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Sample records for pre-reflective self-awareness diminished

  1. Cell-phone use diminishes self-awareness of impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Biondi, Francesco; Behrends, Arwen A; Moore, Shannon M

    2016-04-01

    Multitasking diminishes the self-awareness of performance that is often essential for self-regulation and self-knowledge. Participants drove in a simulator while either talking or not talking on a hands-free cell phone. Following previous research, participants who talked on a cell phone made more serious driving errors than control participants who did not use a phone while driving. Control participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and general ability to drive safely while distracted were negatively correlated with the actual number of errors made when they were driving. By contrast, cell-phone participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and confidence in their driving abilities were uncorrelated with their actual errors. Thus, talking on a cell phone not only diminished the safeness of participants' driving, it diminished their awareness of the safeness of their driving.

  2. Self-Aware Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Paul Johnson, Jae-Wook Lee, Walter Lee, Albert Ma, Arvind Saraf, Mark Seneski, Nathan Shnidman, Volker Strumpen, Matt Frank, Saman Amarasinghe, and...components minimally enabled for operation within a self -aware system  3. APIs for self-aware interactions  1. Develop brand new self-aware operating

  3. Basic emotions - self-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2011-01-01

    We start from basic emotions using Paul Ekman’s model (1999): joy, sadness, anger, surprise, disgust, fear and contempt, to study the concepts of Self- Awareness - Knowing our own emotions - (Goleman, 1995), and Emotional Awareness - Ability to become aware of one's own emotions - (Bisquerra, 2001). Objectives: To understand the levels of Emotional Self-awareness/ Emotional awareness of a group of preschool, primary and lower secondary school teachers through the identifi...

  4. Self-awareness in mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Willie Y.

    1992-02-01

    Self-awareness is the ability for a mobile robot to, on its own, detect and deal with operational abnormalities. Such an ability is needed for the robot to operate robustly in an unpredictable environment. For the robot to be self-aware it must be capable of sensing its own internal state (such as detecting hardware failures or a drop in battery charge level), reacting quickly to such internal inputs, and infer the implications of the resulting actions. At the lowest level, the ability to detect hardware failures enables a reactive robot to substitute functionally equivalent behaviors for those that no longer work because of the failures. If the failures are serious, the robot should be able to abort the current and initiate a new task/mission to correct the problem. At the highest level, self-awareness would give the robot a sense of its `well-being,' limitations, capabilities, and needs. This paper describes how the self-awareness ability is being implemented on a mobile robot, called SmartyCat, that uses high level reasoning to coordinate and specialize its low level reactive behaviors to the mission goal. The multilevel mechanisms, ranging from behavior substitution to mission replanning, needed for self- awareness are discussed.

  5. Reflective self-awareness and conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Nowak, Markus; Lou, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown precuneus, angular gyri, anterior cingulate gyri, and adjacent structures to be highly metabolically active in support of resting consciousness. We hypothesize that these regions constitute a functional network of reflective self-awareness thought to be a core fun...

  6. The Development of Body Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Chris; Mealiea, Jennifer; Garon, Nancy; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined toddlers' performance on a new task designed to examine the development of body self-awareness. The new task was conceived from observations by Piaget (1953/1977) and theoretical work from Povinelli and Cant (1995) and involved a toy shopping cart to the back of which a small mat had been attached. Children were asked to…

  7. Measuring the Effects of Self-Awareness: Construction of the Self-Awareness Outcomes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Dispositional self-awareness is conceptualized in several different ways, including insight, reflection, rumination and mindfulness, with the latter in particular attracting extensive attention in recent research. While self-awareness is generally associated with positive psychological well-being, these different conceptualizations are also each associated with a range of unique outcomes. This two part, mixed methods study aimed to advance understanding of dispositional self-awareness by developing a questionnaire to measure its outcomes. In Study 1, expert focus groups categorized and extended an initial pool of potential items from previous research. In Study 2, these items were reduced to a 38 item self-report questionnaire with four factors representing three beneficial outcomes (reflective self-development, acceptance and proactivity) and one negative outcome (costs). Regression of these outcomes against self-awareness measures revealed that self-reflection and insight predicted beneficial outcomes, rumination predicted reduced benefits and increased costs, and mindfulness predicted both increased proactivity and costs. These studies help to refine the self-awareness concept by identifying the unique outcomes associated with the concepts of self-reflection, insight, reflection, rumination and mindfulness. It can be used in future studies to evaluate and develop awareness-raising techniques to maximize self-awareness benefits while minimizing related costs.

  8. Measuring the Effects of Self-Awareness: Construction of the Self-Awareness Outcomes Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sutton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispositional self-awareness is conceptualized in several different ways, including insight, reflection, rumination and mindfulness, with the latter in particular attracting extensive attention in recent research. While self-awareness is generally associated with positive psychological well-being, these different conceptualizations are also each associated with a range of unique outcomes. This two part, mixed methods study aimed to advance understanding of dispositional self-awareness by developing a questionnaire to measure its outcomes. In Study 1, expert focus groups categorized and extended an initial pool of potential items from previous research. In Study 2, these items were reduced to a 38 item self-report questionnaire with four factors representing three beneficial outcomes (reflective self-development, acceptance and proactivity and one negative outcome (costs. Regression of these outcomes against self-awareness measures revealed that self-reflection and insight predicted beneficial outcomes, rumination predicted reduced benefits and increased costs, and mindfulness predicted both increased proactivity and costs. These studies help to refine the self-awareness concept by identifying the unique outcomes associated with the concepts of self-reflection, insight, reflection, rumination and mindfulness. It can be used in future studies to evaluate and develop awareness-raising techniques to maximize self-awareness benefits while minimizing related costs.

  9. Perpetual Self-Aware Cognitive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    To construct a perpetual self-aware cognitive agent that can continuously operate with independence, an introspective machine must be produced. To assemble such an agent, it is necessary to perform a full integration of cognition (planning, understanding, and learning) and metacognition (control and monitoring of cognition) with intelligent behaviors. The failure to do this completely is why similar, more limited efforts have not succeeded in the past. I outline some key computational require...

  10. The crowd is self-aware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E; Suchow, Jordan W

    2014-02-01

    Bentley et al.'s framework assigns phenomena of personal and collective decision-making to regions of a dual-axis map. Here, we propose that understanding the collective dynamics of decision-making requires consideration of factors that guide movement across the map. One such factor is self-awareness, which can lead a group to seek out new knowledge and re-position itself on the map.

  11. Assessing Self-Awareness through Gaze Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori Grgič, Regina; Crespi, Sofia Allegra; de'Sperati, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We define gaze agency as the awareness of the causal effect of one's own eye movements in gaze-contingent environments, which might soon become a widespread reality with the diffusion of gaze-operated devices. Here we propose a method for measuring gaze agency based on self-monitoring propensity and sensitivity. In one task, naïf observers watched bouncing balls on a computer monitor with the goal of discovering the cause of concurrently presented beeps, which were generated in real-time by their saccades or by other events (Discovery Task). We manipulated observers' self-awareness by pre-exposing them to a condition in which beeps depended on gaze direction or by focusing their attention to their own eyes. These manipulations increased propensity to agency discovery. In a second task, which served to monitor agency sensitivity at the sensori-motor level, observers were explicitly asked to detect gaze agency (Detection Task). Both tasks turned out to be well suited to measure both increases and decreases of gaze agency. We did not find evident oculomotor correlates of agency discovery or detection. A strength of our approach is that it probes self-monitoring propensity-difficult to evaluate with traditional tasks based on bodily agency. In addition to putting a lens on this novel cognitive function, measuring gaze agency could reveal subtle self-awareness deficits in pathological conditions and during development.

  12. Impaired self-awareness in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Greisen, Max; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    Lack of self-awareness of one's decisions remains an understudied and elusive topic in the addiction literature. The present study aimed at taking a first step towards addressing this difficult subject through the use of a combination of behavioral procedures. Here, we explored the association between a metacognitive process (the ability to reflect and evaluate the awareness of one's own decision) and poor performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a group of pathological gamblers (PG; n = 30), and in a comparison group (n = 35). This metacognitive process was assessed during the IGT with the post-decision wagering procedure, while a number of potential confounds (i.e., reward/loss sensitivity, dual-tasking) were controlled for. Results showed that: (1) Initial performance enhancement of the control group on IGT occurred without explicit knowledge of the task, thus confirming its implicit character; (2) compared to controls, performance of PG on the IGT failed to increase during the task; (3) taking into account increased reward sensitivity and decreased loss sensitivity as well as poorer dual-tasking in pathological gamblers, PG tended to exhibit a bias in evaluating their own performance on the IGT by maximizing their wagers independently of selecting advantageous decks. Our findings suggest that biased metacognition may affect pathological gamblers, leading to disadvantageous post-decision wagering, which is in turn linked to impaired decision making under ambiguity. Perhaps this deficit reflects the impaired insight and self-awareness that many addicts suffer from, thus providing a novel approach for capturing and measuring this impairment, and for investigating its possible causes.

  13. Self-awareness and traumatic brain injury outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kayela; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Impaired self-awareness following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) can reduce the effectiveness of rehabilitation, resulting in poorer outcomes. However, little is understood about how the multi-dimensional aspects of self-awareness may differentially change with recovery and impact outcome. Thus, this study examined four self-awareness variables represented in the Dynamic Comprehensive Model of Awareness: metacognitive awareness, anticipatory awareness, error-monitoring and self-regulation. This study evaluated change of the self-awareness measures with recovery from TBI and whether the self-awareness measures predicted community re-integration at follow-up. Participants were 90 individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI who were tested acutely following injury and 90 age-matched controls. Forty-nine of the TBI participants and 49 controls were re-tested after 6 months. Results revealed that the TBI group's error-monitoring performance was significantly poorer than controls at both baseline and follow-up. Regression analyses revealed that the self-awareness variables at follow-up were predictive of community re-integration, with error-monitoring being a unique predictor. The results highlight the importance of error-monitoring and suggest that interventions targeted at improving error-monitoring may be particularly beneficial. Understanding the multi-dimensional nature of self-awareness will further improve rehabilitation efforts and understanding of the theoretical basis of self-awareness.

  14. Counteracting Age Stereotypes: A Self-Awareness Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Pethtel, Olivia; Ma, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    The major goals of the present study were to (a) examine age differences in susceptibility to age stereotypes and (b) test a self-awareness manipulation in counteracting age stereotypes. Young and older adults read two sets of descriptors that only differed in the to-be-ignored age-related information. In the high self-awareness condition,…

  15. Self-Awareness in a Quasi-Counseling Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Bruce S.

    The relationship between self-awareness and counseling outcome has received little attention in the counseling research literature. In order to test the relationship between counselor-induced and dispositional self-awareness and counseling outcomes, 60 female undergraduates participated in two audiotaped sessions. In the sign-up session subjects'…

  16. Reducing Misanthropic Memory Through Self-Awareness: Reducing Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of self-awareness on misanthropic recall. Misanthropic recall is the tendency to recall more negative behaviors dispositionally attributed and positive behaviors situationally attributed than negative behaviors situationally attributed and positive behaviors dispositionally attributed. It was hypothesized that when one is self-aware, more systematic information processing would occur, thereby reducing misanthropic memory and influencing attitudinal judgments. The first experiment used a mirror and the second experiment used a live video to induce self-awareness. Participants were asked to form an impression of a group. The results of both experiments replicated the previously found pattern of misanthropic memory for non-self-aware participants (Ybarra & Stephan, 1996), and revealed less misanthropic recall bias in self-aware participants.

  17. Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-08

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0127 Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles Karen Willcox MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Final...Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0339 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Karen E...Back (Rev. 8/98) Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles Grant # FA9550-11-1-0339 Final Report Participating Institutions

  18. Situational Changes in Self-Awareness Influence 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Anderson, J. R.; Campbell, R. N.

    2011-01-01

    In adults, heightened self-awareness leads to adherence to socially valued norms, whereas lowered self-awareness is associated with antinormative behavior. Levels of self-awareness are influenced by environmental cues such as mirrors. Do situational changes in self-awareness also have an impact on preschoolers' self-regulation? Adherence to a…

  19. Self-awareness of "Gum Disease" Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huabin; Wu, Bei

    To assess the extent of self-awareness of gum disease among adults in the United States. Data were from the 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The outcome variable is self-awareness of gum disease. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between self-awareness and clinically diagnosed periodontitis. The analytical sample included 6876 participants. Among those participants (30 years or older) who were classified as having periodontitis, 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.4-29.8) were self-aware of the disease (positive predicted value = 25%). Of those who self-reported having gum disease, 14.1% had a diagnosis of periodontitis (sensitivity = 75%). Older adults were less likely to be aware of gum disease (P self-awareness of gum disease among adults was low. Our study findings suggest that there is a great need to improve oral health knowledge and awareness among the adult population in the United States.

  20. Eye contact elicits bodily self-awareness in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Matias; Hazem, Nesrine; Vilarem, Emma; Beaucousin, Virginie; Picq, Jean-Luc; Conty, Laurence

    2014-10-01

    Eye contact is a typical human behaviour known to impact concurrent or subsequent cognitive processing. In particular, it has been suggested that eye contact induces self-awareness, though this has never been formally proven. Here, we show that the perception of a face with a direct gaze (that establishes eye contact), as compared to either a face with averted gaze or a mere fixation cross, led adult participants to rate more accurately the intensity of their physiological reactions induced by emotional pictures. Our data support the view that bodily self-awareness becomes more acute when one is subjected to another's gaze. Importantly, this effect was not related to a particular arousal state induced by eye contact perception. Rejecting the arousal hypothesis, we suggest that eye contact elicits a self-awareness process by enhancing self-focused attention in humans. We further discuss the implications of this proposal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards a cognitive neuroscience of self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, H C; Changeux, J P; Rosenstand, A

    2016-04-11

    Self-awareness is a pivotal component of conscious experience. It is correlated with a paralimbic network of medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate and medial parietal/posterior cingulate cortical "hubs" and associated regions. Electromagnetic and transmitter manipulation have demonstrated that the network is not an epiphenomenon but instrumental in generation of self-awareness. Thus, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) targeting the hubs impedes different aspects of self-awareness with a latency of 160ms. The network is linked by ∼40Hz oscillations and regulated by dopamine. The oscillations are generated by rhythmic GABA-ergic inhibitory activity in interneurons with an extraordinarily high metabolic rate. The hubs are richly endowed with interneurons and therefore highly vulnerable to disturbed energy supply. Consequently, deficient paralimbic activity and self-awareness are characteristic features of many disorders with impaired oxygen homeostasis. Such disorders may therefore be treated unconventionally by targeting interneuron function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Anxiety and self-awareness in video feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindon-Morris, Emma; Laidlaw, Anita

    2014-06-01

    Doctor-patient communication is an integral part of good medical practice and medical education throughout the UK. Innovative methods of clinical communication training make use of technology, including video feedback, within undergraduate learning; however, medical students may encounter barriers such as social anxiety and self-awareness that could prevent them from fully benefiting from training sessions. This study investigated the extent to which medical student anxiety and self-awareness impacted on their learning experience in video feedback workshops. Written reflections on the experience of using video feedback were gathered from third-year medical students (n = 47). Reflections were thematically analysed to identify key themes relating to anxiety and self-awareness perceptions. Students reported a high level of anxiety at the prospect of being video-recorded while interacting with a simulated patient. Levels of public self-awareness were high and students were concerned at being judged as inadequate by their peers. The peer feedback sessions were used to readjust students' perceptions of their own abilities by comparing their own performance with that of their peers. Clinical communication trainers should be aware of the anxiety and high public self-awareness that students may experience prior to video feedback sessions, and should aim to reduce this by informing students as much as possible about the process and by shifting their focus away from the peer appraisal of performance. Students appear to find the opportunity to improve the accuracy of their self-perception of their own skills as the main benefit of clinical communication video feedback training, and this area could be investigated further to determine how to derive maximum benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Applicability of Self-Awareness for Network Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, John; van der Meer, Sven; Hong, James Won-Ki

    Network management operation will get increasingly more difficult in next generation and Future Internet scenarios due to many factors, such as mobility and the need for context-awareness. This position paper argues that the increasing complexity in business, system, and other operations can only be managed by making the systems aware of their own operations. This is shown by describing how self-awareness is implemented in the FOCALE autonomic architecture.

  4. Review of Self-Awareness and Its Clinical Application in Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel P. K.; Liu, Karen P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to explore, following a literature review, the concepts of self-awareness, its assessment, and intervention for self-awareness deficits, as well as its clinical significance in stroke rehabilitation; and (ii) to apply the concepts of self-awareness in the context of a rehabilitation program. The search was…

  5. The In-Session Self-Awareness of Therapist-Trainees: Hindering or Helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, James; Williams, Elizabeth Nutt

    2005-01-01

    Although therapist self-awareness has been hailed as a critical component of psychotherapy, recent evidence suggests that therapists' in-session self-awareness may hinder rather than help the therapeutic process. The authors examined the in-session self-awareness of therapists in training (trainees) in relation to their interpersonal involvement…

  6. Review of Self-Awareness and Its Clinical Application in Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel P. K.; Liu, Karen P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to explore, following a literature review, the concepts of self-awareness, its assessment, and intervention for self-awareness deficits, as well as its clinical significance in stroke rehabilitation; and (ii) to apply the concepts of self-awareness in the context of a rehabilitation program. The search was…

  7. Later Nishida on Self-awareness: Have I lost myself yet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihara, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that later Nishida's analysis of self-awareness (jikaku) provides a new perspective on the nature of self-awareness as understood in the philosophical literature today. I argue that the contemporary literature deals with two kinds of self-awareness; the higher-order theory...... understands self-awareness to be an objectified awareness and the phenomenological tradition generally understands self-awareness to be, at least primarily, a non-objectified awareness. In light of this, I first give an account of Nishida's ‘acting-intuition’ with reference to the ‘historical body.’ Then I...... argue that later Nishida's analysis of self-awareness depicts the inadequacy of the two kinds of self-awareness as both being stuck in the subject-object dichotomy which, according to Nishida, is but one mode of experience, namely the mode of difference. Nishida provides an account that ultimately...

  8. Neural substrates of socioemotional self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Marc; Rosen, Howard J; Shany-Ur, Tal; Ullah, Jerin; Stanley, Christine M; Laluz, Victor; Weiner, Michael W; Wilson, Stephen M; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2014-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies examining neural substrates of impaired self-awareness in patients with neurodegenerative diseases have shown divergent results depending on the modality (cognitive, emotional, behavioral) of awareness. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that self-awareness arises from a combination of modality-specific and large-scale supramodal neural networks. We investigated the structural substrates of patients' tendency to overestimate or underestimate their own capacity to demonstrate empathic concern for others. Subjects' level of empathic concern was measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and subject-informant discrepancy scores were used to predict regional atrophy pattern, using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Of the 102 subjects, 83 were patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) or semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA); the other 19 were healthy older adults. bvFTD and svPPA patients typically overestimated their level of empathic concern compared to controls, and overestimating one's empathic concern predicted damage to predominantly right-hemispheric anterior infero-lateral temporal regions, whereas underestimating one's empathic concern showed no neuroanatomical basis. These findings suggest that overestimation and underestimation of one's capacity for empathic concern cannot be interpreted as varying degrees of the same phenomenon, but may arise from different pathophysiological processes. Damage to anterior infero-lateral temporal regions has been associated with semantic self-knowledge, emotion processing, and social perspective taking; neuropsychological functions partly associated with empathic concern itself. These findings support the hypothesis that-at least in the socioemotional domain-neural substrates of self-awareness are partly modality-specific.

  9. [Self-Awareness of Disease Stigma: Reflections of Healthcare Professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Wang, Ying-Ting; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2017-06-01

    People who suffer from disease frequently experience disease-related stigmas. Stigma presents in daily life during normal human interactions. The stereotypes promoted by the media often impact public opinion significantly. Moreover, healthcare professionals may exacerbate stigmatization due to their misunderstanding of patients and their disease issues. Therefore, the reflection on stigma of healthcare professionals cannot be ignored. The present article illustrates the issue of stigmas held by healthcare professionals, their related stigmas, and their self-awareness. It is hoped that all healthcare professionals may cooperate to develop an anti-stigma strategy and to become true spokespersons for their patients.

  10. Practical robotic self-awareness and self-knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    2011-05-01

    The functional software components of an autonomous robotic system express behavior via commands to its actuators, based on processed inputs from its sensors; we propose an additional set of "cognitive" capabilities for robotic systems of all types, based on the comprehensive logging of all available data, including sensor inputs, behavioral states, and outputs sent to actuators. A robot should maintain a "sense" of its own (piecewise) continuous existence through time and space; it should in some sense "get a life," providing a level of self-awareness and self-knowledge. Self-awareness includes the ability to survive and work through unexpected power glitches while executing a task or mission. Selfknowledge includes an extensive world model including a model of self and the purpose context in which it is operating (deontics). Our system must support proactive self-test, monitoring, and calibration, and maintain a "personal" health/repair history, supporting system test and evaluation by continuously measuring performance throughout the entire product lifecycle. It will include episodic memory, and a system "lifelog," and will also participate in multiple modes of Human Robotic interaction (HRI).

  11. Awareness and Self-Awareness for Multi-Robot Organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Awareness and self-awareness are two different notions related to knowing the environment and itself. In a general context, the mechanism of self-awareness belongs to a class of co-called "self-issues" (self-* or self-star): self-adaptation, self-repairing, self-replication, self-development or self-recovery. The self-* issues are connected in many ways to adaptability and evolvability, to the emergence of behavior and to the controllability of long-term developmental processes. Self-* are either natural properties of several systems, such as self-assembling of molecular networks, or may emerge as a result of homeostatic regulation. Different computational processes, leading to a global optimization, increasing scalability and reliability of collective systems, create such a homeostatic regulation. Moreover, conditions of ecological survival, imposed on such systems, lead to a discrimination between "self" and "non-self" as well as to the emergence of different self-phenomena. There are many profound challeng...

  12. Self-awareness: a review and analysis of a basic nursing concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckroth-Bucher, Margie

    2010-01-01

    Self-awareness has long been addressed as fundamental for the professional nurse with the accepted view that self-awareness will lead to greater competence. Therefore, it is important to understand the historical evolution of the concept, attributes, antecedents, and consequences. Rodgers' evolutionary method was used for critical analysis of nursing, social sciences, and education literature. Analysis indicates that self-awareness is a dynamic, transformative process of self. Ultimately, self-awareness is the use of self-insights and presence knowingly to guide behavior that is genuine and authentic to create a healing interpersonal environment. Future research areas within practice and education are identified.

  13. Consequences of objective self-awareness during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Cornick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although exercise is recommended by healthcare professionals for nearly everyone, adverse reactions can occur following exercising for some overweight individuals. The reported study investigated the cardiovascular consequences of exercise in a stressful environment. In all, 60 females completed two baseline and one biking (i.e. ergometer periods while cardiovascular and self-report measures were recorded. Findings indicated that those who are more self-aware showed cardiovascular response patterns indicative of threat. Additionally, post-task exercise self-efficacy levels predicted intentions to exercise at a demanding level in the coming week. These findings suggest exercise may exacerbate health issues for some individuals for whom it is recommended.

  14. Self-Awareness After Brain Injury : Relation with Emotion Recognition and Effects of Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, K. F.; Fasotti, L.; Boelen, D. H. E.; Spikman, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Self-awareness is often impaired after acquired brain injury (ABI) and this hampers rehabilitation, in general: unrealistic reports by patients about their functioning and poor motivation and compliance with treatment. We evaluated a self-awareness treatment that was part of a treatment protocol on

  15. The Impact of the Self-Awareness Process on Learning and Leading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Patricia Steiner describes a research problem that took considerable time and energy to investigate: the study of the "self-awareness" process. Steiner states that, if we believe in the concept of lifelong learning and development, then we must acknowledge the value of self-awareness as an important precursor to learning…

  16. Theory of "Own" Mind in Autism: Evidence of a Specific Deficit in Self-Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that self-awareness is not a unitary phenomenon, and that one can be aware of different aspects of self at any one time, it follows that selective impairments in self-awareness can occur. This article explores the idea that autism involves a particular deficit in awareness of the "psychological self", or "theory of "own" mind". This…

  17. Self-Awareness Revisited: Reconsidering a Core Value of the Counseling Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2009-01-01

    The construct of self-awareness is highly valued by the counseling profession. However, the foundational assumptions that support this construct have not been systemically examined and critiqued. The author provides an overview of self-awareness in light of humanistic, psychoanalytic, and postmodernist ideologies. The author concludes that the…

  18. Breaking Concept Boundaries to Enhance Creative Potential: Using Integrated Concept Maps for Conceptual Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Gloria Yi-Ming; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2008-01-01

    The authors address the role of computer support for building conceptual self-awareness--that is, enabling students to think outside of concept boundaries in hope of enhancing creative potential. Based on meta-cognition theory, we developed an integrated concept mapping system (ICMSys) to improve users' conceptual self-awareness in addition to…

  19. A Longitudinal, Mixed Method Evaluation of Self-Awareness Training in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Anna; Williams, Helen M.; Allinson, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether self-awareness, which is associated with general well-being and positive life outcomes, is also of specific benefit in the workplace. The authors tested the relationship between self-awareness and job-related well-being, and evaluated two different interventions designed to improve…

  20. Using Analogies to Enhance Self-Awareness and Cultural Empathy: Implications for Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthakaran, V.

    2011-01-01

    Self-awareness is conceptualized as an important component of multicultural competence among counselors. Scholars have suggested that the promotion of self-awareness and, relatedly, cultural empathy can be most effectively facilitated through the use of experiential learning. The use of analogies is presented as another method to promote…

  1. Insight in Cognition : Self-Awareness of Performance Across Cognitive Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoo, Linda A.; van Zandvoort, Martine J. E.; Biessels, G. J.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Postma, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Loss of cognitive functions, as apparent through self-awareness, is considered an important indicator of cognitive deficits and is therefore commonly used in clinical practice. However, little is known about self-awareness of cognitive performance, including its accuracy, its basis, and whether peop

  2. Self-Awareness After Brain Injury : Relation with Emotion Recognition and Effects of Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, K. F.; Fasotti, L.; Boelen, D. H. E.; Spikman, J. M.

    Self-awareness is often impaired after acquired brain injury (ABI) and this hampers rehabilitation, in general: unrealistic reports by patients about their functioning and poor motivation and compliance with treatment. We evaluated a self-awareness treatment that was part of a treatment protocol on

  3. Self-awareness after brain injury: Relation with emotion recognition and effects of treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, K.F.; Fasotti, L.; Boelen, D.H.E.; Spikman, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Self-awareness is often impaired after acquired brain injury (ABI) and this hampers rehabilitation, in general: unrealistic reports by patients about their functioning and poor motivation and compliance with treatment. We evaluated a self-awareness treatment that was part of a treatment protocol on

  4. External self-representations improve self-awareness in a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Nicholas B; Case, Laura K; Burrus, Caley J; Ramachandran, V S

    2015-01-01

    We have previously suggested that the social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be caused in part by a dysfunctional mirror neuron system (MNS). Since the recursive activity of a functioning MNS might enable the brain to integrate visual and motor sensations into a coherent body schema, the deficits in self-awareness often seen in ASD might be caused by the same mirror neuron dysfunction. CL is an autistic adolescent who is profoundly fascinated with his reflection, looking in mirrors at every opportunity. We demonstrate that CL's abnormal gait improves significantly when using a mirror for visual feedback. We also show that both the fascination and the happiness that CL derives from looking at a computer-generated reflection diminish when a delay is introduced between the camera input and screen output. We believe that immediate, real-time visual feedback allows CL to integrate motor sensations with external visual ones into a coherent body schema that he cannot internally generate, perhaps due to a dysfunctional MNS.

  5. True-personality-assisted self-awareness expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laleuf, M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on psychoanalytic theory, the Who am I expert system explains in simple terms the individual's true personality, even it its unconscious or hidden aspects. Our overt personality traits are deeply rooted. The Who am I expert system gives access to an individual's primary personality, starting from his habitual everyday-life behavior: (1) describes the individual's basic personality, (2) explains this personality through the individual's deeply rooted experience and motivation, and (3) makes links with other people with a similar profile. The following are the primary features of the system: easy individual access, results in <20 minutes, and guaranteed confidentiality. Business applications include the following: (1) Individual training: Self-awareness improves a person's ability to fit in and to succeed within the group. (2) Communication: a homogeneous team has a better chance of success. (3) Human reliability: A close-knit team remains reliable even when faced with serious difficulties. (4) Recruitment: This technique enables the selection of individuals who will fit an existing homogeneous team. The system also enables a psychological diagnosis to be confirmed.

  6. Identity, grief and self-awareness after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Emma; Coetzer, Rudi

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate perceived identity change in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore associations between identity change, grief, depression, self-esteem and self-awareness. The participants were 29 adults with TBI who were being followed up by a community brain injury rehabilitation service. Participants were longer post-injury than those more commonly studied. Time since injury ranged from 2.25 to 40 years (mean = 11.17 years, SD = 11.4 years). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires. Significant others and clinicians completed a parallel version of one of these measures. Questionnaires included the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale (HISDS-III), Brain Injury Grief Inventory (BIGI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Depression, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Awareness Questionnaire (Self/Significant other/Clinician versions). The main findings were that participants reported significant changes in self-concept with current self being viewed negatively in comparison to pre-injury self. Perceived identity change was positively associated with depression and grief and negatively associated with self-esteem and awareness. Awareness was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with depression. These findings were consistent with previous research, revealing changes in identity following TBI. Further research is needed to increase our understanding of the psychological factors involved in emotional adjustment after TBI and to inform brain injury rehabilitation interventions, including psychotherapy approaches.

  7. Factors influencing self-awareness following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cally; McKay, Adam; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2015-01-01

    To examine self-awareness and injury-related, emotional and demographic factors across acute/subacute (3-12 months), medium-term (24-60 months), and long-term (120-240 months) time periods after traumatic brain injury (TBI), because unawareness of injury-related changes can affect engagement in rehabilitation and functional outcomes. A total of 168 individuals with mild to severe TBI and 105 of their close others. Awareness Questionnaire (AQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cross-sectional study. There were no significant differences in awareness as a function of time postinjury, except for the AQ motor/sensory domain wherein individuals with TBI at longer time periods displayed increased awareness of deficits than those at earlier time periods. Greater patient-other AQ discrepancy scores (interpreted as lower patient awareness) were associated with longer posttraumatic amnesia duration in the individual with TBI and also with increased self-reported depressive symptoms in the close others. Conversely, smaller AQ discrepancy scores (interpreted as better awareness) were associated with increased self-reported depressive symptoms by the individuals with TBI. This study highlights the limitations of using discrepancy scores to measure awareness, as ratings of injury-related changes are influenced by the mood of the individual with TBI and the close other, as well as by injury severity.

  8. Self-awareness and the medial temporal lobe in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavoix, Chantal; Insausti, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's behaviour to one's actual abilities, to avoid risky behaviour. Impaired self-awareness of deficits is common in neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies show an involvement of midline cortical areas in impaired self-awareness. Among the other brain regions implicated stand the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures (i.e. hippocampus, amygdala, and temporopolar, entorhinal, perirhinal and posterior parahippocampal cortices). This review aims at evaluating the role of those structures in self-awareness in neurodegenerative diseases. To this aim, we briefly review impaired self-awareness in neurodegenerative diseases, give a neuroanatomical background on the MTL structures, and report those identified in neuroimaging studies on self-awareness. The MTL shows neuropathological, and structural or functional changes in patients who overestimate their abilities in the cognitive, socio-emotional or daily life activities domains. The structures implicated differ depending on the domain considered, suggesting a modality-specific involvement. The functional significance of the findings is discussed in view of the neuroanatomical networks of the MTL and in the context of theoretical models of self-awareness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Measure of significance of holotropic breathwork in the development of self-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja; Nielsen, Laila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design was a re......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design...... MEASURES: The novices (n = 9) underwent positive temperament changes and the experienced participants (n = 11) underwent positive changes in character. Overall, positive self-awareness changes were indicated; the participants' (n = 20) scores for persistence temperament, interpersonal problems, overly...... is that HB can induce very beneficial temperament changes, which can have positive effects on development of character, measured as an increase in self-awareness....

  10. The Central Neural Foundations of Awareness and Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, D.; Martin, E. M.; Weingarten, W.; Vimal, V.

    pathways, to higher levels of awareness. However, we must also consider `top down' approaches. Based on our thinking and our fantasies, arousal of the central nervous system may be modulated up or down to produce more or less awareness. And then, self-awareness results from our memory of our own behavioral activity.

  11. The crisis of minimal self-awareness in schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Won; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lee, Tae Young; Park, Sohee

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of the minimal self, characterized by abnormal sense of the body, body ownership and agency have been proposed as the phenomenological phenotype of schizophrenia. However, self-disturbances have not been extensively investigated, in part, due to the subjective nature of such processes, and the associated difficulty of studying these phenomena using empirical methodology. Of 115 potential studies on self-awareness in schizophrenia, a total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis comprising 690 patients with schizophrenia and 979 healthy controls. We calculated Hedge's g to obtain a better estimate for the standardized mean difference in small samples. We identified significant basic self-disturbance in schizophrenia, as compared with healthy controls (25 studies, effect size=0.51). Additional comparison of three sub-categories of the sense of body ownership (4 studies, effect size=0.91), the sense of agency (15 studies, effect size=0.49), and self-reported subjective experiences (6 studies, effect size=0.57) also confirmed group differences. The complete set of 25 studies, and the studies in the sub-categories showed the statistical homogeneity of the characteristics. After a correction for potential publication bias using the trim-and-fill method, the main findings for all studies combined remained significant. Overall, patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in the sense of the minimal self, driven by abnormal sense of body ownership and sense of agency. Interestingly, the disturbed sense of agency in schizophrenia suggests an exaggerated self-consciousness rather than a diminished sense of self. Further research that utilizes sophisticated study designs is needed to examine the nature of self-disturbances in schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Awareness of Falls Risk Among Elderly Patients: Characterizing Awareness Deficits and Exploring Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljcic, Tijana; Haines, Terry P; Ponsford, Jennie L; Stolwyk, Renerus J

    2015-12-01

    To characterize self-awareness in older adults undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and explore factors associated with reduced awareness of falls risk. Prospective, cross-sectional design. Older adult inpatient rehabilitation setting. Rehabilitation inpatients (N=91; mean age, 77.97±8.04y) and their treating physiotherapist. None. Three aspects of self-awareness (intellectual, emergent, anticipatory) were measured using the Self-Awareness of Falls Risk Measure. Demographic, medical, and cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination) information were collected. Current ability was measured using the FIM and timed Up and Go test. Of the patients in the sample, 31% to 63% underestimated falls risk and 3% to 10% overestimated falls risk depending on the aspect of awareness measured. Different aspects of reduced self-awareness were correlated with being a man, higher educational attainment, neurologic history, lower cognitive ability, and lower functional ability. Regression analysis indicated that sex (β=-.33, P=.004), education (β=-.30, P=.006), and neurologic history (β=-.22, P=.038) were independently associated with overall self-awareness. The results suggest that a proportion of older adults undergoing inpatient rehabilitation underestimate personal falls risk. Further research is required to investigate the contributors to and effects of reduced self-awareness of falls risk. Greater understanding of these factors will facilitate the development of strategies to increase awareness of falls risk and increase engagement in falls prevention. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The 'awareness climbing': an educational board game for improving self-awareness following acquired brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Coulon, M C; Ferri-Campos, J; Garcia-Blazquez, M C; Chirivella-Garrido, J; Renau-Hernandez, O; Ferri-Salvador, N; Noe-Sebastian, E

    To establish the effectiveness of an educational board game for improving self-awareness following acquired brain injury. The 'awareness climbing' is a board game format intervention for improving awareness of patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) and for facilitating the use of anticipatory and compensatory strategies. 17 patients with ABI (traumatic brain injury, 10; stroke, 5; others, 2) were included in a self-awareness rehabilitation program using the 'awareness climbing'. Self-awareness was assessed with the Self-Awareness of Deficit Interview (SADI) before and after game intervention. According to the SADI self-awareness consists of three-interdependent levels: intellectual awareness (impairments), emergent awareness (disability) and anticipatory awareness, which involve the client predicting when impairments will affect his or her performance. Initially five patients showed impaired intellectual awareness, four patients had difficulties on emergent awareness and nine patients showed deficits on anticipatory awareness. Intellectual awareness improved in 10 patients, while six patients experienced improvements in emergent awareness over the intervention period. The most striking change was an improvement in 70% of the sample (n = 11) in anticipatory awareness after game sessions. According to SADI scores we suggest that the 'awareness climbing' may be a useful tool for improving self-awareness after acquired brain injury.

  14. [The relationship between self-awareness of fatigue symptoms and working conditions in female nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Ishii, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between self-awareness of fatigue symptoms and working conditions, in female nurses. We studied personal background, working conditions, physical symptoms, "Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - Japanese version (PSQI-J)", and 13 items that represented the parts related to self-awareness of the "the self-Diagnosis Checklist for Workers' Accumulated Fatigue" in 3,855 female nurses. The targets for analysis were 983 nurses ("all subjects") and among those, 765 "shift workers". The total score (fatigue symptoms self-awareness score) was calculated for 13 items that represented the parts related to self-awareness of the "the self-Diagnosis Checklist for Workers' Accumulated Fatigue". The Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were performed, and the fatigue symptoms self-awareness score was studied, based on personal background, working conditions, physical symptoms and the PSQI-J score. For "all subjects", there was a significant difference in the fatigue symptoms self-awareness score for department in which they work, the form the work takes, and the PSQI-J score. The fatigue symptoms self-awareness score of nurses with a PSQI-J score of 5.5 or higher was a significantly high value. For "shift workers", there was a significant difference in the fatigue symptoms self-awareness score for presence or absence of a caregiver role, department in which they work, the form the work takes, the form the nap takes during night work and PSQI-J score. There was a significantly high value in the fatigue symptoms self-awareness score of subjects with a caregiver role, subjects working in surgical wards or internal medicine wards, subjects working on a three-shift system, and subjects who were unable to take naps during night work, subjects with a PSQI-J score of 5.5 or higher. These survey results suggest that it is important to set up a system that will ensure the ability to have naps during night work. It will also be

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durongritichai, Vanida

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people.

  16. Self-Aware Vehicles: Mission and Performance Adaptation to System Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Leonard, Charles; Scotti, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in sensing (miniaturization, distributed sensor networks) combined with improvements in computational power leading to significant gains in perception, real-time decision making/reasoning and dynamic planning under uncertainty as well as big data predictive analysis have set the stage for realization of autonomous system capability. These advances open the design and operating space for self-aware vehicles that are able to assess their own capabilities and adjust their behavior to either complete the assigned mission or to modify the mission to reflect their current capabilities. This paper discusses the self-aware vehicle concept and associated technologies necessary for full exploitation of the concept. A self-aware aircraft, spacecraft or system is one that is aware of its internal state, has situational awareness of its environment, can assess its capabilities currently and project them into the future, understands its mission objectives, and can make decisions under uncertainty regarding its ability to achieve its mission objectives.

  17. An occupation-based video feedback intervention for improving self-awareness: protocol and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julia; Fleming, Jennifer; Ownsworth, Tamara; Lannin, Natasha A

    2015-02-01

    Impaired self-awareness can limit rehabilitation outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Video feedback on occupational performance has been found to improve self-awareness after TBI when delivered according to specific principles. The purpose of this article is to describe an occupation-based video feedback intervention found to be effective in a randomized controlled trial to assist with translation into clinical practice. The intervention uses therapist-mediated video feedback on clients' occupational performance, aiming to facilitate self-reflection on performance and improve self-awareness. This paper describes the theoretical background, intervention principles, and protocol of the intervention. Therapists can use video feedback intervention, incorporating the principles in this article, to improve people's intellectual awareness and ability to recognize and correct errors during task performance after TBI without a negative impact on emotional status.

  18. Befriending death: A mindfulness-based approach to cultivating self-awareness in counselling students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The importance of self-awareness in counselling education is widely recognized; however, strengthening this vital aspect is often left to educators' discretion. The author addresses this deficiency by first exploring four theoretical constructs: mindfulness, emotional regulation, death anxiety, and relationship dynamics. Then, she outlines a practical learning activity on the topic of death. The main exercise involves a guided meditation in which students imagine both a worst-case and best-case scenario of their own death, while practicing mindfulness, followed by a debriefing period and a written self-reflection. This activity can be used by educators to promote greater self-awareness in master's level counselling students.

  19. Cultural Identity Forum: Enacting the Self-Awareness Imperative in Intercultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Lain, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Intercultural Communication; any course with an intercultural communication unit. Objectives: Students will demonstrate the self-awareness imperative in intercultural communication, explore their own cultural identities, and reflect on others cultural identities in order to build their intercultural communication competence.

  20. Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Kyle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

  1. Enhancing Self-Awareness: Integrating Himalayan Art in a Career Planning Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The dilemma for many college students' job search process is their overwhelming desire to locate any job rather than to satisfy their true passions. Thus, a job search can become a highly instrumental, task-oriented process, preventing students' opportunity to discover themselves and their life's purpose. Self-awareness, however, is a central…

  2. The Formation of Students' National Self-Awareness in EFL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmakeev, Iskander E.; Pimenova, Tatiana S.

    2014-01-01

    In the epoch of globalization it is urgently important to draw attention to the problem of the formation of national self-awareness of school students. Numerous researches in the Russian Federation show that there is a tendency of cultural level decreasing, according to which a great many school students are not aware not only of the world's…

  3. Self-Awareness, Self-Compassion, and Cultural Competence: Implications for Social Work Education and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Mara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships among the constructs of self-awareness, self-compassion, and cultural competence within the NYU MSW student population, as measured by three separate scales. An anonymous Qualtrics survey containing the three scales and five demographic questions was sent via university e-mail to…

  4. Robots with Internal Models: A Route to Self-Aware and Hence Safer Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Alan F. T.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Internal Models and Self-Awareness * Internal Model-Based Architecture for Robot Safety * The Internal Model * The Consequence Evaluator * The Object Tracker-Localizer * Towards an Ethical Robot * Challenges and Open Questions * Discussion: The Way Forward * Summary and Conclusions

  5. Self-Awareness, Self-Compassion, and Cultural Competence: Implications for Social Work Education and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Mara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships among the constructs of self-awareness, self-compassion, and cultural competence within the NYU MSW student population, as measured by three separate scales. An anonymous Qualtrics survey containing the three scales and five demographic questions was sent via university e-mail to…

  6. International Immersion in Belize: Fostering Counseling Students' Cultural Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Augustine, Shirlene; Dowden, Angel; Wiggins, Angel; Hall, LaCheata

    2014-01-01

    International cultural immersion provides an in vivo, authentic, cross-cultural experience that can enhance multicultural awareness, knowledge and skills. This article examines the impact of an international immersion on graduate counseling students' cultural self-awareness using a qualitative approach. Five graduate counseling students…

  7. Maternal Emotion-Related Socialization and Preschoolers' Developing Emotion Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Heather K.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers' ability to demonstrate awareness of their own emotion is an important socio-emotional competence which has received increasing attention in the developmental literature. The present study examined emotion self-awareness of happiness, sadness, and anger in response to a delay of gratification task in 78 preschool children. Maternal…

  8. Comparing Cross-Cultural Multicultural Self-Awareness among K-12 In-Service School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Chieko; Plash, Shawn; Davis, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored multicultural self-awareness among 134 K-12 in-service school teachers using the Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory (CDAI). The results were compared to Yeung's (2006), allowing for a comparison between Eastern and Western cultures. A composite score was generated for each of the five areas measured by the CDAI. A…

  9. Cultivating Self-Awareness in Counselors-in-Training through Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated processes, strategies, and frameworks that took place during group supervision classes, which best cultivate the self-awareness of Mental Health and Marriage and Family Counselors-in-Training (CITs). It was designed to explore factors across multiple theoretical models, which contributed to the cultivation of self-awareness…

  10. Studying self-awareness in children: validation of the Questionnaire of Executive Functioning (QEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Marie; Catale, Corinne; Geurten, Claire; Wansard, Murielle; Meulemans, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    People with accurate representations of their own cognitive functioning (i.e. cognitive self-awareness) tend to use appropriate strategies to regulate their behavior. Due to the lack of appropriate instruments, few studies have examined the development of this ability among children. This study tested the measurement properties of the self-rating and other-rating forms of the Questionnaire of Executive Functioning (QEF), designed to tap children's knowledge of their executive functioning. Specifically, the construct, convergent, and discriminant validities were investigated and a self-other discrepancy score was computed to assess children's executive self-awareness. Participants were 317 children aged 7-14 years old. Confirmatory factor analyses carried out on the QEF confirmed the eight-factor structure of both versions. There were significant correlations between the QEF and the parent versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, the Dysexecutive Questionnaire for Children, and the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory. Both forms of the QEF were able to distinguish between children who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and control participants. A statistical difference was observed between the TBI and control groups on this score, suggesting that TBI may trigger self-awareness impairments in children. The good psychometric properties of the two forms of the QEF were established. Furthermore, results of the analyses carried out on the different discrepancy scores seem to indicate that the QEF could help clinicians to detect patients with self-awareness deficits.

  11. International Immersion in Belize: Fostering Counseling Students' Cultural Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Augustine, Shirlene; Dowden, Angel; Wiggins, Angel; Hall, LaCheata

    2014-01-01

    International cultural immersion provides an in vivo, authentic, cross-cultural experience that can enhance multicultural awareness, knowledge and skills. This article examines the impact of an international immersion on graduate counseling students' cultural self-awareness using a qualitative approach. Five graduate counseling students…

  12. Maternal Emotion-Related Socialization and Preschoolers' Developing Emotion Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Heather K.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers' ability to demonstrate awareness of their own emotion is an important socio-emotional competence which has received increasing attention in the developmental literature. The present study examined emotion self-awareness of happiness, sadness, and anger in response to a delay of gratification task in 78 preschool children. Maternal…

  13. Brief Report: Relationship between Self-Awareness of Real-World Behavior and Treatment Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Marijnissen, N.; Berger, H. J. C.; Oudshoorn, J.; van der Sijde, A.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of self-awareness of real-world behavior on treatment outcome in adolescents with ASD. For this purpose we followed 28 adolescents with ASD during their first year of specialized treatment. Results showed that better self-awareness at start of treatment was related with an increase in…

  14. Brief report: relationship between self-awareness of real-world behavior and treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Marijnissen, N.; Berger, H.J.C.; Oudshoorn, J.; Sijde, A. van der; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of self-awareness of real-world behavior on treatment outcome in adolescents with ASD. For this purpose we followed 28 adolescents with ASD during their first year of specialized treatment. Results showed that better self-awareness at sta

  15. Brief report: relationship between self-awareness of real-world behavior and treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Marijnissen, N.; Berger, H.J.C.; Oudshoorn, J.; Sijde, A. van der; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of self-awareness of real-world behavior on treatment outcome in adolescents with ASD. For this purpose we followed 28 adolescents with ASD during their first year of specialized treatment. Results showed that better self-awareness at

  16. Poor self-awareness of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: clinical features and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietracupa, Sara; Fasano, Alfonso; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Sarchioto, Marianna; Bloise, Maria; Latorre, Anna; Altieri, Marta; Bologna, Matteo; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2013-11-01

    To study the factors and possible mechanisms associated with decreased self-awareness of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We enrolled 30 PD patients with LIDs. Patients were video-recorded in an "on" phase while experiencing LIDs. LIDs were objectively rated by means of the Unified Dyskinesias Rating Scale (UDyRS) by two movement disorders specialists while examining the patients. Patients were asked to rate the body site and the severity of their LIDs according to the 5-point UDyRS. Patients then rated their own LIDs while watching the video recording of themselves. Lastly, the patients rated the LIDs of other reference PD patients on a video recording. The same reference video recordings were shown to 15 healthy individuals matched for age, gender and education. Seven of the 30 PD patients investigated were subjectively unaware of the presence of their LIDs. The majority of patients, however, recognized their LIDs when watching video recording of themselves. Patients displayed a specific poor self-awareness of trunk LIDs, in both the subjective evaluation and in the video recording-based subjective evaluation. By contrast PD patients correctly recognized LIDs in video recordings of reference PD patients. Poor self-awareness correlated with predominance of motor symptoms on the left body side. Poor self-awareness of LIDs is present in a proportion of PD patients as a form of anosognosia. The poor self-awareness of LIDs in the trunk is likely to be due to a complex interplay involving both anosognosic mechanisms and deficits in proprioceptive axial kinesthesia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The neural basis of impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Timothy E; Bonnelle, Valerie; Hellyer, Peter; Jilka, Sagar; Robertson, Ian H; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2014-02-01

    Self-awareness is commonly impaired after traumatic brain injury. This is an important clinical issue as awareness affects long-term outcome and limits attempts at rehabilitation. It can be investigated by studying how patients respond to their errors and monitor their performance on tasks. As awareness is thought to be an emergent property of network activity, we tested the hypothesis that impaired self-awareness is associated with abnormal brain network function. We investigated a group of subjects with traumatic brain injury (n = 63) split into low and high performance-monitoring groups based on their ability to recognize and correct their own errors. Brain network function was assessed using resting-state and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. This allowed us to investigate baseline network function, as well as the evoked response of networks to specific events including errors. The low performance-monitoring group underestimated their disability and showed broad attentional deficits. Neural activity within what has been termed the fronto-parietal control network was abnormal in patients with impaired self-awareness. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex is a key part of this network that is involved in performance-monitoring. This region showed reduced functional connectivity to the rest of the fronto-parietal control network at 'rest'. In addition, the anterior insulae, which are normally tightly linked to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, showed increased activity following errors in the impaired group. Interestingly, the traumatic brain injury patient group with normal performance-monitoring showed abnormally high activation of the right middle frontal gyrus, putamen and caudate in response to errors. The impairment of self-awareness was not explained either by the location of focal brain injury, or the amount of traumatic axonal injury as demonstrated by diffusion tensor imaging. The results suggest that impairments of self-awareness

  18. Impaired self-awareness after acquired brain injury: clinicians' ratings on its assessment and importance for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, Ieke; Van Heugten, Caroline M; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Boosman, Hileen

    2014-01-01

    Impaired self-awareness is a potential obstacle to successful rehabilitation. To obtain clinicians' ratings of the importance of self-awareness for brain injury rehabilitation and use of instruments to assess self-awareness. One hundred sixty-three members of 3 major Dutch organizations for neuropsychology or rehabilitation. Online survey addressing: (1) factors participants consider important for the course and success of rehabilitation, (2) whether they assess patients' levels of self-awareness, and (3) the instruments they use to do so. Of the 163 respondents, 116 (71.2%) considered self-awareness to be important for the course of rehabilitation; 113 (69.3%) considered it to be important for the success of rehabilitation. One hundred fifty-six clinicians (95.7%) reported assessing patients' levels of self-awareness, but only 12 (7.4%) reported using standardized instruments specifically designed for this purpose. The instruments most frequently reported to be used were the Awareness Questionnaire and Patient Competency Rating Scale. It is difficult to capture different aspects of self-awareness in a standardized manner. There is a need for instruments that are valid and reliable and that have good clinical utility.

  19. My face, my heart: cultural differences in integrated bodily self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-01-01

    Body-awareness is produced by an integration of both interoceptive and exteroceptive bodily signals. However, previous investigations into cultural differences in bodily self-awareness have only studied these two aspects in isolation. We investigated the interaction between interoceptive and exteroceptive self-processing in East Asian and Western participants. During an interoceptive awareness task, self-face observation improved performance of those with initially low awareness in the Western group, but did not benefit the East Asian participants. These results suggest that the integrated, coherent experience of the body differs between East Asian and Western cultures. For Western participants, viewing one's own face may activate a bodily self-awareness which enhances processing of other bodily information, such as interoceptive signals. Instead, for East Asian individuals, the external appearance of the self may activate higher-level, social aspects of self-identity, reflecting the importance of the sociocultural construct of "face" in East Asian cultures.

  20. Self-Awareness Without Awareness? Implicit Self-Focused Attention and Behavioral Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Phillips, Ann G

    2013-04-01

    Objective self-awareness theory contends that focusing attention on the self initiates an automatic comparison of self to standards. To gain evidence for automatic self-standard comparison processes, two experiments manipulated attention to self with subliminal first-name priming. People completed a computer-based parity task after being instructed that the standard was to be fast or to be accurate. Subliminal first name priming increased behavioral adherence to the explicit standard. When told to be fast, self-focused people made more mistakes and had faster response times; when told to be accurate, self-focused people made fewer mistakes. A manipulation of conscious self-awareness (via a mirror) had the same self-regulatory effects. The findings suggest that comparing self to standards can occur automatically and that it is attention to self, not awareness of the self per se, that evokes self-evaluation.

  1. Development and Validation of the Self-Awareness of Falls in Elderly Scale Among Elderly Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Meei-Ling; Huang, Hui-Chuan; Wu, Mei-Jung; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop the Self-Awareness of Falls in Elderly (SAFE) scale and test its reliability and validity among elderly inpatients. A cross-sectional study design and convenience sampling were used to test the validity and reliability of the SAFE scale. Explanatory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis yielded an acceptable goodness of model fit, confirming the 21 items in the SAFE scale that were distributed among four factors: awareness of activity safety and environment, awareness of physical functions, awareness of medication, and awareness of cognitive behavior. The values of interrater reliability and Cronbach's alpha were at least .70, indicating that reliability of the SAFE scale was acceptable. The SAFE scale is the first instrument to measure self-awareness of fall risk among high-risk groups. Further management and fall prevention can then be designed to reduce the incidence of falls among elderly people in clinical care.

  2. “So Big”: The Development of Body Self-awareness in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Celia A.; Zerwas, Stephanie; Ramani, Geetha B.

    2012-01-01

    Early development of body self-awareness was examined in 57 children at 18, 22, or 26 months of age, using tasks designed to require objective representation of one’s own body. All children made at least one body representation error, with approximately 2.5 errors per task on average. Errors declined with age. Children’s performance on comparison tasks that required them to reason about the relative size of objects and about objects as obstacles, without considering their own bodies, was unrelated to performance on the body awareness tasks. Thus, the ability to represent and reflect on one’s own body explicitly and objectively may be a unique dimension of early development, a distinct component of objective self-awareness which emerges in this age period. PMID:17883440

  3. Impaired self-awareness in human addiction: deficient attribution of personal relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2014-12-01

    Compromised self-awareness of illness-related deficits and behaviors in psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia) has been associated with deficient functioning of cortical midline regions including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), implicated in personal relevance. Here, we review and critically analyze recent evidence to suggest that vmPFC abnormalities could similarly underlie deficient tagging of personal relevance in drug addiction, evidenced by a constellation of behaviors encompassing drug-biased attention, negative outcome insensitivity, self-report/behavior dissociation, and social inappropriateness. This novel framework might clarify, for example, why drug-addicted individuals often ruin long-standing relationships or forego important job opportunities while continuing to engage in uncontrolled drug-taking. Therapeutic interventions targeting personal relevance and associated vmPFC functioning could enhance self-awareness and facilitate more adaptive behavior in this chronically relapsing psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Descartes discarded? Introspective self-awareness and the problems of transparency and compositionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werning, Markus

    2010-09-01

    What has the self to be like such that introspective awareness of it is possible? The paper asks if Descartes's idea of an inner self can be upheld and discusses this issue by invoking two principles: the phenomenal transparency of experience and the semantic compositionality of conceptual content. It is assumed that self-awareness is a second-order state either in the domain of experience or in the domain of thought. In the former case self-awareness turns out empty if experience is transparent. In the latter, it can best be conceived of as a form of mental quotation. Various proposed analyses of direct and indirect quotation are discussed and tested regarding their applicability to thought. It is concluded that, on the assumption of compositionality, the inner self is only insofar accessible to awareness as it has an accessible phonological (or otherwise subsymbolic) structure, as apparently only inner speech does.

  5. Low rate of self-awareness and medical recognition of migraine in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, A; Neuhauser, H

    2012-10-01

    The study's objective was to assess self-awareness and medical recognition of migraine and their determinants in Germany. We conducted a nationally representative study of the general population of Germany (N = 7341, aged ≥18 years) by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews. Migraine was diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICDH-II). Twelve-month prevalence of ICHD-II-migraine was 10.6% (women 15.6%, men 5.3%). Seventy percent of ICDH-II-migraineurs recognised their headaches as migraine (moderate agreement between ICDH-II and self-diagnosis, κ = 0.46). Only 42% of migraineurs consulted a physician in the previous 12 months. Of those, 63% reported a medical diagnosis of migraine (moderate agreement, κ = 0.40). Women were more likely to be self-aware (odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.60), but the difference was no longer significant when adjusting for migraine features. Physician recognition was more likely in patients with higher educational level (high vs. low education OR 3.90, 95% CI 1.43-10.61 after adjusting for migrainous features). Best predictors for self-awareness and medical recognition of migraine were typical migraine accompaniments and greater headache intensity. Self-awareness and physician recognition of migraine are low in Germany. Presence of typical migraine features and greater headache intensity facilitate medical recognition and awareness of migraine, especially in females.

  6. Memory self-awareness in the preclinical and prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Patrizia; Amariglio, Rebecca; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Johnson, Keith A; McLaren, Donald G; Chhatwal, Jasmeer; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rentz, Dorene; Sperling, Reisa A

    2017-05-01

    While loss of insight of cognitive deficits, anosognosia, is a common symptom in Alzheimer's disease dementia, there is a lack of consensus regarding the presence of altered awareness of memory function in the preclinical and prodromal stages of the disease. Paradoxically, very early in the Alzheimer's disease process, individuals may experience heightened awareness of memory changes before any objective cognitive deficits can be detected, here referred to as hypernosognosia. In contrast, awareness of memory dysfunction shown by individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very variable, ranging from marked concern to severe lack of insight. This study aims at improving our mechanistic understanding of how alterations in memory self-awareness are related to pathological changes in clinically normal (CN) adults and MCI patients. 297 CN and MCI patients underwent PiB-PET (Positron Emission Tomography using Pittsburgh Compound B) in vivo amyloid imaging. Amyloid burden was estimated from Alzheimer's disease vulnerable regions, including the frontal, lateral parietal and lateral temporal, and retrosplenial cortex. Memory self-awareness was assessed using discrepancy scores between subjective and objective measures of memory function. A set of univariate analysis of variance were performed to assess the relationship between self-awareness of memory and amyloid pathology. Whereas CN individuals harboring amyloid pathology demonstrated hypernosognosia, MCI patients with increased amyloid pathology demonstrated anosognosia. In contrast, MCI patients with low amounts of amyloid were observed to have normal insight into their memory functions. Altered self-awareness of memory tracks with amyloid pathology. The findings of variability of awareness may have important implications for the reliability of self-report of dysfunction across the spectrum of preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On the mental toughness of self-aware athletes: Evidence from competitive tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Cowden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between mental toughness (MT and self-awareness in a sample of 175 male and 158 female South African tennis athletes (mean age = 29.09 years, s.d. = 14.00. The participants completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire and the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale to assess MT (confidence, constancy, control and self-awareness (self-reflection and self-insight dimensions, respectively. Linear regression indicated that self-insight (β=0.49, but not self-reflection (β=0.02, predicted global MT. Multivariate regression analyses were significant for self-reflection (ηp²=0.11 and self-insight (ηp²=0.24. Self-reflection predicted confidence and constancy (ηp²=0.05 and 0.06, respectively, whereas self-insight predicted all three MT subcomponents (ηp²=0.12 to 0.14. The findings extend prior qualitative research evidence supporting the relevance of self-awareness to the MT of competitive tennis athletes, with self-reflection and insight forming prospective routes through which athletes’ MT may be developed.

