancer studied, 56% were grade II and 69% were size T2; the group with metastatic ganglia included 64 samples (54.3%. In patients with metastasis the estimated expression of MMP-3 and uPA (resp., 28% and 45% was higher than that from no metastatic tumors; it means there is higher expression of both markers in metastatic tumors (p<0.05. At the same time, metastatic tumors showed statistically significant lower signal of PAI-1 (24% than tumors without metastasis (p<0.05. We concluded that overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA, altogether with diminished expression of PAI-1 from metastatic tumors, might be a crucial step towards metastasis in ductal breast cancer. Nevertheless, additional studies in different populations are necessary to establish a pattern.

  19. Dwarfism in Mice Lacking Collagen-binding Integrins α2β1 and α11β1 Is Caused by Severely Diminished IGF-1 Levels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumbach, Katrin; Niehoff, Anja; Belgardt, Bengt F.; Ehlen, Harald W. A.; Schmitz, Markus; Hallinger, Ralf; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Brüning, Jens C.; Krieg, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Gullberg, Donald; Eckes, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Mice with a combined deficiency in the α2β1 and α11β1 integrins lack the major receptors for collagen I. These mutants are born with inconspicuous differences in size but develop dwarfism within the first 4 weeks of life. Dwarfism correlates with shorter, less mineralized and functionally weaker bones that do not result from growth plate abnormalities or osteoblast dysfunction. Besides skeletal dwarfism, internal organs are correspondingly smaller, indicating proportional dwarfism and suggesting a systemic cause for the overall size reduction. In accordance with a critical role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in growth control and bone mineralization, circulating IGF-1 levels in the sera of mice lacking either α2β1 or α11β1 or both integrins were sharply reduced by 39%, 64%, or 81% of normal levels, respectively. Low hepatic IGF-1 production resulted from diminished growth hormone-releasing hormone expression in the hypothalamus and, subsequently, reduced growth hormone expression in the pituitary glands of these mice. These findings point out a novel role of collagen-binding integrin receptors in the control of growth hormone/IGF-1-dependent biological activities. Thus, coupling hormone secretion to extracellular matrix signaling via integrins represents a novel concept in the control of endocrine homeostasis. PMID:22210772

  20. Dwarfism in mice lacking collagen-binding integrins α2β1 and α11β1 is caused by severely diminished IGF-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumbach, Katrin; Niehoff, Anja; Belgardt, Bengt F; Ehlen, Harald W A; Schmitz, Markus; Hallinger, Ralf; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Brüning, Jens C; Krieg, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Gullberg, Donald; Eckes, Beate

    2012-02-24

    Mice with a combined deficiency in the α2β1 and α11β1 integrins lack the major receptors for collagen I. These mutants are born with inconspicuous differences in size but develop dwarfism within the first 4 weeks of life. Dwarfism correlates with shorter, less mineralized and functionally weaker bones that do not result from growth plate abnormalities or osteoblast dysfunction. Besides skeletal dwarfism, internal organs are correspondingly smaller, indicating proportional dwarfism and suggesting a systemic cause for the overall size reduction. In accordance with a critical role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in growth control and bone mineralization, circulating IGF-1 levels in the sera of mice lacking either α2β1 or α11β1 or both integrins were sharply reduced by 39%, 64%, or 81% of normal levels, respectively. Low hepatic IGF-1 production resulted from diminished growth hormone-releasing hormone expression in the hypothalamus and, subsequently, reduced growth hormone expression in the pituitary glands of these mice. These findings point out a novel role of collagen-binding integrin receptors in the control of growth hormone/IGF-1-dependent biological activities. Thus, coupling hormone secretion to extracellular matrix signaling via integrins represents a novel concept in the control of endocrine homeostasis.

  1. Trichoderma harzianum containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and chitinase improved growth and diminished adverse effect caused by Fusarium oxysporum in soybean.

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    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Lidong; Liu, Jidong; Chen, Long; Fan, Xiaoning; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Ke; He, Yuting; Chen, Chen; Ji, Xiue

    2017-03-01

    An isolate, named Trichoderma harzianum T-soybean, showed growth-promoting for soybean seedlings and induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse. Compared to control soybean seedlings, fresh weight, dry weight, lateral root number, chlorophyll content, root activity and soluble protein of plants pretreated with T-soybean increased, but initial pod height reduced. Furthermore, we found that T-soybean inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum by parasitic function. In addition, plate test results showed that culture filtrates of T-soybean also inhibited significantly F. oxysporum growth. Meanwhile, T-soybean treatment obviously reduced disease severity and induced quickly the H 2 O 2 and O 2 - burst as well as pathogenesis related protein gene (PR3) expression after F. oxysporum inoculation, and subsequently diminished the cell damage in soybean caused by the pathogen challenge. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes activity analysis showed that the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in T-soybean pretreated plants. These results suggested that T-soybean treatment induced resistance in soybean seedlings to F. oxysporum by companying the production of ROS and the increasing of ROS scavenging enzymes activity as well as PR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Diminished disease progression rate in a chronic kidney disease population following the replacement of dietary water source with quality drinking water: A pilot study.

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    Siriwardhana, Edirisinghe Arachchige Ranga Iroshanie Edirisinghe; Perera, Ponnamperuma Aratchige Jayasumana; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Abeysekara, Tilak; Nugegoda, Danaseela Bandara; Weerakoon, Kosala; Siriwardhana, Dunusingha Asitha Surandika

    2018-05-01

    Environmental toxin/s is alleged to be the contributory factor for the chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. The potential of drinking water as a medium for the nephrotoxic agents in the affected subjects has been comprehensively discoursed in the recent past. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of replacing the habitual drinking water on the kidney function of CKDu patients residing in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka: METHODS: An interventional study was carried out to assess the disease progression rate of a CKDu population whose habitual drinking water was replaced by bottled spring water certified by Sri Lanka Standard (SLS) for a period of 18 month along with a population of CKDu patients who continued with their usual drinking water. Kidney function of subjects in both groups were monitored in terms of blood pressure, serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein at 6 months intervals during the intervention and follow up periods. Diminished disease progression rate was observed in CKDu patients in the intervention group when compared with the non- intervention group based on serum creatinine, Hb, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein levels. Extensive interventional studies are required to generalize effect of drinking water on CKDu population. The habitual drinking water is likely to be a contributory factor towards the progression of the disease. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Increased endothelin-1 and diminished nitric oxide levels in blister fluids of patients with intermediate cold type complex regional pain syndrome type 1

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    Niehof Sjoerd

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1 pro-inflammatory mediators and vascular changes play an important role in the sustained development and outcome of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of vasoactive substances endothelin-1 (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO during early chronic CRPS1. Methods Included were 29 patients with CRPS 1 who were diagnosed during the acute stage of their disease and observed during follow-up visits. Disease activity and impairment were determined and artificial suction blisters were made on the CRPS1 and the contralateral extremities for measurements of IL-6, TNF-α, ET-1 and nitrate/nitrite (NOx. Results The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and ET-1 in blister fluid in the CRPS1 extremity versus the contralateral extremity were significantly increased and correlated with each other, whereas NOx levels were decreased. Conclusion The NOx/ET-1 ratio appears to be disturbed in the intermediate stage of CRPS, resulting in vasoconstriction and consequently in a diminished tissue blood distribution.

  4. Diminished metabolic responses to centrally-administered apelin-13 in diet-induced obese rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K J; Whitaker, K W; Reyes, T M

    2009-02-01

    The central administration of apelin, a recently identified adipokine, has been shown to affect food and water intake. The present study investigated whether body weight could affect an animal's response to apelin. The effects of centrally-administered apelin-13 on food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were investigated in adult male diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed either a high fat (32%) or control diet. Rats were administered i.c.v. apelin-13, 15-30 min prior to lights out, and food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were assessed. Intracerebroventricular administration of apelin-13 decreased food and water intake and respiratory exchange ratio in DIO rats on the control diet, but had no effect in DIO rats on the high-fat diet. In an effort to identify potential central mechanisms explaining the observed physiological responses, the mRNA level of the apelin receptor, APJ, was examined in the hypothalamus. A high-fat diet induced an up-regulation of the expression of the receptor. Apelin induced a down-regulation of the receptor, but only in the DIO animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a diminished central nervous system response to apelin that is coincident with obesity.

  5. Work to diminish the danger of forest fires in the municipalities San Antonio del Sur and Imías, Guantánamo

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    Edelmys Perez Pereda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the forest patrimony in San Antonio and Imías municipality in the province of Guantánamo, with the aim to propose actions to diminish the occurrence and propagation of the forest fires in the municipalities objects of study. For this, the temporal distribution of fires and burned areas, in the period 2006-2015, through the year, the week and the day was taken into account and also the causes that povoque the fires. With these elements, the activities to be carried out to reduce the occurrence and propagation of forest fires were planned. The data were obtained in the fire reports of the CGB of Guantánamo province. Among the significant results train, the recent years the number of fire events has increased, most of them occur between march and may; usually from 8:00 am to 9:00 pm and the weekend is where there is the greatest risk of occurrence. The general cause that provoque the greatest number of fires is negligence. Therefore, it is necessary to implement an adequate protection plan against fire making great emphasis on the prevention of fires provoqued by humans and to take measures to modify the structure and composition of the combustible material.

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Diminished Ovarian Reserve in ART Cycles of Women Up to Age 40 Years: The Role of Insurance Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Samantha F.; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Dokras, Anuja; Seifer, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective To explore correlates of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) and predictors of ART treatment outcome in DOR cycles using the SART-CORS database. We hypothesized that state insurance coverage for ART is associated with the prevalence of DOR diagnosis in ART cycles and with treatment outcomes in DOR cycles. Design Cross sectional study using ART cycles between 2004–2007. Setting United States ART registry data. Patients 182,779 fresh, non-donor, initial ART cycles in women up to age 40. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of DOR and elevated FSH, odds ratio of DOR and elevated FSH in ART mandated vs. non-mandated states, live birth rates. Results Compared to cycles performed in states with mandated ART coverage, cycles in states with no ART mandate were more likely to have DOR (AOR 1.43 95% CI 1.37–1.5, pcycles. Conclusions A significant association was observed between lack of mandated insurance for ART and the proportion of cycles treating DOR or elevated FSH. The presence or absence of state mandated ART coverage could impact access to care and the mix of patients that pursue and initiate ART cycles. Additional studies are needed that consider the coalescence of insurance mandates, patient and provider factors, and state level variables on the odds of specific infertility diagnoses and treatment prognosis. PMID:23102859

  7. The pervasive crisis of diminishing radiation therapy access for vulnerable populations in the United States, part 1: African-American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Page, Brandi R; Jaboin, Jerry J; Chapman, Christina H; Deville, Curtiland; Thomas, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    African Americans experience the highest burden of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States and have been persistently less likely to receive interventional care, even when such care has been proven superior to conservative management by randomized controlled trials. The presence of disparities in access to radiation therapy (RT) for African American cancer patients has rarely been examined in an expansive fashion. An extensive literature search was performed using the PubMed database to examine studies investigating disparities in RT access for African Americans. A total of 55 studies were found, spanning 11 organ systems. Disparities in access to RT for African Americans were most prominently study in cancers of the breast (23 studies), prostate (7 studies), gynecologic system (5 studies), and hematologic system (5 studies). Disparities in RT access for African Americans were prevalent regardless of organ system studied and often occurred independently of socioeconomic status. Fifty of 55 studies (91%) involved analysis of a population-based database such as Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER; 26 studies), SEER-Medicare (5 studies), National Cancer Database (3 studies), or a state tumor registry (13 studies). African Americans in the United States have diminished access to RT compared with Caucasian patients, independent of but often in concert with low socioeconomic status. These findings underscore the importance of finding systemic and systematic solutions to address these inequalities to reduce the barriers that patient race provides in receipt of optimal cancer care.

  8. Scaffold hopping from (5-hydroxymethyl) isophthalates to multisubstituted pyrimidines diminishes binding affinity to the C1 domain of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzani, Riccardo; Tarvainen, Ilari; Brandoli, Giulia; Lempinen, Antti; Artes, Sanna; Turku, Ainoleena; Jäntti, Maria Helena; Talman, Virpi; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Tuominen, Raimo K; Boije Af Gennäs, Gustav

    2018-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms play a pivotal role in the regulation of numerous cellular functions, making them extensively studied and highly attractive drug targets. Utilizing the crystal structure of the PKCδ C1B domain, we have developed hydrophobic isophthalic acid derivatives that modify PKC functions by binding to the C1 domain of the enzyme. In the present study, we aimed to improve the drug-like properties of the isophthalic acid derivatives by increasing their solubility and enhancing the binding affinity. Here we describe the design and synthesis of a series of multisubstituted pyrimidines as analogs of C1 domain-targeted isophthalates and characterize their binding affinities to the PKCα isoform. In contrast to our computational predictions, the scaffold hopping from phenyl to pyrimidine core diminished the binding affinity. Although the novel pyrimidines did not establish improved binding affinity for PKCα compared to our previous isophthalic acid derivatives, the present results provide useful structure-activity relationship data for further development of ligands targeted to the C1 domain of PKC.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate adriamycin-induced nephropathy by diminishing oxidative stress and inflammation via downregulation of the NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Hwan; Jung, Kyong-Jin; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Joo-Young; Sung, Eon-Gi; Bae, Young Chul; Park, Yong Hoon

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanism mitigating progress of chronic nephropathy by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Rats were divided into normal control (Normal), adriamycin (ADR)+vehicle (CON), and ADR+MSC (MSC) groups. Nephropathy was induced by ADR (4 mg/kg) and MSCs (2 × 10 6 ) were injected. Rats were euthanized 1 or 6 weeks after ADR injection. NF-kB, MAPKs, inflammation, oxidative stress, profibrotic molecules, and nephrin expression were evaluated. Electron and light microscopy were used for structural analysis. MSCs were co-cultured with renal tubular epithelial cells or splenocytes to evaluate relation with oxidative stress and inflammatory molecules RESULTS: Adriamycin treatment upregulated inflammation, oxidative stress, and profibrotic molecules; this was mitigated by MSCs. Glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis were observed in ADR-treated groups, and were more prominent in the CON group than in the MSC group. Fusion of foot processes and loss of slit diaphragms were also more prominent in the CON group than in the MSC group. In vitro, MSCs reduced oxidative stress related molecules, inflammatory cytokines, and NF-kB transcription. MSC- or ADR-induced regulation of NF-kB transcriptional activity was confirmed by a luciferase reporter assay. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate ADR-induced nephropathy by diminishing oxidative stress and inflammation via downregulation of NF-kB. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Evaluation on diminishing effects of DNA damaging potential by humic substances using the bacillus subtilis rec-assay; Karekusakin rec-assay wo mochiita fuminsan ni yoru DNA sonshosei kaizen koka no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Takigami, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Matsui, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-05-22

    Antimutagenic effect of humic substances has been reported by various investigators. In this research, the diminishing effect of DNA damaging toxicity by humic acid was evaluated for the influent and effluent of activated sludge tank receiving municipal wastewater and several DNA damaging chemicals (e.g., pyrene, 1-aminopyrene and benzo(a)pyrene) using Bacillus subtilis rec-assay. The diminishing effect was not apparent for influent but observed in the effluent. Among the DNA damaging chemicals, the DNA toxicity was effectively suppressed by humic acid for pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene. However, the effect was relatively smaller for 1-aminopyrene. 19 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. RNA interference targeting carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 diminishes macrophage accumulation, inhibits MMP-9 expression and promotes lung recovery in murine pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Yoshiro; Tomoda, Koichi; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-12-09

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are an important mediators in inflammation and leukocyte trafficking. However, their roles in pulmonary emphysema have not been explored. In a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema, we found increased carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3), a specific enzyme that synthesizes chondroitin 6-sulfate proteoglycan (C6SPG). To elucidate the role of C6SPG, we investigated the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting CHST3 that inhibits C6SPG-synthesis on the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CHST3 siRNA or negative control siRNA on day0 and 7 after intratracheal instillation of elastase. Histology, respiratory function, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) content, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), elastin staining and gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mRNA were evaluated on day7 and/or day21. CHST3 mRNA increased at day 7 and decreased thereafter in lung. CHST3 siRNA successfully inhibited the expression of CHST3 mRNA throughout the study and this was associated with significant reduction of GAGs and C6SPG. Airway destruction and respiratory function were improved by the treatment with CHST3 siRNA. CHST3 siRNA reduced the number of macrophages both in BAL and lung parenchyma and also suppressed the increased expressions of TNF-α and MMP-9 mRNA. Futhermore, CHST3 siRNA improved the reduction of the elastin in the alveolar walls. CHST3 siRNA diminishes accumulation of excessive macrophages and the mediators, leading to accelerate the functional recovery from airway damage by repair of the elastin network associated with pulmonary emphysema.

  12. Diminished superoxide generation is associated with respiratory chain dysfunction and changes in the mitochondrial proteome of sensory neurons from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akude, Eli; Zherebitskaya, Elena; Chowdhury, Subir K Roy; Smith, Darrell R; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Fernyhough, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Impairments in mitochondrial function have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of diabetic sensory neuropathy. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in axons of sensory neurons in type 1 diabetes is due to abnormal activity of the respiratory chain and an altered mitochondrial proteome. Proteomic analysis using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) determined expression of proteins in mitochondria from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of control, 22-week-old streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with insulin. Rates of oxygen consumption and complex activities in mitochondria from DRG were measured. Fluorescence imaging of axons of cultured sensory neurons determined the effect of diabetes on mitochondrial polarization status, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial matrix-specific reactive oxygen species (ROS). Proteins associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, ubiquinone biosynthesis, and the citric acid cycle were downregulated in diabetic samples. For example, cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV; a complex IV protein) and NADH dehydrogenase Fe-S protein 3 (NDUFS3; a complex I protein) were reduced by 29 and 36% (P neurons exhibited oxidative stress and depolarized mitochondria, an aberrant adaption to oligomycin-induced mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, but reduced levels of intramitochondrial superoxide compared with control. Abnormal mitochondrial function correlated with a downregulation of mitochondrial proteins, with components of the respiratory chain targeted in lumbar DRG in diabetes. The reduced activity of the respiratory chain was associated with diminished superoxide generation within the mitochondrial matrix and did not contribute to oxidative stress in axons of diabetic neurons. Alternative pathways involving polyol pathway activity appear to contribute to raised ROS in axons of diabetic neurons under high glucose concentration.

  13. Increase of extracellular glutamate concentration increases its oxidation and diminishes glucose oxidation in isolated mouse hippocampus: reversible by TFB-TBOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Felipe Vasconcelos; Hansen, Fernanda; Locks-Coelho, Lucas Doridio

    2013-08-01

    Glutamate concentration at the synaptic level must be kept low in order to prevent excitotoxicity. Astrocytes play a key role in brain energetics, and also astrocytic glutamate transporters are responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in CNS. Experiments with primary astrocytic cultures suggest that increased influx of glutamate cotransported with sodium at astrocytes favors its flux to the tricarboxylic acid cycle instead of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Although metabolic coupling can be considered an emergent field of research with important recent discoveries, some basic aspects of glutamate metabolism still have not been characterized in brain tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of extracellular glutamate is able to modulate the use of glutamate and glucose as energetic substrates. For this purpose, isolated hippocampi of mice were incubated with radiolabeled substrates, and CO2 radioactivity and extracellular lactate were measured. Our results point to a diminished oxidation of glucose with increasing extracellular glutamate concentration, glutamate presumably being the fuel, and might suggest that oxidation of glutamate could buffer excitotoxic conditions by high glutamate concentrations. In addition, these findings were reversed when glutamate uptake by astrocytes was impaired by the presence of (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-L-aspartic acid (TFB-TBOA). Taken together, our findings argue against the lactate shuttle theory, because glutamate did not cause any detectable increase in extracellular lactate content (or, presumably, in glycolysis), because the glutamate is being used as fuel instead of going to glutamine and back to neurons. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence

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    Douglas S. Kernodle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  15. RNA-seq reveals a diminished acclimation response to the combined effects of ocean acidification and elevated seawater temperature in Pagothenia borchgrevinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Troy J; Place, Sean P

    2016-08-01

    The IPCC has reasserted the strong influence of anthropogenic CO2 contributions on global climate change and highlighted the polar-regions as highly vulnerable. With these predictions the cold adapted fauna endemic to the Southern Ocean, which is dominated by fishes of the sub-order Notothenioidei, will face considerable challenges in the near future. Recent physiological studies have demonstrated that the synergistic stressors of elevated temperature and ocean acidification have a considerable, although variable, impact on notothenioid fishes. The present study explored the transcriptomic response of Pagothenia borchgrevinki to increased temperatures and pCO2 after 7, 28 and 56days of acclimation. We compared this response to short term studies assessing heat stress alone and foretell the potential impacts of these stressors on P. borchgrevinki's ability to survive a changing Southern Ocean. P. borchgrevinki did demonstrate a coordinated stress response to the dual-stressor condition, and even indicated that some level of inducible heat shock response may be conserved in this notothenioid species. However, the stress response of P. borchgrevinki was considerably less robust than that observed previously in the closely related notothenioid, Trematomus bernacchii, and varied considerably when compared across different acclimation time-points. Furthermore, the molecular response of these fish under multiple stressors displayed distinct differences compared to their response to short term heat stress alone. When exposed to increased sea surface temperatures, combined with ocean acidification, P. borchgrevinki demonstrated a coordinated stress response that has already peaked by 7days of acclimation and quickly diminished over time. However, this response is less dramatic than other closely related notothenioids under identical conditions, supporting previous research suggesting that this notothenioid species is less sensitive to environmental variation. Copyright

  16. Climate Benefits of Potential Avoided Emissions from Forest Conversion Diminished by Albedo Warming: Comprehensive, Data-Driven Assessment for the US and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. A.; Gu, H.; Jiao, T.

    2017-12-01

    Avoided deforestation is a leading pathway for climate change mitigation, featuring prominently in many country's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, but its climate benefits remain contested, in part because of reports of large offsetting effects in some regions of the world. It is well known that avoiding forest to non-forest conversion prevents forest carbon release, and sustains forest carbon uptake, but also increases albedo thus diminishing the potency of this mitigation strategy. While the mechanisms are known, their relative importance and the resulting climate benefit remain unclear. This is in part due to a lack of quantitative assessments documenting geographic variation in rates of forest conversion, associated carbon emissions, resulting radiative forcing, and the magnitude of simultaneous albedo offsets. This study (i) quantifies the current rate of forest conversion and carbon release in the United States with Landsat remote sensing and a carbon assessment framework, and (ii) compares this to quantitative estimates of the radiative forcing from the corresponding albedo change. Albedo radiative forcing is assessed with a recently-generated, global atlas of land-cover-specific albedos derived from a fusion of MODIS and Landsat reflectances, combined with snow cover and solar radiation datasets. We document the degree to which albedo warming offsets carbon cooling from contemporary forest conversions taking place in different regions of the United States and identify the underlying drivers of spatial variability. We then extend this to other regions of the world where forests are under threat and where avoided deforestation is viewed as a primary tool for climate mitigation. Results shed light on the, at times contentious, debate about the efficacy of forest protection as a mitigation mechanism.

  17. Diabetes diminishes the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to vasopressin via vasopressin receptor and Gα proteins regulations in cirrhotic rats.

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    Jing-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal-systemic collateral formation and bleeding. The hemostatic effect is influenced by the response of collateral vessels to vasoconstrictors. Diabetes and glucose also influence vasoresponsiveness, but their net effect on collaterals remains unexplored. This study investigated the impact of diabetes or glucose application on portal-systemic collateral vasoresponsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP in cirrhosis. Spraque-Dawley rats with bile duct ligation (BDL-induced cirrhosis received vehicle (citrate buffer or streptozotocin (diabetic, BDL/STZ. The in situ collateral perfusion was done after hemodynamic measurements: Both were perfused with Krebs solution, D-glucose, or D-glucose and NaF, with additional OPC-31260 for the BDL/STZ group. Splenorenal shunt vasopressin receptors and Gα proteins mRNA expressions were evaluated. The survival rate of cirrhotic rats was decreased by STZ injection. The collateral perfusion pressure changes to AVP were lower in STZ-injected groups, which were reversed by OPC-31260 (a V2R antagonist and overcome by NaF (a G protein activator. The splenorenal shunt V2R mRNA expression was increased while Gα proteins mRNA expressions were decreased in BDL/STZ rats compared to BDL rats. The Gαq and Gα11 mRNA expressions also correlated with the maximal perfusion pressure changes to AVP. Diabetes diminished the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to AVP in rats with BDL-induced cirrhosis, probably via V2 receptor up-regulation and Gα proteins down-regulation.

  18. Distribution of the FMR1 gene in females by race/ethnicity: women with diminished ovarian reserve versus women with normal fertility (SWAN study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Lisa M; Young, Steven L; Manichaikul, Ani; Baker, Valerie L; Wang, Xin Q; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2017-01-01

    To study whether reported, but inconsistent, associations between the FMR1 CGG repeat lengths in the intermediate, high normal, or low normal range differentiate women diagnosed with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) from population controls and whether associations vary by race/ethnic group. Case-control study. Academic and private fertility clinics. DOR cases (n = 129; 95 Whites, 22 Asian, 12 other) from five U.S. fertility clinics were clinically diagnosed, with regular menses and no fragile X syndrome family history. Normal fertility controls (n = 803; 386 Whites, 219 African-Americans, 102 Japanese, 96 Chinese) from the United States-based SWAN Study had one or more menstrual period in the 3 months pre-enrollment, one or more pregnancy, no history of infertility or hormone therapy, and menopause ≥46 years. Previously, the SWAN Chinese and Japanese groups had similar FMR1 CGG repeat lengths, thus they were combined. None. FMR1 CGG repeat lengths. Median CGG repeats were nearly identical by case/control group. DOR cases had fewer CGG repeats in the shorter FMR1 allele than controls among Whites, but this was not significant among Asians. White cases had fewer CGG repeats in the shorter allele than Asian cases. No significant differences were found in the high normal/intermediate range between cases and controls or by race/ethnic group within cases in the longer allele. This study refutes prior reports of an association between DOR and high normal/intermediate repeats and confirms an association between DOR and low normal repeats in Whites. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased expression of cyclin B1 mRNA coincides with diminished G2-phase arrest in irradiated HeLa cells treated with staurosporine or caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, E.J.; Maity, A.; McKenna, W.G.; Muschel, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The irradiation of cells results in delayed progression through the G 2 phase of the cell cycle. Treatment of irradiated HeLa cells with caffeine greatly reduces the G 2 -phase delay, while caffeine does not alter progression of cells through the cell cycle in unirradiated cells. In this report we demonstrate that treatment of HeLa cells with the kinase inhibitor staurosporine, but not with the inhibitor H7, also results in a reduction of the G 2 -phase arrest after irradiation. Cell cycle progression in unirradiated cells is unaffected by 4.4 nM (2ng/ml) staurosporine, which releases the radiation-induced G 2 -phase arrest. In HeLa cells, the G 2 -phase delay after irradiation in S phase is accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin B1 mRNA. Coincident with the reduction in G 2 -phase delay, we observed an increase in cyclin B1 mRNA accumulation in irradiated, staurosporine-treated cells compared to cells treated with irradiation alone. Caffeine treatment of irradiated HeLa cells also resulted in an elevation in the levels of cyclin B1 message. These results support the hypothesis that diminished cyclin B1 mRNA levels influence G 2 -phase arrest to some degree. The findings that both staurosporine and caffeine treatments reverse the depression in cyclin B1 expression suggest that these two compounds may act on a common pathway of cell cycle control in response to radiation injury. 33 refs., 6 figs

  20. Acute Ischemia Induced by High-Density Culture Increases Cytokine Expression and Diminishes the Function and Viability of Highly Purified Human Islets of Langerhans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate E; Kelly, Amy C; Min, Catherine G; Weber, Craig S; McCarthy, Fiona M; Steyn, Leah V; Badarinarayana, Vasudeo; Stanton, J Brett; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Strop, Peter; Gruessner, Angelika C; Lynch, Ronald M; Limesand, Sean W; Papas, Klearchos K

    2017-11-01

    Encapsulation devices have the potential to enable cell-based insulin replacement therapies (such as human islet or stem cell-derived β cell transplantation) without immunosuppression. However, reasonably sized encapsulation devices promote ischemia due to high β cell densities creating prohibitively large diffusional distances for nutrients. It is hypothesized that even acute ischemic exposure will compromise the therapeutic potential of cell-based insulin replacement. In this study, the acute effects of high-density ischemia were investigated in human islets to develop a detailed profile of early ischemia induced changes and targets for intervention. Human islets were exposed in a pairwise model simulating high-density encapsulation to normoxic or ischemic culture for 12 hours, after which viability and function were measured. RNA sequencing was conducted to assess transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression. Islet viability after acute ischemic exposure was reduced compared to normoxic culture conditions (P < 0.01). Insulin secretion was also diminished, with ischemic β cells losing their insulin secretory response to stimulatory glucose levels (P < 0.01). RNA sequencing revealed 657 differentially expressed genes following ischemia, with many that are associated with increased inflammatory and hypoxia-response signaling and decreased nutrient transport and metabolism. In order for cell-based insulin replacement to be applied as a treatment for type 1 diabetes, oxygen and nutrient delivery to β cells will need to be maintained. We demonstrate that even brief ischemic exposure such as would be experienced in encapsulation devices damages islet viability and β cell function and leads to increased inflammatory signaling.

  1. Levels and associations among self-esteem, fertility distress, coping, and reaction to potentially being a genetic carrier in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmeli, Ceylan; Lobel, Marci; Franasiak, Jason; Pastore, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    To measure the level of distress and its relationship with other psychologic factors in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) who participated in a fragile X genetics study. Longitudinal data analyzed with structural equation modeling. Four U.S. private and academic fertility centers. Sixty-two infertile patients with DOR. None. Fertility Problem Inventory, Coping Scale for Infertile Couples, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Health Orientation Scale. Nineteen percent had low fertility distress, 56% had average fertility distress, and 24% had high fertility distress. Thirty-six percent self-reported a "favorable" or "very favorable" emotional response to potentially being a fragile X carrier (termed "emotions"), 53% were "ambivalent," and 11% had an unfavorable reaction. Three months after learning that they were not a carrier, these percentages were 91%, 9%, and 0%, respectively. Emotions at this second time point were significantly more positive than at pretesting. At baseline, higher self-esteem was a significant predictor of reduced fertility distress both directly and indirectly through emotions. Fertility distress was not associated with coping. Self-esteem, fertility distress, pretesting emotions, and coping were unrelated to posttesting emotions. The potential of having an explanation for one's DOR condition may have a beneficial impact on women's psychologic states during the process of genetic testing, and this appeared to be especially true for women with higher self-esteem. Psychologic interventions targeted to women with low self-esteem may reduce distress and improve reactions to genetic testing. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Melatonin on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technique Cycles in Women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve: A Double-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahia Namavar Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR significantly decreases the success rate of the assisted reproductive technique (ART. In this study, we assessed the effect of melatonin on the ART outcomes in women with DOR. A double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was performed on 80 women with DOR as a pilot study in Shiraz, between 2014 and 2015. DOR was defined as the presence of 2 of the following 3 criteria: 1 anti-Müllerian hormone ≤1, 2 folliclestimulating hormone ≥10, and 3 bilateral antral follicle count ≤6. The women received 3 mg/d melatonin or a placebo since the fifth day of one cycle prior to gonadotropin stimulation and continued the treatment up to the time of ovum pickup. The ART outcomes were compared between the groups using SPSS software. Finally, there were 32 women in the case and 34 in the placebo groups. The mean age and basal ovarian reserve test were the same between the groups. The serum estradiol level on the triggering day was significantly higher in the case group (P=0.005. The mean number of MII oocytes was higher in the case group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Number of the patients who had mature MII oocytes (P=0.014, top-quality embryos with grade 1 (P=0.049, and embryos with grades 1 and 2 (P=0.014 was higher among the women who received melatonin. However, the other ART outcomes were not different between the groups. The serum estradiol level was higher and more women with DOR had good-quality oocytes and embryos after receiving melatonin; however, no other outcome was different between the case and control groups. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014041417264N1

  3. Programmed death-ligand 1 expression correlates with diminished CD8+ T cell infiltration and predicts poor prognosis in anal squamous cell carcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2017-12-01

    =0.0443 and a non-statistically significant trend toward longer overall survival (P=0.0882 and P=0.1222 compared with patients with positive PD-L1 expression.Conclusion: PD-L1 is widely expressed on the membrane of tumor cells and TIMCs in ASCCs. Its negative impact on prognosis may be due to the diminished CD8+ T cell infiltration within tumors. Keywords: CD8, PD-L1, HPV, tumor infiltrating mononuclear cells

  4. Tyrosine and aurora kinase inhibitors diminish transport function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP 4 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon N. Hardwick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine and aurora kinases are important effectors in signal transduction pathways that are often involved in aberrant cancer cell growth. Tyrosine (TKI and aurora (AKI kinase inhibitors are anti-cancer agents specifically designed to target such signaling pathways through TKI/AKI binding to the ATP-binding pocket of kinases thereby leading to diminished kinase activity. Some TKIs have been identified as inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, which are commonly upregulated in malignant cells. TKI/AKIs have been investigated as ABC transporter inhibitors in order to facilitate the accumulation of concomitantly administered chemo-therapeutics within cancer cells. However, ABC transporters are prominently expressed in the liver and other eliminating organs, and their inhibition has been linked to intracellular accumulation of drugs, altered disposition, and toxicity. The potential for TKIs/AKIs to inhibit other important hepatic efflux transporters, particularly multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs, remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to compare the inhibitory potency of 20 selected TKI/AKIs against MRP4 and BCRP through the use of inverted membrane vesicle assays. Relative IC50 values were estimated by determining TKI/AKI inhibition of MRP4-mediated [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate uptake and BCRP-mediated [3H]-estrone sulfate uptake. To provide insight to the clinical relevance of TKI/AKI inhibition of ABC efflux transporters, the ratio of the steady-state maximum total plasma concentration (Css to the IC50 for each compound was calculated with Css/IC50 ratio >0.1 deemed potentially clinically relevant. Such analysis identified several potentially clinically relevant inhibitors of MRP4: alisertib, danusertib, erlotinib, lapatinib, neratinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, and tozasertib. The potentially clinically relevant inhibition of

  5. Adolescent Female Cannabinoid Exposure Diminishes the Reward-Facilitating Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and d-Amphetamine in the Adult Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Panagis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ9-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ9-THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle during postnatal days 28–50. As adults, females were mated with drug-naïve males. We then assessed potential alterations of the Δ9-THC’s (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p. and d-amphetamine’s (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p. reward-modifying effects using the curve-shift variant of the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS procedure in their adult male F1 offspring. The reward-facilitating effect of the 0.1 mg dose of Δ9-THC was abolished in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ9-THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, whereas the reward-attenuating effect of the 1 mg dose of Δ9-THC remained unaltered. The reward-facilitating effects of 0.5 and 1 mg of d-amphetamine were significantly decreased in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ9-THC (1 mg/kg and 0.1 or 1 mg, respectively. The present results reveal that female Δ9-THC exposure during adolescence can diminish the reward-facilitating effects of Δ9-THC and d-amphetamine in the adult male offspring. These transgenerational effects occur in the absence of in utero exposure. It is speculated that Δ9-THC exposure during female adolescence may affect neural mechanisms that are shaping reward-related behavioral responses in a subsequent generation, as indicated by the shifts in the reward-facilitating effects of commonly used and abused drugs.

  6. Angiogenic imbalance and diminished matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 underlie regional decreases in uteroplacental vascularization and feto-placental growth in hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Junior, Carlos A; Chen, Juanjuan; Cui, Ning; Chiang, Charles L; Zhu, Minglin; Ren, Zongli; Possomato-Vieira, Jose S; Khalil, Raouf A

    2017-12-15

    Preeclampsia is a form of hypertension-in-pregnancy (HTN-Preg) with unclear mechanism. Generalized reduction of uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) could be an initiating event leading to uteroplacental ischemia, angiogenic imbalance, and HTN-Preg. Additional regional differences in uteroplacental blood flow could further affect the pregnancy outcome and increase the risk of preeclampsia in twin or multiple pregnancy, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. To test the hypothesis that regional differences in angiogenic balance and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) underlie regional uteroplacental vascularization and feto-placental development, we compared fetal and placental growth, and placental and myoendometrial vascularization in the proximal, middle and distal regions of the uterus (in relation to the iliac bifurcation) in normal pregnant (Preg) and RUPP rats. Maternal blood pressure and plasma anti-angiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1)/placenta growth factor (PIGF) ratio were higher, and average placentae number, placenta weight, litter size, and pup weight were less in RUPP than Preg rats. The placenta and pup number and weight were reduced, while the number and diameter of placental and adjacent myoendometrial arteries, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels/activity were increased, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was decreased in distal vs proximal uterus of Preg rats. In RUPP rats, the placenta and pup number and weight, the number and diameter of placental and myoendometrial arteries, and MMP-2 and -9 levels/activity were decreased, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was increased in distal vs proximal uterus. Treatment with sFlt-1 or RUPP placenta extract decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 in distal segments of Preg uterus, and treatment with PIGF or Preg placenta extract restored MMP levels in distal segments of RUPP uterus. Thus, in addition to the general reduction in placental and fetal growth during uteroplacental ischemia, localized angiogenic imbalance and diminished MMP-2

  7. Targeted metabolomics reveals reduced levels of polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and a smaller dimethylarginine/arginine ratio in the follicular fluid of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barca, J M Chao; Boueilh, T; Simard, G; Boucret, L; Ferré-L'Hotellier, V; Tessier, L; Gadras, C; Bouet, P E; Descamps, P; Procaccio, V; Reynier, P; May-Panloup, P

    2017-11-01

    Does the metabolomic profile of the follicular fluid (FF) of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from that of patients with a normal ovarian reserve (NOR)? The metabolomic signature of the FF reveals a significant decrease in polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and methyl arginine transferase activity in DOR patients compared to NOR patients. The composition of the FF reflects the exchanges between the oocyte and its microenvironment during its acquisition of gametic competence. Studies of the FF have allowed identification of biomarkers and metabolic pathways involved in various pathologies affecting oocyte quality, but no large metabolomic analysis in the context of ovarian ageing and DOR has been undertaken so far. This was an observational study of the FF retrieved from 57 women undergoing in vitro fertilization at the University Hospital of Angers, France, from November 2015 to September 2016. The women were classified in two groups: one including 28 DOR patients, and the other including 29 NOR patients, serving as controls. Patients were enrolled in the morning of oocyte retrieval after ovarian stimulation. Once the oocytes were isolated for fertilization and culture, the FF was pooled and centrifuged for analysis. A targeted quantitative metabolomic analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit. The FF levels of 188 metabolites and several sums and ratios of metabolic significance were assessed by multivariate and univariate analyses. A total of 136 metabolites were accurately quantified and used for calculating 23 sums and ratios. Samples were randomly divided into training and validation sets. The training set, allowed the construction of multivariate statistical models with a projection-supervised method, i.e. orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), applied to the full set of metabolites, or the penalized

  8. Transpacific Partnership (TPP Agreement. Is the commercial solution for political-military tension at the region? or Is an american strategy to diminish China influence in Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ramírez Zamudio

    2015-07-01

    several subjects, but they are members of one of the wealthiest regions in the world: Asia-Pacific and both of them attend the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC, which main goal is to establish a Free Trade Area for the 21 member economies by 2020. Unfortunately, Apec’s goal has been delayed by the lack of consensus among its members. Since 2011, the United States and other Apec Apec’s members have openly supported The Transpacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, which could be a brilliant strategy to boost the members’ economic growth through their commercial linkage in Asia-Pacific. However, the fact that China has not been invited by the U.S. to TPP poses the question of whether this strategy has intentions beyond its economic interests and seeks to diminish China’s economic political influence in Asia. If the American administration intends to exclude China from this ambitious economic integration, the Tpp’s potential will never be reached.

  9. Decreased insulin secretory response of pancreatic islets during culture in the presence of low glucose is associated with diminished 45Ca2+ net uptake, NADPH/NADP+ and GSH/GSSG ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verspohl, E.J.; Kaiser, P.; Wahl, M.; Ammon, H.P.T.

    1988-01-01

    In isolated rat pancreatic islets maintained at a physiologic glucose concentration (5.6 mM) the effect of glucose on parameters which are known to be involved in the insulin secretion coupling such as NADPH, reduced glutathione (GSH), 86 Rb + efflux, and 45 Ca ++ net uptake were investigated. The insulinotropic effect of 16.7 mM glucose was decreased with the period of culturing during the first 14 days being significant after 2 days though in control experiments both protein content and ATP levels per islet were not affected and insulin content was only slightly decreased. Both NADPH and GSH decreased with time of culture. 86 Rb + efflux which is decreased by enhancing the glucose concentration from 3 to 5.6 mM in freshly isolated islets was not affected by culturing whatsoever, even not after 14 days of culture when there was not longer any insulin responsiveness to glucose. The 45 Ca ++ net uptake was decreased during culturing. The data indicate (1) that the diminished glucose-stimulated release of insulin during culturing is not due to cell loss or simple energy disturbances, (2) that more likely it is the result of a diminished 45 Ca ++ net uptake as a consequence of the inability of islet cells to maintain proper NADPH and GSH levels, and (3) that potassium ( 86 Rb + ) efflux may not be related to changes of NADPH and GSH

  10. Shoulder surgery in the beach chair position is associated with diminished cerebral autoregulation but no differences in postoperative cognition or brain injury biomarker levels compared with supine positioning: the anesthesia patient safety foundation beach chair study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflam, Andrew; Joshi, Brijen; Brady, Kenneth; Yenokyan, Gayane; Brown, Charles; Everett, Allen; Selnes, Ola; McFarland, Edward; Hogue, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    Although controversial, failing to consider the gravitational effects of head elevation on cerebral perfusion is speculated to increase susceptibility to rare, but devastating, neurologic complications after shoulder surgery in the beach chair position (BCP). We hypothesized that patients in the BCP have diminished cerebral blood flow autoregulation than those who undergo surgery in the lateral decubitus position (LDP). A secondary aim was to examine whether there is a relationship between patient positioning during surgery and postoperative cognition or serum brain injury biomarker levels. Patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the BCP (n = 109) or LDP (n = 109) had mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. A continuous, moving Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between MAP and rScO2, generating the variable cerebral oximetry index (COx). When MAP is in the autoregulated range, COx approaches zero because there is no correlation between cerebral blood flow and arterial blood pressure. In contrast, when MAP is below the limit of autoregulation, COx is higher because there is a direct relationship between lower arterial blood pressure and lower cerebral blood flow. Thus, diminished autoregulation would be manifest as higher COx. Psychometric testing was performed before surgery and then 7 to 10 days and 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. A composite cognitive outcome was determined as the Z-score. Serum S100β, neuron-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were measured at baseline, after surgery, and on postoperative day 1. After adjusting for age and history of hypertension, COx (P = 0.035) was higher and rScO2 lower (P surgery between the BCP and the LDP groups. There was no difference in serum biomarker levels between the 2 position groups : Compared with patients in the LDP, patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the BCP are more likely to have higher COx

  11. Is Body Dysmorphic Disorder Associated with Abnormal Bodily Self-Awareness? A Study Using the Rubber Hand Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ryan A.; Enticott, Peter G.; Hohwy, Jakob; Castle, David J.; Rossell, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from past research suggests that behaviours and characteristics related to body dissatisfaction may be associated with greater instability of perceptual body image, possibly due to problems in the integration of body-related multisensory information. We investigated whether people with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a condition characterised by body image disturbances, demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which arises as a result of multisensory integration processes when a rubber hand and the participant's hidden real hand are stimulated in synchrony. Overall, differences in RHI experience between the BDD group and healthy and schizophrenia control groups (n = 17 in each) were not significant. RHI strength, however, was positively associated with body dissatisfaction and related tendencies. For the healthy control group, proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand was observed following synchronous but not asynchronous stimulation, a typical pattern when inducing the RHI. Similar drifts in proprioceptive awareness occurred for the BDD group irrespective of whether stimulation was synchronous or not. These results are discussed in terms of possible abnormalities in visual processing and multisensory integration among people with BDD. PMID:24925079

  12. In search of self-awareness: results of the National Lipid Association 2010 Lipid Pulse membership survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orringer, Carl E; Robinson, Jennifer G; La Forge, Ralph; Seymour, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a survey of the National Lipid Association (NLA) membership was developed and launched with the objective of exploring the demographics, practice patterns, and educational needs of the health professionals in our organization involved in the practice of clinical lipidology. To report the results of this survey and use this information to enable the organization to better serve the needs of our membership. A 30-question survey was administered to the NLA membership before and shortly after the Annual Scientific Sessions in May, 2010. Demographic information, test ordering patterns, educational needs and resources, and technology awareness of 640 valid respondents was assessed. The respondents represent a balanced mix of practitioners in rural and metropolitan population centers throughout the United States. Physicians represent 67%, nurse practitioners and physician assistants 16%, and pharmacists 8% of the respondents. Among physicians, 50% are internal medicine or family medicine specialists, 32% cardiologists, and 11% endocrinologists. Most working in lipid clinics reported that their clinic was financially solvent. The respondents believed that adjunctive lipoprotein testing was clinically useful in risk prediction. The greatest educational needs included statin intolerance; strategies for improving compliance; metabolic syndrome; and lipoprotein particle and apolipoprotein B concentration. The most important sources of lipid information were the Journal of Clinical Lipidology and the NLA Annual Scientific Sessions. The survey provided valuable information that may be used to better serve the practice and educational needs of the membership of the NLA. Copyright © 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Deficits in Facial Emotion Recognition Indicate Behavioral Changes and Impaired Self-Awareness after Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Milders, Maarten V.; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J.; Herben-Dekker, Meike; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial

  14. Deficits in Facial Emotion Recognition Indicate Behavioral Changes and Impaired Self-Awareness after Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Milders, Maarten V.; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J.; Herben-Dekker, Meike; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and ...