  8. Changes in impaired self-awareness after acquired brain injury in patients following intensive neuropsychological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Sanne M J; Vink, Martie; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Winkens, Ieke; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in self-awareness impairments in outpatients with acquired brain injury (ABI) and the effects these changes have on rehabilitation. Participants were 78 patients with ABI (8.3 years post-injury) who followed an intensive outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation programme. This longitudinal study comprised pre (T1) and post (T2) measurements and a one-year follow-up (T3). Thirty-eight patients completed the study. The main outcome domains were self-awareness, depressive symptoms, psychological and physical dysfunction, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients were divided into three awareness groups: underestimation, accurate estimation, and overestimation of competencies. Most patients who underestimated their competencies at the start of treatment accurately estimated their competencies directly after treatment (9 out of 11 patients). These patients also exhibited the largest treatment effects regarding depressive symptoms, psychological and physical dysfunction, and HRQoL. Most patients with impaired self-awareness (i.e., overestimation of competencies) at the start of treatment continued to overestimate their competencies after treatment (10 out of 14 patients). These patients exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms but no other treatment effects. The results indicate that changes in outcome are related to changes in awareness, which underline the importance of taking into account different awareness groups with respect to treatment effects.

  9. Insight in cognition: self-awareness of performance across cognitive domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Linda A; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Biessels, G J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Postma, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Loss of cognitive functions, as apparent through self-awareness, is considered an important indicator of cognitive deficits and is therefore commonly used in clinical practice. However, little is known about self-awareness of cognitive performance, including its accuracy, its basis, and whether people can distinguish their performance across different cognitive domains. In the present study, 20 university students (M (age) = 21.7 ± 2.2 years, 9 males) and 20 middle-aged participants (M (age) = 52.8 ± 3.9 years, 10 males) gave estimations of their performances on executive functioning, memory, attention, and visuoperception before and after confrontation with their capacities. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with age group as a between-subjects factor was performed on the calculated estimation errors, before and after neuropsychological testing. Overall, the estimation errors were significantly higher before than after experience with test performance, ps self-awareness is domain-specific, and although it is adaptive to the experience of mental effort, it is most dependent on preexisting beliefs about one's own cognitive abilities.

  10. The mirror effect: self-awareness alone increases suicide thought accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimbegović, Leila; Chatard, Armand

    2013-09-01

    According to objective self-awareness theory, when individuals are in a state of self-awareness, they tend to compare themselves to their standards. Self-to-standard comparison often yields unfavorable results and can be assimilated to a failure, activating an escape motivation. Building on recent research on the link between failure and suicide thought accessibility, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that mirror exposure alone provokes an increase in suicide thought accessibility. Participants were exposed to their mirror reflection (or not) while completing a lexical decision task with suicide-related words. Self-to-standard discrepancy salience was manipulated by asking participants to list actual and ideal traits before versus after the lexical decision task. As predicted, mirror-exposed participants recognized suicide-related words quicker than those unexposed to their mirror image. Self-to-standard discrepancy salience did not moderate this effect. Discussion focuses on the role of the motivation to escape self-awareness in the availability of suicide-related ideas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing self-awareness of dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease through movie materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Emilia J.; Soltan, Witold; Wieczorek, Dariusz; Robowski, Piotr; Schinwelski, Michal; Slawek, Jaroslaw

    Summary The aim of our study was to determine self-awareness of dyskinesias and other core motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) through the use of movie presentations. A scale based on 10 movies (five depicting dyskinesias and five showing core symptoms) and the Self-Assessment Parkinson’s Disease Disability Scale were administered to 21 patients (all with a Mini-Mental State Examination – MMSE score ≥25). Neurological assessment included the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn-Yahr and Schwab-England scales. In addition, the MMSE, Beck Depression Inventory and Stroop task were administered. Overall, patient and caregiver ratings of dyskinesias and core PD symptoms were consistent. Two patients (9%) completely denied dyskinesias, while four patients (19%) significantly underestimated their dyskinesias. Our results confirm that poor self-awareness of symptoms in PD may be selective and that denial of dyskinesias affects only a minority of patients with normal cognitive status (MMSE≥25). Most patients are aware of the presence of dyskinesias. Poor self-awareness of dyskinesias is associated with longer disease duration. PMID:22152432

  12. Self-awareness and neurobehavioral outcomes, 5 years or more after moderate to severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Campbell; Loughlin, Jennifer K; Hutson, Lee; Dahdah, Marie N; Long, Margaret K; Schwab, Karen A; Poole, John H

    2014-01-01

    To examine self-awareness 5 years or more after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its relation to outcomes. Sixty-two adults with moderate to severe TBI and significant other (SO) informants (family or close friend). Regional veterans medical center. TBI Follow-up Interview, Community Integration Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Caregiver Burden Inventory. Five to 16 years after acute inpatient rehabilitation, separate staff contacted and interviewed subjects and SOs. Subject awareness was defined as inverse subject-SO discrepancy scores. Subjects significantly underreported neurologic symptoms and overreported their work and home functioning; their self-ratings of emotional distress and social functioning did not differ from SO ratings. Employment was associated with greater self-awareness of cognitive deficits, even after controlling for injury severity. Subjects' life-satisfaction was associated with better self-reported neurologic functioning, which frequently did not agree with SO ratings. Caregiver burden was worse as SOs perceived subjects as having worse symptoms and poorer work and social integration. Impaired self-awareness remains evident more than 5 years after TBI. People with TBI are more likely to gain employment when they are aware of their cognitive deficits and abilities. However, subjective quality of life, for subjects and SOs, was related to their own perception of the TBI outcomes.

  13. Self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease relies on neural structures mediating reward-driven attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany-Ur, Tal; Lin, Nancy; Rosen, Howard J; Sollberger, Marc; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2014-08-01

    Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's tasks and goals to one's actual abilities. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those with right frontal involvement, often present with poor self-awareness of their functional limitations that may exacerbate their already jeopardized decision-making and behaviour. We studied the structural neuroanatomical basis for impaired self-awareness among patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy older adults. One hundred and twenty-four participants (78 patients with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, semantic variant and non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, and 46 healthy controls) described themselves on the Patient Competency Rating Scale, rating observable functioning across four domains (daily living activities, cognitive, emotional control, interpersonal). All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Informants also described subjects' functioning on the same scale. Self-awareness was measured by comparing self and informant ratings. Group differences in discrepancy scores were analysed using general linear models, controlling for age, sex and disease severity. Compared with controls, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia overestimated their functioning in all domains, patients with Alzheimer's disease overestimated cognitive and emotional functioning, patients with right-temporal frontotemporal dementia overestimated interpersonal functioning, and patients with non-fluent aphasia overestimated emotional and interpersonal functioning. Patients with semantic variant aphasia did not overestimate functioning on any domain. To examine the neuroanatomic correlates of impaired self-awareness, discrepancy scores were correlated with brain volume using voxel-based morphometry. To identify the unique neural correlates of overlooking

  14. Self-Awareness and Self-Ratings of On-Road Driving Performance After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, James R; Ponsford, Jennie L; Charlton, Judith L; Ross, Pamela E; Marshall, Shawn; Gagnon, Sylvain; Bédard, Michel; Stolwyk, Renerus J

    To examine self-rated, clinician-rated, and self-awareness of on-road driving performance in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) deemed fit and unfit to resume driving and healthy controls, and to explore their associations with demographic, injury, cognitive, and mood variables. Participants included 37 individuals with moderate to severe TBI, and 49 healthy age, sex, and education-matched controls from Australia and Canada. Participants completed an on-road assessment, the Brain Injury Driving Self-Awareness Measure (BIDSAM), and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Awareness scores on the BIDSAM were significantly different between groups, F(2, 83) = 28.44 (P self-awareness was significantly correlated with reduced psychomotor speed (rs = -0.37; P self-awareness of driving. These findings suggest impaired awareness of driving may need to be addressed as part of driver rehabilitation programs.

  15. Investigating the relationship between reduced self-awareness of falls risk, rehabilitation engagement and falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljcic, Tijana; Haines, Terry P; Ponsford, Jennie L; Stolwyk, Renerus J

    The present study aimed to investigate whether self-awareness of falls risk is associated with rehabilitation engagement, motivation for rehabilitation, and number of falls after hospital discharge. The sample comprised 91 older adults (Mage=77.97, SD=8.04) undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. The Self-Awareness of Falls Risk Measure (SAFRM) was used to measure different aspects of self-awareness. The treating physiotherapist and occupational therapist rated the patient's engagement in rehabilitation and the patient reported his/her motivation for treatment. Falls information was collected from the patient and significant other once a month for three months following hospital discharge. Significant correlations were found between physiotherapist-rated engagement and intellectual (rs=-0.22, pself-awareness (rs=-0.31 and -0.26, pself-awareness provided a unique contribution to occupational therapist-rated engagement when controlling for age, gender, cognition and functional ability. Falls were reported by 29.9% of participants, however, self-awareness did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. The findings suggest that self-awareness of falls risk is associated with rehabilitation engagement and motivation. Therefore, improving patient self-awareness of falls risk may increase engagement in therapy leading to better patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired self-awareness of motor deficits in Parkinson's disease: association with motor asymmetry and motor phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Franziska; Prigatano, George P; Kalbe, Elke; Barbe, Michael T; Eggers, Carsten; Lewis, Catharine J; Burns, Richard S; Morrone-Strupinsky, Jeannine; Moguel-Cobos, Guillermo; Fink, Gereon R; Timmermann, Lars

    2012-09-15

    This study investigated impaired self-awareness of motor deficits in nondemented, nondepressed Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during a defined clinical on state. Twenty-eight PD patients were examined. Patients' self-ratings and experts' ratings of patients' motor performance were compared. Patient-examiner discrepancies and level of impairment determined severity of impaired self-awareness. Motor exam assessed overall motor functioning, hemibody impairment, and 4 motor phenotypes. Neuropsychological tests were also conducted. Signs of impaired self-awareness were present in 17 patients (60.7%). Higher severity of impaired self-awareness correlated significantly with higher postural-instability and gait-difficulty off scores (r = .575; P = .001), overall motor off scores (r = .569; P = .002), and higher left hemibody off scores (r = .490; P = .008). In multiple linear regression analyses, higher postural-instability and gait-difficulty off scores remained as the only significant predictor of impaired self-awareness severity. Postural instability and gait difficulties, disease severity, and right hemisphere dysfunction seem to contribute to impaired self-awareness. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. The relationship between self-awareness of neurobehavioral symptoms, cognitive functioning, and emotional symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Yael; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2005-04-01

    To examine self-awareness of neurobehavioral symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) across three domains of function (apathy, disinhibition, and executive control), and examine the relationship between self-awareness and cognitive functioning. Twenty-six individuals with MS completed neuropsychological testing, measures of emotional functioning, and self-ratings of neurobehavioral symptoms using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), a 46-item questionnaire with subscales assessing frequency of symptoms in executive dysfunction, disinhibition, and apathy. Informants' ratings of the FrSBe were also obtained. Decreasing differences between patient and informant reports on each subscale of the FrSBe (concordance) indicate higher levels of self-awareness. Results showed significant positive correlations between cognitive abilities and self-awareness of executive dysfunction and disinhibition. In contrast, affect symptomatology (measures of anxiety and depression) were negatively correlated with self-awareness of executive dysfunction. Level of self-awareness of neurobehavioral symptoms in MS is related to level of cognitive impairment In addition, symptoms of depression and anxiety reduced the accuracy of self-reporting. Thus, a clinician who relies on self-reports in creating an evaluation and treatment plan should consider the patient's cognitive and emotional states.

  18. The bodily experience of cerebral palsy: a journey to self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Laura K; Bartlett, Doreen J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the lived bodily experience of cerebral palsy (CP). This was a descriptive phenomenological inquiry. Ten participants were interviewed about their bodily experiences of living with CP. Interviews were semi-structured around pain and fatigue. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify themes. The bodily experience of CP centered on issues of fatigue and pain as a feeling of muscle soreness. An overwhelming amount of the discussion on fatigue emphasized the fatigue that occurs with walking and prolonged activity. Self-awareness of the individuals' own bodies and adapting activity to continue to participate in various aspects of their lives emerged as the most important theme. Some participants used strategies to manage their pain or fatigue; other participants were not yet fully aware of how to recognize signs of fatigue and/or how to adapt their activities. Self-awareness appears to be an important process to be fostered by service providers and parents. Specifically, encouraging youth with CP to be aware of their own bodies and the effects (positive and negative) of activity on pain and fatigue should be incorporated into transition programs as the individual becomes responsible for his or her own health care needs. Implications for Rehabilitation Fatigue is a major concern for some youth and young adults with cerebral palsy. Adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy use a variety of techniques (including adapting or restricting activity and building in rest breaks) to manage fatigue. The process of self-awareness should be fostered by health care professionals leading up to and during transition from pediatric to adult care. Clinical conversations should explore the role of exercise, adaptive equipment, rest and other strategies for dealing with fatigue with a focus on understanding each client's needs individually.

  19. Neuroanatomy of impaired self-awareness in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Giovanna; Drazich, Erin; McCulloch, Ellen; Filippini, Nicola; Mackay, Clare E; Jenkinson, Mark; Tracey, Irene; Wilcock, Gordon K

    2013-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be unaware of their cognitive impairment. The neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying this symptom, termed anosognosia or impaired self-awareness, are still poorly understood. In the present study we aimed to explore the functional correlates of self-awareness in patients with MCI and AD. Fifty-one participants (17 healthy elderly, 17 patients with MCI, and 17 patients with AD), each accompanied by a study partner, took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, in which they were presented with questions regarding themselves (Self condition) or their study partner (Other condition). The study partner was asked to complete a paper questionnaire answering the same questions so the responses of participant and study partner could be compared and "discrepancy" scores calculated for each of the 2 conditions (Self and Other). Behavioural results showed that AD patients had significantly higher "Self discrepancy scores" than controls and MCI patients, whereas there were no significant differences between groups for "Other discrepancy scores". Imaging results showed a significant group-by-condition interaction in brain activation in medial prefrontal and anterior temporal regions, with AD patients showing significantly decreased activation in these regions only for the Self condition. There were no significant differences between Self and Other conditions in either control or MCI groups, suggesting that, in these groups, Self- and Other-appraisal share similar neuroanatomical substrates. Decreased functional activation of medial prefrontal and anterior temporal cortices is associated with impaired self-awareness in AD patients. This dysfunction, which is specific for Self- but not for Other-appraisal, may be a contributing factor to anosognosia in AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The body self-awareness among women practicing fitness: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brytek-Matera Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the present study were to explore the relationship between body awareness and negative body attitude, interoceptive body awareness and physical self in women practicing fitness as well as to analyze the determinants of body awareness. The Body Awareness Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and the Body Attitude Test were applied to 43 women practicing fitness and 32 non-fitness practitioners. Bodily self-awareness was connected with greater fitness practitioners’ interoceptive body awareness and greater physical self. Noticing and global esteem predicted body awareness in women practicing fitness.

  1. Modifying Bodily Self-Awareness during Acupuncture Needle Stimulation Using the Rubber Hand Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seon Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rubber hand illusion (RHI is an experimental paradigm that manipulates important aspects of body self-awareness. Objectives. We were interested in whether modifying bodily self-awareness by manipulation of body ownership and visual expectations using the RHI would change the subjective perception of pain as well as the autonomic response to acupuncture needle stimulation. Methods. Acupuncture needle stimulation was applied to the real hand during the RHI with (experiment 1 or without (experiment 2 visual expectation while measuring concurrent autonomic changes such as the skin conductance response (SCR. Subjective responses such as perception of the RHI and perceived pain were measured by questionnaires. Results. In experiment 1, the amplitude of the increase in SCR was visibly higher during the synchronous session compared with that of the asynchronous session. In experiment 2, the amplitude of the increase of SCR was lower for the synchronous session compared with that for the asynchronous session. Comparing these two experiments, the visual expectation of needle stimulation produced a greater autonomic response to acupuncture stimulation. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the sympathetic response to acupuncture needle stimulation is primarily influenced by visual expectation rather than by modifications of body ownership.

  2. Cultural self-awareness as a crucial component of military cross-cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappamihiel, Constantine J; Pappamihiel, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    The military forces in the United States represent a unique culture that includes many subcultures within their own military society. Acculturation into the military often deemphasizes the influence of personal narrative and thereby establishes the primacy of military culture over personal cultural influences. The authors make the argument that military personnel need to further develop an understanding and appreciation of personal cultural narrative as well as organizational culture. The increased integration of military personnel with interagency partners, along with cooperative efforts between relief organizations, and nongovernmental organizations in politically/economically unstable areas around the globe serves to make cross-cultural interaction unavoidable in the future. Military medical personnel are especially likely to interact with others who have culturally different values. These interactions can occur between organizations as easily as they can during patient care. They must be able to step outside of their military culture and develop cross-cultural competence that is grounded in cultural self-awareness. Without an appropriate level of cultural self-awareness, military and medical personnel run the risk of being unable to communicate across dissimilar cultures or worse, alienating key stakeholders in collaborative operations between military services, coalition partners, and nonmilitary organizations. It is the authors? contention that unless military personnel, especially those in the medical arena, are able to appropriately self-assess situations that are impacted by culture, both their own and the other personnel involved, the resulting cultural dissonance is more likely to derail any significant positive effect of such collaborations.

  3. Self-awareness of peer-rated social attributes in children with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kelly R; Bigler, Erin D; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated self-awareness of peer-rated social attributes and its relations to executive function (EF), theory of mind (TOM), and psychosocial adjustment in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Self- and peer perceptions of classroom social behavior were assessed for 87 children 8-13 years of age: 15 with severe TBI, 40 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 32 with orthopedic injury. Participants completed measures of EF and TOM, and parents rated children's psychosocial adjustment. Self-ratings of classroom social behavior did not differ between injury groups. Self- and peer ratings generally agreed, although children with severe TBI rated themselves as less rejected/victimized than did their peers. Higher EF predicted better self- and peer ratings and smaller self-peer discrepancies, which in turn predicted better adjustment. Children with TBI show variable social self-awareness, which relates to EF and adjustment. Future studies should identify additional factors that contribute to limited insight. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Neurobehavioral and self-awareness changes after traumatic brain injury: Towards new multidimensional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, A; Dromer, E; Rochat, L; Van der Linden, M; Azouvi, P

    2016-02-01

    Neurobehavioral and self-awareness changes are frequently observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). These disturbances have been related to negative consequences on functional outcomes, caregiver distress and social reintegration, representing therefore a challenge for clinical research. Some studies have recently been conducted to specifically explore apathetic and impulsive manifestations, as well as self-awareness impairments in patients with TBI. These findings underlined the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations for each behavioral disturbance and the diversity of psychological processes involved. In this context, new multidimensional approaches taking into account the various processes at play have been proposed to better understand and apprehend the complexity and dynamic nature of these problematic behaviors. In addition, the involvement of social and environmental factors as well as premorbid personality traits have increasingly been addressed. These new multidimensional frameworks have the potential to ensure targeted and effective rehabilitation by allowing a better identification and therefore consideration of the various mechanisms involved in the onset of problematic behaviors. In this context, the main objective of this position paper was to demonstrate the interest of multidimensional approaches in the understanding and rehabilitation of problematic behaviors in patients with TBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. I know you can see me: Social attention influences bodily self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazem, Nesrine; George, Nathalie; Baltazar, Matias; Conty, Laurence

    2017-03-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that eye contact influences bodily self-awareness. Here, we investigated if the belief of being the target of another person's attention may also induce such influence. We created videos of an individual wearing two different pairs of sunglasses. We manipulated the participants to believe that they were in on-line connection with the individual and that one of the pairs of sunglasses was obstructed so that the individual could not see them through it. We demonstrated that the perception of an individual wearing see-through sunglasses, as compared to obstructed sunglasses or a low-level baseline condition, led to a greater correlation between the participants' rating of the intensity of their bodily reactions and their skin conductance response to emotional pictures. This shows that the belief to be watched by another social agent increases bodily self-awareness and further suggests that such belief is embedded in direct gaze perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modifying Bodily Self-Awareness during Acupuncture Needle Stimulation Using the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Seon; Kim, Yun-Ji; Lee, Soon-Ho; Lee, Hyejung; Lee, In-Seon; Park, Hi-Joon; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2013-01-01

    Background. The rubber hand illusion (RHI) is an experimental paradigm that manipulates important aspects of body self-awareness. Objectives. We were interested in whether modifying bodily self-awareness by manipulation of body ownership and visual expectations using the RHI would change the subjective perception of pain as well as the autonomic response to acupuncture needle stimulation. Methods. Acupuncture needle stimulation was applied to the real hand during the RHI with (experiment 1) or without (experiment 2) visual expectation while measuring concurrent autonomic changes such as the skin conductance response (SCR). Subjective responses such as perception of the RHI and perceived pain were measured by questionnaires. Results. In experiment 1, the amplitude of the increase in SCR was visibly higher during the synchronous session compared with that of the asynchronous session. In experiment 2, the amplitude of the increase of SCR was lower for the synchronous session compared with that for the asynchronous session. Comparing these two experiments, the visual expectation of needle stimulation produced a greater autonomic response to acupuncture stimulation. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the sympathetic response to acupuncture needle stimulation is primarily influenced by visual expectation rather than by modifications of body ownership.

  7. The effects of self-awareness on body movement indicators of the intention to deceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Glyn; Stedmon, Alex W; Zhang, Ke; Eubanks, Dawn L; Frumkin, Lara A

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the body movements of participants waiting to be interviewed in one of two conditions: preparing to answer questions truthfully or preparing to lie. The effects of increased self-awareness were also investigated, with half of the participants facing a mirror; the other half facing a blank wall. Analysis of covertly obtained video footage showed a significant interaction for the duration of hand/arm movements between deception level and self-awareness. Without a mirror, participants expecting to lie spent less time moving their hands than those expecting to tell the truth; the opposite was seen in the presence of a mirror. Participants expecting to lie also had higher levels of anxiety and thought that they were left waiting for less time than those expecting to tell the truth. These findings led to the identification of further research areas with the potential to support deception detection in security applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Anosognosia and patterns of impaired self-awareness observed in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigatano, George P

    2014-12-01

    Disturbances of self-awareness are observed in a wide variety of patients. While group studies can provide useful information concerning potential mechanisms underlying these complex disturbances, experienced clinicians, such as Babinski, recognized the potential value of repeated observations on individual patients to insure the reliability of findings and to aid in diagnosis. This paper describes patterns of impaired self-awareness (ISA) that are observed in clinical practice that suggest a model for clinical classification. Repeated observations are reported on four patients ranging from anosognosia for hemiplegia (AHP), ISA associated with bilateral cerebral dysfunction with frontal lobe involvement, and apparent denial of disability (DD). A patient who presents with denial of ability (DA) is also studied for comparison purposes. When coupled with brain imaging findings, the nature of the patients' subjective responses to feedback regarding their functional capacities, speed of finger tapping in the left, nondominant hand, and their capacity to express and perceive affect suggests different clinical correlates in these four conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease relies on neural structures mediating reward-driven attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany-Ur, Tal; Lin, Nancy; Rosen, Howard J.; Sollberger, Marc; Miller, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one’s tasks and goals to one’s actual abilities. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those with right frontal involvement, often present with poor self-awareness of their functional limitations that may exacerbate their already jeopardized decision-making and behaviour. We studied the structural neuroanatomical basis for impaired self-awareness among patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy older adults. One hundred and twenty-four participants (78 patients with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, semantic variant and non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, and 46 healthy controls) described themselves on the Patient Competency Rating Scale, rating observable functioning across four domains (daily living activities, cognitive, emotional control, interpersonal). All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Informants also described subjects’ functioning on the same scale. Self-awareness was measured by comparing self and informant ratings. Group differences in discrepancy scores were analysed using general linear models, controlling for age, sex and disease severity. Compared with controls, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia overestimated their functioning in all domains, patients with Alzheimer’s disease overestimated cognitive and emotional functioning, patients with right-temporal frontotemporal dementia overestimated interpersonal functioning, and patients with non-fluent aphasia overestimated emotional and interpersonal functioning. Patients with semantic variant aphasia did not overestimate functioning on any domain. To examine the neuroanatomic correlates of impaired self-awareness, discrepancy scores were correlated with brain volume using voxel-based morphometry. To identify the unique neural correlates of

  10. Factors contributing to impaired self-awareness of cognitive functioning in an HIV positive and at-risk population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengst, Shannon; Skidmore, Elizabeth; Pramuka, Michael; McCue, Michael; Becker, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between self-awareness of cognitive impairment and age, selected mood disorders, and type and severity of cognitive impairment in a sample of individuals with HIV/AIDS and at risk for HIV. Method 75 subjects, 52 HIV+ and 23 at risk for HIV completed a psychosocial interview, the Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning (PAOF) questionnaire, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Based upon the differences between their clinical impairment and self-reported impairment, subjects were classified as being “Underestimators”, “Good Awareness”, or “Impaired Awareness” with regard to self-awareness. Results Those with more severe cognitive impairment were less aware than those with normal or borderline cognitive impairment. A one-way ANOVA suggested that the Impaired Awareness group differed significantly from the Underestimators on the Rey Figure Immediate and Delayed Recall tasks, and from both the Underestimators and Good Awarenesss groups on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. There were significant differences among all awareness groups on the test of Simple Reaction Time. Furthermore there is some suggestion that age may contribute to impaired self-awareness. The role of HIV in self-awareness remains unclear, as both, individuals with HIV and at risk, demonstrated impaired self-awareness. Conclusions Overall, impaired awareness was associated with poorer test performance, suggesting a relationship between awareness and sustained complex attention and visual spatial processing. This research has implications for understanding factors contributing to poor awareness among individuals with cognitive impairment. PMID:21870997

  11. Video feedback on functional task performance improves self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julia; Fleming, Jennifer; Ownsworth, Tamara; Lannin, Natasha A

    2013-05-01

    Feedback is used in rehabilitation to improve self-awareness in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but there have been no comparisons of the different methods of providing feedback. To compare the effect of different methods of feedback on impaired self-awareness after TBI. This was a randomized, assessor-blinded trial with concealed allocation. A total of 54 participants with TBI and impaired self-awareness (85% male) were recruited from inpatient and community rehabilitation settings. Participants performed a meal preparation task on 4 occasions and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 feedback intervention groups: video plus verbal feedback, verbal feedback, or experiential feedback. The primary outcome was improvement in online awareness measured by the number of errors made during task completion. Secondary outcomes included level of intellectual awareness, self-perception of rehabilitation, and emotional status. Receiving video plus verbal feedback reduced the number of errors more than verbal feedback alone (mean difference = 19.7 errors; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.2-30.1) and experiential feedback alone (mean difference = 12.4 errors; 95% CI = 1.8-23.0). The results suggest that the video plus verbal feedback approach used in this study was effective in improving self-awareness in people with TBI. The results also provide evidence that improvement in self-awareness was not accompanied by deterioration in emotional status.

  12. The development and initial validation of a new tool to measure self-awareness of driving ability after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, James R; Ponsford, Jennie L; Charlton, Judith L; Ross, Pamela E; Marshall, Shawn; Gagnon, Sylvain; Bédard, Michel; Stolwyk, Renerus J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and provide initial validation data for a self-awareness of on-road driving ability measure for individuals with brain injury. Thirty-nine individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury completed an on-road driving assessment, the Self-Regulation Skills Interview (SRSI) and the newly developed Brain Injury Driving Self-Awareness Measure (BIDSAM). BIDSAM self, clinician and discrepancy scales demonstrated high levels of internal consistency (α = 0.83-0.92). Criterion-related validity was established by demonstrating significantly higher correlations between clinician ratings and on-road performances, rs  = 0.82, P self-awareness of on-road driving ability following TBI. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  13. Self-awareness rehabilitation after Traumatic Brain Injury: A pilot study to compare two group therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Jessica; Burro, Roberto; Guariglia, Cecilia; Maini, Manuela; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Bivona, Umberto; Formisano, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Deficits of self-awareness (SA) are very common after severe acquired brain injury (sABI), especially in traumatic brain injury (TBI), playing an important role in the efficacy of the rehabilitation process. This pilot study provides information regarding two structured group therapies for disorders of SA. Nine patients with severe TBI were consecutively recruited and randomly assigned to one SA group therapy programme, according either to the model proposed by Ben-Yishay & Lakin (1989) (B&L Group), or by Sohlberg & Mateer (1989) (S&M Group). Neuropsychological tests and self-awareness questionnaires were administered before and after a 10 weeks group therapy. Results showed that both SA and neuropsychological functioning significantly improved in both groups. It is important to investigate and treat self-awareness, also to improve the outcome of neuropsychological disorders. The two group therapies proposed seem to be specific for impulsivity and emotional dyscontrol and for cognitive disorders.

  14. The mediating relationship of self-awareness on supervisor burnout and workgroup Civility & Psychological Safety: A multilevel path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hernandez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether managerial self-awareness (defined as degree of agreement between self and subordinate ratings of leaders’ behaviors mediates the relationship between supervisor burnout and supervised workgroup climate. Using an HLM approach, supervisor emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment exhibited significant indirect relationships with workplace Civility and Psychological Safety, via managerial self-awareness. No direct relationships between supervisor burnout and workgroup climate were found, suggesting that self-awareness may be an important mediator for individual characteristics of leaders previously thought to be non-significant. Additional post hoc comparisons indicated that workgroups with supervisors who over-rated their own performance behaviors reported the lowest levels of Civility and Psychological Safety compared to workgroups with supervisors who accurately rated or under-rated their own performance behaviors. However, supervisors that under-rated their own performance reported the highest levels of burnout, highlighting the importance of self-awareness (accurately rating oneself in relation to individual and group outcomes. The relationships between supervisor burnout, managerial self-awareness, and workgroup perceptions of Civility and Psychological Safety differed when considering the directionality of self-other rating agreement, with the negative impact of burnout at the supervisor level having a more direct impact on the workgroup level perceptions of Civility and Psychological Safety when the workgroup is managed by an under-rater, as opposed to an accurate- or over-rater. Practically, organizations should consider the role of managerial self-awareness in influencing subordinate performance and creating desirable work climates. Also, this study suggests the effects of burnout extend beyond the individual and have significant implications for the performance

  15. Neural correlates of impaired self-awareness of apathy, disinhibition and dysexecutive deficits in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-López, Laura; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Martínez-González, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by impaired self-awareness about cognitive and motivational deficits, leading to poor treatment outcomes. However, there is still limited understanding of the neurophysiological underpinnings of this impairment. We aimed to establish if impaired self-awareness is underpinned by brain structural phenotypes among cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI). Sixty-five CDI and 65 designated informants completed the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale, and a subsample of 40 CDI were scanned via magnetic resonance imaging. We applied multiple regression models to establish the association between levels of self-awareness indexed by Frontal Systems Behavior Scale's discrepancy scores (i.e. informant ratings minus self-reports of apathy, disinhibition and dysexecutive deficits) and gray matter volumes indexed by magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based measures within five brain regions of interest: anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), striatum, insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We also examined the neural underpinnings of underestimation versus overestimation of deficits, by splitting the CDI group according to the positive or negative value of their discrepancy scores. We found that poorer self-awareness of apathy deficits was associated with greater gray matter volume in the dorsal striatum, and poorer self-awareness of disinhibition deficits was associated with greater gray matter volume in the OFC in the whole sample. More underestimation and more overestimation of executive deficits were linked to lower DLPFC volume. We show that impaired self-awareness of cognitive and motivational deficits in cocaine addiction has a neural underpinning, implicating striatum, OFC and DLPFC structural phenotypes. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Practical Strategy to Train Culturally Responsive Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini J. Negi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.

  17. Professional virtue and professional self-awareness: a case study in engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Preston

    2011-03-01

    This paper articulates an Aristotelian theory of professional virtue and provides an application of that theory to the subject of engineering ethics. The leading idea is that Aristotle's analysis of the definitive function of human beings, and of the virtues humans require to fulfill that function, can serve as a model for an analysis of the definitive function or social role of a profession and thus of the virtues professionals must exhibit to fulfill that role. Special attention is given to a virtue of professional self-awareness, an analogue to Aristotle's phronesis or practical wisdom. In the course of laying out my account I argue that the virtuous professional is the successful professional, just as the virtuous life is the happy life for Aristotle. I close by suggesting that a virtue ethics approach toward professional ethics can enrich the pedagogy of professional ethics courses and help foster a sense of pride and responsibility in young professionals.

  18. Educational action in the rehabilitation of severe acquired brain injuries: the role of self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, Daniela; Mazzetti, Maria; Melia, Chiara; Stagno, Maria Teresa; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Bivona, Umberto; Formisano, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Severe acquired brain injuries (ABI) cause a range of short-or long-term limitations in physical and neuropsychological abilities. The aim of rehabilitation is to promote the harmonious development of the individual through collaboration between medical and educational sciences, involved in the educability of the whole person, in which the aim is not only functional recovery but also social-reintegration. This "functional synergy" permits the development of the person, and establishes an indissoluble link between functions and attitudes, thus allowing the achievement of the greater possible autonomy. In this way classical and pedagogical rehabilitation may be combined in a single concept of educational action. To realize this integrated educational process it is important to evaluate and promote awareness development, based on the possibilities of brain plasticity and on the presence of multiple intelligences skillfully intertwined each other. Therefore, self-awareness plays a prime role in educational actions for the rehabilitation of persons with severe ABI.

  19. Life Lessons from Women with HIV: Mutuality, Self-Awareness, and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Leslie R; Jack, Dana C; Bruck-Segal, Dana L; Ruffing, Elizabeth G; Firpo-Perretti, Yudelki M; Dale, Sannisha K; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H

    2016-06-01

    Women with HIV in the United States cope with multiple traumas that influence adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and well-being. Narrative themes from three life turning points and a projective story task were compared for two groups of women with HIV (HIV well-managed vs. HIV not well-managed, matched on demographics and narrative word count) to understand predictors of successful outcomes. The well-managed group (n = 10) was virally suppressed and reported ≥95% ART adherence; the not well-managed group (n = 10) had detectable viral load and reported self-awareness (recognition of personal strengths and weaknesses and multiple factors contributing to life choices and trajectories); and (c) self-efficacy (active coping, self-advocacy, and utilizing resources). Implications for treatment and interconnections among themes are discussed, emphasizing the factors that enable women to care for themselves and others.

  20. Self-Awareness of Executive Functioning Deficits in Adolescents With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Kayla A; Tan, Alexander; Delgaty, Lauren; Gonzales, Mitzi M; Bunner, Melissa

    2017-02-01

    Children with ADHD lack self-awareness of their social and academic deficits, frequently rating themselves more favorably than external sources. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether adolescents with ADHD also hold a positive bias toward their executive functioning (EF). Participants include 22 control and 35 ADHD subjects, aged 11 to 16. Participants and their parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) Self and Parent forms, respectively. Discrepancy scores were calculated for each domain by subtracting the adolescents' T-score from the parents' T-score. Discrepancy scores were significantly higher in the ADHD group than controls within the Inhibit, Shift, Monitor, Emotional Control, Working Memory, and Plan/Organization domains (all p < .05). As compared with controls, adolescents with ADHD tend to endorse fewer EF difficulties than what parents report. This is the first study to demonstrate that those with ADHD may overestimate their EF ability.

  1. Functional connectivity alterations in brain networks relevant to self-awareness in chronic cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Batalla, Albert; López-Solà, Marina; Harrison, Ben J; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Crippa, Jose A; Fagundo, Ana B; Deus, Joan; de la Torre, Rafael; Nogué, Santiago; Farré, Magí; Torrens, Marta; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2014-04-01

    Recreational drugs are generally used to intentionally alter conscious experience. Long-lasting cannabis users frequently seek this effect as a means to relieve negative affect states. As with conventional anxiolytic drugs, however, changes in subjective feelings may be associated with memory impairment. We have tested whether the use of cannabis, as a psychoactive compound, is associated with alterations in spontaneous activity in brain networks relevant to self-awareness, and whether such potential changes are related to perceived anxiety and memory performance. Functional connectivity was assessed in the Default and Insula networks during resting state using fMRI in 28 heavy cannabis users and 29 control subjects. Imaging assessments were conducted during cannabis use in the unintoxicated state and repeated after one month of controlled abstinence. Cannabis users showed increased functional connectivity in the core of the Default and Insula networks and selective enhancement of functional anticorrelation between both. Reduced functional connectivity was observed in areas overlapping with other brain networks. Observed alterations were associated with behavioral measurements in a direction suggesting anxiety score reduction and interference with memory performance. Alterations were also related to the amount of cannabis used and partially persisted after one month of abstinence. Chronic cannabis use was associated with significant effects on the tuning and coupling of brain networks relevant to self-awareness, which in turn are integrated into brain systems supporting the storage of personal experience and motivated behavior. The results suggest potential mechanisms for recreational drugs to interfere with higher-order network interactions generating conscious experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurobiology of Self-Awareness in Schizophrenia: an fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Mujeeb U.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Steinberg, Joel L.; Mihalakos, Perry; Thomas, Binu P.; Motes, Michael A.; Soares, Jair C.; Tamminga, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-awareness (SA) is one of the core domains of higher cortical functions and is frequently compromised in schizophrenia. Deficits in SA have been associated with functional and psychosocial impairment in this patient population. However, despite its clinical significance, only a few studies have examined the neural substrates of self-referential processing in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to assess self-awareness in schizophrenia using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designed to elicit judgments of self-reference in a simulated social context. While scanned, volunteers looked at visually-displayed sentences that had the volunteer’s own first name (self-directed sentence-stimulus) or an unknown other person’s first name (other-directed sentence stimulus) as the grammatical subject of the sentence. The volunteers were asked to discern whether each sentence-stimulus was about the volunteer personally (during a self-referential cue epoch) or asked whether each statement was about someone else (during an other-referential cue epoch). We predicted that individuals with schizophrenia would demonstrate altered functional activation to self- and other-directed sentence-stimuli as compared to controls. Fifteen controls and seventeen schizophrenia volunteers completed clinical assessments and SA fMRI task on a 3T Philips 3.0 T Achieva system. The results showed significantly greater activation in schizophrenia compared to controls for cortical midline structures in response to self- vs. other-directed sentence-stimuli. These findings support results from earlier studies and demonstrate selective alteration in the activation of cortical midline structures associated with evaluations of self-reference in schizophrenia as compared to controls. PMID:22480958

  3. Singers' Vocal Function Knowledge Levels, Sensorimotor Self-awareness of Vocal Tract, and Impact of Functional Voice Rehabilitation on the Vocal Function Knowledge and Self-awareness of Vocal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated vocal function knowledge and vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness and the impact of functional voice rehabilitation on vocal function knowledge and self-awareness. This is a prospective, randomized study. Twenty singers (study group [SG]) completed a questionnaire before and after functional voice rehabilitation. Twenty additional singers, representing the control group, also completed the questionnaire without functional voice rehabilitation at a 3-month interval. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part evaluated the singers' attitude to the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the vocal tract and their self-esteem of the knowledge level. The second part assessed the theoretical knowledge of the singers' vocal tract physiology. The third part of the questionnaire assessed singers' sensorimotor self-awareness of the vocal tract. The results showed that most singers indicated that knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology is useful (59% SG, 67% control group). However, 75% of all participants defined their knowledge of the vocal tract's anatomy and physiology as weak or inadequate. In the SG, vocal function knowledge at the first assessment was 45%. After rehabilitation, the level increased to 67.7%. Vocal tract sensorimotor self-awareness initially was 38.9% in SG but rose to 66.7%. Findings of the study suggest that classical singers lack knowledge about the physiology of the vocal mechanism, especially the breathing patterns. In addition, they have low sensorimotor self-awareness of their vocal tract. The results suggest that singers would benefit from receiving services from phoniatrists and speech-language pathologists during their voice training. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An institutional survey for knowledge-based and self-awareness assessment in temporomandibular joint disorders among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sneha H; Kale, Lata M; Mishra, Sunil S; Sodhi, Sonia; Muley, Pooja B; Pandey, Narayan Dutt

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) have been recognized as one of the most common causes of nondental orofacial pain. Various studies have been reported in literature regarding the relationship between prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMDs and gender, suggestive of female predilection; however, none of the studies have yet been reported to suggest the relationship between knowledge about temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and TMDs and self-awareness of its signs and symptoms. To find a relationship between the level of knowledge about TMJ and TMDs and self-awareness of its signs and symptoms. This study was designed as an institutional survey. The study sample comprised 491 undergraduate and postgraduate (PG) students, consisting of 90 males and 401 females with age ranging between 18 and 32 years. Two sets of questionnaire were distributed among the students. Statistical analysis was performed with the help of Epi Info (TM) 3.5.3, descriptive statistical analysis, test of proportion, Chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test, and knowledge index. It was observed that there was a gradual increase in the level of knowledge about TMJ and TMDs and self-awareness of its signs and symptoms from the 1st year to PG students. A direct relationship exists between the level of knowledge about TMJ and TMDs and self-awareness of its signs and symptoms.

  5. Wanting to Be "Known": Redefining Self-Awareness through an Understanding of Self-Narration Processes in Educational Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Jo; Muldoon, Janine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to initiate discussion about the pursuit of self-awareness--a concept embedded in recent policy--as an educational goal. The authors argue that complex theoretical questions need to be addressed if improvements in policy and practice relating to personal, social and emotional education are to ensue. Such questions relate…

  6. INCOG recommendations for management of cognition following traumatic brain injury, part III: executive function and self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn; Kennedy, Mary; Ponsford, Jennie; Douglas, Jacinta; Velikonja, Diana; Bayley, Mark; Stergiou-Kita, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in complex cognitive (and other) sequelae. Impairments in executive function and self-awareness are among the most characteristic neuropsychological sequelae and can exert a profound effect on resuming previous life roles. An international group of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop recommendations for interventions to improve impairments in executive functioning and self-awareness after TBI. The team reviewed the available literature and ensured the recommendations were current. To promote implementation, the team developed decision algorithms incorporating the recommendations based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of published trials. The team then prioritized the recommendations for implementation and developed audit criteria to evaluate the adherence to the best practice recommendations. Intervention programs incorporating metacognitive strategy instruction for planning, problem-solving, and other cognitive-executive impairments have a solid evidence base. New evidence supports the use of strategies to specifically improve reasoning skills. Substantial support exists for use of direct corrective feedback to improve self-awareness. An increasing number of scientifically well-designed studies are available that demonstrate the effectiveness of a variety of interventions for the remediation of impairments in executive function and self-awareness after TBI.

  7. Can't stand the look in the mirror? Self-awareness avoidance in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Koplin, Katrin; Lis, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) expect and perceive social rejection stronger than healthy individuals. Shifting ones attention from oneself to others has been suggested as a mechanism to deal with the experience of social rejection. Here, we investigated whether BPD participants avoid increased self-awareness and whether this is done intentionally. Thirty BPD patients and 30 healthy control participants, all naïve of the study's purpose, were asked to choose either a seat facing a mirror (self-awareness) or not facing the mirror (avoidance of self-awareness). Afterwards they were asked to indicate if they have chosen the seat intentionally. BPD patients avoided as a trend the chair facing the mirror more often than healthy control participants. 90 % of the patients reported that they made their seating decision intentionally in contrast to 26.7 % of the healthy participants (odd ratio = 24.75). Results revealed altered reactions to self-awareness cues in BPD. While BPD patients avoided such a cue slightly more often, they were more often aware of their behavior than healthy participants. As possible explanations, a negative body related, shame-prone self-concept as well as a simultaneously increased degree of self-focused attention are suggested.

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

  9. Facilitating Decision Making, Re-Use and Collaboration: A Knowledge Management Approach for System Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Information Systems Experimentation ( DISE ) Group Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 Keywords: Program self-awareness, decision making...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School,Distributed Informaiton Systems Experimentation ( DISE ) Group,Monterey,CA,93943...3.1 Apply to Structured Data Each year, the Distributed Information Systems Experimentation ( DISE ) group at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS

  10. Indices of Impaired Self-Awareness in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Focal Frontal Lesions and Executive Deficits : Implications for Outcome Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2010-01-01

    In patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), impairments of self-awareness are frequently found and associated with worse functional outcome and poor compliance with rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether indications of impaired self-awareness could be

  11. Indices of Impaired Self-Awareness in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Focal Frontal Lesions and Executive Deficits : Implications for Outcome Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2010-01-01

    In patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), impairments of self-awareness are frequently found and associated with worse functional outcome and poor compliance with rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether indications of impaired self-awareness could be

  12. Measure of Significance of Holotropic Breathwork in the Development of Self-Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tanja; Nielsen, Laila

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design was a related within-subject and repeated-measures design (pre-during-post design). The study was conducted in Denmark. The participants (n = 20) were referred from Danish HB facilitators. Nine were novices and 11 had experience with HB. Four HB sessions. The novices (n = 9) underwent positive temperament changes and the experienced participants (n = 11) underwent positive changes in character. Overall, positive self-awareness changes were indicated; the participants' (n = 20) scores for persistence temperament, interpersonal problems, overly accommodating, intrusive/needy, and hostility were reduced. Changes in temperament were followed by changes in paranoid ideation scale, indicating a wary phase. Participants (n = 20) experienced reductions in their persistence temperament scores. The pretest mean (mean ± standard deviation, 114.15 ± 16.884) decreased at post-test (110.40 ± 16.481; pre-during-test p = 0.046, pre-post-test p = 0.048, pre-post-test effect size [d] = 0.2). Temperament changes were followed by an increase in paranoid ideation; the pre-test mean (47.45 ± 8.88) at post-test had increased to a higher but normal score (51.55 ± 7.864; pre-during-test p = 0.0215, pre-post-test p = 0.021, pre-post-test d = 0.5). Pre-test hostility mean (50.50 ± 10.395) decreased at post-test (47.20 ± 9.001; p = 0.0185; d = 0.3). The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems total pre-test mean (59.05 ± 17.139) was decreased at post-test (54.8 ± 12.408; p = 0.044; d = 0.2). Overly accommodating pre-test mean (56.00 ± 12.303) was decreased at post-test (51.55 ± 7.797; p = 0.0085; d = 0.4). The

  13. The biopsychosocial model of stress in adolescence: self-awareness of performance versus stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rith-Najarian, Leslie R; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-03-01

    Extensive research among adults supports the biopsychosocial (BPS) model of challenge and threat, which describes relationships among stress appraisals, physiological stress reactivity, and performance; however, no previous studies have examined these relationships in adolescents. Perceptions of stressors as well as physiological reactivity to stress increase during adolescence, highlighting the importance of understanding the relationships among stress appraisals, physiological reactivity, and performance during this developmental period. In this study, 79 adolescent participants reported on stress appraisals before and after a Trier Social Stress Test in which they performed a speech task. Physiological stress reactivity was defined by changes in cardiac output and total peripheral resistance from a baseline rest period to the speech task, and performance on the speech was coded using an objective rating system. We observed in adolescents only two relationships found in past adult research on the BPS model variables: (1) pre-task stress appraisal predicted post-task stress appraisal and (2) performance predicted post-task stress appraisal. Physiological reactivity during the speech was unrelated to pre- and post-task stress appraisals and to performance. We conclude that the lack of association between post-task stress appraisal and physiological stress reactivity suggests that adolescents might have low self-awareness of physiological emotional arousal. Our findings further suggest that adolescent stress appraisals are based largely on their performance during stressful situations. Developmental implications of this potential lack of awareness of one's physiological and emotional state during adolescence are discussed.

  14. The relationships between interoception and alexithymic trait. The Self-Awareness Questionnaire in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariachiara eLongarzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interoception is the basic process enabling evaluation of one’s own bodily states. Several previous studies suggested that altered interoception might be related to disorders in the ability to perceive and express emotions, i.e. alexithymia, and to defects in perceiving and describing one’s own health status, i.e. hypochondriasis. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymic trait and interoceptive abilities evaluated by the Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ, a novel self-report tool for assessing interoceptive awareness. Two hundred and fifty healthy subjects completed the SAQ, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items (TAS-20, and a questionnaire to assess hypochondriasis, the Illness Attitude Scale (IAS. The SAQ showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha= .88. We observed significant direct correlations between SAQ, TAS-20 and two of its subscales, and the IAS. Regression analysis confirmed that the difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions is significantly related with awareness for one’s own interoceptive feelings and with a tendency to misinterpret and amplify bodily sensations. From a clinical point of view, the assessment of interoceptive awareness by the SAQ could be pivotal in evaluating several psychopathological conditions, such as the somatoform disorders.

  15. "You Should Have Seen the Look on Your Face…": Self-awareness of Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangbing; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Li, Kaiyun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of facial expressions allows one to better understand, predict, and regulate his/her states to adapt to different social situations. The present research investigated individuals' awareness of their own facial expressions and the influence of the duration and intensity of expressions in two self-reference modalities, a real-time condition and a video-review condition. The participants were instructed to respond as soon as they became aware of any facial movements. The results revealed that awareness rates were 57.79% in the real-time condition and 75.92% in the video-review condition. The awareness rate was influenced by the intensity and (or) the duration. The intensity thresholds for individuals to become aware of their own facial expressions were calculated using logistic regression models. The results of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) revealed that video-review awareness was a significant predictor of real-time awareness. These findings extend understandings of human facial expression self-awareness in two modalities.

  16. Self-Awareness and Cultural Identity as an Effort to Reduce Bias in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Augustus A; Logghe, Heather J; Goodenough, Dan A; Barnes, Linda L; Hallward, Anne; Allen, Irving M; Green, David W; Krupat, Edward; Llerena-Quinn, Roxana

    2017-03-24

    In response to persistently documented health disparities based on race and other demographic factors, medical schools have implemented "cultural competency" coursework. While many of these courses have focused on strategies for treating patients of different cultural backgrounds, very few have addressed the impact of the physician's own cultural background and offered methods to overcome his or her own unconscious biases. In hopes of training physicians to contextualize the impact of their own cultural background on their ability to provide optimal patient care, the authors created a 14-session course on culture, self-reflection, and medicine. After completing the course, students reported an increased awareness of their blind spots and that providing equitable care and treatment would require lifelong reflection and attention to these biases. In this article, the authors describe the formation and implementation of a novel medical school course on self-awareness and cultural identity designed to reduce unconscious bias in medicine. Finally, we discuss our observations and lessons learned after more than 10 years of experience teaching the course.

  17. Self-aware sex education: a theoretical and practical approach in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M

    2001-05-01

    Even a few decades ago, it was considered normal and even desirable in Latin America for young women to become pregnant before they were 20--provided they were married; while young men were expected to become sexually active as soon as they entered adolescence, without much concern about potential risks or with whom they did so--as long as it was a woman. This view is now changing. There seems to be a general consensus that 'education' is necessary to prevent adolescent pregnancy, abortion, STI/HIV and sexual abuse. Attempts to reach agreement as to what kind of education and where, and how and when to provide it often fail, however, because of the conflicting views of sexuality upon which they are based. This article discusses conflicting concepts of sexuality and describes the theory of critical pedagogy followed by AVESA, a Venezuelan NGO whose work focuses on sexuality, problems of sexuality and alternative sex education. It describes AVESA's practical experience in training youth promoters and running on ongoing youth education programme in sexual and reproductive health. AVESA advocates an educational alternative that builds self-awareness and a critical understanding of social reality. We encourage individuals to engage with their own history and circumstances in order to be able to experience their sexuality in a full, responsible, pleasurable and just manner.

  18. SACA: Self-Aware Communication Architecture for IoT Using Mobile Fog Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of things (IoT aims at bringing together large business enterprise solutions and architectures for handling the huge amount of data generated by millions of devices. For this aim, IoT is necessary to connect various devices and provide a common platform for storage and retrieval of information without fail. However, the success of IoT depends on the novelty of network and its capability in sustaining the increasing demand by users. In this paper, a self-aware communication architecture (SACA is proposed for sustainable networking over IoT devices. The proposed approach employs the concept of mobile fog servers which make relay using the train and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV networks. The problem is presented based on Wald’s maximum model, which is resolved by the application of a distributed node management (DNM system and state dependency formulations. The proposed approach is capable of providing prolonged connectivity by increasing the network reliability and sustainability even in the case of failures. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical and network simulations in terms of significant gains attained with lesser delay and fewer packet losses. The proposed approach is also evaluated against Sybil, wormhole, and DDoS attacks for analyzing its sustainability and probability of connectivity in unfavorable conditions.

  19. Psychodrama: an innovative way of improving self-awareness of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflaz, F; Meriç, M; Yuksel, Ç; Ozcan, C T

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this educational session was to form a group interaction model for improving the self-awareness of nurses via psychodrama. The structured group interaction session was conducted three times, with three separate groups, during the 'Intensive Care Nursing' training programme at a teaching hospital in Ankara. An assessment was made using the written records and observations of the group director and co-directors and feedback from nurses regarding the session. The nurses were highly motivated, adapting readily to the learning environment and following the instructions without difficulty. They were able to describe their personal experience with a specific patient and also to identify the fundamental emotion engendered by that interaction. Their feedback regarding the session was favourable. The psychodrama technique helped the nurses to understand themselves, to explore the perspective of others and to make the connection between their own thoughts/feelings and those of their patients. Psychodrama can be an effective teaching tool in addressing the communication issues that arise in nursing.

  20. The relationships between interoception and alexithymic trait. The Self-Awareness Questionnaire in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longarzo, Mariachiara; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Chiavazzo, Angela; Santangelo, Gabriella; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is the basic process enabling evaluation of one's own bodily states. Several previous studies suggested that altered interoception might be related to disorders in the ability to perceive and express emotions, i.e., alexithymia, and to defects in perceiving and describing one's own health status, i.e., hypochondriasis. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymic trait and interoceptive abilities evaluated by the "Self-Awareness Questionnaire" (SAQ), a novel self-report tool for assessing interoceptive awareness. Two hundred and fifty healthy subjects completed the SAQ, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items (TAS-20), and a questionnaire to assess hypochondriasis, the Illness Attitude Scale (IAS). The SAQ showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). We observed significant direct correlations between SAQ, TAS-20 and two of its subscales, and the IAS. Regression analysis confirmed that the difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions is significantly related with awareness for one's own interoceptive feelings and with a tendency to misinterpret and amplify bodily sensations. From a clinical point of view, the assessment of interoceptive awareness by the SAQ could be pivotal in evaluating several psychopathological conditions, such as the somatoform disorders.

  1. Development and validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: a measure of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Kyle D

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to 1,406 undergraduate psychology students. The ESQ was reduced from 118 to 60 items via factor and reliability analyses, retaining 11 subscales and a normal score distribution with a reliability of .92. The ESQ had significant positive correlations with the Emotional Intelligence Test and positive affect, significant negative correlations with alexithymia and negative affect, and an insignificant correlation with cognitive ability. The ESQ accounted for 35% of the variance in life satisfaction over and above the Big Five, cognitive ability, and self-esteem, and demonstrated incremental validity in explaining GPA and leadership aspirations. The significance of emotional intelligence as a unique contributor to psychological well-being and performance, and applications for the ESQ in assessment and outcome research in couple and family therapy are discussed.

  2. Low self-awareness of individuals with severe traumatic brain injury can lead to reduced ability to take another person's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivona, Umberto; Riccio, Angela; Ciurli, Paola; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Delle Donne, Valentina; Pizzonia, Elisa; Caltagirone, Carlo; Formisano, Rita; Costa, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Aims of this study were (i) to verify whether a deficit or a lack of self-awareness can lead to difficulties in assuming another person's perspective after a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (ii) to verify whether perspective-taking deficits emerge more from performance-based tasks than self-reports; and (iii) to evaluate the possible relationships between perspective-taking difficulties and some clinical, neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, and neuroimaging variables. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Empathy Quotient, first-order false-belief, and faux pas written stories were administered to 28 patients with severe TBI and 28 healthy controls. The Awareness Questionnaire was also administered to TBI patients and their caregivers. Patients were split into 2 groups (impaired self-awareness vs adequate self-awareness) on the basis of the discrepancy Awareness Questionnaire score. Both TBI groups obtained lower scores than healthy controls on the Fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the reality question of the false-belief stories, and the memory questions of the faux pas test. Only impaired self-awareness patients tended to obtain lower scores in first-order false-belief detection. Impaired self-awareness patients also performed significantly worse than both healthy controls and adequate self-awareness patients on the faux pas tasks. The analysis suggests a causal relationship between low self-awareness and perspective-taking difficulties in this population of patients.

  3. The Helpfulness of Spiritually Influenced Group Work in Developing Self-Awareness and Self-Esteem: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Coholic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an exploratory study that investigated the helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work with eight adult women who shared a history of substance abuse. The overall purpose of the group was to help participants develop their self-awareness and self-esteem. The group, which was contextualized in transpersonal theory, was organized around the following themes and experiential exercises: meditation, mindfulness practice, dream work, stream of consciousness writing, the shadow self, and other arts-based processes. Grounded-theory analysis of group sessions and individual interviews with the participants found that the participants perceived the group to be helpful in developing their self-awareness and self-esteem. While the participants identified different aspects of the group as spiritual, making-meaning was one practice that was consistently described as a spiritually sensitive process. The results of this study in this emergent field are promising and suggestions are provided for future research.

  4. Investigation of toilet activities in elderly patients with dementia from the viewpoint of motivation and self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimoto, Kazuki; Yokoi, Teruo; Yamashita, Teruo; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2013-08-01

    Toilet activities of the elderly patients with dementia were observed focusing on care conditions and investigated based on Hull's drive reduction theory (behavior = drive × habit × incentive) and our self-awareness model (consisting of theory of mind, self-evaluation, and self-consciousness) to evaluate the association between self-awareness and toilet activities in patients with dementia and to explain the time when and the reason why a series of toilet activities as habit once acquired become unfeasible. If theory of mind is lost, awareness of one's desire and intention becomes vague, and toilet activities begin to collapse. Furthermore, if incentive disappears, one's intention hardly arises and toilet activities further collapse. If self-evaluation is lost, time sense fades, future goals based on the present time cannot exist, and behavior loses directivity. As a result, toilet activities collapse, and with a decrease in drive toilet activities cease.

  5. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: an evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. © 2013.