  15. The Self-Aware Organization: A Metacognitive Approach to Change Management in a Small Rural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Charles E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Educational leaders have often been ineffective in managing change in their environment. Change vectors were used in the current study to identify areas of needed change, along with a metacognitive approach to organizational change. A qualitative case study was employed to explore the use of such a metacognitive approach to change by a small rural…

  16. The Consciousness and the role of valorization. How and why the Self-awareness subjectively administers consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is most likely for anyone to ask himself at least once if it would be possible to live in a dream? Questioning the fabric of “reality” we live in consciously was one of the main doubts man ever had. It is so likely for us to answer positively to it due to so many factors; starting from the many and various facets of reality each individual envision the world, from the enormous differences we all have while perceiving and defining the reality, etc. That is why, at the conscious level, life seems almost like a dream in a dream, always hoping to wake up from the negative, unwanted version of it. That is why my assertion here, based on latest theories on consciousness and AI (artificial intelligence, aim to say that we live in between reality and dream, being “conscious” of ourselves, but not really wanting to be “aware” of what is really going on with us. Living as a human is not a path towards improvement in the way of getting rid of subjectiveness and valorization because these so-called errors make the most of human living.

  17. The Central Neural Foundations of Awareness and Self-Awareness(WHAT IS LIFE? THE NEXT 100 YEARS OF YUKAWA'S DREAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, PFAFF; Eugene M., MARTIN; William, WEINGARTEN; Vivek, VIMAL; Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University; Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University; Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University; Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University

    2008-01-01

    In the past, neuroscientists have done very well to concentrate on explaining the mechanisms for very specific, simple behaviors. For example, our laboratory's work with molecular and neural mechanisms of a simple sex behavior proved for the first time that specific biochemical reactions in specific parts of the brain govern a specific behavior [D. W. Pfaff, Drive: Neurobiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Sexual Motivation (The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999)]. Now, advances in our field coupl...

  18. Self-awareness of cognitive efficiency: Differences between healthy elderly and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiadaki, Stella; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikolaos; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2016-12-01

    Self-estimation of performance implies the ability to understand one's own performance with relatively objective terms. Up to date, few studies have addressed this topic in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The aim of the present study was to compare objective measures of performance with subjective perception of specific performance on cognitive tests and investigate differences in assessment between MCI patients and healthy elderly. Thirty-five participants diagnosed with MCI (women = 16, men = 19, mean age = 65.09 years ±SD = 7.81, mean education = 12.83 years ±SD = 4.32) and 35 control subjects similar in terms of age and education (women = 20, men = 15, mean age = 62.46 years ± SD = 9.35, mean education = 14.26 ± SD = 2.84) were examined with an extended battery of neuropsychological tests. After every test they were asked to self-evaluate their performance by comparing it to what they considered as average for people of their age and educational level. This self-evaluation was reported on a scale ranging from -100 to +100. Significant differences were found in the self-assessment patterns of the two groups in memory measures of verbal and visual delayed recall, visuospatial perception, and tests of attention. MCI patients overestimated their performance on every cognitive domain while control participants underestimated their performance on measures of verbal memory. The present results indicate that accuracy of self-report is not uniform across groups and functional areas. The discrepancies in the MCI patients indicate unawareness of their memory deficits, which is contradictory to subjective memory complaints as being an important component for clinical diagnosis.

  19. The View of the Yeti: Bringing up Children in the Spirit of Self-Awareness and Kindredship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroeck, Michel

    Using the mythical creature of the Himalayas, the Yeti, as a symbol for the prejudices and assumptions that people prematurely make about each other, this book discusses bringing up children to accept and cherish diversity and helping them to thrive in an increasingly diverse world. Directed to educators and caregivers of toddlers and…

  20. Language Assessment Literacy as Self-Awareness: "Understanding" the Role of Interpretation in Assessment and in Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The increasing influence of sociocultural theories of learning on assessment practices in second language education necessitates an expansion of the knowledge base that teacher-assessors need to develop (what teachers need to know) and related changes in the processes of language teacher education (how they learn and develop it). Teacher assessors…

  1. Self-awareness and the subconscious effect of personal pronouns on word encoding: a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Greiner, Katharina; Duregger, Cornelia; Deecke, Lüder; Thurner, Stefan

    2007-03-02

    The effect of personal pronouns such as "ein" (German for "a"), "mein" (German for "my") and "sein" (German for "his") on the processing of associated nouns was investigated using MEG. Three different encoding strategies were provided in order to vary the level of consciousness involved in verbal information processing. A shallow (alphabetic), a deep (semantic) and a very deep (contextual) encoding instruction related to visual word presentation were given to all study participants. After the encoding of pronoun-noun pairs, recognition performances of nouns only were tested. The number of correctly recognized nouns previously associated with "sein" was significantly lower than the number of correctly recognized nouns previously associated with "ein" in the shallow encoding condition. The same trend was found for "mein" associated nouns which were also less accurately recognized compared to "ein" associated nouns. Magnetic field distributions recorded during the encoding phases revealed two significant effects, one between about 200 and 400ms after stimulus onset and the other between about 500 and 800ms. The earlier effect was found over occipito-parietal sensors, whereas the later effect occurred over left frontal sensors. Within both time ranges, brain activation varied significantly as a function of associated pronoun independent of depth of word processing. In the respective areas of both time ranges, conditions including personal pronouns ("mein" and "sein") showed higher magnetic field components compared to the control condition of no personal pronouns ("ein"). Evidence is shown that early stage processing is able to distinguish between no personal and personal information, whereas later stage processing is able to distinguish between information related to oneself and to another person (self and non-self). Along with other previous reports our MEG findings support the notion that particular human brain functions involved in processing neurophysiological correlates of self and non-self can be identified.

  2. Purported use and self-awareness of cognitive and metacognitive foreign language reading strategies in tertiary education in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cabinda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the results of a Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS-based questionnaire administered to 28 university student participants. The study is carried out in a post-colonial multilingual context, Mozambique. The main aims of the paper are to assess the degree of purported use and awareness of participants own use of reading comprehension skills and strategies in a foreign language (English. The participants were tested for their reading text comprehension using an IELTS comprehension test (Cabinda, 2013. The results revealed low reading comprehension levels. Results contrast with results from the SORS-based questionnaire (Cabinda, 2013 which revealed claims of use of a wide range of cognitive, metacognitive and supply strategies – aspects of high level reading ability and text comprehension. Conclusions show that the participants used or claimed to chiefly use metacognitive and cognitive reading strategies equally, matching the behaviour of good readers, but they also reported a high degree of supply strate- gies to construe meaning from text, mainly code-switching, translation and cognates. The latter cofirms results from studies by Jimenez et al. (1995, 1996 and Zhang & Wu (2009, yet do not conclusively show a correlation between the participants’ degree of text comprehension and their effective use of reading skills and strategies to construe meaning. Further conclusions show that the reported high use of these L1 (Portuguese or other related supply strategies (not used by English L1 readers does not aid their reading comprehension. Key words : EFL, reading strategies, cognition, metacognition, awareness

  3. Is body dysmorphic disorder associated with abnormal bodily self-awareness? A study using the rubber hand illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A Kaplan

    Full Text Available Evidence from past research suggests that behaviours and characteristics related to body dissatisfaction may be associated with greater instability of perceptual body image, possibly due to problems in the integration of body-related multisensory information. We investigated whether people with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, a condition characterised by body image disturbances, demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI, which arises as a result of multisensory integration processes when a rubber hand and the participant's hidden real hand are stimulated in synchrony. Overall, differences in RHI experience between the BDD group and healthy and schizophrenia control groups (n = 17 in each were not significant. RHI strength, however, was positively associated with body dissatisfaction and related tendencies. For the healthy control group, proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand was observed following synchronous but not asynchronous stimulation, a typical pattern when inducing the RHI. Similar drifts in proprioceptive awareness occurred for the BDD group irrespective of whether stimulation was synchronous or not. These results are discussed in terms of possible abnormalities in visual processing and multisensory integration among people with BDD.

  4. SPAСE-TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF SELF-AWARENESS OF WOMEN WITH DIFFERENT EXPERIENCES MOTHERHOOD SYNERGETIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostareva Elena Nikolaevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article the question of interrelation of features of consciousness and life experience of the person is considered. Results of empirical research, which purpose - the comparative analysis existential psychosemantics structures of consciousness of women with different experience of motherhood are submitted. In structure self-consiousness of the women having children, the personal value of family well-being integrating senses of child-parental and matrimonial relations, a material prosperity and dialogue is revealed. In self-consciousness women who are not having children, the potential personal values of motherhood not connected among themselves and the leisure, focused on the future and specifying alternative variants of development and self-determination of women are found out. On the basis of methodology of synergetrics parameters of the system - structural analysis of consciousness are proved. The consciousness of the women having children is established, that, made structurally out and differs relative orderliness and stability. The consciousness of the women who are not having children, is made structurally out, but characterized by instability and rather smaller orderliness.

  5. Self-awareness review Part 1: Do you “self-reflect” or “self-ruminate”?

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Alain

    2002-01-01

    We all spend time analyzing our inner thoughts and feelings; past research looked at this activity as being unitary in nature (i.e., simply focusing on the self), examined how frequently people introspect, and identified the effects of self-focus on behavior. Current studies indicate that people actually engage in two different types of self-analysis: self-reflection (enjoying analyzing the self) and self-rumination (not being able to shut off thoughts about the self),...

  6. Ultra-Fast All-Optical Self-Aware Protection Switching Based on a Bistable Laser Diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi; Vukovic, Dragana; Lorences Riesgo, Abel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel concept of all-optical protection switching with link failure automatic awareness based on AOWFF. The scheme is experimentally demonstrated using a single MG-Y laser diode with a record switching time ~200 ps....

  7. Facilitating Decision Making, Re-Use and Collaboration: A Knowledge Management Approach to Acquisition Program Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    capabilities: web-based, relational/multi-dimensional, client/server, and metadata (data about data) inclusion (pp. 39-40). Text mining, on the other...and Organizational Systems ( CASOS ) (Carley, 2005). Although AutoMap can be used to conduct text-mining, it was utilized only for its visualization...provides insight into how the GMCOI is using the terms, and where there might be redundant terms and need for de -confliction and standardization

  8. Is body dysmorphic disorder associated with abnormal bodily self-awareness? A study using the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ryan A; Enticott, Peter G; Hohwy, Jakob; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from past research suggests that behaviours and characteristics related to body dissatisfaction may be associated with greater instability of perceptual body image, possibly due to problems in the integration of body-related multisensory information. We investigated whether people with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a condition characterised by body image disturbances, demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which arises as a result of multisensory integration processes when a rubber hand and the participant's hidden real hand are stimulated in synchrony. Overall, differences in RHI experience between the BDD group and healthy and schizophrenia control groups (n = 17 in each) were not significant. RHI strength, however, was positively associated with body dissatisfaction and related tendencies. For the healthy control group, proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand was observed following synchronous but not asynchronous stimulation, a typical pattern when inducing the RHI. Similar drifts in proprioceptive awareness occurred for the BDD group irrespective of whether stimulation was synchronous or not. These results are discussed in terms of possible abnormalities in visual processing and multisensory integration among people with BDD.

  9. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  10. Hydrological disturbance diminishes predator control in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Nathan J; Cook, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Effects of predators on prey populations can be especially strong in aquatic ecosystems, but disturbances may mediate the strength of predator limitation and even allow outbreaks of some prey populations. In a two-year study we investigated the numerical responses of crayfish (Procambarus fallax) and small fishes (Poeciliidae and Fundulidae) to a brief hydrological disturbance in replicated freshwater wetlands with an experimental drying and large predatory fish reduction. The experiment and an in situ predation assay tested the component of the consumer stress model positing that disturbances release prey from predator limitation. In the disturbed wetlands, abundances of large predatory fish were seasonally reduced, similar to dynamics in the Everglades (southern Florida). Densities of small fish were unaffected by the disturbance, but crayfish densities, which were similar across all wetlands before drying, increased almost threefold in the year after the disturbance. Upon re-flooding, juvenile crayfish survival was inversely related to the abundance of large fish across wetlands, but we found no evidence for enhanced algal food quality. At a larger landscape scale (500 km2 of the Everglades), crayfish densities over eight years were positively correlated with the severity of local dry disturbances (up to 99 days dry) during the preceding dry season. In contrast, densities of small-bodied fishes in the same wetlands were seasonally depressed by dry disturbances. The results from our experimental wetland drought and the observations of crayfish densities in the Everglades represent a large-scale example of prey population release following a hydrological disturbance in a freshwater ecosystem. The conditions producing crayfish pulses in the Everglades appear consistent with the mechanics of the consumer stress model, and we suggest crayfish pulses may influence the number of nesting wading birds in the Everglades.

  11. Astrophysical axion bounds diminished by screening effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffelt, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    ''Invisible axions'' could be produced in stellar interiors through Compton- and Primakoff-type photoproduction and through bremsstrahlung processes. We point out that in a plasma screening effects lead to important reductions of these emission rates. Limits on the axion mass and interaction strength are thereby relaxed to values less restrictive than limits previously thought to be firm. For the case of the Sun the Primakoff rate is reduced by two orders of magnitude. This process is the dominant emission mechanism for Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov- (KSVZ) type axions which do not couple directly to electrons. The mass limit is then relaxed by an order of magnitude to m/sub a/ 2 β of the model equals unity. Our results can be easily translated to other hypothetical pseudoscalar particles if they are light compared with typical stellar temperatures

  12. Diminished hepatic insulin removal in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, I.; Salvador, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Arraiza, M.C.; Goena, M.; Barberia, J.J.; Moncada, E.

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral insulin and C-peptide levels during oral glucose load were measured in 20 obese and 23 normal weight nondiabetic subjects. The fasting C-peptide to insulin molar ratios (Cp/I), as well as the relation between incremental areas of the two polypeptides (ACp-AI)/ACp, were used as relative measures of the hepatic insulin extraction (HIE). The insulin and C-peptide basal levels as well as incremental areas under plasma curves were higher in the obese subjects (P<0.001). HIE was lower in obeses than in controls assessed in the fasting state (P<0.05), as well as after glucose load (P<0.001). Nevertheless, obeses and controls with similar insulin fasting levels showed identical hepatic insulin extraction in fasting or after glucose load. HIE was independent of obesity degree, but was related to insulin basal levels (r=-0.60, P<0.01). This study suggests the hypothesis that the decreased hepatic insulin extraction in obeses is a result of the chronically increased insulin delivery to the liver and is not a consequence of obesity, although a contributory role cannot be ruled out

  13. Diminished hepatic insulin removal in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, I; Salvador, J; Rodriguez, R; Arraiza, M C; Goena, M; Barberia, J J; Moncada, E

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral insulin and C-peptide levels during oral glucose load were measured in 20 obese and 23 normal weight nondiabetic subjects. The fasting C-peptide to insulin molar ratios (Cp/I), as well as the relation between incremental areas of the two polypeptides (ACp-AI)/ACp, were used as relative measures of the hepatic insulin extraction (HIE). The insulin and C-peptide basal levels as well as incremental areas under plasma curves were higher in the obese subjects (P<0.001). HIE was lower in obeses than in controls assessed in the fasting state (P<0.05), as well as after glucose load (P<0.001). Nevertheless, obeses and controls with similar insulin fasting levels showed identical hepatic insulin extraction in fasting or after glucose load. HIE was independent of obesity degree, but was related to insulin basal levels (r=-0.60, P<0.01). This study suggests the hypothesis that the decreased hepatic insulin extraction in obeses is a result of the chronically increased insulin delivery to the liver and is not a consequence of obesity, although a contributory role cannot be ruled out.

  14. Diminishing incidence of Internet child pornographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Christopher

    2003-08-01

    Indecent images of children posted to web sites and newsgroups over a 4-yr. period were sampled. A significant decline in the number of such images posted was observed, probably accounted for by the pressure of groups opposed to the distribution of such exploitive material.

  15. Fatigue diminishes motoneuronal excitability during cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weavil, Joshua C; Sidhu, Simranjit K; Mangum, Tyler S; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue influences the excitability of the motor pathway during single-joint isometric contractions. This study sought to investigate the influence of fatigue on corticospinal excitability during cycling exercise. Eight men performed fatiguing constant-load (80% W peak ; 241 ± 13 W) cycling to exhaustion during which the percent increase in quadriceps electromyography (ΔEMG; vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was quantified. During a separate trial, subjects performed two brief (∼45 s) nonfatiguing cycling bouts (244 ± 15 and 331 ± 23W) individually chosen to match the ΔEMG across bouts to that observed during fatiguing cycling. Corticospinal excitability during exercise was quantified by transcranial magnetic, electric transmastoid, and femoral nerve stimulation to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEP), cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEP), and M waves in the quadriceps. Peripheral and central fatigue were expressed as pre- to postexercise reductions in quadriceps twitch force (ΔQ tw ) and voluntary quadriceps activation (ΔVA). Whereas nonfatiguing cycling caused no measureable fatigue, fatiguing cycling resulted in significant peripheral (ΔQ tw : 42 ± 6%) and central (ΔVA: 4 ± 1%) fatigue. During nonfatiguing cycling, the area of MEPs and CMEPs, normalized to M waves, similarly increased in the quadriceps (∼40%; P fatiguing cycling. As a consequence, the ratio of MEP to CMEP was unchanged during both trials (P > 0.5). Therefore, although increases in muscle activation promote corticospinal excitability via motoneuronal facilitation during nonfatiguing cycling, this effect is abolished during fatigue. We conclude that the unaltered excitability of the corticospinal pathway from start of intense cycling exercise to exhaustion is, in part, determined by inhibitory influences on spinal motoneurons obscuring the facilitating effects of muscle activation.

  16. Agricultural impacts: Europe's diminishing bread basket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Holger

    2014-07-01

    Global demand for wheat is projected to increase significantly with continuing population growth. Currently, Europe reliably produces about 29% of global wheat supply. However, this might be under threat from climate change if adaptive measures are not taken now.

  17. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  18. Teacher Evaluation and the Diminishment of Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Miles T.

    1988-01-01

    Teacher evaluation owes its origins to the scientific management movement of the early 20th century. Just as schooling was rendered mechanical and product-driven in earlier years, current attempts to confine teaching within an administratively defined and managed arena may exact a significant price--an education system devoid of creativity.…

  19. Topical corticosteroids do not revert the activated phenotype of eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis but decrease surface levels of CD18 resulting in diminished adherence to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingblom, Christine; Bergquist, Henrik; Johnsson, Marianne; Sundström, Patrik; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Bove, Mogens; Wennerås, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Swallowed topical corticosteroids are the standard therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in adults. Eosinophils in the blood of untreated EoE patients have an activated phenotype. Our aim was to determine if corticosteroids restore the phenotype of eosinophils to a healthy phenotype and if certain cell-surface molecules on blood eosinophils correlate with eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. Levels of eight surface markers on eosinophils from treated and untreated EoE patients were determined by flow cytometry and analyzed using multivariate methods of pattern recognition. Corticosteroid-treated EoE patients' eosinophils had decreased levels of CD18 compared to both untreated patients and healthy controls, but maintained their activated phenotype. CD18 expression correlated positively with eosinophil numbers in the esophagus and promoted the adherence of eosinophils to ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and to endothelial cells. The diminished expression of CD18 may be one mechanism behind the reduced entry of eosinophils into the esophagus in corticosteroid-treated EoE patients.