  6. The association between hepatitis B self-awareness and depression: Exploring the modifying effects of socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tang, K; Long, J; Zhao, C

    2017-04-01

    China has a high prevalence of HBV. Despite previous studies, uncertainty remains about the association of HBV with depression. This study explores the strength of the association and the modifying effects of participants' self-awareness of the disease and their socio-economic status. Data from the baseline of a Chinese cohort study of approximately 500 000 adults were analysed. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory. Blood spot tests were conducted to detect hepatitis B surface antigen. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between depression and HBV adjusting for demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors of major depression. To understand the effect modifications of disease self-awareness and socio-economic factors, a series of stratified analyses were undertaken. The overall prevalence of HBV is 3.2%, with 2.8% screen-detected and 0.3% self-reported cases. There was an 84% increased odds of depression among self-reported HBV patients (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.16-2.90), but no association was found in the screen-detected group (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.79-1.23). Male (OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.30-3.98), younger age (OR=3.57, 95% CI: 1.82-7.00), rural resident (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.36-3.94), lower household income (OR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.34-4.25) and agricultural worker (OR=2.92, 95% CI: 1.63-5.77) were found having greater odds of depression in the HBV self-aware group, compared to those without HBV. A strong association between hepatitis B self-awareness and depression was found. Lower socio-economic status could modify the association between hepatitis B status and depression. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying psychosocial mechanisms of the association. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessment of self-awareness among rural adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bilas Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is a period of biological, cognitive and social transition of such magnitude and rapidity that it is no surprise to find that it is associated with the onset or exacerbation of a number of health-related problems. It is the level of self-awareness among adolescents, which enables them to see where their thoughts and emotions take them. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the extent of awareness regarding adolescent changes/problems among school going adolescents. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Block Beri, District, Jhajjar (Haryana. Materials and Methods: A sample of 320 adolescent students of 9 th -12 th classes (80 from each school were selected from four randomly chosen large Government senior secondary schools with strength of more than 250 students (two girls and two boys/co-ed senior secondary schools. Data were collected on predesigned, pre-tested and semi-structured schedules by conducting in-depth interviews of selected study adolescents by the investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square test, Chi-square test with Yate′s correction and t-test. Results: Out of 320, 212 (66.3% study adolescents were aware of at least one adolescent change(s whereas, when probed and further asked to enumerate the changes taking place in them, 272/320 (85% adolescents could narrate at least one such change. Out of those 272, 24 (8.82% (95% CI 6.0-12.79 adolescents either did not consider these changes as normal or they did not know whether the changes were normal or abnormal. Conclusions: Adolescents greatly lack correct information related to their bodies′ physiological, psychological and sexual changes. There is an urgent need for regular adolescent friendly information, education and communication activities covering different aspects of adolescent knowledge needs/problems.

  8. Connecting Self-Awareness and Error-Awareness in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockree, Paul M; Tarleton, Yvonne M; Carton, Simone; FitzGerald, Mary C C

    2015-08-01

    Impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often seen in stark contrast to the observations of significant-others, who are acutely aware of the difficulties experienced by patients. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between metacognitive knowledge in daily life and emergent awareness of errors during laboratory tasks, since the breakdown of error detection mechanisms may impose limitations on the recovery of metacognitive knowledge after TBI. We also examined the extent to which these measures of awareness can predict dysexecutive behaviors. A sample of TBI patients (n=62) and their significant-others, provided reports of daily functioning post injury. In addition, patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and were instructed to signal their errors during go/no-go tests. Interrelationships between metacognitive and emergent levels of awareness were examined, after controlling for the influence of secondary cognitive variables. Significant-other ratings correlated with errors made by the patients on neuropsychological tests but not with their premorbid function. Patients who under-reported daily life difficulties or over-reported their competency, compared to significant-other reports, were less likely to show awareness of laboratory errors. Emergent awareness was also identified as the sole predictor of performance on the modified six-element test, an ecologically valid test of multitasking. The online breakdown of error awareness after brain injury is related to difficulties with metacognitive awareness as reported in daily life, and is also predictive of dysexecutive behaviors. These findings are discussed in the context of multidimensional and neural models of awareness and error monitoring.

  9. Behavioural and neuroimaging correlates of impaired self-awareness of hypo- and hyperkinesia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Franziska; Williamson, Kim L; Tahmasian, Masoud; Rochhausen, Luisa; Ellereit, Anna L; Prigatano, George P; Kracht, Lutz; Tang, Chris C; Herz, Damian M; Fink, Gereon R; Timmermann, Lars; Eggers, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    Anosognosia or impaired self-awareness of motor symptoms (ISAm) has been rarely investigated in Parkinson's disease (PD). We here studied the relationship between ISAm during periods with and without dopaminergic medication (ON- and OFF-state), and clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data to further elucidate behavioural aspects and the neurobiological underpinnings of ISAm. Thirty-one right-handed, non-demented, non-depressed PD patients were included. ISAm was evaluated using a recently developed scale that assesses awareness of dyskinesia, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. The test was applied during both ON- and OFF-states. Multiple correlation analyses between ISAm and behavioural data were conducted. In addition, imaging of glucose metabolism using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was performed to investigate the neural basis of ISAm. A multiple regression approach was applied to investigate metabolism alterations related to ISAm. In the OFF-state, higher ISAm was associated with left-sided disease onset, older age, and shorter disease duration. Concerning FDG-PET data, there was a significant negative correlation between higher OFF-state ISAm and decreased glucose metabolism in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In the ON-state, ISAm was not significantly correlated with clinical or behavioural data. However, there was a significant correlation between higher ISAm and an increased metabolism in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, left IFG, right superior frontal gyrus and right precentral gyrus. The results support the role of the right hemisphere in awareness of motor symptoms in the OFF-state. In the ON-state, dopaminergic medication and dyskinesia influence ISAm and relate to metabolism changes in bilateral frontal regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural correlates of mindful self-awareness in mindfulness meditators and meditation-naïve subjects revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J; Brühl, A B; Scheerer, H; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U

    2016-09-01

    Mindful self-awareness is central to mindfulness meditation and plays a key role in its salutary effects. It has been related to decreased activation in cortical midline structures (CMS) and amygdala, and increased activation in somatosensory regions. However, findings in untrained individuals are contradictory, and scarce in experienced meditators. Using fMRI, we investigated experienced mindfulness meditators (LTM, n=21, average 4652 practice-hours) and matched meditation-naïve participants (MNP, n=19) during short periods of mindful self-awareness (FEEL) and self-referential thinking (THINK). We report somatosensory activations and decreases in CMS during FEEL for both groups, but significantly stronger decreases in prefrontal CMS in LTM. LTM further showed decreases in language-related and amygdala regions, but the latter was not significantly different between groups. Overall, higher activations in amygdala and mid-line regions during FEEL were related to levels of depressiveness. Neural patterns of mindful self-awareness emerge already in MNP but more pronounced in LTM. Specifically, meditation training might reduce self-reference and verbalization during mindful awareness. We further corroborate the suggested link between mindfulness and healthy self-related functions on the neural level. Longitudinal studies need to corroborate these findings.

  11. The Dual Self: First and third person categorisations of the self and the role of objective self-awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Peeters

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The classic duality of self-subject and self-object is related to the linguistic duality of self as a pronoun of the first and the third person. The latter duality is related to alternative ways of categorising people either as self versus other (SO categorisation or as objects conceived in the third person (3P categorisation. Research is reviewed showing that these categorisations underlie personalised and depersonalised representations, respectively. Nevertheless, depersonalising 3P categorisation has been found more prominent in self-other comparisons than in comparisons between hypothetical others. In search for an explanation Duval and Wicklund's theory of subjective and objective self-awareness as well as causal attribution theory are discussed. In an experiment it is shown that conditions associated with objective self-awareness (e.g., presence of a mirror, instructions stimulating self-evaluation increase 3P categorisation in self-other comparisons. The results add to our understanding of the role of objective self-awareness in self-other comparisons and in causal attributions from actors' and observers' perspectives.

  12. Videogame-based group therapy to improve self-awareness and social skills after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Roberto; Noé, Enrique; Ferri, Joan; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2015-04-11

    This study determines the feasibility of different approaches to integrative videogame-based group therapy for improving self-awareness, social skills, and behaviors among traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims and retrieves participant feedback. Forty-two adult TBI survivors were included in a longitudinal study with a pre- and post-assessments. The experimental intervention involved weekly one-hour sessions conducted over six months. Participants were assessed using the Self-Awareness Deficits Interview (SADI), Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS), the Social Skills Scale (SSS), the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the System Usability Scale (SUS). Pearson's chi-squared test (χ (2)) was applied to determine the percentage of participants who had changed their clinical classification in these tests. Feedback of the intervention was collected through the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). SADI results showed an improvement in participant perceptions of deficits (χ (2) = 5.25, p social skills outcomes (χ (2) = 17.52, p group therapy can improve self-awareness, social skills, and behaviors among individuals with chronic TBI, and the approach is considered effective and motivating.

  13. The role of self-awareness and cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease with and without impulse-control disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Joel; Okai, David; Brown, Richard G; Askey-Jones, Sally; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Martin, Anne; Samuel, Michael; David, Anthony S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, neuropsychological, and self-awareness correlates of impulse-control disorder (ICD) in a group of 17 Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects with an active ICD and a comparison group of 17 PD subjects without ICD. Self-awareness was assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale and patient-caregiver discrepancy scores from ratings on the Dysexecutive Questionnaire and the Everyday Memory Questionnaire-Revised. Self-awareness was comparable or increased in those with ICD, versus those without, and measures of neuropsychological functioning did not differ between the two groups. Those with ICD had more motor complications of PD therapy and were more likely to be on an antidepressant than those without ICD, whereas dopaminergic medication profiles were comparable between the two groups. In this group, PD patients with current ICDs were aware of their impulsivity. Although executive dysfunction may contribute to ICD behavior, it is not a necessary component. The awareness of the inability to resist these motivated behaviors may be a source of increased depression.

  14. Impact of the Birkman Method Assessment on Pharmacy Student Self-Confidence, Self-Perceptions, and Self-Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Whitney D; Grant, Amy D; Fabel, Patricia H; Worrall, Cathy; Brittain, Kristy; Martinez, Breanne; Lu, Z Kevin; Davis, Robert; Doran, Georgia H; Ziegler, Bryan

    2016-11-25

    Objective. To identify changes in pharmacy student self-confidence, self-perceptions, and self-awareness after completing the Birkman Method assessment and training program. Methods. Survey tools were developed to evaluate students at baseline and following the co-curricular Birkman Method program. Following IRB approval, students participating in the Birkman Method program were recruited for enrollment in this survey-based study. Results. Student self-confidence was high at baseline (mean=4 out of 5) and did not significantly change after Birkman Method testing and training. Self-perceptions regarding usual and stressed communication style and behaviors and behavioral needs under stress changed significantly after Birkman Method testing and training for these endpoints. The Birkman Method intervention resulted in a significant improvement in self-awareness, as indicated by a mean self-perception accuracy score increase of 1.6 points (95% CI: 1.3-1.9). Conclusions. A Birkman Method assessment and training program is an effective self-assessment tool for students, and may be useful for accomplishing Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) 2016 Standard 4 affective domain elements, particularly self-awareness.

  15. Dissociating the Neural Basis of Conceptual Self-Awareness from Perceptual Awareness and Unaware Self-Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacikowski, Pawel; Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2017-01-23

    Conceptual self-awareness is a mental state in which the content of one's consciousness refers to a particular aspect of semantic knowledge about oneself. This form of consciousness plays a crucial role in shaping human behavior; however, little is known about its neural basis. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a visual masked priming paradigm to dissociate the neural responses related to the awareness of semantic autobiographical information (one's own name, surname, etc.) from the awareness of information related to any visual stimulus (perceptual awareness), as well as from the unaware processing of self-relevant stimuli. To detect brain activity that is highly selective for self-relevant information, we used the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) adaptation approach, which goes beyond the spatial limitations of conventional fMRI. We found that self-awareness was associated with BOLD adaptation in the medial frontopolar-retrosplenial areas, whereas perceptual awareness and unaware self-processing were associated with BOLD adaptation in the lateral fronto-parietal areas and the inferior temporal cortex, respectively. Thus, using a direct manipulation of conscious awareness we demonstrate for the first time that the neural basis of conceptual self-awareness is neuroanatomically distinct from the network mediating perceptual awareness of the sensory environment or unaware processing of self-related stimuli. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alexithymia and reduced white matter integrity in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study on impaired emotional self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Manabu; Miyata, Jun; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Yusuke; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Murai, Toshiya

    2012-11-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by deficits in emotional self-awareness. A number of previous studies have revealed impaired emotional self-awareness in schizophrenia. Although the pathology of schizophrenia is thought to involve disrupted white matter integrity, its relationship with alexithymia remains unclear. The present study investigated associations between alexithymia and white matter integrity, to seek the neural basis of impaired emotional self-awareness in schizophrenia. Forty-four patients with schizophrenia and 44 age-, gender- and predicted IQ level-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Alexithymia was assessed using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). We applied tract-based spatial statistics to investigate the correlation between the TAS-20 total score and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA). TAS-20 scores were significantly higher in patients than in controls. In the patient group only, FA was negatively correlated with the TAS-20 total score in the corpus callosum, mostly the left part of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus, the anterior and posterior thalamic radiation, and the precuneus white matter. These results suggest that schizophrenia is associated with alexithymia, and that reduced white matter integrity within these regions constitutes an important pathology underlying impaired self-emotional awareness in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-awareness of heart failure in the oldest old-an observational study of participants, ≥ 80 years old, with an objectively verified heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selan, Suzana; Siennicki-Lantz, Arkadiusz; Berglund, Johan; Fagerström, Cecilia

    2016-01-20

    One of the primary reasons for hospitalisation among elderly individuals with heart failure (HF) is poor self-care. Self-awareness of having HF may be a key-element in successful self-care. The prevalence of self-awareness of HF, and how it is affected by age-and HF-related factors, remains poorly understood. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of self-awareness of HF in participants, ≥ 80 years of age, and to investigate the association between this self-awareness and age-related and HF-related factors. A single-centre observational study was conducted in which non-hospitalised participants (80+) with objectively verified HF were identified (n = 90). The statement of having HF or not having HF was used to divide the participants into two groups for comparisons: aware or unaware of one's own HF. Logistic regression models were completed to determine the impact of age-and HF-related factors on self-awareness. Twenty-six percent (23/90) were aware of their own HF diagnosis. No significant differences were found between the participants who were aware of their own HF diagnosis and the participants who were not. Neither age-nor HF-related factors had influence on the prevalence of self-awareness. Prevalence of self-awareness of own HF in the oldest old is insufficient, and this self-awareness may be influenced by external factors. One such factor is likely the manner in which the HF diagnosis is relayed to the patient by health care professionals.

  19. The "self-awareness-anosognosia" paradox explained: How can one process be associated with activation of, and damage to, opposite sides of the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Healthy volunteers engaged in self-referential tasks such as reflecting on their personality traits exhibit mostly left lateralized brain activation, yet patients with lack of awareness of their deficit suffer from predominantly right hemisphere damage. How can the same basic process of self-awareness be associated with opposite sides of the brain? Anosognosia and self-awareness substantially differ on important dimensions and thus should not be equated. It is proposed that (1) anosognosia does not actually result from uniquely right hemisphere damage; (2) self-awareness and anosognosia do not constitute unitary concepts and encompass multiple other related processes, most likely associated with activity in distinct anatomical networks; and (3) impaired awareness of deficit is mostly caused by problems with self-monitoring, pre-/post-brain damage comparisons of performance, and episodic memory, and is more passive, unintentional, and about the body. Self-awareness produced by inviting participants to intentionally and actively think about more mental aspects of the self relies on judgements, inferential reasoning, imagination, and semantic memory. Consequently, the "self-awareness-anosognosia" paradox is only apparent. Furthermore, the claim that healthy self-awareness is located in the right hemisphere because anosognosia results from damage to this side of the brain must be fallacious.

  20. Beyond Sociocultural Influence: Self-monitoring and Self-awareness as Predictors of Women's Interest in Breast Cosmetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Camilla; Nerini, Amanda; Giorgi, Claudia; Baroni, Duccio; Stefanile, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present research was to analyze the role of self-awareness, self-monitoring, perceived media pressures, and peer attributions on the consideration of breast cosmetic surgery among women. The internalization of thin ideals was taken into account as a key moderating variable. Participants were 132 Italian women (mean age = 33.62), who completed a questionnaire aimed at measuring the variables of interest. Path analysis was used to test our hypotheses. The results indicated that perceived media pressure, self-monitoring, and peer attributions influenced participants' interest in breast modification procedures through the internalization of thin ideals. Self-awareness (both private and public) had a direct effect on women's consideration of breast cosmetic surgery. This research is one of few analyzing how specific aspects of the self could influence women's interest in cosmetic surgery. These findings contribute to the understanding of the reasons that trigger women's interest in cosmetic surgery. Not only sociocultural influences contribute to the development of favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery, but also specific aspects of the self have a relevant role. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the table of contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  1. Reductions in Alexithymia and Emotion Dysregulation After Training Emotional Self-Awareness Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Phase I Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dawn; Malec, James F; Hammond, Flora M

    To examine the acceptability and initial efficacy of an emotional self-awareness treatment at reducing alexithymia and emotion dysregulation in participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI). An outpatient rehabilitation hospital. Seventeen adults with moderate to severe TBI and alexithymia. Time postinjury ranged 1 to 33 years. Within subject design, with 3 assessment times: baseline, posttest, and 2-month follow-up. Eight lessons incorporated psychoeducational information and skill-building exercises teaching emotional vocabulary, labeling, and differentiating self-emotions; interoceptive awareness; and distinguishing emotions from thoughts, actions, and sensations. Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20); Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS); Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI); Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI); Difficulty With Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS); and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Thirteen participants completed the treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed changes on the TAS-20 (P = .003), LEAS (P emotional self-awareness and emotion regulation; some changes were maintained several months posttreatment. Findings justify advancing to the next investigational phase for this novel intervention.

  2. Teaching and Practicing Caring in the Classroom: Students' Responses to a Self-Awareness Intervention in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Shik; Patterson, Kathleen T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the assumption that caring could be taught by nurse educators in the classroom environment and that learning to be self-aware in a mindful state would facilitate students to listen more closely to their inner spirit, which would affect caring behaviors. A convenience sample of 238 students in the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing course in a baccalaureate program was obtained from 2007 to 2011. At the beginning of each class and throughout the semester, self-awareness was explained to the students, a reflection statement was read, and students were asked to take two minutes of quiet time, with their eyes closed. At the end of each semester, an author-composed Self-Awareness Questionnaire and Measurement Scale was administered to consenting students to assess whether self-awareness led to caring behaviors. Students' responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings were positive and supported the assumption that self-awareness and silence positively affected caring behaviors in nursing students in their psychiatric nursing rotation.

  3. The impact of self-awareness and depression on subjective reports of memory, quality-of-life and satisfaction with life following TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Yael; Chiaravalloti, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    To determine the relationship between self-awareness and depressive symptomatology with self-reports of memory, Quality-of-Life (QoL) and satisfaction with life in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional survey of 30 community dwelling adults, who sustained a TBI at least 1 year prior to study enrolment. Participants completed questionnaires to assess the constructs of depression, self-awareness, QoL, satisfaction with life and memory. Symptoms of depression were significantly associated with self-reports of poor memory abilities, lower QoL and lower satisfaction with life. Additionally, higher levels of self-awareness were associated with lower ratings of QoL and reduced memory abilities and better strategy use regarding memory. However, when examining the contribution of each construct individually, depressive symptomatology, and not self-awareness, was significantly associated with subjective self-reports of memory, QoL and satisfaction with life. This pattern of relationships illustrates that, when a person has a low level of depressive symptoms, his/her reports of QoL, memory and satisfaction with life will be more positive; however, he/she will demonstrate more difficulty with self-awareness. Thus, psychological aspects of recovery must, therefore, be taken into account when using self-reported measures in the evaluation of persons who have sustained TBI.

  4. Social cognition impairments after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: Associations with deficits in interpersonal behaviour, apathy, and impaired self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Anne M; Spikman, Jacoba M; Veenstra, Wencke S; van Laar, Peter Jan; Metzemaekers, Jan D M; van Dijk, J Marc C; Meiners, Linda C; Groen, Rob J M

    2017-08-01

    Behavioural disturbances are frequently found after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). Social cognition impairments have been suggested as a possible underlying mechanism for behavioural problems. Also, aSAH is likely to result in damage affecting frontal-subcortical circuits underlying social cognition. Therefore, we aimed to investigate social cognition after aSAH and its associations with behavioural problems (deficits in interpersonal behaviour, apathy, and impaired self-awareness) and focal as well as diffuse brain damage. 88 aSAH patients (in the subacute phase post-aSAH) and 60 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls participated. Tasks for emotion recognition, Theory of Mind (ToM), and empathy as well as questionnaires were used. Cortical infarctions in frontal and non-frontal areas on MRI, aneurysm circulation and aSAH-related events were taken into account. Compared to healthy controls, aSAH patients performed significantly worse on tasks for emotion recognition, ToM and empathy. Poor performance on ToM and emotion recognition was associated with proxy-ratings indicating impaired interpersonal behaviour and apathy and with indications of impaired self-awareness. No associations were found between deficits in social cognition and frontal or non-frontal cortical lesions on MRI. Also, aneurysm circulation and aSAH-related events such as hydrocephalus, vasospasm, and treatment method did not explain why and how social cognitive deficits did occur after aSAH. In conclusion, emotion recognition, ToM and empathy were clearly impaired in aSAH patients and these deficits were related to apathy and deficits in interpersonal behaviour as reported by proxies and to impaired self-awareness. This association strengthens the assumption of impaired social cognition as an underlying construct of behavioural problems after aSAH. Consequently, social cognition tests and proxy-ratings should be used in clinical practice, irrespective of lesion location on

  5. Conditions associated with wandering in people with dementia from the viewpoint of self-awareness: five case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Teruo; Aoyama, Keiji; Ishida, Kie; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2012-05-01

    The conditions associated with wandering in people with dementia include purposeless activity, purposeful actions, irritation, and symptoms of depression. The words and actions of 5 people admitted to long-term health care facilities who often exhibited wandering behavior were observed, and the above conditions were studied based on our self-awareness model (consisting of "theory of mind," "self-evaluation," and "self-consciousness"). One person who had not passed the theory of mind task but had passed the self-evaluation task was aware of her wandering. However, she could not understand where she wanted to go or for what purpose. Four persons who had not passed the self-evaluation tasks were not aware of their wandering and had no purpose for their wandering.

  6. Deficits in facial emotion recognition indicate behavioral changes and impaired self-awareness after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoba M Spikman

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and many patients provide unrealistically positive reports of their functioning due to impaired self-awareness. Accordingly, it is important to find performance based tests that allow objective and early identification of these problems. In the present study 51 moderate to severe TBI patients in the sub-acute and chronic stage were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (FEEST and a questionnaire for behavioral problems (DEX with a self and proxy rated version. Patients performed worse on the total score and on the negative emotion subscores of the FEEST than a matched group of 31 healthy controls. Patients also exhibited significantly more behavioral problems on both the DEX self and proxy rated version, but proxy ratings revealed more severe problems. No significant correlation was found between FEEST scores and DEX self ratings. However, impaired emotion recognition in the patients, and in particular of Sadness and Anger, was significantly correlated with behavioral problems as rated by proxies and with impaired self-awareness. This is the first study to find these associations, strengthening the proposed recognition of social signals as a condition for adequate social functioning. Hence, deficits in emotion recognition can be conceived as markers for behavioral problems and lack of insight in TBI patients. This finding is also of clinical importance since, unlike behavioral problems, emotion recognition can be objectively measured early after injury

  7. A self-awareness intervention manipulation for heavy-drinking men's alcohol-related aggression toward women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-09-01

    The primary aim of the present investigation was to directly examine a theoretically based, self-awareness intervention manipulation for at-risk men's alcohol-related aggression toward women. This study was developed in response to a call in the literature for research to (a) empirically investigate specific intervention techniques that reduce aggression, and (b) identify in whom such interventions will have the greatest impact. A community sample (77% African American) of 94 heavy-drinking males age 21 years and older (M = 35.61) completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward women during the past year as well as dispositional masculine gender role stress. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention manipulation designed to focus attention onto inhibitory, self-awareness cues, or a control group. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked with a gender-relevant provocation from a female confederate and participants' physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Men who received the intervention manipulation, relative to control, enacted significantly less alcohol-related physical aggression toward the female confederate. This finding held for men who reported lower, but not higher, levels of masculine gender role stress. Findings support the development of interventions that aim to redirect intoxicated men's attention toward stimuli that are nonaggressive, nonprovocative, or prohibitive of aggressive behavior. However, caution is warranted that en masse dissemination of such interventions may not impact the most at-risk men for alcohol-related violence toward women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A Self-Awareness Intervention Manipulation for Heavy Drinking Men’s Alcohol-Related Aggression Toward Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the present investigation was to directly examine a theoretically-based, self-awareness intervention manipulation for at-risk men’s alcohol-related aggression toward women. This study was developed in response to a call in the literature for research to (1) empirically investigate specific intervention techniques that reduce aggression, and (2) identify in whom such interventions will have the greatest impact. Method A community sample (77% African-American) of 94 heavy drinking males age 21 years and older (M = 35.61) completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward women during the past year as well as dispositional masculine gender role stress. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention manipulation designed to focus attention onto inhibitory, self-awareness cues or a control group. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked with a gender-relevant provocation from a female confederate and participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results Men who received the intervention manipulation, relative to control, enacted significantly less alcohol-related physical aggression toward the female confederate. This finding held for men who reported lower, but not higher, levels of masculine gender role stress. Conclusions Findings support the development of interventions that aim to redirect intoxicated men’s attention toward stimuli that is non-aggressive, non-provocative, and/or prohibitive of aggressive behavior. However, caution is warranted that en masse dissemination of such interventions may not impact the most at-risk men for alcohol-related violence toward women. PMID:27176660

  9. Deficits in facial emotion recognition indicate behavioral changes and impaired self-awareness after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spikman, Jacoba M; Milders, Maarten V; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J; Herben-Dekker, Meike; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability, specifically among younger adults. Behavioral changes are common after moderate to severe TBI and have adverse consequences for social and vocational functioning. It is hypothesized that deficits in social cognition, including facial affect recognition, might underlie these behavioral changes. Measurement of behavioral deficits is complicated, because the rating scales used rely on subjective judgement, often lack specificity and many patients provide unrealistically positive reports of their functioning due to impaired self-awareness. Accordingly, it is important to find performance based tests that allow objective and early identification of these problems. In the present study 51 moderate to severe TBI patients in the sub-acute and chronic stage were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (FEEST) and a questionnaire for behavioral problems (DEX) with a self and proxy rated version. Patients performed worse on the total score and on the negative emotion subscores of the FEEST than a matched group of 31 healthy controls. Patients also exhibited significantly more behavioral problems on both the DEX self and proxy rated version, but proxy ratings revealed more severe problems. No significant correlation was found between FEEST scores and DEX self ratings. However, impaired emotion recognition in the patients, and in particular of Sadness and Anger, was significantly correlated with behavioral problems as rated by proxies and with impaired self-awareness. This is the first study to find these associations, strengthening the proposed recognition of social signals as a condition for adequate social functioning. Hence, deficits in emotion recognition can be conceived as markers for behavioral problems and lack of insight in TBI patients. This finding is also of clinical importance since, unlike behavioral problems, emotion recognition can be objectively measured early after injury, allowing for early

  10. Self-focused attention and social anxiety : The effects of experimentally heightened self-awareness on fear, blushing, cognitions, and social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, SM; Rijsemus, W; de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of heightened self-awareness (SAW) on various aspects of social anxiety. High and low socially anxious (SA) participants (N = 72) had a conversation with two confederates. SAW was manipulated with mirrors: half of the participants could see their reflection in thr

  11. Self-focused attention and social anxiety : The effects of experimentally heightened self-awareness on fear, blushing, cognitions, and social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogels, SM; Rijsemus, W; de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of heightened self-awareness (SAW) on various aspects of social anxiety. High and low socially anxious (SA) participants (N = 72) had a conversation with two confederates. SAW was manipulated with mirrors: half of the participants could see their reflection in thr

  12. Development of self-awareness after severe traumatic brain injury through participation in occupation-based rehabilitation: mixed-methods analysis of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Emmah; Kuipers, Pim; Prescott, Sarah; Cornwell, Petrea; Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We examined participation in goal planning and development of self-awareness for people with impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury. METHOD. We performed a mixed-methods study of 8 participants recently discharged from inpatient rehabilitation. Self-awareness was measured using discrepancy between self and significant other ratings on the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) at four time points. We calculated effect size to evaluate the change in MPAI-4 discrepancy over time. RESULTS. Seven participants identified their own goals. We found a large reduction in mean MPAI-4 discrepancy (M = 8.57, SD = 6.59, N = 7, d = 1.08) in the first 6 wk and a further small reduction (M = 5.33, SD = 9.09, N = 6, d = 0.45) in the second 6 wk of intervention. Case data indicated that 7 participants demonstrated some growth in self-awareness. CONCLUSION. Engagement in occupation-based, goal-directed rehabilitation appeared to foster awareness of injury-related changes to varying extents. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. A Comparison of Linear versus Non-Linear Models of Aversive Self-Awareness, Dissociation, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armey, Michael F.; Crowther, Janis H.

    2008-01-01

    Research has identified a significant increase in both the incidence and prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The present study sought to test both linear and non-linear cusp catastrophe models by using aversive self-awareness, which was operationalized as a composite of aversive self-relevant affect and cognitions, and dissociation as…

  14. 自我意识对儿童孤独感的影响%Effect of self-awareness on children's loneliness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the effect of self- awareness on children s loneliness. [Methods] A total of 336 pupils were sampled and tested by Children s self-awareness scale and Children s loneliness scale (CLS). [ Results] (1) Most of students felt a general sense of loneliness, which accounted for 58. 4% , followed by low level of loneliness (28. 9% ) and high level of loneliness (9. 0% ) , and only 3.9% students felt severe loneliness. There was no significant difference in loneliness between different sex and grades (t = 0.34, P > 0.05). (2) Children with high self-awareness accounted for 14. 3% , while appropriate self-awareness and low self-awareness accounted for 51. 2% and 34. 5% respectively. (3) There were significant differences in self-awareness and scores of factors between children with different loneliness levels. [ Conclusion ] Primary school children have a certain degree of loneliness emotion, which is affected by their self- awareness level.%目的 了解自我意识对儿童孤独感的影响状况.方法 应用儿童自我意识量表和儿童孤独量表(CLS)对336名小学生进行抽样测试研究.结果 ①感受到一般孤独感的学生较多(58.4%)),低孤独感(28.9%)和高孤独感(9.0%)的学生相对较少,严重孤独感(3.9%)的学生最少;年级、性别对孤独感差异无统计学意义(t=0.34,P>0.05);②儿童自我意识偏高者占14.3%,适当的占51.2%,偏低的占34.5%;③不同孤独水平儿童的自我意识及各因子得分差异有统计意义(t =5.57,P<0.01).结论 该年龄段儿童有一定的孤独情绪,并受其自我意识水平影响.

  15. Evaluating the effect of self-awareness and communication techniques on nurses' assertiveness and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Sati

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a course on self-awareness and communication techniques on nursing students' assertiveness and self-esteem was examined. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were used to measure assertiveness and self-esteem in second-year students in an undergraduate nursing school. Seventy-nine students completed the course. The study was designed as a pre-test and post-test study. A significant difference between assertiveness and self-esteem scores of students in pre-test and post-test measurements was found. There was a positive relationship between assertiveness and self-esteem. The course lasted 14 weeks for a total of 3 h per week. The teaching methods focused mostly on active student participation, demonstration, role play, experience and experience sharing, homework, constructive feedback, and watching films. These educational approaches should be evaluated in future studies and adopted in the curriculum. This study provides a basis for the development of learner-centred teaching methods.

  16. “You Should Have Seen the Look on Your Face…”: Self-awareness of Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangbing; Yan, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Li, Kaiyun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of facial expressions allows one to better understand, predict, and regulate his/her states to adapt to different social situations. The present research investigated individuals’ awareness of their own facial expressions and the influence of the duration and intensity of expressions in two self-reference modalities, a real-time condition and a video-review condition. The participants were instructed to respond as soon as they became aware of any facial movements. The results revealed that awareness rates were 57.79% in the real-time condition and 75.92% in the video-review condition. The awareness rate was influenced by the intensity and (or) the duration. The intensity thresholds for individuals to become aware of their own facial expressions were calculated using logistic regression models. The results of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) revealed that video-review awareness was a significant predictor of real-time awareness. These findings extend understandings of human facial expression self-awareness in two modalities. PMID:28611703

  17. Preserved self-awareness following extensive bilateral brain damage to the insula, anterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa L Philippi

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that self-awareness (SA, a multifaceted phenomenon central to human consciousness, depends critically on specific brain regions, namely the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Such a proposal predicts that damage to these regions should disrupt or even abolish SA. We tested this prediction in a rare neurological patient with extensive bilateral brain damage encompassing the insula, ACC, mPFC, and the medial temporal lobes. In spite of severe amnesia, which partially affected his "autobiographical self", the patient's SA remained fundamentally intact. His Core SA, including basic self-recognition and sense of self-agency, was preserved. His Extended SA and Introspective SA were also largely intact, as he has a stable self-concept and intact higher-order metacognitive abilities. The results suggest that the insular cortex, ACC and mPFC are not required for most aspects of SA. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that SA is likely to emerge from more distributed interactions among brain networks including those in the brainstem, thalamus, and posteromedial cortices.

  18. Preserved Self-Awareness following Extensive Bilateral Brain Damage to the Insula, Anterior Cingulate, and Medial Prefrontal Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sahib S.; Damasio, Antonio; Tranel, Daniel; Landini, Gregory; Williford, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that self-awareness (SA), a multifaceted phenomenon central to human consciousness, depends critically on specific brain regions, namely the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Such a proposal predicts that damage to these regions should disrupt or even abolish SA. We tested this prediction in a rare neurological patient with extensive bilateral brain damage encompassing the insula, ACC, mPFC, and the medial temporal lobes. In spite of severe amnesia, which partially affected his “autobiographical self”, the patient's SA remained fundamentally intact. His Core SA, including basic self-recognition and sense of self-agency, was preserved. His Extended SA and Introspective SA were also largely intact, as he has a stable self-concept and intact higher-order metacognitive abilities. The results suggest that the insular cortex, ACC and mPFC are not required for most aspects of SA. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that SA is likely to emerge from more distributed interactions among brain networks including those in the brainstem, thalamus, and posteromedial cortices. PMID:22927899

  19. Self-awareness moderates the relation between maternal mental state language about desires and children's mental state vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2016-04-01

    In this intervention study, we tested the differential effect of talking about children's desires versus talking about others' thoughts and knowledge on children's acquisition of mental state vocabulary for children who did and did not have mirror self-recognition. In a sample of 96 mother-toddler dyads, each mother was randomly assigned a specially constructed, interactive lift-the-flap book to read to her child three times a week for 4 weeks. In the child desire condition the story elicited comments regarding the child's desires, and in the cognitive condition the story elicited the mother's comments about her own thoughts and knowledge while reading the story. Children's mirror self-recognition and mental state vocabulary were assessed at pre- and post-test. Children in the condition that focused on the child's desires showed a significantly greater increase in their mental state vocabulary; however, this effect was moderated by their levels of self-awareness, with children benefitting more from the intervention if they also showed self-recognition at pre-test. We argue that the combination of specific types of maternal talk and children's prior insights facilitates gains in children's mental state vocabulary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A smartphone ecological momentary assessment/intervention "app" for collecting real-time data and promoting self-awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Runyan

    Full Text Available We have designed a flexible ecological momentary assessment/intervention smartphone (EMA/EMI "app". We examine the utility of this app for collecting real-time data, and assessing intra-subject variability, by using it to assess how freshman undergraduates spend their time. We also explore whether its use can promote greater self-awareness. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group, who used the app, and a control group, who did not. We used the app to collect both randomized in-the-moment data as well as end-of-day data to assess time use. Using a posttest survey we asked participants questions about how they spent time throughout the school semester. We also asked the experimental group about their experience with the app. Among other findings, 80.49% participants indicated that they became more aware of how they spent their time using the app. Corroborating this report, among the experimental group, end-of-semester self-assessment of time spent wasted, and time spent using electronics recreationally, predicted semester GPA at a strength comparable to high school GPA and ACT score (two of the best single predictors for first semester college GPA, but had no correlation among controls. We discuss the advantages and limitations of using apps, such as ours, for EMA and/or EMI.

  1. Structural model of self-care agency in patients with diabetes: A path analysis of the Instrument of Diabetes Self-Care Agency and body self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Sachiko; Shimizu, Yasuko; Uchiumi, Kyoko; Asou, Kawai; Kuroda, Kumiko; Murakado, Naoko; Seto, Natsuko; Masaki, Harue; Ishii, Hidetoki

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine a causal model of self-care agency by exploring the relationship between the structure of "body self-awareness" and the structure of the Instrument of Diabetes Self-Care Agency (IDSCA). The participants were 353 patients with diabetes. The internal consistency of the six items for body self-awareness was examined by calculating the factor structure using principal factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. In order to examine the relationship between the seven factors in the IDSCA, a path analysis was conducted. With regard to the factor structure, the factor loading of these five items was 0.511-0.743 (α = 0.739). In the path analysis, "body self-awareness" was influenced by the "ability to acquire knowledge" and had a direct effect (0.33) on the "motivation to self-manage", while "motivation to self-manage" had an effect (-0.32) on the "ability to self-manage". The Goodness-of-Fit Index was 0.974. "Body self-awareness" plays a part in the self-care operation process and serves as an intermediary factor to enable the performance of self-care operations by making the most use of self-care agency. Moreover, striking a proper balance between self-management that is focused on the treatment of diabetes and a person's ability for self-management of diabetes was found to be important. © 2016 The Authors Japan Journal of Nursing Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  2. RiskSOAP: Introducing and applying a methodology of risk self-awareness in road tunnel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-05-01

    Complex socio-technical systems, such as road tunnels, can be designed and developed with more or less elements that can either positively or negatively affect the capability of their agents to recognise imminent threats or vulnerabilities that possibly lead to accidents. This capability is called risk Situation Awareness (SA) provision. Having as a motive the introduction of better tools for designing and developing systems that are self-aware of their vulnerabilities and react to prevent accidents and losses, this paper introduces the Risk Situation Awareness Provision (RiskSOAP) methodology to the field of road tunnel safety, as a means to measure this capability in this kind of systems. The main objective is to test the soundness and the applicability of RiskSOAP to infrastructure, which is advanced in terms of technology, human integration, and minimum number of safety requirements imposed by international bodies. RiskSOAP is applied to a specific road tunnel in Greece and the accompanying indicator is calculated twice, once for the tunnel design as defined by updated European safety standards and once for the 'as-is' tunnel composition, which complies with the necessary safety requirements, but calls for enhancing safety according to what EU and PIARC further suggest. The derived values indicate the extent to which each tunnel version is capable of comprehending its threats and vulnerabilities based on its elements. The former tunnel version seems to be more enhanced both in terms of it risk awareness capability and safety as well. Another interesting finding is that despite the advanced tunnel safety specifications, there is still room for enriching the safe design and maintenance of the road tunnel.

  3. Uncovering the unknown: A grounded theory study exploring the impact of self-awareness on the culture of feedback in residency education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Subha; Könings, Karen; Mann, Karen V; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2017-07-25

    Self-assessment and reflection are essential for meaningful feedback. We aimed to explore whether the well-known Johari window model of self-awareness could guide feedback conversations between faculty and residents and enhance the institutional feedback culture. We had previously explored perceptions of residents and faculty regarding sociocultural factors impacting feedback. We re-analyzed data targeting themes related to self-assessment, reflection, feedback seeking and acceptance, aiming to generate individual and institutional feedback strategies applicable to each quadrant of the window. We identified the following themes for each quadrant: (1) Behaviors known to self and others - Validating the known; (2) Behaviors unknown to self but known to others - Accepting the blind; (3) Behaviors known to self and unknown to others - Disclosure of hidden; and (4) Behaviors unknown to self and others - Uncovering the unknown. Normalizing self-disclosure of limitations, encouraging feedback seeking, training in nonjudgmental feedback and providing opportunities for longitudinal relationships could promote self-awareness, ultimately expanding the "open" quadrant of the Johari window. The Johari window, a model of self-awareness in interpersonal communications, could provide a robust framework for individuals to improve their feedback conversations and institutions to design feedback initiatives that enhance its quality and impact.

  4. Self-awareness of fast eating and its impact on diagnostic components of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged Japanese males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, A; Maejima, Y; Shimomura, K; Kumamoto, K; Takahashi, M; Akuzawa, M; Negishi, M; Ishiyama, N; Nagano, N; Aso, Y; Takenoshita, S; Shimomura, Y

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between subjects with self-awareness of fast eating and diagnostic components of metabolic syndrome in Japanese middle-aged male and female. Subjects consisted of 3208 males (average age 50.6 years) and 2055 females (average age 50.0 years). Associations between subjects with self-awareness of fast eating and multiple components of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, and related blood sample tests) were evaluated. Significantly more males (57.7%) acknowledged themselves as "fast eater" than females (46.5%). Self-reported fast eaters showed significantly elevated body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in both genders. However, only male self-reported fast eaters showed high levels of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, uric acid, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Fast eating is associated with diagnostic components of metabolic syndrome. The effect of acknowledging themselves as fast eater presents a higher impact on males than on females in the middle-aged Japanese population. The present study indicates that finding subjects with self-awareness of fast eating may lead to the prevention of developing metabolic syndrome.

  5. Self-Awareness and Self-Monitoring of Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia and Probable Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sarah; Weintraub, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Lack of insight is a core diagnostic criterion for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and is believed to be intact in the early stages of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). In other neurological conditions, symptom-specific insight has been noted, with behavioral symptoms appearing especially vulnerable to reduced insight. Different components of insight, self-awareness and self-monitoring, are also often considered separate phenomena. The current study compared insight in patients with PPA, bvFTD, and probable Alzheimer’s disease (PrAD) and a group of cognitively intact control subjects. Additionally, differences in insight for the domains primarily affected by the three types of dementia, namely, Behavior, Naming, and Memory, were assessed, and self-awareness and self-monitoring were compared. A total of 55 participants were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete self-estimate scales demonstrating their perceived ability immediately prior to, and immediately following a test in each domain of interest. Results indicated that PPA and normal control groups performed very similarly on control (Weight and Eyesight) and cognitive domains, whereas bvFTD and PrAD patients were unable to accurately assess Memory. All three diagnostic groups failed to accurately assess their behavioral symptoms, suggesting that this domain is vulnerable to loss of insight across diagnoses. Naming ability, in contrast, was either accurately assessed or underestimated in all groups. Finally, there were no notable differences between self-awareness and self-monitoring, potential explanations for this are examined. PMID:18194832

  6. Facial profile preferences, self-awareness and perception among groups of people in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Taki, Amjad; Guidoum, Amina

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the differences in facial profile preference among different layers of people in the United Arab Emirates. Facial profile self-awareness among the different groups was also evaluated. A total sample of 222 participants (mean [standard deviation] age = 25.71 [8.3] years, almost 80% of the participants were of Arab origin and 55% were males); consisting of 60 laypersons, 60 dental students, 60 general practitioners, 16 oral surgeons, and 26 orthodontists. Facial profile photographs of a male and female adult with straight profiles and a Class I skeletal relationship were used as a baseline template. Computerized photographic image modification was carried out on the templates to obtain seven different facial profile silhouettes for each gender. To assess differences in facial profile perception, participants were asked to rank the profiles of each gender on a scale from most to least attractive (1 [highest score] and 7 [least score]). Awareness and satisfaction with the facial appearance on a profile view was assessed using questionnaires completed by the non-expert groups. The straight facial profile was perceived to be highly attractive by all five groups. The least attractive profiles were the bimaxillary protrusion and the mandibular retrusion for the male and the female profiles, respectively. Lip protrusion was more esthetically acceptable in females. Significant differences in perception existed among groups. The female profile esthetic perception was highly correlated between the expert groups (P > 0.05). Overall agreement between the non-expert group's perceptions of their own profiles and evaluation by the expert orthodontist was 51% (κ = 0.089). Candidates who perceived themselves as having a Class III facial profile were the least satisfied with their profile. Dental professionals, dental students, and laypersons had a similar perception trends in female and male aesthetic preference. Laypersons were more tolerant

  7. 自我对话与情绪智力的关系:自我意识的中介作用%The Relationship of Self Talk and Emotional Intelligence: The Mediating Role of Self Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素然; 伍新春; 滕秀杰; 张平

    2011-01-01

    Base on 389 undergraduate students and with self talk scale, self awareness scale and emotional intelligence scale, the relationship among self talk, self awareness and emotional intelligence were explored to indicate the mediating role of self awareness in the relationship between self talk and emotional intelligence. The results were that in Chinese undergraduate students, the score of self reinforcement was the lowest, and the next lower was social assessment, and the scores of self criticism and self management were the highest; self awareness could explain total variance of self talk and emotional intelligence, and play total-mediating role; self awareness contained two constructs, private self awareness and public self awareness, private self awareness could explain partial variance of self talk and emotional intelligence and playpartial-mediating role, and so did public self awareness; private self awareness could explain more variance and mediate the relationship more.%以389名大学生为被试,采用自我对话量表、自我意识量表和情绪智力量表,考察了三者之间的关系,以说明自我意识在自我对话与情绪智力的关系中所起的中介效应。结果表明,在中国大学生群体中,自我对话的自我激励维度得分最低,其次是社会评价维度,自我批判和自我管理维度得分最高;自我意识在自我对话和情绪智力的关系中起着完全中介作用;自我意识包含两个维度即私我意识与公我意识,私我意识在自我对话与情绪智力的关系中起着部分中介作用,公我意识在自我对话与情绪智力的关系中起着部分中介作用,并且私我意识的中介效应大于公我意识的中介效应。

  8. Self-awareness assessment during cognitive rehabilitation in children with acquired brain injury: a feasibility study and proposed model of child anosognosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny-Pacini, Agata; Limond, Jennifer; Evans, Jonathan; Hiebel, Jean; Bendjelida, Karim; Chevignard, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    To compare three ways of assessing self-awareness in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to propose a model of child anosognosia. Five single cases of children with severe TBI, aged 8-14, undergoing metacognitive training. Awareness was assessed using three different measures: two measures of metacognitive knowledge/intellectual awareness (a questionnaire and illustrated stories where child characters have everyday problems related to their executive dysfunction) and one measure of on-line/emergent awareness (post-task appraisal of task difficulty). All three measures showed good feasibility. Analysis of awareness deficit scores indicated large variability (1-100%). Three children showed dissociated scores. Based on these results, we propose a model of child self-awareness and anosognosia and a framework for awareness assessment for rehabilitation purposes. The model emphasizes (1) the role of on-line error detection in the construction of autobiographical memories that allow a child to build a self-knowledge of his/her strengths and difficulties; (2) the multiple components of awareness that need to be assessed separately; (3) the implications for rehabilitation: errorless versus error-based learning, rehabilitation approaches based on metacognition, rationale for rehabilitation intervention based on child's age and impaired awareness component, ethical and developmental consideration of confrontational methods. Self-awareness has multiple components that need to be assessed separately, to better adapt cognitive rehabilitation. Using questionnaires and discrepancy scores are not sufficient to assess awareness, because it does not include on-line error detection, which can be massively impaired in children, especially those with impaired executive functions. On-line error detection is important to promote and error-based learning is useful to allow a child to build a self-knowledge of his/her strengths and difficulties, in the absence of severe episodic

  9. The Effect of Group Counseling Using Ellis's A-B-C Technique on Irrational Beliefs and Self-Efficacy About Breast Self-Awareness of Women Health Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzbeh, Mahnaz; Namadian, Masoumeh; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Hasani, Jafar; Rouzbeh, Robabeh

    2017-08-01

    This preliminary pilot effort assessed the effect of group counseling using A-B-C technique on irrational beliefs and self-efficacy for women health volunteers (WHVs) in breast self-awareness. In this randomized controlled trial, 40 WHVs from three health centers (Abhar, Iran) were randomly allocated into two groups. Seven weekly group counseling sessions were held for the intervention group. Data about cancer fatalism belief, dissatisfaction of body, anxiety, and self-efficacy were collected through validated questionnaires 1 month before and 2 weeks after the intervention. Mean scores of anxiety ( p = .036), body dissatisfaction ( p = .002), cancer fatalism belief ( p ≤ .0001), and self-efficacy ( p ≤ .0001) were improved in the intervention group compared with control group. Group counseling using A-B-C technique was effective in improving irrational beliefs and self-efficacy of the WHVs about breast self-awareness. The findings may help in further development of strategies and cultural programs to improve health-related irrational beliefs.

  10. Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation, and Self-Transcendence (S-ART: A Framework for Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Vago

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness - as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and creates a sustainable healthy mind. Mindfulness is described through systematic mental training that develops meta-awareness (self-awareness, an ability to effectively modulate one’s behavior (self-regulation, and the development of a positive relationship between self and other that transcends self-focused needs and increases prosocial characteristics (self-transcendence. This framework of self-awareness, regulation, and transcendence (S-ART illustrates a method for becoming aware of the conditions that cause (and remove distortions or biases. The development of S-ART through meditation is proposed to modulate self-specifying and narrative self-networks through an integrative fronto-parietal control network. Relevant perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral neuropsychological processes are highlighted, including intention and motivation, attention regulation, emotion regulation, extinction and reconsolidation, prosociality, non-attachment and decentering. The S-ART framework and neurobiological model is based on our growing understanding of the mechanisms for neurocognition, empirical literature, and through dismantling the specific meditation practices thought to cultivate mindfulness. The proposed framework will inform future research in the contemplative sciences and target specific areas for development in the treatment of psychological disorders.

  11. Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, David R; Silbersweig, David A

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness-as a state, trait, process, type of meditation, and intervention has proven to be beneficial across a diverse group of psychological disorders as well as for general stress reduction. Yet, there remains a lack of clarity in the operationalization of this construct, and underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide an integrative theoretical framework and systems-based neurobiological model that explains the mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces biases related to self-processing and creates a sustainable healthy mind. Mindfulness is described through systematic mental training that develops meta-awareness (self-awareness), an ability to effectively modulate one's behavior (self-regulation), and a positive relationship between self and other that transcends self-focused needs and increases prosocial characteristics (self-transcendence). This framework of self-awareness, -regulation, and -transcendence (S-ART) illustrates a method for becoming aware of the conditions that cause (and remove) distortions or biases. The development of S-ART through meditation is proposed to modulate self-specifying and narrative self-networks through an integrative fronto-parietal control network. Relevant perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral neuropsychological processes are highlighted as supporting mechanisms for S-ART, including intention and motivation, attention regulation, emotion regulation, extinction and reconsolidation, prosociality, non-attachment, and decentering. The S-ART framework and neurobiological model is based on our growing understanding of the mechanisms for neurocognition, empirical literature, and through dismantling the specific meditation practices thought to cultivate mindfulness. The proposed framework will inform future research in the contemplative sciences and target specific areas for development in the treatment of psychological disorders.

  12. Nonlinear Interpolation and Total Variation Diminishing Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, François

    2010-01-01

    The Van Leer approach for the approximation of nonlinear scalar conservation laws is studied in one space dimension. The problem can be reduced to a nonlinear interpolation and we propose a convexity property for the interpolated values. We prove that under general hypotheses the method of lines in well posed in $\\ ell^{\\infty} \\cap {\\rm BV} $ and we give precise sufficient conditions to establish that the total variation is diminishing. We observe that the second order accuracy can be maintained even at non sonic extrema. We establish also that both the TVD property and second order accuracy can be maintained after discretization in time with the second order accurate Heun scheme. Numerical illustration for the advection equation is presented.

  13. Positons: slowly diminishing analogs of solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Matveev, V B

    2002-01-01

    The introduction to the theory of positons is presented. The positons are the remote-acting analogues of solitons and represent slowly diminishing and oscillating solitons of the nonlinear integrated equations of KdV type. The positon and soliton-positon solutions of the KdV equation were for the first time obtained and analyzed about 10 years ago and thereafter designed for a number of other models: mKdV, Toda chains, NSch, sn-Gordon equation and its lattice analog. By the proper selection of the scattering data the single positon and multipositon potentials are characterized by the remarkable property: the corresponding reflection coefficient is equal to zero and the transition coefficient is equal to one (the latter property, as it is known, has no place for the standard short-acting nonreflection potentials

  14. Polychondritis With Diminished Hearing(Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Relapsing polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder which is associated with inflammation of the auricular and costochondral cartilages and may involve ocular tissue and laryngotracheobronchial tree in some occasions. This inflammatory destructive disease can potentially disrupt the structure, function and integration of cartilages. The common age of involvement is 40 to 60 years and it is similar in both genders. Case report: The patient was a 65 year-old woman referred to the cardiovascular center, with chief complaint of sudden severe chest pain. She was hospitalized with the diagnosis of unstable angina but all of the cardiovascular investigations were normal. After a few days, she developed headache, fever, nasal congestion and redness. Computed tomography scan was done with the probability of sinus involvement but it was normal. At the same time, she developed cartilage involvement as a redness and auricular pain (sparing the lobule. Subsequently her hearing progressively diminished. She was hospitalized in the rheumatology ward and treated as a polychondritis.

  15. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assist them understand a crisis. The Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370 incident is selected as the context for this study, and data is collected following the incident. The results show that different types of motivation result in different participatory behaviours. Controlled motivation is positively related to browsing content, commenting and sharing content. Conversely, autonomous motivation is positively associated with browsing and sharing content. Besides, browsing content and commenting are positively related to people’s situational self-awareness. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.

  16. Optimising activity and participation outcomes for people with self-awareness impairments related to acquired brain injury: an interventions systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Lisa; Chui, Adora; Goverover, Yael; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2017-03-03

    Impaired self-awareness related to acquired brain injury (ABI-ISA) can result in limitations in daily living activities and community participation. We hypothesise that with the appropriate interventions, outcomes for adults with ABI-ISA can be enhanced. The objectives of the study were to describe and examine critically the non-pharmacological intervention literature and to identify intervention elements that optimise everyday living outcomes in adults with ABI-ISA. Two reviewers selected articles and extracted data using five databases, a review protocol, and systematic review standards (i.e., Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Assessing the Quality and Applicability of Systematic Reviews (AQASR)). Included studies reported quantitative activity and participation intervention outcomes for people with stated or measured ABI-ISA, and the methodological quality of randomised controlled trials (RCT) was rated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale (PEDro). Seventeen articles discussing 15 unique intervention studies were found, including two RCTs of good methodological quality. All studies reported improvements on measures of everyday living, utilised interventions with multiple therapeutic elements, and used various forms of external feedback. Evidence supports the use of intervention protocols including elements of experiential practice, external feedback, Socratic guided discussion, and metacognitive strategy training.

  17. Self-awareness of cognitive dysfunction: Self-reported complaints and cognitive performance in patients with alcohol-induced mild or major neurocognitive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoort, Serge J W; van der Heijden, Paul T; Wester, Arie J; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-11-30

    Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) typically have difficulties in recognizing the impact of their alcohol-related cognitive deficits on daily-life functioning. In this study, mean scores on self-reported complaints (measured with Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form; MMPI-2-RF) and cognitive performance (measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition; WAIS-III; and the California Verbal Learning Test; CVLT) are compared between two matched patient groups with severe (KS) and mild alcohol-related cognitive disorders or non KS (NKS). KS patients demonstrate significantly lower scores on the WAIS-III indices and on the CVLT than the matched NKS group, and significantly higher scores on MMPI-2-RF validity scales that indicate denial of psychological complaints. Both groups are in the normal range on MMPI-2-RF Cognitive Complaints (COG) and Neurological Complaints (NUC) scales compared with the normative sample. Finally, self-reported complaints and cognitive performance are not correlated significantly in both groups. Despite their alcohol-related cognitive impairments, both groups report no cognitive complaints at all indicating self-awareness impairment. In addition to KS patients, also NKS patients are at risk that their apparently "without cognitive complaints" appearance on self-report questionnaires can be easily overlooked. These findings may have important clinical implications for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The social biofeedback theory of parental affect-mirroring: the development of emotional self-awareness and self-control in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, G; Watson, J S

    1996-12-01

    The authors present a new theory of parental affect-mirroring and its role in the development of emotional self-awareness and control in infancy. It is proposed that infants first become sensitised to their categorical emotion-states through a natural social biofeedback process provided by the parent's 'marked' reflections of the baby's emotion displays during affect-regulative interactions. They argue that this sensitisation process is mediated (similarly to that of adult biofeedback training) by the mechanism of contingency-detection and maximising. Apart from sensitisation, affect-mirroring serves three further developmental functions: (1) it contributes to the infant's state-regulation; (2) it leads to the establishment of secondary representations that become associated with the infant's primary procedural affect-states providing the cognitive means for accessing and attributing emotions to the self; (3) it results in the development of a generalised communicative code of "marked' expressions characterised by the representational functions of referential decoupling, anchoring and suspension of realistic consequences. They consider the clinical implications of our theory, relating it to current psychodynamic approaches to the functions of parental affect-mirroring. Using their model they identify various types of deviant mirroring styles and speculate about their developmental consequences. Finally, they discuss what role their social biofeedback model may play as a mediating mechanism in the therapeutic process.

  19. Low aggregation state diminishes ferrihydrite reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Juliane; Heister, Katja; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2013-04-01

    Ferrihydrite is an abundant iron(oxy)hydroxide in soils and sediments and plays an important role in microbial iron cycling due to its high reactivity. Therefore, it is often synthesized and used in geomicrobiological and mineralogical studies. The reactivities of synthetic ferrihydrites vary between different studies and synthesis protocols. Hence, we synthesized five different ferrihydrites and characterized them with XRD, FTIR, XPS, and BET specific surface area. The reactivity of the ferrihydrite samples towards ascorbic acid was examined and compared with microbial reduction rates by Geobacter sulfurreducens. FTIR and XRD results show the presence of secondary, higher crystalline iron oxide phases like goethite and akaganeite for two samples. Consequently, those samples revealed lower biotic and abiotic reduction rates compared to pure ferrihydrite. Comparison of reduction rates with the specific surface area of all ferrihydrites showed neither correlation with abiotic reductive dissolution nor with microbial reduction. Especially one sample, characterized by a very low aggregation state and presence of secondary minerals, revealed a poor reactivity. We speculate that apart from the occurring secondary minerals also the low aggregation state played an important role. Decreasing aggregation diminishes the amount of kinks and edges on the surfaces, which are produced at contact sites in aggregates. According to dissolution theories, dissolution mainly starts at those surface defects and slows down with decreasing amount of defects. Furthermore, the non-aggregated ferrihydrite is free of micropores, a further stimulant for dissolution. Independent repetitions of experiments and syntheses according to the same protocol but without formation of secondary minerals, confirmed the low reactivity of the non-aggregated ferrihydrite. In summary, our results indicate that a decreasing aggregation state of ferrihydrite to a certain size does increase the reactivity

  20. 留守儿童孤独感与自我意识的研究--以江西省Z市为例%The Loneliness and Self-awareness of Rural Left-over Children---Jiangxi Province for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清娥; 胡金保

    2015-01-01

    To explore the characteristic of loneliness and self-awareness of liushou children and their relation. Methods 450 liushou children in Jiangxi Province were investigated with Childrenˊs Loneliness Scale and Children’s Self-aware-ness Scale. Results:(1))In loneliness aspect,left-over children living with their brothers or sisters feel less lonely,and children who live with one of parents feel less lonely than living with grandparents.(2)among left-over children,level of self-awareness in Grade Six is higher than Grade Five. Children who have brothers or sisters own hiher level of self-awareness higher than those who don’t have.(3)There is negative relationship between left-over children’s loneliness and self-awareness,that is to say:the higher level of self-awareness left-over children own,the less they feel lonely.%为了研究留守儿童孤独感和自我意识现状以及两者之间的关系,采用儿童孤独感问卷和自我意识量表对江西省450名留守儿童施测,结果发现:(1)留守儿童的孤独感呈现出是否与别的兄弟姐妹在一起以及和谁生活在一起的显著差异。与别的兄弟姐妹生活在一起,以及与父母一方生活在一起的留守儿童孤独感都更低;(2)留守儿童的自我意识呈现年级和是否是独生子女的差异,六年级的留守儿童比五年级自我意识更高,非独生子女的自我意识比独生子女更高;(3)留守儿童的孤独感和自我意识呈现显著的负相关,即自我意识越高,孤独感越低。

  1. Clinical practice and self-awareness as determinants of empathy in undergraduate education: A qualitative short survey at three medical schools in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrweiler, Florian; Scheffer, Christian; Roling, Gudrun; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Neumann, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Study aim: Physician empathy constitutes an outcome-relevant aim of medical education. Yet, the factors promoting and inhibiting physician empathy have not yet been extensively researched, especially in Germany. In this study, we explored German medical students’ views of the factors promoting and inhibiting their empathy and how their experiences were related to their curricula. Methods: A qualitative short survey was conducted at three medical schools: Bochum University, the University of Cologne and Witten/Herdecke University. Students were invited to complete an anonymous written questionnaire comprised of open-ended questions inquiring about the educational content of and situations during their medical education that positively or negatively impacted their empathy. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis according to the methods of Green and Thorogood. Results: A total of 115 students participated in the survey. Respondents reported that practice-based education involving patient contact and teaching with reference to clinical practice and the patient’s perspective improved their empathy, while a lack of these inhibited it. Students’ internal reactions to patients, such as liking or disliking a patient, prejudice and other attitudes, were also considered to influence their empathy. Although each of the three schools takes a different approach to teaching interpersonal skills, no relevant differences were found in their students’ responses concerning the possible determinants of empathy. Conclusion: Providing more training in practice and more contact with patients may be effective ways of promoting student empathy. Students need support in establishing therapeutic relationships with patients and in dealing with their own feelings and attitudes. Such support could be provided in the form of reflective practice training in order to promote self-awareness. More research is needed to evaluate these hypothetical conclusions. PMID:25489346

  2. Customers Attitude towards Diminishing Partnership Home Financing in Islamic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzuljastri A. Razak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diminishing partnership or musharakah mutanaqisah contract in home financing is recently introduced by the Islamic banking industry as an alternative of the bay bithaman ajil contract which has received many criticism from shariah scholars as mimicking conventional loan. This study aims to examine customers attitude upon diminishing partnership home financing and their intention to subscribe into the financing scheme. Approach: This study gauges customers perception on the salient features of diminishing partnership home financing from Islamic banks through a survey of 504 respondents comprise officers, managers and academician in Kuala Lumpur. The structural equation modeling was utilized to find out factors that influence customers intention for diminishing partnership home financing under the framework of the theory of reasoned action. Results: The main finding indicates that customers perceived the equity sharing features in diminishing partnership home financing mode differ from the conventional loan and other existing Islamic home financing modes. The result from structural equation modeling shows that customers intention for diminishing partnership is more influenced by their subjective norms compared to their attitude toward diminishing partnership home financing. Conclusion: The customers have perceived diminishing partnership as more shariah compliant than bay bithaman ajil. Afterwards, opinions from people perceived important by customers are giving more influence towards their decision making process.

  3. Effect of Yushen zhuyun decoction on rats with diminished ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter, DOR rats were treated orally with YSZYF (300, 600 and 900 mg/kg). ... levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), ... Keywords: Yushen zhuyun decoction, Diminished ovarian reserve, Infertility, ...

  4. Global smoothness preservation and the variation-diminishing property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea Ioan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the center of our paper are two counterexamples showing the independence of the concepts of global smoothness preservation and variation diminution for sequences of approximation operators. Under certain additional assumptions it is shown that the variation-diminishing property is the stronger one. It is also demonstrated, however, that there are positive linear operators giving an optimal pointwise degree of approximation, and which preserve global smoothness, monotonicity and convexity, but are not variation-diminishing.

  5. 大学生心理健康教育之健全自我意识的培养%Improve Self Awareness Training in College Students' Mental Health Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凤琼; 王健

    2016-01-01

    自我意识是一个人对自己的认识,包括自己和他人以及社会关系的认识与评价。自我意识发展完善与否直接影响心理健康水平。大学阶段是自我意识迅速发展的关键时期,同时又是最容易出现困惑的时期。本文通过对大学生自我意识发展的特征以及存在的自我意识偏差进行解析,并有针对性地提出矫正的方法,这有利于提高大学生心理健康水平,帮助大学生形成正确统一的自我意识,建立健全的人格。%Self-consciousness is one's own knowledge, including understanding and evaluation of themselves and others, and social relations. Development and improvement of self-consciousness directly affects mental health. College is a critical period of rapid development of self-awareness, but it is also the most prone to confusing period. Based on the characteristics of the development of students' self awareness and self-consciousness exists deviation parses and puts forward correction methods, which help to improve the mental health of college students, to help students form a correct unified self-awareness, establish sound personality.

  6. Assessment of Self-Awareness of Cognitive Function: Correlations of Self-Ratings with Actual Performance Ranks for Tests of Processing Speed, Memory and Executive Function in Non-Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothlind, Johannes; Dukarm, Paul; Kraybill, Matthew

    2016-12-28

    For individuals with neurologic disorders, self-awareness of cognitive impairment is associated with improved treatment course and clinical outcome. However, methods for assessment of levels of self-awareness are limited, and most require collateral information, which may not be readily available. Although distortions in self-awareness are most often associated with low cognitive ability, the frequently mixed pattern of cognitive strengths and deficits in individuals with neurologic disorders complicates assessment. The present study explores relationships between actual test performance and self-ratings, utilizing a brief probe administered during testing. The "common-metric" approach solicits self-appraisal ratings in percentile equivalents and capitalizes on available normative data for specific standardized neuropsychological tests to allow direct comparisons. A convenience sample of 199 adults recruited from community sources participated in this study, including healthy adults and neuropsychologically "at-risk" volunteers who were HIV positive and/or endorsing heavy current alcohol consumption. Immediately following completion of standardized neuropsychological tests, participants estimated their own percentile ranking. Across study groups, participant's estimates of their own percentile rank were modestly correlated with actual performance ranking. Highest correlations were obtained for tests of learning, memory and conceptual reasoning, and executive function, with smaller correlations for simple tests of motor and psychomotor speed. The study reveals normal biases affecting the self-appraisal during standardized testing, and suggests that a common-metric approach for assessing self-appraisal may play a role in establishing clinical thresholds and identifying and quantifying reductions in insight in persons with neuropsychological deficits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  7. Research on the Decision - making of Autonomous Robots Based on the Self - awareness%基于自我意识的自主机器人决策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝宇虹; 魏金海

    2012-01-01

    研究复杂多变环境下自主机器人的决策控制.为了提高机器人的适应能力,对机器人特性进行了深入分析,提出了通过模拟人类自我意识在机器人上面建立自我意识来提高机器人的自主性的新思路.首先建立机器人自我意识的模糊推理模型,输出就是当前状态下机器人的自我意识,然后输入到CMAC网络中进行学习,最终改善机器人的综合性能.通过对建立的模型进行Matlab仿真实验证明了这种方法的有效性,为提高自主机器人的控制性能提供了新的方法.%This paper focuses on the decision -making of autonomous robots in complex and changeable environment. In order to improve the a-daptability of the robots, the paper analyzes the characteristics of autonomous robots in depth,and presents an new idea about improving the autonomy of the robot by building self - awareness through the simulation human consciousness. First, the robot self - awareness fuzzy reasoning model is established, the output is the robot self -awareness of the current state, then input it to the CMAC network for learning, eventually the comprehensive performance of the robot can be improved. The effectiveness of the approach is proved through the Matlab simulation results of the model, and provides a new method for improving the control performance of autonomous robot.

  8. A Research on the Lodging Pupils Self-awareness and Loneliness in Maonan Nationality Area%毛南族地区寄宿小学生自我认识与孤独感研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪珍

    2012-01-01

    为了解毛南族地区寄宿小学生自我认识与孤独感状况及关系,采用小学生自我认识问卷和儿童孤独感量表对环江毛南族自治县3所寄宿制小学299名学生进行问卷调查。结果显示:寄宿小学生的自我认识水平显著低于非寄宿小学生(P〈O.01);寄宿小学生的孤独感显著高于非寄宿小学生(P〈0.001);寄宿小学生的孤独感与自我认识总分及对自己感觉的评价、对与别人相处信心的评价、对他人对自己依赖程度的评价、对自己适应新事物的评价呈显著负相关,与对自己是好学生的评价、对自己做决定的评价呈显著的正相关,他们间所有相关因子均呈显著的线性相关,相互有显著的预测作用。%In order to find out the present status and relation of the lodging pupils self-awareness and loneliness in Maonan Nationality area, the author uses the questionnaire of pupils" self-awareness and Children's Loneliness Scale to test 299 pupils in 3 lodging primary schools. The results show that the lodging pupils" self-awareness is lower than that of the non-lodging pupils (P〈0.01) : the loneliness of the lodging pupils is extremely higher than that of non-lodging pupils (P〈0.001) ; the total scores of lodging pupils; loneliness and self-awareness, the self-evaluation, the evaluation of getting along with others, the evaluation of others relying on them and the evaluation of adapting oneself to the new things show remarkable negative correlation; the evaluation of oneself being a good student, the evaluation of self-decision show remarkable positive correlation: all the correlation factors show remarkable linear correlation and have remarkable predicting function.

  9. Is proprioception diminished in patients with patellar tendinopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, H.E.; van der Worp, H.; Nijenbanning, L.; Diercks, R.L.; Zwerver, J.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patellar tendinopathy is a highly prevalent overuse injury, and most treatments are only effective to some extent. This persistence of complaints could be linked to changed proprioception. One study showed diminished proprioception in athletes with lateral epicondylitis. Aim of this study w

  10. Is proprioception diminished in patients with patellar tendinopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, H. E.; van der Worp, H.; Nijenbanning, L.; Diercks, R. L.; Zwerver, J.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patellar tendinopathy is a highly prevalent overuse injury, and most treatments are only effective to some extent. This persistence of complaints could be linked to changed proprioception. One study showed diminished proprioception in athletes with lateral epicondylitis. Aim of this study w

  11. Is proprioception diminished in patients with patellar tendinopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, H.E.; van der Worp, H.; Nijenbanning, L.; Diercks, R.L.; Zwerver, J.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patellar tendinopathy is a highly prevalent overuse injury, and most treatments are only effective to some extent. This persistence of complaints could be linked to changed proprioception. One study showed diminished proprioception in athletes with lateral epicondylitis. Aim of this study

  12. Optimal decision making and matching are tied through diminishing returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, Jan

    2017-08-08

    How individuals make decisions has been a matter of long-standing debate among economists and researchers in the life sciences. In economics, subjects are viewed as optimal decision makers who maximize their overall reward income. This framework has been widely influential, but requires a complete knowledge of the reward contingencies associated with a given choice situation. Psychologists and ecologists have observed that individuals tend to use a simpler "matching" strategy, distributing their behavior in proportion to relative rewards associated with their options. This article demonstrates that the two dominant frameworks of choice behavior are linked through the law of diminishing returns. The relatively simple matching can in fact provide maximal reward when the rewards associated with decision makers' options saturate with the invested effort. Such saturating relationships between reward and effort are hallmarks of the law of diminishing returns. Given the prevalence of diminishing returns in nature and social settings, this finding can explain why humans and animals so commonly behave according to the matching law. The article underscores the importance of the law of diminishing returns in choice behavior.

  13. Are there Diminishing Returns to R&D?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.

    Semi-endogenous models and, to some extent, also Schumpeterian models are based on the assumption of diminishing returns to R&D. This paper shows that the null hypothesis of constant returns to R&D cannot be rejected for the OECD countries...

  14. Is proprioception diminished in patients with patellar tendinopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, H.E.; van der Worp, H.; Nijenbanning, L.; Diercks, R.L.; Zwerver, J.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patellar tendinopathy is a highly prevalent overuse injury, and most treatments are only effective to some extent. This persistence of complaints could be linked to changed proprioception. One study showed diminished proprioception in athletes with lateral epicondylitis. Aim of this study w

  15. Relationship between Orphans' Self-awareness, Influence and Social Adaptability%孤儿自我意识、事件影响与社会适应性的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 张明哲; 孙晓燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the status of orphan social adaptation, and further explore the relationship between self-awareness and the event. Methods:"Children's Self-Concept Scale"(PHCSS),"Impact of Event Scale Revised Children"(CRIES),"Social Adaptability Inventory,"a school for orphans in Guangxi 110 orphans random survey. Results:①social adaptation of orphans gender differences were not significant in all dimensions, orphans Primary and junior high school group in the psychological sense of superiority, mental energy and social adaptability significant differences.②self-awareness and social adaptability was a significant positive correlation.③incident and social adaptability was a significant positive corre-lation.④Multiple regression showed that:intelligence and school conditions and high arousal of social adaptation has a sig-nificant predictor. Conclusion:The Orphans of self-awareness, incident significantly associated with social adaptation;intel-ligence and school conditions and high arousal, can effectively predict social adaptation situation of orphans.%目的:了解孤儿社会适应性的现状,进一步探讨其与自我意识和事件影响的关系.方法:采用《儿童自我意识量表》(PHCSS)、《修订版儿童事件影响量表》(CRIES)、《社会适应性量表》对广西某孤儿学校110名的孤儿进行随机调查.结果:①孤儿社会适应性的性别差异在各个维度均不显著,小学组与初中组的孤儿在心理优势感、心理能量和社会适应性差异明显.②自我意识与社会适应性呈显著的正相关.③事件影响与社会适应性呈显著的正相关.④多元回归表明:智力与学校情况和高唤醒,对社会适应性具有显著的预测作用.结论:孤儿的自我意识、事件影响与社会适应性显著相关;智力与学校情况和高唤醒,可以有效预测孤儿的社会适应性状况.

  16. MINDFULNESS – MAY DIMINISH STRESS AND INCREASE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronicus TORP

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is increasingly being applied in companies as a means to increase, among others, employee wellbeing and energy, and in the same time to diminish stress. This paper argues that there seems to be scientific evidence showing that certain mindfulness techniques may diminish stress and increase energy, yet it seems that there is a period in the beginning of the mindfulness practice where the techniques have the opposite effects. These findings seem to be contradictory to past findings, which indicated that only two thirds of people practicing mindfulness techniques have positive effects from that practice. It may be that everybody can have positive effects from the practice of the mentioned techniques, just that some need to practice for a longer period before obtaining these positive effects. Further scientific studies seem to be needed in order to clarify the full spectrum of effects and consequences of practicing different mindfulness techniques, and just as important, if these effects are valid for everybody.

  17. The Group Reminiscence Approach Can Increase Self-Awareness of Memory Deficits and Evoke a Life Review in People With Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Kurihara Project Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kei; Kasai, Mari; Nakai, Megumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Meguro, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    The group reminiscence approach (GRA) and reality orientation (RO) are common psychosocial interventions for patients with dementia. As a qualitative evaluation of the reminiscence approach in patients with dementia, the Patient Report Outcome (PRO) is useful. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GRA-RO for participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the PRO. A cluster randomized controlled trial. Community-based study. Ninety-four patients with MCI (39 GRA-RO, 23 physical activity, and 32 cognitive training) described their impressions. Based on the database of the Kurihara Project, we retrospectively analyzed the participants' descriptions of their impressions as a PRO in the nonpharmacological interventions: GRA-RO, physical activity, and cognitive training. We categorized the descriptions according to the following 2 types: impression with content and reminiscence with life review. We assessed what they wrote regarding memory loss. The content on their life reviews was also a particular focus for the GRA-RO group. PRO. Compared with the physical activity and the clinical training groups, the GRA-RO patients described their reminiscence with life review and their own memory problems. There was no confusion of the order of events of their autobiographical memories. There was a significant time effect between the 2 family involvement groups in quality-of-life (QOL) scores, and the postintervention QOL scores were significantly better than preintervention. This study suggests that the GRA-RO in participants with MCI not only stimulates life review but also increases self-awareness of memory deficits without confusion of the order of events. Thus, the GRA-RO may improve self-esteem and develop self-awareness. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J.; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  19. Complexity, Diminishing Marginal Returns, and Serial Mesopotamian Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Thompson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Following up on an earlier paper demonstrating statistically significant relationships between measures of recurring political-economic crises (hinterland incursions, trade collapses, economic contractions, and regime transitions and a measure of climate deterioration (the interaction of falling Tigris-Euphrates river levels and years of warming/ drying, the inter-relationships among these variables are examined more closely for the 3400–1000 bce period. Theoretically focused on a test of Tainter’s diminishing marginal return theory of societal collapse, additional indicators are introduced encompassing population (urban population size, urban popula-tion growth rate as a proxy for diminishing marginal returns, two measures of centralization/ fragmentation (including imperial size, and the indicators used for the climate interaction term in the earlier paper. The multivariate logit outcome for interactions among and between the 11 variables reinforces the earlier findings linking climate deterioration to political-economic crises, extends the climate deterioration linkage to fragmentation and population decline, and finds relatively strong support for the Tainter derived expectation that diminishing marginal returns and fragmentation are closely linked but that both are less closely linked to recurring political-economic crises than might otherwise have been anticipated.

  20. Diminished nocturnal penile tumescence in depression: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, M E; Reynolds, C F; Jennings, J R; Frank, E; Garamoni, G L; Nofzinger, E A; Fascizka, A L; Kupfer, D J

    1992-06-01

    A descriptive study was conducted in a new sample of 51 men with DSM-III-R research diagnostic criteria (RDC) major depression in order to replicate earlier observations that measures of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) and penile rigidity are disturbed in depressive states. When compared to both the age-equated patient (n = 34) and normal control (n = 28) groups reported in our 1988 study, the new sample manifested significant abnormalities of NPT and diminished penile rigidity. Such disturbances were not, however, significantly correlated with psychobiological indicators of severe or endogenous depression.

  1. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents; Elementos para disminuir accidentes radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes I, M.E.; Ramirez G, F.P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  2. Group Interaction Sustains Positive Moods and Diminishes Negative Moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ernest S; Hinsz, Verlin B

    2015-12-01

    The social interactions of task groups were investigated for their influences on member moods. Initially, participants' received an induction of positive, negative, or neutral moods via listening to music that continued throughout the experimental session. Moods were measured after the induction. Students then made decisions on four choice dilemmas alone or as members of a four-person group. Subsequently, positive and negative moods were again measured. Positive moods of participants who worked with other group members on the task were sustained, but diminished for those working alone. Negative moods of participants working in groups diminished over time, but were sustained for those working individually. These results were interpreted in the context of motivational systems theory of group involvement (Park & Hinsz, 2006). Additionally, although there was a tendency for member moods to homogenize over assessments, this did not reach significance. Results document the affective benefits that often accompany task group interaction suggesting that group interaction has features of positive mood induction. This report highlights the need to consider social influences on affect in task settings so that group dynamics, processes, and behaviors can be better understood.

  3. Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyoti; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-12-03

    Aging is associated with deficits in the ability to ignore distractions, which has not yet been remediated by any neurotherapeutic approach. Here, in parallel auditory experiments with older rats and humans, we evaluated a targeted cognitive training approach that adaptively manipulated distractor challenge. Training resulted in enhanced discrimination abilities in the setting of irrelevant information in both species that was driven by selectively diminished distraction-related errors. Neural responses to distractors in auditory cortex were selectively reduced in both species, mimicking the behavioral effects. Sensory receptive fields in trained rats exhibited improved spectral and spatial selectivity. Frontal theta measures of top-down engagement with distractors were selectively restrained in trained humans. Finally, training gains generalized to group and individual level benefits in aspects of working memory and sustained attention. Thus, we demonstrate converging cross-species evidence for training-induced selective plasticity of distractor processing at multiple neural scales, benefitting distractor suppression and cognitive control.

  4. The effects of therapeutic exercise using PNF on the size of calcium deposits, pain self-awareness, and shoulder joint function in a calcific tendinitis patient: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Gun; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of independent and intensive therapeutic exercise using Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on the size of calcium deposits, pain self-awareness, and shoulder joint function in a patient with calcific tendonitis. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 42-year-old female patient with calcific tendonitis and acute pain who had difficulty with active movement and problems with general function. The independent and intensive Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise was applied for 40 min twice a day five times a week for two weeks for a total of 20 times. An X-ray, the visual analog scale, a simple shoulder test, the Constant-Murley Scale, and passive range of motion was used to evaluate the patient's change. [Results] The size of the calcium deposit, the visual analog scale score, and the simple shoulder test score decreased. The Constant-Murley Scale score and the passive range of motion were increased. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggested that intensive and independent therapeutic short-term exercise without any other exercise reduced pain and produced positive effects in shoulder function in a patient with the calcific tendonitis, which could confirm the importance of therapeutic exercise in the treatment of calcific tendonitis.

  5. The effects of therapeutic exercise using PNF on the size of calcium deposits, pain self-awareness, and shoulder joint function in a calcific tendinitis patient: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Gun; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of independent and intensive therapeutic exercise using Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on the size of calcium deposits, pain self-awareness, and shoulder joint function in a patient with calcific tendonitis. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 42-year-old female patient with calcific tendonitis and acute pain who had difficulty with active movement and problems with general function. The independent and intensive Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise was applied for 40 min twice a day five times a week for two weeks for a total of 20 times. An X-ray, the visual analog scale, a simple shoulder test, the Constant-Murley Scale, and passive range of motion was used to evaluate the patient’s change. [Results] The size of the calcium deposit, the visual analog scale score, and the simple shoulder test score decreased. The Constant-Murley Scale score and the passive range of motion were increased. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggested that intensive and independent therapeutic short-term exercise without any other exercise reduced pain and produced positive effects in shoulder function in a patient with the calcific tendonitis, which could confirm the importance of therapeutic exercise in the treatment of calcific tendonitis. PMID:28210065

  6. Is proprioception diminished in patients with patellar tendinopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, H E; van der Worp, H; Nijenbanning, L; Diercks, R L; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I

    2016-03-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is a highly prevalent overuse injury, and most treatments are only effective to some extent. This persistence of complaints could be linked to changed proprioception. One study showed diminished proprioception in athletes with lateral epicondylitis. Aim of this study was to determine differences in proprioception, by measuring threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) between recreational athletes diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls. The TTDPM as measure of proprioception was determined in 22 recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy and 22 healthy recreational athletes using a validated instrument. Amount of knee flexion and extension before the movement was noticed by the subject was determined. 80 measurements per athlete (left and right leg, towards extension and flexion and with two starting angles of 20° and 40° flexion) were performed. Mean TTDPM was compared between groups and among the injured recreational athletes between the affected and unaffected knee. No significant difference in TTDPM was found between recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls. We did find a significant difference between the injured and non-injured knee in recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy; mean TTDPM was 0.02° higher in the injured knee (p=0.044). No difference was found in proprioception between recreational athletes with patellar tendinopathy and healthy recreational athletes. It is unclear whether such a small difference in TTDPM between affected and unaffected knee is important in clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation in diminished ovarian reserve (DOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Norbert; Barad, David H

    2011-05-17

    With infertility populations in the developed world rapidly aging, treatment of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) assumes increasing clinical importance. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to improve pregnancy chances with DOR, and is now utilized by approximately one third of all IVF centers world-wide. Increasing DHEA utilization and publication of a first prospectively randomized trial now warrants a systematic review. PubMed, Cochrane and Ovid Medline were searched between 1995 and 2010 under the following strategy: [DHEA or androgens or testosterone > and ]. Bibliographies of relevant publications were further explored for additional relevant citations. Since only one randomized study has been published, publications, independent of evidence levels and quality assessment, were reviewed. Current best available evidence suggests that DHEA improves ovarian function, increases pregnancy chances and, by reducing aneuploidy, lowers miscarriage rates. DHEA over time also appears to objectively improve ovarian reserve. Recent animal data support androgens in promoting preantral follicle growth and reduction in follicle atresia. Improvement of oocyte/embryo quality with DHEA supplementation potentially suggests a new concept of ovarian aging, where ovarian environments, but not oocytes themselves, age. DHEA may, thus, represent a first agent beneficially affecting aging ovarian environments. Others can be expected to follow.

  8. Measuring mental illness stigma with diminished social desirability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-06-01

    For persons with mental illness, stigma diminishes employment and independent living opportunities as well as participation in psychiatric care. Public stigma interventions have sought to ameliorate these consequences. Evaluation of anti-stigma programs' impact is typically accomplished with self-report questionnaires. However, cultural mores encourage endorsement of answers that are socially preferred rather than one's true belief. This problem, social desirability, has been circumvented through development of faux knowledge tests (KTs) (i.e., Error-Choice Tests); written to assess prejudice. Our KT uses error-choice test methodology to assess stigmatizing attitudes. Test content was derived from review of typical KTs for façade reinforcement. Answer endorsement suggests bias or stigma; such determinations were based on the empirical literature. KT psychometrics were examined in samples of college students, community members and mental health providers and consumers. Test-retest reliability ranged from fair (0.50) to good (0.70). Construct validity analyses of public stigma indicated a positive relationship with the Attribution Questionnaire and inverse relationships with Self-Determination and Empowerment Scales. No significant relationships were observed with self-stigma measures (recovery, empowerment). This psychometric evaluation study suggests that a self-administered questionnaire may circumvent social desirability and have merit as a stigma measurement tool.

  9. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - years of education and ISCED97 categories - and two objective indicators of overeducation (the realised matches method and the job analyst method) in a sample of the working population of 25 European countries (unweighted sample N = 19,089). Depression is measured using an eight-item version of the CES-D scale. We find diminishing mental health returns to education. In addition, overeducated people report more depression symptoms. Both findings hold irrespective of the indicators used. The results must be interpreted in the light of the enduring expansion of education, as our findings show that the discussion of the relevance of the human capital perspective, and the diploma disease view on the relationship between education and modern society, is not obsolete. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Normal aging selectively diminishes alpha lateralization in visual spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiangfei; Sun, Junfeng; Bengson, Jesse J; Mangun, George R; Tong, Shanbao

    2015-02-01

    EEG studies of cue-induced visual alpha power (8-13 Hz) lateralization have been conducted on young adults without examining differences that may develop as a consequence of normal aging. Here, we examined age-related differences in spatial attention by comparing healthy older and younger adults. Our key finding is that cue-induced alpha power lateralization was observed in younger, but not older adults, even though both groups exhibited classic event-related potential signatures of spatial orienting. Specifically, both younger and older adults showed significant early directing-attention negativity (EDAN), anterior directing-attention negativity (ADAN), late directing-attention positivity (LDAP) and contingent negative variation (CNV). Furthermore, target-evoked sensory components were enhanced for attended relative to unattended targets in both younger and older groups. This pattern of results suggests that although older adults can successfully allocate spatial attention, they do so without the lateralization of alpha power that is commonly observed in younger adults. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that younger and older adults might engage different neural mechanisms for attentional orienting, and that alpha power lateralization during visual spatial attention is a phenomenon that diminishes during normal aging.

  11. Diminished response of arctic plants to warming over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelseyann S Kremers

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine if the response of arctic plants to warming is consistent across species, locations and time. This study examined the impact of experimental warming and natural temperature variation on plants at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska beginning in 1994. We considered observations of plant performance collected from 1994-2000 "short-term" and those from 2007-2012 "long-term". The plant traits reported are the number of inflorescences, inflorescence height, leaf length, and day of flower emergence. These traits can inform us about larger scale processes such as plant reproductive effort, plant growth, and plant phenology, and therefore provide valuable insight into community dynamics, carbon uptake, and trophic interactions. We categorized traits of all species monitored at each site into temperature response types. We then compared response types across traits, plant growth forms, sites, and over time to analyze the consistency of plant response to warming. Graminoids were the most responsive to warming and showed a positive response to temperature, while shrubs were generally the least responsive. Almost half (49% of response types (across all traits, species, and sites combined changed from short-term to long-term. The percent of plants responsive to warming decreased from 57% (short-term to 46% (long-term. These results indicate that the response of plants to warming varies over time and has diminished overall in recent years.

  12. Diminished reovirus capsid stability alters disease pathogenesis and littermate transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Doyle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reovirus is a nonenveloped mammalian virus that provides a useful model system for studies of viral infections in the young. Following internalization into host cells, the outermost capsid of reovirus virions is removed by endosomal cathepsin proteases. Determinants of capsid disassembly kinetics reside in the viral σ3 protein. However, the contribution of capsid stability to reovirus-induced disease is unknown. In this study, we found that mice inoculated intramuscularly with a serotype 3 reovirus containing σ3-Y354H, a mutation that reduces viral capsid stability, succumbed at a higher rate than those infected with wild-type virus. At early times after inoculation, σ3-Y354H virus reached higher titers than wild-type virus at several sites within the host. Animals inoculated perorally with a serotype 1 reassortant reovirus containing σ3-Y354H developed exaggerated myocarditis accompanied by elaboration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, unchallenged littermates of mice infected with σ3-Y354H virus displayed higher titers in the intestine, heart, and brain than littermates of mice inoculated with wild-type virus. Together, these findings suggest that diminished capsid stability enhances reovirus replication, dissemination, lethality, and host-to-host spread, establishing a new virulence determinant for nonenveloped viruses.

  13. Diminishing self-disclosure to maintain security in partners' care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Melville, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Six studies demonstrate that perceivers' desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to misconstrue their own self-disclosure in ways that maintain perceivers' security in targets' care and commitment. Perceivers who strongly valued relationships with targets reported high levels of global self-disclosure, consistent with many findings suggesting salutary effects of disclosure. However, these same perceivers reported low self-disclosure of needs and desires in hypothetical (Study 1) and actual (Study 2) situations characterized by targets' unresponsive behavior. Similarly, in daily report (Study 3) and behavioral observation (Study 4) studies, perceivers who valued relationships with targets perceived high levels of self-disclosure when targets were responsive, but they perceived low self-disclosure when targets were unresponsive, and these perceptions seemed partly illusory. In turn, these perceptions of low self-disclosure in situations characterized by partners' unresponsive behavior predicted decreased perceptions of diagnosticity of targets' behavior (Studies 1-3) and buffered the negative affective and interpersonal effects of unresponsive behavior (Study 4). Experimental manipulations (Studies 5 and 6) demonstrated the motivational nature of perceived self-disclosure. Collectively, the results suggest that a desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to downplay the diagnosticity of targets' unresponsive behavior through diminishing their self-disclosure, in turn preserving perceivers' trust in targets' care and commitment.

  14. Overexpression of Catalase Diminishes Oxidative Cysteine Modifications of Cardiac Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Yao

    Full Text Available Reactive protein cysteine thiolates are instrumental in redox regulation. Oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, react with thiolates to form oxidative post-translational modifications, enabling physiological redox signaling. Cardiac disease and aging are associated with oxidative stress which can impair redox signaling by altering essential cysteine thiolates. We previously found that cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase (Cat, an enzyme that detoxifies excess H2O2, protected from oxidative stress and delayed cardiac aging in mice. Using redox proteomics and systems biology, we sought to identify the cysteines that could play a key role in cardiac disease and aging. With a 'Tandem Mass Tag' (TMT labeling strategy and mass spectrometry, we investigated differential reversible cysteine oxidation in the cardiac proteome of wild type and Cat transgenic (Tg mice. Reversible cysteine oxidation was measured as thiol occupancy, the ratio of total available versus reversibly oxidized cysteine thiols. Catalase overexpression globally decreased thiol occupancy by ≥1.3 fold in 82 proteins, including numerous mitochondrial and contractile proteins. Systems biology analysis assigned the majority of proteins with differentially modified thiols in Cat Tg mice to pathways of aging and cardiac disease, including cellular stress response, proteostasis, and apoptosis. In addition, Cat Tg mice exhibited diminished protein glutathione adducts and decreased H2O2 production from mitochondrial complex I and II, suggesting improved function of cardiac mitochondria. In conclusion, our data suggest that catalase may alleviate cardiac disease and aging by moderating global protein cysteine thiol oxidation.

  15. An Integrated Self-Aware Cognitive Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    agents that represent primary feelings (hunger, pain , pleasure, etc.) and are permanently associated with selected schemas (e.g., hunger is satisfied... affecting semantic memory (as opposed to the majority of schemas that operate only on instances of other schemas located in working memory). 8 BICA... proprioception Language production Expression of emotions Figure 5.2: A template for integration. 25 Appendix A Appendix A: An Overview of the CD

  16. Diminished Mercury Emission From Water Surfaces by Duckweed (Lemna minor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, J. L.; Peters, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    Aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (generally referred to as duckweeds) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and decreases the amount of exposed water surface. These two factors would be expected to reduce mercury emission by limiting a) direct photoreduction of Hg(II), b) indirect reduction via coupled DOC photooxidation-Hg(II) reduction, and c) gas diffusion across the water-air interface. Conversely, previous studies have demonstrated transpiration of Hg(0) by plants, so it is therefore possible that the floating vegetative mat would enhance emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether duckweed limits mercury flux to the atmosphere by shading and the formation of a physical barrier to diffusion, or whether it enhances emission from aquatic systems via transpiration of Hg(0). Deionized water was amended with mercury to achieve a final concentration of approximately 35 ng/L and allowed to equilibrate prior to the experiment. Experiments were conducted in rectangular polystyrene flux chambers with measured UV-B transmittance greater than 60% (spectral cutoff approximately 290 nm). Light was able to penetrate the flux chamber from the sides as well as the top throughout the experiment, limiting the effect of shading by duckweed on the water surface. Flux chambers contained 8L of water with varying percent duckweed cover, and perforated plastic sheeting was used as an abiotic control. Exposures were conducted outside on days with little to no cloud cover. Real time mercury flux was measured using atomic absorption (Mercury Instruments UT-3000). Total solar and ultraviolet radiation, as well as a suite of meteorological parameters, were also measured. Results indicate that duckweed diminishes mercury emission from the water surface

  17. How to diminish calcium loss and muscle atrophy in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    perfect relaxation when asleep or awake. We have to check in space if we can thus diminish the use of medicaments or even eliminate them. Slow Yoga exercises decrease also the amount on food required because life is not so energy demanding in space as it is here under the earth's gravitation. We can stay lean and healthy with such static yet most effective physical exercises. In addition it gives us for free a vegetarian life style, just another benefit so useful in space travel.

  18. Intervention of Self Awareness and Development of Mental Theory Among Autistic Children%孤独症儿童自我意识干预及其心理理论能力的发展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅如; 张婷; 邵智

    2015-01-01

    心理理论能力是指认识自己和他人的心理并根据心理推测行为的能力。心理理论能力的缺失是产生孤独症患者社会交往障碍的重要心理学机制。自我意识是儿童社会化的重要组成部分。通过采用动画辅助的认知行为干预疗法对15名孤独症儿童(男13名,女2名,平均月龄为60.87个月)的自我意识进行3个多月的干预,结果发现:该组儿童在心理理论任务通过率(t=8.41,p<0.001)、日常心理理论技能(t=5.14, p<0.05)及积极社会交往能力(t=11.18,p<0.05)等方面都有显著的提升。这说明认知行为干预疗法能有效提高孤独症儿童的心理理论能力,促进其社会交往能力的发展。%Theory of mind refers to the ability to understand their own and others’mentality to predict behaviors.The lack of theory of mind is an important psychological mechanism of social interaction a-mong patients with autistic disorder.Self-awareness is an important part of the socialization of chil-dren.Three-month intervention was performed on 1 5 autistic children (1 3 male,2 female,average age was 60.87 months)by means of cognitive behavior and cartoon schema.In the research,the treat-ment of cognitive behavioral intervention have been found to have obvious effect in improving the pass rate of mental theory(t=8.41,p<0.001),routine mental theoretical skills (t=5.14,p<0.05)and so-cial skills(t=11.18,p<0.05.The findings suggest that cognitive behavioral intervention is effective in improving the autistic children’s mental theory competence and thus facilitating their social skills.

  19. FIR Filter Implementation Based on the RNS with Diminished-1 Encoded Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Uros Zivaljevic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A technique, based on the residue number system (RNS with diminished-1 encoded channel, has being used for implementing a finite impulse response (FIR digital filter. The proposed RNS architecture of the filter consists of three main blocks: forward and reverse converter and arithmetic processor for each channel. Architecture for residue to binary (reverse convertor with diminished-1 encoded channel has been proposed. Besides, for all RNS channels, the systolic design is used for the efficient  realization of FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of diminished-1 residue arithmetic, signal processing, and decoding for FIR filters.

  20. Beef heifers with diminished numbers of antral follicles have decreased uterine protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research demonstrated a favorable relationship between the number of follicles detectable in the bovine ovary by ultrasonography and fertility, and bovine females with diminished numbers of antral follicles had smaller reproductive tracts. Therefore, we hypothesized that uterine function w...

  1. Self-awareness is an Ethical Principle --Analysis of Ethical thoughts of Marx's Doctoral Dissertation%自我意识是一个伦理原则——马克思博士论文伦理思想探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉胜; 张晓东

    2012-01-01

    在博士论文中,马克思确立了自我意识哲学的主体地位。表面看是在阐释伊壁鸠鲁哲学,实际上"已经显示出了马克思的创造的智慧"。在他的理论视域内,自我意识是一个伦理原则,有着丰富的伦理内涵,展现了其在走向社会批判以前"伦理批判"的思想特质。%In the Doctoral dissertation, Marx established the subject ststus of self-awareness philosophy. Apparently it interprets Epicurus's philosophy, but in fact it "has already demonstrated the wisdom of Marx". In his theoretical field, self-awareness is an ethical principle, which has rich ethical connotation and shows its ideological trait before social criticism.

  2. Direct Instruction and Music Literacy: One Approach to Augmenting the Diminishing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoffrey; Belcher, Steven

    2012-01-01

    One of the many challenges facing music educators is diminishing class time in lower secondary school in the face of the increasingly crowded curriculum and the advent of arts "taster" courses. However, music educators are still expected to be able to produce musically literate students capable of completing high level music courses in…

  3. Challenging the Presumption of Diminished Capacity to Parent: Does Divorce Really Change Parenting Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohschein, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine whether divorced parents exhibit a diminished capacity to parent in the period following divorce. Using 2 waves of data from a national survey of Canadian children, the current study prospectively follows 5,004 children living in 2-biological parent households at initial interview and compares changes in…

  4. Can Using Human Examples Diminish the Number of Misconceptions Held Concerning Mendelian Genetics Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Explores high school biology and the teaching of genetics. The question is asked, Can the use of relevant, meaningful human genetics concepts diminish the number of misconceptions formed between new and existing concepts? Can the application of the Ausubelian learning theory also decrease the acquisition of misconceptions? (SAH)

  5. Nonsuicidal self-injury and diminished pain perception: the role of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Aaron, Rachel V; Arthur, Michael S; Shorkey, S Paul; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2012-08-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue in the absence of suicidal intent (e.g., cutting or burning the skin). Previous studies have found that people with a history of NSSI display diminished pain perception. However, it remains unclear why this effect occurs. In the present study, we used a sample of participants with (n = 25) and without (n = 47) a history of NSSI to test the hypothesis that emotion dysregulation partially explains why NSSI is associated with diminished pain perception. Pain perception was quantified as pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain intensity ratings assessed during the cold pressor task. Nonsuicidal self-injury was associated with increased emotion dysregulation and diminished pain perception. Results showed that emotion dysregulation was correlated with diminished pain perception within both groups, demonstrating that this association exists regardless of NSSI history. Results also specified that emotion dysregulation partially accounted for the association between NSSI and pain tolerance but not other pain variables. Overall, results were consistent with the hypothesis that emotion dysregulation may increase NSSI risk in part by increasing the willingness to experience the pain involved in self-injury. Studies are needed to more directly investigate this hypothesis.

  6. Nonsuicidal self-injury and diminished pain perception: the role of emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franklin, J.C.; Aaron, R.V.; Arthur, M.S.; Shorkey, S.P.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue in the absence of suicidal intent (e.g., cutting or burning the skin). Previous studies have found that people with a history of NSSI display diminished pain perception. However, it remains unclear why this effect

  7. Respiratory and hemodynamic effects of diminished expiratory flow during artificial ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van Rooyen (Willem)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe supposition, that a diminished expiratory flow (DEF) during artificial ventilation will improve blood-gas exchange. especially in obstructive pulmonary disease and that DEF improves blood-gas exchange better than a comparable positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP. producing the same

  8. Nonsuicidal self-injury and diminished pain perception: the role of emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franklin, J.C.; Aaron, R.V.; Arthur, M.S.; Shorkey, S.P.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue in the absence of suicidal intent (e.g., cutting or burning the skin). Previous studies have found that people with a history of NSSI display diminished pain perception. However, it remains unclear why this effect

  9. Less Guilty by Reason of Adolescence: Developmental Immaturity, Diminished Responsibility, and the Juvenile Death Penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Scott, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    The authors use a developmental perspective to examine questions about the criminal culpability of juveniles and the juvenile death penalty. Under principles of criminal law, culpability is mitigated when the actor's decision-making capacity is diminished, when the criminal act was coerced, or when the act was out of character. The authors argue…

  10. Perceptions of Absenteeism and Diminished Engagement among Instructors and Nonlicensed Students in Medical Assistant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Adult nonlicensed students can experience diminished engagement and increased absenteeism while attempting to complete medical assistant programs. The purpose of this qualitative, multisite narrative case study was to explore the perceptions, meanings, and interpretations of instructors and students. The theoretical foundation focused on the…

  11. Social exclusion modulates pre-reflective interpersonal body representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Blomberg, Olle; Mandrigin, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    social exclusion condition. The results were that the SAE that normally occurs when the mug is in the avatar’s reaching space is extinguished by the induced social exclusion. This indicates that judgments about one’s own social status modulate the effect of IBR.......Perception of an affordance is enhanced not only when the relevant object is located in one’s own peripersonal space, as compared to when it is located within extrapersonal space, but also when the object is located in another person’s peripersonal space (as measured by a Spatial Alignment Effect...... (SAE)). It has been suggested that this reflects the existence of an interpersonal body representation (IBR) that allows us to represent the perceptual states and action possibilities of others. Here, we address the question of whether IBR can be modulated by higher level/reflective social cognition...

  12. Investigating the pre-reflective, embodied dimension of Grief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra; Køster, Allan

    Our project strives to theorise how grief impacts and shapes personal existence both acutely and within the broader time horizon of individual existence. The approach will be a two-tier investigation focusing on both: 1) how grief sediments on an embodied and prereflective level to vitally shape...... of the bereaved etc. 2) how grief is transformed into reflective, narrative accounts (how the person existentially has her grief) in which the bereaved consciously attributes meaning and significance to the loss in accordance with both normative expectations and cultural narrative templates, but with an equal...

  13. Diminished social motivation negatively impacts reputation management: autism spectrum disorders as a case in point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Chevallier

    Full Text Available Human beings are endowed with a unique motivation to be included in social interactions. This natural social motivation, in turn, is thought to encourage behaviours such as flattery or self-deprecation aimed to ease interaction and to enhance the reputation of the individual who produces them. If this is the case, diminished social interest should affect reputation management. Here, we use Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs--primarily characterised by pervasive social disinterest--as a model to investigate the effect of social motivation on reputation management. Children first rated a set of pictures and were then given the opportunity to inflate their initial ratings in front of an experimenter who declared that she had drawn the picture. Contrary to the controls, children with ASD did not enhance their ratings in the drawer's presence. Moreover, participants' flattery behaviour correlated with self-reports of social enjoyment. Our findings point to a link between diminished social interest and reputation management.

  14. Repeated exposure to media violence is associated with diminished response in an inhibitory frontolimbic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher R; Grinband, Jack; Hirsch, Joy

    2007-12-05

    Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that repeated exposure to violent media, but not to other equally arousing media, led to both diminished response in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (right ltOFC) and a decrease in right ltOFC-amygdala interaction. Reduced function in this network has been previously associated with decreased control over a variety of behaviors, including reactive aggression. Indeed, we found reduced right ltOFC responses to be characteristic of those subjects that reported greater tendencies toward reactive aggression. Furthermore, the violence-induced reduction in right ltOFC response coincided with increased throughput to behavior planning regions. These novel findings establish that even short-term exposure to violent media can result in diminished responsiveness of a network associated with behaviors such as reactive aggression.

  15. Boundary Variation Diminishing (BVD) reconstruction: a new approach to improve Godunov scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ziyao; Xiao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    This note presents a new approach, so-called boundary variation diminishing (BVD), for reconstruction that minimizes the discontinuities (jumps) at cell interfaces in the Godunov type schemes. It is motivated by the observation that diminishing the jump at the cell boundary might effectively reduce the dissipation in numerical flux. Different from the existing practices which seek high-order polynomials within mesh cells while assuming discontinuities being always at the cell interfaces, we proposed a new strategy that combines a high-order polynomial-based interpolation and a jump-like reconstruction that allows a jump being partly represented within the mesh cell rather than at the interface. It is shown that new schemes of high fidelity for both continuous and discontinuous solutions can be devised by the BVD guideline with properly-chosen candidate reconstruction schemes. Excellent numerical results have been obtained for both scalar and Euler conservation laws with substantial improvement in solution qua...

  16. Information flow in a network model and the law of diminishing marginal returns

    CERN Document Server

    Marinazzo, Daniele; Wu, Guorong; Angelini, Leonardo; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamical network model which describes the limited capacity of nodes to process the input information. For a suitable choice of the parameters, the information flow pattern is characterized by exponential distribution of the incoming information and a fat-tailed distribution of the outgoing information, as a signature of the law of diminishing marginal returns. The analysis of a real EEG data-set shows that similar phenomena may be relevant for brain signals.

  17. Diminished Social Motivation Negatively Impacts Reputation Management: Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Case in Point

    OpenAIRE

    Coralie Chevallier; Catherine Molesworth; Francesca Happé

    2012-01-01

    Human beings are endowed with a unique motivation to be included in social interactions. This natural social motivation, in turn, is thought to encourage behaviours such as flattery or self-deprecation aimed to ease interaction and to enhance the reputation of the individual who produces them. If this is the case, diminished social interest should affect reputation management. Here, we use Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)--primarily characterised by pervasive social disinterest--as a model to...

  18. Kafka, paranoic doubles and the brain: hypnagogic vs. hyper-reflexive models of disrupted self in neuropsychiatric disorders and anomalous conscious states

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Kafka's writings are frequently interpreted as representing the historical period of modernism in which he was writing. Little attention has been paid, however, to the possibility that his writings may reflect neural mechanisms in the processing of self during hypnagogic (i.e., between waking and sleep) states. Kafka suffered from dream-like, hypnagogic hallucinations during a sleep-deprived state while writing. This paper discusses reasons (phenomenological and neurobiological) why the self projects an imaginary double (autoscopy) in its spontaneous hallucinations and how Kafka's writings help to elucidate the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms. I further discuss how the proposed mechanisms may be relevant to understanding paranoid delusions in schizophrenia. Literature documents and records cognitive and neural processes of self with an intimacy that may be otherwise unavailable to neuroscience. To elucidate this approach, I contrast it with the apparently popularizing view that the symptoms of schizophrenia result from what has been called an operative (i.e., pre-reflective) hyper-reflexivity. The latter approach claims that pre-reflective self-awareness (diminished in schizophrenia) pervades all conscious experience (however, in a manner that remains unverifiable for both phenomenological and experimental methods). This contribution argues the opposite: the "self" informs our hypnagogic imagery precisely to the extent that we are not self-aware. PMID:20727134

  19. Kafka, paranoic doubles and the brain: hypnagogic vs. hyper-reflexive models of disrupted self in neuropsychiatric disorders and anomalous conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishara Aaron L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kafka's writings are frequently interpreted as representing the historical period of modernism in which he was writing. Little attention has been paid, however, to the possibility that his writings may reflect neural mechanisms in the processing of self during hypnagogic (i.e., between waking and sleep states. Kafka suffered from dream-like, hypnagogic hallucinations during a sleep-deprived state while writing. This paper discusses reasons (phenomenological and neurobiological why the self projects an imaginary double (autoscopy in its spontaneous hallucinations and how Kafka's writings help to elucidate the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms. I further discuss how the proposed mechanisms may be relevant to understanding paranoid delusions in schizophrenia. Literature documents and records cognitive and neural processes of self with an intimacy that may be otherwise unavailable to neuroscience. To elucidate this approach, I contrast it with the apparently popularizing view that the symptoms of schizophrenia result from what has been called an operative (i.e., pre-reflective hyper-reflexivity. The latter approach claims that pre-reflective self-awareness (diminished in schizophrenia pervades all conscious experience (however, in a manner that remains unverifiable for both phenomenological and experimental methods. This contribution argues the opposite: the "self" informs our hypnagogic imagery precisely to the extent that we are not self-aware.

  20. Kafka, paranoic doubles and the brain: hypnagogic vs. hyper-reflexive models of disrupted self in neuropsychiatric disorders and anomalous conscious states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Aaron L

    2010-08-20

    Kafka's writings are frequently interpreted as representing the historical period of modernism in which he was writing. Little attention has been paid, however, to the possibility that his writings may reflect neural mechanisms in the processing of self during hypnagogic (i.e., between waking and sleep) states. Kafka suffered from dream-like, hypnagogic hallucinations during a sleep-deprived state while writing. This paper discusses reasons (phenomenological and neurobiological) why the self projects an imaginary double (autoscopy) in its spontaneous hallucinations and how Kafka's writings help to elucidate the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms. I further discuss how the proposed mechanisms may be relevant to understanding paranoid delusions in schizophrenia. Literature documents and records cognitive and neural processes of self with an intimacy that may be otherwise unavailable to neuroscience. To elucidate this approach, I contrast it with the apparently popularizing view that the symptoms of schizophrenia result from what has been called an operative (i.e., pre-reflective) hyper-reflexivity. The latter approach claims that pre-reflective self-awareness (diminished in schizophrenia) pervades all conscious experience (however, in a manner that remains unverifiable for both phenomenological and experimental methods). This contribution argues the opposite: the "self" informs our hypnagogic imagery precisely to the extent that we are not self-aware.

  1. Diminished self-conscious emotional responding in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Virginia E; Ascher, Elizabeth A; Miller, Bruce L; Levenson, Robert W

    2008-12-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a neurodegenerative disease that dramatically alters social and emotional behavior. Recent work has suggested that self-conscious emotions (e.g., embarrassment) may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in this disease. Self-conscious emotions require the ability to monitor the self in relation to others. These abilities are thought to be subserved by brain regions (e.g., medial prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and insula) that are particularly vulnerable to damage in FTLD. This study examined emotional responding (expressive behavior, peripheral physiology, and subjective experience) in 24 FTLD patients and 16 cognitively normal control participants using a karaoke task known to elicit self-conscious emotion reliably and a nonemotional control task (isometric handgrip). Results indicated that FTLD patients showed diminished self-conscious emotional behavior (embarrassment and amusement) and diminished physiological responding while watching themselves singing. No differences were found between patients and controls in the nonemotional control task. These findings offer evidence of marked disruption of self-conscious emotional responding in FTLD. Diminished self-conscious emotional responding likely contributes significantly to social inappropriateness and other behavioral abnormalities in FTLD.

  2. Social crowding stress diminishes the pituitary-adrenocortical and hypothalamic histamine response to adrenergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajski, J; Gadek-Michalska, A; Borycz, J

    1993-12-01

    Social stress of crowding almost totally reduced the rise in serum corticosterone elicited by intracerebroventricular administration of isoprenaline, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, after 3 and 7 day of crowding and substantially diminished that response after 14 and 21 days. Crowding stress totally abolished the increase in hypothalamic histamine induced by isoprenaline in control rats. Crowding also significantly diminished the increase in serum corticosterone evoked by clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, and abolished the clonidine-induced elevation in hypothalamic histamine levels. The stimulatory effect of phenylephrine, an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, on corticosterone secretion was only moderately diminished in crowded rats. Neither phenylephrine nor crowding stress changed significantly the hypothalamic histamine levels. These results indicate that social stress of crowding considerably impairs the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical responsiveness to central beta- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Crowding also abolishes the rise in hypothalamic histamine induced by beta- and alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, suggesting a role of hypothalamic histamine in the HPA adaptation to the social stress of crowding.

  3. 水面舰艇军人心理弹性、自我意识、性格与应激水平、心理健康的相关研究%Research on resilience, self-awareness, personality, stress levels and mental health of warship soldiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左昕; 李敏; 邱太兴; 项新能; 杨军; 彭李; 缪毅; 许莹

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨水面舰艇军人心理弹性、自我意识、性格与应激水平、心理健康的关系.方法 采用成人心理弹性量表(RSA)、艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)、自我接纳问卷(SAQ)、一般自我效能感量表((SES)、Wallance自我概念量表(WSCS)、心理应激自评问卷(PSET)和症状自评量表(SCL-90),对1451名水面舰艇军人进行整群抽样调查.结果 ①水面舰艇军人有明显心理应激反应的占2.5%,心理健康状况较中国常模差,除强迫和人际敏感因子外,其他因子分数均显著高于中国军人常模(P<0.01);②SCL-90总分及心理应激与心理弹性、内外向和自我意识显著负相关,与神经质显著正相关.SCL-90阳性军人(SCL-90总分>160分)在神经质和PSET的得分显著高于阴性组,在RSA、内外向和自我意识的得分显著低于阴性组(P<0.01);③回归分析结果显示:应激水平、情绪稳定性、自我意识和心理弹性能较好预测军人应激时的心理健康水平,而心理健康水平、情绪稳定性、内外向和心理弹性能较好预测个体的应激水平,解释率分别为35.1%和33.2%.结论 水面舰艇军人存在一定程度的心理应激和心理健康问题,心理弹性、性格、自我意识是影响心理应激和心理健康的重要因素.%Objective To study the relationships among resilience, self-awareness, personality, stress level and mental health in the warship soldiers. Methods Resilience Scale for Adults ( RSA), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire ( EPQ), Self Acceptance Questionnaire( SAQ), General Self-Efficacy Scale( GSES), Wallance Self Concept Scale (WSCS), Psychological Stress Self-evaluation Test (PSET) and Symptom Checklist (SCL-90)were used to survey 1451 warship soldiers. Results ① 2.5% of the warship soldiers reported obvious psychological stress. Mental health of warship soldiers was worse than the norm of China population, except for obsessivecompulsive and interpersonal sensitivity

  4. Infrared light irradiation diminishes effective charge transfer in slow sodium channel gating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhova, Vera B.; Bagraev, Nikolai T.; Klyachkin, Leonid E.; Malyarenko, Anna M.; Romanov, Vladimir V.; Krylov, Boris V.

    2001-02-01

    Effects of infrared light irradiation (IR) on cultured dorsal root ganglia cells were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The IR field is demonstrated to diminish the effective charge transfer in the activation system from 6.2 +-0.6 to 4.5 +-0.4 in units of electron charge per e-fold change in membrane potential. The effects was blocked with ouabain. Our data is the first indication that sodium pump might be the molecular sensor of infrared irradiation in animal kingdom.

  5. Diminishing Marginal Returns From Genomic Selection As More Selection Candidates Are Phenotyped

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Henryon, Mark; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    We used stochastic simulation to test hypotheses that, (i) phenotyping proportion of high ranking selection candidates based on estimated breeding values (EBV) before genotyping could realize as much genetic gains as phenotyping all candidates, and (ii) there is diminishing return to selection...... as more candidates are phenotyped in genomic breeding programs. Three phenotyping criteria, namely, random (RS), EBV and true breeding value (TBV) were investigated under two schemes (across-population and within-litter) using traditional-BLUP and genomic-BLUP models. The EBV ranked above RS and realized...

  6. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  7. Low Power Modulo 2n+1 Adder Based on Carry Save Diminished-One Number System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Timarchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulo 2n+1 adders find great applicability in several applications including RNS implementations. This paper presents a new number system called Carry Save Diminished-one for modulo 2n+1 addition and a novel addition algorithm for its operands. In this paper, we also present a novel architectures for designing modulo 2n+1 adders, based on parallel-prefix carry computation units. CMOS implementations reveal the superiority of the resulting adders against previously reported solutions in terms of implementation area and delay.

  8. Boundary Variation Diminishing (BVD) reconstruction: A new approach to improve Godunov schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ziyao; Inaba, Satoshi; Xiao, Feng

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a new approach, so-called boundary variation diminishing (BVD), for reconstructions that minimize the discontinuities (jumps) at cell interfaces in Godunov type schemes. It is motivated by the observation that diminishing the jump at the cell boundary can effectively reduce the dissipation in numerical flux. Differently from the existing practices which seek high-order polynomials within mesh cells while assuming discontinuities being always at the cell interfaces, the BVD strategy presented in this paper switches between a high-order polynomial and a jump-like reconstruction that allows a discontinuity being partly represented within the mesh cell rather than at the interface. Excellent numerical results have been obtained for both scalar and Euler conservation laws with substantially improved solution quality in comparison with the existing methods. It is shown that new schemes of high fidelity for both continuous and discontinuous solutions can be devised by the BVD guideline with properly-chosen candidate reconstruction schemes. This work provides a simple and accurate alternative of great practical significance to the current high-order Godunov paradigm which overly pursues the smoothness within mesh cells under the questionable premiss that discontinuities only appear at cell interfaces.

  9. Prevention effects ameliorate the prospective association between nonsupportive parenting and diminished telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of general systemic aging, with diminished TL associated with several chronic diseases of aging and with heightened mortality risk. Research has begun to focus on the ways in which stress contributes to telomere attrition. The purposes of this study were (a) to establish whether exposure to nonsupportive parenting, defined as high levels of conflict and rancor with low levels of warmth and emotional support, at age 17 would forecast TL 5 years later; and (b) to determine whether participation in an efficacious family-centered prevention program could ameliorate any associations that emerged. Rural African American adolescents participated in the Adults in the Making (AIM) program or a control condition. Primary caregivers provided data on nonsupportive parenting during a pretest when adolescents were age 17. Adolescents provided data on anger at the pretest and at a posttest administered 7 months later. When the youths were age 22, TL was assayed from a blood draw. The results indicated that heightened nonsupportive parenting forecast diminished TL among young adults in the control condition but not among those who participated in AIM; socioeconomic status risk, life stress, and the use of alcohol and cigarettes at age 17, and blood pressure and body mass index at age 22, were controlled. Subsequent exploratory analyses suggested that AIM-induced reductions in adolescents' anger served as a mediator connecting group assignment to TL. The results suggest that the cellular-level sequelae of nonsupportive parenting and stress are not immutable.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation associated with diminished cell-mediated immunity in antarctic expeditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.; Cooley, H.; Dubow, R.; Lugg, D.