  20. Increased expression of cyclin B1 mRNA coincides with diminished G{sub 2}-phase arrest in irradiated HeLa cells treated with staurosporine or caffeine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, E.J.; Maity, A.; McKenna, W.G.; Muschel, R.J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The irradiation of cells results in delayed progression through the G{sub 2} phase of the cell cycle. Treatment of irradiated HeLa cells with caffeine greatly reduces the G{sub 2}-phase delay, while caffeine does not alter progression of cells through the cell cycle in unirradiated cells. In this report we demonstrate that treatment of HeLa cells with the kinase inhibitor staurosporine, but not with the inhibitor H7, also results in a reduction of the G{sub 2}-phase arrest after irradiation. Cell cycle progression in unirradiated cells is unaffected by 4.4 nM (2ng/ml) staurosporine, which releases the radiation-induced G{sub 2}-phase arrest. In HeLa cells, the G{sub 2}-phase delay after irradiation in S phase is accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin B1 mRNA. Coincident with the reduction in G{sub 2}-phase delay, we observed an increase in cyclin B1 mRNA accumulation in irradiated, staurosporine-treated cells compared to cells treated with irradiation alone. Caffeine treatment of irradiated HeLa cells also resulted in an elevation in the levels of cyclin B1 message. These results support the hypothesis that diminished cyclin B1 mRNA levels influence G{sub 2}-phase arrest to some degree. The findings that both staurosporine and caffeine treatments reverse the depression in cyclin B1 expression suggest that these two compounds may act on a common pathway of cell cycle control in response to radiation injury. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  1. The Importance of Pleasure Reading in the Lives of Young Teens: Self-Identification, Self-Construction and Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study investigating the role of pleasure reading in the lives of 12-15 year old residents of an eastern Canadian regional municipality. Pleasure reading was found to fulfill three broad functions: it enhanced academic performance, social engagement and personal development. In conclusion, the study confirms that…

  2. Cognitive-emotional interplay:implications for children’s development of self-aware emotion regulation as the last developmental phase of emotional intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Kralj, S. (Sara)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cognitive and emotional developmental trajectories account for individual differences in children. Individual variations of emotional intelligence may be a result of various factors. For the purpose of this work children’s development of emotional intelligence is examined through individual developmental aspect related to development of cognition and emotion. The ability to be aware of own emotions and emotions of ...

  3. Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Vago, David R.; Silbersweig, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness—as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and cr...

  4. Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation, and Self-Transcendence (S-ART): A Framework for Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Vago; David R. Vago; Silbersweig A. David; Silbersweig A. David

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness - as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and ...

  5. The Effect of Trait Self-Awareness, Self-Reflection, and Perceptions of Choice Meaningfulness on Indicators of Social Identity within a Decision-Making Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Noam; Oldmeadow, Julian A; Critchley, Christine; Kaufman, Jordy

    2017-01-01

    Theorists operating from within a narrative identity framework have suggested that self-reflective reasoning plays a central role in the development of the self. Typically, however, narrative identity researchers have investigated this relationship using correlational rather than experimental methods. In the present study, leveraging on a classic research paradigm from within the social identity literature we developed an experiment to test the extent to which self-reflection might have a causal impact on the self-concept within a decision-making context. In a minimal group paradigm participants were prompted to reflect on their painting choices either before or after allocating points to in-group∖ out-group members. As anticipated, self-reflection augmented social identification, but only when participants felt their choices were personally meaningful. Participants who reasoned about their choices and felt they were subjectively meaningful showed stronger similarity and liking for in-group members compared to those who did not reflect on their choices or found them to be subjectively meaningless. Hence, reflecting on and finding meaning in one's choices may be an important step in linking behavior with in-group identification and thus the self-concept in turn. The absence of any effects on in-group favoritism (a third indicator of social identification measured) as well as implications of the study's findings for self-perception, cognitive dissonance and social identity processes are also discussed.

  6. Assessing the effects of a "personal effectiveness" training on psychological capital, assertiveness and self-awareness using self-other agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Eeuwijk, van E.; Snelder, M.; Wild, U.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to examine the effects of a "personal effectiveness" training on both assertiveness and Psychological Capital (PsyCap) that were monitored before and after the training. Design/methodology/approach: In addition to self-ratings, other-ratings were assembled to explore two

  7. Assessing the Effects of a "Personal Effectiveness" Training on Psychological Capital, Assertiveness and Self-Awareness Using Self-Other Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; van Eeuwijk, Erik; Snelder, Margriet; Wild, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to examine the effects of a "personal effectiveness" training on both assertiveness and Psychological Capital (PsyCap) that were monitored before and after the training. Design/methodology/approach: In addition to self-ratings, other-ratings were assembled to explore two ways in which they can contribute to the…

  8. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-01-01

    As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs) into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT) is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assis...

  9. A case of persistent retrograde amnesia following a dissociative fugue: neuropsychological and neurofunctional underpinnings of loss of autobiographical memory and self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meister, Franziska; Frodl, Thomas; Beraldi, Anna; Padberg, Frank; Engel, Rolf R; Reiser, Maximilian; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Meindl, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Autobiographical memory relies on complex interactions between episodic memory contents, associated emotions and a sense of self-continuity over the course of one's life. This paper reports a study based upon the case of the patient NN who suffered from a complete loss of autobiographical memory and awareness of identity subsequent to a dissociative fugue. Neuropsychological, behavioral, and functional neuroimaging tests converged on the conclusion that NN suffered from a selective retrograde amnesia following an episode of dissociative fugue, during which he had lost explicit knowledge and vivid memory of his personal past. NN's loss of self-related memories was mirrored in neurobiological changes after the fugue whereas his semantic memory remained intact. Although NN still claimed to suffer from a stable loss of autobiographical, self-relevant memories 1 year after the fugue state, a proportionate improvement in underlying fronto-temporal neuronal networks was evident at this point in time. In spite of this improvement in neuronal activation, his anterograde visual memory had been decreased. It is posited that our data provide evidence for the important role of visual processing in autobiographical memory as well as for the efficiency of protective control mechanisms that constitute functional retrograde amnesia.

  10. Organizational Friction: Urban Crime Control Diminish Effect Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Research Philosophy This research will adopt the philosophy of phenomenology. Generally speaking, positivism and phenomenology are two widely...surrounding the issue under review. This particular research design allowed me to perform both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative by way of the...surveys, Research Design 55 opinion polls, and desk research; and quantitative through interviews, and the examination of theories, paradigms

  11. Sound improves diminished visual temporal sensitivity in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer-Schellekens, L.; Stekelenburg, J.J.; Maes, J.P.; van Gool, A.R.; Vroomen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Visual temporal processing and multisensory integration (MSI) of sound and vision were examined in individuals with schizophrenia using a visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. Compared to a non-psychiatric control group, persons with schizophrenia were less sensitive judging the temporal order

  12. Automatic needle insertion diminishes pain during growth hormone injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jørgensen, J T; Hertel, N T

    1995-01-01

    prototype pens for GH administration, providing either manual or automatic sc needle insertion, using a combined visual analogue/facial scale and a five-item scale in 18 children. With the automatic pen there was a significantly lower maximum pain score compared with the manual pen (median 28.5 versus 52.......0 mm) as well as a lower mean pain score (mean 13.7 versus 23.5 mm). The five-item scale revealed that automatic needle insertion was significantly less painful than manual insertion and 13 patients chose to continue treatment with the automatic pen. In conclusion, pain during GH injection can...

  13. Skeletal muscle function and hypertrophy are diminished in old age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Alway, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Muscle loss occurs during aging. To investigate whether the hypertrophic response is attenuated at old age, we used male Fischer 344 (26 months old; n = 5) and Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats (6, 9, and 33 months old; n = 8, 10, and 6, respectively). Hypertrophy of the left plantaris muscle was

  14. Increased Surface Wind Speeds Follow Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioduszewski, J.; Vavrus, S. J.; Wang, M.; Holland, M. M.; Landrum, L.

    2017-12-01

    Projections of Arctic sea ice through the end of the 21st century indicate the likelihood of a strong reduction in ice area and thickness in all seasons, leading to a substantial thermodynamic influence on the overlying atmosphere. This is likely to have an effect on winds over the Arctic Basin, due to changes in atmospheric stability and/or baroclinicity. Prior research on future Arctic wind changes is limited and has focused mainly on the practical impacts on wave heights in certain seasons. Here we attempt to identify patterns and likely mechanisms responsible for surface wind changes in all seasons across the Arctic, particularly those associated with sea ice loss in the marginal ice zone. Sea level pressure, near-surface (10 m) and upper-air (850 hPa) wind speeds, and lower-level dynamic and thermodynamic variables from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project (CESM-LE) were analyzed for the periods 1971-2000 and 2071-2100 to facilitate comparison between a present-day and future climate. Mean near-surface wind speeds over the Arctic Ocean are projected to increase by late century in all seasons but especially during autumn and winter, when they strengthen by up to 50% locally. The most extreme wind speeds in the 90th percentile change even more, increasing in frequency by over 100%. The strengthened winds are closely linked to decreasing lower-tropospheric stability resulting from the loss of sea ice cover and consequent surface warming (locally over 20 ºC warmer in autumn and winter). A muted pattern of these future changes is simulated in CESM-LE historical runs from 1920-2005. The enhanced winds near the surface are mostly collocated with weaker winds above the boundary layer during autumn and winter, implying more vigorous vertical mixing and a drawdown of high-momentum air.The implications of stronger future winds include increased coastal hazards and the potential for a positive feedback with sea ice by generating higher winds and greater wave activity. Our findings suggest that increasing winds, along with retreating sea ice and thawing permafrost, represent another important contributor to the growing problem of Arctic coastal erosion.

  15. Preferences for 'New' Treatments Diminish in the Face of Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark; Marra, Carlo A; Bansback, Nick

    2017-06-01

    New products usually offer advantages over existing products, but in health care, most new drugs are 'me-too', comparable in effectiveness and side effects to existing drugs, but with a more ambiguous evidence base around adverse effects. Despite this, new treatments drive increased health care spending, suggesting a preference for 'newness' in this setting. We explore (1) whether preferences for treatments labeled 'new' exist and (2) persist once the ambiguity in the evidence base reflecting newness is described. We use a Canadian general population sample (n = 2837) characterized by their innovativeness in adopting new products in normal markets. We found that innovators/early adopters (n = 173) had significant preferences for 'newer' treatments (B = 0.162, p = 0.038) irrespective of comparable benefits and side effects and all respondents had significant preferences for less ambiguity in benefit/side effect estimates. Notably, when 'newness' was combined with ambiguity, no significant preferences for new treatments were observed regardless of respondent innovativeness. We conclude that preferences for new products exist for some people in health care markets but disappear when the implication of ambiguity in the evidence base for new treatments is communicated. Physicians should avoid describing treatments as 'new' or be mindful to qualify the implications of 'new' treatments in terms of evidence ambiguity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Diminishing Role of Accounting Information for Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Tyll

    2014-12-01

    some cases even stopped completely. Surprisingly, the association between stock price and change in book value plus earnings has been found to be significantly improving. This trend should be subjected to further analysis.

  17. Plateletpheresis before redo CABG diminishes excessive blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, J T; Reuse, J; Badel, P; Simonet, F; Schmuziger, M

    1996-11-01

    Blood conservation remains an important element for patients undergoing cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass. Preoperative platelet-rich plasma (PRP) harvest is an autologous blood conservation method. The efficacy of preoperative PRP harvest and post-cardiopulmonary bypass reinfusion on postoperative bleeding and need for postoperative blood transfusion was evaluated in patients undergoing redo coronary artery bypass grafting in a prospective, randomized manner. All adult patients admitted for redo coronary artery bypass grafting entered into the study. The PRP harvest aim was 20% or more of the total estimated circulating platelets. Immediately preoperatively three sequestration cycles were performed. The PRP was reinfused after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. One hundred seven parameters/patient were recorded. There were 20 patients in the RPR group and 20 controls (without PRP harvest). Patient characteristics, operative data, and preoperative hematologic parameters did not differ between the groups. In the PRP group, the mean platelet count in the PRP was 864 +/- 139 x 10(3)/microL, and the platelet yield was 27% +/- 5% (range, 20% to 37%). The average total chest tube blood loss was 423 mL (PRP) compared with 1,462 mL (controls; p platelets and reinfusion of the PRP after cardiopulmonary bypass resulted in significantly less postoperative blood loss and decreased fluid and blood transfusion requirements compared with controls. Postextubation gas exchange, ventilation time, and time required in the intensive care unit were also better, and the method was found cost-effective.

  18. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy diminishes functional connectivity during emotion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Bettina K; Muller, Angela M; Spirig, Esther; Toller, Gianina; Jokeit, Hennric

    2017-08-01

    Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions. Regions of interest were identified in an activation analysis by presenting a block-design with dynamic fearful faces and dynamic landscapes to 15 healthy individuals. This led to 10 predominately right-hemispheric regions. Functional connectivity between these regions during the perception of fearful faces was examined in drug-refractory patients with left- (n=16) or right-sided (n=17) MTLE, epilepsy patients with extratemporal seizure onset (n=15) and a second group of 15 healthy controls. Healthy controls showed a widespread functional network modulated by the perception of fearful faces that encompassed bilateral amygdalae, limbic, cortical, subcortical and brainstem regions. In patients with left MTLE, a downsized network of frontal and temporal regions centered on the right amygdala was present. Patients with right MTLE showed almost no significant functional connectivity. A maintained network in the epilepsy control group indicates that findings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy could not be explained by clinical factors such as seizures and antiepileptic medication. Functional networks underlying facial emotion perception are considerably changed in left and right MTLE. Alterations are present for both hemispheres in either MTLE group, but are more pronounced in right MTLE. Disruption of the functional network architecture possibly contributes to deficits in facial emotion recognition frequently reported in MTLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Inevitability of Ethnocentrism Revisited: Ethnocentrism Diminishes As Mobility Increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Soham; Gelfand, Michele J; Nau, Dana; Roos, Patrick

    2015-12-08

    Nearly all major conflicts across the globe, both current and historical, are characterized by individuals defining themselves and others by group membership. This existence of group-biased behavior (in-group favoring and out-group hostile) has been well established empirically, and has been shown to be an inevitable outcome in many evolutionary studies. Thus it is puzzling that statistics show violence and out-group conflict declining dramatically over the past few centuries of human civilization. Using evolutionary game-theoretic models, we solve this puzzle by showing for the first time that out-group hostility is dramatically reduced by mobility. Technological and societal advances over the past centuries have greatly increased the degree to which humans change physical locations, and our results show that in highly mobile societies, one's choice of action is more likely to depend on what individual one is interacting with, rather than the group to which the individual belongs. Our empirical analysis of archival data verifies that contexts with high residential mobility indeed have less out-group hostility than those with low mobility. This work suggests that, in fact, group-biased behavior that discriminates against out-groups is not inevitable after all.

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder: diminished responsibility and mitigation of sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Russ

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to consider the implications of a recent Western Australia Court of Appeal decision in which an indigenous youth who had been sentenced for the manslaughter of his neonate child was later diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder. The increased use of the 2016 Australian guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder should be encouraged to enable clinicians to not only diagnose and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder, but also counsel families to prevent it.

  1. Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jocelyn L.; Guerin, Scott A.; Stegman, Anna; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively “spills-over” to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated using a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean blood oxygenation level dependent responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information. PMID:24904374

  2. Accurate expectancies diminish perceptual distraction during visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn L Sy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively spills-over to task-irrelevant information. The spill-over of perceptual processing capacity increases the likelihood that task-irrelevant information will impair performance. In two visual search experiments, we tested the automaticity of the allocation of perceptual processing resources by measuring the extent to which the processing of task-irrelevant distracting stimuli was modulated by both perceptual load and top-down expectations using behavior, fMRI, and electrophysiology. Expectations were generated by a trial-by-trial cue that provided information about the likely load of the upcoming visual search task. When the cues were valid, behavioral interference was eliminated and the influence of load on frontoparietal and visual cortical responses was attenuated relative to when the cues were invalid. In conditions in which task-irrelevant information interfered with performance and modulated visual activity, individual differences in mean BOLD responses measured from the left intraparietal sulcus were negatively correlated with individual differences in the severity of distraction. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a top-down biasing mechanism interacts with perceptual load to support filtering of task-irrelevant information.

  3. Benefits of Accumulating versus Diminishing Cues in Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.; Hays, Matthew J.; Bjork, Robert A.; Kornell, Nate

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing learning over multiple retrieval opportunities requires a joint consideration of both the probability and the mnemonic value of a successful retrieval. Previous research has addressed this trade-off by manipulating the schedule of practice trials, suggesting that a pattern of increasingly long lags--"expanding retrieval practice"--may…

  4. Solutions to the Problem of Diminished Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; A. Elizabeth Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Social animals, like humans, need to interact with others, but this is not always possible. When genuine social interaction is lacking, individuals may seek out or use sources of interaction that co-opt agency detection mechanisms vis-à-vis the human voice and images of people, called social snacking. Study 1 (N = 240) found that ratings of how alone participants felt were correlated with frequency of talking to themselves and using the TV for company. Study 2 (N = 66) was a daily diary study...

  5. Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells ex...

  6. Effect of Yushen zhuyun decoction on rats with diminished ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was obtained to determine serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) .... by oral administration of TWP at the dose of 50 mg/kg for 15 days. .... state of the ovary on egg production, and thus reflects the ...

  7. COMMUNICATION SKILLS, A SOLUTION DIMINISHING RISKS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Duica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest approaches in the field, the integrated marketing communication requires a planned organizational approach, creating and maintaining in time good relations with the customers of its products or services, but also with its other stakeholders. According to the data provided by the National Statistics Institute (INS, the year 2014 is the first year in history when the Romanian exports exceeded the amount of EUR 50 billion. However, within the context of the economic crisis, numerous Romanian brands have disappeared from the market and Romania risks becoming a simple outlet market if the local companies do not improve their communication processes and skills, as sources of competitive advantage by which the Romanian products and services may differ in relation to those of the E.U. member countries. Within the context of business globalization and of the knowledge society, the present paper is trying to identify ways of developing the communication skills, which can be integrated in a formal risk management system, allowing the decrease of the risks triggered by the cultural differences specific of communication in international business.

  8. Digital channels diminish SME barriers: the case of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Stankovska, Ivana; Josimovski, Saso; Edwards, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the usage of digital channels by UK small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and assesses the impact caused on their strategic marketing position. The research is based on statistical analysis of 66 surveyed SMEs in the context of the digital era. Despite indications from the relevant literature about the reluctance of SMEs to adopt advances in technological communication, the research reported indicates a high level of usage of digital channels, ...

  9. Partial agonist therapy in schizophrenia: relevance to diminished criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaudan, Gilles; Magalon, David; Cohen, Julien; Lançon, Christophe; Léonetti, Georges; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure

    2010-11-01

    Pathological gambling (PG), classified in the DSM-IV among impulse control disorders, is defined as inappropriate, persistent gaming for money with serious personal, family, and social consequences. Offenses are frequently committed to obtain money for gambling. Pathological gambling, a planned and structured behavioral disorder, has often been described as a complication of dopamine agonist treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease. It has never been described in patients with schizophrenia receiving dopamine agonists. We present two patients with schizophrenia, previously treated with antipsychotic drugs without any suggestion of PG, who a short time after starting aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, developed PG and criminal behavior, which totally resolved when aripiprazole was discontinued. Based on recent advances in research on PG and adverse drug reactions to dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease, we postulate a link between aripiprazole and PG in both our patients with schizophrenia and raise the question of criminal responsibility. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Taxing behavioral control diminishes sharing and costly punishment in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Instances of altruism in children are well documented. However, the underlying mechanisms of such altruistic behavior are still under considerable debate. While some claim that altruistic acts occur automatically and spontaneously, others argue that they require behavioral control. This study focuses on the mechanisms that give rise to prosocial decisions such as sharing and costly punishment. In two studies it is shown in 124 children aged 6-9 years that behavioral control plays a critical role for both prosocial decisions and costly punishment. Specifically, the studies assess the influence of taxing aspects of self-regulation, such as behavioral control (Study 1) and emotion regulation (Study 2) on subsequent decisions in a Dictator and an Ultimatum Game. Further, children's perception of fairness norms and emotional experience were measured. Taxing children's behavioral control prior to making their decisions reduced sharing and costly punishment of unfair offers, without changing perception of fairness norms or the emotional experience. Conversely, taxing children's emotion regulation prior to making their decisions only led to increased experience of anger at seeing unfair offers, but left sharing, costly punishment and the perception of fairness norms unchanged. These findings stress the critical role of behavioral control in prosocial giving and costly punishment in childhood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Diminished autonomic neurocardiac function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyungwook Kim,1 Seul Lee,2 Jong-Hoon Kim1–3 1Gachon University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine, Gachon University, 3Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder that is characterized by a number of autonomic nervous system symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate variability (HRV, measuring autonomic regulation, and to evaluate the relationship between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety, in medication-free patients with GAD. Methods: Assessments of linear and nonlinear complexity measures of HRV were performed in 42 medication-free patients with GAD and 50 healthy control subjects. In addition, the severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The values of the HRV measures of the groups were compared, and the correlations between the HRV measures and the severity of anxiety symptoms were assessed. Results: The GAD group showed significantly lower standard deviation of RR intervals and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals values compared to the control group (P<0.01. The approximate entropy value, which is a nonlinear complexity indicator, was also significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P<0.01. In correlation analysis, there were no significant correlations between HRV parameters and the severity of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion: The present study indicates that GAD is significantly associated with reduced HRV, suggesting that autonomic neurocardiac integrity is substantially impaired in patients with GAD. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the effects of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment on neuroautonomic modulation in patients with GAD. Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, heart rate variability, parasympathetic modulation

  12. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foreign exchange earnings for each national exchequer. However, recent national census records have .... Dar-es-. Salaam: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania. Bennun, L & Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya, Nairobi: East Africa Natural. History Society. Byaruhanga, A, Kasoma, P. & Pomeroy, D. 2001.

  13. Diminished hormonal responses to exercise in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Holst, J J

    1977-01-01

    Male rats (120 g) either were subjected to a 12-wk physical training program (T rats) or were sedentary controls (C rats). Subsequently the rats were killed at rest or after a 45- or 90-min forced swim. At rest, T rats had higher liver and muscle glycogen concentrations but lower plasma insulin...

  14. Effect of Yushen zhuyun decoction on rats with diminished ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biogenesis in cumulus cells. Hum Reprod 2015; 30: 1653-1664. 7. Feng JH, Kong LW, Li LL. Research progress of pathogeny and treatment of traditional Chinese and. Western medicine of decreasing ovarian reservation. Chin Med Hera 2014; 11: 161-164. 8. Roustan A, Perrin J, Debals-Gonthier M, Paulmyer-. Lacroix O ...