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were followed in 16 Antarctic expeditioners during winter-over isolation at 2 Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition stations. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing was used as an indicator of the CMI response, that was evaluated 2 times before winter isolation and 3 times during isolation. At all 5 evaluation times, 8 or more of the 16 subjects had a diminished CMI response. Diminished DTH was observed on every test occasion in 4/16 subjects; only 2/16 subjects exhibited normal DTH responses for all 5 tests. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect EBV DNA in saliva specimens collected before, during, and after the winter isolation. EBV DNA was present in 17% (111/642) of the saliva specimens; all 16 subjects shed EBV in their saliva on at least 1 occasion. The probability of EBV shedding increased (P = 0.013) from 6% before or after winter isolation to 13% during the winter period. EBV appeared in saliva during the winter isolation more frequently (P viruses.

  11. Repeated exposure to media violence is associated with diminished response in an inhibitory frontolimbic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we found that repeated exposure to violent media, but not to other equally arousing media, led to both diminished response in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (right ltOFC and a decrease in right ltOFC-amygdala interaction. Reduced function in this network has been previously associated with decreased control over a variety of behaviors, including reactive aggression. Indeed, we found reduced right ltOFC responses to be characteristic of those subjects that reported greater tendencies toward reactive aggression. Furthermore, the violence-induced reduction in right ltOFC response coincided with increased throughput to behavior planning regions. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings establish that even short-term exposure to violent media can result in diminished responsiveness of a network associated with behaviors such as reactive aggression.

  12. Application of Ground Phosphate Rock to Diminish the Effects of Simulated Acid Rain of Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGYUAN-YAN; LIXUE-YUAN

    1992-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain retained in soil on the properties of acid soil and its diminishing by application of ground phosphate rock were investigated by using the sorption method.Results show as follows:(1)For yellow brown soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil with a pH value of 5.9 was relatively small,except a great quantity of acid rain deposited on it.(2) for red soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil was significant.With the increase of the amount of acid deposition,the pH value of soil was declined,but the contents of exchangeable H+,Al3+ and Mn2+ and the amount of SO41- retention were increased.(3) Many properties of acid soils could be improved by applying ground phosphate rock.For example,pH value of soils and the amounts of available P and exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ were increased,and the amounts of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ and SO42- retained was reduced.The application of ground posphate rock could effctively diminish the pollution of acid rain to soil.

  13. Diminished expression of an antiviral ribonuclease in response to pneumovirus infection in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Joanne M; Dyer, Kimberly D; Bonville, Cynthia A; Nitto, Takeaki; Vasquez, Nora L; Easton, Andrew J; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2003-08-01

    The mouse eosinophil-associated ribonucleases (mEars) are species specific, divergent orthologs of the human antiviral RNase A ribonucleases, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (RNase 2) and eosinophil cationic protein (RNase 3). We show here that mEar 2 is also an antiviral ribonuclease, as micromolar concentrations promote a approximately sixfold reduction in the infectivity of pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) for target respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. Although initially identified as a component of eosinophilic leukocytes, mEar 2 mRNA and protein were also detected in lung tissue accompanied by enzymatically active mEar 2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). At t=3 days post-inoculation with PVM (strain J3666), we observed the characteristic inflammatory response accompanied by diminished expression of total mEar mRNA and protein in lung tissue and a corresponding fivefold drop in ribonuclease activity in BALF. No change in mEar expression was observed in response to infection with PVM strain 15, a replication-competent strain of PVM that does not elicit a cellular inflammatory response. However, mEar expression is not directly dependent on inflammation per se, as diminished expression of mEar mRNA and BAL ribonuclease activity were also observed in PVM-infected, inflammation-deficient, MIP-1alpha -/- mice. We propose that this mechanism may represent a novel virus-mediated evasion strategy, with a mechanism that is linked in some fashion to virus-specific pathogenicity.

  14. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide diminishes the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in activated mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) is a Korean traditional type of salt and has been reported to have therapeutic effects on allergic inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) aggravates inflammation in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions, such as allergic rhinitis (AR). To confirm an active compound of BS, we investigated the effect of sulfur, a compound of BS, on the levels of TSLP in a human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and a mouse model of AR using hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH). We treated NaSH or BS in HMC-1 cells and activated the HMC-1 cells with phorbol myristate acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). ELISA for the production measurement of TSLP, PCR for the mRNA expression measurement of TSLP, and western blot analysis for the expression measurement of upstream mediators were performed. Mice were treated with NaSH and sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). The levels of TSLP were measured in serum and nasal mucosa tissue in an OVA-induced AR mouse model. NaSH or BS diminished the production and mRNA expression of TSLP as well as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS diminished the level of intracellular calcium in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS reduced the expression and activity of caspase-1 in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. And NaSH or BS inhibited the expression of receptor interacting protein-2 and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. The translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm were diminished by NaSH or BS in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, NaSH inhibited the production of TSLP, IL-6, and IL-8 in TNF-α-activated HMC-1 cells. Finally, the administration of NaSH showed a decrease in number of rubs on mice with OVA-induced AR. And the levels of immunoglobulin E and TSLP in the serum and the level of TSLP in the

  16. Market value of asteroidal precious metals in an age of diminishing terrestrial resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; ,

    1996-01-01

    In the next century Mankind may have to choose from two options for our supply and usage of some nonrenewable natural resources, such as gold, platinum metals, and fossil fuels: learn to live with diminishing supplies of these materials obtained at ever increasing economic and environmental cost, or reach into difficult places and develop new technologies to give us what we need to sustain economic growth. Either prospect faces formidable technological and economic challenges. Exploitation of asteroids for precious and strategic metals is a possible environmentally friendly remedy for impending shortages of some resources. Certain types of asteroids could completely replace terrestrial sources of platinum metals. Asteroid metal mining may become a 21st-century space industry worth ten to fifty billion dollars annually (1995 dollars). Asteroids could make the United States and other countries self sufficient in many strategic metals, and it could usher new technologies and increase our applications of existing technologies that depend on these metals.

  17. Diminished exercise capacity and mitochondrial bc1 complex deficiency in tafazzin-knockdown mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey ePowers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipid, cardiolipin, is essential for maintaining mitochondrial structure and optimal function. Cardiolipin-deficiency in humans, Barth syndrome, is characterized by exercise intolerance, dilated cardiomyopathy, neutropenia and 3-methyl-glutaconic aciduria. The causative gene is the mitochondrial acyl-transferase, tafazzin that is essential for remodeling acyl chains of cardiolipin. We sought to determine metabolic rates in tafazzin-deficient mice during resting and exercise, and investigate the impact of cardiolipin deficiency on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities. Tafazzin knockdown in mice markedly impaired oxygen consumption rates during an exercise, without any significant effect on resting metabolic rates. CL-deficiency resulted in significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity in neonatal cardiomyocytes that is likely to be caused by diminished activity of complex-III, which requires CL for its assembly and optimal activity. Our results may provide mechanistic insights of Barth syndrome pathogenesis.

  18. Development of High-Resolution Total Variation Diminishing Scheme for Linear Hyperbolic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie A. Abu Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution, total variation diminishing (TVD stable scheme is derived for scalar hyperbolic problems using the method of flux limiters. The scheme was constructed by combining the 1st-order upwind scheme and the 3rd-order quadratic upstream interpolation scheme (QUICK using new flux limiter function. The new flux limiter function was established by imposing several conditions to ensure the TVD properties of the scheme. For temporal discretization, the theta method was used, and values for the parameter θ were chosen such that the scheme is unconditionally stable. Numerical results are presented for one-dimensional pure advection problems with smooth and discontinuous initial conditions and are compared to those of other known numerical schemes. The results show that the proposed numerical method is stable and of higher order than other common schemes.

  19. Diminishing risk for age-related macular degeneration with nutrition: a current view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Molly; Weikel, Karen; Garber, Caren; Taylor, Allen

    2013-07-02

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) II intervention trial should be particularly informative.

  20. SAT predicts GPA better for high ability subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas; Snyder, Anissa; Pillow, David; Kochunov, Peter

    2011-04-01

    This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test's predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differ in g.

  1. Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma osteoprotegerin with diminished effect in type 2 diabetes and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gitte Maria; Vind, Birgitte; Nybo, Mads;

    2009-01-01

    the acute effects of insulin on plasma OPG concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obese individuals compared with lean controls. DESIGN: The study population consisted of ten type 2 diabetic, ten obese subjects, and ten lean subjects with no family history of diabetes. METHODS: All subjects...... infusion decreased plasma OPG concentrations in all groups (Pobese and type 2 diabetic individuals (P=0.007). Baseline OPG correlated with fasting insulin, baseline lactate, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic group, and with baseline FFA...... in the lean group. The relative change of OPG in response to insulin correlated inversely with HbA1c and baseline FFA in the lean group. CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma OPG, but with diminished effect in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Increased levels of OPG in arteries...

  2. Diminishing Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Nutrition: A Current View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS II intervention trial should be particularly informative.

  3. Vision-guided ocular growth in a mutant chicken model with diminished visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Eric R; Zelinka, Christopher; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Code, Kimberly A; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Fischer, Andy J

    2012-09-01

    Visual experience is known to guide ocular growth. We tested the hypothesis that vision-guided ocular growth is disrupted in a model system with diminished visual acuity. We examine whether ocular elongation is influenced by form-deprivation (FD) and lens-imposed defocus in the Retinopathy, Globe Enlarged (RGE) chicken. Young RGE chicks have poor visual acuity, without significant retinal pathology, resulting from a mutation in guanine nucleotide-binding protein β3 (GNB3), also known as transducin β3 or Gβ3. The mutation in GNB3 destabilizes the protein and causes a loss of Gβ3 from photoreceptors and ON-bipolar cells (Ritchey et al., 2010). FD increased ocular elongation in RGE eyes in a manner similar to that seen in wild-type (WT) eyes. By comparison, the excessive ocular elongation that results from hyperopic defocus was increased, whereas myopic defocus failed to significantly decrease ocular elongation in RGE eyes. Brief daily periods of unrestricted vision interrupting FD prevented ocular elongation in RGE chicks in a manner similar to that seen in WT chicks. Glucagonergic amacrine cells differentially expressed the immediate early gene Egr1 in response to growth-guiding stimuli in RGE retinas, but the defocus-dependent up-regulation of Egr1 was lesser in RGE retinas compared to that of WT retinas. We conclude that high visual acuity, and the retinal signaling mediated by Gβ3, is not required for emmetropization and the excessive ocular elongation caused by FD and hyperopic defocus. However, the loss of acuity and Gβ3 from RGE retinas causes enhanced responses to hyperopic defocus and diminished responses to myopic defocus.

  4. Varenicline and cytisine diminish the dysphoric-like state associated with spontaneous nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Moe; Alexander, Jon C; Ji, Yue; Qi, Xiaoli; Papke, Roger L; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is characterized by a negative mood state upon smoking cessation and relapse after periods of abstinence. Clinical studies indicate that negative mood states lead to craving and relapse. The partial α4/α6/β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists varenicline and cytisine are widely used as smoking cessation treatments. Varenicline has been approved in the United States for smoking cessation and cytisine is used in Eastern European countries. Despite the widespread use of these compounds, very little is known about their effects on mood states. These studies investigated the effects of varenicline, cytisine, and the cytisine-derivative 3-(pyridin-3'-yl)-cytisine (3-pyr-Cyt) on brain reward function in nicotine-naive and nicotine-withdrawing rats. The cytisine-derivative 3-pyr-Cyt is a very weak α4β2* nAChR partial agonist and like cytisine and varenicline has antidepressant-like effects in animal models. The intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure was used to investigate the effects of these compounds on brain reward function. Elevations in ICSS thresholds reflect a dysphoric state and a lowering of thresholds is indicative of a potentiation of brain reward function. It was shown that acute administration of nicotine and varenicline lowered ICSS thresholds. Acute administration of cytisine or 3-pyr-Cyt did not affect ICSS thresholds. Discontinuation of chronic, 14 days, nicotine administration led to elevations in ICSS thresholds that lasted for about 2 days. Varenicline and cytisine, but not 3-pyr-Cyt, diminished the nicotine withdrawal-induced elevations in ICSS thresholds. In conclusion, these studies indicate that varenicline and cytisine diminish the dysphoric-like state associated with nicotine withdrawal and may thereby prevent relapse to smoking in humans.

  5. Weathering by tree-root-associating fungi diminishes under simulated Cenozoic atmospheric CO2 decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, J.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.; Taylor, L. L.; Beerling, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Trees dominate terrestrial biotic weathering of silicate minerals by converting solar energy into chemical energy that fuels roots and their ubiquitous nutrient-mobilising fungal symbionts. These biological activities regulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]a) over geologic timescales by driving calcium and magnesium fluvial ion export and marine carbonate formation. However, the important stabilising feedbacks between [CO2]a and biotic weathering anticipated by geochemical carbon cycle models remain untested. We report experimental evidence for a negative feedback across a declining Cenozoic [CO2]a range from 1500 to 200 ppm, whereby low [CO2]a curtails mineral surface alteration via trenching and etch pitting by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal partners of tree roots. Optical profile imaging using vertical scanning interferometry reveals changes in nanoscale surface topography consistent with a dual mode of attack involving delamination and trenching by AM and EM fungal hyphae on phyllosilicate mineral flakes. This is consistent with field observations of micropores in feldspar, hornblende and basalt, purportedly caused by EM fungi, but with little confirmatory evidence. Integrating these findings into a process-based biotic weathering model revealed that low [CO2]a effectively acts as a "carbon starvation" brake, causing a three-fold drop in tree-driven fungal weathering fluxes of calcium and magnesium from silicate rock grains as [CO2]a falls from 1500 to 200 ppm. The feedback is regulated through the action of low [CO2]a on host tree productivity and provides empirical evidence for the role of [CO2]a starvation in diminishing the contribution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi to rates of biological weathering. More broadly, diminished tree-driven weathering under declining [CO2]a may provide an important contributory mechanism stabilising Earth's [CO2]a minimum over the past 24 million years.

  6. Weathering by tree root-associating fungi diminishes under simulated Cenozoic atmospheric CO2 decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, J.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.; Taylor, L. L.; Beerling, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    Trees dominate terrestrial biotic weathering of silicate minerals by converting solar energy into chemical energy that fuels roots and their ubiquitous nutrient-mobilising fungal symbionts. These biological activities regulate atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]a) over geologic timescales by driving calcium and magnesium fluvial ion export and marine carbonate formation, but the important stabilising feedbacks between [CO2]a and biotic weathering anticipated by geochemical carbon cycle models remain untested. We report experimental evidence for a negative feedback across a declining Cenozoic [CO2]a range from 1500 ppm to 200 ppm, whereby low [CO2]a curtails mineral surface alteration via trenching and etch pitting by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal partners of tree roots. Optical profile imaging using vertical scanning interferometry reveals changes in nanoscale surface topography consistent with a dual mode of attack involving delamination and trenching by AM and EM fungal hyphae on phyllosilicate mineral flakes. This is consistent with field observations of micropores in feldspar, hornblende and basalt, purportedly caused by EM fungi, but with little confirmatory evidence. Integrating these findings into a process-based biotic weathering model revealed that low [CO2]a effectively acts as a "carbon starvation" brake, causing a three-fold drop in tree-driven fungal weathering fluxes of calcium and magnesium from silicate rock grains as [CO2]a falls from 1500 ppm to 200 ppm. The feedback is regulated through the action of low [CO2]a on host tree productivity and provides empirical evidence for the role of [CO2]a starvation in diminishing the contribution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi to rates of biological weathering. More broadly, diminished tree-driven weathering under declining [CO2]a may provide an important contributory mechanism stabilising Earth's [CO2]a minimum over the past 24 million years.

  7. Weathering by tree root-associating fungi diminishes under simulated Cenozoic atmospheric CO2 decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Quirk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Trees dominate terrestrial biotic weathering of silicate minerals by converting solar energy into chemical energy that fuels roots and their ubiquitous nutrient-mobilising fungal symbionts. These biological activities regulate atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]a over geologic timescales by driving calcium and magnesium fluvial ion export and marine carbonate formation, but the important stabilising feedbacks between [CO2]a and biotic weathering anticipated by geochemical carbon cycle models remain untested. We report experimental evidence for a negative feedback across a declining Cenozoic [CO2]a range from 1500 ppm to 200 ppm, whereby low [CO2]a curtails mineral surface alteration via trenching and etch pitting by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and ectomycorrhizal (EM fungal partners of tree roots. Optical profile imaging using vertical scanning interferometry reveals changes in nanoscale surface topography consistent with a dual mode of attack involving delamination and trenching by AM and EM fungal hyphae on phyllosilicate mineral flakes. This is consistent with field observations of micropores in feldspar, hornblende and basalt, purportedly caused by EM fungi, but with little confirmatory evidence. Integrating these findings into a process-based biotic weathering model revealed that low [CO2]a effectively acts as a "carbon starvation" brake, causing a three-fold drop in tree-driven fungal weathering fluxes of calcium and magnesium from silicate rock grains as [CO2]a falls from 1500 ppm to 200 ppm. The feedback is regulated through the action of low [CO2]a on host tree productivity and provides empirical evidence for the role of [CO2]a starvation in diminishing the contribution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi to rates of biological weathering. More broadly, diminished tree-driven weathering under declining [CO2]a may provide an important contributory mechanism stabilising Earth's [CO2]a minimum over the past 24 million years.

  8. Literary Self-awareness and National Ethos ——The Role of the Ken’en Poetry School of the Edo Era in Japanese Literary History and National Spirit Formation%论江户时代蘐园诗派对日本文学和精神史的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋洪生

    2012-01-01

    Ogy Sorai was a famous scholar of the Ancient Rhetoric(Kobunji)school in the Edo Era.He founded the Ken’en poetry school,within which his disciple Hattori Nankaku was a representative figure.The Ken’en poetry school led the separation of"Kanbungaku"(Chinese writing written by Japanese)from the study of Confucian classics,which then began to become an independent literary tradition,thus opening the time of literary self-awareness of the Japanese Kanbungaku.The literary tradition of the Ken’en poetry school deeply shaped the contour of pre-modern and modern Japanese literature.The poetic style and tone that the Ken’en school and their followers represented,which appeared generous and virile,hearty and elegant,I argue,had an impact upon the formation of the cultural identity of modern Japan,and directly or indirectly,played an important role in the construction of the Japanese national spirit.%荻生徂徕是日本江户时代著名的古文辞学家,由他所奠基、其弟子服部南郭为代表的蘐园诗派使文学从经学中脱离,开始确立汉文学作为文学的独立地位,由此开辟了日本汉文学的自觉时代。蘐园派文学影响到其后的日本文学的展开,蘐园派及其流绪以其格调康健、情感丰富、表现典雅的诗风,影响了日本人的情志和人格铸造,直接间接地参与了日本民族精神、国民精神的建设。

  9. Exteroceptive and Interoceptive Body-Self Awareness in Fibromyalgia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Moguillansky, Camila; Reyes-Reyes, Alejandro; Gaete, María I.

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a widespread chronic pain disease characterized by generalized musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. It substantially affects patients' relationship with their bodies and quality of life, but few studies have investigated the relationship between pain and body awareness in fibromyalgia. We examined exteroceptive and interoceptive aspects of body awareness in 30 women with fibromyalgia and 29 control participants. Exteroceptive body awareness was assessed by a body-scaled action-anticipation task in which participants estimated whether they could pass through apertures of different widths. Interoceptive sensitivity (IS) was assessed by a heartbeat detection task where participants counted their heartbeats during different time intervals. Interoceptive awareness was assessed by the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA). The “passability ratio” (the aperture size for a 50% positive response rate, divided by shoulder width), assessed by the body-scaled action-anticipation task, was higher for fibromyalgia participants, indicating disrupted exteroceptive awareness. Overestimating body size correlated positively with pain and its impact on functionality, but not with pain intensity. There was no difference in IS between groups. Fibromyalgia patients exhibited a higher tendency to note bodily sensations and decreased body confidence. In addition, the passability ratio and IS score correlated negatively across the whole sample, suggesting an inverse relationship between exteroceptive and interoceptive body awareness. There was a lower tendency to actively listen to the body for insight, with higher passability ratios across the whole sample. Based on our results and building on the fear-avoidance model, we outline a proposal that highlights possible interactions between exteroceptive and interoceptive body awareness and pain. Movement based contemplative practices that target sensory-motor integration and foster non-judgmental reconnection with bodily sensations are suggested to improve body confidence, functionality, and quality of life. PMID:28348526

  10. Self-Aware Aerospace Vehicle Contingency Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences, with Agent Oriented Software, proposes to develop a contingency management system that dynamically performs decision-making based on both...

  11. Organizational Self-Awareness in the Key to Knowledge Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    a divisionalized bureaucracy (Mintzberg 1981). Designed as an innovation center, it is responsible for, among other things, forecasting and...the system, which prioritizes the needs and selection criteria for that system. 14. SUBJECT TERMS knowledge superiority, innovation , organizational...competitive advantage, knowledge is the critical element needed for any organization to innovate and succeed (Porter and Millar 1985). Its timely and

  12. Beyond Words: Leader Self-Awareness and Interpersonal Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-09

    Secret Success: A High Emotional IQ”, Fortune, 26 October 1998, 293. 26 Daniel Goleman , “What Makes A Leader?,” Harvard Business Review (January 2004...talent.24 Dan Goleman , a psychologist and best selling author says his research proves that people are promoted for technical/operational reasons

  13. Measuring Student Teachers' Understandings and Self-Awareness of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Understanding sustainability is important, as people need to cope with issues associated with over-population and over-consumption. Education is seen as a key strategy to assist with the development of people's understandings of this complex concept, which could then lead to them being able to make more sustainable lifestyle decisions. In order to…

  14. Grounding Robot Autonomy in Emotion and Self-awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ricardo; Hernández, Carlos; Hernando, Adolfo; Gómez, Jaime; Bermejo, Julita

    Much is being done in an attempt to transfer emotional mechanisms from reverse-engineered biology into social robots. There are two basic approaches: the imitative display of emotion —e.g. to intend more human-like robots— and the provision of architectures with intrinsic emotion —in the hope of enhancing behavioral aspects. This paper focuses on the second approach, describing a core vision regarding the integration of cognitive, emotional and autonomic aspects in social robot systems. This vision has evolved as a result of the efforts in consolidating the models extracted from rat emotion research and their implementation in technical use cases based on a general systemic analysis in the framework of the ICEA and C3 projects. The desire for generality of the approach intends obtaining universal theories of integrated —autonomic, emotional, cognitive— behavior. The proposed conceptualizations and architectural principles are then captured in a theoretical framework: ASys — The Autonomous Systems Framework.

  15. Measuring Student Teachers' Understandings and Self-Awareness of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Understanding sustainability is important, as people need to cope with issues associated with over-population and over-consumption. Education is seen as a key strategy to assist with the development of people's understandings of this complex concept, which could then lead to them being able to make more sustainable lifestyle decisions. In order to…

  16. Smoking Through a Topography Device Diminishes Some of the Acute Rewarding Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Juliano, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Smoking topography (ST) devices are an important methodological tool for quantifying puffing behavior (eg, puff volume, puff velocity) as well as identifying puffing differences across individuals and situations. Available ST devices are designed such that the smoker's mouth and hands have direct contact with the device rather than the cigarette itself. Given the importance of the sensorimotor aspects of cigarette smoking in smoking reward, it is possible that ST devices may interfere with the acute rewarding effects of smoking. Despite the methodological importance of this issue, few studies have directly compared subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device to naturalistic smoking. Smokers (N = 58; 38% female) smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes one time through a portable topography device and one time naturalistically, in counterbalanced order across two laboratory sessions. Smoking behavior (eg, number of puffs) and subjective effects (eg, urge reduction, affect, smoking satisfaction) were assessed. Negative affect reduction was greater in the natural smoking condition relative to the topography condition, but differences were not significant on measures of urge, withdrawal, or positive affect. Self-reported smoking satisfaction, enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, psychological reward, craving reduction, and other rewarding effects of smoking were also significantly greater in the naturalistic smoking condition. The effects of using a ST device on the smoking experience should be considered when it is used in research as it may diminish some of the rewarding effects of smoking. When considering the inclusion of a smoking topography device in one's research, it is important to know if use of that device will alter the smoker's experience. This study assessed affective and subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device compared to naturalistic smoking. We found that smoking satisfaction, psychological reward, enjoyment

  17. Using Independent Components Analysis to diminish the response of groundwater in borehole strainmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2017-04-01

    With designed feather, borehole strainmeter can not only record minor signals of tectonic movements, but also broad environmental signs such as barometry, rainfall and groundwater. Among these external factor, groundwater will influence the observation of borehole strainmeter mostly. According to essential observation, groundwater will cause much bigger response than the target tectonic strain change. We use co-sited piezometer to record pore pressure of groundwater in the rock formation in order to obtain the relationship of stain change and pore pressure. But there still exist some puzzle that can not be solved. First, due to instrument limitation, we could not set the pore pressure transducer in the same aquifer as strainmeter did. In this case, the response due to pore pressure change might be not fully correct. Furthermore, through pore-pressure transducers were set in most observatory, problem of electricity and connectivity will cause the record lack and lost. Therefore, it is necessary to find out a better and more stable method to diminish the groundwater response of strainmeter data.Strain transducer with different orientation can observe the groundwater response in different scale. If we can extract out groundwater signal from each independent strain transducer and estimate its original source. That will significantly rise signal strength and lower noise level. The case belongs some kind of blind-signal-separation (BSS) problem. The procedure of BSS extract or rebuild signal that can't be observed directly in many mixed sources and Independent-Component-Analysis (ICA) is one method adopted broadly. ICA is an analysis to find out parts which have statistics independence and non-Gaussian factor in complex signals. We use FastICA developed by to figure out the groundwater response strain in original strain data, and try to diminish it to rise the signal strength. We preceded strain data previously, then using ICA to separate data into serval independent

  18. Application of numerical method in calculating the internal rate of return of joint venture investment using diminishing musyarakah model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Siti Zaharah Mohd; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Islamic banking in Malaysia offers variety of products based on Islamic principles. One of the concepts is a diminishing musyarakah. The concept of diminishing musyarakah helps Muslims to avoid transaction which are based on riba. The diminishing musyarakah can be defined as an agreement between capital provider and entrepreneurs that enable entrepreneurs to buy equity in instalments where profits and losses are shared based on agreed ratio. The objective of this paper is to determine the internal rate of return (IRR) for a diminishing musyarakah model by applying a numerical method. There are several numerical methods in calculating the IRR such as by using an interpolation method and a trial and error method by using Microsoft Office Excel. In this paper we use a bisection method and secant method as an alternative way in calculating the IRR. It was found that the diminishing musyarakah model can be adapted in managing the performance of joint venture investments. Therefore, this paper will encourage more companies to use the concept of joint venture in managing their investments performance.

  19. Inhibition of the Pim1 oncogene results in diminished visual function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin

    Full Text Available Our objective was to profile genetic pathways whose differential expression correlates with maturation of visual function in zebrafish. Bioinformatic analysis of transcriptomic data revealed Jak-Stat signalling as the pathway most enriched in the eye, as visual function develops. Real-time PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization data confirm that multiple Jak-Stat pathway genes are up-regulated in the zebrafish eye between 3-5 days post-fertilisation, times associated with significant maturation of vision. One of the most up-regulated Jak-Stat genes is the proto-oncogene Pim1 kinase, previously associated with haematological malignancies and cancer. Loss of function experiments using Pim1 morpholinos or Pim1 inhibitors result in significant diminishment of visual behaviour and function. In summary, we have identified that enhanced expression of Jak-Stat pathway genes correlates with maturation of visual function and that the Pim1 oncogene is required for normal visual function.

  20. Marriage of scintillator and semiconductor for synchronous radiotherapy and deep photodynamic therapy with diminished oxygen dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Kuaile; Bu, Wenbo; Ni, Dalong; Liu, Yanyan; Feng, Jingwei; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-02-01

    Strong oxygen dependence and limited penetration depth are the two major challenges facing the clinical application of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In contrast, ionizing radiation is too penetrative and often leads to inefficient radiotherapy (RT) in the clinic because of the lack of effective energy accumulation in the tumor region. Inspired by the complementary advantages of PDT and RT, we present herein the integration of a scintillator and a semiconductor as an ionizing-radiation-induced PDT agent, achieving synchronous radiotherapy and depth-insensitive PDT with diminished oxygen dependence. In the core-shell Ce(III)-doped LiYF4@SiO2@ZnO structure, the downconverted ultraviolet fluorescence from the Ce(III)-doped LiYF4 nanoscintillator under ionizing irradiation enables the generation of electron-hole (e(-)-h(+)) pairs in ZnO nanoparticles, giving rise to the formation of biotoxic hydroxyl radicals. This process is analogous to a type I PDT process for enhanced antitumor therapeutic efficacy.

  1. Mediastinal vacuum phenomenon: atypical pneumomediastinum caused by gas replacement of diminished fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Hiroaki; Torii, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    We report a case involving an 83-year-old man with interstitial lung disease who developed atypical pneumomediastinum caused by gas replacement of diminished fat. The patient presented with a complaint of worsening symptoms of respiratory difficulty since a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia 5 months back. He had been under observation with no particular treatment for 5 months. Computed tomography performed on admission revealed pneumomediastinum. When the current scan was compared with that obtained 5 months ago, it was evident that the fat surrounding the mediastinum had been replaced by gas density. There was no mediastinal enlargement, pneumothorax, or pneumopericardium. Because the patient was elderly, home oxygen therapy was initiated for the interstitial pneumonia with no steroid therapy. Computed tomography performed 10 months after discharge showed the reappearance of mediastinal fat and no evidence of gas density. This case is unique because the pneumomediastinum was distinct from spontaneous pneumomediastinum caused by alveolar air leaks and resembled the vacuum phenomenon caused by intervertebral disc degeneration.

  2. Diminishing the risk on lead and zinc ore regions by subtle modulation of soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas-Nowosielska A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The negative effect of non-ferrous metal emission in Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Poland on the quality of soil is continuously present. It poses a serious threat on living organisms and is an important factor influencing the level of metal load introduced to human organism. Easy way for diminishing the metal uptake by plants is the amendment application to the soil. Presented study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the introduction of sewage sludge and fly ashes from power station into the medium contaminated soil. Heavy metals in soil were stabilized with a mixture of sewage sludge and fly ashes from the local wastewater treatment plant and power plant. Previously the mixture was tested in terms of the probability of its ecotoxicological impact on plant growth and development. Even low doses of the mixture addition to the contaminated soil caused a observable reduction of lead, cadmium and zinc in leaves of grasses. Soil additives also increased the soil pH.

  3. Diminished Memory T-Cell Expansion Due to Delayed Kinetics of Antigen Expression by Lentivectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Furmanov

    Full Text Available Memory CD8(+ T lymphocytes play a central role in protective immunity. In attempt to increase the frequencies of memory CD8(+ T cells, repeated immunizations with viral vectors are regularly explored. Lentivectors have emerged as a powerful vaccine modality with relatively low pre-existing and anti-vector immunity, thus, thought to be ideal for boosting memory T cells. Nevertheless, we found that lentivectors elicited diminished secondary T-cell responses that did not exceed those obtained by priming. This was not due to the presence of anti-vector immunity, as limited secondary responses were also observed following heterologous prime-boost immunizations. By dissecting the mechanisms involved in this process, we demonstrate that lentivectors trigger exceptionally slow kinetics of antigen expression, while optimal activation of lentivector-induced T cells relays on durable expression of the antigen. These qualities hamper secondary responses, since lentivector-encoded antigen is rapidly cleared by primary cytotoxic T cells that limit its presentation by dendritic cells. Indeed, blocking antigen clearance by cytotoxic T cells via FTY720 treatment, fully restored antigen presentation. Taken together, while low antigen expression is expected during secondary immunization with any vaccine vector, our results reveal that the intrinsic delayed expression kinetics of lentiviral-encoded antigen, further dampens secondary CD8(+ T-cell expansion.

  4. A change will do us good: threats diminish typical preferences for male leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Diekman, Amanda B; Schneider, Monica C

    2011-07-01

    The current research explores role congruity processes from a new vantage point by investigating how the need for change might shift gender-based leadership preferences. According to role congruity theory, favorability toward leaders results from alignment between what is desired in a leadership role and the characteristics stereotypically ascribed to the leader. Generally speaking, these processes lead to baseline preferences for male over female leaders. In this research, the authors propose that a shift in gender-based leadership preferences will emerge under conditions of threat. Because the psychological experience of threat signals a need for change, individuals will favor candidates who represent new directions in leadership rather than consistency with past directions in leadership. Specifically, they find that threat evokes an implicit preference for change over stability (Experiment 1) and gender stereotypes align women with change but men with stability (Experiments 2a and 2b). Consequently, the typical preference for male leaders is diminished, or even reversed, under threat (Experiments 3 and 4). Moreover, the shift away from typical gender-based leadership preferences occurs especially among individuals who highly legitimize the sociopolitical system (Experiment 4), suggesting that these preference shifts might serve to protect the underlying system.

  5. Auditory presentation at test does not diminish the production effect in recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2016-06-01

    Three experiments investigated whether auditory information at test would undermine the relational distinctiveness of vocal production at study, diminishing the production effect. In Experiment 1, with visual presentation during study, the production effect was equivalently large regardless of whether participants read each test word out loud prior to making their recognition decision. In Experiment 2, incorporating auditory presentation during study, the production effect was unaltered by whether recognition test words were presented visually or auditorily. In Experiment 3, the authors manipulated whether presentation was visual or auditory both at study and at test. Once again, presentation modality at test did not affect the size of the production effect, although the effect was significantly smaller when words were presented auditorily at study. These experiments demonstrate that production at the time of study stands out as distinct above and beyond auditory information. Moreover, this distinct aloud information need not "stand out" against a background of silent unstudied words on a recognition test. Consistent with the distinctiveness account, encoding via production enhances later recognition consistently, regardless of study or test modality. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Dietary guar gum reduces lymph flow and diminishes lipid transport in thoracic duct-cannulated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Kawamura, Sayaka; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Baba, Sanae; Nagata, Kazuko; Shiratake, Sawako; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao

    2011-08-01

    Guar gum has a well-recognized hypolipidemic effect. This effect is thought to be due to the physicochemical properties of guar gum, which may cause changes in adsorption of lipids or the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Guar gum is a non-specific absorption inhibitor of any type of lipid-soluble compound. Permanent lymph duct cannulation was performed on rats to investigate the effects of dietary guar gum on lymph flow and lipid transport. Rats fed a 5% guar gum diet were compared with those fed a 5% cellulose diet, and lymph was collected after feeding. The water-holding capacity (WHC), settling volume in water (SV), and viscosity of guar gum were compared with those of cellulose. Rats fed with the guar gum diet had significantly lower lymph flow and lymphatic lipid transport than did rats fed with the cellulose diet. The WHC, SV, and viscosity of guar gum were significantly higher than those of cellulose. We propose that dietary guar gum reduces lymph flow and thereby diminishes lipid transport by means of its physicochemical properties related to water behavior in the intestine.

  7. Cotinine prevents memory loss and diminishes Alzheimer's disease-like pathology

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    Laura Catalina Charry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD affects millions of people around the world and currently there are no effective therapies. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to be neuroprotective, prevent memory loss and reduce amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in transgenic AD mice. The beneficial effect that cotinine has on memory is associated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β. These pro-apoptotic factors promote neuronal survival and the synaptic plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in the hippocampus and cortex of wild type and AD mice. Cotinine has also shown to diminish depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed mice. Additionally, the use of this compound in studies has resulted in an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B and the postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices. It can be observed in multiple studies, that daily treatment of mice with cotinine reduced Aβ levels and plaque formation compared with vehicle treated mice, which had higher memory loss and depressive behavior. The beneficial effects of cotinine on brain function and good safety profile, suggest that it may be a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Diminishing striatal activation across adolescent development during reward anticipation in offspring of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Matthijs; de Leeuw, Max; Pouwels, Ruby; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Kahn, René S; Hillegers, Manon

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with impaired fronto-striatal functioning. Similar deficits are observed in unaffected siblings of patients, indicating that these deficits are linked to a familial risk for the disorder. Fronto-striatal deficits may arise during adolescence and precede clinical manifestation of the disorder. However, the development of the fronto-striatal network in adolescents at increased familial risk for schizophrenia is still poorly understood. In this cross-sectional study, we investigate the impact of familial risk on fronto-striatal functioning across age related to reward anticipation and receipt in 25 adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients (SZ offspring) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (range 10-19years). Subjects performed a reward task while being scanned with functional MRI. Overall response times and the amount of money won did not differ between the groups. Striatal activation during reward anticipation decreased across age in the SZ offspring, while it did not in the healthy controls. Activation in the orbitofrontal cortex during reward receipt did not differ between the groups. These results, taken together with data from adult schizophrenia patients and their siblings, indicate that the diminishing striatal activation across adolescence may signify a familial vulnerability for schizophrenia.

  9. OPTICAL DENSITY OF CORTICAL BONE MATRIX IS DIMINISHED IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS

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    Jovan Janić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD and abnormalities in bone structural and material properties, with unexplained low trauma fractures. The aim of the present study was to quantify the optical density of cortical bone matrix in rats with experimentally induced osteoporosis by ovariectomy. The experimental group was divided in two equal subgroups, the first sacrificed in the third month after ovariectomy and second sacrificed in the fifth month after ovariectomy. After decalcification, on routinely stained histopathologic sections optical density (OD, standard deviation of OD, mode OD, minimal and maximal OD of cortical bone matrix were estimated. Mean optical density and mode optical density of cortical bone were statistically higher in the control than in the experimental group (p<0.05. Maximal optical density of cortical bone was significantly lower in rats three months after ovariectomy than in other groups. Obtained results indicate that in experimentally induced osteoporosis the optical density of cortical bone matrix is diminished, similarly to low bone mineral density.

  10. Diminished N1 auditory evoked potentials to oddball stimuli in misophonia patients

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    Arjan eSchröder

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Misophonia (hatred of sound is a newly defined psychiatric condition in which ordinary human sounds, such as breathing and eating, trigger impulsive aggression. In the current study we investigated if a dysfunction in the brain’s early auditory processing system could be present in misophonia. We screened 20 patients with misophonia with the diagnostic criteria for misophonia, and 14 matched healthy controls without misophonia, and investigated any potential deficits in auditory processing of misophonia patients using auditory event-related potentials (ERPs during an oddball task.Subjects watched a neutral silent movie while being presented a regular frequency of beep sounds in which oddball tones of 250 Hz and 4000 Hz were randomly embedded in a stream of repeated 1000 Hz standard tones. We examined the P1, N1 and P2 components locked to the onset of the tones.For misophonia patients, the N1 peak evoked by the oddball tones had a smaller mean peak amplitude than the control group. However, no significant differences were found in P1 and P2 components evoked by the oddball tones. There were no significant differences between the misophonia patients and their controls in any of the ERP components to the standard tones.The diminished N1 component to oddball tones in misophonia patients suggests an underlying neurobiological deficit in misophonia patients. This reduction might reflect a basic impairment in auditory processing in misophonia patients.

  11. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-06

    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  12. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value.

  13. Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Karen E; Ma, Wei Ji; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Chiu, Pearl H

    2015-06-01

    The duration and quality of human performance depend on both intrinsic motivation and external incentives. However, little is known about the neuroscientific basis of this interplay between internal and external motivators. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation, operationalized as the free-choice time spent on a task when this was not required, and tested the neural and behavioral effects of external reward on intrinsic motivation. We found that increased duration of free-choice time was predicted by generally diminished neural responses in regions associated with cognitive and affective regulation. By comparison, the possibility of additional reward improved task accuracy, and specifically increased neural and behavioral responses following errors. Those individuals with the smallest neural responses associated with intrinsic motivation exhibited the greatest error-related neural enhancement under the external contingency of possible reward. Together, these data suggest that human performance is guided by a "tonic" and "phasic" relationship between the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation (tonic) and the impact of external incentives (phasic).

  14. Diminished contractile responses of isolated conduit arteries in two rat models of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemancíková, Anna; Török, Jozef

    2013-08-31

    Hypertension is accompanied by thickening of arteries, resulting in marked changes in their passive and active mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the large conduit arteries from hypertensive individuals may not exhibit enhanced contractions in vitro, as is often claimed. Mechanical responses to vasoconstrictor stimuli were measured under isometric conditions using ring arterial segments isolated from spontaneously hypertensive rats, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-treated Wistar rats, and untreated Wistar rats serving as normotensive control. We found that thoracic aortas from both types of hypertensive rats had a greater sensitivity but diminished maximal developed tension in response to noradrenaline, when compared with that from normotensive rats. In superior mesenteric arteries, the sensitivity to noradrenaline was similar in all examined rat groups but in L-NAME-treated rats, these arteries exhibited decreased active force when stimulated with high noradrenaline concentrations, or with 100 mM KCl. These results indicate that hypertension leads to specific biomechanical alterations in diverse arterial types which are reflected in different modifications in their contractile properties.

  15. Effects of integrative medicine treatment on 48 infertile patients with diminished ovarian reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin; PAN Fang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of integrative medicine treatment on infertile patients with diminished ovarian reserve(DOR).Methods:Forty-eight infertile patients with DOR were treated with integrative medicine from May 2004 to December 2006 in our center.Patients were divided into 3 groups:failed IVF-ET in 16 cases(IVF group),prema-ture ovarian failure in 9 cases(POF group)and DOR due to other causes in 23.cases(OV ↓ group).Yu's Follicle Replenishing Recipe(YFRR)was administered daily in all cases,and usually different dosages of estrogen were dia-lectically added according to the view of life network regulation.Symptoms,BBT,ovulation rate,pregnancy rate and serum sex hormones measuring on cycle Day 3(or day 3 after withdrawal bleeding)were observed before and af-ter treatment.Results:During the treatment,symptoms were gratefully relieved in all 48 patients,and the pregnancy rate was 40%.Ovulation rate significantly increased from 17%(8/48 before treatment)to 56 %(27/48 after treatment)(P0.05).Conclusion:The integrative medicine treatment not only increases ovulation rate and pregnancy rate in infertile patients with DOR,but also calms down their symptoms.

  16. The central role of diminishing sea ice in recent Arctic temperature amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, James A; Simmonds, Ian

    2010-04-29

    The rise in Arctic near-surface air temperatures has been almost twice as large as the global average in recent decades-a feature known as 'Arctic amplification'. Increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases have driven Arctic and global average warming; however, the underlying causes of Arctic amplification remain uncertain. The roles of reductions in snow and sea ice cover and changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation, cloud cover and water vapour are still matters of debate. A better understanding of the processes responsible for the recent amplified warming is essential for assessing the likelihood, and impacts, of future rapid Arctic warming and sea ice loss. Here we show that the Arctic warming is strongest at the surface during most of the year and is primarily consistent with reductions in sea ice cover. Changes in cloud cover, in contrast, have not contributed strongly to recent warming. Increases in atmospheric water vapour content, partly in response to reduced sea ice cover, may have enhanced warming in the lower part of the atmosphere during summer and early autumn. We conclude that diminishing sea ice has had a leading role in recent Arctic temperature amplification. The findings reinforce suggestions that strong positive ice-temperature feedbacks have emerged in the Arctic, increasing the chances of further rapid warming and sea ice loss, and will probably affect polar ecosystems, ice-sheet mass balance and human activities in the Arctic.

  17. Outcomes of bariatric surgery in type 2 diabetic patients with diminished pancreatic secretory reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian, Ali; Brethauer, Stacy A; Daigle, Christopher R; Kirwan, John P; Burguera, Bartolome; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Schauer, Philip R

    2014-12-01

    Although the marked and durable effects of bariatric surgery on early type 2 diabetes is known, there are limited data on the impact of surgery in patients with reduced beta-cell function/reserve. Clinical outcomes of 15 morbidly obese patients with poorly controlled diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery in a 10-year period and had a baseline fasting serum c-peptide ≤0.5 ng/mL were assessed. All patients had glycated hemoglobin >7 % and were on insulin before surgery. Surgical procedures included laparoscopic gastric bypass (n = 9), sleeve (n = 5), and banding (n = 1) without any intraoperative complications. At a mean follow-up of 39.6 ± 22.9 months, a mean reduction in body mass index of 25.1 ± 9.2 % and a mean percent excess weight loss of 61.5 ± 19.7 % were associated with a significant improvement in daily insulin requirement and lipid profile. At the last follow-up point, three patients (20 %) were off insulin, five patients (33.3 %) had a glycated hemoglobin ≤7 %, and one patient (6.7 %) had remission of diabetes. Hypertension resolved or improved in 5 of 11 (45.5 %) hypertensive patients. In conclusion, bariatric surgery can result in improvement of glycemic status and comorbid conditions of obese diabetic patients with diminished beta-cell reserve and may facilitate medical management of diabetes.

  18. Increased conformity offers diminishing returns for reducing total knee replacement wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregly, Benjamin J; Marquez-Barrientos, Carlos; Banks, Scott A; DesJardins, John D

    2010-02-01

    Wear remains a significant problem limiting the lifespan of total knee replacements (TKRs). Though increased conformity between TKR components has the potential to decrease wear, the optimal amount and planes of conformity have not been investigated. Furthermore, differing conformities in the medial and lateral compartments may provide designers the opportunity to address both wear and kinematic design goals simultaneously. This study used a computational model of a Stanmore knee simulator machine and a previously validated wear model to investigate this issue for simulated gait. TKR geometries with different amounts and planes of conformity on the medial and lateral sides were created and tested in two phases. The first phase utilized a wide range of sagittal and coronal conformity combinations to blanket a physically realistic design space. The second phase performed a focused investigation of the conformity conditions from the first phase to which predicted wear volume was sensitive. For the first phase, sagittal but not coronal conformity was found to have a significant effect on predicted wear volume. For the second phase, increased sagittal conformity was found to decrease predicted wear volume in a nonlinear fashion, with reductions gradually diminishing as conformity increased. These results suggest that TKR geometric design efforts aimed at minimizing wear should focus on sagittal rather than coronal conformity and that at least moderate sagittal conformity is desirable in both compartments.

  19. Ambient groundwater flow diminishes nitrate processing in the hyporheic zone of streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Morvarid; Boano, Fulvio; Cook, Perran L. M.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Rippy, Megan A.; Grant, Stanley B.

    2017-05-01

    Modeling and experimental studies demonstrate that ambient groundwater reduces hyporheic exchange, but the implications of this observation for stream N-cycling is not yet clear. Here we utilize a simple process-based model (the Pumping and Streamline Segregation or PASS model) to evaluate N-cycling over two scales of hyporheic exchange (fluvial ripples and riffle-pool sequences), ten ambient groundwater and stream flow scenarios (five gaining and losing conditions and two stream discharges), and three biogeochemical settings (identified based on a principal component analysis of previously published measurements in streams throughout the United States). Model-data comparisons indicate that our model provides realistic estimates for direct denitrification of stream nitrate, but overpredicts nitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification. Riffle-pool sequences are responsible for most of the N-processing, despite the fact that fluvial ripples generate 3-11 times more hyporheic exchange flux. Across all scenarios, hyporheic exchange flux and the Damköhler Number emerge as primary controls on stream N-cycling; the former regulates trafficking of nutrients and oxygen across the sediment-water interface, while the latter quantifies the relative rates of organic carbon mineralization and advective transport in streambed sediments. Vertical groundwater flux modulates both of these master variables in ways that tend to diminish stream N-cycling. Thus, anthropogenic perturbations of ambient groundwater flows (e.g., by urbanization, agricultural activities, groundwater mining, and/or climate change) may compromise some of the key ecosystem services provided by streams.

  20. Pulsed Ultrasound Fails To Diminish Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stay, Jeffrey C.; Richard, Mark D.; Draper, David O.; Schulthies, Shane S.; Durrant, Earlene

    1998-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of pulsed ultrasound on swelling, muscle soreness perception, relaxed-elbow extension angle, and muscular strength. Design and Setting: Eight sets of concentric and eccentric actions induced delayed-onset muscle soreness of the elbow flexors. Group 1 received 20% pulsed ultrasound treatments (1-MHz, 7 minutes, 1.5 W/ cm2 temporal peak intensity) twice a day immediately after postexercise assessments and at 3, 24, 27, 48, 51, 72, and 75 hours postexercise. Group 2 received sham treatments immediately after postexercise assessments and at 3,27, 51, and 75 hours postexercise and true treatments of pulsed ultrasound at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise. Group 3 received sham treatments of no ultrasonic output immediately after postexercise assessments and at 3, 24, 27, 48, 51, 72, and 75 hours postexercise. Subjects: Thirty-six college-age females. Measurements: We recorded upper-arm circumference, perceived soreness, relaxed-elbow extension angle, and elbow-flexion strength before (pretest), immediately postexercise, and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise. Results: We noted differences over time but no treatment effect between groups or interactions between time and group for upper-arm circumference, perceived soreness, relaxed-elbow extension angle, or elbow-flexion strength. Conclusions: Pulsed ultrasound as used in this study did not significantly diminish the effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness on soreness perception, swelling, relaxed-elbow extension angle, and strength. PMID:16558532

  1. Reducing the Polluting Emissions. A Source for Diminishing the Climate Changes

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    Emilian M. DOBRESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The USA and the Western Europe are responsible for 2/3 of the CO2 emissions accumulated until today. On the other hand, Africa has produced only 3% of polluting emission since 1900 until today, by burning mineral fuels. Since 1992, the most industrialized countries have promised to help ôthe most vulnerable nations face the adverse consequences of climate changesö by supporting the costs of adaptation. The commitment was included in the convention frame that gave birth to the Kyoto Treaty, which was rejected by the George W. Bush Administration, even though the initial document, issued in 1992, had been signed by George Bush. The industrialized countries that signed the Kyoto Treaty have decided to create a special fund for ôclimate adaptationö. Hundreds of millions of dollars had to be used in order to diminish the impact of the global warming in the most exposed areas.Lately, maybe because the CO2 emissions increase due to human activities, the planet climate has changed for worse. 2007 was a key year in evaluating the reply the planet would give to the global overheating, mainly caused by the green-house effect and worsen by El Nino oceanic stream. This superposition of climate factors made 2007 to be one of the warmest years ever registered.

  2. The diminished expression of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in gastric ulcers of cirrhotic patients.

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    Jiing-Chyuan Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The pathogenesis of the higher occurrence of peptic ulcer disease in cirrhotic patients is complex. Platelets can stimulate angiogenesis and promote gastric ulcer healing. We compared the expressions of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in the gastric ulcer margin between cirrhotic patients with thrombocytopenia and those of non-cirrhotic patients to elucidate possible mechanisms. METHODS: Eligible cirrhotic patients (n = 55 and non-cirrhotic patients (n = 55 who had gastric ulcers were enrolled. Mucosa from the gastric ulcer margin and non-ulcer areas were sampled and the mRNA expressions of the proangiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], platelet derived growth factor [PDGF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and their receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1, FGFR2 were measured and compared. Platelet count and the expressions of these growth factors and their receptors were correlated with each other. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable in terms of gender, ulcer size and infection rate of Helicobacter pylori. However, the cirrhotic group were younger in age, had a lower platelet count than those in the non-cirrhotic group (p0.5, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings implied that diminished activity of proangiogenic factors and their receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers in cirrhotic patients.

  3. No Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns for the working memory and intelligence relationship

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    Kroczek Bartłomiej

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns (SLODR holds that correlation between general (g/fluid (Gf intelligence factor and other cognitive abilities weakens with increasing ability level. Thus, cognitive processing in low ability people is most strongly saturated by g/Gf, whereas processing in high ability people depends less on g/Gf. Numerous studies demonstrated that low g is more strongly correlated with crystallized intelligence/creativity/processing speed than is high g, however no study tested an analogous effect in the case of working memory (WM. Our aim was to investigate SLODR for the relationship between Gf and WM capacity, using a large data set from our own previous studies. We tested alternative regression models separately for three types of WM tasks that tapped short-term memory storage, attention control, and relational integration, respectively. No significant SLODR effect was found for any of these tasks. Each task shared with Gf virtually the same amount of variance in the case of low- and high-ability people. This result suggests that Gf and WM rely on one and the same (neurocognitive mechanism.

  4. Magnesium Supplementation Diminishes Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte DNA Oxidative Damage in Athletes and Sedentary Young Man

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    Jelena Petrović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle is highly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. It is known that regular physical activity has positive effects on health; however several studies have shown that acute and strenuous exercise can induce oxidative stress and lead to DNA damage. As magnesium is essential in maintaining DNA integrity, the aim of this study was to determine whether four-week-long magnesium supplementation in students with sedentary lifestyle and rugby players could prevent or diminish impairment of DNA. By using the comet assay, our study demonstrated that the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL with basal endogenous DNA damage is significantly higher in rugby players compared to students with sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, magnesium supplementation significantly decreased the number of cells with high DNA damage, in the presence of exogenous H2O2, in PBL from both students and rugby players, and markedly reduced the number of cells with medium DNA damage in rugby players compared to corresponding control nonsupplemented group. Accordingly, the results of our study suggest that four-week-long magnesium supplementation has marked effects in protecting the DNA from oxidative damage in both rugby players and in young men with sedentary lifestyle. Clinical trial is registered at ANZCTR Trial Id: ACTRN12615001237572.

  5. Positive emotional priming of facial affect perception in females is diminished by chemosensory anxiety signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pause, Bettina M; Ohrt, Anne; Prehn, Alexander; Ferstl, Roman

    2004-11-01

    Chemosensory communication of anxiety is a common phenomenon in vertebrates and improves perceptual and responsive behaviour in the perceiver in order to optimize ontogenetic survival. A few rating studies reported a similar phenomenon in humans. Here, we investigated whether subliminal face perception changes in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals. Axillary sweat samples were taken from 12 males while they were waiting for an academic examination and while exercising ergometric training some days later. 16 subjects (eight females) participated in an emotional priming study, using happy, fearful and sad facial expressions as primes (11.7 ms) and neutral faces as targets (47 ms). The pooled chemosensory samples were presented before and during picture presentation (920 ms). In the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat samples taken during the sport condition, subjects judged the targets significantly more positive when they were primed by a happy face than when they were primed by the negative facial expressions (P = 0.02). In the context of the chemosensory anxiety signals, the priming effect of the happy faces was diminished in females (P = 0.02), but not in males. It is discussed whether, in socially relevant ambiguous perceptual conditions, chemosensory signals have a processing advantage and dominate visual signals or whether fear signals in general have a stronger behavioural impact than positive signals.

  6. Diminished macrophage apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation after phorbol ester stimulation in Crohn's disease.

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    Christine D Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crohn's Disease (CD is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Although its pathogenesis is complex, we have recently shown that CD patients have a systemic defect in macrophage function, which results in the defective clearance of bacteria from inflammatory sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have identified a number of additional macrophage defects in CD following diacylglycerol (DAG homolog phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA activation. We provide evidence for decreased DNA fragmentation, reduced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, impaired reactive oxygen species production, diminished cytochrome c release and increased IL-6 production compared to healthy subjects after PMA exposure. The observed macrophage defects in CD were stimulus-specific, as normal responses were observed following p53 activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. CONCLUSION: These findings add to a growing body of evidence highlighting disordered macrophage function in CD and, given their pivotal role in orchestrating inflammatory responses, defective apoptosis could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of CD.

  7. Amygdalin blocks bladder cancer cell growth in vitro by diminishing cyclin A and cdk2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Juengel, Eva; Kaulfuss, Silke; Reiter, Michael; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25-10 mg/ml) on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP). Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug.

  8. Amygdalin blocks bladder cancer cell growth in vitro by diminishing cyclin A and cdk2.

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    Jasmina Makarević

    Full Text Available Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25-10 mg/ml on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP. Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug.

  9. Diminished Wastewater Treatment: Evaluation of Septic System Performance Under a Climate Change Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T. B.; Morales, I.; Amador, J.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of climate change are expected to reduce the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), to treat domestic wastewater. In the northeastern U.S., the projected increase in atmospheric temperature, elevation of water tables from rising sea levels, and heightened precipitation will reduce the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment. Incomplete removal of contaminants may lead to transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to groundwater, increasing the risk to public health and likelihood of eutrophying aquatic ecosystems. Advanced OWTS, which include pre-treatment steps and provide unsaturated drainfields of greater volume relative to conventional OWTS, are expected to be more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify water quality functions for two advanced shallow narrow drainfield types and a conventional drainfield under a current climate scenario and a moderate climate change scenario of 30 cm rise in water table and 5°C increase in soil temperature. While no fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) was released under the current climate scenario, up to 109 CFU FCB/mL (conventional) and up to 20 CFU FCB/mL (shallow narrow) were released under the climate change scenario. Total P removal rates dropped from 100% to 54% (conventional) and 71% (shallow narrow) under the climate change scenario. Total N removal averaged 17% under both climate scenarios in the conventional, but dropped from 5.4% to 0% in the shallow narrow under the climate change scenario, with additional leaching of N in excess of inputs indicating release of previously held N. No significant difference was observed between scenarios for BOD removal. The initial data indicate that while advanced OWTS retain more function under the climate change scenario, all three drainfield types experience some diminished treatment capacity.

  10. Diminished telomeric 3' overhangs are associated with telomere dysfunction in Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Lamm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic chromosomes end with telomeres, which in most organisms are composed of tandem DNA repeats associated with telomeric proteins. These DNA repeats are synthesized by the enzyme telomerase, whose activity in most human tissues is tightly regulated, leading to gradual telomere shortening with cell divisions. Shortening beyond a critical length causes telomere uncapping, manifested by the activation of a DNA damage response (DDR and consequently cell cycle arrest. Thus, telomere length limits the number of cell divisions and provides a tumor-suppressing mechanism. However, not only telomere shortening, but also damaged telomere structure, can cause telomere uncapping. Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC and its severe form Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson Syndrome (HHS are genetic disorders mainly characterized by telomerase deficiency, accelerated telomere shortening, impaired cell proliferation, bone marrow failure, and immunodeficiency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the telomere phenotypes in a family affected with HHS, in which the genes implicated in other cases of DC and HHS have been excluded, and telomerase expression and activity appears to be normal. Telomeres in blood leukocytes derived from the patients were severely short, but in primary fibroblasts they were normal in length. Nevertheless, a significant fraction of telomeres in these fibroblasts activated DDR, an indication of their uncapped state. In addition, the telomeric 3' overhangs are diminished in blood cells and fibroblasts derived from the patients, consistent with a defect in telomere structure common to both cell types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these results suggest that the primary defect in these patients lies in the telomere structure, rather than length. We postulate that this defect hinders the access of telomerase to telomeres, thus causing accelerated telomere shortening in blood cells that rely on telomerase to replenish their telomeres

  11. Achievement of the charge exchange work diminishing of an internal combustion engine in part load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines, used for driving of different cars, occurs not only at full load, but mostly at the part load. The relative load exchange work at the full (nominal engine load is significantly low. At the part load of the IC engine its energy efficiency ηe is significantly lower than in the optimal (nominal field range of the performance parameters. One of the numerous reasons of this effect is regular growing of the relative load exchange work of the IC engine. It is directly connected with the quantitative regulation method commonly used in the IC engines. From the thermodynamic point of view - the main reason of this effect is the throttling process (causing exergy losses occurring in the inlet and outlet channels. The known proposals for solving of this problem are based on applying of the fully electronic control of the motion of inlet, outlet valves and new reference cycles.The idea presented in the paper leads to diminishing the charge exchange work of the IC engines. The problem can be solved using presented in the paper a new concept of the reference cycle (called as eco-cycle of IC engine. The work of the engine basing on the eco-cycle occurs in two 3-stroke stages; the fresh air is delivered only once for both stages, but in range of each stage a new portion of fuel is burned. Normally the charge exchange occurs once during each engine cycle realized. Elaborated proposition bases on the elimination of chosen charge exchange processes and through this the dropping of the charge exchange work can be achieved.

  12. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on follicular dynamics in a diminished ovarian reserve in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, Hikmet; Aydin, Yunus; Ozatik, Orhan; Erol, Kevser; Ozatik, Yasemin

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there are changes in primary, primordial, and growing follicles after dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration in rats that have diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) due to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) application, and to examine the mechanism of the probable effect of DHEA on folliculogenesis. Two groups of Wistar rats were used. In Group A unilateral oophorectomy (eight rats) was carried out on day-0. The remaining study ovary was removed by relaparotomy after VCD (160 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered for 15 days. In Group B unilateral oophorectomy (eight rats) was carried out on day-0. The remaining study ovary was removed by relaparotomy after VCD (160 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) administration for 15 days followed by DHEA (60 mg/kg body weight) daily for 45 days. Primordial, primary, and growing (secondary+antral) follicles were counted in 1,664 sections from 32 ovaries. In all three types of follicles (primordial, primary, and growing), the number of follicles significantly decreased in the study ovaries compared to the control ovaries in both Group A and Group B. In Group B, atresia rates were significantly lower in the study ovary compared to the control ovary in all of the follicular groups: primordial (p=0.02), primary (p=0.01), and growing (p=.027). To demonstrate the probable effects of DHEA on follicular dynamics, we also compared the study ovaries in both groups; the primordial (p=0.027), primary (p=0.031), and growing (p=0.04) number of follicles were significantly higher in Group B compared to Group A. In conclusion, our findings suggest that DHEA administration in DOR rats due to VCD results in a larger follicular pool. Decreased atresia may be one of the possible effects of DHEA in DOR cases. Whatever the mechanism, DHEA treatment potentially may be useful clinically as a means to increase the number of gonadotropin-responsive follicles for ovarian stimulation.

  13. Oral glucocorticoids diminish the efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy in experimental feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chee-hoon; Cohn, Leah A; Declue, Amy E; Liu, Hong; Reinero, Carol R

    2013-08-01

    Allergen-specific rush immunotherapy (RIT) shows promise in treating asthma; however, pet cats will likely require at least initial concurrent glucocorticoids (GCs) to control serious clinical signs. How the immunosuppressive effects of GCs would impact RIT in cats is unknown. The hypothesis of this study was that oral, but not inhaled GCs will diminish the efficacy of RIT in experimental feline asthma. Cats (n=6/group) were sensitized using Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) and randomized to receive BGA-specific RIT for 9 months with an oral GC (prednisolone 10mg daily), inhaled GC (fluticasone 220 μg twice daily), or placebo administered for the first 6 months. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) percent eosinophils and other immunological assays were performed. Eosinophilic airway inflammation was suppressed in all groups at month 6 of RIT (group mean ± SD, 5 ± 2%, 13 ± 4%, and 7 ± 2% for oral GC, inhaled GC, and placebo, respectively; P=0.291). BALF percent eosinophils significantly increased over time only in oral GC/RIT cats between months 6 and 9 (P=0.031). Placebo/RIT cats had significant decreases over time in BGA-specific serum IgE (P=0.031). Concentration of interleukin (IL)-5 in BALF significantly increased over time in inhaled GC/RIT cats (P=0.031). No significant differences were found between groups at month 6 or over time in each group for BGA-specific lymphocyte blastogenesis, percent blood T regulatory cells, or number of IL-10-producing cells. Given the significant increase of airway eosinophilia over time in RIT cats initially treated with an oral GC, inhaled GCs might be better for dampening eosinophilic inflammation until RIT normalizes the dysregulated immune system.

  14. Glucolipotoxicity diminishes cardiomyocyte TFEB and inhibits lysosomal autophagy during obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Purvi C; Bartlett, Jordan J; Perez, Lester J; Brunt, Keith R; Legare, Jean Francois; Hassan, Ansar; Kienesberger, Petra C; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Impaired cardiac metabolism in the obese and diabetic heart leads to glucolipotoxicity and ensuing cardiomyopathy. Glucolipotoxicity causes cardiomyocyte injury by increasing energy insufficiency, impairing proteasomal-mediated protein degradation and inducing apoptosis. Proteasome-evading proteins are degraded by autophagy in the lysosome, whose metabolism and function are regulated by master regulator transcription factor EB (TFEB). Limited studies have examined the impact of glucolipotoxicity on intra-lysosomal signaling proteins and their regulators. By utilizing a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, type-1 diabetes (Akita) and ex-vivo model of glucolipotoxicity (H9C2 cells and NRCM, neonatal rat cardiomyocyte), we examined whether glucolipotoxicity negatively targets TFEB and lysosomal proteins to dysregulate autophagy and cause cardiac injury. Despite differential effects of obesity and diabetes on LC3B-II, expression of proteins facilitating autophagosomal clearance such as TFEB, LAMP-2A, Hsc70 and Hsp90 were decreased in the obese and diabetic heart. In-vivo data was recapitulated in H9C2 and NRCM cells, which exhibited impaired autophagic flux and reduced TFEB content when exposed to a glucolipotoxic milieu. Notably, overloading myocytes with a saturated fatty acid (palmitate) but not an unsaturated fatty acid (oleate) depleted cellular TFEB and suppressed autophagy, suggesting a fatty acid specific regulation of TFEB and autophagy in the cardiomyocyte. The effect of glucolipotoxicity to reduce TFEB content was also confirmed in heart tissue from patients with Class-I obesity. Therefore, during glucolipotoxicity, suppression of lysosomal autophagy was associated with reduced lysosomal content, decreased cathepsin-B activity and diminished cellular TFEB content likely rendering myocytes susceptible to cardiac injury.

  15. Ageing diminishes the modulation of human brain responses to visual food cues by meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y S; Lee, S; Ashoor, G; Nathan, Y; Reed, L J; Zelaya, F O; Brammer, M J; Amiel, S A

    2014-09-01

    Rates of obesity are greatest in middle age. Obesity is associated with altered activity of brain networks sensing food-related stimuli and internal signals of energy balance, which modulate eating behaviour. The impact of healthy mid-life ageing on these processes has not been characterised. We therefore aimed to investigate changes in brain responses to food cues, and the modulatory effect of meal ingestion on such evoked neural activity, from young adulthood to middle age. Twenty-four healthy, right-handed subjects, aged 19.5-52.6 years, were studied on separate days after an overnight fast, randomly receiving 50 ml water or 554 kcal mixed meal before functional brain magnetic resonance imaging while viewing visual food cues. Across the group, meal ingestion reduced food cue-evoked activity of amygdala, putamen, insula and thalamus, and increased activity in precuneus and bilateral parietal cortex. Corrected for body mass index, ageing was associated with decreasing food cue-evoked activation of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and precuneus, and increasing activation of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), bilateral temporal lobe and posterior cingulate in the fasted state. Ageing was also positively associated with the difference in food cue-evoked activation between fed and fasted states in the right DLPFC, bilateral amygdala and striatum, and negatively associated with that of the left orbitofrontal cortex and VLPFC, superior frontal gyrus, left middle and temporal gyri, posterior cingulate and precuneus. There was an overall tendency towards decreasing modulatory effects of prior meal ingestion on food cue-evoked regional brain activity with increasing age. Healthy ageing to middle age is associated with diminishing sensitivity to meal ingestion of visual food cue-evoked activity in brain regions that represent the salience of food and direct food-associated behaviour. Reduced satiety sensing may have a role in the greater risk of

  16. Upper gastrointestinal dysmotility after spinal cord injury: Is diminished vagal sensory processing one culprit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Holmes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widely recognized prevalence of gastric, colonic and anorectal dysfunction after SCI, significant knowledge gaps persist regarding the mechanisms leading to post-SCI gastrointestinal (GI impairments. Briefly, the regulation of GI function is governed by a mix of parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric neurocircuitry. Unlike the intestines, the stomach is dominated by parasympathetic (vagal control whereby gastric sensory information is transmitted via the afferent vagus nerve to neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. The NTS integrates this sensory information with signals from throughout the CNS. Glutamatergic and GABAergic NTS neurons project to other nuclei, including the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Finally, axons from the DMV project to gastric myenteric neurons, again, through the efferent vagus nerve. SCI interrupts descending input to the lumbosacral spinal cord neurons that modulate colonic motility and evacuation reflexes. In contrast, vagal neurocircuitry remains anatomically intact after injury. This review presents evidence that unlike the post-SCI loss of supraspinal control which leads to colonic and anorectal dysfunction, gastric dysmotility occurs as an indirect or secondary pathology following SCI. Specifically, emerging data points toward diminished sensitivity of vagal afferents to GI neuroactive peptides, neurotransmitters and, possibly, macronutrients. The neurophysiological properties of rat vagal afferent neurons are highly plastic and can be altered by injury or energy balance. A reduction of vagal afferent signaling to NTS neurons may ultimately bias NTS output toward unregulated GABAergic transmission onto gastric-projecting DMV neurons. The resulting gastroinhibitory signal may be one mechanism leading to upper GI dysmotility following SCI.

  17. Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: the case of pink bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxin; Wan, Peng; Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops.

  18. Some gating potentiators, including VX-770, diminish ΔF508-CFTR functional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Guido; Avramescu, Radu G; Perdomo, Doranda; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Bagdany, Miklos; Apaja, Pirjo M; Borot, Florence; Szollosi, Daniel; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Hegedus, Tamas; Verkman, Alan S; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2014-07-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) that result in reduced anion conductance at the apical membrane of secretory epithelia. Treatment of CF patients carrying the G551D gating mutation with the potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor) largely restores channel activity and has shown substantial clinical benefit. However, most CF patients carry the ΔF508 mutation, which impairs CFTR folding, processing, function, and stability. Studies in homozygous ΔF508 CF patients indicated little clinical benefit of monotherapy with the investigational corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor) or VX-770, whereas combination clinical trials show limited but significant improvements in lung function. We show that VX-770, as well as most other potentiators, reduces the correction efficacy of VX-809 and another investigational corrector, VX-661. To mimic the administration of VX-770 alone or in combination with VX-809, we examined its long-term effect in immortalized and primary human respiratory epithelia. VX-770 diminished the folding efficiency and the metabolic stability of ΔF508-CFTR at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and post-ER compartments, respectively, causing reduced cell surface ΔF508-CFTR density and function. VX-770-induced destabilization of ΔF508-CFTR was influenced by second-site suppressor mutations of the folding defect and was prevented by stabilization of the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1)-NBD2 interface. The reduced correction efficiency of ΔF508-CFTR, as well as of two other processing mutations in the presence of VX-770, suggests the need for further optimization of potentiators to maximize the clinical benefit of corrector-potentiator combination therapy in CF.

  19. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2012-06-08

    Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPARγ-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPARγ-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological situations; one is a supportive response against nutritional deprivation achieved by enhancing lipase activity, and the other is a pathological consequence of obesity, causing subclinical inflammation and metabolic disorders, mediated by abolishing droplet-coating proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glutathione synthesis is diminished in patients with uncontrolled diabetes and restored by dietary supplementation with cysteine and glycine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with low cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), which leads to tissue damage attributed to oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that diminished GSH in adult patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes is attributed to decreased synthesis and ...

  1. Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a)…

  2. Will sacubitril-valsartan diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing in acute cardiac care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mair, Johannes; Lindahl, Bertil; Giannitsis, Evangelos;

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval of sacubitril-valsartan for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, a commonly raised suspicion is that a wider clinical use of this new drug may diminish the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide testing as sacubitril may interfere with B...

  3. Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of…

  4. Social inequalities in health- do they diminish with age? Revisiting the question in Sweden 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckman Anders

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with low income have poorer health and should, therefore, have higher health expenditure than people with high income particularly in countries with a universal health care system. However, it has been discussed if social inequities in health diminish with age and we, hence, aimed to analyse this question. Methods We performed an age stratified cross-sectional analysis using averages, logistic and linear regression modelling of health care contacts, health care expenditures and mortality in relation to individual income in five groups by quintiles. The population consisted of all the 249,855 men aged 40 to 80 years living in the county of Skåne, Sweden during 1999. Results For working-age people (40-59 year old we find a clear socioeconomic gradient with increasing probability of health care contact, relative expenditure and mortality as income decreased. The point estimations for 1st (highest-2nd-3rd-4th and 5th (lowest income groups were: (1.00-1.13-1.21-1.42 and 1.15, (1.00-1.16-1.29-1.69 and 1.89 and (1.00-1.35-1.44-2.82 and 4.12 for health care contact, relative expenditure and mortality respectively. However, in the elderly (75-80 year old these point estimates were (1.00-0.83-0.59-0.61 and 0.39, (1.00-1.04-1.05-1.02 and 0.96 and (1.00-1.06-1.30-1.33 and 1.49. Conclusions As expected among working-age individuals, lower income was associated with higher health care contact, relative expenditure and mortality. However, the existence of opposite socioeconomic gradients in health care utilisation and mortality in the elderly suggests that factors related to a high income might condition allocation of resources, or that current medical care is ineffective to treat determinants of income differences in mortality occurring earlier in the lifecourse.

  5. Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: A crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. Methods Preterm neonates (n = 61 between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks gestational age in three Level III NICU's in Canada comprised the sample. A single-blind randomized crossover design was employed. In the experimental condition, the infant was held in KMC for 15 minutes prior to and throughout heel lance procedure. In the control condition, the infant was in prone position swaddled in a blanket in the incubator. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP, which is comprised of three facial actions, maximum heart rate, minimum oxygen saturation levels from baseline in 30-second blocks from heel lance. The secondary outcome was time to recover, defined as heart rate return to baseline. Continuous video, heart rate and oxygen saturation monitoring were recorded with event markers during the procedure and were subsequently analyzed. Repeated measures analysis-of-variance was employed to generate results. Results PIPP scores at 90 seconds post lance were significantly lower in the KMC condition (8.871 (95%CI 7.852–9.889 versus 10.677 (95%CI 9.563–11.792 p CI 103–142 versus 193 seconds (95%CI 158–227. Facial actions were highly significantly lower across all points in time reaching a two-fold difference by 120 seconds post-lance and heart rate was significantly lower across the first 90 seconds in the KMC condition. Conclusion Very preterm neonates appear to have endogenous mechanisms elicited through skin-to-skin maternal contact that decrease pain response, but not as powerfully as in older preterm neonates. The shorter recovery time in KMC is clinically important in helping maintain homeostasis. Trial Registration (Current

  6. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa [Genomic Science Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugadenaka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0022 (Japan); Arai, Satoko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Miyazaki, Toru, E-mail: tm@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  7. Blocking TLR2 activity diminishes and stabilizes advanced atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xing WANG; Xiao-xi LV; Jia-ping WANG; Hui-min YAN; Zi-yan WANG; Han-zhi LIU; Xiao-ming FU

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling plays a critical role in the initiation of atherosclerosis.The aim of this study was to investigate whether blocking TLR2 activity could produce therapeutic effects on advanced atherosclerosis.Methods:Forty-week old apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice fed on a normal diet were intravenously injected with a TLR2-neutralizing antibody or with an isotype-matched IgG for 18 weeks.Double-knockout ApoE-/-Tlr2-/-mice were taken as a positive control.At the end of the treatments,the plasma lipid levels were measured,and the plaque morphology,pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and apoptosis in arteries were analyzed.In the second part of this study,6-week old ApoE-/-and ApoE-/-Tlr2-/-mice fed on a high-cholesterol diet for 12 to 24 weeks,the expression levels of TLR2 and apoptotic markers in arteries were examined.Results:Blockade of TLR2 activity with TLR2-neutralizing antibody or knockout of Tlr2 gene did not alter the plasma lipid levels in ApoE-/-mice.However,the pharmacologic and genetic manipulations significantly reduced the plaque size and vessel stenosis,and increased plaque stability in the brachiocephalic arteries.The protective effects of TLR2 antagonism were associated with the suppressed expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and the inactivation of transcription factors NF-KB and Stat3.In addition,blocking TLR2 activity attenuated ER stress-induced macrophage apoptosis in the brachiocephalic arteries,which could promote the resolution of necrotic cores in advanced atherosclerosis.Moreover,high-cholesterol diet more prominently accelerated atherosclerotic formation and increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein CHOP and apoptosis in ApoE-/-mice than in ApoE-/-Tlr2-/-mice.Conclusion:The pharmacologic or genetic blockade of TLR2 activity diminishes and stabilizes advanced atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/-mice.Thus,targeting TLR2 signaling may be a promising therapeutic strategy against

  8. Diminishing the impact of the partial volume effect in cardiac SPECT perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, P Hendrik; King, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The partial volume effect (PVE) significantly restricts the absolute quantification of regional myocardial uptake and thereby limits the accuracy of absolute measurement of blood flow and coronary flow reserve by SPECT. The template-projection-reconstruction method has been previously developed for PVE compensation. This method assumes the availability of coregistered high-spatial resolution anatomical information as is now becoming available with commercial dual-modality imaging systems such as SPECT/CTs. The objective of this investigation was to determine the extent to which the impact of the PVE on cardiac perfusion SPECT imaging can be diminished if coregistered high-spatial resolution anatomical information is available. For this investigation the authors introduced an additional parameter into the template-projection-reconstruction compensation equation called the voxel filling fraction (F). This parameter specifies the extent to which structure edge voxels in the emission reconstruction are filled by the structure in question as determined by the higher spatial-resolution imaging modality and the fractional presence of the structure at different states of physiological motion as in combining phases of cardiac motion. During correction the removal of spillover to the cardiac region from the surrounding structures is performed first by using reconstructed templates of neighboring structures (liver, blood pool, lungs) to calculate spillover fractions. This is followed by determining recovery coefficients for all voxels within the heart wall from the reconstruction of the template projections of the left and right ventricles (LV and RV). The emission data are subsequently divided by these recovery coefficients taking into account the filling fraction F. The mathematical cardiac torso phantom was used for investigation correction of PVE for a normal LV distribution, a defect in the inferior wall, and a defect in the anterior wall. PVE correction resulted in a

  9. Furosemide diminishes {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine uptake in prostate cancer in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischke, H.C. [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Beck, Teresa; Wieser, Gesche; Meyer, Philipp T. [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Vach, Werner [University of Freiburg, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Grosu, Anca L. [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Jilg, Cordula A. [University of Freiburg, Department of Urology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    choline uptake in tumour lesions, especially significant in pelvic lymph node metastases. Although furosemide administration improved image quality, optimal image quality may also be obtained by adequate hydration without the risk of diminishing choline uptake in PCa lesions. Therefore a controlled hydration protocol seems more appropriate than administration of furosemide. (orig.)

  10. Chronic fatigue syndrome: illness severity, sedentary lifestyle, blood volume and evidence of diminished cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Barry E; Coryell, Virginia T; Parker, Meela; Martin, Pedro; Laperriere, Arthur; Klimas, Nancy G; Sfakianakis, George N; Bilsker, Martin S

    2009-10-19

    The study examined whether deficits in cardiac output and blood volume in a CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome) cohort were present and linked to illness severity and sedentary lifestyle. Follow-up analyses assessed whether differences in cardiac output levels between CFS and control groups were corrected by controlling for cardiac contractility and TBV (total blood volume). The 146 participants were subdivided into two CFS groups based on symptom severity data, severe (n=30) and non-severe (n=26), and two healthy non-CFS control groups based on physical activity, sedentary (n=58) and non-sedentary (n=32). Controls were matched to CFS participants using age, gender, ethnicity and body mass. Echocardiographic measures indicated that the severe CFS participants had 10.2% lower cardiac volume (i.e. stroke index and end-diastolic volume) and 25.1% lower contractility (velocity of circumferential shortening corrected by heart rate) than the control groups. Dual tag blood volume assessments indicated that the CFS groups had lower TBV, PV (plasma volume) and RBCV (red blood cell volume) than control groups. Of the CFS subjects with a TBV deficit (i.e. > or = 8% below ideal levels), the mean+/-S.D. percentage deficit in TBV, PV and RBCV were -15.4+/-4.0, -13.2+/-5.0 and -19.1+/-6.3% respectively. Lower cardiac volume levels in CFS were substantially corrected by controlling for prevailing TBV deficits, but were not affected by controlling for cardiac contractility levels. Analyses indicated that the TBV deficit explained 91-94% of the group differences in cardiac volume indices. Group differences in cardiac structure were offsetting and, hence, no differences emerged for left ventricular mass index. Therefore the findings indicate that lower cardiac volume levels, displayed primarily by subjects with severe CFS, were not linked to diminished cardiac contractility levels, but were probably a consequence of a co-morbid hypovolaemic condition. Further study is needed to address

  11. Reconciling the Mitscherlich's law of diminishing returns with Liebig's law of the minimum. Some results on crop modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Iuri E P; Zocchi, Silvio S; Baron, Daniel

    2017-08-26

    Reliable fertilizer recommendations depend on the correctness of the crop production models fitted to the data, but generally the crop models are built empirically, neglecting important physiological aspects related with response to fertilizers, or they are based in laws of plant mineral nutrition seen by many authors as conflicting theories: the Liebig's Law of the Minimum and Mitscherlich's Law of Diminishing Returns. We developed a new approach to modelling the crop response to fertilizers that reconcile these laws. In this study, the Liebig's Law is applied at the cellular level to explain plant production and, as a result, crop models compatible with the Law of Diminishing Returns are derived. Some classical crop models appear here as special cases of our methodology, and a new interpretation for Mitscherlich's Law is also provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gesturing more diminishes recall of abstract words when gesture is allowed and concrete words when it is taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Saugstad, Krista M; Raymakers, Erik P; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G

    2017-07-01

    Gesture during speech can promote or diminish recall for conversation content. We explored effects of cognitive load on this relationship, manipulating it at two scales: individual-word abstractness and social constraints to prohibit gestures. Prohibited gestures can diminish recall but more so for abstract-word recall. Insofar as movement planning adds to cognitive load, movement amplitude may moderate gesture effects on memory, with greater permitted- and prohibited-gesture movements reducing abstract-word recall and concrete-word recall, respectively. We tested these effects in a dyadic game in which 39 adult participants described words to confederates without naming the word or five related words. Results supported our expectations and indicated that memory effects of gesturing depend on social, cognitive, and motoric aspects of discourse.

  13. Decelerating the diminishing returns of citizenship on task performance: the role of social context and interpersonal skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, J Kemp; Dierdorff, Erich C; Rubin, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    Recent scholarship on citizenship behavior demonstrates that engaging too often in these behaviors comes at the expense of task performance. In order to examine the boundary conditions of this relationship, we used resource allocation and social exchange theories to build predictions regarding moderators of the curvilinear association between citizenship and task performance. We conducted a field study of 366 employees, in which we examined the relationship between the frequency of interpersonal helping behavior and task performance and tested for the moderating influences of 3 social context features (social density, interdependence, and social support) and of employees' levels of interpersonal skill. Results provided corroborating evidence of the diminishing returns between citizenship and task performance. Further, these diminishing returns were decelerated when contexts were characterized by high interdependence and social density and when employees possessed strong interpersonal skills. Implications for extending future citizenship theory and research to incorporate curvilinearity are presented.

  14. Diminished brain resilience syndrome: A modern day neurological pathology of increased susceptibility to mild brain trauma, concussion, and downstream neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Wendy A.; Stephanie Seneff

    2014-01-01

    The number of sports-related concussions has been steadily rising in recent years. Diminished brain resilience syndrome is a term coined by the lead author to describe a particular physiological state of nutrient functional deficiency and disrupted homeostatic mechanisms leading to increased susceptibility to previously considered innocuous concussion. We discuss how modern day environmental toxicant exposure, along with major changes in our food supply and lifestyle practices, profoundly red...

  15. Applying High Resolution Imagery to Understand the Role of Dynamics in the Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Role of Dynamics in the Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice Cover ” Dr. Sinead L. Farrell University of Maryland, ESSIC, 5825 University Research Court...day Arctic ice cover , enabling the improvement of models used to forecast ice drift. APPROACH Our research is centered on the application of...resolution visible band imagery for deriving geophysical information on the sea ice pack of the Arctic Ocean , and improve understanding of key

  16. Diminished A-type potassium current and altered firing properties in presympathetic PVN neurones in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonner, Patrick M; Filosa, Jessica A; Stern, Javier E

    2008-03-15

    Accumulating evidence supports a contribution of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to sympathoexcitation and elevated blood pressure in renovascular hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in altered neuronal function in hypertensive rats remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to address whether the transient outward potassium current (I(A)) in identified rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN neurones is altered in hypertensive rats, and whether such changes affected single and repetitive action potential properties and associated changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Patch-clamp recordings obtained from PVN-RVLM neurons showed a reduction in I(A) current magnitude and single channel conductance, and an enhanced steady-state current inactivation in hypertensive rats. Morphometric reconstructions of intracellularly labelled PVN-RVLM neurons showed a diminished dendritic surface area in hypertensive rats. Consistent with a diminished I(A) availability, action potentials in PVN-RVLM neurons in hypertensive rats were broader, decayed more slowly, and were less sensitive to the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. Simultaneous patch clamp recordings and confocal Ca(2+) imaging demonstrated enhanced action potential-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) transients in hypertensive rats. Finally, spike broadening during repetitive firing discharge was enhanced in PVN-RVLM neurons from hypertensive rats. Altogether, our results indicate that diminished I(A) availability constitutes a contributing mechanism underlying aberrant central neuronal function in renovascular hypertension.

  17. The immune receptor Trem1 cooperates with diminished DNA damage response to induce preleukemic stem cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Amarachintha, S; Wilson, A; Pang, Q

    2017-02-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome with extremely high risk of leukemic transformation. Here we investigate the relationship between DNA damage response (DDR) and leukemogenesis using the Fanca knockout mouse model. We found that chronic exposure of the Fanca(-/-) hematopoietic stem cells to DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C in vivo leads to diminished DDR, and the emergence/expansion of pre-leukemia stem cells (pre-LSCs). Surprisingly, although genetic correction of Fanca deficiency in the pre-LSCs restores DDR and reduces genomic instability, but fails to prevent pre-LSC expansion or delay leukemia development in irradiated recipients. Furthermore, we identified transcription program underlying dysregulated DDR and cell migration, myeloid proliferation, and immune response in the Fanca(-/-) pre-LSCs. Forced expression of the downregulated DNA repair genes, Rad51c or Trp53i13, in the Fanca(-/-) pre-LSCs partially rescues DDR but has no effect on leukemia, whereas shRNA knockdown of the upregulated immune receptor genes Trem1 or Pilrb improves leukemia-related survival, but not DDR or genomic instability. Furthermore, Trem1 cooperates with diminished DDR in vivo to promote Fanca(-/-) pre-LSC expansion and leukemia development. Our study implicates diminishing DDR as a root cause of FA leukemogenesis, which subsequently collaborates with other signaling pathways for leukemogenic transformation.

  18. Plasma-membrane hyperpolarization diminishes the cation efflux via Nha1 antiporter and Ena ATPase under potassium-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrádka, Jaromír; Sychrová, Hana

    2012-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae extrudes K(+) cations even when potassium is only present in scarce amounts in the environment. Lost potassium is taken up by the Trk1 and Trk2 uptake systems. If the Trk transporters are absent or nonfunctional, the efflux of potassium is significantly diminished. A series of experiments with strains lacking various combinations of potassium efflux and uptake systems revealed that all three potassium-exporting systems the Nha1 antiporter, Ena ATPase and Tok1 channel contribute to potassium homeostasis and are active upon potassium limitation in wild-type cells. In trk1Δ trk2Δ mutants, the potassium efflux via potassium exporters Nha1 and Ena1 is diminished and can be restored either by the expression of TRK1 or deletion of TOK1. In both cases, the relative hyperpolarization of trk1Δ trk2Δ cells is decreased. Thus, it is the plasma-membrane potential which serves as the common mechanism regulating the activity of K(+) exporting systems. There is a continuous uptake and efflux of potassium in yeast cells to regulate their membrane potential and thereby other physiological parameters, and the cells are able to quickly and efficiently compensate for a malfunction of potassium transport in one direction by diminishing the transport in the other direction.

  19. Diminished hippocalcin expression in Huntington's disease brain does not account for increased striatal neuron vulnerability as assessed in primary neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinskiy, Nikita; Kaneko, Yoshio A; Beesen, Ayshe Ana; Gokce, Ozgun; Régulier, Etienne; Déglon, Nicole; Luthi-Carter, Ruth

    2009-10-01

    Hippocalcin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein previously implicated in regulating neuronal viability and plasticity. Hippocalcin is the most highly expressed neuronal calcium sensor in the medium spiny striatal output neurons that degenerate selectively in Huntington's disease (HD). We have previously shown that decreased hippocalcin expression occurs in parallel with the onset of disease phenotype in mouse models of HD. Here we show by in situ hybridization histochemistry that hippocalcin RNA is also diminished by 63% in human HD brain. These findings lead us to hypothesize that diminished hippocalcin expression might contribute to striatal neurodegeneration in HD. We tested this hypothesis by assessing whether restoration of hippocalcin expression would decrease striatal neurodegeneration in cellular models of HD comprising primary striatal neurons exposed to mutant huntingtin, the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid or an excitotoxic concentration of glutamate. Counter to our hypothesis, hippocalcin expression did not improve the survival of striatal neurons under these conditions. Likewise, expression of hippocalcin together with interactor proteins including the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein did not increase the survival of striatal cells in cellular models of HD. These results indicate that diminished hippocalcin expression does not contribute to HD-related neurodegeneration.

  20. Diet-related modification of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, diminishes intercolony aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Kumar, Ranjit; Suib, Steven L; Silverman, Jules

    2005-04-01

    Territorial boundaries between conspecific social insect colonies are maintained through a highly developed nestmate recognition system modulated by heritable and, in some instances, nonheritable cues. Argentine ants, Linepithema humile, use both genetic and environmentally derived cues to discriminate nestmates from nonnestmates. We explored the possibility that intraspecific aggression in the Argentine ant might diminish when colonies shared a common diet. After segregating recently field-collected colony pairs into high or moderate aggression categories, we examined the effect of one of three diets: two hydrocarbon-rich insect prey, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa, and an artificial (insect-free) diet, on the magnitude of aggression loss. Aggression diminished between colony pairs that were initially moderately aggressive. However, initially highly aggressive colony pairs maintained high levels of injurious aggression throughout the study, independent of diet type. Each diet altered the cuticular hydrocarbon profile by contributing unique, diet-specific cues. We suggest that acquisition of common exogenous nestmate recognition cues from shared food sources may diminish aggression and promote fusion in neighboring colonies of the Argentine ant.

  1. Type 2 diabetes - Tuberculosis co-morbidity is associated with diminished circulating levels of IL-20 subfamily of cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Nair, Dina; Kumaran, Paul; Dolla, Chandra Kumar; Babu, Subash

    2015-12-01

    IL-20 subfamily of cytokines play an important role in both host defense mechanisms and glucose metabolism. Since, the interaction between tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes (DM) involves both of the above processes, we examined the association of IL-20 subfamily of cytokines in TB-DM co-morbidity. We examined circulating plasma cytokine levels in individuals with active TB with (PTB-DM) or without (PTB) diabetes and also those with latent TB with (LTB-DM) or without (LTB) diabetes. PTB-DM is characterized by diminished circulating levels of IL-19, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 but increased levels of IL-10. Similarly, LTB-DM was also characterized by diminished circulating levels of IL-10, IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 but increased levels of IL-22. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation of IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 levels with hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels in both PTB and/or LTB individuals. Finally, PTB is characterized by diminished levels of IL-19, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 in comparison to LTB individuals. Our data reveal that coincident diabetes in either PTB or LTB is characterized by decreased production of the IL-20 subfamily of cytokines and suggest that these cytokines might play an important role in pathogenesis or protection.

  2. “五四”女性自我意识的艰难觉醒--读丁玲《梦柯》《莎菲女士的日记》《阿毛姑娘》%The Difficult Awakening of Self-awareness of Females in the May 4 Movement--A Review after Reading Mengke,MsSophie’sDiaryand A’MaoGirlWritten by Ding Ling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爱玲

    2015-01-01

    自我意识可以从个体意识和性别意识两个层面来理解。“五四”社会启蒙既唤醒了一代青年的个体意识,又唤醒了女性意识。文章通过分析丁玲的早期创作《梦柯》《莎菲女士的日记》和《阿毛姑娘》,揭示了“五四”时代女性自我意识的艰难觉醒。%Self-consciousness can be understood from two aspects: the individual consciousness and the gender consciousness.“May 4th”social enlightenment awakens both the individual consciousness of the gener⁃ation of youth and the female consciousness. The author reveals the difficult awakening of the“May 4th”fe⁃male self-awareness through the early books of Mengke, Ms Sophie ’s Diary and A ’Mao Girl written by Ding Ling.

  3. Information flow in networks and the law of diminishing marginal returns: evidence from modeling and human electroencephalographic recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Marinazzo

    Full Text Available We analyze simple dynamical network models which describe the limited capacity of nodes to process the input information. For a proper range of their parameters, the information flow pattern in these models is characterized by exponential distribution of the incoming information and a fat-tailed distribution of the outgoing information, as a signature of the law of diminishing marginal returns. We apply this analysis to effective connectivity networks from human EEG signals, obtained by Granger Causality, which has recently been given an interpretation in the framework of information theory. From the distributions of the incoming versus the outgoing values of the information flow it is evident that the incoming information is exponentially distributed whilst the outgoing information shows a fat tail. This suggests that overall brain effective connectivity networks may also be considered in the light of the law of diminishing marginal returns. Interestingly, this pattern is reproduced locally but with a clear modulation: a topographic analysis has also been made considering the distribution of incoming and outgoing values at each electrode, suggesting a functional role for this phenomenon.

  4. Diminished brain resilience syndrome: A modern day neurological pathology of increased susceptibility to mild brain trauma, concussion, and downstream neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Wendy A; Seneff, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The number of sports-related concussions has been steadily rising in recent years. Diminished brain resilience syndrome is a term coined by the lead author to describe a particular physiological state of nutrient functional deficiency and disrupted homeostatic mechanisms leading to increased susceptibility to previously considered innocuous concussion. We discuss how modern day environmental toxicant exposure, along with major changes in our food supply and lifestyle practices, profoundly reduce the bioavailability of neuro-critical nutrients such that the normal processes of homeostatic balance and resilience are no longer functional. Their diminished capacity triggers physiological and biochemical 'work around' processes that result in undesirable downstream consequences. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals, particularly glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup(®), may disrupt the body's innate switching mechanism, which normally turns off the immune response to brain injury once danger has been removed. Deficiencies in serotonin, due to disruption of the shikimate pathway, may lead to impaired melatonin supply, which reduces the resiliency of the brain through reduced antioxidant capacity and alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid, reducing critical protective buffering mechanisms in impact trauma. Depletion of certain rare minerals, overuse of sunscreen and/or overprotection from sun exposure, as well as overindulgence in heavily processed, nutrient deficient foods, further compromise the brain's resilience. Modifications to lifestyle practices, if widely implemented, could significantly reduce this trend of neurological damage.

  5. Diminished brain resilience syndrome: A modern day neurological pathology of increased susceptibility to mild brain trauma, concussion, and downstream neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A Morley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of sports-related concussions has been steadily rising in recent years. Diminished brain resilience syndrome is a term coined by the lead author to describe a particular physiological state of nutrient functional deficiency and disrupted homeostatic mechanisms leading to increased susceptibility to previously considered innocuous concussion. We discuss how modern day environmental toxicant exposure, along with major changes in our food supply and lifestyle practices, profoundly reduce the bioavailability of neuro-critical nutrients such that the normal processes of homeostatic balance and resilience are no longer functional. Their diminished capacity triggers physiological and biochemical ′work around′ processes that result in undesirable downstream consequences. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals, particularly glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup; , may disrupt the body′s innate switching mechanism, which normally turns off the immune response to brain injury once danger has been removed. Deficiencies in serotonin, due to disruption of the shikimate pathway, may lead to impaired melatonin supply, which reduces the resiliency of the brain through reduced antioxidant capacity and alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid, reducing critical protective buffering mechanisms in impact trauma. Depletion of certain rare minerals, overuse of sunscreen and/or overprotection from sun exposure, as well as overindulgence in heavily processed, nutrient deficient foods, further compromise the brain′s resilience. Modifications to lifestyle practices, if widely implemented, could significantly reduce this trend of neurological damage.

  6. Diminished production of TWEAK by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells is associated with vascular involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otylia Kowal-Bielecka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Widespread vasculopathy and profound fibrosis are key features of the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc. We hypothesized that the TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK, a recently recognized multifunctional cytokine which regulates angiogenesis and tissue remodeling, may play a role in the development of SSc. The production of TWEAK by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was investigated, by means of ELISA, in 24 SSc patients and 14 healthy subjects. Moreover, production of TWEAK was correlated with clinical features of SSc. PBMC were isolated using density gradient centrifugation on Histopaque and were cultured in FCS supplemented RPMI medium at 37 degrees C under 5% CO2. Production of TWEAK by PBMC was significantly diminished in patients with more severe microvascular damage, as indicated by the presence of "active" capillaroscopic pattern, compared with SSc patients with less pronounced microangiopathy ("slow" pattern, and healthy subjects. Moreover production of TWEAK correlated inversely with duration of Raynaud's phenomenon. PBMC from patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease tended to produce lower amounts of TWEAK compared with SSc patients without lung involvement but the difference was not significant. The results of our study suggest that diminished production of TWEAK might play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular injury in SSc patients. Whether TWEAK may represent a new therapeutic target in SSc requires further studies.

  7. Diminished primary and secondary influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in CD4-depleted Ig(-/-) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberdy, J M; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Branum, K

    2000-01-01

    Optimal expansion of influenza virus nucleoprotein (D(b)NP(366))-specific CD8(+) T cells following respiratory challenge of naive Ig(-/-) microMT mice was found to require CD4(+) T-cell help, and this effect was also observed in primed animals. Absence of the CD4(+) population was consistently...... correlated with diminished recruitment of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells to the infected lung, delayed virus clearance, and increased morbidity. The splenic CD8(+) set generated during the recall response in Ig(-/-) mice primed at least 6 months previously showed a normal profile of gamma interferon...... production subsequent to short-term, in vitro stimulation with viral peptide, irrespective of a concurrent CD4(+) T-cell response. Both the magnitude and the localization profiles of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells, though perhaps not their functional characteristics, are thus modified in mice lacking CD4(+) T...

  8. The Power of Serum Uric Acid in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Diminishes With Age in an Elderly Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J-H; Hsieh, C-H; Liu, J-S; Chuang, T-J; Chang, H-W; Huang, C-L; Li, P-F; Pei, D; Chen, Y-L

    2016-01-01

    Although serum uric acid (sUA) is not a criterion for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MetS), many studies have identified a positive association between sUA and MetS in patients of various ages and ethnicities. This association has not been fully established in the very elderly. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. A total of 18,906 Chinese elderly aged 65 and older undergoing routine health checkups in Taiwan were enrolled. Modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define MetS. All participants were further divided into nine groups with gender specification according to age (the young-old, 65 to 74; old-old, 75 to 84; and oldest-old, 85 and over) and sUA concentration tertile (males: sUAG1, 6.7 mg/dL; females: sUAG1, 5.9 mg/dL). A cross-sectional study was first performed to determine the correlation between sUA and MetS and its components. A longitudinal study then excluded subjects with MetS at baseline to explore the risk of MetS according to sUA levels in 3 age groups. In the cross-sectional study, we observed a graded, positive association between sUA and MetS components that diminished after age 75. Subjects with higher sUA levels had higher odds ratios (OR) for the occurrence of MetS in the young-old and old-old groups of both sexes (PChinese elderly were associated with a higher risk of developing MetS. sUA levels are thus regarded as a potential tool for early diagnosis of MetS. However, this association diminished in those over 75 years of age.

  9. Bone marrow deficiency of MCPIP1 results in severe multi-organ inflammation but diminishes atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: MCPIP1 is a newly identified protein that profoundly impacts immunity and inflammation. We aim to test if MCPIP1 deficiency in hematopoietic cells results in systemic inflammation and accelerates atherogenesis in mice. APPROACH AND RESULTS: After lethally irradiated, LDLR(-/- mice were transplanted with bone marrow cells from either wild-type or MCPIP1(-/- mice. These chimeric mice were fed a western-type diet for 7 weeks. We found that bone marrow MCPIP1(-/- mice displayed a phenotype similar to that of whole body MCPIP1(-/- mice, with severe systemic and multi-organ inflammation. However, MCPIP1(-/- bone marrow recipients developed >10-fold less atherosclerotic lesions in the proximal aorta than WT bone marrow recipients, and essentially no lesions in en face aorta. The diminishment in atherosclerosis in bone marrow MCPIP1(-/- mice may be partially attributed to the slight decrease in their plasma lipids. Flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes showed that bone marrow MCPIP1(-/- mice contained reduced numbers of T cells and B cells, but increased numbers of regulatory T cells, Th17 cells, CD11b+/Gr1+ cells and CD11b+/Ly6C(low cells. This overall anti-atherogenic leukocyte profile may also contribute to the reduced atherogenesis. We also examined the cholesterol efflux capability of MCPIP1 deficient macrophages, and found that MCPIP1 deficiency increased cholesterol efflux to apoAI and HDL, due to increased protein levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1. CONCLUSIONS: Hematopoietic deficiency of MCPIP1 resulted in severe systemic and multi-organ inflammation but paradoxically diminished atherogenesis in mice. The reduced atheroegensis may be explained by the decreased plasma cholesterol levels, the anti-atherogenic leukocyte profile, as well as enhanced cholesterol efflux capability. This study suggests that, while atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, the mechanisms underlying atherogenesis-associated inflammation in arterial wall

  10. CNGB3-achromatopsia clinical trial with CNTF: diminished rod pathway responses with no evidence of improvement in cone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Wadih M; Jeffrey, Brett G; Wiley, Henry E; Turriff, Amy E; Tumminia, Santa J; Tao, Weng; Bush, Ronald A; Marangoni, Dario; Wen, Rong; Wei, Lisa L; Sieving, Paul A

    2014-09-09

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protects rod photoreceptors from retinal degenerative disease in multiple nonhuman models. Thus far, CNTF has failed to demonstrate rod protection in trials for human retinitis pigmentosa. Recently, CNTF was found to improve cone photoreceptor function in a canine CNGB3 achromatopsia model. This study explores whether this finding translates to humans with CNGB3 achromatopsia. A five-subject, open-label Phase I/II study was initiated by implanting intraocular microcapsules releasing CNTF (nominally 20 ng/d) into one eye each of CNGB3 achromat participants. Fellow eyes served as untreated controls. Subjects were followed for 1 year. Pupil constriction in treated eyes gave evidence of intraocular CNTF release. Additionally, scotopic ERG responses were reduced, and dark-adapted psychophysical absolute thresholds were increased, attributable to diminished rod or rod pathway activity. Optical coherence tomography revealed that the cone-rich fovea underwent structural changes as the foveal hyporeflective zone (HRZ) became diminished in CNTF-treated eyes. No objectively measurable enhancement of cone function was found by assessments of visual acuity, mesopic increment sensitivity threshold, or the photopic ERG. Careful measurements of color hue discrimination showed no change. Nonetheless, subjects reported beneficial changes of visual function in the treated eyes, including reduced light sensitivity and aversion to bright light, which may trace to decreased effective ambient light from the pupillary constriction; further they noted slowed adaptation to darkness, consistent with CNTF action on rod photoreceptors. Ciliary neurotrophic factor did not measurably enhance cone function, which reveals a species difference between human and canine CNGB3 cones in response to CNTF. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01648452.). Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Diminishing Coaching Based on Scaffolding Theory%建架理论下的渐减指导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹灿; 王劲

    2016-01-01

    M ・ David Merrill presents a new teaching strategy :diminishing coaching while elaborating his famous “First Principles of Instruction” .Scaffolding theory is based on Construction Theory of Swiss psychologist J .Piaget and Zone of Proximal Development Theory of Russian psychologist L .Vygotsky . These two theories are often applied respectively in practical teaching with some effects . This paper initially integrates scaffolding theory with diminishing coaching together , analyses the significance and teaching effects of the new integration and reflects on the present educational concept in hope of being helpful to promote students’ autonomous learning as well as providing reference for the future talents cultivation .%梅里尔教授在阐述其著名的“首要教学原理”时提出了“渐减指导”的教学策略,而建架理论则基于瑞士心理学家皮亚杰的构建主义理论和俄国心理学家维果斯基的“最近发展区”理论。这两种理论在实际教学中经常被单独使用,也取得了一定的教学效果。创造性地将建架理论与渐减指导结合起来,分析了二者融合后对教学带来的意义和影响。同时对现行的教育理念提出了看法,试图为培养学生自主学习能力提供新的教学策略,也对未来的人才培养方向进行了思考。

  12. [Acupuncture Stimulation of Acupoints of Multiple Meridians for Patients with Diminished Ovarian Reserve of Both Yin and Yang Deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-long; Hu, Yu-hua; He, Xiao-hua

    2015-12-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture stimulation of acupoints of the Conception Vessel, Kidney Meridian, Spleen Meridian, and Bladder Meridian on menstrual cycles and duration, and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estrogen 2 (E(2)) levels in patients with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). A total of 96 patients with DOR of both yin and yang deficiency were randomly divided into medication group and acupuncture group (n = 48 cases in each group). Patients of the medication group were treated by Estradiol Valerate tablets, 2 mg/d on the first 10 days, and Estradiol Cyproterone, 3 mg/d from day 11 to 21, followed by 5 -7 days' rest, and the next therapeutic course, continuously for 6 months. For patients of the acupuncture group, filiform acupuncture needles were separately inserted into every 5 points of the Conceptional Vessel, Kidney, Spleen and Bladder Meridians, manipulated with uniform reinforcing and reducing methods till Deqi, and retained for 40 min. The treatment was conducted once daily for consecutive 10 days in one menstrual cycle, beginning from the 10(th) day on after menstruation, which was repeated for 6 months. The integrative scores (normal = 0, mild=2, moderate=4 and severe=6 points) of menstrual cycle, menstrual duration, amount, color, quality [blood blot or ame- nia, symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)] were assessed according to "Guiding Principles for Clinical Trials of New Drugs of Chinese Materia Medica". Serum FSH, LH and E(2) contents were detected by Roche's electrochemical luminescence method. After the treatment, of the two 48 cases in the medication and acupuncture groups, 12 (25.0%) and 20 (4.7) were cured, 11 (22.9 %) and 12 (25.0 %) experienced marked improvement in their symptoms, 20 (41.7%) and 10 (20.8%) were effective, and 5 (10.4%) and 6 (12.5%) failed, with the effective rate being 89.6% and 87.5%, respectively. The integral score of TOM symptoms, menstrual cycle, serum FSH, LH

  13. Increasing ablation distance peripheral to the saphenofemoral junction may result in a diminished rate of endothermal heat-induced thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Mikel; Kabnick, Lowell S; Rockman, Caron B; Berland, Todd L; Zhou, Di; Chasin, Cara; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Adelman, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of venous insufficiency using endovenous laser ablation or radiofrequency ablation may result in endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT), a form of deep venous thrombosis. This study sought to assess whether increasing the ablation distance peripheral to the deep venous junction would result in a reduction in the incidence of EHIT II. This study was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database from April 2007 to December 2011. Consecutive patients undergoing great saphenous vein (GSV) or small saphenous vein (SSV) ablation were evaluated. Previous to February 2011, all venous ablations were performed 2 cm peripheral to the saphenofemoral or saphenopopliteal junction (group I). Subsequent to February 2011, ablations were performed greater than or equal to 2.5 cm peripheral to the respective deep system junction (group II). The primary outcome was the development of EHIT II or greater (ie, thrombus protruding into the deep venous system but comprising less than 50% of the deep vein lumen). Secondary outcomes included procedure-site complications such as thrombophlebitis and hematomas. χ(2) tests were performed for all discrete variables, and unpaired Student's t-tests were performed for all continuous variables. P result was significant (group I: 2.6% ± 0.9% vs group II: 2.8% ± 1.0%; P = .006). The incidence of EHIT II was 76 in group I and 13 in group II. This represented a trend toward diminished frequency in group II as compared with group I (group I: 2.3% vs group II: 1.3%; P = .066). There were no reported cases of EHIT III or IV in this patient cohort. Patients who developed an EHIT II in group I were treated using anticoagulation 54% of the time, and patients who developed an EHIT II in group II were treated using anticoagulation 100% of the time. This study suggests that changing the treatment distance from 2 cm to greater than or equal to 2.5 cm peripheral to the deep venous junction may result in a diminished

  14. Diminished monocytic HLA-DR expression and ex vivo cytokine secretion capacity in patients with glioblastoma: effect of tumor extirpation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woiciechowsky, C; Asadullah, K; Nestler, D; Schöning, B; Glöckner, F; Döcke, W D; Volk, H D

    1998-04-15

    Severe immunodysregulation on lymphocyte level has been described in patients with glioblastoma and is likely involved into its unfavorable prognosis. Although the major importance of monocytic cells for immunoregulation is well established, only very limited data exist regarding the monocyte status in glioblastoma patients. Here we demonstrate a markedly diminished monocytic HLA-DR expression and ex vivo cytokine secretion capacity (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-10) as signs for monocyte deactivation in glioblastoma patients but not in patients with astrocytoma. As known in immunocompromised patients from other reasons, monocyte deactivation indicate global immunodepression associated with an enhanced risk of infectious complications. Interestingly, tumor resection resulted in partial recovery from the monocytic deactivation. This suggests that the glioblastoma itself contributed to this phenomenon. However, IL-10 and the active forms of transforming growth factor-beta2 and -beta1, which are produced by glioblastoma cells and known to inhibit monocyte function, were not detectable in plasma in our patients. Moreover, low levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol excluded hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis involvement. So, further investigations are necessary to clarify the mechanism. The demonstrated severe glioblastoma-associated monocytic deactivation may contribute to its unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, monocytes may represent target cells for new adjuvant immunotherapies in glioblastoma.

  15. Diminished social reward anticipation in the broad autism phenotype as revealed by event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anthony; Kohls, Gregor; Naples, Adam J; Mukerji, Cora E; Coffman, Marika C; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; McPartland, James C

    2015-10-01

    Diminished responsivity to reward incentives is a key contributor to the social-communication problems seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Social motivation theories suggest that individuals with ASD do not experience social interactions as rewarding, leading to negative consequences for the development of brain circuitry subserving social information. In this study, we examined neural responses to social and non-social reward anticipation in 35 typically developing young adults, examining modulation of reward sensitivity by level of autistic traits. Using an Event-related potential incentive-delay task incorporating novel, more ecologically valid forms of reward, higher expression of autistic traits was associated with an attenuated P3 response to the anticipation of social (simulated real-time video feedback from an observer), but not non-social (candy), rewards. Exploratory analyses revealed that this was unrelated to mentalizing ability. The P3 component reflects motivated attention to reward signals, suggesting attenuated motivation allocation specific to social incentives. The study extends prior findings of atypical reward anticipation in ASD, demonstrating that attenuated social reward responsiveness extends to autistic traits in the range of typical functioning. Results support the development of innovative paradigms for investigating social and non-social reward responsiveness. Insight into vulnerabilities in reward processing is critical for understanding social function in ASD.

  16. Pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in chronic diseases: the role of diminished cardiac performance in mitochondrial and heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jodi; Bates, Matthew; Eggett, Christopher; Siervo, Mario; Cassidy, Sophie; Newman, Jane; Moore, Sarah A; Gorman, Grainne; Trenell, Michael I; Velicki, Lazar; Seferovic, Petar M; Cleland, John G F; MacGowan, Guy A; Turnbull, Doug M; Jakovljevic, Djordje G

    2017-01-01

    Exercise intolerance is a clinical hallmark of chronic conditions. The present study determined pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise intolerance in cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and metabolic disorders. In a prospective cross-sectional observational study 152 patients (heart failure reduced ejection fraction, n=32; stroke, n=34; mitochondrial disease, n=28; type two diabetes, n=28; and healthy controls, n=30) performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing with metabolic and haemodynamic measurements. Peak exercise O2 consumption and cardiac power output were measures of exercise tolerance and cardiac performance. Exercise tolerance was significantly diminished in patients compared with controls (ie, by 45% stroke, 39% mitochondria disease, and 33% diabetes and heart failure, pheart failure (due to reduced heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure) and mitochondrial patients (due reduced stroke volume) compared with controls (ie, by 53% and 26%, pheart failure (pheart failure and mitochondrial patients, whereas arterial-venous O2 difference explained 69% (pexercise intolerance in patients with heart failure, mitochondrial dysfunction, stroke and diabetes. Their better understanding may improve management of patients, their stress tolerance and quality of life.

  17. Diminished swelling of cross-linked aromatic oligoamide surfaces revealing a new fouling mechanism of reverse-osmosis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wang; Kumar, Rajender; Herzberg, Moshe; Kasher, Roni

    2015-06-02

    Swelling of the active layer of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has an important effect on permeate water flux. The effects of organic- and biofouling on the swelling of the RO membrane active layer and the consequent changes of permeate flux are examined here. A cross-linked aromatic oligoamide film that mimics the surface chemistry of an RO polyamide membrane was synthesized stepwise on gold-coated surfaces. Foulant adsorption to the oligoamide film and its swelling were measured with a quartz crystal microbalance, and the effects of fouling on the membrane's performance were evaluated. The foulants were extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from fouled RO membranes and organic compounds of ultrafiltration permeate (UFP) from a membrane bioreactor used to treat municipal wastewater. The adsorbed foulants affected the swelling of the cross-linked oligoamide film differently. EPS had little effect on the swelling of the oligoamide film, whereas UFP significantly impaired swelling. Permeate flux declined more rapidly under UFP fouling than it did under EPS. Foulant adsorption was shown to diminish swelling of the aromatic oligoamide surfaces. Among the already known RO membrane fouling mechanisms, a novel RO fouling mechanism is proposed, in which foulant-membrane interactions hinder membrane swelling and thus increase hydraulic resistance.

  18. Diminished response to furosemide in I-123 Hippuran renal studies of renovascular hypertension caused by unilateral renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueckiger, F.M.; Fueger, G.F.; Einspieler, R.; Hausegger, K. (Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria))

    1990-09-01

    Dynamic I-123 Hippuran renal studies to measure furosemide response (FR) were performed in three groups of patients: (1) 57 patients with renovascular hypertension due to a poststenotic, ischemic kidney; (2) 23 patients with essential hypertension; and (3) 50 nonhypertensive patients with healthy kidneys (control group). FR was observed as renal parenchymal tracer washout within 10 minutes after the injection of 40 mg of furosemide. The retention index (RI) took into consideration the renal parenchymal tracer content before and 10 minutes after furosemide injection. In the control group, the FR was greater than 50% and the RI was less than 20. Patients with essential hypertension revealed no differences in the amounts of FR and RI compared with the control group. In renovascular hypertension, the FR was diminished and the RI was raised significantly. The values of FR and RI showed a good correlation to the degree of the renal artery stenosis before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. It is concluded that the stimulation of diuresis with furosemide and its quantification represent an important additional step in the evaluation of dynamic I-123 Hippuran studies to detect renal ischemia.

  19. Diminished but Not Abolished Effect of Two His351 Mutants of Anthrax Edema Factor in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Taoran; Zhao, Xinghui; Liu, Ju; Meng, Yingying; Feng, Yingying; Fang, Ting; Zhang, Jinlong; Yang, Xiuxu; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Edema toxin (ET), which is composed of a potent adenylate cyclase (AC), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA), is one of the major toxicity factors of Bacillus anthracis. In this study, we introduced mutations in full-length EF to generate alanine EF(H351A) and arginine EF(H351R) variants. In vitro activity analysis displayed that the adenylyl cyclase activity of both the mutants was significantly diminished compared with the wild-type EF. When the native and mutant toxins were administered subcutaneously in a mouse footpad edema model, severe acute swelling was evoked by wild-type ET, while the symptoms induced by mutant toxins were very minor. Systemic administration of these EF variants caused non-lethal hepatotoxicity. In addition, EF(H351R) exhibited slightly higher activity in causing more severe edema than EF(H351A). Our findings demonstrate that the toxicity of ET is not abolished by substitution of EF residue His351 by alanine or arginine. These results also indicate the potential of the mouse footpad edema model as a sensitive method for evaluating both ET toxicity and the efficacy of candidate therapeutic agents. PMID:26848687

  20. Psychological and emotional concomitants of infertility diagnosis in women with diminished ovarian reserve or anatomical cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoloro-SantaBarbara, Jennifer M; Lobel, Marci; Bocca, Silvina; Stelling, James R; Pastore, Lisa M

    2017-07-01

    To examine the magnitude and predictors of emotional reactions to an infertility diagnosis in two groups of women: those with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and those clinically diagnosed with an anatomical cause of infertility (ACI). Cross-sectional study. Academic and private fertility clinics. Women diagnosed with DOR (n = 51) and women diagnosed with ACI (n = 51). Not applicable. Fertility Problem Inventory (infertility distress), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Health Orientation Scale (emotional reactions to receiving a diagnosis). Women with DOR had statistically significantly higher infertility distress scores than women with ACI and higher scores on subscales assessing distress from social concerns, sexual concerns, and a need for parenthood. In both groups, higher self-esteem was associated with lower infertility distress. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that for women with DOR and those with ACI lower infertility distress but not self-esteem predicted a more positive emotional reaction toward receiving a fertility diagnosis. Women diagnosed with DOR have greater infertility distress but similar self-esteem and emotional reactions to their diagnosis compared with women who have an anatomical cause of infertility. These results suggest that for both groups distress surrounding infertility itself may influence the way women respond to learning the cause of their infertility. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days' tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content.

  2. A solver for the two-phase two-fluid model based on high-resolution total variation diminishing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Saleem, Rabie A., E-mail: raabusaleem@just.edu.jo [Nuclear Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Kozlowski, Tomasz, E-mail: txk@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 216 Talbot Laboratory, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Shrestha, Rijan, E-mail: rijan.shrestha@intel.com [Portland Technology Development, Intel Corporation, 2501 NW 229th Ave Hillsboro OR 97124 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The two-fluid model and the challenges associated with its numerical modeling are investigated. • A high-order solver based on flux limiter schemes and the theta method was developed. • The solver was compared to existing thermal hydraulics codes used in nuclear industry. • The solver was shown to handle fast transients with discontinuities and phase change. - Abstract: Finite volume techniques with staggered mesh are used to develop a new numerical solver for the one-dimensional two-phase two-fluid model using a high-resolution, Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme. The solver is implemented to analyze numerical benchmark problems for verification and testing its abilities to handle discontinuities and fast transients with phase change. Convergence rates are investigated by comparing numerical results to analytical solutions available in literature for the case of the faucet flow problem. The solver based on a new TVD scheme is shown to exhibit higher-order of accuracy compared to other numerical schemes. Mass errors are also examined when phase change occurs for the shock tube problem, and compared to those of the 1st-order upwind scheme implemented in the nuclear thermal-hydraulics code TRACE. The solver is shown to exhibit numerical stability when applied to problems with discontinuous solutions and results of the new solver are free of spurious oscillations.