  15. Logistic Regression Modeling of Diminishing Manufacturing Sources for Integrated Circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gravier, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... This thesis draws on available data from the electronics integrated circuit industry to attempt to assess whether statistical modeling offers a viable method for predicting the presence of DMSMS...

  16. Logistic Regression Modeling of Diminishing Manufacturing Sources for Integrated Circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gravier, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... The research identified logistic regression as a powerful tool for analysis of DMSMS and further developed twenty models attempting to identify the "best" way to model and predict DMSMS using logistic regression...

  17. Foot placement modulation diminishes for perturbations near foot contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2018-01-01

    Whenever a perturbation occurs during walking we have to maintain our balance using the recovery strategies that are available to us. Foot placement adjustment is often considered an important recovery strategy. However, because this strategy takes time it is likely a poor option if the foot is

  18. Negative emotions towards others are diminished in remitted major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, R; Lythe, K E; Gethin, J A; Green, S; Deakin, J F W; Workman, C; Moll, J

    2015-06-01

    One influential view is that vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a proneness to experience negative emotions in general. In contrast, blame attribution theories emphasise the importance of blaming oneself rather than others for negative events. Our previous exploratory study provided support for the attributional hypothesis that patients with remitted MDD show no overall bias towards negative emotions, but a selective bias towards emotions entailing self-blame relative to emotions that entail blaming others. More specifically, we found a decreased proneness for contempt/disgust towards others relative to oneself (i.e. self-contempt bias). Here, we report a definitive test of the competing general negative versus specific attributional bias theories of MDD. We compared a medication-free remitted MDD (n=101) and a control group (n=70) with no family or personal history of MDD on a previously validated experimental test of moral emotions. The task measures proneness to specific emotions associated with different types of self-blame (guilt, shame, self-contempt/disgust, self-indignation/anger) and blame of others (other-indignation/anger, other-contempt/disgust) whilst controlling for the intensity of unpleasantness. We confirmed the hypothesis that patients with MDD exhibit an increased self-contempt bias with a reduction in contempt/disgust towards others. Furthermore, they also showed a decreased proneness for indignation/anger towards others. This corroborates the prediction that vulnerability to MDD is associated with an imbalance of specific self- and other-blaming emotions rather than a general increase in negative emotions. This has important implications for neurocognitive models and calls for novel focussed interventions to rebalance blame in MDD. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Diminished Access: Fall 1982 Enrollment at Independent Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Julianne Still; Toppe, Christopher

    Results of the fall 1982 survey of enrollments at private colleges and universities are presented, with attention also directed to the effect of the freshman enrollment decline on institutional finance, determinants of enrollment, and future enrollment expectations. Of the approximately 1,500 independent colleges, almost 1,200 institutions…

  1. Visual cue-specific craving is diminished in stressed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Justinn R; Consedine, Nathan S; Lee, John M J; Pandit, Chinmay; Sollers, John J; Kydd, Robert R

    2017-09-01

    Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented. Self-reported craving was assessed after each block of visual stimuli and stress task, and after a recovery period following each task. As expected, the stress and smoking images generated greater craving than neutral or motivational control images (p smokers are stressed, visual cues have little additive effect on craving, and different types of visual cues elicit comparable craving. These findings may imply that once stressed, smokers will crave cigarettes comparably notwithstanding whether they are exposed to smoking image cues.

  2. Diminished white matter integrity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that changes in regional white matter integrity, in terms of a decrease in FA, are present not only in NPSLE patients, but also in non-NPSLE patients, though to a lesser degree. We also demonstrate that the way statistical maps are corrected for multiple comparisons has a profound influence on whether alterations in white matter integrity in non-NPSLE patients are deemed significant.

  3. Diminished neuronal metabolic activity in Alzheimer's disease. Review article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salehi, A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have appeared in the literature suggesting that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a hypometabolic brain disorder. Decreased metabolism in AD has been revealed by a variety of in vivo and postmortem methods and techniques including positron emission tomography and glucose

  4. Competitive Funding, Citation Regimes, and the Diminishment of Breakthrough Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    At first glance Sweden looks like a researcher's paradise with high levels of GDP investment in research and high scores on citation indexes, yet recent studies have suggested that Sweden might be losing its edge in groundbreaking research. This paper explores why that is happening by examining researchers' logics of decision-making at a large…

  5. Reduction in albuminuria predicts diminished progression in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Hommel, E; Smidt, U M

    1994-01-01

    with metoprolol and furosemide. Fall rate in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 9.5 +/- 3.8 ml/min/year (mean +/- SD) before and 3.6 +/- 3.6 during antihypertensive treatment. Albuminuria was 1442 (150 to 7564) micrograms/min (median range) in the last year before and 880 (96 to 3310) micrograms...

  6. Acrylamide diminishing in potato chips by using commercial Asparaginase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit

    2011-01-01

    In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the food safety world when they presented preliminary findings of acrylamide in some fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries. Asparagine is an aminoacid precursor of acrylamide formation through Maillard reaction. Asparaginase e...

  7. Diminished auditory sensory gating during active auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Robert J; Meier, Andrew; Houck, Jon; Clark, Vincent P; Lewine, Jeffrey D; Turner, Jessica; Calhoun, Vince; Stephen, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Auditory sensory gating, assessed in a paired-click paradigm, indicates the extent to which incoming stimuli are filtered, or "gated", in auditory cortex. Gating is typically computed as the ratio of the peak amplitude of the event related potential (ERP) to a second click (S2) divided by the peak amplitude of the ERP to a first click (S1). Higher gating ratios are purportedly indicative of incomplete suppression of S2 and considered to represent sensory processing dysfunction. In schizophrenia, hallucination severity is positively correlated with gating ratios, and it was hypothesized that a failure of sensory control processes early in auditory sensation (gating) may represent a larger system failure within the auditory data stream; resulting in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). EEG data were collected while patients (N=12) with treatment-resistant AVH pressed a button to indicate the beginning (AVH-on) and end (AVH-off) of each AVH during a paired click protocol. For each participant, separate gating ratios were computed for the P50, N100, and P200 components for each of the AVH-off and AVH-on states. AVH trait severity was assessed using the Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scales AVH Total score (PSYRATS). The results of a mixed model ANOVA revealed an overall effect for AVH state, such that gating ratios were significantly higher during the AVH-on state than during AVH-off for all three components. PSYRATS score was significantly and negatively correlated with N100 gating ratio only in the AVH-off state. These findings link onset of AVH with a failure of an empirically-defined auditory inhibition system, auditory sensory gating, and pave the way for a sensory gating model of AVH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Are gaps in disability free life expectancies diminishing in Italy?

    OpenAIRE

    Frova, Luisa; Burgio, Alessandra; Battisti, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies gender differences in disability free life expectancy (DFLE), taking into account mortality and disability contributions. After analysing the types of disability that account for such differences, it goes on to examine temporal variability and age contributions to mortality and disability variation. The method used is an extension of Arriaga’s model proposed by Nusselder. In 2005, disability free life expectancy at age 30 was 46.23 years for men and 48.74 years for women, w...

  9. Global cue inconsistency diminishes learning of cue validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel two-stage probabilistic learning task that examines the participants’ ability to learn and utilize valid cues across several levels of probabilistic feedback. In the first stage, participants sample from one of three cues that gives predictive information about the outcome of the second stage. Participants are rewarded for correct prediction of the outcome in stage two. Only one of the three cues gives valid predictive information and thus participants can maximise their reward by learning to sample from the valid cue. The validity of this predictive information, however, is reinforced across several levels of probabilistic feedback. A second manipulation involved changing the consistency of the predictive information in stage one and the outcome in stage two. The results show that participants, with higher probabilistic feedback, learned to utilise the valid cue. In inconsistent task conditions, however, participants were significantly less successful in utilising higher validity cues. We interpret this result as implying that learning in probabilistic categorization is based on developing a representation of the task that allows for goal-directed action.

  10. Fucosylated but not sialylated milk oligosaccharides diminish colon motor contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bienenstock

    Full Text Available Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO are being studied by different groups exploring a broad range of potential beneficial effects to the breastfed infant. Many of these effects have been attributed to a growth promotion effect on certain gut organisms such as bifidobacteria. Additionally, evidence indicates that HMO are able to directly promote positive changes in gut epithelium and immune responses under certain conditions. This study utilizes a standardized ex vivo murine colon preparation to examine the effects of sialylated, fucosylated and other HMO on gut motor contractions. Only the fucosylated molecules, 2'FL and 3'FL, decreased contractility in a concentration dependent fashion. On the basis of IC50 determinations 3'FL was greater than 2 times more effective than 2'FL. The HMO 3'SL and 6'SL, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT, and galactooligosaccharides (GOS elicited no effects. Lactose was used as a negative control. Fucosylation seems to underlie this functional regulation of gut contractility by oligosaccharides, and L-fucose, while it was also capable of reducing contractility, was substantially less effective than 3'FL and 2'FL. These results suggest that specific HMO are unlikely to be having these effects via bifidogenesis, but though direct action on neuronally dependent gut migrating motor complexes is likely and fucosylation is important in providing this function, we cannot conclusively shown that this is not indirectly mediated. Furthermore they support the possibility that fucosylated sugars and fucose might be useful as therapeutic or preventative adjuncts in disorders of gut motility, and possibly also have beneficial central nervous system effects.

  11. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  12. Trypsin diminishes the rat potency of polio serotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, R; Westdijk, J; Levels, L M A R; Koedam, P; de Haan, A; Hamzink, M R J; Metz, B; Kersten, G F A

    2015-11-01

    This study addresses observations made in view of testing in practice the guideline in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) on omitting the rat potency test for release of polio containing vaccines. In general, use of the guideline is valid and the D-antigen ELISA can indeed be used as an in vitro alternative for the in vivo test. However, the set-up of the ELISA is crucial and should include detection of antigenic site 1 in polio serotype 3 as destruction of that site by trypsin results in a reduced rat potency. Antigenic site 1 in polio serotype 2 may also be modified by trypsin, but the cleavage of viral protein 1 (VP1) did not affect the rat potency. Therefore, any antigenic site, except site 1, can be used for detection of polio serotype 2. It is advised to include testing of the effect of trypsin treatment in the EP-guideline. This allows polio vaccine manufacturers to check whether their in-house ELISA needs improvement. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    www.dau.mil/registrar/enroll.aspx DoD Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (AT&L) Integrated Framework Chart (IFC) lifecycle activities and...ROI) and Break Even Point ( BEP ). Two analysts could look at the same data and generate different outcomes if they use different assumptions or...principal output of the BCA is the Break Even Point ( BEP ), which shows the payback period of an alternative. It is found from a plot of the

  14. Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Amy L; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2011-01-01

    Contrasting hypotheses were posed to test the effect of Facebook exposure on self-esteem. Objective Self-Awareness (OSA) from social psychology and the Hyperpersonal Model from computer-mediated communication were used to argue that Facebook would either diminish or enhance self-esteem respectively. The results revealed that, in contrast to previous work on OSA, becoming self-aware by viewing one's own Facebook profile enhances self-esteem rather than diminishes it. Participants that updated their profiles and viewed their own profiles during the experiment also reported greater self-esteem, which lends additional support to the Hyperpersonal Model. These findings suggest that selective self-presentation in digital media, which leads to intensified relationship formation, also influences impressions of the self.

  15. Self-defense: Deflecting Deflationary and Eliminativist Critiques of the Sense of Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Gallagher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available I defend a phenomenological account of the sense of ownership as part of a minimal sense of self from those critics who propose either a deflationary or eliminativist critique. Specifically, I block the deflationary critique by showing that in fact the phenomenological account is itself a deflationary account insofar as it takes the sense of ownership to be implicit or intrinsic to experience and bodily action. I address the eliminativist view by considering empirical evidence that supports the concept of pre-reflective self-awareness, which underpins the sense of ownership. Finally, I respond to claims that phenomenology does not offer a positive account of the sense of ownership by showing the role it plays in an enactivist (action-oriented view of embodied cognition.

  16. Psychology as a Science of Subject and Comportment, beyond the Mind and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

    2018-03-01

    The turn of qualitative inquiry suggests a more open, plural conception of psychology than just the science of the mind and behavior as it is most commonly defined. Historical, ontological and epistemological binding of this conception of psychology to the positivist method of natural science may have exhausted its possibilities, and after having contributed to its prestige as a science, has now become an obstacle. It is proposed that psychology be reconceived as a science of subject and comportment in the framework of a contextual hermeneutic, social, human behavioral science. Thus, without rejecting quantitative inquiry, psychology recovers territory left aside like introspection and pre-reflective self-awareness, and reconnects with traditions marginalized from the main stream. From this perspective psychology might also recover its credibility as a human science in view of current skepticism.

  17. Ingestão pré-operatória de carboidratos diminui a ocorrência de sintomas gastrointestinais pós-operatórios em pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia Preoperative ingestion of carbohydrates diminishes the occurence of postoperative gastrointestinal symptoms in patients submitted to cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Estudos recentes mostram que a abreviação do jejum pré-operatório, ao contrário do jejum de 6-8 h apresenta vários benefícios. Pacientes que recebem carboidratos apresentam menos fome e menos ansiedade do que os que permaneceram em jejum noturno. A ingestão pré-operatória de carboidratos por via oral no dia da operação diminui a resposta orgânica ao trauma. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da ingestão de bebida com carboidratos 6 e 2 horas antes da operação na ocorrência de sintomas gastrointestinais pós-operatórios em pacientes colecistectomizadas. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo e randomizado com 54 pacientes do sexo feminino (42[19-69] anos candidatas à colecistectomia eletiva foram randomizadas para receber uma bebida contendo 12.5% de carboidratos, 6 (400 mL e 2 horas (200 mL antes da operação (grupo carboidrato n = 28 ou jejum de 6-8 horas (grupo convencional n= 26. As variáveis investigadas foram a ocorrência de vômitos, náuseas, distensão abdominal, eliminação de flatos e fezes, e o tempo de internação no pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: A ocorrência de distensão abdominal (42.3% vs 17.8%; P = 0,04, vômitos (53.8% vs 21.4%; P = 0,01 a associação de dois ou mais sintomas gastrointestinais (73.1% vs 39.3%; P = 0,01 e o tempo de internação pós-operatória (2 [1-3] vs 1 [1-3] dias; P = 0,04 foram significativamente menores no grupo carboidrato. CONCLUSÃO: A ingestão carboidratos no pré-operatório diminui a ocorrência de manifestações gastrointestinais pós-operatórias e o tempo de internação em colecistectomia.BACKGROUND: Earlier reports have shown that performing operations in fed, opposed to overnight-fasted patients, has several benefits. Preoperative patients receiving carbohydrates were found to be less hungry and less anxious than those receiving placebo or those fasting overnight. Preoperative oral carbohydrate loading on the day of operation may diminish the organic response to trauma

  18. 改善自我认知解决人际冲突问题的心理咨询案例报告%A Psychological Counseling Case Report about Solving the Problem of Interpersonal Conflict through Improving Self-Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文萍

    2014-01-01

    大学生的人际冲突问题是高校心理咨询中的常见案例。人际冲突问题表面是沟通技巧的缺失,其实质是个体自我认知出现偏差后消极投射的结果。本案例从构建求助者积极自我认知着手,解决求助者人际冲突问题,取得了较好的咨询效果。%College students' interpersonal conflict is a common case of the psychological counseling in universities. Surface of interpersonal conflict problem is lack of communication skills, the essence of which is the individual's self consciousness deviation after negative projection results. This case from the build patient positive self-perception, solve the problem of pa-tient interpersonal conflict, good consulting results have been achieved.

  19. Factor analysis of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory: structure and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohac, D L; Malec, J F; Moessner, A M

    1997-07-01

    Principal-components (PC) factor analysis of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI) was conducted using a sample of outpatients (n = 189) with acquired brain injury (ABI) to evaluate whether outcome after ABI is multifactorial or unifactorial in nature. An eight-factor model was derived which explained 64-4% of the total variance. The eight factors were interpreted as representing Activities of Daily Living, Social Initiation, Cognition, Impaired-Self-awareness/Distress, Social Skills/ Support, Independence, Visuoperceptual, and Psychiatric, respectively. Validation of the Cognition factor was supported when factor scores were correlated with various neuropsychological measures. In addition, 117 patient self-rating total scores were used to evaluate the Impaired Self-awareness/Distress factor. An inverse relationship was observed, supporting this factor's ability to capture the two-dimensional phenomena of diminished self-awareness or enhanced emotional distress. A new subscale structure is suggested, that may allow greater clinical utility in understanding how ABI manifests in patients, and may provide clinicians with a better structure for implementing treatment strategies to address specific areas of impairment and disability for specific patients. Additionally, more precise measurement of treatment outcomes may be afforded by this reorganization.

  20. On humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulehan, Jack

    2010-08-03

    The new professionalism movement in medical education takes seriously the old medical virtues. Perhaps the most difficult virtue to understand and practice is humility, which seems out of place in a medical culture characterized by arrogance, assertiveness, and a sense of entitlement. Countercultural though it is, humility need not suggest weakness or lack of self-confidence. On the contrary, humility requires toughness and emotional resilience. Humility in medicine manifests itself as unflinching self-awareness; empathic openness to others; and a keen appreciation of, and gratitude for, the privilege of caring for sick persons. Justified pride in medicine's accomplishments should neither rule out nor diminish our humility as healers.

  1. The diminishing role of hubs in dynamical processes on complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quax, Rick; Apolloni, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M A

    2013-11-06

    It is notoriously difficult to predict the behaviour of a complex self-organizing system, where the interactions among dynamical units form a heterogeneous topology. Even if the dynamics of each microscopic unit is known, a real understanding of their contributions to the macroscopic system behaviour is still lacking. Here, we develop information-theoretical methods to distinguish the contribution of each individual unit to the collective out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We show that for a system of units connected by a network of interaction potentials with an arbitrary degree distribution, highly connected units have less impact on the system dynamics when compared with intermediately connected units. In an equilibrium setting, the hubs are often found to dictate the long-term behaviour. However, we find both analytically and experimentally that the instantaneous states of these units have a short-lasting effect on the state trajectory of the entire system. We present qualitative evidence of this phenomenon from empirical findings about a social network of product recommendations, a protein-protein interaction network and a neural network, suggesting that it might indeed be a widespread property in nature.

  2. Terrestrial exposure of oilfield flowline additives diminish soil structural stability and remediative microbial function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.J.; Sherbone, J.; Hinz, C.; Tibbett, M.

    2011-01-01

    Onshore oil production pipelines are major installations in the petroleum industry, stretching many thousands of kilometres worldwide which also contain flowline additives. The current study focuses on the effect of the flowline additives on soil physico-chemical and biological properties and quantified the impact using resilience and resistance indices. Our findings are the first to highlight deleterious effect of flowline additives by altering some fundamental soil properties, including a complete loss of structural integrity of the impacted soil and a reduced capacity to degrade hydrocarbons mainly due to: (i) phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) prevented accumulation of scale in pipelines but also disrupted soil physical structure; (ii) glutaraldehyde (in biocides) which repressed microbial activity in the pipeline and reduced hydrocarbon degradation in soil upon environmental exposure; (iii) the combinatory effects of these two chemicals synergistically caused severe soil structural collapse and disruption of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. - Highlights: → Effects of flowline additives on soil structure and microbial function highlighted. → Phosphonate salts (in scale inhibitor) were found to disrupt soil physical structure. → Glutaraldehyde (in biocides) caused significant reduction of hydrocarbon degradation in soil. → Flowline additive chemicals synergistically affects soil structure and remediative microbial function. - Scale inhibitor and biocide oilfield flowline additives interactively affect soil physical and microbial properties

  3. There is no real evidence for a diminishing trend of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC is part of the great ocean “conveyor belt” that circulates heat around the globe. Since the early 2000s, ocean sensors have started to monitor the AMOC, but the measurements are still far from accurate and the time window does not permit the separation of short term variability from a longer term trend. Other works have claimed that global warming is slowing down the AMOC, based on models and proxies of temperatures. Some other observations demonstrate a stable circulation of the oceans. By using tide gauge data complementing recent satellite and ocean sensor observations, the stability of the AMOC is shown to go back to 1860. It is concluded that no available information has the due accuracy and time coverage to show a clear trend outside the inter-annual and multi-decadal variability in the direction of increasing or decreasing strength over the last decades.

  4. 2006 DoD Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) Conference, Exhibition and Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-13

    manufacturing capabilities.” DMSMS Influences • Performance Requirement Challenges – Fabrication accuracies orders of magnitude beyond metal machining ...Conference July 11, 2006 - Charlotte, NC Background There is a global transition to lead-free Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) EU Directive banning ...Medical/Dental, 5.4% Gaming/ Vending Equipment, 0.8% Computer Peripherals, 7.7% Military/Aerospace, 20.5% Communications (RF/Wireless), 6.4% Commercial

  5. Economic games quantify diminished sense of guilt in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajbich, Ian; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel; Denburg, Natalie L.; Camerer, Colin F.

    2009-01-01

    Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) impairs concern for other people, as reflected in the dysfunctional real-life social behavior of patients with such damage, as well as their abnormal performances on tasks ranging from moral judgment to economic games. Despite these convergent data, we lack a formal model of how, and to what degree, VMPFC lesions affect an individual’s social decision-making. Here we provide a quantification of these effects using a formal economic model of choice that incorporates terms for the disutility of unequal payoffs, with parameters that index behaviors normally evoked by guilt and envy. Six patients with focal VMPFC lesions participated in a battery of economic games that measured concern about payoffs to themselves and to others: dictator, ultimatum, and trust games. We analyzed each task individually, but also derived estimates of the guilt and envy parameters from aggregate behavior across all of the tasks. Compared to control subjects, the patients donated significantly less and were less trustworthy, and overall our model found a significant insensitivity to guilt. Despite these abnormalities, the patients had normal expectations about what other people would do, and they also did not simply generate behavior that was more noisy. Instead, the findings argue for a specific insensitivity to guilt, an abnormality that we suggest characterizes a key contribution made by the VMPFC to social behavior. PMID:19228971

  6. Economic games quantify diminished sense of guilt in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajbich, Ian; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel; Denburg, Natalie L; Camerer, Colin F

    2009-02-18

    Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) impairs concern for other people, as reflected in the dysfunctional real-life social behavior of patients with such damage, as well as their abnormal performances on tasks ranging from moral judgment to economic games. Despite these convergent data, we lack a formal model of how, and to what degree, VMPFC lesions affect an individual's social decision-making. Here we provide a quantification of these effects using a formal economic model of choice that incorporates terms for the disutility of unequal payoffs, with parameters that index behaviors normally evoked by guilt and envy. Six patients with focal VMPFC lesions participated in a battery of economic games that measured concern about payoffs to themselves and to others: dictator, ultimatum, and trust games. We analyzed each task individually, but also derived estimates of the guilt and envy parameters from aggregate behavior across all of the tasks. Compared with control subjects, the patients donated significantly less and were less trustworthy, and overall our model found a significant insensitivity to guilt. Despite these abnormalities, the patients had normal expectations about what other people would do, and they also did not simply generate behavior that was more noisy. Instead, the findings argue for a specific insensitivity to guilt, an abnormality that we suggest characterizes a key contribution made by the VMPFC to social behavior.

  7. Diminishing Use of Liver Biopsy among Liver Transplant Recipients for Hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth Aby; Melissa A.Jimenez; Jonathan F.Grotts; Vatche Agopian; Samuel W.French; Ronald W.Busuttil; Sammy Saab

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis is the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States and recurrent HCV following liver transplantation is a major cause of allograft loss and mortality.Liver biopsies are commonly used to identify recurrent HCV and determine the need for antiviral therapy.The introduction of directacting antiviral agents (DAAs) has changed the management of recurrent HCV infection.This study aimed to describe the role of liver biopsies in liver transplant recipients with HCV after the introduction of DAAs.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed looking at the rate of liver biopsies post-liver transplantation for HCV.The analysis included 475 adult liver transplants for hepatitis C performed at the University of California,Los Angeles from January 1,2006 to October 1,2015.Patients were divided into two eras,pre-and post-introduction of DAAs on December 1,2013.Results:In the era before the introduction of DAAs,the percentage of patients biopsied was significantly higher compared to the era after the introduction of DAAs (56.1% vs.26.9%,p < 0.001).Conclusion:The introduction of DAAs has changed the management of liver biopsy following liver transplantation and the management of recurrent HCV.Given that DAAs are well tolerated and have high efficacy,liver biopsies are no longer routinely used to justify the use antiviral therapy following liver transplantation.

  8. S - and N-alkylating agents diminish the fluorescence of fluorescent dye-stained DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesche, Robert; John, Harald; Kehe, Kai; Schmidt, Annette; Popp, Tanja; Balzuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Gudermann, Thomas; Steinritz, Dirk

    2017-01-25

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent, causes DNA alkylation, which is believed to be the main cause of its toxicity. SM DNA adducts are commonly used to verify exposure to this vesicant. However, the required analytical state-of-the-art mass-spectrometry methods are complex, use delicate instruments, are not mobile, and require laboratory infrastructure that is most likely not available in conflict zones. Attempts have thus been made to develop rapid detection methods that can be used in the field. The analysis of SM DNA adducts (HETE-G) by immunodetection is a convenient and suitable method. For a diagnostic assessment, HETE-G levels must be determined in relation to the total DNA in the sample. Total DNA can be easily visualized by the use of fluorescent DNA dyes. This study examines whether SM and related compounds affect total DNA staining, an issue that has not been investigated before. After pure DNA was extracted from human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), DNA was exposed to different S- and N-alkylating agents. Our experiments revealed a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the fluorescence signal of fluorescent dye-stained DNA after exposure to alkylating agents. After mass spectrometry and additional fluorescence measurements ruled out covalent modifications of ethidium bromide (EthBr) by SM, we assumed that DNA crosslinks caused DNA condensation and thereby impaired access of the fluorescent dyes to the DNA. DNA digestion by restriction enzymes restored fluorescence, a fact that strengthened our hypothesis. However, monofunctional agents, which are unable to crosslink DNA, also decreased the fluorescence signal. In subsequent experiments, we demonstrated that protons produced during DNA alkylation caused a pH decrease that was found responsible for the reduction in fluorescence. The use of an appropriate buffer system eliminated the adverse effect of alkylating agents on DNA staining with fluorescent dyes. An appropriate buffer system is thus crucial for DNA quantification with fluorescent dyes in the presence of alkylating compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Moist skin care can diminish acute radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, F.; Weissenberger, C.; Bertelt, S.; Henke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Radiation treatment may induce acute skin reactions. There are several methods of managing them. Validity of these methods, however, is not sufficiently studied. We therefore investigated, whether moist skin care with 3% urea lotion will reduce acute radiation skin toxicity. Patients and Methods: 88 patients with carcinomas of the head and neck undergoing radiotherapy with curative intent (mean total dose 60 Gy, range: 50-74 Gy) were evaluated weekly for acute skin reactions according to the RTOG-CTC score. In 63 patients, moist skin care with 3% urea lotion was performed. The control group consisted of 25 patients receiving conventional dry skin care. The incidence of grade I, II, and III reactions and the radiation dose at occurrence of a particular reaction were determined and statistically analyzed using the log-rank test. The dose-time relations of individual skin reactions are described. Results: At some point of time during radiotherapy, all patients suffered from acute skin reactions grade I, > 90% from grade II reactions. 50% of patients receiving moist skin care experienced grade I reactions at 26 Gy as compared to 22 Gy in control patients (p = 0.03). Grade II reactions occurred at 51 Gy versus 34 Gy (p = 0.006). Further, 22% of the patients treated with moist skin care suffered from acute skin toxicity grade III as compared to 56% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: Moist skin care with 3% urea lotion delays the occurrence and reduces the grade of acute skin reactions in percutaneously irradiated patients with head and neck tumors. (orig.)

  10. Superoxide generation is diminished during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Hlavatá, Lydie; Špaček, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 275, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 310-310 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /33./ and IUBMB Conference /11./. 28.06.2008-03.07.2008, Athens] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7917; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * superoxide production * glucose-stimulated insulin secretion * INS-1E cells Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  11. Proliferation of granule cell precursors in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys is diminished by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth; Tanapat, Patima; McEwen, Bruce S.; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    Although granule cells continue to be added to the dentate gyrus of adult rats and tree shrews, this phenomenon has not been demonstrated in the dentate gyrus of adult primates. To determine whether neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult primates, adult marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr or 3 weeks later. BrdU is a thymidine analog that is incorporated into proliferating cells during S phase. A substantial number of cells in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys incorporated BrdU and ≈80% of these cells had morphological characteristics of granule neurons and expressed a neuronal marker by the 3-week time point. Previous studies suggest that the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult dentate gyrus can be inhibited by stress in rats and tree shrews. To test whether an aversive experience has a similar effect on cell proliferation in the primate brain, adult marmoset monkeys were exposed to a resident-intruder model of stress. After 1 hr in this condition, the intruder monkeys were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr later. The number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of the intruder monkeys was compared with that of unstressed control monkeys. We found that a single exposure to this stressful experience resulted in a significant reduction in the number of these proliferating cells. Our results suggest that neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys and that the rate of precursor cell proliferation can be affected by a stressful experience. PMID:9501234

  12. Katabatic winds diminish precipitation contribution to the Antarctic ice mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Jacopo; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Gallée, Hubert; Forbes, Richard M; Genthon, Christophe; Krinner, Gerhard; Berne, Alexis

    2017-10-10

    Snowfall in Antarctica is a key term of the ice sheet mass budget that influences the sea level at global scale. Over the continental margins, persistent katabatic winds blow all year long and supply the lower troposphere with unsaturated air. We show that this dry air leads to significant low-level sublimation of snowfall. We found using unprecedented data collected over 1 year on the coast of Adélie Land and simulations from different atmospheric models that low-level sublimation accounts for a 17% reduction of total snowfall over the continent and up to 35% on the margins of East Antarctica, significantly affecting satellite-based estimations close to the ground. Our findings suggest that, as climate warming progresses, this process will be enhanced and will limit expected precipitation increases at the ground level.

  13. Striving to Provide Innovative Orientation and Mobility Services in Times of Diminishing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrella, Kristi; Besden, Cheryl; Crow, Nita; Greenberg, Maya Delgado; Shrieves, Gary; Smith, Katie A.; Vickroy, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Like many other states, California is facing a daunting budget deficit, reportedly about $19 billion. Delayed budgets have held up the disbursement of money, affecting school programs in districts as well as at the California School for the Blind (CSB). The current financial constraints have had an impact on CSB's programs. Its department of seven…

  14. Differences in chunking behavior between young and older adults diminish with extended practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, J. S.; van Asseldonk, E. H.F.; Verwey, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research found reduced motor chunking behavior in older adults compared to young adults. However, it remains unclear whether older adults are unable to use a chunking strategy or whether they are just slower in developing them. Our goal was to investigate the effect of extended practice on

  15. Canning process that diminishes paralytic shellfish poison in naturally contaminated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, J M; Botana, L M; Vieytes, M R; Leira, F J

    1999-05-01

    Changes in toxin profile and total toxicity levels of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-containing mussels were monitored during the standard canning process of pickled mussels and mussels in brine using mouse bioassays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Detoxification percentages for canned mussel meat exceeded 50% of initial toxicity. Total toxicity reduction did not fully correspond to toxin destruction, which was due to the loss of PSP to cooking water and packing media of the canned product. Significant differences in detoxification percentages were due to changes in toxin profile during heat treatment in packing media. Toxin conversion phenomena should be determined to validate detoxification procedures in the canning industry.

  16. Down-regulation of survivin by oxaliplatin diminishes radioresistance of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zakir; Khan, Noor; Tiwari, Ram P.; Patro, Ishan K.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.; Bisen, Prakash S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oxaliplatin is integrated in treatment strategies against a variety of cancers including radiation protocols. Herein, as a new strategy we tested feasibility and rationale of oxaliplatin in combination with radiation to control proliferation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and discussed survivin-related signaling and apoptosis induction. Methods: Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by radiation and/or oxaliplatin were examined in relation to survivin status using two HNSCC cell lines viz., Cal27 and NT8e, and one normal 293-cell line. Survivin gene knockdown by siRNA was also tested in relevance to oxaliplatin-mediated radiosensitization effects. Results: Survivin plays a critical role in mediating radiation-resistance in part through suppression of apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mechanism. Oxaliplatin treatment significantly decreased expression of survivin in cancer cells within 24-72 h. Apoptotic cells and caspase-3 activity were increased parallely with decrease in cell viability, if irradiated during this sensitive period. The cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin and radiation combination was greater than additive. Survivin gene knockdown experiments have demonstrated the role of survivin in radiosensitization of cancer cells mediated by oxaliplatin. Conclusions: Higher expression of survivin is a critical factor for radioresistance in HNSCC cell lines. Pre-treatment of cancer cells with oxaliplatin significantly increased the radiosensitivity through induction of apoptosis by potently inhibiting survivin.

  17. Impulsivity and negative priming: evidence for diminished cognitive inhibition in impulsive children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. R. M.; Das-Smaal, E.; Kwakman, H.

    1996-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between impulsivity and lack of inhibition. Inhibition was measured both by the interference score and by the negative priming effect in a Stroop colour-word paradigm. The negative priming effect in this paradigm is defined by slower naming of a target colour if

  18. Diminished excretion of polyamines from BHK-21/C13 cells exposed to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, M A; Keir, H M

    1978-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (1,1'-[methylethanediylidine)dinitrilo]diguanidine) inhibited the growth of BHK-21/C13 cells in monolayer cultures. Accumulation of spermidine and spermine was inhibited, whereas the accumulation of putrescine was increased. The intracellular spermidine/spermine molar ratio decreased conly slightly after exposure of the cells to 20 micrometer-methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) for 1 day. Cells incubated in the presence of the drug released less polyamine into the culture medium that did control cells, the polyamine released consisting almost exclusively of spermidine, both free and as a conjugated form. PMID:697761

  19. The Education Penalty: Schooling, Learning and the Diminishment of Wages, Working Conditions and Worker Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarieh, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Currently dominant human capital and knowledge economy rhetoric holds that education can raise wages, empower workers and enhance working conditions. Education, however, can also have the opposite impact in the workplace and labour market, an impact that has received only limited attention. In this article we draw together a broad range of…

  20. Failure to Demonstrate That Playing Violent Video Games Diminishes Prosocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tear, Morgan J.; Nielsen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in vir...

  1. Zoonotic Agents in Feral Pigeons (Columba livia) from Costa Rica: Possible Improvements to Diminish Contagion Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mejía, Ana María; Blanco-Peña, Kinndle; Rodríguez, César; Duarte, Francisco; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Esperón, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Most studies on zoonotic agents in pigeons have been conducted in the Palearctic region, but the scarcity of data is notorious in the Neotropical region, where these birds can breed all year around and are in close contact with humans. In this study, we used a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to identify infectious agents in 141 fecal samples from pigeons collected at four urban parks from Costa Rica. Of these we identified 34 positive samples for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Braenderup (24.1%), 13 for Chlamydophila psittaci (9.2%), 9 for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (6.4% eaeA, 0% stx-1 and 0% stx-2), and 2 for Campylobacter jejuni (1.4%). These populations of pigeons pose low risk for healthy adult humans, however, they may pose a health risk to immunocompromised patients or children. This study provides scientific data, which can be incorporated into educational programs aiming to reverse the public attitude toward pigeon feeding and to rationally justify population control efforts.

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation over prefrontal cortex diminishes degree of risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hang; Chen, Shu; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Jia, Yongmin; Luo, Jun

    2015-06-26

    Previous studies have established that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a powerful technique for manipulating the activity of the human cerebral cortex. Many studies have found that weighing the risks and benefits in decision-making involves a complex neural network that includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We studied whether participants change the balance of risky and safe responses after receiving tDCS applied over the right and left prefrontal cortex. A total of 60 healthy volunteers performed a risk task while they received either anodal tDCS over the right prefrontal cortex, with cathodal over the left; anodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex, with cathodal over the right; or sham stimulation. The participants tended to choose less risky options after receiving sham stimulation, demonstrating that the task might be highly influenced by the "wealth effect". There was no statistically significant change after either right anodal/left cathodal or left anodal/right cathodal tDCS, indicating that both types of tDCS impact the participants' degrees of risk aversion, and therefore, counteract the wealth effect. We also found gender differences in the participants' choices. These findings extend the notion that DLPFC activity is critical for risk decision-making. Application of tDCS to the right/left DLPFC may impact a person's attitude to taking risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The diminishing dominance of the dominant hemisphere: Language fMRI in focal epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Tailby

    2017-01-01

    Our data highlight the importance of considering language as a complex task where lateralisation varies at the subhemispheric scale. This is especially important for presurgical planning for focal resections where the concept of ‘hemispheric dominance’ may be misleading. This is a precision medicine approach that enables objective evaluation of language dominance within specific brain regions and can reveal surprising and unexpected anomalies that may be clinically important for individual cases.

  4. Participatory Budgeting: Could It Diminish Health Disparities in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Schleifer, David; Rinehart, Chloe; Silliman, Rebecca

    2018-05-07

    Participatory budgeting (PB)-a democratic process where ordinary residents decide directly how to spend part of a public budget-has gained impressive momentum in US municipalities, spreading from one pilot project in Chicago's 49th ward in 2009 to 50 active PB processes across 14 cities in 2016-2017. Over 93,600 US residents voted in a PB process in 2015-2016, deciding over a total of about $49.5 million and funding 264 projects intended to improve their communities. The vast majority of US PB processes take place in large urban centers (e.g., New York City, Chicago, Seattle, Boston), but PB has also recently spread to some smaller cities and towns [1]. Figure 1 illustrates the growth of PB processes in the USA, and within New York City and Chicago council districts specifically. Fig. 1 Participatory budgeting in the USA has grown from 1 process in 2009-2010 to 50 processes in 2016-2017 PB constitutes a rare form of public engagement in that it typically comprises several distinct stages that encourage residents to participate from project idea collection to project implementation (see Fig. 2). The decisive public vote in US PB is practically binding as elected officials commit to implementing the public decision at the outset of the process. Moreover, all current PB processes in the USA have expanded voting rights to residents under 18 years old and to non-citizens. Under President Obama, the White House recognized PB as a model for open governance. Participatory Budgeting Project, a nonprofit organization that advocates for PB, won the 2014 Brown Democracy Medal, which recognizes the best work being done to advance democracy in the USA and internationally. Fig. 2 Typical stages of a participatory budgeting process in the USA PB has been lauded for its potential to energize local democracy, contribute to more equitable public spending and help reduce inequality [2, 3]. Social justice goals have been explicit in US PB from the start. Grassroots advocates, technical assistance providers, and many elected officials who have adopted it emphasize that PB must focus on engaging underrepresented and marginalized communities [2, 4, 5]. PB steering committees have specified equity and inclusiveness goals in PB rule books [6, 7]. The most conclusive research so far on PB's potential to reduce social inequalities, however, comes from Brazil, where PB started in 1989. In Brazil, PB has been associated with a reduction in extreme poverty, better access to public services, greater spending on sanitation and health services, and, most notably, a reduction in child and infant mortality [8, 9].In this paper, we outline three mechanisms by which PB could affect health disparities in US municipalities: First, by strengthening residents' psychological empowerment; second, by strengthening civic sector alliances; and third, by (re)distributing resources to areas of greatest need. We summarize the theoretical argument for these impacts, discuss the existent empirical evidence, and highlight promising avenues for further research.

  5. Diminishing parochialism in intergroup conflict by disrupting the right temporo-parietal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Schiller, Bastian; Rieskamp, Jörg; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Knoch, Daria

    2014-05-01

    Individuals react to violation of social norms by outgroup members differently than to transgressions of those same norms by ingroup members: namely outgroup perpetrators are punished much more harshly than ingroup perpetrators. This parochial punishment pattern has been observed and extensively studied in social psychology and behavioral economics. Despite progress in recent years, however, little is known about the neural underpinnings of this intergroup bias. Here, we demonstrate by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that the transient disruption of the right, but not the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), reduces parochial punishment in a third-party punishment paradigm with real social groups. Moreover, we show that this observed TMS effect on parochial punishment is mediated by a classical punishment motive, i.e. retaliation. Finally, our data suggests that a change in perspective-taking might be the underlying mechanism that explains the impact of right TPJ disruption on retaliation motivation and parochial punishment. These findings provide the first causal evidence that the right TPJ plays a pivotal role in the implementation of parochial behaviors.

  6. Renewable electricity consumption in the EU-27: Are cross-country differences diminishing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, Adolfo; Hierro, Maria; Villaverde, Jose [University of Cantabria, Department of Economics, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to analyse cross-country differences for shares of renewable electricity in the EU-27 for the period 1996-2005. We carry out a standard convergence analysis and then examine the evolution of the entire distribution, namely the external shape, intra-distributional dynamics and ergodic distribution. Our main results are as follows. First, there has been a clear convergence pattern for renewable electricity shares across countries. Second, the shape of the distribution has varied significantly over time, with more countries positioned around the mean in 2005 than in 1996. Third, the analysis shows that intra-distributional mobility has been relatively high, especially in those countries with the highest share in the initial year of our sample. Fourth, in spite of this, large cross-country differences will likely persist for RES-E shares in the hypothetical long-term equilibrium, which implies that a major impulse to national RES-E support policies will be necessary in the coming years to shorten this gap. (author)

  7. High School Sports Involvement Diminishes the Association Between Childhood Conduct Disorder and Adult Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Elkins, Irene J; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2015-07-01

    Life course-persistent antisocial behavior manifests as a display of aggressive and antisocial behavior beginning in childhood (conduct disorder [CD]) and lasting through adulthood (adult antisocial personality disorder). This study aimed to build on prior research by evaluating whether involvement in high school sports helped attenuate the association between CD and subsequent adult antisocial behavior (AAB). A prospective sample of 967 male and female adolescents (56% adopted) was used. Structured interviews were used to assess CD (symptoms before the age of 15 years), involvement in sports during high school, and past-year adult antisocial personality disorder symptoms in young adulthood (M age = 22.4 years). As expected, the association between CD and AAB was significantly less for those involved in sports (β = .28; p antisocial behavior in the model (age, gender, adoption status), and results were consistent across males and females. Involvement in other extracurricular activities (e.g., student government, plays, clubs) did not significantly moderate the relationship between CD and AAB. Although selection effects were evident (those with more CD symptoms were less likely to be involved in sports), findings nevertheless suggest high school sports involvement may be a notable factor related to disrupting persistent antisocial behavior beginning in childhood and adolescence and lasting through young adulthood. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated stress hormone diminishes the strength of female preferences for acoustic signals in the green treefrog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A Gabriell; Leary, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    Mate selection can be stressful; time spent searching for mates can increase predation risk and/or decrease food consumption, resulting in elevated stress hormone levels. Both high predation risk and low food availability are often associated with increased variation in mate choice by females, but it is not clear whether stress hormone levels contribute to such variation in female behavior. We examined how the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) affects female preferences for acoustic signals in the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea. Specifically, we assessed whether CORT administration affects female preferences for call rate - an acoustic feature that is typically under directional selection via mate choice by females in most anurans and other species that communicate using acoustic signals. Using a dual speaker playback paradigm, we show that females that were administered higher doses of CORT were less likely to choose male advertisement calls broadcast at high rates. Neither CORT dose nor level was related to the latency of female phonotactic responses, suggesting that elevated CORT does not influence the motivation to mate. Results were also not related to circulating sex steroids (i.e., progesterone, androgens or estradiol) that have traditionally been the focus of studies examining the hormonal basis for variation in female mate choice. Our results thus indicate that elevated CORT levels decrease the strength of female preferences for acoustic signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. From diminished men to conditionally masculine: sexuality and Australian men and adolescent boys with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Parmenter, Trevor R; Stancliffe, Roger J; Shuttleworth, Russell P

    2013-01-01

    Men and boys with intellectual disability represent a unique group who have hitherto been overlooked by researchers and theorists exploring men and masculinities. Qualitative data from an Australian ethnographic study focused on the sexual health needs of men and adolescent boys with moderate to profound intellectual disability. Findings suggest that masculinity for this group of men is more a biopsychosocial phenomenon than a social construct organised around heteronormative ideals. The conditional masculinity of the men participating in the study was based instead on a number of intrinsic and external factors, which are described in detail.

  10. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mougey, E.H. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Army ROTC: A Strategy for Developing Tomorrow's Army Leadership in an Era of Diminishing Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betoney, Charles

    1997-01-01

    .... This study addresses the need to continue a viable Army ROTC program to produce high quality junior officers as well as maintain a positive, mutually beneficial presence on university and college...

  12. Gender differences in adolescent health-related behaviour diminished between 1998 and 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitel, L.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    Objectives: Male teenagers used to smoke more than females, but this male: female ratio has reversed in several European countries over recent decades. The aim of this study was to assess whether a similar shift in gender differences in smoking and other health-related behaviours has occurred in

  13. THE DIMINISHING OF THE CONTENT OF TEXTILE DIRECT DYES AND AUXILIARY COMPOUNDS DURING THEIR CATALYTIC OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gonta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation methods of organic compounds lead to their partial mineralization and increase of the adsorption process efficiency on the surface of oxidized activated carbon. We have studied the oxidation process using model solutions containing mixture of dye direct brown (DB, ethylene glycol (EGL and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS under the action of Fenton reagent, in the presence and absence of UV irradiation or under the action of electric current (in the electrochemical cell. The same studies were performed by replacing the iron (II ion with titanium dioxide.

  14. Limited SP17 expression within tumors diminishes its therapeutic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the expression of the tumor antigen sperm protein 17 (SP17) in a large panel of human cancers and compared it with the expression of two well-characterized families of tumor antigens, melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A) and G antigen (GAGE). We found that SP17...

  15. Understanding and diminishing the extra-column band broadening effects in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Ruben; Shoykhet Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2015-07-17

    Supercritical fluid chromatography, where a low-viscosity mobile phase such as carbon dioxide is used, proves to be an excellent technique for fast and efficient separations, especially when sub-2μm particles are used. However, to achieve high velocities when using these small particles, and in order to stay within the flow rate range of current SFC-instruments, narrow columns (e.g. 2.1mm ID) must be used. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art instrumentation is limiting the full separation power of these narrower columns due to significant extra-column band broadening effects. The present work identifies and quantifies the different contributions to extra-column band broadening in SFC such as the influence of the sample solvent, injection volume, extra-column volumes and detector cell volume/design. When matching the sample solvent to the mobile phase in terms of elution strength and polarity (e.g. using hexane/ethanol/isopropanol 85/10/5vol%) and lowering the injection volume to 0.4μL, the plate count can be increased from 7600 to 21,300 for a low-retaining compound (k'=2.3) on a 2.1mm×150mm column (packed with 1.8μm particles). The application of a water/acetonitrile mixture as sample solvent was also investigated. It was found that when the volumetric ratio of water/acetonitrile was optimized, only a slightly lower plate count was measured compared to the hexane-based solvent when minimizing injection and extra-column volume. This confirms earlier results that water/acetonitrile can be used if water-soluble samples are considered or when a less volatile solvent is preferred. Minimizing the ID of the connection capillaries from 250 to 65μm, however, gives no further improvement in obtained efficiency for early-eluting compounds when a standard system configuration with optimized sample solvent was used. When switching to a state-of-the-art detector design with reduced (dispersion) volume (1.7-0.6μL), an increase in plate count is observed (from 11,000 to 14,000 plates on a 2.1mm×100mm column with 1.8μm particles for k'=3) even when 250μm tubing was used. Using this detector cell and decreasing the ID of the tubing from 250 to 120μm resulted in an additional increase to 17,300 plates. Further decreasing the tubing ID (e.g. 65μm) appeared to have no observable influence on the obtained plate count. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Benzimidazoles diminish ERE transcriptional activity and cell growth in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payton-Stewart, Florastina [Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States); Tilghman, Syreeta L. [Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States); Williams, LaKeisha G. [Division of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States); Winfield, Leyte L., E-mail: lwinfield@spelman.edu [Department of Chemistry, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • The methyl-substituted benzimidazole was more effective at inhibiting growth in MDA-MB 231 cells. • The naphthyl-substituted benzimidazole was more effective at inhibiting growth in MCF-7 cells than ICI. • The benzimidazole molecules demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in ERE transcriptional activity. • The benzimidazole molecules had binding mode in ERα and ERβ comparable to that of the co-crystallized ligand. - Abstract: Estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. They regulate the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes and mediate numerous estrogen related diseases (i.e., fertility, osteoporosis, cancer, etc.). As such, ERs are potentially useful targets for developing therapies and diagnostic tools for hormonally responsive human breast cancers. In this work, two benzimidazole-based sulfonamides originally designed to reduce proliferation in prostate cancer, have been evaluated for their ability to modulate growth in estrogen dependent and independent cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231) using cell viability assays. The molecules reduced growth in MCF-7 cells, but differed in their impact on the growth of MDA-MB 231 cells. Although both molecules reduced estrogen response element (ERE) transcriptional activity in a dose dependent manner, the contrasting activity in the MDA-MB-231 cells seems to suggest that the molecules may act through alternate ER-mediated pathways. Further, the methyl analog showed modest selectivity for the ERβ receptor in an ER gene expression array panel, while the naphthyl analog did not significantly alter gene expression. The molecules were docked in the ligand binding domains of the ERα-antagonist and ERβ-agonist crystal structures to evaluate the potential of the molecules to interact with the receptors. The computational analysis complimented the results obtained in the assay of transcriptional activity and gene expression suggesting that the molecules upregulate ERβ activity while down regulating that of ERα.

  17. Human presence diminishes the importance of climate in driving fire activity across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Pfaff, Anne Hopkins; Ferschweiler, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Growing human and ecological costs due to increasing wildfire are an urgent concern in policy and management, particularly given projections of worsening fire conditions under climate change. Thus, understanding the relationship between climatic variation and fire activity is a critically important scientific question. Different factors limit fire behavior in different places and times, but most fire-climate analyses are conducted across broad spatial extents that mask geographical variation. This could result in overly broad or inappropriate management and policy decisions that neglect to account for regionally specific or other important factors driving fire activity. We developed statistical models relating seasonal temperature and precipitation variables to historical annual fire activity for 37 different regions across the continental United States and asked whether and how fire-climate relationships vary geographically, and why climate is more important in some regions than in others. Climatic variation played a significant role in explaining annual fire activity in some regions, but the relative importance of seasonal temperature or precipitation, in addition to the overall importance of climate, varied substantially depending on geographical context. Human presence was the primary reason that climate explained less fire activity in some regions than in others. That is, where human presence was more prominent, climate was less important. This means that humans may not only influence fire regimes but their presence can actually override, or swamp out, the effect of climate. Thus, geographical context as well as human influence should be considered alongside climate in national wildfire policy and management.

  18. Diminished epinephrine response to hypoglycemia despite enlarged adrenal medulla in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Kjaer, M; Mikines, K J

    1990-01-01

    /day or served as controls being either sedentary freely eating (C), food restricted (FR), sham swim trained (ST), or cold stressed (CS). Adrenal glands were weighted and cross sectioned for light microscopic determination of size of the adrenal medulla. Endurance-trained compared with control rats had heavier...... adrenal glands (P less than 0.05), higher catecholamine content in the glands (P less than 0.05), and higher adrenal medulla volumes (P less than 0.05) [males: 2.74 +/- 0.16 (T) vs. 2.05 +/- 0.16 (C), 1.90 +/- 0.10 (ST), and 2.21 +/- 0.08 mm3 (CS)] [females: 2.55 +/- 0.11 (T) vs. 1.92 +/- 0.06 mm3 (C......)]. Cold stress or sham swim training did not increase adrenal weight or volume of adrenal medulla (P greater than 0.05). To stimulate adrenal medulla secretion, rats had an insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Insulin dose needed to suppress plasma glucose below 4.0 mM was four times greater in sedentary...

  19. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  20. Hell and High Water: Diminished Septic System Performance in Coastal Regions Due to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Amador, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may affect the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to treat wastewater in coastal regions of the Northeastern United States. Higher temperatures and water tables can affect treatment by reducing the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment, which may result in greater transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to groundwater, jeopardizing public and aquatic ecosystem health. The soil treatment area (STA) of an OWTS removes contaminants as wastewater percolates through the soil. Conventional STAs receive wastewater from the septic tank, with infiltration occurring deeper in the soil profile. In contrast, shallow narrow STAs receive pre-treated wastewater that infiltrates higher in the soil profile, which may make them more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify the water quality functions of a conventional and two types of shallow narrow STAs under present climate (PC; 20°C) and climate change (CC; 25°C, 30 cm elevation in water table). Significantly greater removal of BOD5 was observed under CC for all STA types. Phosphorus removal decreased significantly from 75% (PC) to 66% (CC) in the conventional STA, and from 100% to 71-72% in shallow narrow STAs. No fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) were released under PC, whereas up to 17 and 20 CFU 100 mL-1 were released in conventional and shallow narrow STAs, respectively, under CC. Total N removal increased from 14% (PC) to 19% (CC) in the conventional STA, but decreased in shallow narrow STAs, from 6-7% to less than 3.0%. Differences in removal of FCB and total N were not significant. Leaching of N in excess of inputs was also observed in shallow narrow STAs under CC. Our results indicate that climate change can affect contaminant removal from wastewater, with effects dependent on the contaminant and STA type.

  1. Army ROTC: A Strategy for Developing Tomorrow's Army Leadership in an Era of Diminishing Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betoney, Charles

    1997-01-01

    .... In addition to reshaping the military forces to meet the warfighting and peacekeeping requirements, a new national strategy must include how to man, equip, and train those national defense organizations that remain...

  2. Do Open Access Electronic Theses and Dissertations Diminish Publishing Opportunities in the Sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Marisa L.; McMillan, Gail; Dalton, Joan T.; Hanlon, Ann; Smith, Heather S.; Kern, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    In academia, there is a growing acceptance of sharing the final electronic version of graduate work, such as a thesis or dissertation, in an online university repository. Though previous studies have shown that journal editors are willing to consider manuscripts derived from electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs), faculty advisors and graduate…

  3. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  4. Diminished behavioral and neural sensitivity to sound modulation is associated with moderate developmental hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merri J Rosen

    Full Text Available The acoustic rearing environment can alter central auditory coding properties, yet altered neural coding is seldom linked with specific deficits to adult perceptual skills. To test whether developmental hearing loss resulted in comparable changes to perception and sensory coding, we examined behavioral and neural detection thresholds for sinusoidally amplitude modulated (sAM stimuli. Behavioral sAM detection thresholds for slow (5 Hz modulations were significantly worse for animals reared with bilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL, as compared to controls. This difference could not be attributed to hearing thresholds, proficiency at the task, or proxies for attention. Detection thresholds across the groups did not differ for fast (100 Hz modulations, a result paralleling that seen in humans. Neural responses to sAM stimuli were recorded in single auditory cortex neurons from separate groups of awake animals. Neurometric analyses indicated equivalent thresholds for the most sensitive neurons, but a significantly poorer detection threshold for slow modulations across the population of CHL neurons as compared to controls. The magnitude of the neural deficit matched that of the behavioral differences, suggesting that a reduction of sensory information can account for limitations to perceptual skills.

  5. Characterizing episodic memory retrieval: electrophysiological evidence for diminished familiarity following unitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Lea K; Murray, Jamie G; Donaldson, David I

    2012-08-01

    Episodic memory relies on both recollection and familiarity; why these processes are differentially engaged during retrieval remains unclear. Traditionally, recollection has been considered necessary for tasks requiring associative retrieval, whereas familiarity supports recognition of items. Recently, however, familiarity has been shown to contribute to associative recognition if stimuli are "unitized" at encoding (a single representation is created from multiple elements)-the "benefit" of unitization. Here, we ask if there is also a "cost" of unitization; are the elements of unitized representations less accessible via familiarity? We manipulated unitization during encoding and used ERPs to index familiarity and recollection at retrieval. The data revealed a selective reduction in the neural correlate of familiarity for individual words originally encoded in unitized compared with nonunitized word pairs. This finding reveals a measurable cost of unitization, suggesting that the nature of to-be-remembered stimuli is critical in determining whether familiarity contributes to episodic memory.

  6. Diminished thrombogenic responses by deletion of the Podocalyxin Gene in mouse megakaryocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pericacho

    Full Text Available Podocalyxin (Podxl is a type I membrane sialoprotein of the CD34 family, originally described in the epithelial glomerular cells of the kidney (podocytes in which it plays an important function. Podxl can also be found in megakaryocytes and platelets among other extrarenal places. The surface exposure of Podxl upon platelet activation suggested it could play some physiological role. To elucidate the function of Podxl in platelets, we generated mice with restricted ablation of the podxl gene in megakaryocytes using the Cre-LoxP gene targeting methodology. Mice with Podxl-null megakaryocytes did not show any apparent phenotypical change and their rates of growth, life span and fertility did not differ from the floxed controls. However, Podxl-null mice showed prolonged bleeding time and decreased platelet aggregation in response to physiological agonists. The number, size-distribution and polyploidy of Podxl-null megakaryocytes were similar to the floxed controls. Podxl-null platelets showed normal content of surface receptors and normal activation by agonists. However, the mice bearing Podxl-null platelets showed a significant retardation in the ferric chloride-induced occlusion of the carotid artery. Moreover, acute thrombosis induced by the i.v. injection of sublethal doses of collagen and phenylephrine produced a smaller fall in the number of circulating platelets in Podxl-null mice than in control mice. In addition, perfusion of uncoagulated blood from Podxl-null mice in parallel flow chamber showed reduced adhesion of platelets and formation of aggregates under high shear stress. It is concluded that platelet Podxl is involved in the control of hemostasis acting as a platelet co-stimulator, likely due to its pro-adhesive properties.

  7. Diminished modulation of preparatory sensorimotor mu rhythm predicts attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Huurne, N; Lozano-Soldevilla, D; Onnink, M; Kan, C; Buitelaar, J; Jensen, O

    2017-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by problems in regulating attention and in suppressing disruptive motor activity, i.e. hyperactivity and impulsivity. We recently found evidence that aberrant distribution of posterior α band oscillations (8-12 Hz) is associated with attentional problems in ADHD. The sensorimotor cortex also produces strong 8-12 Hz band oscillations, namely the μ rhythm, and is thought to have a similar inhibitory function. Here, we now investigate whether problems in distributing α band oscillations in ADHD generalize to the μ rhythm in the sensorimotor domain. In a group of adult ADHD (n = 17) and healthy control subjects (n = 18; aged 21-40 years) oscillatory brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography during a visuo-spatial attention task. Subjects had to anticipate a target with unpredictable timing and respond by pressing a button. Preparing a motor response, the ADHD group failed to increase hemispheric μ lateralization with relatively higher μ power in sensorimotor regions not engaged in the task, as the controls did (F 1,33 = 8.70, p = 0.006). Moreover, the ADHD group pre-response μ lateralization not only correlated positively with accuracy (r s = 0.64, p = 0.0052) and negatively with intra-individual reaction time variability (r s = -0.52, p = 0.033), but it also correlated negatively with the score on an ADHD rating scale (r s = -0.53, p = 0.028). We suggest that ADHD is associated with an inability to sufficiently inhibit task-irrelevant sensorimotor areas by means of modulating μ oscillatory activity. This could explain disruptive motor activity in ADHD. These results provide further evidence that impaired modulation of α band oscillations is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD.

  8. Diminished embryonic movements of developing embryo by direct exposure of sidestream whole smoke solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejaz, Sohail [Chonbuk National University, Biosafety Research Institute, Jeonju (Korea); Woong, Lim Chae [Chonbuk National University, Department of Pathology, Jeonju (Korea)

    2006-02-01

    Embryonic movements (EM) are considered to be the first sign of life and cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been linked to affect EM. Exposure to sidestream smoke, produced from the emissions of a smoldering cigarette, may result in poor pregnancy outcome and increased risk of serious perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this study, the chicken embryo bioassay was used to systematically assess the effects of short-term exposure to sidestream whole smoke solutions (SSWSS) on EM, recorded in real time by a video camera for 60 min and each EM was counted for every 3-min interval. Application of different types of SSWSS to the embryos caused significant changes in all types of EM from 15 to 18 min of recording time. Extensive reduction (P<0.001) and some time complete stoppage of swing-like movements and whole-body movements were observed in almost all treated embryos. Our data clearly link between exposure of SSWSS and substantial decrease in EM. It is unclear whether nicotine and/or other ingredients present in sidestream smoke are responsible for these alterations in EM. This article provides an outline of the relevance of SSWSS on EM for evolutionary developmental biology and this assay can be used to investigate the complex mixtures with regard to their effects on EM. (orig.)

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal strategy for zinc mycoremediation and diminished translocation to shoots and grains in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mycoremediation is an on-site remediation strategy, which employs fungi to degrade or sequester contaminants from the environment. The present work focused on the bioremediation of soils contaminated with zinc by the use of a native mycorrhizal fungi (AM) called Funneliformis geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Schüßler. Experiments were performed using Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gemmeza-10 at different concentrations of Zn (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1) and inoculated with or without F. geosporum. The results showed that the dry weight of mycorrhizal wheat increased at Zn stressed plants as compared to the non-Zn-stressed control plants. The concentrations of Zn also had an inhibitory effect on the yield of dry root and shoot of non-mycorrhizal wheat. The photosynthetic pigment fractions were significantly affected by Zn treatments and mycorrhizal inoculation, where in all treatments, the content of the photosynthetic pigment fractions decreased as the Zn concentration increased in the soil. However, the level of minerals of shoots, roots, and grains was greatly influenced by Zn-treatment and by inoculation with F. geosporum. Treatment with Zn in the soil increased Cu and Zn concentrations in the root, shoot and grains, however, other minerals (P, S, K, Ca and Fe) concentration was decreased. Inoculation of wheat with AM fungi significantly reduced the accumulation of Zn and depressed its translocation in shoots and grains of wheat. In conclusion, inoculation with a native F. geosporum-improves yields of wheat under higher levels of Zn and is possible to be applied for the improvement of zinc contaminated soil. PMID:29145471

  10. Selective imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with diminished outer membrane permeability.

    OpenAIRE

    Studemeister, A E; Quinn, J P

    1988-01-01

    The permeability of the outer membranes of imipenem-susceptible and imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated by the liposome swelling assay. Sugars and cephaloridine penetrated rapidly, whereas imipenem penetrated poorly into liposomes constructed from porin-rich outer membrane fractions of the resistant isolates.

  11. Diminished levels of allelic losses by homologous recombination in radiation-hypersensitive cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, K.; Abe, M.; Hoki, Y.; Kubo, E.; Muto, M.; Araki, R.; Sato, K.

    2003-01-01

    Mitotic recombination (MR) due to somatic crossing-over is a predominant mechanism for allelic losses in mammalian cells either spontaneous or radiation-induced. A selectable mutation assay accompanying real-time detection PCR was developed to analyze the second step in loss-of-function mutations employing a human lympho-blastoid cell line derived from an obligate heterozygote of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency with a nonsense mutation at exon 3 of the gene. 68 % of spontaneously arising 2,6-diaminopurine resistance (DAP r ) mutant clones were associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH), while 92 % of 2 Gy gamma-ray induced mutant clones were so associated. Investigation of gene dosage revealed that about one half of the spontaneously arising mutant clones and two-thirds of those induced by gamma-rays showed reduction to homozygosity of the constitutionally inactivated APRT allele. In an ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cell subline in which a new inactivation mutation had been introduced into one APRT allele by ICR-191, MR rarely occurred and exclusively deletions predominated in both spontaneous and X-ray induced DAP r mutants with LOH. A similar assay system was also developed with C3H mouse FM3A mammary tumor cells, SR-1, carrying a C .T transition at exon 5 of an APRT allele. In an XRCC7 (DNA-PKcs) deficient subline of SR-1, SX9 , spontaneous mutation frequencies for the Aprt locus (8AA r ) was 10 -3 , which was about 10 times higher than that in parental SR-1 cells. Mutation frequencies induced by X-rays comparably increased in a dose-dependent manner for the Aprt locus in both cell lines. Against our expectation, the lack of an NHEJ pathway of DNA double strand break repair resulted in a lower proportion (11.1 %) of MR with deletions (77.8 %) as the molecular cause for 8AA r mutations following X-irradiation, while virtually all of X-ray induced 8AA r mutant clones were MR in the control SR-1 cells. Factors influencing the mode and the proportion of MR together with their biologically purposeful regulations should be further pursued, since this type of genetic event can well be a rate-limiting step of radiation carcinogenesis

  12. Relief of mitral leaflet tethering following chronic myocardial infarction by chordal cutting diminishes left ventricular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messas, Emmanuel; Bel, Alain; Szymanski, Catherine; Cohen, Iris; Touchot, Bernard; Handschumacher, Mark D; Desnos, Michel; Carpentier, Alain; Menasché, Philippe; Hagège, Albert A; Levine, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    one of the key targets in treating mitral regurgitation (MR) is reducing the otherwise progressive left ventricular (LV) remodeling that exacerbates MR and conveys adverse prognosis. We have previously demonstrated that severing 2 second-order chordae to the anterior mitral leaflet relieves tethering and ischemic MR acutely. The purpose of this study was to test whether this technique reduces the progression of LV remodeling in the chronic ischemic MR setting. a posterolateral MI was created in 18 sheep by obtuse marginal branch ligation. After chronic remodeling and MR development at 3 months, 6 sheep were randomized to sham surgery (control group) and 12 to second-order chordal cutting (6 each to anterior leaflet [AntL] and bileaflet [BiL] chordal cutting, techniques that are in clinical application). At baseline, chronic infarction (3 months), and follow-up at a mean of 6.6 months post-myocardial infarction (MI) (euthanasia), we measured LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction, wall motion score index, and posterior leaflet (PL) restriction angle relative to the annulus by 2D and 3D echocardiography. All measurements were comparable among groups at baseline and chronic MI. At euthanasia, AntL and BiL chordal cutting limited the progressive remodeling seen in controls. LVESV increased relative to chronic MI by 109±8.7% in controls versus 30.5±6.1% with chordal cutting (Pbenefits have the potential to improve clinical outcomes.

  13. Diminishing Chromium Use on Combined Chromium-Gambier Tanning Process Upon the Characteristics of Tanned Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kasim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to investigate the influence of minimizing chromium use on combined chromium-gambier process upon the characteristics of tanned leather. At the first stage of tanning process, chromium was used and in the second stage it was replaced by gambier. The raw material used was dried saline-preserved goat skin. The treatments applied on the tanning process were the different concentrations of chromium ranging from the highest level of 6% to the lowest level of 1% which was then re-tanned by using 8% concentration of gambier. The examination parameters included chemical and physical properties as well as visual investigation on the tanned leather in accordance with SNI-06-0463-1989-A. The result showed that the tanning process by using 2% chromium in the first step and 8% gambier in the second step was a treatment combination producing tanned leather that met the standard. The examination on tanned leather resulted from such treatment showed 56.33% rawhide, 17.45% of bound tannin, 31.22% of tanning level, tensile strength 386.30 kg/cm2, flexibility 31.91%, leather width 1.3 mm, density 0.75 g/cm3, the leather was quite elastic with light brownish color. In conclusion, minimizing the use of chromium in the combined tanning process of chromium and gambier can be implemented to the lowest of 2% chromium concentration and 8% gambier in the first and second step, respectively.

  14. Army ROTC: A Strategy for Developing Tomorrow's Army Leadership in an Era of Diminishing Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betoney, Charles

    1997-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has caused a massive restructuring of the Armed Forces and has precipitated nearly unprecedented force structure downsizing based upon the perceived reduced threat to national security...

  15. Increased stem density and competition may diminish the positive effects of warming at alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafeng; Pederson, Neil; Ellison, Aaron M; Buckley, Hannah L; Case, Bradley S; Liang, Eryuan; Julio Camarero, J

    2016-07-01

    The most widespread response to global warming among alpine treeline ecotones is not an upward shift, but an increase in tree density. However, the impact of increasing density on interactions among trees at treeline is not well understood. Here, we test if treeline densification induced by climatic warming leads to increasing intraspecific competition. We mapped and measured the size and age of Smith fir trees growing in two treelines located in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We used spatial point-pattern and codispersion analyses to describe the spatial association and covariation among seedlings, juveniles, and adults grouped in 30-yr age classes from the 1860s to the present. Effects of competition on tree height and regeneration were inferred from bivariate mark-correlations. Since the 1950s, a rapid densification occurred at both sites in response to climatic warming. Competition between adults and juveniles or seedlings at small scales intensified as density increased. Encroachment negatively affected height growth and further reduced recruitment around mature trees. We infer that tree recruitment at the studied treelines was more cold-limited prior to 1950 and shifted to a less temperature-constrained regime in response to climatic warming. Therefore, the ongoing densification and encroachment of alpine treelines could alter the way climate drives their transitions toward subalpine forests. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Irradiated riboflavin diminishes the aggressiveness of melanoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Machado

    Full Text Available Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers due to its high capacity to metastasize. Treatment of metastatic melanomas is challenging for clinicians, as most therapeutic agents have failed to demonstrate improved survival. Thus, new candidates with antimetastatic activity are much needed. Riboavin (RF is a component of the vitamin B complex and a potent photosensitizer. Previously, our group showed that the RF photoproducts (iRF have potential as an antitumoral agent. Hence, we investigated the capacity of iRF on modulating melanoma B16F10 cells aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo. iRF decreases B16F10 cells survival by inhibiting mTOR as well as Src kinase. Moreover, melanoma cell migration was disrupted after treatment with iRF, mainly by inhibition of metalloproteinase (MMP activity and expression, and by increasing TIMP expression. Interestingly, we observed that the Hedgehog (HH pathway was inhibited by iRF. Two mediators of HH signaling, GLI1 and PTCH, were downregulated, while SUFU expression (an inhibitor of this cascade was enhanced. Furthermore, inhibition of HH pathway signaling by cyclopamine and Gant 61 potentiated the antiproliferative action of RF. Accordingly, when a HH ligand was applied, the effect of iRF was almost completely abrogated. Our findings indicate that Hedgehog pathway is involved on the modulation of melanoma cell aggressiveness by iRF. Moreover, iRF treatment decreased pulmonary tumor formation in a murine experimental metastasis model. Research to clarify the molecular action of flavins, in vivo, is currently in progress. Taken together, the present data provides evidence that riboflavin photoproducts may provide potential candidates for improving the efficiency of melanoma treatment.

  17. Irradiated riboflavin diminishes the aggressiveness of melanoma in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Daisy; Shishido, Silvia M.; Queiroz, Karla C. S.; Oliveira, Diogo N.; Faria, Ana L. C.; Catharino, Rodrigo R.; Spek, C. Arnold; Ferreira, Carmen V.

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancers due to its high capacity to metastasize. Treatment of metastatic melanomas is challenging for clinicians, as most therapeutic agents have failed to demonstrate improved survival. Thus, new candidates with antimetastatic activity are much needed.

  18. Pardon the rude robot: social cues diminish reactance to high controlling language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazali, A.S.; Ham, J.R.C.; Barakova, E.I.; Markopoulos, P.

    2017-01-01

    In many future social interactions between robots and humans, robots may need to convince people to change their behavior. People may dislike and resist such persuasive attempts, a phenomenon known as psychological reactance. This paper examines how reactance, measured in terms of negative

  19. Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    At a low protein low-energy diet or during reduced food intake, the glomerular filtration rate and thereby the glomerular filtered urea was reduced by about 30%. During most experiments tubular reabsorption of filtered urea was rather constant (averaging 43%). A high reabsorption of 87% was observed in one llama for several weeks during a straw diet with moderate supplementation of some carbohydrates. (author)

  20. Diminished Virulence of an Alpha-Toxin Mutant of Staphylococcus aureus in Experimental Brain Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Kielian, Tammy; Cheung, Ambrose; Hickey, William F.

    2001-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major etiologic agents of brain abscesses in humans, occasionally leading to focal neurological deficits and even death. The objective of the present study was to identify key virulence determinants contributing to the pathogenesis of S. aureus in the brain using a murine brain abscess model. The importance of virulence factor production in disease development was demonstrated by the inability of heat-inactivated S. aureus to induce proinflammatory cytokine...

  1. Sustainability assessment of farming in perspective of diminishing global emerge flows – A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    calculations are exclusively based on present data and conditions (e.g. transformity for labour and services), it is ignored that future national emergy flows will be reduced as non-renewable stocks deplete and become harder to extract. Sustainability assessments should in our opinion address the capacity...... of products to customers. The farm has systematically and successfully worked on reducing external inputs to an extent where only fossil fuel and labour are significant. The farm is, therefore, considered to be a best case for a resilient food system. We present and compare two emergy analyses of the system...

  2. Diminish electrostatic in piezoresponse force microscopy through longer or ultra-stiff tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.

    2018-05-01

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy is a powerful but delicate nanoscale technique that measures the electromechanical response resulting from the application of a highly localized electric field. Though mechanical response is normally due to piezoelectricity, other physical phenomena, especially electrostatic interaction, can contribute to the signal read. We address this problematic through the use of longer ultra-stiff probes providing state of the art sensitivity, with the lowest electrostatic interaction and avoiding working in high frequency regime. In order to find this solution we develop a theoretical description addressing the effects of electrostatic contributions in the total cantilever vibration and its quantification for different setups. The theory is subsequently tested in a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal, a sample with well-defined 0° and 180° domains, using different commercial available conductive tips. We employ the theoretical description to compare the electrostatic contribution effects into the total phase recorded. Through experimental data our description is corroborated for each of the tested commercially available probes. We propose that a larger probe length can be a solution to avoid electrostatic forces, so the cantilever-sample electrostatic interaction is reduced. Our proposed solution has great implications into avoiding artifacts while studying soft biological samples, multiferroic oxides, and thin film ferroelectric materials.

  3. Acute secondhand smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation is diminished in RAGE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tyler T; Winden, Duane R; Marlor, Derek R; Wright, Alex J; Jones, Cameron M; Chavarria, Michael; Rogers, Geraldine D; Reynolds, Paul R

    2014-11-15

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has increasingly been demonstrated to be an important modulator of inflammation in cases of pulmonary disease. Published reports involving tobacco smoke exposure have demonstrated increased expression of RAGE, its participation in proinflammatory signaling, and its role in irreversible pulmonary remodeling. The current research evaluated the in vivo effects of short-term secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in RAGE knockout and control mice compared with identical animals exposed to room air only. Quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry revealed elevated RAGE expression in controls after 4 wk of SHS exposure and an anticipated absence of RAGE expression in RAGE knockout mice regardless of smoke exposure. Ras activation, NF-κB activity, and cytokine elaboration were assessed to characterize the molecular basis of SHS-induced inflammation in the mouse lung. Furthermore, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was procured from RAGE knockout and control animals for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. As a general theme, inflammation coincident with leukocyte recruitment was induced by SHS exposure and significantly influenced by the availability of RAGE. These data reveal captivating information suggesting a role for RAGE signaling in lungs exposed to SHS. However, ongoing research is still warranted to fully explain roles for RAGE and other receptors in cells coping with involuntary smoke exposure for prolonged periods of time. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Diminishing peat oxidation of agricultural peat soils by infiltration via submerged drains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.; Hendriks, R.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation of peat soils used in dairy farming in the western peat area of The Netherlands causes subsidence rates up to 13 mm.y and emissions of CO2 to about 27 t.ha.y. In 2003 experiments started with subsurface irrigation by submerged drains to raise groundwater levels to reduce oxidation and so

  5. Diminished parathyroid gland responsiveness to hypocalcemia in diabetic patients with uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbreder, E; Götz, R; Schafferhans, K; Heidland, A

    1986-01-01

    The parathyroid gland responsiveness to hypocalcemia induced by short-term calcium-free hemodialysis in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was investigated in comparison with 10 nondiabetic uremic patients and compared with test results from the autonomic nervous system. Diabetic patients had lower C-terminal parathyroid hormone (cPTH) levels before hemodialysis than uremic control patients and showed a significantly smaller increase in cPTH during hypocalcemia. The neurological tests revealed severe disturbances of the autonomic functions in the diabetic group. In conclusion, the disturbances observed in the parathyroid secretory pattern are probably caused by gland dysfunction; it is hypothesized that the defective autonomic nervous system has an additional effect on the development of this hormonal dysfunction.

  6. Does Viewing Pornography Diminish Religiosity Over Time? Evidence From Two-Wave Panel Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Samuel L

    2017-02-01

    Research consistently shows a negative association between religiosity and viewing pornography. While scholars typically assume that greater religiosity leads to less frequent pornography use, none have empirically examined whether the reverse could be true: that greater pornography use may lead to lower levels of religiosity over time. I tested for this possibility using two waves of the nationally representative Portraits of American Life Study (PALS). Persons who viewed pornography at all at Wave 1 reported more religious doubt, lower religious salience, and lower prayer frequency at Wave 2 compared to those who never viewed porn. Considering the effect of porn-viewing frequency, viewing porn more often at Wave 1 corresponded to increases in religious doubt and declining religious salience at Wave 2. However, the effect of earlier pornography use on later religious service attendance and prayer was curvilinear: Religious service attendance and prayer decline to a point and then increase at higher levels of pornography viewing. Testing for interactions revealed that all effects appear to hold regardless of gender. Findings suggest that viewing pornography may lead to declines in some dimensions of religiosity but at more extreme levels may actually stimulate, or at least be conducive to, greater religiosity along other dimensions.

  7. Inhibiting extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer maybe beneficial for diminishing the atherosclerotic plaque instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and local thrombosis activation in the artery cause acute serious incidents such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. The exact mechanism of plaque rupture remains unclear but excessive degradation of the extracellular matrix scaffold by matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs has been implicated as one of the major molecular mechanisms in this process. Convincing evidence is available to prove that extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN induces MMP expression and is involved in the inflammatory responses in the artery wall. The inflammation and MMPs have been shown to play a critical role for atherosclerotic lesion development and progression. More recent data showed that increased EMMPRIN expression was associated with vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we speculate that EMMPRIN may be pivotal for atherosclerotic plaque instability, and hence inhibition of EMMPRIN expression could be a promising approach for the prevention or treatment of atheroma instability.

  8. The Diminished Use of Tamil in South Africa | Mncwango | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These include German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Portuguese, Tamil, Telegu and Urdu, as well as languages used for religious purposes in South Africa, like Arabic, Hebrew, Sanskrit and others. The article argues that, while Tamil is a minority language, it serves very important functions among Tamil speakers and should, ...

  9. State Water Resource Competition and the Resulting Consequences of Diminished Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    future! To illustrate the need for survival through his Self-Actualization Theory, Abraham Maslow proposes “that human motivation can be...belonging needs, and esteem needs, and culminate in self-actualization.”3 Maslow categorizes the value of water to human survival as a “demand.” The

  10. Diminished hepatic growth hormone receptor binding in sex-linked dwarf broiler and leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, F C; Styles, W J; Rosenblum, C I; Lilburn, M S; Marsh, J A

    1987-02-01

    Hepatic growth hormone (GH) receptor binding was compared in normal and sex-linked dwarfs (SLD) from both Hubbard and Cornell strain chickens. At 6, 8, and 20 weeks of age, hepatic GH receptor binding in the Hubbard SLD chickens was significantly lower than that of normal fast-growing birds. At 20 weeks of age, only 2 of 22 SLD chickens in the Hubbard broiler strain showed positive binding at a high enough level to allow for Scatchard analysis. The affinity constants and binding capacities of these two SLD chickens were numerically (but not significantly) lower than those of the normal fast-growing birds. We further examined hepatic GH receptor binding in two closely related White Leghorn strains of chickens that have been maintained as closed breeding populations for many years. We observed no detectable hepatic GH binding in the Cornell SLD chickens (N = 20), as compared to the normal-growing control strain (K strain). In both SLD strains, pretreatment with 4 M MgCl2 did not enhance GH binding, suggesting that there was no endogenous GH binding to the receptor. Based on these data, we suggest that the lack, or greatly reduced number, of GH receptors may be a major contributing factor to the dwarfism observed in these strains.

  11. Inhibition of K+ permeability diminishes alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated effects on norepinephrine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimanyi, I.; Folly, G.; Vizi, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two different potassium channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and quinine, on the alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated modulation of norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated. Pairs of mouse vasa deferentia were loaded with 3 H-norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE), superfused continuously, and stimulated electrically. 4-AP (5.3 x 10(-4) M), and quinine (10(-5) M) enhanced the stimulation-evoked release of tritium significantly. The electrically induced release of radioactivity was reduced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists (1-NE and xylazine) and enhanced by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Both effects were affected markedly by 4-AP or quinine: the depressant action of 1-NA and xylazine was partially antagonized and the facilitatory effect of yohimbine was completely abolished during the blockade of the potassium channels. It is suggested that the blockade of the potassium permeability counteracts negative feedback modulation; therefore, it seems likely that the stimulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors leads to an enhanced potassium permeability and hyperpolarization of varicose axon terminals

  12. Mu-opioid receptor knockout mice show diminished food-anticipatory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; van den Bos, Ruud; Baars, Annemarie M; Lubbers, Marianne; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; Schuller, Alwin G; Pintar, John E; Spruijt, Berry M

    We have previously suggested that during or prior to activation of anticipatory behaviour to a coming reward, mu-opioid receptors are activated. To test this hypothesis schedule induced food-anticipatory activity in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice was measured using running wheels. We hypothesized

  13. Animal manure separation technologies diminish the environmental burden of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland; Popovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    environmental risks associated with the release of steroid hormones to adjacent waterways. To assess the potential benefit of these technologies in reducing the level of release of steroid hormones to adjacent waterways, distribution profiles of nine steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone......Newly developed treatment technologies are capable of separating livestock manure into a liquid fraction and a solid fraction using sedimentation, mechanical, and/or chemical methods. These technologies offer a potential means of distributing nutrients to agricultural lands without the unwanted...

  14. Diminished performance on response-selection tasks in type-2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Keizer; P.C. Groot; J.J. Adam; dr. Lars B. Borghouts

    2003-01-01

    Comparisons of visual perception, response-selection, and response-execution performance were made between Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and a matched nondiabetic control group. 10 well-controlled male patients with Type 2 diabetes without diabetic complications (M age 58 yr.) and an age and

  15. Antiangiogenic Treatment Diminishes Renal Injury and Dysfunction via Regulation of Local AKT in Early Experimental Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiao; Tian, Jianwei; Zhou, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA) and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM). In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin...

  16. Antiangiogenic treatment diminishes renal injury and dysfunction via regulation of local AKT in early experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiao; Tian, Jianwei; Zhou, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA) and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM). In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin was administered in 12 week-old streptozotocin-induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The levels of VEGF-A, AKT, phosphorylated Ser⁴⁷³-AKT, phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT, nephrin, angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin type II receptor 1 (ATR1) were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Interactions between phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules were studied, respectively, using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation. Silencing VEGF-A in podocytes upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and nephrin. Silencing VEGF-A in NRK-52E cells upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT while downregulated Ang II and ATR1. MK-2206 enhanced VEGF-A expression in both podocytes and NRK-52E cells by inhibiting AKT activities. In diabetic rat kidneys, VEGF-A was upregulated and phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT colocalized with either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules. With the endostatin treatment, the level of VEGF-A decreased while phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT increased in both glomeruli and renal tubules. Treatment with endostatin upregulated nephrin in podocytes while downregulated Ang II and AT1R in renal tubules. Glomerular mesangial expansion was attenuated by the endostatin treatment, however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Endostatin ameliorated the interstitial fibrosis, urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) and albumin to creatinine ratio. We conclude that phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT regulates VEGF-A expression by interacting with either nephrin in glomeruli or Ang II in renal tubules. Antiangiogenic treatment improves renal injury and function in early experimental diabetes.

  17. Antiangiogenic treatment diminishes renal injury and dysfunction via regulation of local AKT in early experimental diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Bai

    Full Text Available In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM. In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin was administered in 12 week-old streptozotocin-induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The levels of VEGF-A, AKT, phosphorylated Ser⁴⁷³-AKT, phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT, nephrin, angiotensin II (Ang II, angiotensin type II receptor 1 (ATR1 were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Interactions between phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules were studied, respectively, using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation. Silencing VEGF-A in podocytes upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and nephrin. Silencing VEGF-A in NRK-52E cells upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT while downregulated Ang II and ATR1. MK-2206 enhanced VEGF-A expression in both podocytes and NRK-52E cells by inhibiting AKT activities. In diabetic rat kidneys, VEGF-A was upregulated and phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT colocalized with either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules. With the endostatin treatment, the level of VEGF-A decreased while phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT increased in both glomeruli and renal tubules. Treatment with endostatin upregulated nephrin in podocytes while downregulated Ang II and AT1R in renal tubules. Glomerular mesangial expansion was attenuated by the endostatin treatment, however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Endostatin ameliorated the interstitial fibrosis, urine albumin excretion rate (UAER and albumin to creatinine ratio. We conclude that phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT regulates VEGF-A expression by interacting with either nephrin in glomeruli or Ang II in renal tubules. Antiangiogenic treatment improves renal injury and function in early experimental diabetes.

  18. Brief Report: Diminished Gaze Preference for Dynamic Social Interaction Scenes in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Rebecca C; Pedapati, Ernest V; Shic, Frederick; Gaietto, Kristina; Bowers, Katherine; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present an eye-tracking paradigm, adapted from previous work with toddlers, for assessing social-interaction looking preferences in youth ages 5-17 with ASD and typically-developing controls (TDC). Videos of children playing together (Social Scenes, SS) were presented side-by-side with animated geometric shapes (GS). Participants with ASD demonstrated reduced SS preferences compared to TDC, results also represented continuously by associations between higher SS preferences and fewer social difficulties across the combined sample. Exploratory analyses identified associations between increased SS preferences and higher Vineland Daily Living Skills in ASD and suggested SS preferences in TDC females might drive ASD versus TDC between-group differences. These findings describe potentially sex-linked couplings between preferences for social information and social functioning in school-aged children.

  19. Diminished Progression of Periapical Lesions with Zoledronic Acid in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayama, Marcelo Tadahiro; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Ohba, Seigo; Yoshida, Hisato; Matsuda, Shinpei; Kobayashi, Junichi; Kobayashi, Motohiro; Gomes Filho, João Eduardo; Sano, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemically administered zoledronic acid (ZOL) on the progression of periapical lesions in estrogen-deficient rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: SHAM-veh, sham surgery treated with vehicle (physiological saline); OVX-veh, ovariectomy treated with vehicle; SHAM-ZOL, sham surgery treated with ZOL; and OVX-ZOL, ovariectomy treated with ZOL. Vehicle or ZOL was administered intravenously once a week for 4 weeks. The pulp of the mandibular first molar of all rats was exposed to the oral environment to induce a periapical lesion, and the lesions were analyzed after 7 and 30 days. The mandibles were examined by micro-computed tomographic imaging and histopathologic, histometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Histopathologically, the OVX-veh group had more severe inflammation and bone loss and a larger number of cells that were positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase compared with the SHAM-veh and OVX-ZOL groups; the SHAM-veh and OVX-ZOL groups were similar to each other. The SHAM-ZOL group had the lowest magnitude of these conditions. Tomographically, the OVX-veh group had greater bone loss than the other groups at both time points. The SHAM-veh, SHAM-ZOL, and OVX-ZOL groups had similar bone loss at both time points. In the sagittal section on day 30, the SHAM-ZOL group had lower bone loss compared with the SHAM-veh and OVX-ZOL groups. The hypoestrogenic condition aggravates the progression of periapical lesions. ZOL therapy may help contain bone destruction of periapical lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Teacher Quality, Teacher Effectiveness and the Diminishing Returns of Current Education Policy Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper engages with an overt policy storyline, namely that the effective classroom teaching practice(s) of quality teachers not only corrects for but overcomes post-Fordist capital insecurities. Increasingly considered the sole and only solid foundations needed to enhance student achievement as preparation for twenty-first century economic…