  3. Diminished capability to recognize the optimal temperature for sleep initiation may contribute to poor sleep in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2008-09-01

    Sleep propensity and skin temperature are functionally related. In young adults, changes of skin temperature within the comfortable thermoneutral zone affect sleep-onset latency and vigilance performance. Aging is associated with both decreased thermosensitivity and poorer sleep. Our goal was to test whether subtle manipulations of core body and skin temperature affect sleep onset in elderly people without sleep complaints and in elderly insomniacs and whether the subjective perception of these mild body temperature manipulations is preserved with aging and insomnia. In a 2-day semiconstant-routine protocol, 288 sleep-onset latencies were polysomnographically determined while manipulating core body and skin temperatures differentially in warm and cold directions within a comfortable thermoneutral range. Sleep laboratory of the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience. Eight elderly subjects without sleep complaints (65.8 +/- 2.8 years, mean +/- SEM) and 8 elderly insomniacs (59.1 +/- 1.9 years). Warming the proximal skin by 0.4 degrees C facilitates sleep onset equally effective in healthy elderly (by 18% ie, by 1.84 minutes [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-2.92]) and elderly insomniacs (28%, 2.85 minutes [CI: 2.55-3.18]). These effects were comparable to the results in healthy young subjects, in spite of a marked decrease in the subjective perception of temperature changes in elderly subjects, especially in insomniacs. The findings show that mild changes in skin temperature have an effect on sleep propensity in elderly and indicate that elderly insomniacs may have a diminished capability to recognize that a slight increase in bed temperature facilitates the initiation or reinitiation of sleep.

  4. Consumption of organic meat does not diminish the carcinogenic potential associated with the intake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown an epidemiological link between meat consumption and the incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that this relationship may be motivated by the presence of carcinogenic contaminants on it. Among the most frequently detected contaminants in meat are several types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and it is well known that many of them are carcinogenic. On the other hand, an increasing number of consumers choose to feed on what are perceived as healthier foods. Thus, the number of consumers of organic food is growing. However, environmental contamination by POPs is ubiquitous, and it is therefore unlikely that the practices of organic food production are able to prevent this contamination. To test this hypothesis, we acquired 76 samples of meat (beef, chicken, and lamb) of two modes of production (organic and conventional) and quantified their levels of 33 carcinogenic POPs. On this basis, we determined the human meat-related daily dietary exposure to these carcinogens using as a model a population with a high consumption of meat, such as the Spanish population. The maximum allowable meat consumption for this population and the carcinogenic risk quotients associated with the current pattern of consumption were calculated. As expected, no sample was completely free of carcinogenic contaminants, and the differences between organically and conventionally produced meats were minimal. According to these results, the current pattern of meat consumption exceeded the maximum limits, which are set according to the levels of contaminations, and this is associated with a relevant carcinogenic risk. Strikingly, the consumption of organically produced meat does not diminish this carcinogenic risk, but on the contrary, it seems to be even higher, especially that associated with lamb consumption.

  5. Identification of the key regulating genes of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) by network and gene ontology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaiasl, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2016-09-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is one of the reasons for infertility that not only affects both older and young women. Ovarian reserve assessment can be used as a new prognostic tool for infertility treatment decision making. Here, up- and down-regulated gene expression profiles of granulosa cells were analysed to generate a putative interaction map of the involved genes. In addition, gene ontology (GO) analysis was used to get insight intol the biological processes and molecular functions of involved proteins in DOR. Eleven up-regulated genes and nine down-regulated genes were identified and assessed by constructing interaction networks based on their biological processes. PTGS2, CTGF, LHCGR, CITED, SOCS2, STAR and FSTL3 were the key nodes in the up-regulated networks, while the IGF2, AMH, GREM, and FOXC1 proteins were key in the down-regulated networks. MIRN101-1, MIRN153-1 and MIRN194-1 inhibited the expression of SOCS2, while CSH1 and BMP2 positively regulated IGF1 and IGF2. Ossification, ovarian follicle development, vasculogenesis, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, and golgi apparatus are the major differential groups between up-regulated and down-regulated genes in DOR. Meta-analysis of publicly available transcriptomic data highlighted the high coexpression of CTGF, connective tissue growth factor, with the other key regulators of DOR. CTGF is involved in organ senescence and focal adhesion pathway according to GO analysis. These findings provide a comprehensive system biology based insight into the aetiology of DOR through network and gene ontology analyses.

  6. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Peter

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter. In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore

  7. Acute hypoxia diminishes the relationship between blood pressure and subarachnoid space width oscillations at the human cardiac frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Wolf, Jacek; Swierblewska, Ewa; Kunicka, Katarzyna; Gruszecka, Agnieszka; Gruszecki, Marcin; Kucharska, Wieslawa; Winklewski, Pawel J.; Zabulewicz, Joanna; Guminski, Wojciech; Pietrewicz, Michal; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Bieniaszewski, Leszek; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute hypoxia exerts strong effects on the cardiovascular system. Heart-generated pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid motion is recognised as a key factor ensuring brain homeostasis. We aimed to assess changes in heart-generated coupling between blood pressure (BP) and subarachnoid space width (SAS) oscillations during hypoxic exposure. Methods Twenty participants were subjected to a controlled decrease in oxygen saturation (SaO2 = 80%) for five minutes. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured using continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography, oxyhaemoglobin saturation with an ear-clip sensor, end-tidal CO2 with a gas analyser, and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), pulsatility and resistive indices with Doppler ultrasound. Changes in SAS were recorded with a recently-developed method called near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the relationship between BP and SAS oscillations. Results Gradual increases in systolic, diastolic BP and HR were observed immediately after the initiation of hypoxic challenge (at fifth minute +20.1%, +10.2%, +16.5% vs. baseline, respectively; all P<0.01), whereas SAS remained intact (P = NS). Concurrently, the CBFV was stable throughout the procedure, with the only increase observed in the last two minutes of deoxygenation (at the fifth minute +6.8% vs. baseline, P<0.05). The cardiac contribution to the relationship between BP and SAS oscillations diminished immediately after exposure to hypoxia (at the fifth minute, right hemisphere -27.7% and left hemisphere -26.3% vs. baseline; both P<0.05). Wavelet phase coherence did not change throughout the experiment (P = NS). Conclusions Cerebral haemodynamics seem to be relatively stable during short exposure to normobaric hypoxia. Hypoxia attenuates heart-generated BP SAS coupling. PMID:28241026

  8. Deconstructing Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Avolition-Apathy and Diminished Expression Clusters Predict Clinical Presentation and Functional Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Horan, William P.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Fischer, Bernard A.; Keller, William R.; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W.; Green, Michael F.; Carpenter, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that negative symptoms reflect a separable domain of pathology from other symptoms of schizophrenia. However, it is currently unclear whether negative symptoms themselves are multi-faceted, and whether sub-groups of patients who display unique negative symptom profiles can be identified. Methods A data-driven approach was used to examine the heterogeneity of negative symptom presentations in two samples: Study 1 included 199 individuals with schizophrenia assessed with a standard measure of negative symptoms and Study 2 included 169 individuals meeting criteria for deficit schizophrenia (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) assessed with a specialized measure of deficit symptoms. Cluster analysis was used to determine whether different groups of patients with distinct negative symptoms profiles could be identified. Results Across both studies, we found evidence for two distinctive negative symptom sub-groups: one group with predominantly Avolition-Apathy (AA) symptoms and another with a predominantly Diminished Expression (DE) profile. Follow-up discriminant function analyses confirmed the validity of these groups. AA and DE negative symptom sub-groups significantly differed on clinically relevant external validators, including measures of functional outcome, premorbid adjustment, clinical course, disorganized symptoms, social cognition, sex, and ethnicity. Conclusions These results suggest that distinct subgroups of patients with elevated AA or DE can be identified within the broader diagnosis of schizophrenia and that these subgroups show clinically meaningful differences in presentation. Additionally, AA tends to be associated with poorer outcomes than DE, suggesting that it may be a more severe aspect of psychopathology. PMID:23453820

  9. Pupillary Responses as a Biomarker of Diminished Effort Associated With Defeatist Attitudes and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Ruiz, Ivan; Gallegos-Rodriguez, Yuliana; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C

    2016-10-15

    The hypothesis that defeatist performance attitudes are associated with decreased goal-directed task effort and negative symptoms in consumers with schizophrenia was investigated by using pupillary responses as a biomarker of task effort. Pupillary dilation during cognitive tasks provides a biomarker of effort devoted to the task, with greater dilation indicating greater effort. Defeatist attitudes were assessed in 149 consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 50 healthy control subjects, and consumers were divided into three groups (tertile split) with respect to severity of defeatist attitudes. Pupillary dilation responses were recorded during a digit-span task with three-, six-, and nine-digit spans. Effort allocation (pupillary responses) to the task increased as the processing load increased from low (three-digit) to moderate (six-digit) demands in healthy control subjects and consumers with schizophrenia with mild and moderate severity of defeatist attitudes. In contrast, consumers with severe defeatist attitudes did not increase their effort when processing demands increased from low to moderate loads. These consumers showed significantly less effort in the six-digit condition relative to consumers with mild defeatist attitudes. Moreover, consumers with severe defeatist attitudes showed significantly greater severity of negative symptoms relative to consumers with mild defeatist attitudes and negative symptoms were significantly correlated with defeatist attitudes. These results suggest a relationship between defeatist performance attitudes, goal-directed task effort indexed by pupillary responses, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The findings have implications for using cognitive therapy to reduce defeatist attitudes that may contribute to diminished effort and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Interpreting the g loadings of intelligence test composite scores in light of Spearman's law of diminishing returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R

    2013-03-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor (g) have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the g loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate whether the g loadings of composite scores from the Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.) (DAS-II, C. D. Elliott, 2007a, Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson) were nonlinear and (b) if they were nonlinear, to compare them with linear g loadings to demonstrate how SLODR alters the interpretation of these loadings. Linear and nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were used to model Nonverbal Reasoning, Verbal Ability, Visual Spatial Ability, Working Memory, and Processing Speed composite scores in four age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-13, and 14-17) from the DAS-II norming sample. The nonlinear CFA models provided better fit to the data than did the linear models. In support of SLODR, estimates obtained from the nonlinear CFAs indicated that g loadings decreased as g level increased. The nonlinear portion for the nonverbal reasoning loading, however, was not statistically significant across the age groups. Knowledge of general ability level informs composite score interpretation because g is less likely to produce differences, or is measured less, in those scores at higher g levels. One implication is that it may be more important to examine the pattern of specific abilities at higher general ability levels.

  11. ICA-based artifact removal diminishes scan site differences in multi-center resting-state fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Alexander Feis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI has shown considerable promise in providing potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and drug response across a range of diseases. Incorporating R-fMRI into multi-center studies is becoming increasingly popular, imposing technical challenges on data acquisition and analysis, as fMRI data is particularly sensitive to structured noise resulting from hardware, software and environmental differences. Here, we investigated whether a novel clean up tool for structured noise was capable of reducing center-related R-fMRI differences between healthy subjects.We analyzed 3 Tesla R-fMRI data from 72 subjects, half of whom were scanned with eyes closed in a Philips Achieva system in The Netherlands, and half of whom were scanned with eyes open in a Siemens Trio system in the UK. After pre-statistical processing and individual Independent Component Analysis (ICA, FMRIB’s ICA-based X-noiseifier (FIX was used to remove noise components from the data. GICA and dual regression were run and non-parametric statistics were used to compare spatial maps between groups before and after applying FIX.Large significant differences were found in all resting-state networks between study sites before using FIX, most of which were reduced to non-significant after applying FIX. The between-center difference in the medial/primary visual network, presumably reflecting a between-center difference in protocol, remained statistically different.FIX helps facilitate multi-center R-fMRI research by diminishing structured noise from R-fMRI data. In doing so, it improves combination of existing data from different centers in new settings and comparison of rare diseases and risk genes for which adequate sample size remains a challenge.

  12. ICA-based artifact removal diminishes scan site differences in multi-center resting-state fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feis, Rogier A.; Smith, Stephen M.; Filippini, Nicola; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Dopper, Elise G. P.; Heise, Verena; Trachtenberg, Aaron J.; van Swieten, John C.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Mackay, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) has shown considerable promise in providing potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and drug response across a range of diseases. Incorporating R-fMRI into multi-center studies is becoming increasingly popular, imposing technical challenges on data acquisition and analysis, as fMRI data is particularly sensitive to structured noise resulting from hardware, software, and environmental differences. Here, we investigated whether a novel clean up tool for structured noise was capable of reducing center-related R-fMRI differences between healthy subjects. We analyzed three Tesla R-fMRI data from 72 subjects, half of whom were scanned with eyes closed in a Philips Achieva system in The Netherlands, and half of whom were scanned with eyes open in a Siemens Trio system in the UK. After pre-statistical processing and individual Independent Component Analysis (ICA), FMRIB's ICA-based X-noiseifier (FIX) was used to remove noise components from the data. GICA and dual regression were run and non-parametric statistics were used to compare spatial maps between groups before and after applying FIX. Large significant differences were found in all resting-state networks between study sites before using FIX, most of which were reduced to non-significant after applying FIX. The between-center difference in the medial/primary visual network, presumably reflecting a between-center difference in protocol, remained statistically significant. FIX helps facilitate multi-center R-fMRI research by diminishing structured noise from R-fMRI data. In doing so, it improves combination of existing data from different centers in new settings and comparison of rare diseases and risk genes for which adequate sample size remains a challenge. PMID:26578859

  13. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Franziska; Berens, Dana G; Farwig, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter). In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore community, and thus

  14. Effects of Local Tree Diversity on Herbivore Communities Diminish with Increasing Forest Fragmentation on the Landscape Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Franziska; Berens, Dana G.; Farwig, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter). In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore community, and thus

  15. Pollutant tracking for 3 Western North Atlantic sea grasses by remote sensing: Preliminary diminishing white light responses of Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Berlyn, Graeme P; Poulos, Helen M; Goodale, Uromi M

    2015-08-15

    Sea grasses are foundation species for estuarine ecosystems. The available light for sea grasses diminishes rapidly during pollutant spills, effluent releases, disturbances such as intense riverine input, and tidal changes. We studied how sea grasses' remote-sensing signatures and light-capturing ability respond to short term light alterations. In vivo responses were measured over the entire visible-light spectra to diminishing white-light on whole-living-plants' spectral reflectance, including 6h of full oceanic-light fluences from 10% to 100%. We analyzed differences by various reflectance indices. We compared the sea grasses species responses of tropical vs. temperate and intertidals (Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina) vs. subtidal (Thalassia testudinum). Reflectance diminished with decreasing light intensity that coincided with greater accessory pigment stimulation (anthocyanin, carotenoids, xanthins). Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b differed significantly among species (Thalassia vs. Halodule). Photosynthetic efficiency diminished at high light intensities. The NDVI index was inadequate to perceive these differences. Our results demonstrate the leaf-level utility of data to remote sensing for mapping sea grass and sea grass stress.

  16. Diminished Chondrogenesis and Enhanced Osteoclastogenesis in Leptin-Deficient Diabetic Mice (ob/ob) Impair Pathologic, Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn; Li, John; Brownley, Cameron; Peterson, Jonathan R.; Oluwatobi, Eboda; Drake, James; Cholok, David; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Sung, Hsiao Hsin; Goulet, James; Li, Shuli

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic trauma patients exhibit delayed postsurgical wound, bony healing, and dysregulated bone development. However, the impact of diabetes on the pathologic development of ectopic bone or heterotopic ossification (HO) following trauma is unknown. In this study, we use leptin-deficient mice as a model for type 2 diabetes to understand how post-traumatic HO development may be affected by this disease process. Male leptin-deficient (ob/ob) or wild-type (C57BL/6 background) mice aged 6–8 weeks underwent 30% total body surface area burn injury with left hind limb Achilles tenotomy. Micro-CT (μCT) imaging showed significantly lower HO volumes in diabetic mice compared with wild-type controls (0.70 vs. 7.02 mm3, P < 0.01) 9 weeks after trauma. Ob/ob mice showed evidence of HO resorption between weeks 5 and 9. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated high Vegfa levels in ob/ob mice, which was followed by disorganized vessel growth at 7 weeks. We noted diminished chondrogenic gene expression (SOX9) and diminished cartilage formation at 5 days and 3 weeks, respectively. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase stain showed increased osteoclast presence in normal native bone and pathologic ectopic bone in ob/ob mice. Our findings suggest that early diminished HO in ob/ob mice is related to diminished chondrogenic differentiation, while later bone resorption is related to osteoclast presence. PMID:26413838

  17. Recurrent Labral Tearing on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is Not Predictive of Diminished Participation Among National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Gebhart, Jeremy J; Sheehan, Joseph; Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E

    2017-09-30

    To investigate the prevalence of shoulder labral repair and utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the risks of recurrent labral tearing and impact on future participation in the National Football League (NFL). Athletes invited to the NFL Combine between 2012 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Athletes with a history of labral repair and MRI of the operative shoulder at the Combine were included in the study for further analysis, excluding athletes without a history of labral repair, labral repair without MRI at the Combine, additional procedure to the operative shoulder, or athletes still undergoing rehabilitation at the time of the Combine after labral repair. All MRIs were reviewed to determine initial labral repair location, the presence of recurrent tearing, and any concomitant shoulder pathology. Prospective information on future NFL participation in regard to draft status, games played, and games started in the athlete's first NFL season after the Combine was compared between athletes with a history of labral repair with and without recurrent tearing versus all other athletes participating in the Combine. A total of 132 (10.1%) athletes underwent 146 shoulder labral repair procedures before the NFL Combine, of whom 32% (n = 39 athletes, n = 46 shoulders) had recurrent labral tears on MRI. Athletes with recurrent tears were more likely to have undergone bilateral labral repairs (P = .048) and possess concomitant shoulder pathology (P NFL in terms of games played (P = .38) or started (P = .98) was not significantly reduced in athletes with a history of labral repair compared with those without repair. Participation was not diminished in athletes with recurrent labral tears compared with those with intact repairs or those with evidence of degenerative joint disease. Athletes invited to the NFL Scouting Combine with a history of bilateral repair, posterior labral repair, and concomitant shoulder pathology are at high risk of

  18. Amino acid infusion during anesthesia attenuates the surgery induced decline in IGF-1 and diminishes the "diabetes of injury"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eksborg Staffan

    2007-01-01

    infusion to the volunteers did not affect any of the variables studied. Conclusion Amino acid infusion during surgery attenuates the decrease in IGF-1 and diminishes the "diabetes of injury".

  19. Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin for Treatment of Cholera Associated with Diminished Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin to Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasif Ali Khan

    cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 with diminished susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid disc-diffusion testing effectively screens for such isolates.

  20. Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin for Treatment of Cholera Associated with Diminished Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin to Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wasif Ali; Saha, Debasish; Ahmed, Sabeena; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bennish, Michael Louis

    2015-01-01

    We identified a poor clinical response to treatment of cholera with a single 1 g dose of ciprofloxacin, a standard treatment for cholera. To determine reasons for the poor response and better therapeutic approaches we examined the minimal inhibitor concentration (MIC, n = 275) and disc-diffusion zone sizes (n = 205) for ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid of V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in Bangladesh from 1994 to 2012, and reexamined data from 161 patients infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 recruited in four clinical trials who received single- or multiple-dose ciprofloxacin for treatment of cholera and compared their clinical response to the V. cholerae O1 susceptibility. Although all 275 isolates of V. cholerae O1 remained susceptible to ciprofloxacin using standard MIC and disc-diffusion thresholds, the MIC90 to ciprofloxacin increased from 0.010 in 1994 to 0.475 μgm/ml in 2012. Isolates became frankly resistant to nalidixic with the MIC90 increasing from 21 μgm/ml in 1994 to >256 μgm/ml and 166 of 205 isolates from 1994 to 2005 being frankly resistant using disc-diffusion testing. Isolates resistant to nalidixic acid by disc-diffusion testing had a median ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.190 μgm/ml (10th-90th centiles 0.022 to 0.380); nalidixic acid-susceptible isolates had a median ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.002 (0.002 to 0.012).The rate of clinical success with single-dose ciprofloxacin treatment for nalidixic acid-susceptible strains was 94% (61 of 65 patients) and bacteriologic success 97% (63/65) compared to 18% (12/67) and 8% (5/67) respectively with nalidixic acid-resistant strains (Pcholerae O1 compared to clinical success 67% and bacteriologic success 60% with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. Single-dose ciprofloxacin is not effective for treating cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 with diminished susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid disc-diffusion testing effectively screens for such isolates.

  1. Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin for Treatment of Cholera Associated with Diminished Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin to Vibrio cholerae O1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wasif Ali; Saha, Debasish; Ahmed, Sabeena; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bennish, Michael Louis

    2015-01-01

    O1 with diminished susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid disc-diffusion testing effectively screens for such isolates. PMID:26271050

  2. The effect of a rise or fall of serum estradiol the day before oocyte retrieval in women aged 40-42 with diminished egg reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Amui, J; Choe, J K; Cohen, R

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of a drop in serum estradiol the day after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles in women aged 40-42 with diminished oocyte reserve. Retrospective study with further requirement that the female partner had a day 3 serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) of ≥ 12 miU/mL and ≥ five antral follicles. A drop in serum estradiol the day after hCG injection is not associated with a lower chance of pregnancy compared to those women whose serum estradiol increases. However, their chances of releasing the oocyte before retrieval is significantly higher. A drop in serum estradiol in women of advanced reproductive age with diminished oocyte reserve should not signal the need to cancel the retrieval.

  3. The cytotoxicity of organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom in the molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kumiko; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Fujie, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid molecules, which are composed of an organic structure and metal(s), are indispensable for synthetic chemical reactions; however, their toxicity has been incompletely understood. In the present study, we discovered two cytotoxic organobismuth compounds whose cytotoxicity diminished upon replacement of the intramolecular bismuth atom with an antimony atom. The intracellular accumulation of the organobismuth compounds was much higher than that of the organoantimony compounds with the corresponding organic structures. We also showed that both the organic structure and bismuth atom are required for certain organobismuth compounds to exert their cytotoxic effect, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of such a compound is a result of an interaction between the organic structure and the bismuth atom. The present data suggest that organobismuth compounds with certain molecular structures exhibit cytotoxicity via an interaction between the molecular structure and the bismuth atom, and this cytotoxicity can be diminished by replacing the bismuth atom with an antimony atom, resulting in lower intracellular accumulation.

  4. Disbalance of immunoglobulins the clinical importance of increased serum levels of immunoglobulin-A and -G in combination with normal or diminished immunoglobulin-M concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.D.; Imhof, J.W.; Mul, N.A.J.; Ballieux, R.E.

    1967-01-01

    A disbalance of immunoglobulin-A (IgA), immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and immunoglobulin-M (IgM) concentrations—i.e., increased IgA and IgG fractions and a normal or diminished IgM concentration—is not a specific finding but one that frequently occurs in collagen diseases which take a chronic course. In th

  5. A beer game simulation model for studying the impact of information sharing to diminish the bullwhip effect in supply chains: an educational support tool in supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Vasco Pinheiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates the Beer Distribution Game using object oriented simulation software. A five echelon supply chain with bidirectional relationships is reproduced, employing simulation to demonstrate the impact of information on the generation of the bullwhip effect. In doing so, this study intends to provide a simple didactic tool to assist academically in supply chain management. As the result of the simulations, it was possible to demonstrate the occurrence of the bullwhip effect and how information sharing can diminish it.

  6. Marketing Research on the Retail Market in Braşov with a View to Obtaining Solutions to Diminish the Negative Effects of the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăşescu S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the present circumstances of the economic crisis, studying the retail market is a must. The tendencies emphasize a diminution of consumption. Retailers face a long series of problems in the present context. These problems refer to the reduction of turnover, as the number of clients reduces as well. The research in the domain shows what instruments retailers use in order to diminish the negative effects of the crisis. The present work presents some of the results of the qualitative research, as well as of the quantitative one.

  7. Steering Demands Diminish the Early-P3, Late-P3 and RON Components of the Event-Related Potential of Task-Irrelevant Environmental Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Menja; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Chuang, Lewis L

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates the demands that steering places on mental resources. Instead of a conventional dual-task paradigm, participants of this study were only required to perform a steering task while task-irrelevant auditory distractor probes (environmental sounds and beep tones) were intermittently presented. The event-related potentials (ERPs), which were generated by these probes, were analyzed for their sensitivity to the steering task's demands. The steering task required participants to counteract unpredictable roll disturbances and difficulty was manipulated either by adjusting the bandwidth of the roll disturbance or by varying the complexity of the control dynamics. A mass univariate analysis revealed that steering selectively diminishes the amplitudes of early P3, late P3, and the re-orientation negativity (RON) to task-irrelevant environmental sounds but not to beep tones. Our findings are in line with a three-stage distraction model, which interprets these ERPs to reflect the post-sensory detection of the task-irrelevant stimulus, engagement, and re-orientation back to the steering task. This interpretation is consistent with our manipulations for steering difficulty. More participants showed diminished amplitudes for these ERPs in the "hard" steering condition relative to the "easy" condition. To sum up, the current work identifies the spatiotemporal ERP components of task-irrelevant auditory probes that are sensitive to steering demands on mental resources. This provides a non-intrusive method for evaluating mental workload in novel steering environments.

  8. Alteration kinetics of a simplified nuclear glass in an aqueous medium: effects of solution chemistry and of protective gel properties on diminishing the alteration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégou, C.; Gin, S.; Larché, F.

    2000-07-01

    The alteration kinetics of the French SON 68 nuclear glass simplified to its three major constituent elements (Si, B and Na) were investigated by static experiments at 90°C in order to deconvolute the effects of the solution chemistry and of the protective properties of the alteration gel on the diminishing alteration rate over time. A glass dissolution experiment in static conditions showed that the initial rate r0 was maintained even after silicon saturation of the solution. As the reaction progressed, the glass alteration rate gradually diminished over time. These results show that the driving force behind the alteration of this glass cannot be defined by the difference from saturation with respect to amorphous silica, and that reaching saturation is not a criterion for the end of alteration. The drop in the dissolution rate observed at a high degree of reaction progress is correlated with the formation of the silica gel that develops at the glass/solution interface. Confronting the experimental data with a model taking into account a diffusion boundary layer shows that the conventional tools of chemical thermodynamics are ill adapted to describing the formation and development of the silica gel layer over time. This study reveals that only a dynamic process of hydrolysis and condensation of silicon at the glass/gel interface can account for the formation of the gel layer. The glass alteration rate under silica saturation conditions would thus be highly dependent on the silicon recondensation rate in this `dynamic percolation' concept.

  9. The Impact of Sustained Drought Conditions on a Ground Water Pollutant: Relating the Rise in Trichloroethylene Concentrations in Ground Water to Diminished Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, D. A.; Nicols, A.; Baucom, T.; Lagrone, R.

    2008-12-01

    Cold Water Spring (CWS) located in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Southern Appalachian Mountains in northeastern Alabama is exhibiting the effects of a local sustained drought. CWS is fed by groundwater from the lower Paleozoic Knox Group, a regional carbonate aquifer. A precipitation-based metric of short- term meteorological drought, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), calculated by the National Drought Mitigation Center depicts the magnitude of the drought as increasing in the region since early in the year 2003. Flow of the CWS has been diminishing since the onset of the local drought, and is linearly correlated at 0.6 to the PDSI. The CWS water is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) suspected to be released from a nearby abandoned industrial source. There is a rise in TCE contamination as CWS started to diminish, however, a direct correlation of the TCE concentration to PDSI is not statistically evident. The lack of a statistical correlation between TCE concentration in ground water and the PDSI supports our hypothesis that mobilization of free-phase TCE and its dissolution during periods of drought are multifunctional processes. A lowering of the water table changes the balance of capillary and buoyancy forces which in turn mobilizes the TCE ganglia making it available for dissolution.

  10. Diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration and the dependence of cell adhesion on substrate stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moazzem Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calponin is an actin filament-associated protein and its h2 isoform inhibits cell motility. Here we report significant expression of h2-calponin in prostate epithelial cells, which is diminished in cancerous cells. Comparison between a prostate cancer cell line PC3 and its metastatic derivative PC3-M showed lower levels of h2-calponin in PC3-M, corresponding to faster rates of cell proliferation and migration. Substrate adhesion of PC3 and PC3-M cells was positively correlated to the level of h2-calponin and the adhesion of PC3-M exhibited a higher dependence on substrate stiffness. Such effects of h2-calponin on cell proliferation, migration and substrate adhesion were also seen in normal versus cancerous primary prostate cells. Further supporting the role of h2-calponin in inhibiting cell motility, fibroblasts isolated from h2-calponin knockout mice proliferated and migrated faster than that of wild type fibroblasts. Transfective over-expression of h2-calponin in PC3-M cells effectively inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The results suggest that the diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells increases cell motility, decreases substrate adhesion, and promotes adhesion on high stiffness substrates.

  11. Diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration and the dependence of cell adhesion on substrate stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzem Hossain, M; Wang, Xin; Bergan, Raymond C; Jin, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Calponin is an actin filament-associated protein and its h2 isoform inhibits cell motility. Here we report significant expression of h2-calponin in prostate epithelial cells, which is diminished in cancerous cells. Comparison between a prostate cancer cell line PC3 and its metastatic derivative PC3-M showed lower levels of h2-calponin in PC3-M, corresponding to faster rates of cell proliferation and migration. Substrate adhesion of PC3 and PC3-M cells was positively correlated to the level of h2-calponin and the adhesion of PC3-M exhibited a higher dependence on substrate stiffness. Such effects of h2-calponin on cell proliferation, migration and substrate adhesion were also seen in normal versus cancerous primary prostate cells. Further supporting the role of h2-calponin in inhibiting cell motility, fibroblasts isolated from h2-calponin knockout mice proliferated and migrated faster than that of wild type fibroblasts. Transfective over-expression of h2-calponin in PC3-M cells effectively inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The results suggest that the diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells increases cell motility, decreases substrate adhesion, and promotes adhesion on high stiffness substrates.

  12. Dental aesthetics, self-awareness, and oral health-related quality of life in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Ulrich; Bruckner, Aladàr; Zentner, Andrej

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the putative relationship between dental aesthetics and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), taking into consideration the potential direct and moderating influence of private and public self-consciousness. The subjects of this cross-sectional survey were 148 university students. Dental aesthetics were assessed by means of the aesthetic component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). OHRQoL was estimated using a modification of the scales 'social appearance concern' and 'appearance disapproval', and a novel dental self-confidence scale. In addition, the private and public self-consciousness scales were used. Two-factor analyses of variance were carried out with high and low levels of dental aesthetics and private and public self-consciousness as the independent variables and the OHRQoL scales as the dependent variables. It was found that dental aesthetics had a direct effect on all OHRQoL scale values. Private self-consciousness was related to social appearance concern, while public self-consciousness was associated with both social appearance concern and appearance disapproval. An interaction effect was identified which showed that the impact of dental aesthetics on social appearance concern was stronger in respondents with high private and public self-consciousness than in low scoring subjects. The findings of the study suggest that minor differences in dental aesthetics may have a significant effect on perceived OHRQoL. This effect was more significant in subjects with high self-consciousness.

  13. Levels of consciousness and self-awareness: A comparison and integration of various neurocognitive views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alain

    2006-06-01

    Quite a few recent models are rapidly introducing new concepts describing different levels of consciousness. This situation is getting confusing because some theorists formulate their models without making reference to existing views, redundantly adding complexity to an already difficult problem. In this paper, I present and compare nine neurocognitive models to highlight points of convergence and divergence. Two aspects of consciousness seem especially important: perception of self in time and complexity of self-representations. To this I add frequency of self-focus, amount of self-related information, and accuracy of self-knowledge. Overall, I conclude that many novel concepts (e.g., reflective, primary, core, extended, recursive, and minimal consciousness) are useful in helping us distinguish between delicate variations in consciousness and in clarifying theoretical issues that have been intensely debated in the scientific literature--e.g., consciousness in relation to mirror self-recognition and language.

  14. Mindful Leadership The 9 Ways to Self-Awareness, Transforming Yourself, and Inspiring Others

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Become a true leader through Mindfulness If you thought leading a team or organization meant simply creating and implementing a financial plan, delegating responsibility, and watching the bottom line, well, you're only partly right. True leadership comes from within, a place of deep calm and focus, that allows you to respond to any situation as it arises. In Mindful Leadership, you'll learn how to draw on those inner reserves through Mindfulness Meditation, a tool you can use to achieve focus and clarity, reduce stress, and develop the presence of mind to meet any number of challenges. The bo

  15. Epileptic qualia and self-awareness: a third dimension for consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoğlu, Lütfü; Özkara, Çiğdem; Yalçiner, Betül; Nani, Andrea; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been increasing awareness among epileptologists about the need to refine our understanding and assessment of ictal consciousness, focusing on both subjective and behavioral aspects of seizures. Specifically, there have been suggestions that both the internal and external milieux - the former related to the phenomenal qualia of experience, the latter related to behavior - must be taken into account for a better understanding of altered states of consciousness in epilepsy. It has been proposed that clinical and experimental data from patients experiencing alterations of consciousness during epileptic seizures could be better understood within a bidimensional model, in which any manifestation of conscious experience can be plotted according to the level and contents of consciousness. The 'level' axis measures the degree of alertness/arousal, whereas the 'contents' axis measures the vividness of specific experiential phenomena reported by the patient. We argue that certain seizure types might require more rigorous conceptual models for their characterization, and we highlight the potential usefulness of a more refined framework which includes a further dimension related to the 'self', in addition to those of 'level' and 'contents'. This model could be visualized in a three-dimensional space to allow fine-grained distinctions between epileptic seizures.

  16. Induction of self awareness in dreams through frontal low current stimulation of gamma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Hobson, Allan; Paulus, Walter; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Klimke, Ansgar; Nitsche, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Recent findings link fronto-temporal gamma electroencephalographic (EEG) activity to conscious awareness in dreams, but a causal relationship has not yet been established. We found that current stimulation in the lower gamma band during REM sleep influences ongoing brain activity and induces self-reflective awareness in dreams. Other stimulation frequencies were not effective, suggesting that higher order consciousness is indeed related to synchronous oscillations around 25 and 40 Hz.

  17. The influence of self-awareness on emotional memory formation: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Vieira, Carla; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of emotional perception shows that when attention is focused on external features of emotional stimuli (external perceptual orienting--EPO), the amygdala is primarily engaged, but when attention is turned inwards towards one's own emotional state (interoceptive self-orienting--ISO), regions of the salience network, such as the anterior insula (AI) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), also play a major role. Yet, it is unknown if ISO boosts the contributions of AI and dACC not only to emotional 'perception' but also to emotional 'memory'. To investigate this issue, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing emotional and neutral pictures under ISO or EPO, and memory was tested several days later. The study yielded three main findings: (i) emotion boosted perception-related activity in the amygdala during both ISO and EPO and in the right AI exclusively during ISO; (ii) emotion augmented activity predicting subsequent memory in AI and dACC during ISO but not during EPO and (iii) high confidence memory was associated with increased amygdala-dACC connectivity, selectively for ISO encoding. These findings show, for the first time, that ISO promotes emotional memory formation via regions associated with interoceptive awareness of emotional experience, such as AI and dACC.

  18. Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…

  19. Short-Term Faculty-Led Study Abroad Programs Enhance Cultural Exchange and Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, A. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Though many experts argue that semester or year abroad study is the optimal path, short-term programs meet the needs of students who would not otherwise study abroad and can be effective at increasing intercultural competency. The present study describes one type of short-term program--the embedded faculty-led model--and provides evidence that…

  20. Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…

  1. Self-awareness of computed tomography ordering in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim-Saleh, Amjed; Worrall, James C; Taljaard, Monica; Gatien, Mathieu; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2017-07-04

    Physician variation in the use of computed tomography (CT) is concerning due to the risks of ionizing radiation, cost, and downstream effects of unnecessary testing. The objectives of this study were to describe variation in CT-ordering rates among emergency physicians (EPs), to measure correlation between perceived and actual CT-ordering rates, to assess attitudes that influence decisions to order imaging tests, and to identify EP attitudes associated with higher CT utilization. This study was a retrospective review of imaging and administrative billing records at two emergency department sites of a tertiary care adult teaching hospital. The study also included a cross-sectional survey of EPs at this hospital. We asked physicians about their perceived ordering behaviour, and what factors influenced their decision to order a CT. We examined correlations between perceived and actual CT-ordering rates. We adjusted ordering rates for shift distribution using a logistic regression model and identified outlier physicians whose ordering rate was significantly lower or higher than expected. We used multivariable regression analysis to determine which survey responses predicted higher CT utilization. During the study period, 59 EPs saw 45,854 patients, and ordered 6,609 CTs - a mean ordering rate of 14.4% (standard deviation (SD)=4.3%). The ordering rate for individual physicians ranged from 5.9% to 25.9%. Of the 59 EPs, 13 EPs were low-ordering outliers; 12 were high-ordering outliers. Forty-five EPs (76.3%) completed the survey. Mean perceived ordering rate was 12.6%, and was weakly correlated with actual ordering (r=0.19, p=0.21). 42 EPs (93.3%) believed they ordered "about the same" or "fewer" CTs than their peers. Of the 17 EPs in the two highest ordering quintiles, only 3 (18%) knew they were high orderers. In the multivariable analysis, higher ordering was associated with increasing strength of response to the following predictors: medico-legal risk (relative risk [RR]=1.18, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21), risk of contrast (RR=1.14, 95% CI: 1.07-1.22), what colleagues would do (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.99-1.19), risk of missing a diagnosis (RR=1.08, 95% CI: 0.98-1.21), and patient wishes (RR=1.07, 95% CI: 0.97-1.17). There is large variation in CT ordering among EPs. Physicians' self-reported ordering rate correlates poorly with actual ordering. High CT orderers were rarely aware that they ordered more than their colleagues. Higher rates of ordering were observed among physicians who reported increased concern with 1) risk of missing a diagnosis, 2) medico-legal risk, 3) risk of contrast, 4) patient wishes, and 5) what colleagues would do.

  2. Cultivating Self-Awareness with Team-Teaching: Connections between Classroom Learning and Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    The Honors College program prepares leaders for the 21st century to become forces for positive change through problem-solving, scholarship, service, teamwork, and leadership. Its structure involves nine sequenced courses familiarizing students with challenges facing communities. Courses are team-taught by professors in different disciplines to…

  3. Facebook and the Cognitive Model: A Tool for Promoting Adolescent Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy; Wahesh, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A homework activity incorporating the social networking site Facebook is presented as a tool for teaching adolescent clients about the cognitive model and increasing their ability to identify and modify problematic thinking. The authors describe how a worksheet developed to help clients examine information presented on their Facebook profile can…

  4. Shame as a Cultural Artifact: A Call for Self-Awareness and Reflexivity in Personality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschieri, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    It has become common for assessors to face therapeutic impasses and dilemmas when practicing within the Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model. This is due to the explicit goal of producing therapeutic changes in clients. In this article the author discusses the importance of assessors being aware of how their clinical practices relate to their assessment outcomes. To enhance such awareness, the author reviews the characteristics of psychological assessment practices as derived from 3 paradigms developed almost 1.5 centuries ago in Europe by the forefathers of psychology as a scientific discipline. Current assessment practices are deeply ingrained in specific cultural, social, and political frameworks originating in these paradigms. Being aware of such a historical and cultural background might help the assessor avoid blindly reenacting the values, norms, and latent relational schemas implied by different assessment methods, and instead use assessment tools as potent aids in the service of clients' change. Finally, the author illustrates how the experience of clients' shame in psychological assessment might also be understood as a by-product of the specific cultural and historical background of certain common assessment practices.

  5. Fundamental Advances in Inverse Mechanics Towards Self-Aware and Intrinsically Adaptable Structural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-30

    parameters and objectives was considered. As shown in Figure 2, the smart link consisted of a 20mm ⇥ 5mm ⇥ 1mm homogeneous rectangular prism composed...Date 06/30/2014 Abstract The objective of this project was to advance computational methods for solving inverse problems related to smart morphable...peer-reviewed journal publications, then Dist. A. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The objective of this project was to advance computational

  6. A Journey. A Unit to Develop Self-Awareness Through a Fine Arts Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitchelo, Jack; Hickens, Carole

    Designed for elementary school students, the unit presents five brief sessions for teaching an historical event using a fine arts approach. By incorporating dance, drama, art, and music into the study of historical events, students heighten their awareness of themselves and of the characters in history. In session 1, students reenact and discuss…

  7. Fundamental Advances in Inverse Mechanics Towards Self-Aware and Intrinsically Adaptable Structural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-30

    ASME 2012 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, Stone Mountain , GA, September. 
 7. M. Wang and J.C. Brigham...Structures and Intelligent Systems, Stone Mountain , GA, September. 
 8. M. Ahmadpoor and J.C. Brigham (2013), “An Approach for Adaptive Generation of...function (RBF) as: E(~x) = E0 " 1 ↵ · exp k~x ~⇣ k2 c !# , (18) where E0 is the base Young’s modulus, ↵ is the percentage of the reduction in

  8. Self-Awareness Emotional Learning during Mediation Procedures in the School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-García, Sara; Iriarte, Concha; Aznárez-Sanado, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Studies stress the importance of emotions in conflict, describing how they influence any mediation process. Resolving conflicts requires emotional abilities and it usually implies emotional learning. One of the main objectives of this paper is to better understand the role of emotions in mediation processes: how they impact this…

  9. Facebook and the Cognitive Model: A Tool for Promoting Adolescent Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy; Wahesh, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A homework activity incorporating the social networking site Facebook is presented as a tool for teaching adolescent clients about the cognitive model and increasing their ability to identify and modify problematic thinking. The authors describe how a worksheet developed to help clients examine information presented on their Facebook profile can…

  10. Cultural Self-Awareness as a Crucial Component of Military Cross-Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    identified personality traits and discussed the supporting evidence as it relates to job performance in multicultural situations. They identified...cultural interaction on a tactical level in the military can be quite different from a business negotiation the business model does provide the most

  11. Becoming self-aware: the thymic education of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Chan-Wang J; Hsieh, Chyi-Song

    2011-04-01

    The generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in the thymus is essential for immune homeostasis. In the past several years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms by which a minor portion of developing thymocytes are selected to become Treg cells. Although previously controversial, recent data support the importance of TCR specificity as a primary determinant for selecting self-reactive thymocytes to become Treg cells in a multi-step process involving cytokines, co-stimulatory molecules, and a variety of antigen-presenting cells. Importantly, the antigenic niche for Treg cell development appears to be typically quite small, implying the recognition of tissue-specific, rather than ubiquitous, self-antigens. Finally, it appears that an NF-κB transcription factor, c-Rel, may be the link between TCR recognition and the induction of Foxp3 expression, which is required for the function and stability of the natural Treg cell population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spiritualism at What Cost? One Campus Movement Promises Self-Awareness, But Some Question Its Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Megan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Self Knowledge Symposium, a student group with chapters at three North Carolina universities, that exists to lead students on a search for spirituality without the trappings of traditional religions. Discusses implications of the personal disclosure required of members and accusations that the group is actually a cult of personality.…

  13. A Semantic Representation of Adult Learner's Self Awareness relying On Learner's Developing Conceptions of Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Learning is the reflective activity that enables the learner to draw upon her/his previous experiences and background knowledge to conceptualise, realise, understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape her/his future actions and to construct and develop new knowledge for her(him)self. Learning...... strongly depends on meetings of awarenesses (or self realisations) which we see as achieved through the experiences that mentors and learners undertake jointly. Self realisation is a type of self organisation process and always organises itself. In fact, self realisation is always going to be continued...

  14. Self-Awareness and Personal Growth: Theory and Application of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Hasan; Constantinescu, Petru-Madalin; Stevens, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: In this article, we summarize a group-based, self-development curriculum based on humanistic principles, framed by contemporary self-determination theory (SDT), and designed in accordance with Bloom's Taxonomy. The processes of awareness and integration are common to SDT and Bloom's Taxonomy, and to our knowledge, have not been…

  15. Metacognition in the Classroom: Motivation and Self-Awareness of Mathematics Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaali, Gizem

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition as a dimension of learning ranks highest in the revised Bloom's Taxonomy of cognitive tasks. In this paper we illustrate how it can be incorporated into a repeated exercise in the mathematics classroom, through a specific case study in the context of a liberal arts mathematics course. Through the semester, students were asked weekly…

  16. An AGM model for changes in complement during pregnancy: neutralization of influenza virus by serum is diminished in late third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anne E; Parks, Griffith D

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women in the third trimester are at increased risk of severe influenza disease relative to the general population, though mechanisms behind this are not completely understood. The immune response to influenza infection employs both complement (C') and antibody (Ab). The relative contributions of these components to the anti-viral response are difficult to dissect because most humans have pre-existing influenza-specific Abs. We developed the African green monkey (AGM) as a tractable nonhuman primate model to study changes in systemic innate immunity to influenza during pregnancy. Because the AGMs were influenza-naïve, we were able to examine the role of C' in influenza virus neutralization using serum from non-pregnant animals before and after influenza infection. We determined that serum from naïve AGMs neutralized influenza via C', while post-infection neutralization did not require C', suggesting an Ab-mediated mechanism. The latter mimicked neutralization using human serum. Further, we found that ex vivo neutralization of influenza with both naïve and influenza-immune AGM serum occurred by virus particle aggregation and lysis, with immune serum lysing virus at a much higher rate than naïve serum. We hypothesized that the anti-influenza C' response would diminish late in AGM pregnancy, corresponding with the time when pregnant women suffer increased influenza severity. We found that influenza neutralization capacity is significantly diminished in serum collected late in the third trimester. Strikingly, we found that circulating levels of C3, C3a, and C4 are diminished late in gestation relative to nonpregnant animals, and while neutralization capacity and serum C3a return to normal shortly after parturition, C3 and C4 levels do not. This AGM model system will enable further studies of the role of physiologic and hormonal changes in downregulating C'-mediated anti-viral immunity during pregnancy, and it will permit the identification of therapeutic

  17. An AGM model for changes in complement during pregnancy: neutralization of influenza virus by serum is diminished in late third trimester.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Mayer

    Full Text Available Pregnant women in the third trimester are at increased risk of severe influenza disease relative to the general population, though mechanisms behind this are not completely understood. The immune response to influenza infection employs both complement (C' and antibody (Ab. The relative contributions of these components to the anti-viral response are difficult to dissect because most humans have pre-existing influenza-specific Abs. We developed the African green monkey (AGM as a tractable nonhuman primate model to study changes in systemic innate immunity to influenza during pregnancy. Because the AGMs were influenza-naïve, we were able to examine the role of C' in influenza virus neutralization using serum from non-pregnant animals before and after influenza infection. We determined that serum from naïve AGMs neutralized influenza via C', while post-infection neutralization did not require C', suggesting an Ab-mediated mechanism. The latter mimicked neutralization using human serum. Further, we found that ex vivo neutralization of influenza with both naïve and influenza-immune AGM serum occurred by virus particle aggregation and lysis, with immune serum lysing virus at a much higher rate than naïve serum. We hypothesized that the anti-influenza C' response would diminish late in AGM pregnancy, corresponding with the time when pregnant women suffer increased influenza severity. We found that influenza neutralization capacity is significantly diminished in serum collected late in the third trimester. Strikingly, we found that circulating levels of C3, C3a, and C4 are diminished late in gestation relative to nonpregnant animals, and while neutralization capacity and serum C3a return to normal shortly after parturition, C3 and C4 levels do not. This AGM model system will enable further studies of the role of physiologic and hormonal changes in downregulating C'-mediated anti-viral immunity during pregnancy, and it will permit the identification

  18. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography, and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli.

  19. Reversible diminished renal sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake during converting-enzyme inhibition in a patient with renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer Hovinga, T.K.; Beukhof, J.R.; Donker, A.J.M.; Luyk, W.H.J. van; Piers, D.A.

    1984-03-01

    A patient is described who had accelerated hypertension and unilateral renal artery stenosis, and who developed further deterioration in renal function during treatment with captopril, an angiotension-I (AI) converting-enzyme inhibitor. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake was greatly diminished in the stenotic kidney, although renal blood flow and handling of /sup 131/I hippurate was preserved. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA in the affected kidney returned after substitution of captopril by the vasodilator minoxidil, while a comparable degree of blood pressure control was maintained. This, caution must be taken when interpreting results of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in patients with proven or suspected renal artery stenosis treated with an AI converting-enzyme inhibiting drug. Moreover, our finding points to the importance of glomerular filtration in the renal handling of /sup 99/Tc-DMSA.

  20. Exogenous Thyropin from p41 Invariant Chain Diminishes Cysteine Protease Activity and Affects IL-12 Secretion during Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Zavašnik-Bergant

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC play a pivotal role as antigen presenting cells (APC and their maturation is crucial for effectively eliciting an antigen-specific immune response. The p41 splice variant of MHC class II-associated chaperone, called invariant chain p41 Ii, contains an amino acid sequence, the p41 fragment, which is a thyropin-type inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes. The effects of exogenous p41 fragment and related thyropin inhibitors acting on human immune cells have not been reported yet. In this study we demonstrate that exogenous p41 fragment can enter the endocytic pathway of targeted human immature DC. Internalized p41 fragment has contributed to the total amount of the immunogold labelled p41 Ii-specific epitope, as quantified by transmission electron microscopy, in particular in late endocytic compartments with multivesicular morphology where antigen processing and binding to MHC II take place. In cell lysates of treated immature DC, diminished enzymatic activity of cysteine proteases has been confirmed. Internalized exogenous p41 fragment did not affect the perinuclear clustering of acidic cathepsin S-positive vesicles typical of mature DC. p41 fragment is shown to interfere with the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in LPS-stimulated DC. p41 fragment is also shown to reduce the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12/p70 during the subsequent maturation of treated DC. The inhibition of proteolytic activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases in immature DC and the diminished capability of DC to produce IL-12 upon their subsequent maturation support the immunomodulatory potential of the examined thyropin from p41 Ii.

  1. Possible underlying influence of p38MAPK and NF-κB in the diminished anti-anxiety effect of diazepam in stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vipin; Gilhotra, Ritu; Dhingra, Dinesh; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the possible nitriergic influence and role of p38MAPK and NF-κB in the diminished anti-anxiety effect of diazepam in stressed mice, using the elevated plus maze and light/dark box to assess anxiety. Immobilization stress for 6 h enhanced an anxiety-like behavior and increased plasma nitrite levels in mice. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.) produced an anti-anxiety effect in unstressed mice, but could not produce any change in anxiety levels of stressed mice. SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, i.p.), a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, per se produced a significant antianxiety-like activity in stressed mice. Administration of a combination of SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (2 mg/kg) in stressed mice produced a significantly higher antianxiety-like activity than that produced by SB-203580 alone. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of the activation of NF-κB, per se produced a significant antianxiety-like activity in stressed mice. Combination of PDTC and diazepam also served to produce a higher significant antianxiety-like activity in stressed mice than that produced by PDTC alone. Diazepam could not produce any change in plasma nitrite levels in both unstressed and stressed mice. Both SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, i.p.) and PDTC (100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased plasma nitrite levels in stressed mice. The observations indicate that the diminished anti-anxiety effect of diazepam in stressed mice may involve strong nitriergic influence and may further be p38MAPK- and NF-κB-dependent.

  2. Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (Lrrk2) Deficiency Diminishes the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU) and the Adaptive Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandu, Wambui S; Tan, Cuiyan; Ogbeifun, Osato; Vistica, Barbara P; Shi, Guangpu; Hinshaw, Samuel J H; Xie, Chengsong; Chen, Xi; Klinman, Dennis M; Cai, Huaibin; Gery, Igal

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in LRRK2 are related to certain forms of Parkinson's disease and, possibly, to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. In both these diseases inflammatory processes participate in the pathogenic process. LRRK2 is expressed in lymphoid cells and, interestingly, Lrrk2 (-/-) mice were reported to develop more severe experimental colitis than their wild type (WT) controls. Here, we examined the possible involvement of LRRK2 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), an animal model for human uveitis, by testing Lrrk2 (-/-) mice for their capacity to develop this experimental eye disease and related immune responses. Lrrk2 (-/-) mice and their WT controls (C57Bl/6) were immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) and compared for their development of EAU, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) by skin tests, production of cytokines in culture, and expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-17 and FoxP3 by spleen cells, using flow cytometry. Peritoneal macrophages were examined for their production of cytokines/chemokines in culture following stimulation with LPS or the oligodeoxynucleotide CpG. The Lrrk2 (-/-) and WT mice were also compared for their response to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The Lrrk2 (-/-) mice developed lower levels of EAU, DTH responses and cytokine production by lymphocytes than did their WT controls. Intracellular expression of IFN-γ and IL-17, by spleen cells, and secretion of cytokines/chemokines by activated peritoneal macrophages of Lrrk2 (-/-) mice trended toward diminished levels, although variabilities were noted. The expression levels of FoxP3 by Lrrk2 (-/-) spleen cells, however, were similar to those seen in WT controls. Consistent with their low response to IRBP, Lrrk2 (-/-) mice responded to BSA less vigorously than their WT controls. Lrrk2 deficiency in mice diminished the development of EAU and the related adaptive immune responses to IRBP as compared to the WT controls.

  3. Blunted flow-mediated responses and diminished nitric oxide synthase expression in lymphatic thoracic ducts of a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawieja, Scott D; Gasheva, Olga; Zawieja, David C; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2016-02-01

    Shear-dependent inhibition of lymphatic thoracic duct (TD) contractility is principally mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction and poor NO bioavailability are hallmarks of vasculature dysfunction in states of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). We tested the hypothesis that flow-dependent regulation of lymphatic contractility is impaired under conditions of MetSyn. We utilized a 7-wk high-fructose-fed male Sprague-Dawley rat model of MetSyn and determined the stretch- and flow-dependent contractile responses in an isobaric ex vivo TD preparation. TD diameters were tracked and contractile parameters were determined in response to different transmural pressures, imposed flow, exogenous NO stimulation by S-nitro-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging molecule 4-hydroxy-tempo (tempol). Expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in TD was determined using Western blot. Approximately 25% of the normal flow-mediated inhibition of contraction frequency was lost in TDs isolated from MetSyn rats despite a comparable SNAP response. Inhibition of NOS with l-NAME abolished the differences in the shear-dependent contraction frequency regulation between control and MetSyn TDs, whereas tempol did not restore the flow responses in MetSyn TDs. We found a significant reduction in eNOS expression in MetSyn TDs suggesting that diminished NO production is partially responsible for impaired flow response. Thus our data provide the first evidence that MetSyn conditions diminish eNOS expression in TD endothelium, thereby affecting the flow-mediated changes in TD lymphatic function.

  4. Diminished disease progression rate in a chronic kidney disease population following the replacement of dietary water source with quality drinking water: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Edirisinghe Arachchige Ranga Iroshanie Edirisinghe; Perera, Ponnamperuma Aratchige Jayasumana; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Abeysekara, Tilak; Nugegoda, Danaseela Bandara; Weerakoon, Kosala; Siriwardhana, Dunusingha Asitha Surandika

    2017-03-29

    Environmental toxin/s is alleged to be the contributory factor for the chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. The potential of drinking water as a medium for the nephrotoxic agents in the affected subjects has been comprehensively discoursed in the recent past. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of replacing the habitual drinking water on the kidney function of CKDu patients residing in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka: METHODS: An interventional study was carried out to assess the disease progression rate of a CKDu population whose habitual drinking water was replaced by bottled spring water certified by Sri Lanka Standard (SLS) for a period of 18 month along with a population of CKDu patients who continued with their usual drinking water. Kidney function of subjects in both groups were monitored in terms of blood pressure, serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein at 6 months intervals during the intervention and follow up periods. Diminished disease progression rate was observed in CKDu patients in the intervention group when compared with the non- intervention group based on serum creatinine, Hb, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein levels. Extensive interventional studies are required to generalize effect of drinking water on CKDu population. The habitual drinking water is likely to be a contributory factor towards the progression of the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell proportions are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by curative anti-helminthic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Nausch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium.In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6-9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels.This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis.

  6. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade or deletion diminishes fibrocyte accumulation in the skin in a murine model of scleroderma, bleomycin-induced fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katebi, Majid; Fernandez, Patricia; Chan, Edwin S L; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2008-10-01

    Peripheral blood fibrocytes are a newly identified circulating leukocyte subpopulation that migrates into injured tissue where it may display fibroblast-like properties and participate in wound healing and fibrosis of skin and other organs. Previous studies in our lab demonstrated that A(2A) receptor-deficient and A(2A) antagonist-treated mice were protected from developing bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, thus the aim of this study was to determine whether the adenosine A(2A) receptor regulates recruitment of fibrocytes to the dermis in this bleomycin-induced model of dermal fibrosis. Sections of skin from normal mice and bleomycin-treated wild type, A(2A) knockout and A(2A) antagonist-treated mice were stained for Procollagen alpha2 Type I and CD34 and the double stained cells, fibrocytes, were counted in the tissue sections. There were more fibrocytes in the dermis of bleomycin-treated mice than normal mice and the increase was abrogated by deletion or blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors. Because fibrocytes play a central role in tissue fibrosis these results suggest that diminished adenosine A(2A) receptor-mediated recruitment of fibrocytes into tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosing diseases of the skin. Moreover, these results provide further evidence that adenosine A(2A) receptors may represent a new target for the treatment of such fibrosing diseases as scleroderma or nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy.

  7. Trichoderma harzianum containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and chitinase improved growth and diminished adverse effect caused by Fusarium oxysporum in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Lidong; Liu, Jidong; Chen, Long; Fan, Xiaoning; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Ke; He, Yuting; Chen, Chen; Ji, Xiue

    2017-03-01

    An isolate, named Trichoderma harzianum T-soybean, showed growth-promoting for soybean seedlings and induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse. Compared to control soybean seedlings, fresh weight, dry weight, lateral root number, chlorophyll content, root activity and soluble protein of plants pretreated with T-soybean increased, but initial pod height reduced. Furthermore, we found that T-soybean inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum by parasitic function. In addition, plate test results showed that culture filtrates of T-soybean also inhibited significantly F. oxysporum growth. Meanwhile, T-soybean treatment obviously reduced disease severity and induced quickly the H2O2 and O2(-) burst as well as pathogenesis related protein gene (PR3) expression after F. oxysporum inoculation, and subsequently diminished the cell damage in soybean caused by the pathogen challenge. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes activity analysis showed that the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in T-soybean pretreated plants. These results suggested that T-soybean treatment induced resistance in soybean seedlings to F. oxysporum by companying the production of ROS and the increasing of ROS scavenging enzymes activity as well as PR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA with Diminished PAI-1 Related to Metastasis in Ductal Breast Cancer Patients Attending a Public Hospital in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Castañeda, Luis Miguel; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Evelin; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteases and the fibrinolytic system are important protease systems interacting with each other in charge of remodeling and recycling of tissues. Their role in tumor invasion and metastasis is often discussed. In this study several metalloproteases such as MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 together with molecules from the fibrinolytic system like uPA, its receptor uPAR, and its inhibitor, PAI-1, were studied by immune-histochemistry to establish a comparison with and without metastasis. From the (118) primary tumors of Mexican patients with ductal breast cancer studied, 56% were grade II and 69% were size T2; the group with metastatic ganglia included 64 samples (54.3%). In patients with metastasis the estimated expression of MMP-3 and uPA (resp., 28% and 45%) was higher than that from no metastatic tumors; it means there is higher expression of both markers in metastatic tumors (p < 0.05). At the same time, metastatic tumors showed statistically significant lower signal of PAI-1 (24%) than tumors without metastasis (p < 0.05). We concluded that overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA, altogether with diminished expression of PAI-1 from metastatic tumors, might be a crucial step towards metastasis in ductal breast cancer. Nevertheless, additional studies in different populations are necessary to establish a pattern. PMID:27975070

  9. 递减步长果蝇优化算法及应用%Research on and application of diminishing step fruit fly optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁剑平; 王冰; 李洪儒; 许葆华

    2014-01-01

    提出一种递减步长果蝇优化算法(diminishing step fruit fly optimization algorithm,DS-FOA).该算法的搜索步长随果蝇觅食进程逐步减小,从而使果蝇群体在觅食初期具有较强的全局搜索能力,在觅食后期具有较强的局部寻优能力,从而实现全局搜索能力和局部寻优能力的平衡.将该算法用于支持向量机(support vector machine,SVM)回归模型的惩罚因子和核函数参数优化中,结果表明,DS-FOA收敛速度快,全局搜索与局部寻优能力强.与其他算法相比,由DS-FOA优化参数的SVM回归模型均方误差最低,回归效果好.

  10. Increased endothelin-1 and diminished nitric oxide levels in blister fluids of patients with intermediate cold type complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehof Sjoerd

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1 pro-inflammatory mediators and vascular changes play an important role in the sustained development and outcome of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of vasoactive substances endothelin-1 (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO during early chronic CRPS1. Methods Included were 29 patients with CRPS 1 who were diagnosed during the acute stage of their disease and observed during follow-up visits. Disease activity and impairment were determined and artificial suction blisters were made on the CRPS1 and the contralateral extremities for measurements of IL-6, TNF-α, ET-1 and nitrate/nitrite (NOx. Results The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and ET-1 in blister fluid in the CRPS1 extremity versus the contralateral extremity were significantly increased and correlated with each other, whereas NOx levels were decreased. Conclusion The NOx/ET-1 ratio appears to be disturbed in the intermediate stage of CRPS, resulting in vasoconstriction and consequently in a diminished tissue blood distribution.

  11. Overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA with Diminished PAI-1 Related to Metastasis in Ductal Breast Cancer Patients Attending a Public Hospital in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Barajas-Castañeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix metalloproteases and the fibrinolytic system are important protease systems interacting with each other in charge of remodeling and recycling of tissues. Their role in tumor invasion and metastasis is often discussed. In this study several metalloproteases such as MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 together with molecules from the fibrinolytic system like uPA, its receptor uPAR, and its inhibitor, PAI-1, were studied by immune-histochemistry to establish a comparison with and without metastasis. From the (118 primary tumors of Mexican patients with ductal breast cancer studied, 56% were grade II and 69% were size T2; the group with metastatic ganglia included 64 samples (54.3%. In patients with metastasis the estimated expression of MMP-3 and uPA (resp., 28% and 45% was higher than that from no metastatic tumors; it means there is higher expression of both markers in metastatic tumors (p<0.05. At the same time, metastatic tumors showed statistically significant lower signal of PAI-1 (24% than tumors without metastasis (p<0.05. We concluded that overexpression of MMP-3 and uPA, altogether with diminished expression of PAI-1 from metastatic tumors, might be a crucial step towards metastasis in ductal breast cancer. Nevertheless, additional studies in different populations are necessary to establish a pattern.

  12. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, Norman; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Background Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methodology/Principal Findings In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6–9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:25799270

  13. Short-term food restriction followed by controlled refeeding promotes gorging behavior, enhances fat deposition, and diminishes insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Ke, Jia-Yu; Lee, Hui-Young; Stout, Michael B; Cole, Rachel M; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I; Belury, Martha A

    2015-07-01

    Rodents are commonly used in food restriction refeeding studies to investigate weight regain. Mice that are rationed food every 24 h may consume all allocated food in a short time (gorge) and therefore undergo a brief well-fed period followed by an extended fasted period until the next day's food allotment. These exaggerated metabolic states are not typical in mice fed ad libitum (nibbling). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the intraday and cumulative metabolic consequences of gorging (induced by food restriction) in mice during controlled refeeding. Accordingly, following a temporary food restriction, mice were fed rations similar to intakes of controls fed ad libitum. Temporary food restriction initiated gorging behavior that persisted during refeeding; consequently, metabolism-related measurements were obtained in the gorging mice during their daily fed and fasted metabolic states. Robust differences in adipose tissue lipogenic and inflammatory gene expression were found in the gorging mice by metabolic state (fed versus fasted). Additionally, despite a reduced cumulative food intake compared to mice fed ad libitum, restriction-induced gorging mice had increased intraabdominal fat accumulation, diminished hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and a gene expression profile favoring lipid deposition. Our findings highlight the intraday differences in gene expression in gorging mice before and after feeding that confound comparisons with mice fed ad libitum, or nibbling. The present study also provides evidence that weight regain following food restriction is associated with cumulative metabolic and behavioral abnormalities in mice.

  14. Diminished effector and memory CD8+ circulating T lymphocytes in patients with severe influenza caused by the AH1N1 pdm09 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Yolanda; Juárez, Esmeralda; Carranza, Claudia; Sada, Eduardo; Pedraza-Sánchez, Sigifredo; Torres, Martha

    2017-01-01

    The T cell immune response to viral infection includes the expansion of naïve T cells, effector cell differentiation and the induction of long-lived memory cells. We compared the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells in patients with severe or mild pneumonia induced by influenza infection occurring during the 2009 influenza outbreak and compared their T cell subsets with those in blood samples obtained from healthy volunteers before the AH1N1 influenza outbreak in Mexico. Patients with severe influenza exhibited significantly lower numbers of effector memory CD8(+)CD26 (high) CD45RO(+)CCR7(+) phenotype and lower numbers of central memory CD8(+)CD(26)(high) CD62L(+)CCR7(+), CD26 (high) CD62L(+)CD127(+) or CD26 (high) CD45RO(+)CD57 (low) phenotypes than patients with mild influenza or unexposed healthy subjects. Effector T cells with CD8(+)CD26CD62L (low) CD57(+) phenotype were significantly diminished in severe influenza patients compared to those in patients with mild influenza or unexposed healthy subjects. These results suggest that low levels of circulating CD8(+) T effector and central memory cells are associated with influenza severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lower nasopharyngeal epithelial cell repair and diminished innate inflammation responses contribute to the onset of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, David; Nesselbush, Monica; Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-08-01

    About 30 % of young children experience excessive, frequent episodes of middle ear infection and are classified as acute otitis media prone (OP). Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a predominant otopathogen in OP and non-OP (NOP) children. The pathogenesis of middle ear infection involves otopathogen nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization followed by an upper respiratory viral infection that modifies the NP environment to allow a sufficient inoculum of bacteria to reflux via the Eustachian tube into the middle ear space. Here, we analyzed the NP mucosal repair response between age-matched stringently defined OP (sOP) and NOP children who progressed to middle ear infection caused by Spn. We found lower epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, and angiogenin cytokine concentrations in nasal washes of sOP compared with NOP children. Despite higher expression of TLR2/4 transcript expression in nasal epithelium and in polymorphonuclear cells present in nasal secretions in sOP children, sOP children had lower expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in the NP. Chemotaxis-associated cytokine expression at onset of AOM in sOP children was also lower compared with NOP children, possibly indicating a lower capacity to signal the innate immune system. We conclude that lower epithelial cell repair responses during viral infection in the NP combined with diminished innate inflammatory responses potentiate Spn pathogenesis in the sOP child.

  16. Dwarfism in Mice Lacking Collagen-binding Integrins α2β1 and α11β1 Is Caused by Severely Diminished IGF-1 Levels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumbach, Katrin; Niehoff, Anja; Belgardt, Bengt F.; Ehlen, Harald W. A.; Schmitz, Markus; Hallinger, Ralf; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Brüning, Jens C.; Krieg, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Gullberg, Donald; Eckes, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Mice with a combined deficiency in the α2β1 and α11β1 integrins lack the major receptors for collagen I. These mutants are born with inconspicuous differences in size but develop dwarfism within the first 4 weeks of life. Dwarfism correlates with shorter, less mineralized and functionally weaker bones that do not result from growth plate abnormalities or osteoblast dysfunction. Besides skeletal dwarfism, internal organs are correspondingly smaller, indicating proportional dwarfism and suggesting a systemic cause for the overall size reduction. In accordance with a critical role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in growth control and bone mineralization, circulating IGF-1 levels in the sera of mice lacking either α2β1 or α11β1 or both integrins were sharply reduced by 39%, 64%, or 81% of normal levels, respectively. Low hepatic IGF-1 production resulted from diminished growth hormone-releasing hormone expression in the hypothalamus and, subsequently, reduced growth hormone expression in the pituitary glands of these mice. These findings point out a novel role of collagen-binding integrin receptors in the control of growth hormone/IGF-1-dependent biological activities. Thus, coupling hormone secretion to extracellular matrix signaling via integrins represents a novel concept in the control of endocrine homeostasis. PMID:22210772

  17. Dwarfism in mice lacking collagen-binding integrins α2β1 and α11β1 is caused by severely diminished IGF-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumbach, Katrin; Niehoff, Anja; Belgardt, Bengt F; Ehlen, Harald W A; Schmitz, Markus; Hallinger, Ralf; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Brüning, Jens C; Krieg, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Gullberg, Donald; Eckes, Beate

    2012-02-24

    Mice with a combined deficiency in the α2β1 and α11β1 integrins lack the major receptors for collagen I. These mutants are born with inconspicuous differences in size but develop dwarfism within the first 4 weeks of life. Dwarfism correlates with shorter, less mineralized and functionally weaker bones that do not result from growth plate abnormalities or osteoblast dysfunction. Besides skeletal dwarfism, internal organs are correspondingly smaller, indicating proportional dwarfism and suggesting a systemic cause for the overall size reduction. In accordance with a critical role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in growth control and bone mineralization, circulating IGF-1 levels in the sera of mice lacking either α2β1 or α11β1 or both integrins were sharply reduced by 39%, 64%, or 81% of normal levels, respectively. Low hepatic IGF-1 production resulted from diminished growth hormone-releasing hormone expression in the hypothalamus and, subsequently, reduced growth hormone expression in the pituitary glands of these mice. These findings point out a novel role of collagen-binding integrin receptors in the control of growth hormone/IGF-1-dependent biological activities. Thus, coupling hormone secretion to extracellular matrix signaling via integrins represents a novel concept in the control of endocrine homeostasis.

  18. Individual Behavioral Adaptability to Diminished G-Forces and Calcium Uptake of Inner ear Otoliths in Fish. A Sounding Rocket Experiment (TX 48)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, Miriam; Shcherbakov, Denis; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2013-02-01

    In the course of the TEXUS 45 experiment we were able to show that the time-course of a habituation to diminished gravity depends on the respective G-level HQM (high quality microgravity, 10-4g) vs. LQM (low quality microgravity, 10-2g) and on the symmetric morphology of the gravity sensing components of the inner ear. An individually different regulation of inner ear otolith calcification plays a role in this process. With this study, the results of the TEXUS 45 flight were validated for another g-level (9x10-4g). In the course of the behavioural investigations we were able to show that most fish could adapt to these μg condition. Fish experiencing permanently 9x10-4g during the whole flight exhibit less kinetotic movements and from this we conclude, that they might use this minimal g-force for orientation. Furthermore these behavioural data were correlated with the morphology of otoliths (Lapilli and Sagittae).

  19. Increased frequency and compromised function of T regulatory cells in systemic sclerosis (SSc is related to a diminished CD69 and TGFbeta expression.

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    Timothy R D J Radstake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs are essential in the control of tolerance. Evidence implicates Tregs in human autoimmune conditions. Here we investigated their role in systemic sclerosis (SSc. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients were subdivided as having limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc, n = 20 or diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc, n = 48. Further subdivision was made between early dcSSc (n = 24 and late dcSSc (n = 24 based upon the duration of disease. 26 controls were studied for comparison. CD3+ cells were isolated using FACS and subsequently studied for the expression of CD4, CD8, CD25, FoxP3, CD127, CD62L, GITR, CD69 using flow cytometry. T cell suppression assays were performed using sorted CD4CD25(highCD127(- and CD4CD25(lowCD127(high and CD3(+ cells. Suppressive function was correlated with CD69 surface expression and TGFbeta secretion/expression. The frequency of CD4(+CD25(+ and CD25(highFoxP3(highCD127(neg T cells was highly increased in all SSc subgroups. Although the expression of CD25 and GITR was comparable between groups, expression of CD62L and CD69 was dramatically lower in SSc patients, which correlated with a diminished suppressive function. Co-incubation of Tregs from healthy donors with plasma from SSc patients fully abrogated suppressive activity. Activation of Tregs from healthy donors or SSc patients with PHA significantly up regulated CD69 expression that could be inhibited by SSc plasma. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that soluble factors in SSc plasma inhibit Treg function specifically that is associated with altered Treg CD69 and TGFbeta expression. These data suggest that a defective Treg function may underlie the immune dysfunction in systemic sclerosis.

  20. Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC): a randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish overweight and obesity in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E; Greene, Jerry L; Gibson, Cheryl A; Smith, Bryan K; Washburn, Richard A; Sullivan, Debra K; DuBose, Katrina; Mayo, Matthew S; Schmelzle, Kristin H; Ryan, Joseph J; Jacobsen, Dennis J; Williams, Shannon L

    2009-10-01

    Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) was a three-year cluster randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish increases in overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Twenty-four elementary schools were cluster randomized to the Physical Activity Across the Curriculum intervention or served as control. All children in grades two and three were followed to grades four and five. Physical Activity Across the Curriculum promoted 90 min/wk of moderate to vigorous intensity physically active academic lessons delivered by classroom teachers. Body Mass Index was the primary outcome, daily Physical activity and academic achievement were secondary outcomes. The three-year change in Body Mass Index for Physical Activity Across the Curriculum was 2.0+/-1.9 and control 1.9+/-1.9, respectively (NS). However, change in Body Mass Index from baseline to 3 years was significantly influenced by exposure to Physical Activity Across the Curriculum. Schools with > or =75 min of Physical Activity Across the Curriculum/wk showed significantly less increase in Body Mass Index at 3 years compared to schools that had Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (1.8+/-1.8 vs. 2.4+/-2.0, p=0.02). Physical Activity Across the Curriculum schools had significantly greater changes in daily Physical activity and academic achievement scores. The Physical Activity Across the Curriculum approach may promote daily Physical activity and academic achievement in elementary school children. Additionally, 75 min of Physical Activity Across the Curriculum activities may attenuate increases in Body Mass Index.

  1. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence

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    Douglas S. Kernodle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  2. RNA-seq reveals a diminished acclimation response to the combined effects of ocean acidification and elevated seawater temperature in Pagothenia borchgrevinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Troy J; Place, Sean P

    2016-08-01

    The IPCC has reasserted the strong influence of anthropogenic CO2 contributions on global climate change and highlighted the polar-regions as highly vulnerable. With these predictions the cold adapted fauna endemic to the Southern Ocean, which is dominated by fishes of the sub-order Notothenioidei, will face considerable challenges in the near future. Recent physiological studies have demonstrated that the synergistic stressors of elevated temperature and ocean acidification have a considerable, although variable, impact on notothenioid fishes. The present study explored the transcriptomic response of Pagothenia borchgrevinki to increased temperatures and pCO2 after 7, 28 and 56days of acclimation. We compared this response to short term studies assessing heat stress alone and foretell the potential impacts of these stressors on P. borchgrevinki's ability to survive a changing Southern Ocean. P. borchgrevinki did demonstrate a coordinated stress response to the dual-stressor condition, and even indicated that some level of inducible heat shock response may be conserved in this notothenioid species. However, the stress response of P. borchgrevinki was considerably less robust than that observed previously in the closely related notothenioid, Trematomus bernacchii, and varied considerably when compared across different acclimation time-points. Furthermore, the molecular response of these fish under multiple stressors displayed distinct differences compared to their response to short term heat stress alone. When exposed to increased sea surface temperatures, combined with ocean acidification, P. borchgrevinki demonstrated a coordinated stress response that has already peaked by 7days of acclimation and quickly diminished over time. However, this response is less dramatic than other closely related notothenioids under identical conditions, supporting previous research suggesting that this notothenioid species is less sensitive to environmental variation. Copyright

  3. Diabetes diminishes the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to vasopressin via vasopressin receptor and Gα proteins regulations in cirrhotic rats.

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    Jing-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal-systemic collateral formation and bleeding. The hemostatic effect is influenced by the response of collateral vessels to vasoconstrictors. Diabetes and glucose also influence vasoresponsiveness, but their net effect on collaterals remains unexplored. This study investigated the impact of diabetes or glucose application on portal-systemic collateral vasoresponsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP in cirrhosis. Spraque-Dawley rats with bile duct ligation (BDL-induced cirrhosis received vehicle (citrate buffer or streptozotocin (diabetic, BDL/STZ. The in situ collateral perfusion was done after hemodynamic measurements: Both were perfused with Krebs solution, D-glucose, or D-glucose and NaF, with additional OPC-31260 for the BDL/STZ group. Splenorenal shunt vasopressin receptors and Gα proteins mRNA expressions were evaluated. The survival rate of cirrhotic rats was decreased by STZ injection. The collateral perfusion pressure changes to AVP were lower in STZ-injected groups, which were reversed by OPC-31260 (a V2R antagonist and overcome by NaF (a G protein activator. The splenorenal shunt V2R mRNA expression was increased while Gα proteins mRNA expressions were decreased in BDL/STZ rats compared to BDL rats. The Gαq and Gα11 mRNA expressions also correlated with the maximal perfusion pressure changes to AVP. Diabetes diminished the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to AVP in rats with BDL-induced cirrhosis, probably via V2 receptor up-regulation and Gα proteins down-regulation.

  4. Abundance and phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in faeces from healthy food animals after slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Miguel A; Teshager, Tirushet; Porrero, M A Concepción; García, María; Escudero, Esther; Torres, Carmen; Domínguez, Lucas

    2007-03-10

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is an increasing phenomenon but its quantitative estimation remains controversial. The classical resistance percentage approach is not well suited to detect either emergence or low levels resistance. One option is to shift the focus from strains to hosts. This approach is applied to test for phenotypic diversity associated with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (DSESC) in faecal Escherichia coli from healthy food animals in Spain. We performed E. coli enumeration in faecal samples of broilers (82 pooled samples) and pigs (80 pooled samples) at the slaughterhouse level, using Coli-ID plates alone and supplemented with cefotaxime at two levels (1 and 8 microg/ml). Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested by the agar diffusion method. Clustering was carried out using these numerical values and Ward and UPGMA methods. When using plates supplemented with 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime for DSESC E. coli detection, 93% (76/82) of broiler pooled samples and 36% (29/80) pig pooled samples tested positive. When using 8 microg/ml of cefotaxime, 67% (55/82) of broilers and 13% (10/80) of pigs were positive. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of this phenotype was low in both animal species (range 0-4.3%). Irrespective of the clustering method (Ward or UPGMA), a noticeable phenotypic diversity was detected, especially from the plates containing 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime. We concluded that: (a) E. coli with phenotype DSESC are common in broilers and pigs but are less frequent in pigs, and (b) the host approach is the most appropriate method for antimicrobial resistance assessment when null or very low levels of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are expected.

  5. Beta-lactamase characterization in Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility or resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from sick animals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Zarazaga, Myriam; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, Concepción; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1439 Escherichia coli isolates from sick animals were received from the Spanish Network of Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (VAV) from 1997 to 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed and diminished susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was identified in 2.5% and 2.8% of the isolates, respectively. Beta-lactamase characterization was carried out in the group of 20 E. coli isolates with both characteristics. The MIC ranges of different beta-lactams showed by these 20 isolates were as follows (in microg/ml): ampicillin (64-->256), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4-64), ticarcillin (8-->128), cefazolin (32-->256), cefoxitin (4-->128), cefotaxime (1-64), ceftazidime (2-->64), ceftriaxone (0.5-64), imipenem (32). TEM, SHV, CMY, and FOX beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The beta-lactamase genes detected were the following ones (number of isolates): bla(TEM-1b) (3), bla(TEM-1a) (1), bla(TEM-30f) (2), bla(TEM-1b) + bla(CMY-2) (2), and bla(SHV-12) (1). Sequences of the promoter and/or attenuator region of the chromosomal ampC gene were studied in all the 20 isolates. Mutations at position -42 or -32 were detected in 16 isolates and these mutations were associated with the presence of a TEM type beta-lactamase in 6 isolates. Besides, a high variety of plasmidic beta-lactamases was detected including TEM-30 and CMY-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that TEM-30 beta-lactamase has been detected in E. coli isolates of animal origin.

  6. Diminished peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR regulation as a potential mechanism for the persistent inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Drost

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent inflammation is the main pathological process that underlies COPD. Understanding this inflammatory response is a key focus of COPD research with the aim of discovering new therapeutic targets. The nuclear hormone receptor, PPAR is now a recognised modulator of inflammation in various chronic inflammatory conditions, but its role in the persistent airways inflammation in COPD has not been examined. Control of the inflammatory response by PPAR has been shown by antagonising inflammatory signalling pathways, such as NF-kappa B and AP-1. PPAR-alpha protein levels in lung tissue from patients with COPD were assessed by Western blot. In vitro assays using the human type II alveolar epithelial cell line were performed to assess the effect of PPAR-alpha agonist treatment on inflammatory cytokine generation. An increase in PPAR-alpha protein levels was seen for healthy smokers compared with non-smokers (Ratio to beta-actin loading control, non-smokers 0.61±0.1, n = 10; healthy smokers 0.97±0.3, n = 11, p>0.05. No increase was seen for current smoker or ex-smoker COPD patients (0.36±0.08, n = 12; 0.49±0.1, n = 8 respectively. In vitro experiments with a human type II alveolar epithelial cell line demonstrated a diminished inflammatory response to TNF-alpha, as measured by the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8, following pre-treatment with the PPAR-alpha agonist, WY-14643 (IL-8 generation, control 823±22 pg·ml–1, TNF-alpha 7491±530 pg·ml–1 p<0.001, WY-14643 2559±46 pg·ml–1 p<0.05, n = 3. We propose PPAR agonists as a potential therapy for reducing the NF-B-regulated inflammation in COPD airways.

  7. Friedreich's Ataxia Variants I154F and W155R Diminish Frataxin-Based Activation of the Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chi-Lin; Bridwell-Rabb, Jennifer; Barondeau, David P

    2011-11-07

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has been linked to defects in the protein frataxin (Fxn). Most FRDA patients have a GAA expansion in the first intron of their Fxn gene that decreases protein expression. Some FRDA patients have a GAA expansion on one allele and a missense mutation on the other allele. Few functional details are known for the ~15 different missense mutations identified in FRDA patients. Here in vitro evidence is presented that indicates the FRDA I154F and W155R variants bind more weakly to the complex of Nfs1, Isd11, and Isu2 and thereby are defective in forming the four-component SDUF complex that constitutes the core of the Fe-S cluster assembly machine. The binding affinities follow the trend Fxn ~ I154F > W155F > W155A ~ W155R. The Fxn variants also have diminished ability to function as part of the SDUF complex to stimulate the cysteine desulfurase reaction and facilitate Fe-S cluster assembly. Four crystal structures, including the first for a FRDA variant, reveal specific rearrangements associated with the loss of function and lead to a model for Fxn-based activation of the Fe-S cluster assembly complex. Importantly, the weaker binding and lower activity for FRDA variants correlate with the severity of disease progression. Together, these results suggest that Fxn facilitates sulfur transfer from Nfs1 to Isu2 and that these in vitro assays are sensitive and appropriate for deciphering functional defects and mechanistic details for human Fe-S cluster biosynthesis.

  8. Effect of Melatonin on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technique Cycles in Women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve: A Double-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahia Namavar Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR significantly decreases the success rate of the assisted reproductive technique (ART. In this study, we assessed the effect of melatonin on the ART outcomes in women with DOR. A double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was performed on 80 women with DOR as a pilot study in Shiraz, between 2014 and 2015. DOR was defined as the presence of 2 of the following 3 criteria: 1 anti-Müllerian hormone ≤1, 2 folliclestimulating hormone ≥10, and 3 bilateral antral follicle count ≤6. The women received 3 mg/d melatonin or a placebo since the fifth day of one cycle prior to gonadotropin stimulation and continued the treatment up to the time of ovum pickup. The ART outcomes were compared between the groups using SPSS software. Finally, there were 32 women in the case and 34 in the placebo groups. The mean age and basal ovarian reserve test were the same between the groups. The serum estradiol level on the triggering day was significantly higher in the case group (P=0.005. The mean number of MII oocytes was higher in the case group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Number of the patients who had mature MII oocytes (P=0.014, top-quality embryos with grade 1 (P=0.049, and embryos with grades 1 and 2 (P=0.014 was higher among the women who received melatonin. However, the other ART outcomes were not different between the groups. The serum estradiol level was higher and more women with DOR had good-quality oocytes and embryos after receiving melatonin; however, no other outcome was different between the case and control groups. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014041417264N1

  9. Apoptosis, mastocytosis, and diminished adipocytokine gene expression accompany reduced epididymal fat mass in long-standing diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is characterized by increased cell death and inflammatory reactions in the adipose tissue. Here, we explored pathophysiological alterations taking place in the adipose tissue in long-standing obesity. In the epididymal fat of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks, the prevalence and distribution of dead adipocytes (crown-like structures, mast cells (toluidine blue, mMCP6, macrophages (F4/80, and apoptotic cells (cleaved caspase-3 were measured. Moreover, gene and/or protein expression of several adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, MCP-1, F4/80, mMCP6, cleaved caspase-3 were determined. Results We observed that the epididymal fat mass was lower in obese than in lean mice. In obese mice, the epididymal fat mass correlated inversely with body weight and liver mass. Dead adipocytes, mast cells, macrophages, and apoptotic cells were abundant in the epididymal fat of obese mice, especially in the rostral vs. caudal zone. Accordingly, mMCP6, F4/80, and cleaved caspase-3 gene and/or protein expression was increased. Conversely, adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, and MCP-1 gene expression levels were lower in the epididymal fat of obese than lean mice. Although TNF-α and IL-10 gene expression was higher in the epididymal fat of obese mice, their expression relative to F4/80 and mMCP6 expression were lower in the heavily infiltrated rostral than caudal zone. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in mice with long-standing obesity diminished gene expression of several adipocytokines accompany apoptosis and reduced mass of the epididymal fat. Our findings suggest that this is due to both increased prevalence of dead adipocytes and altered immune cell activity. Differential distribution of metabolically challenged adipocytes is indicative of the presence of biologically diverse zones within the epididymal fat.

  10. Ciliary transport regulates PDGF-AA/αα signaling via elevated mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and diminished PP2A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Nicole L; Caspary, Tamara

    2015-01-15

    Primary cilia are built and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT), whereby the two IFT complexes, IFTA and IFTB, carry cargo via kinesin and dynein motors for anterograde and retrograde transport, respectively. Many signaling pathways, including platelet- derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA/αα, are linked to primary cilia. Active PDGF-AA/αα signaling results in phosphorylation of Akt at two residues: P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473), and previous work showed decreased P-Akt(S473) in response to PDGF-AA upon anterograde transport disruption. In this study, we investigated PDGF-AA/αα signaling via P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473) in distinct ciliary transport mutants. We found increased Akt phosphorylation in the absence of PDGF-AA stimulation, which we show is due to impaired dephosphorylation resulting from diminished PP2A activity toward P-Akt(T308). Anterograde transport mutants display low platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)α levels, whereas retrograde mutants exhibit normal PDGFRα levels. Despite this, neither shows an increase in P-Akt(S473) or P-Akt(T308) upon PDGF-AA stimulation. Because mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is increased in ciliary transport mutant cells and mTOR signaling inhibits PDGFRα levels, we demonstrate that inhibition of mTORC1 rescues PDGFRα levels as well as PDGF-AA-dependent phosphorylation of Akt(S473) and Akt(T308) in ciliary transport mutant MEFs. Taken together, our data indicate that the regulation of mTORC1 signaling and PP2A activity by ciliary transport plays key roles in PDGF-AA/αα signaling.

  11. A Modified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine with Reduced Activity of Antioxidants and Glutamine Synthetase Exhibits Enhanced Protection of Mice despite Diminished in Vivo Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoen, Carolyn M; DeStefano, Michelle S; Hager, Cynthia C; Tham, Kyi-Toe; Braunstein, Miriam; Allen, Alexandria D; Gates, Hiriam O; Cynamon, Michael H; Kernodle, Douglas S

    2013-01-11

    Early attempts to improve BCG have focused on increasing the expression of prominent antigens and adding recombinant toxins or cytokines to influence antigen presentation. One such modified BCG vaccine candidate has been withdrawn from human clinical trials due to adverse effects. BCG was derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis and retains much of its capacity for suppressing host immune responses. Accordingly, we have used a different strategy for improving BCG based on reducing its immune suppressive capacity. We made four modifications to BCG Tice to produce 4dBCG and compared it to the parent vaccine in C57Bl/6 mice. The modifications included elimination of the oxidative stress sigma factor SigH, elimination of the SecA2 secretion channel, and reductions in the activity of iron co-factored superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. After IV inoculation of 4dBCG, 95% of vaccine bacilli were eradicated from the spleens of mice within 60 days whereas the titer of BCG Tice was not significantly reduced. Subcutaneous vaccination with 4dBCG produced greater protection than vaccination with BCG against dissemination of an aerosolized challenge of M. tuberculosis to the spleen at 8 weeks post-challenge. At this time, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice also exhibited altered lung histopathology compared to BCG-vaccinated mice and control mice with less well-developed lymphohistiocytic nodules in the lung parenchyma. At 26 weeks post-challenge, 4dBCG-vaccinated mice but not BCG-vaccinated mice had significantly fewer challenge bacilli in the lungs than control mice. In conclusion, despite reduced persistence in mice a modified BCG vaccine with diminished antioxidants and glutamine synthetase is superior to the parent vaccine in conferring protection against M. tuberculosis. The targeting of multiple immune suppressive factors produced by BCG is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving vaccine safety and effectiveness.

  12. Effect of Melatonin on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technique Cycles in Women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve: A Double-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Bahia Namavar; Sadeghi, Sara; Alipour, Shohreh; Parsanezhad, Mohammad Ebrahim; Alamdarloo, Shaghayegh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) significantly decreases the success rate of the assisted reproductive technique (ART). In this study, we assessed the effect of melatonin on the ART outcomes in women with DOR. A double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was performed on 80 women with DOR as a pilot study in Shiraz, between 2014 and 2015. DOR was defined as the presence of 2 of the following 3 criteria: 1) anti-Müllerian hormone ≤1, 2) follicle-stimulating hormone ≥10, and 3) bilateral antral follicle count ≤6. The women received 3 mg/d melatonin or a placebo since the fifth day of one cycle prior to gonadotropin stimulation and continued the treatment up to the time of ovum pickup. The ART outcomes were compared between the groups using SPSS software. Finally, there were 32 women in the case and 34 in the placebo groups. The mean age and basal ovarian reserve test were the same between the groups. The serum estradiol level on the triggering day was significantly higher in the case group (P=0.005). The mean number of MII oocytes was higher in the case group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Number of the patients who had mature MII oocytes (P=0.014), top-quality embryos with grade 1 (P=0.049), and embryos with grades 1 and 2 (P=0.014) was higher among the women who received melatonin. However, the other ART outcomes were not different between the groups. The serum estradiol level was higher and more women with DOR had good-quality oocytes and embryos after receiving melatonin; however, no other outcome was different between the case and control groups. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014041417264N1 PMID:28293053

  13. Expression of the Prion Protein Family Member Shadoo Causes Drug Hypersensitivity That Is Diminished by the Coexpression of the Wild Type Prion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeste, Antal; Bencsura, Petra; Vida, István; Hegyi, Zoltán; Homolya, László; Fodor, Elfrieda; Welker, Ervin

    2016-02-26

    The prion protein (PrP) seems to exert both neuroprotective and neurotoxic activities. The toxic activities are associated with the C-terminal globular parts in the absence of the flexible N terminus, specifically the hydrophobic domain (HD) or the central region (CR). The wild type prion protein (PrP-WT), having an intact flexible part, exhibits neuroprotective qualities by virtue of diminishing many of the cytotoxic effects of these mutant prion proteins (PrPΔHD and PrPΔCR) when coexpressed. The prion protein family member Doppel, which possesses a three-dimensional fold similar to the C-terminal part of PrP, is also harmful to neuronal and other cells in various models, a phenotype that can also be eliminated by the coexpression of PrP-WT. In contrast, another prion protein family member, Shadoo (Sho), a natively disordered protein possessing structural features similar to the flexible N-terminal tail of PrP, exhibits PrP-WT-like protective properties. Here, we report that, contrary to expectations, Sho expression in SH-SY5Y or HEK293 cells induces the same toxic phenotype of drug hypersensitivity as PrPΔCR. This effect is exhibited in a dose-dependent manner and is also counteracted by the coexpression of PrP-WT. The opposing effects of Shadoo in different model systems revealed here may be explored to help discern the relationship of the various toxic activities of mutant PrPs with each other and the neurotoxic effects seen in neurodegenerative diseases, such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and Alzheimer disease.

  14. Distribution of the FMR1 gene in females by race/ethnicity: women with diminished ovarian reserve versus women with normal fertility (SWAN study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Lisa M; Young, Steven L; Manichaikul, Ani; Baker, Valerie L; Wang, Xin Q; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2017-01-01

    To study whether reported, but inconsistent, associations between the FMR1 CGG repeat lengths in the intermediate, high normal, or low normal range differentiate women diagnosed with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) from population controls and whether associations vary by race/ethnic group. Case-control study. Academic and private fertility clinics. DOR cases (n = 129; 95 Whites, 22 Asian, 12 other) from five U.S. fertility clinics were clinically diagnosed, with regular menses and no fragile X syndrome family history. Normal fertility controls (n = 803; 386 Whites, 219 African-Americans, 102 Japanese, 96 Chinese) from the United States-based SWAN Study had one or more menstrual period in the 3 months pre-enrollment, one or more pregnancy, no history of infertility or hormone therapy, and menopause ≥46 years. Previously, the SWAN Chinese and Japanese groups had similar FMR1 CGG repeat lengths, thus they were combined. None. FMR1 CGG repeat lengths. Median CGG repeats were nearly identical by case/control group. DOR cases had fewer CGG repeats in the shorter FMR1 allele than controls among Whites, but this was not significant among Asians. White cases had fewer CGG repeats in the shorter allele than Asian cases. No significant differences were found in the high normal/intermediate range between cases and controls or by race/ethnic group within cases in the longer allele. This study refutes prior reports of an association between DOR and high normal/intermediate repeats and confirms an association between DOR and low normal repeats in Whites. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic low-frequency rTMS of primary motor cortex diminishes exercise training-induced gains in maximal voluntary force in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Richardson, Sarah Pirio; Lomarev, Mikhael; Shamim, Ejaz; Meunier, Sabine; Russman, Heike; Dang, Nguyet; Hallett, Mark

    2009-02-01

    Although there is consensus that the central nervous system mediates the increases in maximal voluntary force (maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) produced by resistance exercise, the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in these processes remains controversial. We hypothesized that 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 during resistance training would diminish strength gains. Forty subjects were divided equally into five groups. Subjects voluntarily (Vol) abducted the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) (5 bouts x 10 repetitions, 10 sessions, 4 wk) at 70-80% MVC. Another group also exercised but in the 1-min-long interbout rest intervals they received rTMS [Vol+rTMS, 1 Hz, FDI motor area, 300 pulses/session, 120% of the resting motor threshold (rMT)]. The third group also exercised and received sham rTMS (Vol+Sham). The fourth group received only rTMS (rTMS_only). The 37.5% and 33.3% gains in MVC in Vol and Vol+Sham groups, respectively, were greater (P = 0.001) than the 18.9% gain in Vol+rTMS, 1.9% in rTMS_only, and 2.6% in unexercised control subjects who received no stimulation. Acutely, within sessions 5 and 10, single-pulse TMS revealed that motor-evoked potential size and recruitment curve slopes were reduced in Vol+rTMS and rTMS_only groups and accumulated to chronic reductions by session 10. There were no changes in rMT, maximum compound action potential amplitude (M(max)), and peripherally evoked twitch forces in the trained FDI and the untrained abductor digiti minimi. Although contributions from spinal sources cannot be excluded, the data suggest that M1 may play a role in mediating neural adaptations to strength training.

  16. Modeling the Potential for Vaccination to Diminish the Burden of Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Disease in Young Children in Mali, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Kristin; Hungerford, Laura; Hartley, David; Sorkin, John D.; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Sow, Samba O.; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, systematic surveillance of young children with suspected invasive bacterial disease (e.g., septicemia, meningitis) has revealed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) to be a major pathogen exhibiting high case fatality (~20%). Where infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been introduced to prevent invasive disease caused by these pathogens, as in Bamako, Mali, their burden has decreased markedly. In parallel, NTS has become the predominant invasive bacterial pathogen in children aged vaccines to prevent invasive NTS (iNTS) disease. We developed a mathematical model to estimate the potential impact of NTS vaccination programs in Bamako. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov chain transmission model was developed utilizing age-specific Bamako demographic data and hospital surveillance data for iNTS disease in children aged vaccine coverage and efficacy similar to the existing, successfully implemented, Hib vaccine. Annual iNTS hospitalizations and deaths in children vaccine, were the model’s outcomes of interest. Per the model, high coverage/high efficacy iNTS vaccination programs would drastically diminish iNTS disease except among infants age vaccination shifts as disease burden, vaccine coverage, and serovar distribution vary. Our model shows that implementing an iNTS vaccine through an analogous strategy to the Hib vaccination program in Bamako would markedly reduce cases and deaths due to iNTS among the pediatric population. The model can be adjusted for use elsewhere in Africa where NTS epidemiologic patterns, serovar prevalence, and immunization schedules differ from Bamako. PMID:28182657

  17. In vivo regulation of murine CYP7A1 by HNF-6: a novel mechanism for diminished CYP7A1 expression in biliary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minhua; Tan, Yongjun; Costa, Robert H; Holterman, Ai-Xuan L

    2004-09-01

    Disruption of the enterohepatic bile acid circulation during biliary tract obstruction leads to profound perturbation of the cholesterol and bile acid metabolic pathways. Several families of nuclear receptor proteins have been shown to modulate this critical process by regulating hepatic cholesterol catabolism and bile acid synthesis through the transcriptional control of cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1). Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 6 (also known as OC-1) is a member of the ONECUT family of transcription factors that activate numerous hepatic target genes essential to liver function. We have previously shown that hepatic expression of mouse HNF-6 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein significantly decrease following bile duct ligation. Because CYP7A1 contains potential HNF-6 binding sites in its promoter region, we tested the hypothesis that HNF-6 transcriptionally regulates CYP7A1. Following bile duct ligation, we demonstrated that diminished HNF-6 mRNA levels correlate with a reduction in CYP7A1 mRNA expression. Increasing hepatic levels of HNF-6 either by infection with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing HNF-6 cDNA by growth hormone treatment leads to an induction of CYP7A1 mRNA. To directly evaluate if HNF-6 is a transcriptional activator for CYP7A1, we used deletional and mutational analyses of CYP7A1 promoter sequences and defined sequences -206/-194 to be critical for CYP7A1 transcriptional stimulation by HNF-6 in cotransfection assays. In conclusion, the HNF-6 protein is a component of the complex network of hepatic transcription factors that regulates the expression of hepatic genes essential for bile acid homeostasis and cholesterol/lipid metabolism in normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Levels and associations among self-esteem, fertility distress, coping, and reaction to potentially being a genetic carrier in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmeli, Ceylan; Lobel, Marci; Franasiak, Jason; Pastore, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    To measure the level of distress and its relationship with other psychologic factors in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) who participated in a fragile X genetics study. Longitudinal data analyzed with structural equation modeling. Four U.S. private and academic fertility centers. Sixty-two infertile patients with DOR. None. Fertility Problem Inventory, Coping Scale for Infertile Couples, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Health Orientation Scale. Nineteen percent had low fertility distress, 56% had average fertility distress, and 24% had high fertility distress. Thirty-six percent self-reported a "favorable" or "very favorable" emotional response to potentially being a fragile X carrier (termed "emotions"), 53% were "ambivalent," and 11% had an unfavorable reaction. Three months after learning that they were not a carrier, these percentages were 91%, 9%, and 0%, respectively. Emotions at this second time point were significantly more positive than at pretesting. At baseline, higher self-esteem was a significant predictor of reduced fertility distress both directly and indirectly through emotions. Fertility distress was not associated with coping. Self-esteem, fertility distress, pretesting emotions, and coping were unrelated to posttesting emotions. The potential of having an explanation for one's DOR condition may have a beneficial impact on women's psychologic states during the process of genetic testing, and this appeared to be especially true for women with higher self-esteem. Psychologic interventions targeted to women with low self-esteem may reduce distress and improve reactions to genetic testing. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Melatonin Restores White Blood Cell Count, Diminishes Glycated Haemoglobin Level and Prevents Liver, Kidney and Muscle Oxidative Stress in Mice Exposed to Acute Ethanol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaluk, Natalia; Sliuta, Alina; Kyriienko, Svitlana; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin impact on changes in haematological profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress (dienes conjugates, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidatively modified protein levels, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity) in liver, muscle, kidney and erythrocytes, and glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) in mice during acute ethanol stress. Assays were carried out in quadruplicate: control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute ethanol stress (0.75 g/kg/day, 10 days) and acute ethanol stress plus melatonin groups. Acute ethanol stress caused a significant increase in the total number of white blood cells (WBC), especially neutrophils in the blood, and HBA1c levels vs. control mice. The correlation between lipid peroxidation and the glycated haemoglobin level was shown (r = 0.93, P = 0.007). Ethanol reduced the antioxidant capacity by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the level of oxidatively modified protein content, diene conjugates and MDA. Melatonin administration in animals during acute ethanol stress reduced antioxidant stress biomarkers, WBC, HBA1c levels and ROS production. Melatonin had protective effects on liver, kidney and muscle tissues by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes in initial (diene conjugation production) and late stages (MDA level), and significantly reduced the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives. Furthermore, melatonin restored elevated WBC count and HBA1c level and diminished ROS production. Ethanol reduces antioxidant capacity and leads to exaggerated reactive oxygen species production and consequent increases in oxidatively modified proteins. Melatonin exerts protective effects by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes. Melatonin significantly reduces the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives, restores glycated haemoglobin level and white blood cell count.

  20. Adolescent Female Cannabinoid Exposure Diminishes the Reward-Facilitating Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and d-Amphetamine in the Adult Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Panagis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ9-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ9-THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle during postnatal days 28–50. As adults, females were mated with drug-naïve males. We then assessed potential alterations of the Δ9-THC’s (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p. and d-amphetamine’s (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p. reward-modifying effects using the curve-shift variant of the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS procedure in their adult male F1 offspring. The reward-facilitating effect of the 0.1 mg dose of Δ9-THC was abolished in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ9-THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, whereas the reward-attenuating effect of the 1 mg dose of Δ9-THC remained unaltered. The reward-facilitating effects of 0.5 and 1 mg of d-amphetamine were significantly decreased in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ9-THC (1 mg/kg and 0.1 or 1 mg, respectively. The present results reveal that female Δ9-THC exposure during adolescence can diminish the reward-facilitating effects of Δ9-THC and d-amphetamine in the adult male offspring. These transgenerational effects occur in the absence of in utero exposure. It is speculated that Δ9-THC exposure during female adolescence may affect neural mechanisms that are shaping reward-related behavioral responses in a subsequent generation, as indicated by the shifts in the reward-facilitating effects of commonly used and abused drugs.

  1. Angiogenic imbalance and diminished matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 underlie regional decreases in uteroplacental vascularization and feto-placental growth in hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Junior, Carlos A; Chen, Juanjuan; Cui, Ning; Chiang, Charles L; Zhu, Minglin; Ren, Zongli; Possomato-Vieira, Jose S; Khalil, Raouf A

    2017-09-11

    Preeclampsia is a form of hypertension-in-pregnancy (HTN-Preg) with unclear mechanism. Generalized reduction of uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) could be an initiating event leading to uteroplacental ischemia, angiogenic imbalance, and HTN-Preg. Additional regional differences in uteroplacental blood flow could further affect the pregnancy outcome and increase the risk of preeclampsia in twin or multiple pregnancy, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. To test the hypothesis that regional differences in angiogenic balance and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) underlie regional uteroplacental vascularization and feto-placental development, we compared fetal and placental growth, and placental and myoendometrial vascularization in the proximal, middle and distal regions of the uterus (in relation to the iliac bifurcation) in normal pregnant (Preg) and RUPP rats. Maternal blood pressure and plasma anti-angiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1)/placenta growth factor (PIGF) ratio were higher, and average placentae number, placenta weight, litter size, and pup weight were less in RUPP than Preg rats. The placenta and pup number and weight were reduced, while the number and diameter of placental and adjacent myoendometrial arteries, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels/activity were increased, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was decreased in distal vs proximal uterus of Preg rats. In RUPP rats, the placenta and pup number and weight, the number and diameter of placental and myoendometrial arteries, and MMP-2 and -9 levels/activity were decreased, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was increased in distal vs proximal uterus. Treatment with sFlt-1 or RUPP placenta extract decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 in distal segments of Preg uterus, and treatment with PIGF or Preg placenta extract restored MMP levels in distal segments of RUPP uterus. Thus, in addition to the general reduction in placental and fetal growth during uteroplacental ischemia, localized angiogenic imbalance and diminished MMP-2

  2. Transpacific Partnership (TPP Agreement. Is the commercial solution for political-military tension at the region? or Is an american strategy to diminish China influence in Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ramírez Zamudio

    2015-07-01

    several subjects, but they are members of one of the wealthiest regions in the world: Asia-Pacific and both of them attend the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC, which main goal is to establish a Free Trade Area for the 21 member economies by 2020. Unfortunately, Apec’s goal has been delayed by the lack of consensus among its members. Since 2011, the United States and other Apec Apec’s members have openly supported The Transpacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, which could be a brilliant strategy to boost the members’ economic growth through their commercial linkage in Asia-Pacific. However, the fact that China has not been invited by the U.S. to TPP poses the question of whether this strategy has intentions beyond its economic interests and seeks to diminish China’s economic political influence in Asia. If the American administration intends to exclude China from this ambitious economic integration, the Tpp’s potential will never be reached.

  3. Classroom Walls that Talk: Using Online Course Activity Data of Successful Students to Raise Self-Awareness of Underperforming Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, John

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other institutions, the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) has determined that a relationship may exist between student performance as defined by grades, and activity in the campus' online course management system (CMS). Specifically, since Fall 2007, UMBC's "Most Active Blackboard Courses" reports show students earning a D…

  4. 论柳永词中的自我意识%On Self-awareness in Liu Yong' s Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠波

    2012-01-01

    By using poetry as a medium to express his feelings, Liu Yong exhibited his demand for individual freedom and strong desire for personality independence. He made his poems develop into Li Yu' s lyric-orientation and showed uneven fate and disappointing and depressing psychological state of the scholars in Song Dynasty.%柳永用词作为抒发情感的手段,向世人昭示了其要求个性自由和人格独立的强烈愿望。使词沿着李煜的抒情取向发展,展示出宋代下层文人世大夫的坎坷命运和失意苦闷的心态。

  5. SPAСE-TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF SELF-AWARENESS OF WOMEN WITH DIFFERENT EXPERIENCES MOTHERHOOD SYNERGETIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostareva Elena Nikolaevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article the question of interrelation of features of consciousness and life experience of the person is considered. Results of empirical research, which purpose - the comparative analysis existential psychosemantics structures of consciousness of women with different experience of motherhood are submitted. In structure self-consiousness of the women having children, the personal value of family well-being integrating senses of child-parental and matrimonial relations, a material prosperity and dialogue is revealed. In self-consciousness women who are not having children, the potential personal values of motherhood not connected among themselves and the leisure, focused on the future and specifying alternative variants of development and self-determination of women are found out. On the basis of methodology of synergetrics parameters of the system - structural analysis of consciousness are proved. The consciousness of the women having children is established, that, made structurally out and differs relative orderliness and stability. The consciousness of the women who are not having children, is made structurally out, but characterized by instability and rather smaller orderliness.

  6. Increasing Self-Awareness, Decreasing Dogmatism and Expanding Disciplinary Horizons: Synthesising a Plan of Action towards Culture-Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    The author recognises the fact that knowledge of cultural diversity and its implications is growing in the field of giftedness research and practice. In some ways, the target article could therefore be considered "old news." The author contends that his effort to address culture variation and its problematic impact on research, however, is not to…

  7. Self-awareness of mastery and improvability of entrepreneurial competence in small businesses in the agrifood sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, T.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    An important assumption of entrepreneurial competence is that (at least part of) it can be learned and developed. However, human resources development (HRD) practices aimed at further strengthening and developing small-business owner–managers' entrepreneurial competence are complex and

  8. Designing personal informatics for self-reflection and self-awareness: the case of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Garcia, Juan; Bruyckere, de Hilde; Keyson, David V.; Romero, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    A main challenge in designing for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is to support the learning process of supressing undesired behaviour on daily routines by means of positive feedback and rewards. Personal Informatics (PI) is a model that supports capturing and integrati

  9. Language Assessment Literacy as Self-Awareness: "Understanding" the Role of Interpretation in Assessment and in Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The increasing influence of sociocultural theories of learning on assessment practices in second language education necessitates an expansion of the knowledge base that teacher-assessors need to develop (what teachers need to know) and related changes in the processes of language teacher education (how they learn and develop it). Teacher assessors…

  10. The Self-Aware Organization: A Metacognitive Approach to Change Management in a Small Rural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Charles E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Educational leaders have often been ineffective in managing change in their environment. Change vectors were used in the current study to identify areas of needed change, along with a metacognitive approach to organizational change. A qualitative case study was employed to explore the use of such a metacognitive approach to change by a small rural…

  11. Is body dysmorphic disorder associated with abnormal bodily self-awareness? A study using the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ryan A; Enticott, Peter G; Hohwy, Jakob; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from past research suggests that behaviours and characteristics related to body dissatisfaction may be associated with greater instability of perceptual body image, possibly due to problems in the integration of body-related multisensory information. We investigated whether people with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a condition characterised by body image disturbances, demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which arises as a result of multisensory integration processes when a rubber hand and the participant's hidden real hand are stimulated in synchrony. Overall, differences in RHI experience between the BDD group and healthy and schizophrenia control groups (n = 17 in each) were not significant. RHI strength, however, was positively associated with body dissatisfaction and related tendencies. For the healthy control group, proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand was observed following synchronous but not asynchronous stimulation, a typical pattern when inducing the RHI. Similar drifts in proprioceptive awareness occurred for the BDD group irrespective of whether stimulation was synchronous or not. These results are discussed in terms of possible abnormalities in visual processing and multisensory integration among people with BDD.

  12. Self-awareness of cognitive efficiency: Differences between healthy elderly and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiadaki, Stella; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikolaos; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2016-12-01

    Self-estimation of performance implies the ability to understand one's own performance with relatively objective terms. Up to date, few studies have addressed this topic in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The aim of the present study was to compare objective measures of performance with subjective perception of specific performance on cognitive tests and investigate differences in assessment between MCI patients and healthy elderly. Thirty-five participants diagnosed with MCI (women = 16, men = 19, mean age = 65.09 years ±SD = 7.81, mean education = 12.83 years ±SD = 4.32) and 35 control subjects similar in terms of age and education (women = 20, men = 15, mean age = 62.46 years ± SD = 9.35, mean education = 14.26 ± SD = 2.84) were examined with an extended battery of neuropsychological tests. After every test they were asked to self-evaluate their performance by comparing it to what they considered as average for people of their age and educational level. This self-evaluation was reported on a scale ranging from -100 to +100. Significant differences were found in the self-assessment patterns of the two groups in memory measures of verbal and visual delayed recall, visuospatial perception, and tests of attention. MCI patients overestimated their performance on every cognitive domain while control participants underestimated their performance on measures of verbal memory. The present results indicate that accuracy of self-report is not uniform across groups and functional areas. The discrepancies in the MCI patients indicate unawareness of their memory deficits, which is contradictory to subjective memory complaints as being an important component for clinical diagnosis.

  13. Self-awareness of mastery and improvability of entrepreneurial competence in small businesses in the agrifood sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, T.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    An important assumption of entrepreneurial competence is that (at least part of) it can be learned and developed. However, human resources development (HRD) practices aimed at further strengthening and developing small-business owner–managers' entrepreneurial competence are complex and underdevelope

  14. Teachers Moving Forward on a Cultural Self-Awareness Spectrum: Diverse Children, Museums, and Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton

    2016-01-01

    This case study research investigated preservice and in-service teachers' (N = 23) experiences and understandings as they participated in a multicultural children and young adults' literature course that incorporates visits to a Holocaust museum. A graduate level course was redesigned within a framework of social justice pedagogy by focusing on…

  15. Drama Queen or Trauma Queen: Does Elevating Self-Awareness Impact the Colonized Consciousness of Female Clergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Angelita

    2013-01-01

    This project design incorporates three Aramaic phrases enhancing an existing ministry model for women victimized by trauma. "Talitha Cum-Woman Arise," "Ephpatha-Be Opened" and "Maranatha-O'Lord Come," serve as the foundation for a three tiered spiritual support system for female clergy. This project design…

  16. Mapping modalities of self-awareness in mindfulness practice: a potential mechanism for clarifying habits of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, David R

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms by which mindfulness-based practices function in a psychotherapeutic context, this article details the definition, techniques, and purposes ascribed to mindfulness training as described by its Buddhist tradition of origin and by contemporary neurocognitive models. Included is theory of how maladaptive mental processes become habitual and automatic, both from the Buddhist and Western psychological perspective. Specific noting and labeling techniques in open monitoring meditation, described in the Theravada and Western contemporary traditions, are highlighted as providing unique access to multiple modalities of awareness. Potential explicit and implicit mechanisms are discussed by which such techniques can contribute to transforming maladaptive habits of mind and perceptual and cognitive biases, improving efficiency, facilitating integration, and providing the flexibility to switch between systems of self-processing. Finally, a model is provided to describe the timing by which noting and labeling practices have the potential to influence different stages of low- and high-level neural processing. Hypotheses are proposed concerning both levels of processing in relation to the extent of practice. Implications for the nature of subjective experience and self-processing as it relates to one's habits of mind, behavior, and relation to the external world, are also described.

  17. Ultra-Fast All-Optical Self-Aware Protection Switching Based on a Bistable Laser Diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi; Vukovic, Dragana; Lorences Riesgo, Abel;

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel concept of all-optical protection switching with link failure automatic awareness based on AOWFF. The scheme is experimentally demonstrated using a single MG-Y laser diode with a record switching time ~200 ps.......We propose a novel concept of all-optical protection switching with link failure automatic awareness based on AOWFF. The scheme is experimentally demonstrated using a single MG-Y laser diode with a record switching time ~200 ps....

  18. Drama Queen or Trauma Queen: Does Elevating Self-Awareness Impact the Colonized Consciousness of Female Clergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Angelita

    2013-01-01

    This project design incorporates three Aramaic phrases enhancing an existing ministry model for women victimized by trauma. "Talitha Cum-Woman Arise," "Ephpatha-Be Opened" and "Maranatha-O'Lord Come," serve as the foundation for a three tiered spiritual support system for female clergy. This project design serves: (1)…

  19. Oleanolic Acid Diminishes Liquid Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats: Role of Modulation of Hepatic Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein-1c-Mediated Expression of Genes Responsible for De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA, contained in more than 1620 plants and as an aglycone precursor for naturally occurred and synthesized triterpenoid saponins, is used in China for liver disorders in humans. However, the underlying liver-protecting mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we found that treatment of rats with OA (25 mg/kg/day, gavage, once daily over 10 weeks diminished liquid fructose-induced excess hepatic triglyceride accumulation without effect on total energy intake. Attenuation of the increased vacuolization and Oil Red O staining area was evident on histological examination of liver in OA-treated rats. Hepatic gene expression profile demonstrated that OA suppressed fructose-stimulated overexpression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-(SREBP- 1/1c mRNA and nuclear protein. In accord, overexpression of SREBP-1c-responsive genes responsible for fatty acid synthesis was also downregulated. In contrast, overexpressed nuclear protein of carbohydrate response element-binding protein and its target genes liver pyruvate kinase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein were not altered. Additionally, OA did not affect expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma- and -alpha and their target genes. It is concluded that modulation of hepatic SREBP-1c-mediated expression of the genes responsible for de novo fatty acid synthesis plays a pivotal role in OA-elicited diminishment of fructose-induced fatty liver in rats.

  20. Hydrogen-rich water achieves cytoprotection from oxidative stress injury in human gingival fibroblasts in culture or 3D-tissue equivalents, and wound-healing promotion, together with ROS-scavenging and relief from glutathione diminishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate protective effects of hydrogen-rich water (HW) against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cellular harmful events and cell death in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and three-dimensional (3D-) gingival tissue equivalents. HW was prepared with a magnesium stick in 600-mL double distilled water (DDW) overnight. Dissolved hydrogen was about 1460 ± 50 μg/L versus approximately 1600 μg/L for the saturated hydrogen. Under cell-free conditions, HW, dose-dependently, significantly scavenged peroxyl radicals (ROO·) derived from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Extract from HW-treated HGF cells scavenged ROO· more markedly than that from DDW-treated cells, suggesting that HW can increase the intracellular antioxidant capacity. Hydrogen peroxide dose-dependently increased the intracellular ROS generation, which was significantly repressed by HW, both in the cytoplasm and nuclei. LIVE/DEAD staining and our original cell viability dye-extraction assay showed that HW significantly protected HGF cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Hydrogen peroxide also diminished the contents of intracellular glutathione, which were appreciably relieved by HW-pretreatment. Additionally, HW noticeably prevented cumene hydroperoxide-induced generation of cellular ROS in epidermis parts of 3D-gingival equivalents. The in vitro scratch assay showed that HW was able to diminish physical injury-induced ROS generation and promote wound healing in HGF cell monolayer sheets. In summary, HW was able to increase intracellular antioxidative capacity and to protect cells and tissue from oxidative damage. Thus, HW might be used for prevention/treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases.