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Sample records for pre-pregnancy maternal obesity

  1. Maternal Obesity and Pre-Pregnancy Folic Acid Supplementation

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    Nadine Farah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this nested cohort study was to compare the rate of pre-pregnancy supplementation in obese women with that of women with a normal BMI. Methods: Pregnant women were enrolled at their convenience in a large university hospital. Weight and height were measured in the first trimester and BMI categorised. Results: Of the 288 women, 35.1% were in the normal, 29.5% in the overweight and 35.4% in the obese BMI categories. Only 45.1% (n = 46 of the obese women took pre-pregnancy folic acid compared with 60.4% (n = 61 of women with a normal BMI (p Conclusions: Obese women should take folate supplements whether they are planning to conceive or not.

  2. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal circadian cortisol regulation: Moderation by gestational weight gain.

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    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    We investigated main and interactive effects of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain on circadian cortisol from the second to third trimester. A diverse sample of 215 pregnant women was enrolled. Maternal height and most recent pre-pregnancy weight were collected at study initiation (22% obese). Weight and circadian salivary cortisol samples were measured during second (24±4) and third (35±1 weeks) trimesters. During the third trimester, women who were obese prior to conception showed elevated evening cortisol versus normal weight women. This pattern was moderated by weight gain in excess of Institute of Medicine guidelines, such that women who were obese prior to conception and gained greater than 7.94kg by the 35±1 week visit displayed greatest elevations in evening cortisol. Given links between excessive prenatal glucocorticoid exposure and both poor maternal and offspring health outcomes, elevated maternal cortisol may be one mechanism underlying links between maternal obesity and adverse perinatal outcomes.

  3. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the Upstate KIDS Study

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    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, we examined maternal pre-pregnancy weight status and infants’ gross motor development. Design and Methods Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants we...

  4. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity and Risk for Inattention and Negative Emotionality in Children

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    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714).…

  5. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Obesity Is Associated with Altered Placental Transcriptome

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    Segura, Maria Teresa; Esteban, Francisco J.; Bartel, Sabine; Brandi, Pilar; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Demmelmair, Hans; López-Sabater, Carmen; Koletzko, Berthold; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity has a major impact on pregnancy outcomes. There is growing evidence that maternal obesity has a negative influence on placental development and function, thereby adversely influencing offspring programming and health outcomes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. We analysed ten term placenta’s whole transcriptomes in obese (n = 5) and normal weight women (n = 5), using the Affymetrix microarray platform. Analyses of expression data were carried out using non-parametric methods. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis showed a clear distinction in placental transcriptome between obese and normal weight women. We identified 72 differentially regulated genes, with most being down-regulated in obesity (n = 61). Functional analyses of the targets using DAVID and IPA confirm the dysregulation of previously identified processes and pathways in the placenta from obese women, including inflammation and immune responses, lipid metabolism, cancer pathways, and angiogenesis. In addition, we detected new molecular aspects of obesity-derived effects on the placenta, involving the glucocorticoid receptor signalling pathway and dysregulation of several genes including CCL2, FSTL3, IGFBP1, MMP12, PRG2, PRL, QSOX1, SERPINE2 and TAC3. Our global gene expression profiling approach demonstrates that maternal obesity creates a unique in utero environment that impairs the placental transcriptome. PMID:28125591

  6. [Maternal metabolic diseases related to pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in mexican women with high risk pregnancy].

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    Hernández-Higareda, Salvador; Pérez-Pérez, Omar-Alejandro; Balderas-Peña, Luz-Ma-Adriana; Martínez-Herrera, Brenda-Eugenia; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana-Leticia; Ramírez-Conchas, Rosa-Emilia

    Pre-pregnancy obesity has been proposed as a risk factor related to gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Identify pregnancy related diseases associated with pre-pregnancy obesity as a risk factor ina high risk preganancy patient population. 600 patients whose pre-pregnancy obesity had been assessed as a high risk factor were included in the study. The means, standard deviation, median, interquartile intervals, Pearson and Spearman correlation and logistic regression to estimate risk with the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The mean pre-pregnancy body mass index was 29.59 ± 6.42 kg/m(2). The mean for recommended pregnancy weight gain was 2.31 ± 1.03 kg, but the mean of real weight gain was 8.91 ± 6.84 kg. A significant correlation between pre-pregnancy obesity and family history of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000), systemic hypertension (p=0.003), cardiac diseases (p=0.000), dyslipidemia (p=0.000) and obesity (p=0.000) was identified. Pre-pregnancy obesity was identified as a risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes (OR: 1.95; IC95%: 1.39 to 2.76; p=0.000) in this kind of patient. 75% of high risk pregnancy women in a high specialty hospital in West Mexico are overweight or obese when they become pregnant. These are risk factors in the development of gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

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    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables.We selected 32 articles, including 12 case-control, five nested case-control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23 or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46 during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07, pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95-1.09 and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96 of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose-response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected.Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this.

  8. Association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy, gestational weight gain and preterm birth.

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    Xinxo, Sonela; Bimbashi, Astrit; Z Kakarriqi, Eduard; Zaimi, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain affects the preterm birth. The association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and preterm birth appears to be complex and varied by studies from different countries, thus this association between the gestational weight gain and preterm birth is more consolidated. The study aims to determine any association between the pre pregnancy maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate in the Albanian context. In case control study, we analyzed women who have delivered in obstetric institutions in Tirana during the year 2012. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of 150 women who had a preterm delivery were compared with those of 150 matched control women who had a normal delivery regarding the gestation age. The self-reported pre pregnancy weight, height, gestational weight gain, age, education and parity are collected through a structured questioner. The body mass index and gestational weight gain are categorized based on the Institute of Medicine recommendation. The multiple logistic regression is used to measure the association between the nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate. The women which have a underweight status or obese of pre pregnancy are more likely to have a preterm birth compared to the women of a normal pre-pregnancy nutritional status (respectively OR =2.7 and 4.3 pnutritional status and gestational weight gain affects the risk for preterm birth. Pre-pregnancy and gestation nutritional assessments should be part of routine prenatal visits.

  9. GDM Women's Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status.

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    Junhong Leng

    Full Text Available To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55, 2.98 (1.89-4.69, and 2.93 (2.07-4.13, respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84, 2.89 (1.78-4.70, and 2.84 (1.98-4.06, respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73, 1.96 (1.24-3.09, and 1.59 (1.15-2.21, respectively].Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG.

  10. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

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    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A

    2013-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... that during pregnancy in 1984-1987 were enrolled in a mother-child cohort and gave information on their pre-pregnancy height and weight from which we calculated their BMI. Information on sons' pubertal development, assessed by age when starting regular shaving, voice break, acne and first nocturnal emission...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission...

  11. Childhood maltreatment and the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

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    Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P alcohol use, a one standard deviation (1 SD) increase in CTQ score was associated with a 45% increase in the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity among the 141 women with elevated anxiety (≥75th percentile on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory) [relative risk, RR (95% confidence interval, CI): 1.45 (1.12, 1.88)], but was not associated among less anxious (maltreatment and weight gain. Factors such as psychological status and traumatic experiences in early childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

  12. Effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity.

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    de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the

  13. Pre-pregnancy and pregnancy predictors of obesity.

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    Melzer, K; Schutz, Y

    2010-12-01

    Obesity has progressively become a global epidemic that constitutes one of the biggest current health problems worldwide. Pregnancy is a risk factor for excessive weight gain. Factors that may predict development of obesity in later life mainly include gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy nutritional status, age, parity and race. Change in lifestyle factors, such as eating habits, enrollment in physical activity, smoking and duration of lactation, in addition to the above factors, may also contribute to the development of obesity but are still not fully understood. Women who retain more body weight after pregnancy have, in general, larger pregnancy body weight gain, higher pre-pregnancy body mass index, marked weight changes in previous pregnancies, lactate slightly less and stop smoking during pregnancy to a larger extent. In addition, irregular eating habits and decreased leisure time activity after delivery influence postpartum weight retention. Taking into consideration the epidemic of obesity, with all its adverse long-term consequences, there is an increasing need to promote counseling before, during and after pregnancy on the role of diet and physical activity in reproductive health.

  14. Associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with birth outcomes in Shanghai, China

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    Xiao, Lingli; Ding, Guodong; Vinturache, Angela; Xu, Jian; Ding, Yifang; Guo, Jialin; Huang, Liping; Yin, Xuelei; Qiao, Jing; Thureraja, Inesh; Ben, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Recent data suggests that abnormal maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with unfavorable delivery outcomes. However, limited clinical evidence is available to support this correlation in China. Participating 510 mother-infant pairs were recruited from the Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, China, between January 1st and 30th 2016. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the China’s classification and GWG according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations (IOM). Linear regression tested the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG and length of gestation, birthweight, length, and head circumference. Logistic regression assessed the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG and macrosomic, small- (SGA) and large- (LGA) for-gestational-age infants. Overweight/obese women showed increased length of gestation and birthweight, but did not have a higher risk of macrosomic and LGA infants compared with normal weight women. Women with excessive GWG showed increased length of gestation, birthweight, length, and head circumference, and were more likely to deliver macrosomic and LGA infants compared with women with adequate GWG. Although a relatively low proportion of women from Shanghai area are overweight/obese or exhibit excessive GWG, both high pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG influence perinatal outcomes. PMID:28120879

  15. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with preschool children's overweight and obesity%母亲孕前BMI和孕期增重对学龄前儿童超重肥胖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵婷; 陶芳标; 陶慧慧; 倪玲玲; 孙艳丽; 严双琴; 顾春丽; 曹慧; 黄锟; 郝加虎

    2016-01-01

    子代发生超重肥胖的风险更高,OR(95%CI)值分别为2.90(1.97~4.28)、3.17(1.44~6.97)。结论母亲孕前较高的BMI和不适宜的孕期增重是导致学龄前儿童超重肥胖的危险因素;孕妇应采取科学的方法调整孕前BMI,并根据孕前BMI控制孕期增重,以在生命早期预防学龄前儿童超重肥胖的发生。%Objective To examine the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with childhood overweight and adiposity, and to explore possible early life risk factors for obesity in preschool children. Methods Basic information of pregnant women and gestation period came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study,a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS) . Pregnant women in routine health care from four municipal medical and health institutions were enrolled voluntarily during October 2008 and October 2010 in Ma'anshan City. A total of 5 084 pregnant women and 4 669 singleton live births were included in this study. Between April 2014 and April 2015, 3 797 children were followed up. Children whose BMI were>85th percentiles for age and genders of World Health Organization (WHO) reference were considered as overweight, and >95th percentiles for age and genders cut-off values were considered as obesity (pathological and secondary causes of obesity were excluded). Gestational weight gain was defined according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Univariate and binary regression model analysis was used to examine the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with childhood overweight and adiposity. Results Of the 3 797 pregnant women, the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity were respectively 22.6%(n=858), 70.3%(n=2 671), 6.2%(n=234) and 0.9% (n=34). There were 3 563 pregnant women who were obtained gestational weight gain data, the prevalence of inadequate GWG, appropriate GWG, excessive GWG were respectively 12.4%(n=443), 25

  16. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study using a sibling-comparison design.

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    Chen, Qi; Sjölander, Arvid; Långström, Niklas; Rodriguez, Alina; Serlachius, Eva; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-02-01

    High maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the role of unmeasured familial confounding for this association remains unclear. We conducted a population-based cohort study via linkage of Swedish national and regional registers to investigate maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (underweight: BMI ADHD. We followed 673 632 individuals born in Sweden between 1992 and 2000, with prospectively collected information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, until they received an ADHD diagnosis or ADHD medication, death, emigration or 31 December 2009. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Stratified Cox proportional hazards models were applied to data on full siblings to control for unmeasured familial confounding. At the population level, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with increased risk of offspring ADHD (HR(overweight) = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.18-1.27, P = 0.01; HR(obesity) = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.57-1.73, P = 0.01), after adjustment for measured covariates. In full sibling comparisons, however, previously observed associations no longer remained (HR(overweight) = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.83-1.16, P = 0.82; HR(obesity) = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.85-1.56, P = 0.38). The results suggested that the association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and offspring ADHD could be ascribed to unmeasured familial confounding.

  17. Impaired executive function mediates the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and child ADHD symptoms.

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    Buss, Claudia; Entringer, Sonja; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Hobel, Calvin J; Swanson, James M; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests exposure to adverse conditions in intrauterine life may increase the risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. High maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) has been shown to predict child ADHD symptoms, however the neurocognitive processes underlying this relationship are not known. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this association is mediated by alterations in child executive function. A population-based cohort of 174 children (mean age = 7.3 ± 0.9 (SD) yrs, 55% girls) was evaluated for ADHD symptoms using the Child Behavior Checklist, and for neurocognitive function using the Go/No-go task. This cohort had been followed prospectively from early gestation and birth through infancy and childhood with serial measures of maternal and child prenatal and postnatal factors. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of child ADHD symptoms (F((1,158)) = 4.80, p = 0.03) and of child performance on the Go/No-go task (F((1,157)) = 8.37, p = 0.004) after controlling for key potential confounding variables. A test of the mediation model revealed that the association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and child ADHD symptoms was mediated by impaired executive function (inefficient/less attentive processing; Sobel Test: t = 2.39 (± 0.002, SEM), p = 0.02). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to report that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI-related alterations in child neurocognitive function may mediate its effects on ADHD risk. The finding is clinically significant and may extrapolate to an approximately 2.8-fold increase in the prevalence of ADHD among children of obese compared to those of non-obese mothers. These results add further evidence to the growing awareness that neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD may have their foundations very early in life.

  18. Birthweight of Offspring, Maternal Pre-pregnancy Characteristics and Mortality of Mothers: The Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort

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    Friedlander, Yechiel; Manor, Orly; Paltiel, Ora; Meiner, Vardiella; Sharon, Nir; Calderon, Ronit; Hochner, Hagit; Sagy, Yael; Avgil, Meytal; Harlap, Susan; Siscovick, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To explore the association between birthweight in offspring, a marker of the intrauterine environment, and mortality in their mothers taking into account maternal pre-pregnancy characteristics, including maternal BMI, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Distinguishing the effects of offspring’s birthweight and pre-pregnancy characteristics on maternal outcome may provide clues regarding mechanisms underlying the association between birth weight and maternal mortality. Methods We studied long-term total mortality (average follow-up period 29.1 years) in a population-based cohort of 13,185 mothers, aged 15 to 48 years at their offspring’s birth, who delivered in West Jerusalem during 1974–76 Results Univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard models used to estimate the hazard of overall mortality among mothers indicated a non-linear relationship with birthweight of offspring when introduced into the models as a continuous variable, and a linear positive association with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Inclusion of maternal BMI and other pre-pregnancy characteristics in the model did not alter the association between offspring’s birthweight and mothers’ all-cause mortality. When birthweight was introduced as a categorical variable, higher mortality was observed among mothers who gave birth to babies with birthweight < 2500 gr (HR=1.90; 95%CI 1.23–2.94) as compared to mothers whose offspring had birthweight between 3000 and 3499 gr. The hazard ratio for mothers who gave birth to babies with birth weight ≥ 4000 gr was 1.30 (95%CI 0.88–1.91). Conclusions Independent of pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and other characteristics, birthweight of offspring was associated with mortality in their mothers, suggesting that intra-uterine metabolic events reflected by birth weight and not explained by maternal obesity, smoking, and SES have remote consequences for maternal health. These findings underline the need to explore specific genetic and

  19. The effects of pre-pregnancy obesity on fetal cardiac functions.

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    Ece, Ibrahim; Uner, Abdurrahman; Balli, Sevket; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Oflaz, Mehmet Burhan; Kurdoglu, Mertihan

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is a substantial public health problem with a rapidly increasing prevalence in numerous industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on fetal cardiac functions. We studied 55 fetuses of obese mothers and 44 fetuses of healthy mothers at 26-38 weeks of gestation. Cardiac functions were evaluated by M-mode, pulsed-wave, and tissue Doppler echocardiography. The two groups were similar in terms of maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age, estimated birth weight, serum lipids, and systolic-diastolic blood pressure. Fetal heart rate, diameters of the aortic and pulmonary valve annulus, aortic and pulmonary peak systolic velocities, ventricular systolic function, and cardiothoracic ratio were similar in the two groups. Pulsed-wave Doppler-derived E/A ratios in the mitral and tricuspid valves were similar in the two groups. The deceleration time of early mitral inflow was prolonged in the fetuses of the obese mothers. In the interventricular septum, left ventricle posterior wall, and right ventricle free wall, the E a and A a were higher, and E a/A a ratios were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group. The E/E a ratio was higher in the obese group than in the control group. The isovolumic relaxation time and the right and left ventricle myocardial performance indices were higher in the fetuses of the obese mothers than in the fetuses of the healthy mothers. We believe that maternal obesity has an important influence on fetal cardiac diastolic functions.

  20. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

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    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 198...

  1. Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Gestational Weight Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study.

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    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Boyd Barr, Dana; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Zhang, Cuilin; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-09-12

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG), an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. We estimated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy levels of 63 POPs with GWG. Data are from women (18-40 years; n = 218) participating in a prospective cohort study. POPs were assessed using established protocols in pre-pregnancy, non-fasting blood samples. GWG was assessed using three techniques: (1) total GWG (difference between measured pre-pregnancy weight and final self-reported pre-delivery weight); (2) category based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; and (3) area under the GWG curve (AUC). In an exploratory analysis, effects were estimated separately for women with BMI < 25 kg/m² versus BMI ≥ 25 kg/m². Multivariable polytomous logistic regression and linear regression were used to estimate the association between each chemical or congener and the three GWG outcomes. p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) was significantly inversely associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI: beta {95% confidence interval (CI)}, -378.03 (-724.02, -32.05). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was significantly positively associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m² {beta (95% CI), 280.29 (13.71, 546.86)}, but not among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² {beta (95% CI), 56.99 (-328.36, 442.34)}. In summary, pre-pregnancy levels of select POPs, namely, p,p'-DDT and PFOS, were moderately associated with GWG. The association between POPs and weight gain during pregnancy may be more complex than previously thought, and adiposity prior to pregnancy may be an important effect modifier.

  2. Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Gestational Weight Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Jaacks

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG, an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. We estimated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy levels of 63 POPs with GWG. Data are from women (18–40 years; n = 218 participating in a prospective cohort study. POPs were assessed using established protocols in pre-pregnancy, non-fasting blood samples. GWG was assessed using three techniques: (1 total GWG (difference between measured pre-pregnancy weight and final self-reported pre-delivery weight; (2 category based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations; and (3 area under the GWG curve (AUC. In an exploratory analysis, effects were estimated separately for women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 versus BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression and linear regression were used to estimate the association between each chemical or congener and the three GWG outcomes. p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p’-DDT was significantly inversely associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI: beta {95% confidence interval (CI}, −378.03 (−724.02, −32.05. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS was significantly positively associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI, 280.29 (13.71, 546.86}, but not among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI, 56.99 (−328.36, 442.34}. In summary, pre-pregnancy levels of select POPs, namely, p,p’-DDT and PFOS, were moderately associated with GWG. The association between POPs and weight gain during pregnancy may be more complex than previously thought, and adiposity prior to pregnancy may be an important effect modifier.

  3. Impaired executive function mediates the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and child ADHD symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Buss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests exposure to adverse conditions in intrauterine life may increase the risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in childhood. High maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI has been shown to predict child ADHD symptoms, however the neurocognitive processes underlying this relationship are not known. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this association is mediated by alterations in child executive function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cohort of 174 children (mean age = 7.3 ± 0.9 (SD yrs, 55% girls was evaluated for ADHD symptoms using the Child Behavior Checklist, and for neurocognitive function using the Go/No-go task. This cohort had been followed prospectively from early gestation and birth through infancy and childhood with serial measures of maternal and child prenatal and postnatal factors. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of child ADHD symptoms (F((1,158 = 4.80, p = 0.03 and of child performance on the Go/No-go task (F((1,157 = 8.37, p = 0.004 after controlling for key potential confounding variables. A test of the mediation model revealed that the association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and child ADHD symptoms was mediated by impaired executive function (inefficient/less attentive processing; Sobel Test: t = 2.39 (± 0.002, SEM, p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to report that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI-related alterations in child neurocognitive function may mediate its effects on ADHD risk. The finding is clinically significant and may extrapolate to an approximately 2.8-fold increase in the prevalence of ADHD among children of obese compared to those of non-obese mothers. These results add further evidence to the growing awareness that neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD may have their foundations very early in life.

  4. Pre-pregnancy body mass index in relation to infant birth weight and offspring overweight/obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangbin Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity in women of childbearing age is a serious public-health problem. In China, the incidence of maternal overweight/obesity has been increasing. However, there is not a meta-analysis to determine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI is related to infant birth weight (BW and offspring overweight/obesity. METHODS: Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched systematically from January 1970 to November 2012. The dichotomous data on pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and BW or offspring overweight/obesity were extracted. Summary statistics (odds ratios, ORs were used by Review Manager, version 5.1.7. RESULTS: After screening 665 citations from three electronic databases, we included 45 studies (most of high or medium quality. Compared with normal-weight mothers, pre-pregnancy underweight increased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA (odds ratios [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-1.87; low BW (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27-1.71. Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increased the risk of being large for gestational age (LGA (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.08; 95% CI; 1.95-2.23, high BW (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.00; 95% CI; 1.84-2.18, macrosomia (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42-1.97; and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.39-4.37, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.77-2.13; and OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.68-3.49, respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that sample size, study method, quality grade of study, source of pre-pregnancy BMI or BW had a strong impact on the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and LGA. No significant evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pregnancy underweight increases the risk of SGA and LBW; pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increases the risk of LGA, HBW, macrosomia, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity. A potential effect modification by maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight gain, as

  5. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index in Relation to Infant Birth Weight and Offspring Overweight/Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhangbin; Han, Shuping; Zhu, Jingai; Sun, Xiaofan; Ji, Chenbo; Guo, Xirong

    2013-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity in women of childbearing age is a serious public-health problem. In China, the incidence of maternal overweight/obesity has been increasing. However, there is not a meta-analysis to determine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is related to infant birth weight (BW) and offspring overweight/obesity. Methods Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL) were searched systematically from January 1970 to November 2012. The dichotomous data on pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and BW or offspring overweight/obesity were extracted. Summary statistics (odds ratios, ORs) were used by Review Manager, version 5.1.7. Results After screening 665 citations from three electronic databases, we included 45 studies (most of high or medium quality). Compared with normal-weight mothers, pre-pregnancy underweight increased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) (odds ratios [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76–1.87); low BW (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27–1.71). Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increased the risk of being large for gestational age (LGA) (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44–1.63; and OR, 2.08; 95% CI; 1.95–2.23), high BW (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44–1.63; and OR, 2.00; 95% CI; 1.84–2.18), macrosomia (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42–1.97; and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.39–4.37), and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.77–2.13; and OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.68–3.49), respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that sample size, study method, quality grade of study, source of pre-pregnancy BMI or BW had a strong impact on the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and LGA. No significant evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy underweight increases the risk of SGA and LBW; pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increases the risk of LGA, HBW, macrosomia, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity. A potential effect modification by maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight

  6. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Influence of pre-pregnancy obesity on the development of macrosomia and large for gestational age in women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Wang, H-J; Ao, D; Liu, Z; Wang, Y; Yang, H-X

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pre-pregnancy obesity on macrosomia and large for gestational age (LGA). We conducted a prospective cohort study of 587 GDM women and 478 non-GDM women from 2012 to 2013. We collected their data of the pre-pregnancy weight, sociodemographic data, medical histories, clinical treatment, and followed-up the outcomes of delivery including birth weight. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test associations between pre-pregnant obesity and macrosomia/LGA and between GDM and macrosomia/LGA. Of 1065 women we studied, obese women had 4.17 times and 2.27 times increased risk of developing macrosomia (95% CI: 2.52 to 6.91) and LGA (95% CI: 1.60 to 3.21), respectively, than non-obese women after adjustment for maternal age, gestational weeks and GDM. We did not find GDM is a risk factor for macrosomia or LGA after GDM treatment. Pre-pregnancy obesity accounts for a high prevalence of macrosomia. Interventions that focus on pre-pregnancy obesity have the potential to reach far more women at risk of macrosomia.

  8. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associat...

  9. [Pre-pregnancy nutritional status, maternal weight gain, prenatal care, and adverse perinatal outcomes among adolescent mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p prenatal visits. Birth weight was associated with inter-gestational interval, pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.

  10. Regional inequalities in pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in Sweden, 1992, 2000, and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Ivarsson, Anneli; Koupil, Ilona; Nilsson, Karina; Häggström, Jenny; de Luna, Xavier; Lindgren, Urban

    2015-07-01

    To investigate regional differences and time trends in women's overweight and obesity in Sweden. Using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (women aged ⩾18 years, first pregnancy only) and the Total Population Register accessed through the Umeå SIMSAM Lab, age-standardized prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (BMI ⩾ 25 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ⩾ 30 kg/m(2)) were estimated by county for the years 1992, 2000, and 2010. Maps were created using ArcMap v10.2.2 to display regional variations over time and logistic regression analyses were used to assess if the observed trends were significant. The prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and obesity increased significantly in all Swedish counties between 1992, and 2010. In 2010, Södermanland and Gotland exhibited the highest age-standardized overweight/obesity (39.7%) and obesity (15.1%) prevalence, respectively. The sharpest increases between 1992 and 2010 were observed in Västerbotten for overweight/obesity (75% increase) and in Gotland for obesity (233% increase). Across the years, Stockholm had the lowest prevalence of overweight/obesity (26.3% in 2010) and obesity (7.3% in 2010) and one of the least steep increases in prevalence of both between 1992 and 2010. Substantial regional differences in pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity prevalence are apparent in Sweden. Further research should elucidate the mechanisms causing these differences. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  12. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  13. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year......-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ...

  14. Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology.

  15. Influence of adolescent obesity and maternal pre-pregnancy overweight on the occurrence of tracheal asthma%青少年肥胖和母亲孕前超重对青少年支气管哮喘发病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令玉; 柴若南; 刘蕾; 韩雅玲; 马德宾

    2015-01-01

    目的 明确青少年肥胖及其母亲孕前超重对青少年支气管哮喘发生的影响,并随访研究减轻体重可否协助哮喘的治疗和控制.方法 采用同期对照实验,纳入同一时期就诊的哮喘青少年507例及非哮喘青少年511例,研究其母亲及自身体质超重或肥胖的情况.将体质超重或肥胖的哮喘患儿纳入体重控制研究,在正规治疗哮喘的同时,要求其父母协助患儿正规减重,分析体重减轻对患儿哮喘控制的影响.结果 哮喘青少年组母亲孕前超重比例(115/507)明显高于非哮喘青少年组(90/511),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);母亲孕前肥胖是青少年发生哮喘的危险因素(OR1.37,95%CI 1.01~1.87,P=0.026).同样,哮喘青少年组肥胖比例(155/507)也明显高于非哮喘青少年(102/511),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);青少年超重或肥胖也可能导致其哮喘发生(OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.32~2.35,P<0.01).当青少年合理控制体重之后,其哮喘缓解情况明显优于体重对照组,差异有统计学意义(P=0.025).结论 母亲孕前超重及青少年肥胖均是支气管哮喘发生的危险因素,治疗哮喘的同时减轻体重可有效提高哮喘控制率.%Objective To determine the influence of adolescent obesity and maternal pre-pregnancy over-weight on the occurrence of tracheal asthma among school-age children, and study whether weight loss could assist the treatment and control of asthma. Methods In a concurrent control experiment, 507 cases of asthma adolescent pa-tients (asthma group) and 511 cases of non-asthma adolescent patients (non-asthma group) were included during the same period, with the overweight or obesity of themselves and their mothers studied. And then, asthma patients with overweight or obesity were included into the research of weight-control: parents were asked to help patients to lose weight healthily on the basis of regular treatment of asthma. The effect of weight loss on asthma control of children was

  16. Ethnic Differences in Effects of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy and Pregnancy Adiposity on Offspring Size and Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinyi; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Tint, Mya Thway; Soh, Shu E.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Yeo, George Seow-Heong; Kwek, Kenneth; Chan, Jerry Kok-Yen; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap Seng; Yap, Fabian; Holbrook, Joanna D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maternal adiposity and overnutrition, both before and during pregnancy, plays a key role in the subsequent development of obesity and metabolic outcomes in offspring. Objective: We explored the hypothesis that maternal adiposity (pre-pregnancy and at 26–28 weeks' gestation) and mid-pregnancy gestational weight gain (GWG) are independently associated with offspring size and adiposity in early childhood, and determined whether these effects are ethnicity dependent. Design: In a prospective mother-offspring cohort study (N = 976, 56% Chinese, 26% Malay, and 18% Indian), we assessed the associations of offspring size (weight, length) and adiposity (subscapular and triceps skinfolds), measured at birth and age 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo, with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI), mid-pregnancy GWG, and mid-pregnancy four-site skinfold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac). Results: ppBMI and mid-pregnancy GWG were independently associated with postnatal weight up to 2 y and skinfold thickness at birth. Weight and subscapular and triceps skinfolds at birth increased by 2.56% (95% confidence interval, 1.68–3.45%), 3.85% (2.16–5.57%), and 2.14% (0.54–3.75%), respectively for every SD increase in ppBMI. Similarly, a one-SD increase in GWG increased weight and subscapular and triceps skinfolds at birth by 2.44% (1.66–3.23%), 3.28% (1.75–4.84%), and 3.23% (1.65–4.84%), respectively. ppBMI and mid-pregnancy suprailiac skinfold independently predicted postnatal skinfold adiposity up to 2 years of age, whereas only GWG predicted postnatal length. The associations of GWG with postnatal weight and length were present only among Chinese and Indians, but not Malays (P < .05 for interaction). Conclusions: ppBMI and GWG are independent modifiable factors for child size and adiposity up to 2 years of age. The associations are ethnic-dependent, and underscore the importance of ethnic specific studies before generalizing the applicability of

  17. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index is not associated with infant and young child feeding in low-income Mexican children 1-24 months old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Frongillo, Edward A; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Egan, Kelsey A; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with shorter breastfeeding (BF) duration. Whether pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with other aspects of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) has not been investigated. We used data from 370 children born January 1999-September 2001 in a semi-urban community in Morelos, Mexico, where information on how they were fed was available at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. We modified the World Health Organization's dietary diversity indicator to assess the quality of the complementary foods. An index that included BF, quality of complementary foods and other behaviours was constructed to measure IYCF. We used survival analysis to examine the association of pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI) category and BF duration and mixed models for quality of complementary food and IYCF index. Mean maternal pBMI was 24.4 ± 4.1; 31% were overweight, and 9% were obese. pBMI was not associated with BF duration. Quality of complementary food improved over time (6 months, 1.3 ± 1.3; 24 months, 3.8 ± 1.04). Compared with normal-weight women, overweight and obese women were more likely to feed from more food groups (0.24 ± 0.11 point, P=0.03), but this did not improve diet diversity from 6 to 24 months. IYCF index decreased throughout follow-up (1 month, 7.8 ± 2.4; 24 months, 5.5 ± 1.8), and pBMI was not associated with IYCF (-0.11 ± 0.13 point, P=0.4). We conclude that heavier women were not engaging in IYCF behaviours that were distinct from those of normal-weight women from 1 to 24 months post-partum.

  18. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study using a sibling-comparison design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Qi; Sjölander, Arvid; Långström, Niklas; Rodriguez, Alina; Serlachius, Eva; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    ...) in relation to offspring ADHD. We followed 673 632 individuals born in Sweden between 1992 and 2000, with prospectively collected information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, until they received an ADHD diagnosis or ADHD medication...

  19. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  20. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  1. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index explains infant's weight and BMI at 14 months: results from a multi-ethnic birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, I.; Roseboom, T.J.; Bonsel, G.J.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; van der Wal, M.F.; Vrijkotte, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between (self-reported) maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI), and child's weight, height and BMI at age 14 months. Design: Prospective multi-ethnic community-based cohort study. Setting: Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Participants: 8266 pregnant women

  2. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  3. IMPACT OF MATERNAL OBESITY ON OBSTETRIC OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafiyan Mahin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain and obesity are public health problems in pregnant women and is associated with increased risk of maternal and neonatal complications. Objective was to determine maternal, fetal and neonatal complications in obese women. A Prospective study was conducted at Gynecology ward, Razi medical and educational center, Ahvaz, Iran during year 2011. A total of 850 subjects were participated in this study for 18 weeks follow- up. The subjects were divided into two groups. Overweight/ obese (n= 300 and normal (n=550 groups. The outcomes measurement was gestational diabetes, pregnancy induced- hypertension, cesarean section, and intrauterine death and anesthesia complications. Data was analysed using SPSS, version 16. There was significant association between obesity and gestational diabetes 95% CI, 8.45-19.7, P < 0.0001. Hypertension pregnancy -induced was higher 4.3% in obese pregnant compared to normal weight pregnant women (95% CI, 2.1- 4.9, p < 0.0001. Postpartum infection and bleeding among obese women was 10 and 11.3 times higher than normal weight pregnant women (95% CI, 85-370, p < 0.0001 (p < 0.0001 respectively. Obesity in reproductive age has been known effect on pregnancy outcomes, labor and infants and even children in their later life. Therefore, at risk people should be identified. Pre-pregnancy weight should be closed to normal range with strict nutritional and health care.

  4. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O

    2016-03-11

    Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2-11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2-11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0-14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Poor diet quality as measured by HEI-2010 was shown among overweight and obese women. Nutrition education and interventions need to be targeted to those

  5. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Paralleling the global epidemic of obesity figures in the general population, the incidence of maternal obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2 at the start of pregnancy) has been rising over the last world. While most European countries do not systematically report obesity figures in their pregnant population......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...... and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2...

  6. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor.

  7. Second trimester amniotic fluid glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium concentrations in relation to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and birth weight centiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Maria; Michaelidou, Alexandra Maria; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Menexes, Georgios; Symeonidou, Maria; Koulourida, Vasiliki; Ganidou, Maria; Theodoridis, Theodoros D; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2015-05-01

    To study the evolution profile of amniotic fluid (AF) glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and explore the possible relations between the concentration of these components and maternal, as well as neonatal characteristics. AF of 52 pregnant women was analyzed using an automatic multichannel analyzer. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), inter-pregnancy intervals, and smoking status were derived from questionnaires. Information on pregnancy and delivery was collected from medical records. Uric acid increased (r = 0.423, p uric acid concentration (r = 0.460, p uric acid and phosphate levels were significantly related to birth weight centiles (R(2)( )= 0.345, p uric acid concentration, and (c) in appropriate for gestational age infants, AF phosphate and uric acid levels may serve as potential biomarkers of birth weight centiles. Further studies on AF composition may help to unravel the biochemical pathways underlying fetal development and could offer insight on the potential impact of maternal nutritional management on fetal growth regulation.

  8. Effect of pre-pregnancy obesity on blood trace elements of pregnant women and neonates%产前肥胖对孕妇及新生儿脐血微量元素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 史新竹; 张吉慧; 梁多宏; 王凤芝; 刘伟; 张莉; 陈立新; 顾英姿

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨孕期肥胖对孕妇及新生儿体内微量元素的影响.方法:以213对健康初产妇及其新生儿为研究对象,分为产前肥胖组(产前BMI ≥28)和产前体重正常组(产前BMI<28),以及孕期体重增加过度组(孕期BMI增加>6)和孕期正常增长组(孕期BMI增加≤6),采用原子吸收光谱法测定孕妇静脉血及新生儿脐带血中钙、镁、铁、锌、铜的含量.结果:产前肥胖组新生儿脐血Mg、Zn水平明显低于产前正常体重组水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);产前肥胖组脐血Ca、Fe、Cu水平较正常体重组略低,但组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).产前BMI与新生儿脐血Mg水平呈负相关(r=-0.178,P=0.010).结论:孕妇产前肥胖可能影响新生儿体内微量元素水平降低.%Objective:To explore the effct of pre-pregnancy obesity on blood trace elements of pregnant women and neonates.Methods:213 primiparas with single birth were selected and divided into two groups according to pre-pregnancy and antenatal BMI,including antenatal obesity group (BMI≥28) and antenatal normal weight group (BMI < 28),at the same time,they were divided into two groups according to BMI gained during the whole pregnancy time,including BMI gained > 6 as group one and BMI gained ≤ 6 as group two.Concentration of trace elements,Ca,Mg,Fe,Zn,Cu,both in maternal venues blood and in umbilical cord blood of neonates were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer.Results:The concentration of Mg,Zn in umbilical cord blood of the neonates in antenatal obesity group were significantly lower than those of antenatal normal weight group (P < 0.05) ; and the concentration of Ca,Fe,Cu in umbilical cord blood of the neonates in antenatal obesity group were a little lower than those antenatal normal weight group,but there were no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05).There were negative correlation relationship between maternal antenatal

  9. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008–2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. χ2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.

  10. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  11. The Association between Maternal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration during Gestation and Early Childhood Cardio-metabolic Outcomes: Is There Interaction with Pre-Pregnancy BMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jessica Hrudey

    Full Text Available Both maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD status and pre-pregnancy BMI (pBMI may influence offspring cardio-metabolic outcomes. Lower 25OHD concentrations have been observed in women with both low and high pBMIs, but the combined influence of pBMI and 25OHD on offspring cardio-metabolic outcomes is unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the role of pBMI in the association between maternal 25OHD concentration and cardio-metabolic outcomes in 5-6 year old children. Data were obtained from the ABCD cohort study and 1882 mother-child pairs were included. The offspring outcomes investigated were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, BMI, body fat percentage (%BF, waist-to-height ratio, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, C-peptide, and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR. 62% of the C-peptide samples were below the detection limit and were thus imputed using survival analysis. Models were corrected for maternal and offspring covariates and tested for interaction with pBMI. Interaction with pBMI was observed in the associations with insulin resistance markers: in offspring of overweight mothers (≥25.0 kg/m2, a 10 nmol/L increase in maternal 25OHD was associated with a 0.007(99%CI:-0.01,-0.001 nmol/L decrease in C-peptide and a 0.02(99%CI:-0.03,-0.004 decrease in HOMA2-IR. When only non-imputed data were analyzed, there was a trend for interaction in the relationship but the results lost significance. Interaction with pBMI was not observed for the other outcomes. A 10 nmol/L increase in maternal 25OHD was significantly associated with a 0.13%(99%CI:-0.3,-0.003 decrease in %BF after correction for maternal and child covariates. Thus, intrauterine exposure to both low 25OHD and maternal overweight may be associated with increased insulin resistance in offspring, while exposure to low 25OHD in utero may be associated with increased offspring %BF with no interactive effects from pBMI. Due to the

  12. Associations of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain with Adult Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors: The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Meiner, Vardiella; Sagy, Yael; Avgil-Tsadok, Meytal; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Siscovick, David S.; Manor, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence demonstrates that both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adult offspring adiposity. However, whether these maternal attributes are related to other cardio-metabolic risk factors in adulthood has not been comprehensively studied. Methods and Results We used a birth cohort of 1400 young adults born in Jerusalem, with extensive archival data as well as clinical information at age 32, to prospectively examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with adiposity and related cardio-metabolic outcomes. Greater mppBMI, independent of GWG and confounders, was significantly associated with higher offspring BMI, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, insulin and triglycerides and with lower HDL-C. For example, the effect sizes were translated to nearly 5kg/m2 higher mean BMI, 8.4cm higher WC, 0.13mmol/L (11.4mg/dL) higher triglycerides and 0.10mmol/L (3.8mg/dL) lower HDL-C among offspring of mothers within the upper mppBMI quartile (BMI>26.4kg/m2) compared to the lower (BMI14kg) and lower (GWG<9kg) quartiles of GWG were compared. Further adjustment for offspring adiposity attenuated to null the observed associations. Conclusions Maternal size both before and during pregnancy are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adult offspring. The associations appear to be driven mainly by offspring adiposity. Future studies that explore mechanisms underlying the intergenerational cycle of obesity are warranted to identify potentially novel targets for cardio-metabolic risk-reduction interventions. PMID:22344037

  13. Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status Is Associated with Diet Quality and Nutritional Biomarkers during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayeon Shin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of <18.5 (underweight, 18.5–24.9 (normal, 25.0–29.9 (overweight, and 30 kg/m2 (obese were used to categorize pregnant women’s weight status. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM was 50.7 (±0.9. Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5 compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2–11.4. The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR 3.8; 95% CI 1.2–11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0–14.5, respectively. Serum folate concentration (ng/mL was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05. Serum iron concentration (ng/dL was significantly higher in

  14. Pre-pregnancy weight and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J; Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death and to study the causes of death among the children. DESIGN: Cohort study of pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care in Aarhus, Denmark. SETTING: Aarhus...... University Hospital, Denmark, 1989-1996. POPULATION: A total of 24,505 singleton pregnancies (112 stillbirths, 75 neonatal deaths) were included in the analyses. METHODS: Information on maternal pre-pregnancy weight, height, lifestyle factors and obstetric risk factors were obtained from self....... RESULTS: Maternal obesity was associated with a more than doubled risk of stillbirth (odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-5.3) and neonatal death (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8) compared with women of normal weight. No statistically significantly increased risk of stillbirth...

  15. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M.; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p pregnant. PMID:27916904

  16. Maternal obesity and attention-related symptoms in the preterm offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Jelske W; Jensen, Elizabeth T; van de Bor, Margot; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl; Allred, Elizabeth N; Scott, Megan; Hunter, Scott; Hooper, Stephen R; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

    2017-08-17

    Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, in term-born children, is associated with an increased risk of attention problems, however this relationship has not been explored among children born extremely preterm. To estimate the risk of attention problems at age 10years in children born very preterm to overweight (i.e., body mass index (BMI) 25-29kg/m(2)) and obese (i.e., BMI≥30kg/m(2)) women relative to the risk among children born to women who were neither overweight nor obese (i.e. BMI<25kg/m(2)). Multi-center prospective cohort study. A total of 764 children born before the 28th week of gestation and whose mother's pre-pregnancy height and pre-pregnancy weight were obtained at birth had an IQ≥70 at age 10years when parents and teachers completed Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaires that included items about the presence of ADHD. Compared to children whose mother's pre-pregnancy weight was in the normal range (BMI<25kg/m(2)), children were at increased risk of parent-identified ADHD behaviors if their mother was overweight (odds ratio (OR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.3), or obese (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.9). They were not at increased risk of teacher-identified ADHD characteristics if their mother was overweight before her pregnancy (OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.8), or obese (OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.6). Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of parent-identified ADHD characteristics at 10years of age in children born extremely preterm. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); Perng, W. (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic inflammation

  18. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); W. Perng (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic

  19. Association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and adverse outcomes of late preterm infants%妇女孕前体重指数对晚期早产儿不良结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志轩; 温晓红; 黄金华; 刘荃; 黄会芝; 于梅; 马力

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse outcomes of late preterm infants (LPI). Methods A total of 367 LPI who were born from January 2011 to December 2015 and admitted to the neonatal ward were enrolled. The BMI criteria for Chinese population were used to analyze the factors for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and its association with adverse outcomes of LPI (1 minute Apgar score≤7, delivery room resuscitation, hospitalization days after birth>7 days, and ventilation duration≥6 hours). Results Of all LPIs, there were 64 LPI (17.4%) in the low maternal pre-pregnancy BMI group, 243 LPI (66.2%) in the normal maternal pre-pregnancy BMI group, and 60 LPI (16.4%) in the high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI group. Low pre-pregnancy BMI was the risk factor for 1 minute Apgar score≤7 (OR=3.243, 95%CI:1.102-9.546) and need for delivery room resuscitation (OR=3.492, 95%CI: 1.090-11.190), and high pre-pregnancy BMI was the risk factor for hospitalization days after birth>7 days (OR=1.992, 95%CI:1.024-3.874). Conclusions Abnormal maternal pre-pregnancy BMI has adverse effects on the outcomes of LPI. In order to reduce these adverse outcomes BMI should be controlled within the normal range in pregnant women.%目的:探讨妇女孕前体重指数(BMI)与晚期早产儿(LPI)不良结局的关系。方法选择2011年1月至2015年12月的367例住院LPI为研究对象。分析母亲孕前BMI水平的相关因素,以及与LPI不良结局(1 min Apgar评分≤7分、产房复苏、住院天数>7 d以及呼吸机通气时间≥6 h)的关系。结果母亲孕前BMI降低、正常、增高的分别有64例(17.4%)、243例(66.2%)以及60例(16.4%)。母亲孕前BMI降低是LPI 1 min Apgar评分≤7分(OR=3.243,95%CI:1.102~9.546)和需要产房复苏(OR=3.492,95%CI:1.090~11.190)的危险因素,孕前高BMI是LPI住院时间>7 d(OR=1.992,95%CI:1.024~3.874)的危险因素。结论

  20. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA; and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, and riboflavin (p < 0.001, and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001. Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  1. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  2. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  3. The Meta-analysis for relationship between pre-pregnancy obesity and adverse pregnancy outcomes%中国妇女孕前肥胖与不良妊娠结局关系的Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚娟; 陈双郧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between pre-pregnancy obesity and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods The literature on the relationship between pre-pregnancy obesity and adverse pregnancy outcomes published in China Journal Net database from 1980 to 2010 were searched and collected , and a comprehensive quantitative analysis for which was carried out by RevMan 4.2. 10 version. Results There was 24 studies about the relationship between pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and pregnancy outcome. Since significant heterogeneity were found in these studies by heterogeneity test ,random effects model was used for quantitative analysis of integrated comprehensive . The results showed that pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity had increased the risk of macrosomia , gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy , the OR were 3.08 ( 95% CI: 2. 58-3. 69 ) , 2. 64 ( 95% C/: 2. 24-3. 13 ) , 2.54(95% CI: 2.11-3.05). Conclusions The risk of macrosomia, gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is significantly higher in pre -pregnancy obesity women than normal weight.%目的 探讨孕前肥胖与不良妊娠结局的关系.方法 检索中国期刊网及万方数据库1980 年至2010 年有关孕前肥胖与妊娠结局关系的研究,并采用RevMan 4.2.10 版本对此进行了定量综合分析.结果 经检索筛选后纳入的有关孕前或者体重超标与妊娠结局关系的文章24 篇,经异质性检验,分别采用固定效应模型或随机效应模型进行定量综合分析综合.结果 表明孕前超重及肥胖增加巨大儿、妊娠期糖尿病及妊娠期高血压疾病发生风险,OR 值依次为3.08(95% CI:2.58 ~3.69)、2.64(95% CI:2.24 ~3.13)、2.54(95% CI:2.11 ~3.05).结论 孕前肥胖者发生妊娠期高血压、糖代谢异常及巨大儿的风险明显高于正常体重妇女.

  4. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and macrosomia in a Canadian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinturache, Angela E; Chaput, Kathleen H; Tough, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    To compare demographic characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of term macrosomic infants of obese and non-obese mothers. A sample of 1996 singleton, term deliveries was drawn from the All Our Babies Cohort, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort. Maternal self-reported socio-demographic and anthropometric information was linked to the clinical data on pregnancy and birth events abstracted from electronic health records. Demographic, obstetrical characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of macrosomic infants in obese, overweight, and normal weight women were compared. Multinomial regression analysis assessed the risk factors of macrosomia in primiparous and multiparous women stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, controlling for confounding variables. Macrosomia affected 10% of pregnancies in the study. Mothers whose infants were macrosomic were more likely to be Caucasian, obese, have had previous deliveries, undergo induction of labour and delivery by emergency C-section, particularly for labour abnormalities. Macrosomic infants were more likely to be delivered postdates, have meconium stained liquor and require resuscitation at birth. There were no significant differences in birth and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies between obese, overweight and normal weight women. Pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational age at delivery were risk factors for macrosomia in all women. Ethnicity and history of delivery of a macrosomic infant were additional independent risk factors in multiparas. Obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of delivery of a macrosomic infant in both primiparous and multiparous women. The maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies are similar in obese and normal weight women.

  6. A Study on Mediation by Offspring BMI in the Association between Maternal Obesity and Child Respiratory Outcomes in the Amsterdam Born and Their Development Study Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet W Harskamp-van Ginkel

    Full Text Available A causal relationship between maternal obesity and offspring asthma is hypothesized to begin during early development, but no underlying mechanism for the found association is identified. We quantitatively examined mediation by offspring body mass index (BMI in the association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on risk of asthma and wheezing during the first 7-8 years of life in a large Amsterdam born birth cohort.For 3185 mother-child pairs, mothers reported maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring outcomes "ever being diagnosed with asthma" and "wheezing in the past 12 months" on questionnaires. We measured offspring height and weight at age 5-6 years. We performed a multivariate log linear regression comparing outcomes in offspring of mothers with different BMI categories. For each category we quantified and tested mediation by offspring BMI and also investigated interaction by parental asthma.At the age of 7-8 years, 8% of the offspring ever had asthma and 7% had current wheezing. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of asthma (adjusted RR 2.32 (95% CI: 1.49-3.61 and wheezing (adjusted RR 2.16 (95% CI: 1.28-3.64. Offspring BMI was a mediator in the association between maternal BMI and offspring wheezing, but not for asthma. There was no interaction by parental asthma.Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of offspring asthma and wheezing. The association between maternal obesity and offspring wheezing was both direct and indirect (mediated through the child's own BMI.

  7. Maternal Obesity and Neck Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglim, B; O'Higgins, A; Daly, N; Farren, M; Turner, M J

    2015-06-01

    Obese women are more likely to require general anaesthesia for an obstetric intervention than non-obese. Difficult tracheal intubation and oxygen desaturation is more common in pregnancy. Failed tracheal intubation has been associated with an increase in neck circumference (NC). We studied the relationship between maternal obesity and NC as pregnancy advanced in women attending a standard antenatal clinic. Of the 96 women recruited, 13.5% were obese. The mean NC was 36.8cm (SD 1.9) in the obese women compared with 31.5cm (SD 1.6) in women with a normal BMI (p < 0.001) at 18-22 weeks gestation. In the obese women it increased on average by 1.5cm by 36-40 weeks compared with an increase of 1.6 cm in women with a normal BMI. The antenatal measurement of NC is a simple, inexpensive tool that is potentially useful for screening obese women who may benefit from an antenatal anaesthetic assessment.

  8. Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive

  9. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-11-30

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  10. Maternal high-fat diet and obesity impact palatable food intake and dopamine signaling in nonhuman primate offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M; Kievit, Paul; Kirigiti, Melissa A; Bauman, Leigh Ann; Baquero, Karalee; Blundell, Peter; Dean, Tyler A; Valleau, Jeanette C; Takahashi, Diana L; Frazee, Tim; Douville, Luke; Majer, Jordan; Smith, M Susan; Grove, Kevin L; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2015-11-01

    To utilize a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring intake of palatable food and to examine whether maternal HFD consumption impaired development of the dopamine system, critical for the regulation of hedonic feeding. The impact of exposure to maternal HFD and obesity on offspring consumption of diets of varying composition was assessed after weaning. The influence of maternal HFD consumption on the development of the prefrontal cortex-dopaminergic system at 13 months of age was also examined. During a preference test, offspring exposed to maternal HFD consumption and obesity displayed increased intake of food high in fat and sugar content relative to offspring from lean control mothers. Maternal HFD consumption suppressed offspring dopamine signaling (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) relative to control offspring. Specifically, there was decreased abundance of dopamine fibers and of dopamine receptor 1 and 2 proteins. This study reveals that offspring exposed to both maternal HFD consumption and maternal obesity during early development are at increased risk for obesity due to overconsumption of palatable energy-dense food, a behavior that may be related to reduced central dopamine signaling. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  11. Association between maternal obesity and offspring Apgar score or cord pH: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingting; Tang, Jun; Zhao, Fengyan; Qu, Yi; Mu, Dezhi

    2015-12-22

    Previous results are inconsistent regarding the association between maternal obesity and Apgar score or cord pH in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and infant Apgar score or cord pH. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in English before 20 August 2015 using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Eleven cohort studies with a total of 2,586,265 participants finally met our inclusion criteria. Pooled results revealed the following factors associated with Apgar score Apgar score <7 at 1 minute. There was no association between maternal BMI and neonatal cord pH. Thus, this study suggests that maternal overweight and obesity affect baby's condition immediately after birth in general. More studies are needed to confirm these results and detect the influence of variables across studies.

  12. Maternal High-Fat Diet and Obesity Impact Palatable Food Intake and Dopamine Signaling in Nonhuman Primate Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Kievit, Paul; Kirigiti, Melissa A.; Bauman, Leigh Ann; Baquero, Karalee; Blundell, Peter; Dean, Tyler A.; Valleau, Jeanette C.; Takahashi, Diana L.; Frazee, Tim; Douville, Luke; Majer, Jordan; Smith, M. Susan; Grove, Kevin L.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To utilize a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring intake of palatable food. We will also examine whether maternal HFD consumption impaired development of the dopamine system, critical for the regulation of hedonic feeding. Methods The impact of exposure to maternal HFD and obesity on offspring consumption of diets of varying composition was assessed after weaning. We also examined the influence of maternal HFD consumption on the development of the prefrontal cortex-dopamine system at 13 months of age. Results During a preference test, offspring exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption displayed increased intake of food high in fat and sugar content relative to offspring from lean control mothers. Maternal HFD consumption suppressed offspring dopamine signaling (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) relative to control offspring. Specifically, there was decreased abundance of dopamine fibers and of dopamine receptor 1 and 2 protein. Conclusion Our findings reveal that offspring exposed to both maternal HFD consumption and maternal obesity during early development are at increased risk for obesity due to overconsumption of palatable energy-dense food, a behavior that may be related to reduced central dopamine signaling. PMID:26530932

  13. Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding and childhood overweight at age 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bider-Canfield, Z; Martinez, M P; Wang, X; Yu, W; Bautista, M P; Brookey, J; Page, K A; Buchanan, T A; Xiang, A H

    2017-04-01

    Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breastfeeding are four important factors associated with childhood obesity. The objective of the study was to assess the interplay among these four factors and their independent contributions to childhood overweight in a cohort with standard clinical care. The cohort included 15 710 mother-offspring pairs delivered in 2011. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between maternal exposures and childhood overweight (body mass index >85th percentile) at age 2 years. Mothers with pre-pregnancy obesity or overweight were more likely to have EGWG, GDM and less likely to breastfeed ≥6 months. Mothers with GDM had 40-49% lower EGWG rates and similar breastfeeding rates compared with mothers without GDM. Analysis adjusted for exposures and covariates revealed an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with childhood overweight at age 2 years of 2.34 (2.09-2.62), 1.50 (1.34-1.68), 1.23 (1.12-1.35), 0.95 (0.83-1.10) and 0.76 (0.69-0.83) for maternal obesity, overweight, EGWG, GDM and breastfeeding ≥6 months vs. obesity or overweight and EGWG were independently associated with an increased risk, and breastfeeding ≥6 months was associated with a decreased risk of childhood overweight at age 2 years. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cinelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI or gestational weight gain (GWG, affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51% were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021, LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044 and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016; inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001; excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004. Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009, omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015 and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036, even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both.

  16. Maternal obesity and the developmental programming of hypertension: a role for leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P D; Samuelsson, A-M; Poston, L

    2014-03-01

    Mother-child cohort studies have established that both pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain are independently associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adult offspring, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Animal models in sheep and non-human primates provide further evidence for the influence of maternal obesity on offspring cardiovascular function, whilst recent studies in rodents suggest that perinatal exposure to the metabolic milieu of maternal obesity may permanently change the central regulatory pathways involved in blood pressure regulation. Leptin plays an important role in the central control of appetite, is also involved in activation of efferent sympathetic pathways to both thermogenic and non-thermogenic tissues, such as the kidney, and is therefore implicated in obesity-related hypertension. Leptin is also thought to have a neurotrophic role in the development of the hypothalamus, and altered neonatal leptin profiles secondary to maternal obesity are associated with permanently altered hypothalamic structure and function. In rodent studies, maternal obesity confers persistent sympathoexcitatory hyper-responsiveness and hypertension acquired in the early stages of development. Experimental neonatal hyperleptinaemia in naive rat pups provides further evidence of heightened sympathetic tone and proof of principle that hyperleptinaemia during a critical window of hypothalamic development may directly lead to adulthood hypertension. Insight from these animal models raises the possibility that early-life exposure to leptin in humans may lead to early onset essential hypertension. Ongoing mother-child cohort and intervention studies in obese pregnant women provide a unique opportunity to address associations between maternal obesity and offspring cardiovascular function. The goal of the review is to highlight the potential importance of leptin in the developmental programming of hypertension in obese

  17. Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming.

  18. Influence of pre-pregnancy obese and pregnancy weight gain on pregnancy outcomes%孕前肥胖者孕期增重对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 王立新; 果崇慧; 许彩芹; 李雪凤

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨孕前肥胖者孕期增重对妊娠结局的影响.方法 对2006年1月-2008年12月在我院住院分娩的足月单胎初产肥胖孕妇360例,按孕期增重分为<10 kg,10~15 kg,>15 kg 三组,对其临床资料进行统计分析.结果增重10~15 kg 及>15 kg 组妊娠期高血压、子痫前期、子痫发生率,妊娠期糖尿病(GDM),剖宫产率,巨大儿发生率,高危新生儿发生率高于增重<10 kg 组(P<0.05﹚.各组产后出血率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 孕前肥胖者孕期增重<10 kg 对妊娠结局较为有利.%Objective To analysis the Influence of pre-pregnancy obese and pregnancy weight gain on pregnancy outcomes.Methods 360 cases of nulliparous women delivering singleton babies in our hospital from January 2006 to December 2008 were divided into 3 groups: pregnancy weight gain < 10 kg; pregnancy weight gain 10 - 15 kg; pregnancy weight gain > 15 kg.Results The gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia rate, GDM, caesarean delivery rate, fetal macrosomia rate, high risk neonate rate in pregnancy weight gain 10 - 15 kg group and > 15 kg group were higher than those in pregnancy weight gain < 10 kg group.( P < 0.05 ).The rate of postpartum bleeding in 3 groups were no significant difference ( P > 0.05 ).Conclusion Pre-pregnancy obese gain weight < 10kg in pregnancy had beneficial influence in pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Maternal obesity induced by a 'cafeteria' diet in the rat does not increase inflammation in maternal, placental or fetal tissues in late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Waddell, Brendan J; Mark, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Obesity during pregnancy can cause serious complications for maternal and infant health. While this has often been attributed to increased inflammation during obese pregnancy, human and animal studies exhibit variable results with respect to the inflammatory status of the mother, placenta and fetus. Cafeteria (CAF) feeding induces more inflammation than standard high-fat feeding in non-pregnant animal models. This study investigated whether maternal obesity induced by a CAF diet increases maternal, fetal or placental inflammation. Maternal obesity was established in rats by 8 weeks of pre-pregnancy CAF feeding. Maternal plasma inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, MCP1, GRO/KC, MIP-2 and TNFα) and expression of inflammatory genes (Tnfα, Il-6, Il-1β, Tlr2, Tlr4, Cox2 and Emr1) in maternal, placental and fetal tissues were measured at day 21 of gestation. Despite CAF animals having 63% more central body fat than controls at day 21 of gestation, plasma inflammatory markers were not increased; indeed, levels of IL-6, IL-12p40 and MIP2 were reduced slightly. Similarly, inflammatory gene expression remained largely unaffected by CAF feeding, except for slight reductions to Tlr4 and Emr1 expression in CAF maternal adipose tissue, and reduced Tlr4 expression in male labyrinth zone (LZ). The junctional zone (JZ) displayed increased Il-6 expression in CAF animals when fetal sexes were combined, but no inflammatory genes were affected by the CAF diet in fetal liver. Maternal obesity induced by a CAF diet before and during pregnancy does not increase the inflammatory status of the mother, placenta or fetus in late gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain with cesarean section in term deliveries of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chao; Zhou, Aifen; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yaqi; Qiu, Lin; Yao, Cong; Wang, Youjie; Zhang, Bin

    2016-11-22

    China has one of the highest rates of cesarean sections in the world. However, limited epidemiological studies have evaluated the risk factors for cesarean section among Chinese women. Thus, the aim of this cohort study was to investigate the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and the risk of cesarean section in China. A total of 57,891 women with singleton, live-born, term pregnancies were included in this analysis. We found that women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy had an elevated risk of cesarean section. Women with a total GWG above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had an adjusted OR for cesarean section of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.40-1.51) compared with women who had GWG within the IOM recommendations. Women with excessive BMI gain during pregnancy also had an increased risk of cesarean section. When stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, there was a significant association between excessive GWG and increased odds of cesarean section across all pre-pregnancy BMI categories. These results suggest that weight control efforts before and during pregnancy may help to reduce the rate of cesarean sections.

  1. Effects of maternal obesity on the offspring%母亲肥胖对后代的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段洋; 孙夫强

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of maternal obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. Maternal obesity increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and can lead to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, the change of cell factor homeostasis. The metabolic status of maternal obesity in the pre-pregnancy and pregnancy can alter the level of DNA methylation in the placenta, change the fetal programming, influence the pregnancy outcomes, and increase the risk of obesity related metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases of offspring. Actively preventing and intervening in the maternal obesity can reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes and increase the survival quality of the offspring.%近年来母亲肥胖发病率明显增加,母亲肥胖可导致慢性炎症、氧化应激、细胞因子内稳态的改变,增加妊娠不良结局的危险.怀孕前和怀孕过程中母亲肥胖的代谢状态能够改变胎盘DNA甲基化水平,且会引起胎儿"程序化"改变,影响妊娠结局,增加后代发生肥胖相关的代谢综合征等慢性病风险.积极预防和干预母亲肥胖,可降低不良妊娠结局,提高后代生存质量.

  2. Childhood overweight after establishment of the gut microbiota: the role of delivery mode, pre-pregnancy weight and early administration of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajslev, T A; Andersen, C S; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A; Jess, T

    2011-04-01

    To investigate whether delivery mode (vaginal versus by caesarean section), maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and early exposure to antibiotics (diversity of the gut microbiota are associated with later risk of overweight. Longitudinal, prospective study with measure of exposures in infancy and follow-up at age 7 years. A total of 28 354 mother-child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort, with information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, delivery mode and antibiotic administration in infancy, were assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed with childhood height and weight at the 7-year follow-up as outcome measures. Delivery mode was not significantly associated with childhood overweight (odds ratio (OR):1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.47). Antibiotics during the first 6 months of life led to increased risk of overweight among children of normal weight mothers (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.17) and a decreased risk of overweight among children of overweight mothers (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.98). The same tendency was observed among children of obese mothers (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.41-1.76). The present cohort study revealed that a combination of early exposures, including delivery mode, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and antibiotics in infancy, influences the risk of overweight in later childhood. This effect may potentially be explained by an impact on establishment and diversity of the microbiota.

  3. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  4. Pre-pregnancy high-risk factors at first antenatal visit: how predictive are these of pregnancy outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandu-Umba B

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barthélémy Tandu-Umba, Muela Andy Mbangama, Kitenge Marc Brunel Kamongola , Tchawou Armel Georges Kamgang, Mawamfumu Perthus Kivuidi, Munene Sam Kasonga, Meke Irène Kambashi, Kabasele Oscar Kapuku, Bituemi Jackson Kondoli, Kibundila Rolly Kikuni, Kuzungu Simon KasikilaDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo Objective: To determine relationships between pre-pregnancy risk factors at first antenatal visit booking and pregnancy outcomes.Study design: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study involving women admitted for singleton delivery from July 1 until October 31 (3 months, 2013, at nine major maternity clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. All women were checked for hereditary, community, and personal medical/surgical risk situations and mother/infant problems in previous pregnancies. Maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy were analyzed according to pre-pregnancy risk factors in order to establish their prediction concerning maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy (odds ratios. Results are given with 95% confidence intervals, and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The study sample comprised 2,086 women. Primiparity (36.5%, single relationship status (26.4%, and maternal age ≥35 years (18.3% were the most important non-pathologic risk factors, while arterial hypertension in family (34.3%, previous miscarriage (33.2%, overweight/obesity (21.9%, diabetes in family (21.1%, previous cesarean section (15.7%, previous postpartum hemorrhage (13.1%, low birth weight (10%, previous macrosomia (10%, and previous premature rupture of membranes (6.2% predominated among pathologic risk factors. Major adverse outcomes recurred in some women, with recurrence rates of 21/37 (57%, 111/208 (53%, 74/208 (36%, 191/598 (32%, 132/466 (28%, 24/130 (18%, and 4/65 (6% for prematurity

  5. Is Maternal Employment Related to Childhood Obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical activity may suffer. Also, children...

  6. Estado nutricional pré-gestacional, ganho de peso materno, condições da assistência pré-natal e desfechos perinatais adversos entre puérperas adolescentes Pre-pregnancy nutritional status, maternal weight gain, prenatal care, and adverse perinatal outcomes among adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar associação entre estado nutricional pré-gestacional, ganho ponderal materno e condições do pré-natal com os desfechos prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascer (BPN em filhos de mães adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 542 pares de puérperas adolescentes e conceptos atendidos em uma maternidade pública do município do Rio de Janeiro (RJ. Os dados foram coletados em prontuários. Para verificar a associação entre as variáveis independentes e os desfechos estudados, foram estimados a odds ratio (OR e o intervalo de confiança (IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: Quanto ao estado nutricional pré-gestacional das adolescentes, 87% apresentavam eutrofia, 1% baixo peso, 10% sobrepeso e 2% obesidade. A inadequação do ganho de peso gestacional total (72% superou a adequação (28%. O peso ao nascer foi favorecido com maior ganho de peso gestacional e reduzido com início tardio do pré-natal (PN. A comparação entre os grupos de conceptos com baixo peso e com peso adequado ao nascer revelou diferenças significativas entre as médias das variáveis: intervalo entre a última gestação e a atual (p = 0,022; peso pré-gestacional (p = 0,018; índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional (p OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR and a 95% confidence interval (CI were estimated RESULTS: With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72% exceeded

  7. Maternal morbid obesity and obstetric outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to review pregnancy outcomes in morbidly obese women who delivered a baby weighing 500 g or more in a large tertiary referral university hospital in Europe. METHODS: Morbid obesity was defined as a BMI > or =40.0 kg\\/m2 (WHO). Only women whose BMI was calculated at their first antenatal visit were included. The obstetric out-comes were obtained from the hospital\\'s computerised database. RESULTS: The incidence of morbid obesity was 0.6% in 5,824 women. Morbidly obese women were older and were more likely to be multigravidas than women with a normal BMI. The pregnancy was complicated by hypertension in 35.8% and diabetes mellitus in 20.0% of women. Obstetric interventions were high, with an induction rate of 42.1% and a caesarean section rate of 45.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that maternal morbid obesity is associated with an alarmingly high incidence of medical complications and an increased level of obstetric interventions. Consideration should be given to developing specialised antenatal services for morbidly obese women. The results also highlight the need to evaluate the effectiveness of prepregnancy interventions in morbidly obese women.

  8. Analysis of clinical characteristics and perinatal outcomes in pre-pregnancy obesity patients with early-onset preeclampsia%孕前肥胖的早发型子痫前期患者临床特点与围产结局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴璠; 华绍芳; 李月琴

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical characteristics and the perinatal effects of multiple systems in pre-pregnancy obesity patients with early-onset preeclampsia. Methods A total of 111 cases with early-onset preeclampsia in our Inpatient Obstetric Department were reviewed in this study. According to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), patients were divided into normal before pregnancy group (BMI<28 kg/m2, n=56) and obese before pregnancy group (BMI≥28 kg/m2, n=55) . The body weight, BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, risk factors, clinical features, and clinical features of neonatal index were compared between two groups. The correlation between maternal and neonatal indexes and glucose and lipid indexes were compared. Results Obese before pregnancy was more prone to blood concentration and disorders of lipid metabolism. The serum levels of lipid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), hematocrit, platelet and fibrinogen were significantly higher in obese before pregnancy group than than those of normal group. The induced neonatal acidosis and other organ damage, newborn Apgar score, pH, glucose were significantly lower in obese before pregnancy group than those of normal group. The residual alkali (BE), lactic acid (LAC), creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase (CKMB) were higher in obese before pregnancy group than those of normal before pregnancy group. Correlation analysis showed that maternal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), three acyl glycerol (TG) and HbA 1c were negatively correlated with neonatal Apgar score and pH, and which were positively correlated with neonatal LAC and CKMB. Both differences were significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion The dyslipidaemia in early onset preeclampsia in obesity patients before pregnancy is closely related with maternal and perinatal outcomes.%目的:探讨孕前肥胖的早发型子痫前期患者临床特点及对围产儿多系统的影响。方法回顾分析我院产科住院

  9. Maternal obesity and physical activity and exercise levels as pregnancy advances: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, N; Mitchell, C; Farren, M; Kennelly, M M; Hussey, J; Turner, M J

    2016-05-01

    Increases in clinical complications associated with maternal obesity have generated interest in increasing physical activity (PA) and exercise levels as an intervention to improve pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI categorisation and PA and exercise levels as pregnancy advances. This was an observational study in a large university maternity hospital. Women were recruited at their convenience before they left hospital after delivering a baby weighing 500 g or more. They completed a detailed customised physical activity and exercise questionnaire. BMI categorisation was based on the measurement of weight and height in early pregnancy. Of the 155 women recruited, 42.5 % (n = 66) were primigravidas and 10.3 % (n = 16) were smokers. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.6 kg/m(2) and 14.2 % (n = 22) were obese, based on a BMI >29.9 kg/m(2). Overall, women decreased their exercise from an average 194 min (range 0-650 min) per week pre-pregnancy to 98 min antenatally (range 0-420 min) (p Obese women exercised least pre-pregnancy and antenatally at 187.5 and 75 min per week, respectively, compared with 193.2 and 95.5 min per week in the normal BMI group and 239.3 and 106.7 min per week in the overweight group. The mean gestation at which all women reduced their activity levels was 29 weeks. We found that women decreased their PA  and exercise levels significantly in the third trimester and, thus, in the absence of a medical contra-indication there is considerable scope for an exercise intervention to improve activity  and exercise levels as pregnancy advances. However, an increase in PA levels in obese women needs further studies to determine whether it will improve the clinical outcomes for the woman and her offspring.

  10. Pre-pregnancy weight and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J; Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death and to study the causes of death among the children. DESIGN: Cohort study of pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care in Aarhus, Denmark. SETTING: Aarhus...... University Hospital, Denmark, 1989-1996. POPULATION: A total of 24,505 singleton pregnancies (112 stillbirths, 75 neonatal deaths) were included in the analyses. METHODS: Information on maternal pre-pregnancy weight, height, lifestyle factors and obstetric risk factors were obtained from self......-administered questionnaires and hospital files. We classified the population according to pre-pregnancy BMI as underweight (BMI neonatal death and causes of death...

  11. Maternal obesity and fetal metabolic programming: a fertile epigenetic soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heerwagen, Margaret J R; Miller, Melissa R; Barbour, Linda A; Friedman, Jacob E

    2010-01-01

    .... In addition to maternal glucose, hyperlipidemia and inflammation may contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic through fetal metabolic programming, the mechanisms of which are not well understood...

  12. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain, and risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Bager, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are suggested to influence risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of BMI and GWG on risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic eczema (AE), and hay fever in children......-onset wheezing (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.28-2.73). Maternal BMI and GWG were not associated with AE or hay fever. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of asthma and wheezing in offspring but not with AE and hay fever, suggesting that pathways may be nonallergic....... during the first 7 years of life. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 38,874 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort (enrollment 1996-2002) with information from the 16th week of pregnancy and at age 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of the child. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were...

  13. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain, and risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Bager, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are suggested to influence risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of BMI and GWG on risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic eczema (AE), and hay fever in children......-onset wheezing (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.28-2.73). Maternal BMI and GWG were not associated with AE or hay fever. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of asthma and wheezing in offspring but not with AE and hay fever, suggesting that pathways may be nonallergic....... during the first 7 years of life. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 38,874 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort (enrollment 1996-2002) with information from the 16th week of pregnancy and at age 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of the child. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were...

  14. Oxidative stress and maternal obesity: feto-placental unit interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, N; Merzouk, H; Merzouk, S A; Loukidi, B; Karaouzene, N; Malti, A; Narce, M

    2014-06-01

    To determine oxidative stress markers in maternal obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate feto-placental unit interaction, especially predictors of fetal metabolic alterations. 40 obese pregnant women (prepregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m²) were compared to 50 control pregnant women. Maternal, cord blood and placenta samples were collected at delivery. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, superoxide anion expressed as reduced Nitroblue Tetrazolium, nitric oxide expressed as nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase) were assayed by biochemical methods. Maternal, fetal and placental triglyceride levels were increased in obese group compared to control. Maternal malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, nitric oxide and superoxide anion levels were high while reduced glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity were low in obesity. In the placenta and in newborns of these obese mothers, variations of redox balance were also observed indicating high oxidative stress. Maternal and placental interaction constituted a strong predictor of fetal redox variations in obese pregnancies. Maternal obesity compromised placental metabolism and antioxidant status which strongly impacted fetal redox balance. Oxidative stress may be one of the key downstream mediators that initiate programming of the offspring. Maternal obesity is associated with metabolic alterations and dysregulation of redox balance in the mother-placenta - fetus unit. These perturbations could lead to maternal and fetal complications and should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on perinatal outcomes in Korean women: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jong-chul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain on perinatal outcomes in a population of Korean women. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2,454 women who had received antenatal care at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital from January 2007 to December 2009. We used World Health Organization definitions for Asian populations of underweight (BMI Results Among obese women, the adjusted ORs for gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorder, and incompetent internal os of cervix were 4.46, 2.53, and 3.70 (95% CI = 2.63-7.59, 1.26-5.07, and 1.50-9.12, respectively, and the adjusted ORs for neonatal complications such as macrosomia and low Apgar score were 2.08 and 1.98 (95% CI = 1.34-3.22 and 1.19-3.29, respectively, compared with normal weight women. However, there was no positive linear association between gestational weight gain and obstetric outcomes. In normal weight women, maternal and neonatal complications were significantly increased with inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (p Conclusions This study shows that pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are more closely related to the adverse obstetric outcomes than excess weight gain during pregnancy. In addition, inadequate weight gain during pregnancy can result in significant complications.

  16. Effects of Maternal Obesity on Fetal Programming: Molecular Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Caterina; Edlow, Andrea G

    2015-09-03

    Maternal obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Obesity and a high-fat diet have been shown to have deleterious effects on fetal programming, predisposing offspring to adverse cardiometabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although large epidemiological studies have shown an association between maternal obesity and adverse outcomes for offspring, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Molecular approaches have played a key role in elucidating the mechanistic underpinnings of fetal malprogramming in the setting of maternal obesity. These approaches include, among others, characterization of epigenetic modifications, microRNA expression, the gut microbiome, the transcriptome, and evaluation of specific mRNA expression via quantitative reverse transcription polmerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in fetuses and offspring of obese females. This work will review the data from animal models and human fluids/cells regarding the effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment and cardiometabolic outcomes, with a particular focus on molecular approaches.

  17. Pre-pregnancy weight and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J; Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K

    2005-01-01

    University Hospital, Denmark, 1989-1996. POPULATION: A total of 24,505 singleton pregnancies (112 stillbirths, 75 neonatal deaths) were included in the analyses. METHODS: Information on maternal pre-pregnancy weight, height, lifestyle factors and obstetric risk factors were obtained from self...... or neonatal death was found among underweight or overweight women. Adjustment for maternal cigarette smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake, maternal age, height, parity, gender of the child, years of schooling, working status and cohabitation with partner did not change the conclusions, nor did exclusion......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death and to study the causes of death among the children. DESIGN: Cohort study of pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care in Aarhus, Denmark. SETTING: Aarhus...

  18. Does maternal obesity have an influence on feeding behavior of obese children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, A N; Guven, A

    2015-12-01

    Although the pathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi factorial, maternal obesity and parenting have major roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal obesity on feeding practices toward their obese school children. Obese children and adolescents referred to the pediatric endocrinology department were enrolled consecutively. Height and weight of all children and their mothers were measured. Maternal feeding practices were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Answers were compared between obese (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) and non-obese mothers. A total of 491 obese subjects (292 girls, mean age 12.0 ± 2.8 years) and their mothers participated in this study. A direct correlation between children's BMI and their mothers' BMI was found (Pobese in the study, only half of them consider themselves as obese. No difference were found in the scores of the subscales "perceived responsibility", "restriction", "concern for child's weight" and "monitoring" between obese and non-obese mothers. Child's BMI-SDS positively correlated with mothers' personal weight perception, concern for child's weight and restriction after adjustment for child's age (P children's BMI-z-scores. The degree of child's obesity increases mothers' concern and food restriction behavior. While mothers of obese children have a high prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity was found to have no significant influence on feeding behavior of obese school children.

  19. Pediatric Obesity: It’s Time for Prevention Before Conception Can Maternal Obesity Program Pediatric Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Ferraro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and ‘catch-up’ growth that occurs when a child born to a nutrient deprived mother is exposed to the obesogenic environment of present day. Given the recent increase in maternal overweight/obesity (OW/OB our attention has shifted from nutrient restriction to overabundance and excess during pregnancy. Consideration must now be given to interventions that could mitigate pregravid body mass index (BMI, attenuate gestational weight gain (GWG and reduce postpartum weight retention (PPWR in an attempt to prevent the downstream signaling of pediatric obesity and halt the intergenerational cycle of weight related disease currently plaguing our world. Thus, this paper will briefly review current research that best highlights the proposed mechanisms responsible for the development of child OW/OB and related sequalae (e.g. type II diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD resulting from maternal obesity.

  20. Pediatric Obesity: It's Time for Prevention before Conception Can Maternal Obesity Program Pediatric Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Ferraro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and ‘catch-up’ growth that occurs when a child born to a nutrient deprived mother is exposed to the obesogenic environment of present day. Given the recent increase in maternal overweight/obesity (OW/OB our attention has shifted from nutrient restriction to overabundance and excess during pregnancy. Consideration must now be given to interventions that could mitigate pregravid body mass index (BMI, attenuate gestational weight gain (GWG and reduce postpartum weight retention (PPWR in an attempt to prevent the downstream signaling of pediatric obesity and halt the intergenerational cycle of weight related disease currently plaguing our world. Thus, this paper will briefly review current research that best highlights the proposed mechanisms responsible for the development of child OW/OB and related sequalae (e.g. type II diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD resulting from maternal obesity.

  1. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    .002) after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, and birth length. Total (p = 0.012) and abdominal (p = 0.039) fat masses correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal......INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat...

  2. Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lepe

    Full Text Available Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62. The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04. In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50. Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.

  3. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed.

  4. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  5. 孕前体重和孕期增重对新生儿出生结局及孕产妇围产结局的影响%A cohort study on the impacts of pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index,gestational weight gain on neonate birth status and perinatal outcomes in Fujian province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华; 郑翠仙; 林娟; 陈小梅; 陈水仙; 吴江南; 卓秀云; 郑巧玲; 危秀青; 张蓉华; 黄慧卿

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the impacts of pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and gestational weight gain(GWG)on pregnancy outcomes. Methods We adopted a prospective cohort study with cluster sampling in single pregnant women,who were not with hypertension,diabetes,hyperlipidemia or other diseases in the previous history,neither did they have diseases of heart,liver,kidney,thyroid etc. related to current pregnancy. Those pregnant women who visited the prenatal nutrition clinic under‘informed consent’were surveyed with questionnaire to track their peri-natal complications,delivery mode and neonate birth outcomes etc. Pearson and partial correlations,chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to study the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI,GWG and pregnancy outcomes. Results A total of 623 pregnant women were recruited in the cohort,with 592(95%)of them eligible for analysis. Results from the Multivariate Logistic Regression analysis indicated that,after controlling the potential confounding factors,when compared to women with pre-pregnancy BMI between 18.5 and 24.0,the odds ratios(ORs)for low birth ponderal index(PI) were 2.34[95%confidence interval(CI),1.24-4.42)]among those with BMI24.0. Similarly,when compared to pregnant women with normal GWG(defined as weight gain range from P15 to P85 by stratification of pre-pregnancy BMI),low GWG(P85)appeared the risk factor for high birth weight,high birth PI,and gestational diabetes mellitus,with ORs as 3.83(1.74-8.44),2.39(1.14-5.01) and 2.21(1.07-4.55),respectively. Conclusion Low or high pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and GWG were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.%目的:探讨孕前体重和孕期增重对妊娠结局的影响。方法采用前瞻性队列研究和整群抽样,对福建省妇幼保健院围产营养门诊既往无高血压、糖尿病、血脂异常等病史,且本次妊娠未发现心脏、肝脏、肾脏、甲状腺等器官疾病的单胎妊娠孕妇进行问卷调查,追

  6. [Impact of pre-pregnancy body mass index on baby's physical growth and nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Tan, Shan; Gao, Xiao; Xiang, Shiting; Zhang, Li; Huang, Li; Xiong, Changhui; Yan, Qiang; Lin, Ling; Li, Dimin; Yi, Juan; Yan, Yan

    2015-04-01

    To explore the impact of pre-pregnancy body mass index on baby's physical growth and nutritional status. A total of 491 pairs of mother-infant were divided into 3 groups according to mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): a pre-pregnancy low BMI group (BMIpregnancy normal BMI group (18.5 kg/m² ≤ BMIpregnancy high BMI group (BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m², n=72). Analysis of variance of repeated measurement data and the median percentage methods were used to compare the physical growth and nutritional status of babies in different groups. Baby's weight in the high BMI group were higher than that in the normal BMI and the low BMI group (F=3.958, P=0.020). The incidence of malnutrition in the low BMI group showed a tendency to decline along with the months (χ²=5.611, P=0.018), the incidence of overweight and obesity in the high and the normal BMI groups displayed a tendency to decline along with the months (χ²=18.773, 53.248, all PPregnancy BMI was correlated with the growth of baby. Too high or too low prepregnancy BMI exerts harmful effect on baby's weight and nutritional status. Medical workers should strengthen the education on women's pre-pregnancy to remind them keeping BMI at normal level.

  7. Pre-Pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and the Risk of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Cohort Study in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifen Zhou

    Full Text Available Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP are major causes of maternal death worldwide and the risk factors are not fully understood. Few studies have investigated the risk factors for HDP among Chinese women. A cohort study involving 84,656 women was conducted to investigate pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (GWG, and GWG during early pregnancy as risk factors for HDP among Chinese women.The study was conducted between 2011-2013 in Wuhan, China, utilizing data from the Maternal and Children Healthcare Information Tracking System of Wuhan. A total of 84,656 women with a live singleton pregnancy were included. Multiple unconditional logistic regression was conducted to evaluate associations between putative risk factors and HDP.Women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy had an elevated risk of developing HDP (overweight: OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 2.32-3.05; obese: OR = 5.53, 95% CI = 4.28-7.13 compared to their normal weight counterparts. Women with total GWG above the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendation had an adjusted OR of 1.72 (95% CI = 1.54-1.93 for HDP compared to women who had GWG within the IOM recommendation. Women with gestational BMI gain >10 kg/m2 during pregnancy had an adjusted OR of 3.35 (95% CI = 2.89-3.89 for HDP, compared to women with a gestational BMI gain 600g/wk: adjusted OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.19-1.84.The results from this study show that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, early GWG, and total GWG are positively associated with the risk of HDP. Weight control efforts before and during pregnancy may help to reduce the risk of HDP.

  8. Maternal complications in pregnancy and wheezing in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugna, Daniela; Galassi, Claudia; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    complications and wheezing symptoms in the offspring. Exposures of interest included hypertension and preeclampsia, diabetes, as well as pre-pregnancy overweight (body mass index between 25 and 29.9) and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30) compared with normal weight (body mass index between 18.5 and 24.9). Outcomes...... wheezing (P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Preeclampsia, maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with an increase risk of wheezing in the offspring.......BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effect of maternal complications in pregnancy on wheezing in offspring is still insufficient. METHODS: A pooled analysis was performed on individual participant data from fourteen European birth cohorts to assess the relationship between several maternal pregnancy...

  9. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Is Associated with Dietary Inflammatory Index and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Hur, Junguk; Cho, Eun-Hee; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Shivappa, Nitin; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Lee, Kyung Won

    2017-04-01

    There have been a limited number of studies examining the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary inflammation during pregnancy. Our aim is to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)™ and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations during pregnancy. The study included 631 pregnant American women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional examinations from 2003 to 2012. Pre-pregnancy BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. The cut-offs of index to assess the inflammatory properties of diet, was estimated based on a one-day 24-h recall. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were performed to estimate beta coefficients and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) on the association of pre-pregnancy BMI categories with the DII and CRP concentrations during pregnancy. After controlling for variables including: race/ethnicity, family poverty income ratio, education, marital status, month in pregnancy, and smoking status during pregnancy; women who were obese before pregnancy (n = 136) had increased odds for being in the highest tertile of the DII and CRP concentrations compared to women with normal weight (AORs 2.40, 95% CIs 1.01-5.71; AORs 24.84, 95% CIs 6.19-99.67, respectively). These findings suggest that women with pre-pregnancy obesity had greater odds of reporting higher DII and having elevated CRP. In conclusion, high pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with increased odds of pro-inflammatory diet and elevated CRP levels during pregnancy in the USA.

  10. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    ) for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number...... of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only. RESULTS: The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10; 0.98) between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together......BACKGROUND: Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI) and the risk...

  11. Maternal obesity and major intraoperative complications during cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Boggess, Kim A; Manuck, Tracy A; Stamilio, David M

    2017-06-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between maternal obesity and postoperative complications, but there is a dearth of information about the impact of obesity on intraoperative complications. To estimate the association between maternal obesity at delivery and major intraoperative complications during cesarean delivery (CD). This is a secondary analysis of the deidentified Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Cesarean Registry of women with singleton pregnancies. Maternal body mass index (BMI) at delivery was categorized as BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2), and BMI ≥ 50 kg/m(2). The primary outcome, any intraoperative complication, was defined as having at least 1 major intraoperative complication, including perioperative blood transfusion, intraoperative injury (bowel, bladder, ureteral injury; broad ligament hematoma), atony requiring surgical intervention, repeat laparotomy, and hysterectomy. Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios of intraoperative complication in 2 models: model 1 adjusting for maternal race, and preterm delivery obese women, there was evidence of effect modification by emergency CD. Compared with nonobese women, neither super obese women undergoing nonemergency CD (ARR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.52) nor those undergoing emergency CD (ARR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.10) had an increased risk of intraoperative complication. In contrast to the risk for postcesarean complications, the risk of intraoperative complication does not appear to be increased in obese women, even among those with super obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pregnancy outcome according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesche, Joanna; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess birth weight in relation to gestational weight gain (GWG) among women who were and were not obese before pregnancy. METHODS: For a retrospective cohort study, data were obtained for women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided......). RESULTS: A total of 231 obese women were included in analyses. In non-obese and obese women, fetal weight was highest when GWG was above the recommended amount. Among women who had a GWG in line with the recommendations, mean birth weight was higher among those with a pre-pregnancy BMI of 35.0-39.9 (3758...... by the square of height in meters) of at least 30 who had a singleton delivery at a center in Denmark in 2010-2011. Data were also obtained for 455 non-obese women (BMI 20.0-24.9). GWG was expressed in absolute terms and relative to published recommendations (11-16kg in non-obese women; 5-9kg in obese women...

  13. The Assessment of Diet Quality and Its Effects on Health Outcomes Pre-pregnancy and during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie C; Zhou, Shao J; Flynn, Angela C; Malek, Lenka; Greco, Rebecca; Moran, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Overweight and obesity pre pregnancy or during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal obstetric and fetal complications. Diet is one modifiable risk factor that women may be motivated to improve. General healthy eating guidelines, micronutrient sufficiency and macronutrient quantity and quality are important nutrition considerations pre and during pregnancy. With regards to specific nutrients, health authorities have recommendations for folate and/or iodine supplementation; but not consistently for iron and omega-3 despite evidence for their association with health outcomes. There are modest additional requirements for energy and protein, but not fat or carbohydrate, in mid-late pregnancy. Diet indices and dietary pattern analysis are additional tools or methodologies used to assess diet quality. These tools have been used to determine dietary intakes and patterns and their association with pregnancy complications and birth outcomes pre or during pregnancy. Women who may unnecessarily resist foods due to fear of food contamination from listeriosis and methylmercury may limit their diet quality and a balanced approached is required. Dietary intake may also vary according to certain population characteristics. Additional support for women who are younger, less educated, overweight and obese, from socially disadvantaged areas, smokers and those who unnecessarily avoid healthy foods, is required to achieve a higher quality diet and optimal lifestyle peri conception.

  14. Maternal serum leptin during pregnancy and infant birth weight: the influence of maternal overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K; Straughen, Jennifer K; Trudeau, Sheri

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have examined whether the distinct metabolic patterns found in obese and nonobese pregnant women have different effects on the growing fetus. Our objective was to estimate the influence of longitudinal variation in maternal serum leptin levels on variation in infant birth weight in overweight/obese versus normal-weight women. In a prospective cohort of 286 gravidas, maternal weight and serum leptin levels at 6-10, 10-14, 16-20, 22-26, and 32-36 weeks gestation were measured. Effects of leptin levels on infant birth weight adjusted for gestational age at delivery (aBW) were analyzed using a linear regression model that accounted for the relationship of time-varying predictors to the log-transformed leptin concentrations. Different relationships of aBW to maternal serum leptin and its rate of change across pregnancy were exhibited by overweight/obese and normal-weight gravidas. For normal-weight women, aBW is not associated with either the magnitude of the logarithm of the leptin concentration or with its rate of change in either the first or second half of pregnancy. Conversely, for overweight/obese women, an increase in the rate of change in maternal serum leptin in the second half of pregnancy is significantly associated with a decrease in aBW. This effect is distinct from that of maternal weight. Differences in the effect of maternal serum leptin on fetal growth between overweight/ obese and normal-weight women suggest metabolic and physiologic heterogeneity between these groups. Such differences may be involved in the long-term physiologic effects of the obese intrauterine environment on the health of the offspring. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  15. Maternal obesity and risk of Down syndrome in the offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Eric; Källén, Bengt; Josefsson, Ann; Gottvall, Tomas; Blomberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to determine if maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of Down syndrome in the offspring and whether the risk estimates for trisomy 21 based on combined screening is affected by maternal body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Study group I consisted of a nationwide cohort of 168 604 women giving birth; outcome was infants born with Down syndrome. Adjustment was made for maternal age. Study group II consisted of 10 224 women undergoing 1st tr...

  16. Joint and Independent Associations of Gestational Weight Gain and Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index with Outcomes of Pregnancy in Chinese Women: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Li

    Full Text Available To explore the joint and independent effects of gestational weight gain (GWG and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI on pregnancy outcomes in a population of Chinese Han women and to evaluate pregnant women's adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM gestational weight gain guidelines.This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of 48,867 primiparous women from mainland China who had a full-term singleton birth between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2011. The independent associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and categories of combined pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with outcomes of interest were examined using an adjusted multivariate regression model. In addition, women with pre-pregnancy hypertension were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA infants, and women with gestational diabetes (GDM were excluded from the analysis of the relationship between GWG and delivery of large-for-gestational-age (LGA infants.Only 36.8% of the women had a weight gain that was within the recommended range; 25% and 38.2% had weight gains that were below and above the recommended range, respectively. The contribution of GWG to the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes was modest. Women with excessive GWG had an increased likelihood of gestational hypertension (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI = 1.92-2.80, postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted OR 1.30; 95% CI = 1.17-1.45, cesarean section (adjusted OR 1.31; 95% CI = 1.18-1.36 and delivery of an LGA infant (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.76-2.26 compared with women with normal weight gain. Conversely, the incidence of GDM (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI = 1.20-1.85 and SGA infants (adjusted OR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.72 was increased in the group of women with inadequate GWG. Moreover, in the obese women, excessive GWG was associated with an apparent increased risk of delivering an LGA infant. In the women who were underweight, poor weight gain was

  17. The role of family and maternal factors in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Byrne, Susan M; Davis, Elizabeth A; Blair, Eve; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2007-06-04

    To investigate the relationship between a child's weight and a broad range of family and maternal factors. Cross-sectional data from a population-based prospective study, collected between January 2004 and December 2005, for 329 children aged 6-13 years (192 healthy weight, 97 overweight and 40 obese) and their mothers (n=265) recruited from a paediatric hospital endocrinology department and eight randomly selected primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children and mothers; demographic information; maternal depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem; general family functioning; parenting style; and negative life events. In a multilevel model, maternal BMI and family structure (single-parent v two-parent families) were the only significant predictors of child BMI z scores. Childhood obesity is not associated with adverse maternal or family characteristics such as maternal depression, negative life events, poor general family functioning or ineffective parenting style. However, having an overweight mother and a single-parent (single-mother) family increases the likelihood of a child being overweight or obese.

  18. Maternal obesity in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onubi, Ojochenemi J.; Marais, Debbi; Aucott, Lorna; Okonofua, Friday; Poobalan, Amudha S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity is emerging as a public health problem, recently highlighted together with maternal under-nutrition as a ‘double burden’, especially in African countries undergoing social and economic transition. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the current evidence on maternal obesity in Africa. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched (up to August 2014) and identified 29 studies. Prevalence, associations with socio-demographic factors, labour, child and maternal consequences of maternal obesity were assessed. Pooled risk ratios comparing obese and non-obese groups were calculated. Results Prevalence of maternal obesity across Africa ranged from 6.5 to 50.7%, with older and multiparous mothers more likely to be obese. Obese mothers had increased risks of adverse labour, child and maternal outcomes. However, non-obese mothers were more likely to have low-birthweight babies. The differences in measurement and timing of assessment of maternal obesity were found across studies. No studies were identified either on the knowledge or attitudes of pregnant women towards maternal obesity; or on interventions for obese pregnant women. Conclusions These results show that Africa's levels of maternal obesity are already having significant adverse effects. Culturally adaptable/sensitive interventions should be developed while monitoring to avoid undesired side effects. PMID:26487702

  19. Maternal Overweight and Obesity and Genital Anomalies in Male Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obese pregnant women face higher risk of several critical birth outcomes, including an overall increased risk of congenital abnormalities. Only few studies have focused on associations between maternal overweight and the genital anomalies in boys, cryptorchidism.......58). A substantial proportion of the associations between BMI and the genital anomalies were mediated through preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: This large register-based study adds to the current literature and indicates that the occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism increase with maternal overweight and obesity...... were mediated through obesity-related diseases. RESULTS: Of the 1 055 705 live-born singleton boys born from 1992 to 2012, 6807 (6.4 per 1000) were diagnosed with hypospadias and 16 469 (15.6 per 1000) were diagnosed with cryptorchidism, of which 9768 (9.3 per 1000) underwent corrective surgery...

  20. Maternal Obesity: Lifelong Metabolic Outcomes for Offspring from Poor Developmental Trajectories During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Elena; Ibáñez, Carlos; Martínez-Samayoa, Paola M; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in developed and developing countries around the world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely impacts both maternal health and offspring phenotype, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life including obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects including programming of hypothalamic appetite-regulating centers, increasing maternal, fetal and offspring glucocorticoid production, changes in maternal metabolism and increasing maternal oxidative stress. Effective interventions during human pregnancy are needed to prevent both maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction due to maternal obesity. This review addresses the relationship between maternal obesity and its negative impact on offspring development and presents some maternal intervention studies that propose strategies to prevent adverse offspring metabolic outcomes.

  1. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  2. Relationship between maternal obesity and infant feeding-interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data regarding the relationship between maternal adiposity and interaction and feeding of infants and possible contribution to childhood obesity. In this study we determined the relationship between maternal body weight and composition and infant feeding patterns and maternal-infant interaction during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the Enhanced Metabolic Testing Activity Chamber (EMTAC. Methods The amount of time four obese (BMI = 33.5 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and three normal weight (BMI = 23.1 ± 0.6 kg/m2 biological mothers, spent feeding and interacting with their infants, along with what they ingested, was recorded during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the EMTAC. The seven infants were 4.9 ± 0.7 months, 69 ± 3 cm, 7.5 ± 0.8 kg, 26 ± 3 % fat and 29 ± 25 percentile for weight for length. Energy and macronutrient intake (kcal/kg were assessed. Maternal body composition was determined by air displacement plethysmorgraphy and that of the infants by skin-fold thicknesses. Pearson correlations and independent t-tests were utilized for statistical analysis (p Results Infants born to obese biological mothers consumed more energy (87.6 ± 18.9 vs. 68.1 ± 17.3 and energy as carbohydrate (25 ± 6 vs.16 ± 3; p Conclusion Greater maternal body weight and percent body fat were associated with greater infant energy intakes. These infants were fed less frequently and consumed more carbohydrates in a shorter period of time as compared to infants from normal weight biological mothers. These variations in feeding patterns may predispose certain infants to obesity.

  3. Maternal obesity alters the apelinergic system at the feto-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssens, Sandy; Marx-Deseure, Aurore; Lecoutre, Simon; Butruille, Laura; Fournel, Audren; Knauf, Claude; Besengez, Capucine; Breton, Christophe; Storme, Laurent; Deruelle, Philippe; Lesage, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Apelin and its receptor APJ have been implicated in pathologies including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. Little is known about the function of the apelinergic system during gestation. We evaluated in mice this system at the feto-maternal interface in insulin-resistant obese female (HF) mice. Maternal apelinemia was decreased at term and fetal apelinemia was sixfold higher than maternal level. Ex-vivo, the placenta releases apelin at E12.5 and E18.5. In HF pregnant mice at term, apelinemia as well as placental apelin and APJ mRNA levels were increased whereas placental release of apelin was drastically reduced compared to controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fetal Syndrome of Endocannabinoid Deficiency (FSECD) In Maternal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; German, Nadezhda; Ventolini, Gary; Larumbe, Eneko; Samson, Jacques

    2016-11-01

    The theory of a fetal origin of adult diseases links many pathological conditions to very early life events and is known as a "developmental programming" phenomenon. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are not quite understood and have been explained by inflammation, stress, etc. In particular the epidemic of obesity, with more than 64% of women being overweight or obese, has been associated with conditions in later life such as mental disorders, diabetes, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. Interestingly, these diseases were classified a decade ago as Clinical Syndrome of Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD), which was first described by Russo in 2004. Cannabinoids have been used for the treatment of chronic pain for millenniums and act through the mechanism of "kick-starting" the components of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). ECS is a pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity, inflammation, cardiovascular and neuronal damage, and pain. We hypothesize that the deteriorating effect of maternal obesity on offspring health is explained by the mechanism of Fetal Syndrome of Endocannabinoid Deficiency (FSECD), which accompanies maternal obesity. Here we provide support for this hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  6. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  7. Maternal obesity and Caesarean delivery in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Campbell, Oona M R; De Silva, Mary J; Slaymaker, Emma; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-07-01

    To quantify maternal obesity as a risk factor for Caesarean delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using 31 nationally representative cross-sectional data sets from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Maternal obesity was a risk factor for Caesarean delivery in sub-Saharan Africa; a clear dose-response relationship (where the magnitude of the association increased with increasing BMI) was observable. Compared to women of optimal weight, overweight women (BMI 25-29 kg/m(2) ) were significantly more likely to deliver by Caesarean (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.33, 1.78), as were obese women (30-34.9 kg/m(2) (OR: 2.39; 95%CI: 1.96-2.90); 35-39.9 kg/m(2) (OR: 2.47 95%CI: 1.78-3.43)) and morbidly obese women (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2) OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 2.46-6.00). BMI is projected to rise substantially in sub-Saharan Africa over the next few decades and demand for Caesarean sections already exceeds available capacity. Overweight women should be advised to lose weight prior to pregnancy. Furthermore, culturally appropriate prevention strategies to discourage further population-level rises in BMI need to be designed and implemented. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Maternal morbid obesity: financial implications of weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, M C; Serrette, J M; Jain, S K; Makhlouf, M; Olson, G L; McCormick, D P

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes and costs of pregnancies complicated by extreme maternal obesity (class III obesity, body mass index ≥ 40). We conducted a retrospective case-control descriptive study comparing extremely obese women (cases) and their infants with randomly selected controls. Health outcomes were obtained from the medical records and costs from billing data. Total costs for each mother-infant dyad were calculated. Compared with 85 controls, the 82 cases experienced higher morbidity, higher costs and prolonged hospital stay. However, 26% of cases maintained or lost weight during pregnancy, whereas none of the controls maintained or lost weight during pregnancy. When mother/infant dyads were compared on costs, case subjects who maintained or lost weight experienced lower costs than those who gained weight. Neonatal intensive care consumed 78% of total hospital costs for infants of the obese women who gained weight, but only 48% of costs for infants of obese women who maintained or lost weight. For extremely obese women, weight management during pregnancy was achievable, resulted in healthier neonatal outcomes and reduced perinatal healthcare costs.

  9. Maternal mid-pregnancy lipids and birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Lanay M.; Holzman, Claudia B.; Evans, Rhobert W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe associations among maternal lipids and birthweight and to determine whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) modifies these associations. Design Cohort Study. Setting Multiple communities in Michigan, USA. Population Participants were a sub-cohort of women from the multi-community Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) study (1998–2004). Methods Maternal total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDLc), and low-density lipoprotein (LDLc) cholesterol, and triglycerides were assessed at 16–27 weeks’ gestation. Women were classified as having normal (<25 kg/m2) or overweight/obese (≥25 kg/m2) pre-pregnancy BMI. Main Outcome Measures Sex- and gestational-age-specific BWz-score. Results Regression models examined associations among lipids (low: 1st quartile, referent: middle quartiles, high: 4th quartile) and BWz-scores for the total sample and stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI. In adjusted analyses (n=1207), low HDLc was associated with lower BWz-score (β=−0.23, 95%CI: −0.40 to −0.06) while high triglycerides was associated with higher BWz-score (β=0.23, 95%CI: 0.06–0.41). Once stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI, low total cholesterol was associated with lower BWz-score in normal BMI women (β= −0.25, 95%CI: −0.47 to −0.03), while in overweight/obese BMI women, high HDLc was inversely (β= −0.29, 95%CI: −0.54 to −0.04) and high triglycerides was directly associated with BWz-score (β=0.32, 95%CI: 0.07– 0.54). Removing women with gestational diabetes/hypertensive disorders did not alter the results. Conclusions The associations among maternal lipids and BWz-score vary by lipid measure and pre-pregnancy BMI. Future work should examine whether lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI make unique contributions to the fetal programming of disease. PMID:25912426

  10. The role of gestational diabetes, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on the risk of newborn macrosomia: results from a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, Salvatore; Montico, Marcella; Barresi, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Businelli, Caterina; Soini, Valentina; Erenbourg, Anna; Ronfani, Luca; Maso, Gianpaolo

    2014-01-15

    It is crucial to identify in large population samples the most important determinants of excessive fetal growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the independent role of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes on the risk of macrosomia. A prospective study collected data on mode of delivery and maternal/neonatal outcomes in eleven Hospitals in Italy. Multiple pregnancies and preterm deliveries were excluded. The sample included 14109 women with complete records. Associations between exposure variables and newborn macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Multiple logistic regression models were built to assess the independent association between potential predictors and macrosomia. Maternal obesity (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.2), excessive gestational weight gain (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2) and diabetes (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0 for gestational; adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.6 for pre-gestational) resulted to be independent predictors of macrosomia, when adjusted for other recognized risk factors. Since no significant interaction was found between pre-gestational BMI and gestational weight gain, excessive weight gain should be considered an independent risk factor for macrosomia. In the sub-group of women affected by gestational or pre-gestational diabetes, pre-gestational BMI was not significantly associated to macrosomia, while excessive pregnancy weight gain, maternal height and gestational age at delivery were significantly associated. In this sub-population, pregnancy weight gain less than recommended was not significantly associated to a reduction in macrosomia. Our findings indicate that maternal obesity, gestational weight gain excess and diabetes should be considered as independent risk factors for newborn macrosomia. To adequately evaluate the clinical evolution of pregnancy all three variables need to be carefully assessed and monitored.

  11. Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and risk of breast cancer in daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C; Michels, Karin B

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have established that higher birthweight is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We explored whether maternal pregnancy weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), which influence birthweight, are associated with risk of breast cancer in offspring. The Nurses' Mothers case-control study of breast cancer was nested in the Nurses' Health Study I and II cohorts. Mothers of 814 nurses with and 1,809 nurses without breast cancer completed questionnaires with information on pre-pregnancy height and weight, pregnancy weight gain, and other aspects of their pregnancies with the nurse daughters. We calculated odds ratios for breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. Mean pregnancy weight gain was 23 lb, and average pre-pregnancy BMI was 21 kg/m². Mothers' weight gain during pregnancy was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Compared to women whose mothers gained 20-29 lb, women whose mothers gained less than 10 lb had a relative risk of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-1.36), adjusting for the age of the nurses. Women whose mothers gained 40 or more pounds had a relative risk of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.55-1.23). Mothers' pre-pregnancy BMI was not associated with the daughters' risk of breast cancer. Women whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of 30 or more had a relative risk of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.74) compared to those with BMI less than 20. Additional adjustment for prenatal factors or for nurses' characteristics later in life had no effect on the results. The association between birthweight and breast cancer risk is likely due to factors independent of mothers' weight gain during pregnancy or pre-pregnancy BMI. Because BMIs and pregnancy weight gains were lower in this population than today, we cannot rule out associations for very high pre-pregnancy BMIs or pregnancy weight gains.

  12. Maternal obesity alters endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in offspring pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Jumpei; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Cordero, Paul; Li, Jiawei; Nguyen, Vi; Carter, Rebeca; Kapur, Sabrina R; Pombo, Joaquim; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Oben, Jude A

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) is increasing in parallel with obesity rates. Stress-related alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), are associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate ER imbalance in the pancreas of a mice model of adult and perinatal diet-induced obesity. Twenty female C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control (Con) or obesogenic (Ob) diets prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. Their offspring were weaned onto Con or Ob diets up to 6 months post-partum. Then, after sacrifice, plasma biochemical analyses, gene expression, and protein concentrations were measured in pancreata. Offspring of Ob-fed mice had significantly increased body weight (p < 0.001) and plasma leptin (p < 0.001) and decreased insulin (p < 0.01) levels. Maternal obesogenic diet decreased the total and phosphorylated Eif2α and increased spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). Pancreatic gene expression of downstream regulators of UPR (EDEM, homocysteine-responsive endoplasmic reticulum-resident (HERP), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)) and autophagy-related proteins (LC3BI/LC3BII) were differently disrupted by obesogenic feeding in both mothers and offspring (from p < 0.1 to p < 0.001). Maternal obesity and Ob feeding in their offspring alter UPR in NAFPD, with involvement of proapoptotic and autophagy-related markers. Upstream and downstream regulators of PERK, IRE1α, and ATF6 pathways were affected differently following the obesogenic insults.

  13. Maternal diet-induced obesity and offspring cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, H L; Ozanne, S E

    2013-10-01

    It is widely recognized that environmental insults during adulthood including smoking, lack of exercise and a poor diet increases an individual's risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, research initiated over the last two decades has highlighted that our risk of CVD can be programmed following adverse exposures during early development. Such adverse exposures may include, undernutrition, placental insufficiency, hypoxia, overnutrition and obesity. This review aims to address the current Western obesity crisis by addressing the long-term impact of maternal overnutrition and obesity on the offspring's future risk of CVD. Although current human studies have observed the presence of adverse CVD markers in children born to obese mothers, animal models have proved vital in understanding the underlying mechanisms involved. Mechanisms suggested to be involved in the programming of CVD in the offspring include increased oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity and epigenetics. CVD remains the greatest cause of death worldwide, therefore further understanding of the mechanisms mediating these effects is important in the development of intervention strategies.

  14. Association between Maternal Obesity and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Min; Ou, Jian-Jun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Tang, Si-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    As the link between maternal obesity and risk of autism among offspring is unclear, the present study assessed this association. A systematic search of an electronic database was performed to identify observational studies that examined the association between maternal obesity and autism. The outcome measures were odds ratios comparing offspring…

  15. Persistent influence of maternal obesity on offspring health: Mechanisms from animal models and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consequences of excessive maternal weight and adiposity at conception for the offspring are now well recognized. Maternal obesity increases the risk of overweight and obesity even in children born with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) birth weights. Studies in animal models have employed bo...

  16. Impact of maternal obesity on offspring long-term health%孕妇肥胖对后代长期健康的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云峰

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among pregnant women is increasing,that include pre-pregnancy obesity and/or over gestational weight gain diagnosed by different criteria in different countries.Emerging evidance suggests that maternal obesity before and during pregnancy have not only short-term effects on both of mother and offspring,but also long-term adverse influences on offspring health.Evidence from both animal and human studies indicates that maternal obesity increases the weight and adiposity,alters body composition and increases the risk of metabolic disorders.These changes further result in the increased risk of metabolic syndrome of offspring in their later life.Further studies are required to elucidate the programming mechanisms of disease risk in the offspring as a consequence of matemal obesity.Strategies to prevent and reduce the impact of maternal obesity on long-term health of offsprings are required.%孕妇肥胖的发生率逐渐增高,孕妇肥胖包括孕前肥胖和孕期增重过多,国内外依据的诊断标准不同.孕妇肥胖除了会对母亲和后代造成近期影响外,还会给后代的健康带来一系列不良的长期影响,包括后代体重及肥胖发生率的增加、身体组分的改变、代谢异常及心血管疾病危险性的增高等,这些改变可以从新生儿期、青少年期延续至成年早期,导致后代发生代谢综合征的危险增加.该研究进一步的研究以阐明导致这些宫内异常编程效应的机制,并探讨有效的预防和干预措施以降低后代发生这些异常的危险性.

  17. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and risk of adverse outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558 having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. RESULTS: Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52-2.98 and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01-4.04, gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27-3.19 and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13-7.32 and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12-8.91 and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46-22.40. Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25-3.27, polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03-2.99, tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.46 and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95. Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14-1.63 and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.22 and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11 and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35-2.33. Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001 and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56-2.56 and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12-3.54. Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77. Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62-8.69 than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50-8.61 or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41-8.54. CONCLUSION: Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those

  18. Maternal obesity during pregnancy and cardiovascular development and disease in the offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, Romy

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy is an important public health problem in Western countries. Currently, obesity prevalence rates in pregnant women are estimated to be as high as 30 %. In addition, approximately 40 % of women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy in Western countries. An accumulating body of evidence suggests a long-term impact of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy on adiposity, cardiovascular and metabolic related health outcomes in the...

  19. Impact of maternal obesity on obstetric outcome in a rural population in Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Vijay

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Obese women are at increased risk of both maternal and fetal complications even in a rural population where it is thought to be less prevalent when compared to urban population. As obesity is a preventable condition, awareness and proper counseling regarding the hazards of obesity is becoming highly necessary. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 740-744

  20. Maternal super obesity and risk for intensive care unit admission in the MFMU Cesarean Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Vaught, Arthur J; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Boggess, Kim A; Stamilio, David M

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in nonpregnant populations. Less is known about maternal obesity and ICU admission risk. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between maternal obesity and ICU admission among women who delivered via cesarean section or vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC). This is a retrospective cohort analysis of women who delivered via VBAC or cesarean section in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit (MFMU) Cesarean Registry. We defined exposure as body mass index (BMI) at delivery stratified as non-obese (BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m(2) ), class I or II obese (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2) ), morbidly obese (BMI 40-49.9 kg/m(2) ), and super obese (BMI ≥ 50 kg/m(2) ). The primary outcome was ICU admission. Modified Poisson regression models estimated relative risk (RR) of ICU admission by obesity strata, after adjusting for confounders. Mediation analysis was used to estimate the proportion of ICU admission risk attributable specifically to obesity. We included 68 455 women; 40% non-obese, 46% class I or II obese, 12% morbidly obese, and 2% super obese. Super obese women were at higher risk for ICU admission compared with non-obese women (0.7 vs. 1.3%, adjusted RR 1.61; 95% CI 1.01-2.65), after adjusting for confounders. Among super obese women, medical comorbidities mediated 58% of ICU admission risk, suggesting that a significant proportion of ICU admission is driven by maternal obesity. Super obese women who deliver by cesarean section or VBAC are at increased risk of peripartum ICU admission. Obstetricians and critical care specialists should consider possible ICU admission during delivery planning. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Effectiveness of Continuum of Care—Linking Pre-Pregnancy Care and Pregnancy Care to Improve Neonatal and Perinatal Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Okawa, Sumiyo; Zamawe, Collins O. F.; Shibanuma, Akira; Nanishi, Keiko; Iwamoto, Azusa; Saw, Yu Mon; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    In an era of Sustainable Development Goals, maternal, newborn, and child health still require improvement. Continuum of care is considered key to improving the health status of these populations. The continuum of care is a series of care strategies starting from pre-pregnancy to motherhood-childhood. The effectiveness of such linkage between the pregnancy, birth, and postnatal periods has been demonstrated. However, almost no study has assessed the impact of linkage that starts from pre-pregnancy to pregnancy care on maternal and child health. The present study attempts to fill this gap by assessing the effectiveness of the care linkage between pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries. The outcome variables were neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality. We searched databases such as PubMed/Medline, POPLINE, EBSCO/CINAHL, and ISI Web of Science for the period 2000–2014, using broad search terms (e.g., pre-pregnancy OR adolescent OR mother), combined with search terms specific for interventions, (e.g., family planning OR contraception OR spacing). From the 1,325 retrieved articles, five studies were finally analyzed. The meta-analysis showed that interventions linking pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care effectively reduced neonatal mortality (risk ratio [RR]: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71–0.89, I2 = 62%) and perinatal mortality (RR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.75–0.94, I2 = 73%), but did not show an effect on maternal mortality. Neonatal and perinatal mortality could be reduced by linking pre-pregnancy and pregnancy care. This linkage of pre-pregnancy and pregnancy cares is an essential component of continuum of care to improve newborn health. Review Registration PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD

  2. Obesity during pregnancy alters maternal oxidant balance and micronutrient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Iyer, C; Meydani, S N

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of obesity on inflammatory status in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and micronutrient status in obese pregnant women and their infants compared with lean controls (Lc). This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 15 obese (Ob; body mass index (BMI) >30 kg m(-2)) and 15 lean (BMI 18-25 kg m(-2)) women were recruited based on prepregnancy BMI. Vitamins A, B6, C, E and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), zinc, red blood cell (RBC) folate, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α and oxidized and reduced glutathione were measured from maternal blood between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Vitamins A, B6, C and E, 25(OH)D, zinc, red blood cell folate, CRP and IL-6 were measured from cord blood at delivery. Ob pregnant women have statistically significantly lower levels of vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E, RBC folate, higher CRP and IL-6 levels and higher ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione compared with Lc pregnant women. Infants born to Ob mothers did not have statistically significantly higher measures of inflammation or oxidative stress. There were no differences in micronutrient concentrations between Lc and Ob infants, but folate, vitamin B6 and zinc levels correlated strongly between mother and infant. There was no statistically significant difference in any parameter between Ob and Lc cord blood. Ob pregnant women have increased inflammation and oxidative stress, and lower levels of nutritional antioxidant defenses compared with Lc pregnant women. We speculate that lower antioxidant defenses combined with increased oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the adverse outcomes associated with pregnancy in Ob women.

  3. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.

  4. 孕前体质指数与早产的关系%Relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index and preterm birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立芳; 周虹; 张妍; 王燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)and preterm birth.Methods:A case-control study was conducted in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hos-pital in Beijing from January to April in 201 3.This study contained 1 74 preterm births in the case group and 382 term deliveries in the control group.The height,pre-pregnancy body weight,body weight before delivery,gestational weeks,history of diseases,family history of diseases,and complications during pregnancy of the subjects were collected.Multivariate Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI)after adjustment by maternal age,education,smoke during pregnancy,primiparous,mean income,and mean family living space.Results:After analyzing the rele-vant risk factors of preterm birth,the multivariate Logistic regression showed that pre-pregnancy obesity was a risk factor for preterm birth,the adjusted odds ratio was 2.461 (95% CI:1 .1 74 -5.1 59,P =0.01 7).The associations between pre-pregnancy overweight and preterm birth or pre-pregnancy under-weight and preterm birth were not found.The gestational diabetes mellitus,pregnancy-induced hyperten-sion,and family history of preterm birth were risk factors for preterm birth,the adjusted odds ratios were 1 .781 (95% CI:1 .025 -3.095,P =0.040),3.831 (95% CI:2.044 -7.1 80,P <0.001 ),and 3.675 (95% CI:1 .358 -9.942,P =0.01 0),respectively.Conclusion:Pre-pregnancy obesity ap-peared to be a risk factor for preterm birth.To decrease the incidence of preterm birth,women should improve preconception care and keep their BMI in a normal range before pregnancy.%目的:探讨孕前体质指数(body mass index,BMI)与早产的关系。方法:以在北京市海淀区妇幼保健院住院分娩的174例早产儿为病例,382例足月儿为对照,收集孕妇身高、孕前体重、分娩前最后一次体重、孕周、家族史、疾病史以及孕期并发症等信息,运用多因素 Logistic

  5. The association of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking with child neuropsychological functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Kjærsgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Denny, Clark H.

    2015-01-01

    alcohol consumption before pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children atFive (TEACh-5), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). The Behaviour Rating Inventory......Objective: To examine the effects of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking on child neuropsychological functioning. Design: Prospective follow-up study. Setting and population: 154 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods: Participants were sampled based on maternal...... on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the TEACh-5, theMABC, and the BRIEF. Results: Intake of 15–21 drinks/week on average prior to pregnancy was not associated with any of the outcomes, but intake of ≥22 drinks/week on average was associated with a significantly lower adjusted mean...

  6. Teratology Public Affairs Committee position paper: maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R

    2006-02-01

    Compared to normal-weight women, obese women have an increased risk of infertility and pregnancy complications. The most consistently described pregnancy complications are hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic events, and cesarean section. Fetal and neonatal complications may include congenital malformations, macrosomia, and shoulder dystocia. The literature suggests that women with a body mass index (BMI) >or=30 have approximately double the risk of having a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) compared to normal-weight women, and the increased risk associated with higher maternal body weight does not appear to be modified by folic acid supplementation. The Public Affairs Committee of the Teratology Society supports the public health initiatives identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2004 and the research initiatives identified by the National Institutes of Health in 2004. The Public Affairs Committee recommends that clinicians counsel women about appropriate caloric intake and exercise and that health-care providers educate parents about appropriate childhood nutrition. Breast-feeding should be encouraged based on evidence of a protective effect against childhood obesity, as well as other health advantages.

  7. Maternal obesity is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome in toddlers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D Galley

    Full Text Available Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully delineated. A novel possible pathway linking maternal and child weight is the transmission of obesogenic microbes from mother to child. The current study examined whether maternal obesity was associated with differences in the composition of the gut microbiome in children in early life. Fecal samples from children 18-27 months of age (n = 77 were analyzed by pyro-tag 16S sequencing. Significant effects of maternal obesity on the composition of the gut microbiome of offspring were observed among dyads of higher socioeconomic status (SES. In the higher SES group (n = 47, children of obese (BMI≥30 versus non-obese mothers clustered on a principle coordinate analysis (PCoA and exhibited greater homogeneity in the composition of their gut microbiomes as well as greater alpha diversity as indicated by the Shannon Diversity Index, and measures of richness and evenness. Also in the higher SES group, children born to obese versus non-obese mothers had differences in abundances of Faecalibacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., Oscillibacter spp., and Blautia spp. Prior studies have linked some of these bacterial groups to differences in weight and diet. This study provides novel evidence that maternal obesity is associated with differences in the gut microbiome in children in early life, particularly among those of higher SES. Among obese adults, the relative contribution of genetic versus behavioral factors may differ based on SES. Consequently, the extent to which maternal obesity confers measureable changes to the gut microbiome of offspring may differ based on the etiology of maternal obesity. Continued research is needed to examine this question as well as the relevance of the observed differences in gut microbiome composition for weight trajectory over the life course.

  8. Maternal Obesity Is Associated with Alterations in the Gut Microbiome in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, Jeffrey D.; Bailey, Michael; Kamp Dush, Claire; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Christian, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully delineated. A novel possible pathway linking maternal and child weight is the transmission of obesogenic microbes from mother to child. The current study examined whether maternal obesity was associated with differences in the composition of the gut microbiome in children in early life. Fecal samples from children 18–27 months of age (n = 77) were analyzed by pyro-tag 16S sequencing. Significant effects of maternal obesity on the composition of the gut microbiome of offspring were observed among dyads of higher socioeconomic status (SES). In the higher SES group (n = 47), children of obese (BMI≥30) versus non-obese mothers clustered on a principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) and exhibited greater homogeneity in the composition of their gut microbiomes as well as greater alpha diversity as indicated by the Shannon Diversity Index, and measures of richness and evenness. Also in the higher SES group, children born to obese versus non-obese mothers had differences in abundances of Faecalibacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., Oscillibacter spp., and Blautia spp. Prior studies have linked some of these bacterial groups to differences in weight and diet. This study provides novel evidence that maternal obesity is associated with differences in the gut microbiome in children in early life, particularly among those of higher SES. Among obese adults, the relative contribution of genetic versus behavioral factors may differ based on SES. Consequently, the extent to which maternal obesity confers measureable changes to the gut microbiome of offspring may differ based on the etiology of maternal obesity. Continued research is needed to examine this question as well as the relevance of the observed differences in gut microbiome composition for weight trajectory over the life course. PMID:25409177

  9. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P. Castro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  10. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Natália P; Euclydes, Verônica V; Simões, Fernanda A; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes R A; De Brito, Cyro A; Luzia, Liania A; Devakumar, Delan; Rondó, Patrícia H C

    2017-02-23

    Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R² = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  11. Maternal obesity in early pregnancy and subsequent pregnancy outcome in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanochie, M C; Ande, A B; Olagbuji, B N

    2011-12-01

    Despite a rising prevalence worldwide, there is limited data on pregnancy outcome among African women with prepregnancy or early pregnancy obesity. This was a case-control study to determine the prevalence of maternal obesity in early pregnancy and compare the subsequent pregnancy outcome between 201 women with obesity and 201 non-obese controls in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. The prevalence of obesity in early pregnancy was 9.63%. Obesity was significantly associated with advanced maternal age and parity > or =1. It was also a risk factor for pregnancy induced hypertension, admissions during pregnancy, caesarean delivery and associated with 5th minute apgar score Obesity in early pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome among pregnant Nigerian women. This information should be utilised by physicians to improve the outcome of pregnancy and promote safe motherhood.

  12. Effect of dietary and exercise intervention on the incidence of GDM in women with pre-pregnancy obesity%个体化饮食及运动干预对孕前肥胖孕妇妊娠期糖尿病发病率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小燕; 蒋洁; 张薇; 李雪芬

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨个体化饮食干预对孕前肥胖孕妇妊娠期糖尿病(gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM)发病率的影响. 方法 选择2013年4月~2015年1月在本院门诊建册(孕12周前后)且孕前BMI≥25 kg/m2的孕妇160例,其中2013年4月~2014年1月的80例设为对照组,2014年2月~2015年1月的80例设为研究组. 对照组孕妇12周前后开始接受常规产检和孕期健康教育讲座,研究组孕妇在对照组基础上每周由专科护士进行追踪护理干预,营养师根据孕妇每周BMI、体力消耗情况及胎儿体重增加情况,为孕妇动态制订能量饮食食谱及运动计划. 比较两组孕妇孕期体重增长及GDM发生率. 结果 研究组孕妇孕期体重增长及GDM发生率明显低于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05).结论 孕12周前后为肥胖孕妇制订个体化饮食及运动追踪护理干预,可有效控制孕前肥胖孕妇孕期体重,降低GDM发生率.%Objective To investigate the effect of dietary and exercise on the incidence of GDM in women with pre-pregnancy obesity. Methods One hundred and sixty early pregnant women with BMI≥25 kg/m2 in our hospital from April 2013 to January 2015 enrolled in the study were divided into two groups: The eighty women hospitalized during June 2013 to January 2014 were assigned as the control group, while the other 80 women from February 2014 to January 2015 as the study group. In the former group, the routine pregnancy inspection and pregnancy health education seminars were conduced during pregnancy of 12 weeks , and in the study group weekly nutritional assessment , diet planning by a dietitian and exercise guidance by a professional nurse were performed apart from the same care as in the control group. The two groups were compared in terms of weight growth and GDM incidence. Result The weight increased and the GDM incidence in the study was both significantly lower than those in the control group ( P < 0 . 05

  13. The combined effect of maternal obesity and fetal macrosomia on pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Laura; Wen, Shi Wu; Walker, Mark

    2014-09-01

    To examine the combined effect of macrosomia and maternal obesity on adverse pregnancy outcomes using a retrospective cohort. Infants with a birth weight of ≥ 4000g (macrosomia) were identified from an institutional birth cohort. Demographic characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of macrosomic infants whose mothers were obese were compared with those whose mothers were non-obese. Pregnancies in obese women resulting in macrosomic infants are more likely to be complicated by gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and smoking than pregnancies in non-obese women with macrosomic infants. Mothers whose infants are macrosomic are significantly more likely to require induction of labour (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.98) and delivery by Caesarean section (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.01), particularly for maternal indications (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.47 to 9.34), if they are obese. Finally, macrosomic infants of obese mothers are significantly more likely to require neonatal resuscitation in the form of free flow oxygen (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.42) than macrosomic infants of non-obese mothers. When both maternal obesity and macrosomia are present, adverse pregnancy outcomes are more common than when fetal macrosomia occurs in a woman of normal weight.

  14. Risk factors and outcomes of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Durmuş, Büşra; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age is increasing. We aimed to determine risk factors and maternal, fetal and childhood consequences of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 6959 mothers and their children. The study was based in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (2001-2005). Maternal lower educational level, lower household income, multiparity, and FTO risk allel were associated with an increased risk of maternal obesity, whereas maternal European ethnicity, nulliparity, higher total energy intake, and smoking during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of excessive gestational weight gain (all p-values obesity was associated with increased risks of gestational hypertension (OR 6.31 (95% CI 4.30, 9.26)), preeclampsia (OR (3.61, (95% CI 2.04, 6.39)), gestational diabetes (OR 6.28 (95%CI 3.01, 13.06)), caesarean delivery (OR 1.91 (95% CI 1.46, 2.50)), delivering large size for gestational age infants (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.16, 4.08)), and childhood obesity (OR 5.02 (95% CI:2.97, 8.45)). Weaker associations of excessive gestational weight gain with maternal, fetal and childhood outcomes were observed, with the strongest effects for first trimester weight gain. Our study shows that maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle, and genetic factors and with increased risks of adverse maternal, fetal and childhood outcomes. As compared to prepregnancy overweight and obesity, excessive gestational weight gain has a limited influence on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  15. Dog ownership during pregnancy, maternal activity, and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Liu, Jihong; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andrew R; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M; German, Alexander J; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is an observational study of 14,273 UK pregnant singleton mothers in 1990/1991. We examined outcomes of self report of strenuous activity (hours per week) at 18 and 32 weeks of gestation, hours spent in leisure-time physical activities and types, and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI); overweight status was defined as pre-pregnancy BMI≥25 and obesity BMI≥30. Pet ownership and activity data were reported for 11,466 mothers. Twenty-five percent of mothers owned at least one dog. There was a positive relationship between participation in activity at least once a week and dog ownership (at 18 weeks, Odds ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.44, PDog owners were 50% more likely to achieve the recommended 3 hours activity per week, equivalent to 30 minutes per day, most days of the week (1.53, 1.35-1.72, PDog owners were also more likely to participate in brisk walking activity than those who did not have a dog (compared to no brisk walking 2-6 hrs per week 1.43, 1.23 to 1.67, Pdog ownership and weight status. During the time period studied, pregnant women who had dogs were more active, through walking, than those who did not own dogs. As walking is a low-risk exercise, participation of pregnant women in dog walking activities may be a useful context to investigate as part of a broader strategy to improve activity levels in pregnant women.

  16. Dog ownership during pregnancy, maternal activity, and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carri Westgarth

    Full Text Available The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC is an observational study of 14,273 UK pregnant singleton mothers in 1990/1991. We examined outcomes of self report of strenuous activity (hours per week at 18 and 32 weeks of gestation, hours spent in leisure-time physical activities and types, and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; overweight status was defined as pre-pregnancy BMI≥25 and obesity BMI≥30. Pet ownership and activity data were reported for 11,466 mothers. Twenty-five percent of mothers owned at least one dog. There was a positive relationship between participation in activity at least once a week and dog ownership (at 18 weeks, Odds ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.44, P<0.001. Dog owners were 50% more likely to achieve the recommended 3 hours activity per week, equivalent to 30 minutes per day, most days of the week (1.53, 1.35-1.72, P<0.001. Dog owners were also more likely to participate in brisk walking activity than those who did not have a dog (compared to no brisk walking 2-6 hrs per week 1.43, 1.23 to 1.67, P<0.001; 7+ hrs per week 1.80, 1.43 to 2.27, P<0.001. However, no association was found with any other types of activities and there was no association between dog ownership and weight status. During the time period studied, pregnant women who had dogs were more active, through walking, than those who did not own dogs. As walking is a low-risk exercise, participation of pregnant women in dog walking activities may be a useful context to investigate as part of a broader strategy to improve activity levels in pregnant women.

  17. Maternal obesity is a risk factor for orofacial clefts: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R; Colombo, A; Suazo, J

    2015-10-01

    Orofacial clefts are the most prevalent birth defects that affect craniofacial structures and implicate genetic and environmental factors in their aetiology. Maternal metabolic state and nutrition have been related to these and other structural malformations, and studies of maternal obesity before pregnancy have shown controversial results about its association with the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring. Our aim was to assess the combined effect of several single studies of maternal obesity on the risk of orofacial clefts using meta-analysis. We searched for these reports in the PubMed database, and selected 8 studies that met our criteria for eligibility. As a result of this analysis, and using maternal normal weight as a reference, we found that maternal obesity does increase the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.26). When these clefts are considered separately, maternal obesity is associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.23), and with cleft palate alone (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.35). Our results support the relation between maternal obesity and orofacial clefts, and confirm two previous meta-analyses that considered fewer studies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this statistical evidence have not been fully elucidated.

  18. Maternal employment and childhood obesity in China : evidence from the China health and nutrition survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Peng; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Using five waves from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), we investigate the association between maternal employment and obesity in children aged 3 - 17 in both rural and urban China. Using BMI and waist circumference as measures for pediatric adiposity, we provide scant evidence for its relation to maternal employment. We also find no strong association between maternal employment and our measures for children's diet and physical activity. Our study also suggests that grandparentin...

  19. Is maternal obesity related to semen quality in the male offspring? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Thulstrup, A M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a strong predictor of fecundity and maternal obesity may well program semen quality during pregnancy, but to our knowledge, no published studies have evaluated this hypothesis. METHODS: From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-87, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected...

  20. Childhood Health Consequences of Maternal Obesity during Pregnancy: A Narrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S. Santos (Susana); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.F. Felix (Janine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obesity is a major public health problem among women of reproductive age. In a narrative review, we examined the influence of maternal obesity during pregnancy on fetal outcomes and childhood adiposity, cardio-metabolic, respiratory and cognitive-related health outcomes. We d

  1. Maternal obesity during pregnancy and cardiovascular development and disease in the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMaternal obesity during pregnancy is an important public health problem in Western countries. Currently, obesity prevalence rates in pregnant women are estimated to be as high as 30 %. In addition, approximately 40 % of women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy in Western

  2. Maternal obesity during pregnancy and cardiovascular development and disease in the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMaternal obesity during pregnancy is an important public health problem in Western countries. Currently, obesity prevalence rates in pregnant women are estimated to be as high as 30 %. In addition, approximately 40 % of women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy in Western

  3. Childhood Health Consequences of Maternal Obesity during Pregnancy: A Narrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S. Santos (Susana); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.F. Felix (Janine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obesity is a major public health problem among women of reproductive age. In a narrative review, we examined the influence of maternal obesity during pregnancy on fetal outcomes and childhood adiposity, cardio-metabolic, respiratory and cognitive-related health outcomes. We

  4. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.R. Tyrrell; R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); T.M. Palmer (Tom); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); J. Rangarajan (Janani); S. Metrustry (Sarah); A. Cavadino (Alana); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.L. Armstrong (Loren L.); N.M.G. De Silva (N. Maneka G.); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); F. Geller (Frank); R. Myhre (Ronny); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); I. Huikari (Ille); J.N. Painter (Jodie N.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); C. Allard (Catherine); D. Berry (Diane); L. Bouchard (Luigi); S. Das; D.M. Evans (David); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Heikkinen (Jani); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Knight (Bridget); P.A. Lind (Penelope); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); G. Mcmahon (George); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Melbye (Mads); A.P. Morris (Andrew); M. Nodzenski (Michael); C. Reichetzeder (Christoph); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Sebert (Sylvain); V. Sengpiel (Verena); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Power (Christine); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); H. Bisgaard (Hans); S.F. Grant; C. Nohr (Christian); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); B. Jacobsson (Bo); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey C.); B. Hocher (Berthold); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); G.D. Smith; M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J.F. Felix (Janine); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To test for genetic evide

  5. Maternal diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial activity and redox status in mouse oocytes and zygotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Igosheva

    Full Text Available The negative impact of obesity on reproductive success is well documented but the stages at which development of the conceptus is compromised and the mechanisms responsible for the developmental failure still remain unclear. Recent findings suggest that mitochondria may be a contributing factor. However to date no studies have directly addressed the consequences of maternal obesity on mitochondria in early embryogenesis.Using an established murine model of maternal diet induced obesity and a live cell dynamic fluorescence imaging techniques coupled with molecular biology we have investigated the underlying mechanisms of obesity-induced reduced fertility. Our study is the first to show that maternal obesity prior to conception is associated with altered mitochondria in mouse oocytes and zygotes. Specifically, maternal diet-induced obesity in mice led to an increase in mitochondrial potential, mitochondrial DNA content and biogenesis. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was raised while glutathione was depleted and the redox state became more oxidised, suggestive of oxidative stress. These altered mitochondrial properties were associated with significant developmental impairment as shown by the increased number of obese mothers who failed to support blastocyst formation compared to lean dams. We propose that compromised oocyte and early embryo mitochondrial metabolism, resulting from excessive nutrient exposure prior to and during conception, may underlie poor reproductive outcomes frequently reported in obese women.

  6. Maternal obesity during pregnancy and cardiovascular development and disease in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy is an important public health problem in Western countries. Currently, obesity prevalence rates in pregnant women are estimated to be as high as 30%. In addition, approximately 40% of women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy in Western countries. An accumulating body of evidence suggests a long-term impact of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy on adiposity, cardiovascular and metabolic related health outcomes in the offspring in fetal life, childhood and adulthood. In this review, we discuss results from recent studies, potential underlying mechanisms and challenges for future epidemiological studies.

  7. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...

  8. Childhood consequences of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Felix, Janine F; Duijts, Liesbeth; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern. In western countries, the prevalence of obesity in pregnant women has strongly increased, with reported prevalence rates reaching 30%. Also, up to 40% of women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy. Recent observational studies and meta-analyses strongly suggest long-term impact of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy on adiposity, cardiovascular and respiratory related health outcomes in their children. These observations suggest that maternal adiposity during pregnancy may program common health problems in the offspring. Currently, it remains unclear whether the observed associations are causal, or just reflect confounding by family-based sociodemographic or lifestyle-related factors. Parent-offspring studies, sibling comparison studies, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized trials can help to explore the causality and underlying mechanisms. Also, the potential for prevention of common diseases in future generations by reducing maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy needs to be explored.

  9. Maternal depression and socio-economic status moderate the parenting style/child obesity association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.

  10. Developmental ORIgins of Healthy and Unhealthy AgeiNg: The Role of Maternal Obesity - Introduction to DORIAN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iozzo, Patricia; Holmes, Megan; Schmidt, Mathias V; Cirulli, Francesca; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Berry, Alessandra; Balsevich, Georgia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Liistro, Tiziana; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Eriksson, Johan G; Seckl, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    .... Among conditions which may contribute to establish early risk factors, this review focuses on maternal obesity, since the epidemic of obesity involves an ever growing number of women of reproductive...

  11. Maternal Obesity During Pregnancy Associates With Premature Mortality and Major Cardiovascular Events in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Raja, Edwin A; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2015-11-01

    One in 5 pregnant women is obese but the impact on later health is unknown. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity during pregnancy associates with increased premature mortality and later life major cardiovascular events. Maternity records of women who gave birth to their first child between 1950 and 1976 (n=18 873) from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal databank were linked to the National Register of Deaths, Scotland and Scottish Morbidity Record. The effect of maternal obesity at first antenatal visit on death and hospital admissions for cardiovascular events was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazard regression to compare outcomes of mothers in underweight, overweight, or obese body mass index (BMI) categories compared with normal BMI. Median follow-up was at 73 years. All-cause mortality was increased in women who were obese during pregnancy (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) versus normal BMI after adjustment for socioeconomic status, smoking, gestation at BMI measurement, preeclampsia, and low birth weight (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.77). In adjusted models, overweight and obese mothers had increased risk of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event (1.16; 1.06-1.27 and 1.26; 1.01-1.57) compared with normal BMI mothers. Adjustment for parity largely unchanged the hazard ratios (mortality: 1.43, 1.09-1.88; cardiovascular events overweight: 1.17, 1.07-1.29; and obese: 1.30, 1.04-1.62). In conclusion, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease. Pregnancy and early postpartum could represent an opportunity for interventions to identify obesity and reduce its adverse consequences.

  12. Maternal Obesity and Impaired Fetal and Infant Survival-One More Piece Added to the Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal obesity and increased risks of stillbirth and infant mortality is well documented, but it has often been questioned whether the association is driven by obesity per se or by unmeasured factors such as insulin resistance or genes. In this issue of the Journal, Lindam...... et al. compared the body mass indices (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of women who had stillbirths and infant deaths with those of their sisters or of population controls. Significant excess risks of both outcomes were observed in obese women (body mass index ≥30), and associations were strongest when...... sister controls were used. Although this careful analysis adds to the existing evidence of a causal relationship between maternal obesity and impaired fetal and infant survival, a biological pathway has not yet been established. Additionally, we are in urgent need of effective tools to reduce obesity...

  13. Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long T; Chen, Hui; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a complex metabolic disease, attributed to diverse and interactive genetic and environmental factors. The associated health consequences of obesity are pleiotropic, with individuals being more susceptible to chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and lipotoxicity-related chronic diseases. The contribution of maternal obesity to the offspring's predisposition to both obesity and its complications is increasingly recognized. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these "transmissible" effects is critical to develop therapeutic interventions to reduce the risk for "programmed" obesity. Sirtuins (SIRTs), particularly SIRT1 and SIRT3, are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that regulate metabolic balance and stress responses in both central and peripheral tissues, of which dysregulation is a well-established mediator for the development and effects of obesity. Nevertheless, their implication in the transmissible effects of maternal obesity across generations remains largely elusive. In this review, we examine multiple pathways and systems that are likely to mediate such effects, with particular emphasis on the role of SIRTs.-Nguyen, L. T., Chen, H., Pollock, C. A., Saad, S. Sirtuins-mediators of maternal obesity-induced complications in offspring?

  14. Maternal Obesity: A Global Health Problem and It's Implications on Maternal and Fetal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Hashmi

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Obese women are at increased risk of pregnancy induced obesity and associated with an increased risk of hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic disease and urinary tract infection.

  15. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Donath, Susan

    2007-07-04

    Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman's decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and breastfeeding intention and initiation and duration. A systematic review was conducted in January and February 2007, using the following databases: Medline, CINAHL and the Australian Breastfeeding Association's Lactation Resource Centre. Studies which have examined maternal obesity and infant feeding intention, initiation, duration and delayed onset of lactation were tabulated and summarised. Studies have found that obese women plan to breastfeed for a shorter period than normal weight women and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Of the four studies that examined onset of lactation, three reported a significant relationship between obesity and delayed lactogenesis. Fifteen studies, conducted in the USA, Australia, Denmark, Kuwait and Russia, have examined maternal obesity and duration of breastfeeding. The majority of large studies found that obese women breastfed for a shorter duration than normal weight women, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors. There is evidence from epidemiological studies that overweight and obese women are less likely to breastfeed than normal weight women. The reasons may be biological or they may be psychological, behavioral and/or cultural. We urgently need qualitative studies from women's perspective to help us understand women in this situation and their infant feeding decisions and behaviour.

  16. A systematic review of maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Susan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding behaviour is multifactorial, and a wide range of socio-cultural and physiological variables impact on a woman's decision and ability to breastfeed successfully. An association has been reported between maternal obesity and low breastfeeding rates. This is of public health concern because obesity is rising in women of reproductive age and the apparent association with increased artificial feeding will lead to a greater risk of obesity in children. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and breastfeeding intention and initiation and duration. Methods A systematic review was conducted in January and February 2007, using the following databases: Medline, CINAHL and the Australian Breastfeeding Association's Lactation Resource Centre. Studies which have examined maternal obesity and infant feeding intention, initiation, duration and delayed onset of lactation were tabulated and summarised. Results Studies have found that obese women plan to breastfeed for a shorter period than normal weight women and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Of the four studies that examined onset of lactation, three reported a significant relationship between obesity and delayed lactogenesis. Fifteen studies, conducted in the USA, Australia, Denmark, Kuwait and Russia, have examined maternal obesity and duration of breastfeeding. The majority of large studies found that obese women breastfed for a shorter duration than normal weight women, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion There is evidence from epidemiological studies that overweight and obese women are less likely to breastfeed than normal weight women. The reasons may be biological or they may be psychological, behavioral and/or cultural. We urgently need qualitative studies from women's perspective to help us understand women in this situation and their infant feeding decisions and behaviour.

  17. Does pre-pregnancy BMI determine blood pressure during pregnancy? : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I; Zuithoff, Peter; Browne, Joyce L; Amelia, Dwirani; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) determines blood pressure throughout pregnancy and to explore the role of gestational weight gain in this association. In addition, the effects of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on the occurrence of gestational hypertensio

  18. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Michelle Rivera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, and cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption display impairments in hyperactivity, social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose, hormones (leptin, insulin, and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor. Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavioral are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions.

  19. The role of maternal obesity in the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M; Christiansen, Kelly J; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that perinatal exposure to maternal obesity, metabolic disease, including diabetes and hypertension, and unhealthy maternal diet has a long-term impact on offspring behavior and physiology. During the past three decades, the prevalence of both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders has rapidly increased. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence that maternal obesity and metabolic complications increase the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders (food addiction, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa), and impairments in cognition in offspring. Animal models of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity also document persistent changes in offspring behavior and impairments in critical neural circuitry. Animals exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption display hyperactivity, impairments in social behavior, increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, substance addiction, food addiction, and diminished cognition. During development, these offspring are exposed to elevated levels of nutrients (fatty acids, glucose), hormones (leptin, insulin), and inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin, and tumor necrosis factor). Such factors appear to permanently change neuroendocrine regulation and brain development in offspring. In addition, inflammation of the offspring brain during gestation impairs the development of neural pathways critical in the regulation of behavior, such as serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and melanocortinergic systems. Dysregulation of these circuits increases the risk of mental health disorders. Given the high rates of obesity in most developed nations, it is critical that the mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring behavior are thoroughly characterized. Such knowledge will be critical in the development of preventative strategies and therapeutic interventions.

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes and Provider Advice by Pre-Pregnancy Weight Status: A Qualitative Study of Pregnant Latinas With Excessive Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L; Arroyo, Julie; Druker, Susan; Sankey, Heather Z; Rosal, Milagros C

    2015-01-01

    Latina women are at high risk of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy; yet little is known about whether factors related to GWG differ by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) within this population. We conducted in-depth interviews with 62 pregnant Latina women with pre-pregnancy BMIs in the healthy, overweight, and obese ranges, gestational age ≥22 weeks, and GWG for gestational age above Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Compared to healthy weight and obese women, overweight women least often reported viewing weight as important, making efforts to control their GWG, being aware of the role of diet on GWG, and receiving GWG advice from health-care providers. Among those who received GWG advice, overweight women more often recalled a target GWG above IOM guidelines. Obese women more often reported low acceptance of their GWG, concern about GWG, having received GWG advice from providers, difficulty following providers' dietary advice, and emotional eating as a challenge for controlling GWG. Participants welcomed practical advice to manage GWG. Future interventions to prevent excessive GWG among Latina women should consider differences among women of varying pre-pregnancy BMIs and include multi-level strategies to address psychosocial as well as provider factors.

  1. Effects of maternal obesity on early and long-term outcomes for offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirrat LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Laura I Stirrat,1,2 Rebecca M Reynolds2,3 1Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Tommy's Centre for Maternal and Fetal Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 3Endocrinology Unit, University/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The prevalence of maternal obesity has increased significantly in recent years, and obesity is currently the most common comorbidity of pregnancy. Pregnancies of obese women are often defined as "high-risk" for the purposes of clinical care, with many well documented risks to the mother and developing baby. Maternal physiology and metabolism is dysregulated in the context of obesity, which may contribute to some of the adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Furthermore, maternal obesity has been hypothesized to cause harmful effects for the developing baby through "early life programming." This review will examine evidence from human studies for outcomes of offspring from obese women during pregnancy, during labor, during the neonatal period, and later in life. Keywords: pregnancy, short-term, physiology, metabolism, early life programming, neonatal complications, adverse intrauterine environment

  2. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation.

  3. Omentin-1 is decreased in maternal plasma, placenta and adipose tissue of women with pre-existing obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Barker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine (i the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on (i the circulating levels of omentin-1 in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii gene expression and release of omentin-1 from human placenta and adipose tissue. The effect of pregnancy on circulating omentin-1 levels was also determined. DESIGN: Omentin-1 levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma from obese and non-obese normal glucose tolerant women (NGT; n = 44 and women with GDM (n = 39 at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Placenta and adipose tissue expression and release of omentin-1 was measured from 22 NGT and 22 GDM women collected at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Omentin-1 levels were also measured in maternal plasma from 13 NGT women at 11 and 28 weeks gestation and 7 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Maternal obesity was associated with significantly lower omentin-1 levels in maternal plasma; however, there was no effect of maternal obesity on cord omentin levels. Omentin-1 gene expression was lower in placenta and adipose tissue obtained from women with pre-existing obesity. In addition to this, adipose tissue release of omentin-1 was significantly lower from obese pregnant women. Omentin-1 levels were significantly lower in non-obese GDM compared to non-obese NGT women. However, there was no difference in omentin-1 levels between obese NGT and obese GDM women. There was no effect of GDM on cord omentin levels, and placental and adipose tissue omentin-1 expression. Maternal omentin-1 levels were negatively correlated with fetal birthweight and fetal ponderal index. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this study demonstrate that pre-existing maternal obesity is associated with lower omentin-1 expression in placenta, adipose tissue and maternal plasma. Alteration in omentin-1 in pregnancy may influence the development of metabolic disorders in offspring later in life.

  4. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence...... of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies...... were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. EXPOSURES: Genetic scores for BMI...

  5. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sally M; Middleton, Philippa; Cossich, Mary C; Crowther, Caroline A; Bain, Emily

    2013-05-31

    Over the last decade there has been enhanced awareness of the appreciable morbidity of thyroid dysfunction, particularly thyroid deficiency. Since treating clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism may reduce adverse obstetric outcomes, it is crucial to identify which interventions are safe and effective. To identify interventions used in the management of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy and to ascertain the impact of these interventions on important maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared a pharmacological intervention for hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy or during pregnancy with another intervention or placebo. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted the data. We included four RCTs of moderate risk of bias involving 362 women. In one trial of 115 women, levothyroxine therapy to treat pregnant euthyroid (normal thyroid function) women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies was not shown to reduce pre-eclampsia significantly (risk ratio (RR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 3.48) but did significantly reduce preterm birth by 72% (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.80). Two trials of 30 and 48 hypothyroid women respectively compared levothyroxine doses, but both trials reported only biochemical outcomes. A trial of 169 women compared the trace element selenomethionine (selenium) with placebo and no significant differences were seen for either pre-eclampsia (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 8.38) or preterm birth (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.20 to 4.61). None of the four trials reported on childhood neurodevelopmental delay.There was a non-significant trend towards fewer miscarriages with levothyroxine, and selenium showed some favourable impact on postpartum thyroid function and a decreased

  6. Maternal obesity and high-fat diet program offspring metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mina; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Beall, Marie; Lane, Robert H; Ross, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    We determined the potential programming effects of maternal obesity and high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and/or lactation on offspring metabolic syndrome. A rat model of maternal obesity was created using an HF diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, thereby generating 4 paradigms of maternal diets during pregnancy/lactation: (1) control (Con) diet during pregnancy and lactation (Con/Con), (2) HF during pregnancy and lactation (HF/HF), (3) HF during pregnancy alone (HF/Con), and (4) HF during lactation alone (Con/HF). Maternal phenotype during pregnancy and the end of lactation evidenced markedly elevated body fat and plasma corticosterone levels in HF dams. In the offspring, the maternal HF diet during pregnancy alone programmed increased offspring adiposity, although with normal body weight, whereas the maternal HF diet during lactation increased both body weight and adiposity. Metabolic disturbances, particularly that of hyperglycemia, were apparent in all groups exposed to the maternal HF diet (during pregnancy and/or lactation), although differences were apparent in the manifestation of insulin resistant vs insulin-deficient phenotypes. Elevated systolic blood pressure was manifest in all groups, implying that exposure to an obese/HF environment is disadvantageous for offspring health, regardless of pregnancy or lactation periods. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism may differ because offspring that experienced in utero HF exposure had increased corticosterone levels. Maternal obesity/HF diet has a marked impact on offspring body composition and the risk of metabolic syndrome was dependent on the period of exposure during pregnancy and/or lactation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal and Fetal Lipid and Adipokine Profiles and Their Association with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solis-Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal metabolic changes impact fetal metabolism resulting in a higher risk for developing chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal and fetal adipokine and lipid profiles, as well as the influence of maternal weight on this association. Methods. Healthy pregnant women at term who delivered by C-section were enrolled. Maternal and fetal glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed by obesity and maternal weight gain. Statistics included descriptives, correlations, and mean differences (SPSS v20.0. Results. Adiponectin and resistin concentrations were higher in fetal blood, while leptin was lower (p<0.05. A significant inverse association between maternal resistin and fetal LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C (r=-0.327; p=0.022 was observed. A positive correlation was found between maternal and fetal resistin (r=0.358; p=0.013. Women with excessive weight gain had higher leptin levels and their fetuses showed higher LDL-C levels (p<0.05. Conclusions. Maternal resistin showed an inverse association with fetal LDL-C, suggesting that maternal adiposity status may play an active role in the regulation of fetal lipid profile and consequently, in fetal programming. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy may exert an effect over metabolic mediators in both mother and newborn.

  8. Association of Intrauterine Exposure to Maternal Diabetes and Obesity With Type 2 Diabetes in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Dabelea, Dana; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Liese, Angela D.; Vehik, Kendra S.; NARAYAN, K.M. VENKAT; Zeitler, Phillip; Hamman, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Limited data exist on the association between in utero exposure to maternal diabetes and obesity and type 2 diabetes in diverse youth. These associations were explored in African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white youth participating in the SEARCH Case-Control Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 79 youth with type 2 diabetes and 190 nondiabetic control youth aged 10–22 years attended a research visit. In utero exposures to maternal diabetes and obesity were recalle...

  9. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2016-01-01

    obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial......The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...

  10. Maternal obesity has little effect on the immediate offspring but impacts on the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Vicky; Dakin, Rachel S; Liu, Lincoln; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Walker, Brian R; Seckl, Jonathan R; Norman, Jane E; Drake, Amanda J

    2013-07-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the offspring, a phenomenon attributed to developmental programming. Programming effects may be transmissible across generations through both maternal and paternal inheritance, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Using a mouse model, we explored the effects of moderate maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) on weight gain and glucose-insulin homeostasis in first-generation (F1) and second-generation offspring. DIO was associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia before pregnancy. Birth weight was reduced in female offspring of DIO mothers (by 6%, P = .039), and DIO offspring were heavier than controls at weaning (males by 47%, females by 27%), however there were no differences in glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, or hepatic gene expression at 6 months. Despite the relative lack of effects in the F1, we found clear fetal growth restriction and persistent metabolic changes in otherwise unmanipulated second-generation offspring with effects on birth weight, insulin levels, and hepatic gene expression that were transmitted through both maternal and paternal lines. This suggests that the consequences of the current dietary obesity epidemic may also have an impact on the descendants of obese individuals, even when the phenotype of the F1 appears largely unaffected.

  11. A pilot study on the prevalence of maternal obesity in selected Greek counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Pritsa, Agathi A; Badeka, Sophia; Aggelaki, Irini; Giantsiou, Ioanna; Houta, Assimina; Zeibekoglou, Vasiliki; Kyriazi, Maria; Papanastasiou, Polykseni; Perdiki, Eleni; Gkipatidou, Despoina; Tsigga, Maria

    2013-11-01

    To report a pilot prevalence of maternal overweight, obesity and underweight in selected Greek counties. A total of 441 adult childbearing women were recruited from maternity clinics in 6 Greek counties for this cross-sectional study. Pre-gravid weight status was defined according to the WHO cut-offs and gravid weight status was diagnosed with the Mardones and Rosso weight gain chart. During gestation the majority of the participants were of normal body weight (BW) (34.0%), obesity was apparent in 25.6% of the sample, 23.8% of the participants were underweight, and the remaining 16.6% were overweight. Overall, pregnancy tripled the prevalence of underweight, increased the prevalence of obesity (by 388.0%) and decreased the number of participants in the normal BW category (p≤0.001 for all). The majority of participants classified in each pre-gravid weight-category remained in the same weight category during their gestation. All the pre-gravidly obese women were also obese during pregnancy. Underweight was more prevalent in Kavala (37.5%) and obesity was more frequent in Thessaloniki (30.8%). Women who were overweight prior to conception were highly likely to be overweight/obese during pregnancy (OR: 23.8, CI: 11.1-51.0). The results indicate a high prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among pregnant women in Greece. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Breastfeeding initiation: impact of obesity in a large Canadian perinatal cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Verret-Chalifour

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate incidence of breastfeeding initiation according to maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI in "Grossesse en Santé", a large prospective birth cohort in Quebec City. METHODS: Breastfeeding initiation in the post-partum period, pre-pregnancy BMI, sociodemographic determinants and obstetrical and neonatal factors were collected from years 2005 to 2010 in 6592 women with single pregnancies. Prenatal non-intention to breastfeed was documented in a subgroup of the cohort (years 2009-2010. Log-binomial regression analyses were performed to assess relative risk (RR of non-initiation of breastfeeding between maternal BMI categories in models including pre- and post-natal determinants, after exclusion of variables with a mediating effect. RESULTS: Twenty percent (20% of obese women did not initiate breastfeeding in the post-natal period at hospital compared to 12% for normal weight women. Compared with those having a normal pre-pregnancy BMI, obese women had a higher risk of non-initiation of breastfeeding (RRunadj 1.69, 95% CI 1.44-1.98, even after adjustment for prenatal and sociodemographic factors (RRadj 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46. Furthermore, the risk of non-initiation of breastfeeding in obese women still remained higher after introduction of per- and post-natal factors (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.42. The prenatal non-intention to breastfeed was strongly associated with the non-initiation of breastfeeding for all categories of BMI. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity is associated with a two-fold rate of non-initiation of breastfeeding. Considering the benefits of breastfeeding and the increasing obesity rate, adapted interventions and specialized support should target both pre- and immediate post-natal periods in this population.

  13. Improved maternal nutrition decreases children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Improved maternal nutrition to decrease children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity The nutritional well-being of pregnant women affects not only their health and their fetuses' development but also children's long-term risk of developing NCDs or obesity, according...... been recognized for decades, the report offers a systematized review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition and obesity and NCD prevention. The findings confirm that a mother's nutritional status – including overweight and obesity, excessive gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes...... – affects not only her child's health as an infant but also the child's risk of obesity and related chronic diseases as an adult. In short, maternal nutrition can truly have an intergenerational impact. Fighting NCDs and obesity through measures to improve maternal nutrition: NCDs are the leading cause...

  14. Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-05-01

    The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.

  15. Early hypothalamic FTO overexpression in response to maternal obesity--potential contribution to postweaning hyperphagia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanni Caruso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition program hyperphagia, adiposity and glucose intolerance in offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene have been linked to increased risk of obesity. FTO is highly expressed in hypothalamic regions critical for energy balance and hyperphagic phenotypes were linked with FTO SNPs. As nutrition during fetal development can influence the expression of genes involved in metabolic function, we investigated the impact of maternal obesity on FTO. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or high fat diet (HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1 (PND1, some litters were adjusted to 3 pups (vs. 12 control to induce postnatal overnutrition. At PND20, rats were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. FTO mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and liver, as well as hepatic markers of lipid metabolism were measured. RESULTS: At weaning, hypothalamic FTO mRNA expression was increased significantly in offspring of obese mothers and FTO was correlated with both visceral and epididymal fat mass (P<0.05; body weight approached significance (P = 0.07. Hepatic FTO and Fatty Acid Synthase mRNA expression were decreased by maternal obesity. At 18 weeks, FTO mRNA expression did not differ between groups; however body weight was significantly correlated with hypothalamic FTO. Postnatal HFD feeding significantly reduced hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1a but did not affect the expression of other hepatic markers investigated. FTO was not affected by chronic HFD feeding. SIGNIFICANCE: Maternal obesity significantly impacted FTO expression in both hypothalamus and liver at weaning. Early overexpression of hypothalamic FTO correlated with increased adiposity and later food intake of siblings exposed to HFD suggesting upregulation of FTO may contribute to subsequent hyperphagia, in line with some human

  16. Maternal obesity during gestation impairs fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial SIRT3 expression in rat offspring at weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring’s risk of obesity in later life. We have also previously reported that offspring of obese rat dams develop hepatic steatosis, mild hyperinsulinemia, and a lipogenic gene signature in the liver at postnatal day (PND) 21. In the current s...

  17. Maternal obesity reduces oxidative capacity in fetal skeletal muscle of Japanese macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Carrie E.; Hetrick, Byron; Houck, Julie; Drew, Brian G.; Kaye, Spencer; Lashbrook, Melanie; Bergman, Bryan C.; Takahashi, Diana L.; Dean, Tyler A.; Gertsman, Ilya; Hansen, Kirk C.; Philp, Andrew; Hevener, Andrea L.; Chicco, Adam J.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.; Grove, Kevin L.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is proposed to alter the programming of metabolic systems in the offspring, increasing the risk for developing metabolic diseases; however, the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of a maternal Western-style diet (WSD) alone, or in combination with obesity (Ob/WSD), on fetal skeletal muscle metabolism studied in the early third trimester. We find that fetal muscle responds to Ob/WSD by upregulating fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial complex activity, and metabolic switches (CPT-1, PDK4) that promote lipid utilization over glucose oxidation. Ob/WSD fetuses also had reduced mitochondrial content, diminished oxidative capacity, and lower mitochondrial efficiency in muscle. The decrease in oxidative capacity and glucose metabolism was persistent in primary myotubes from Ob/WSD fetuses despite no additional lipid-induced stress. Switching obese mothers to a healthy diet prior to pregnancy did not improve fetal muscle mitochondrial function. Lastly, while maternal WSD alone led only to intermediary changes in fetal muscle metabolism, it was sufficient to increase oxidative damage and cellular stress. Our findings suggest that maternal obesity or WSD, alone or in combination, leads to programmed decreases in oxidative metabolism in offspring muscle. These alterations may have important implications for future health. PMID:27734025

  18. Maternal Obesity and Occurrence of Fetal Macrosomia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Laura; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine a precise estimate for the contribution of maternal obesity to macrosomia. Data Sources. The search strategy included database searches in 2011 of PubMed, Medline (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid Medline, 1950–2011), and EMBASE Classic + EMBASE. Appropriate search terms were used for each database. Reference lists of retrieved articles and review articles were cross-referenced. Methods of Study Selection. All studies that examined the relationship between maternal obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) (pregravid or at 1st prenatal visit) and fetal macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g, ≥4500 g, or ≥90th percentile) were considered for inclusion. Tabulation, Integration, and Results. Data regarding the outcomes of interest and study quality were independently extracted by two reviewers. Results from the meta-analysis showed that maternal obesity is associated with fetal overgrowth, defined as birth weight ≥ 4000 g (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.92, 2.45), birth weight ≥4500 g (OR 2.77,95% CI 2.22, 3.45), and birth weight ≥90% ile for gestational age (OR 2.42, 95% CI 2.16, 2.72). Conclusion. Maternal obesity appears to play a significant role in the development of fetal overgrowth. There is a critical need for effective personal and public health initiatives designed to decrease prepregnancy weight and optimize gestational weight gain. PMID:25544943

  19. Maternal Obesity and Occurrence of Fetal Macrosomia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gaudet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine a precise estimate for the contribution of maternal obesity to macrosomia. Data Sources. The search strategy included database searches in 2011 of PubMed, Medline (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid Medline, 1950–2011, and EMBASE Classic + EMBASE. Appropriate search terms were used for each database. Reference lists of retrieved articles and review articles were cross-referenced. Methods of Study Selection. All studies that examined the relationship between maternal obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (pregravid or at 1st prenatal visit and fetal macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g, ≥4500 g, or ≥90th percentile were considered for inclusion. Tabulation, Integration, and Results. Data regarding the outcomes of interest and study quality were independently extracted by two reviewers. Results from the meta-analysis showed that maternal obesity is associated with fetal overgrowth, defined as birth weight ≥ 4000 g (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.92, 2.45, birth weight ≥4500 g (OR 2.77,95% CI 2.22, 3.45, and birth weight ≥90% ile for gestational age (OR 2.42, 95% CI 2.16, 2.72. Conclusion. Maternal obesity appears to play a significant role in the development of fetal overgrowth. There is a critical need for effective personal and public health initiatives designed to decrease prepregnancy weight and optimize gestational weight gain.

  20. Maternal obesity programs senescence signaling and glucose metabolism in osteo-progenitors from rat and human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases, presumably via epigenetic mechanisms. However, evidence on the impact of gestational events on regulation of embryonic bone cell fate is sparse. We investigated the effects of maternal obesity on fe...

  1. Effect of diet-induced maternal obesity on fetal skeletal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maternal environment, in particular nutritional status and diet composition during pregnancy, can alter the developmental trajectory of the fetus and change the risk for chronic disease processes such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer in the offspring. This knowledge suppor...

  2. Persistent influence of maternal obesity on offspring health: Mechanisms from animal models and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Umesh D; Thakali, Keshari M; Shankar, Kartik

    2016-11-05

    The consequences of excessive maternal weight and adiposity at conception for the offspring are now well recognized. Maternal obesity increases the risk of overweight and obesity even in children born with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) birth weights. Studies in animal models have employed both caloric excess and manipulation of macronutrients (especially high-fat) to mimic hypercaloric intake present in obesity. Findings from these studies show transmission of susceptibility to obesity, metabolic dysfunction, alterations in glucose homeostasis, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle metabolism and neuroendocrine changes in the offspring. This review summarizes the essential literature in this area in both experimental and clinical domains and focuses on the translatable aspects of these experimental studies. Moreover this review highlights emerging mechanisms broadly explaining maternal obesity-associated developmental programming. The roles of early developmental alterations and placental adaptations are also reviewed. Increasing evidence also points to changes in the epigenome and other emerging mechanisms such as alterations in the microbiome that may contribute to persistent changes in the offspring. Finally, we examine potential interventions that have been employed in clinical cohorts.

  3. Interventions to prevent adverse fetal programming due to maternal obesity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P; Long, Nathan M; Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena

    2013-10-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely programs the development of offspring, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects. There is a consequent need for effective interventions that can be used in the management of human pregnancy to prevent these outcomes. The present review analyzes the dietary and exercise intervention studies performed to date in both altricial and precocial animals, rats and sheep, with the aim of preventing adverse offspring outcomes. The results of these interventions present exciting opportunities to prevent, at least in part, adverse metabolic and other outcomes in obese mothers and their offspring.

  4. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...

  5. Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Healthy Pre-Pregnancy Diet and Exercise May Reduce Risk of Gestational Diabetes Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content ​NICHD Studies May ...

  6. Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk But, study found overall odds remain quite ... slight increased risk of having a baby with cerebral palsy, a new study suggests. After reviewing data from ...

  7. Childhood cardiometabolic outcomes of maternal obesity during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Steegers, Eric A P; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with impaired cardiometabolic health in offspring. Whether these associations reflect direct intrauterine causal mechanisms remains unclear. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4871 mothers, fathers, and their children, we examined the associations of both maternal and paternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with childhood body fat distribution and cardiometabolic outcomes and explored whether any association was explained by pregnancy, birth, and childhood factors. We measured childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood levels of lipids, insulin, and C-peptide at the age of 6 years. We observed that higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with higher childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat mass measures, systolic blood pressure, and insulin levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (Peffect estimates for these outcomes were observed for paternal obesity. In conclusion, higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile in offspring, with stronger associations present for maternal prepregnancy BMI. These findings suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI may influence the cardiometabolic health of offspring through direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  8. Depot- and sex-specific effects of maternal obesity in offspring's adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Simon; Deracinois, Barbara; Laborie, Christine; Eberlé, Delphine; Guinez, Céline; Panchenko, Polina E; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne; Breton, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, alterations of nutrient supply in the fetus or neonate result in long-term programming of individual body weight (BW) setpoint. In particular, maternal obesity, excessive nutrition, and accelerated growth in neonates have been shown to sensitize offspring to obesity. The white adipose tissue may represent a prime target of metabolic programming induced by maternal obesity. In order to unravel the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a rat model of maternal obesity using a high-fat (HF) diet (containing 60% lipids) before and during gestation and lactation. At birth, newborns from obese dams (called HF) were normotrophs. However, HF neonates exhibited a rapid weight gain during lactation, a key period of adipose tissue development in rodents. In males, increased BW at weaning (+30%) persists until 3months of age. Nine-month-old HF male offspring was normoglycemic but showed mild glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercorticosteronemia. Despite no difference in BW and energy intake, HF adult male offspring was predisposed to fat accumulation showing increased visceral (gonadal and perirenal) depots weights and hyperleptinemia. However, only perirenal adipose tissue depot exhibited marked adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia with elevated lipogenic (i.e. sterol-regulated element binding protein 1 (Srebp1), fatty acid synthase (Fas), and leptin) and diminished adipogenic (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-Hds1)) mRNA levels. By contrast, very few metabolic variations were observed in HF female offspring. Thus, maternal obesity and accelerated growth during lactation program offspring for higher adiposity via transcriptional alterations of visceral adipose tissue in a depot- and sex-specific manner. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Maternal obesity disrupts circadian rhythms of clock and metabolic genes in the offspring heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danfeng; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Mei; Liu, Chang

    2015-06-01

    Early life nutritional adversity is tightly associated with the development of long-term metabolic disorders. Particularly, maternal obesity and high-fat diets cause high risk of obesity in the offspring. Those offspring are also prone to develop hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis and cardiovascular diseases. However, the precise underlying mechanisms leading to these metabolic dysregulation in the offspring remain unclear. On the other hand, disruptions of diurnal circadian rhythms are known to impair metabolic homeostasis in various tissues including the heart and liver. Therefore, we investigated that whether maternal obesity perturbs the circadian expression rhythms of clock, metabolic and inflammatory genes in offspring heart and liver by using RT-qPCR and Western blotting analysis. Offspring from lean and obese dams were examined on postnatal day 17 and 35, when pups were nursed by their mothers or took food independently. On P17, genes examined in the heart either showed anti-phase oscillations (Cpt1b, Pparα, Per2) or had greater oscillation amplitudes (Bmal1, Tnf-α, Il-6). Such phase abnormalities of these genes were improved on P35, while defects in amplitudes still existed. In the liver of 17-day-old pups exposed to maternal obesity, the oscillation amplitudes of most rhythmic genes examined (except Bmal1) were strongly suppressed. On P35, the oscillations of circadian and inflammatory genes became more robust in the liver, while metabolic genes were still kept non-rhythmic. Maternal obesity also had a profound influence in the protein expression levels of examined genes in offspring heart and liver. Our observations indicate that the circadian clock undergoes nutritional programing, which may contribute to the alternations in energy metabolism associated with the development of metabolic disorders in early life and adulthood.

  10. A longitudinal study on emotional dysregulation and obesity risk: From pregnancy to 3 years of age of the baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campora, Gaia; Larciprete, Giovanni; Delogu, Anna Maria; Meldolesi, Cristina; Giromini, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Some recent findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and emotional regulation may play a key role in predicting the risk for obesity of the child in early ages. The current article describes a longitudinal study encompassing more than 50 women, across a time-span that currently goes from pregnancy (n = 65) to three years of age of the baby (n = 53). In a previous report on our ongoing research project, we showed that emotional regulation during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted the quality of the early, dyadic feeding interactions, at 7 months of age of the baby. The current study confirmed and extended those findings, by showing that maternal emotional dysregulation (r = .355, p = .009) and pre-pregnancy BMI (r = .389, p = .004) predicted the BMI of the child at three years of age too, with a medium to large effect size. However, neither maternal emotional regulation nor pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted infant attachment at one year of age.

  11. Dose-response associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and subsequent childhood obesity: effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity in a low-income US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Andrea J; Cogswell, Mary E; Li, Ruowei

    2008-11-01

    Studies suggest that children exposed to cigarette smoke in utero are at risk of becoming obese. Few researchers have evaluated the dose-response association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity or whether this association varies by maternal race/ethnicity. The authors obtained retrospective cohort data by linking records from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System and the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System on 155,411 low-income children born during 1995-2001 in 9 US states and 2 tribal nations. The authors examined maternal smoking status, duration of smoking, quantity of smoking, and both duration and quantity combined. Childhood obesity was based on a body mass index greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for sex and age, assessed at age 2-4 years. Maternal race/ethnicity modified the association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity. Among non-Hispanic White mothers, both duration and quantity of smoking were positively associated with childhood obesity in a dose-response manner. Among non-Hispanic Black mothers, only heavy smoking was positively associated with childhood obesity. Among Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and Asians/Pacific Islanders, smoking was not associated with childhood obesity. The inconsistent association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity across race/ethnicity categories merits further investigation into potential explanations for this variation, which may include confounding, reporting bias, or unexplored biologic mechanisms.

  12. Omentin-1 Is Decreased in Maternal Plasma, Placenta and Adipose Tissue of Women with Pre-Existing Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine (i) the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on (i) the circulating levels of omentin-1 in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii) gene expression and release of omentin-1 from human placenta and adipose tissue. The effect of pregnancy on circulating omentin-1 levels was also determined. DESIGN: Omentin-1 levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma from obese and non-obese normal glucose tolerant women (NGT; n = 4...

  13. Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and overweight and obesity in offspring: a study in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y L; Ma, R M; Lao, T T; Chen, Z; Du, M Y; Liang, K; Huang, Y K; Zhang, L; Yang, M H; Sun, Y H; Li, H; Ding, Z B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breast feeding on childhood overweight and obesity in a mainland Chinese population. The incidence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity were compared between children of mothers with (n=1068) and without (n=1756) GDM. The independent roles of the associated factors were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of overweight was higher (16.6 v. 12.6%, P=0.002) in the GDM group, but that of obesity was not different (10.7 v. 12.0%, P=0.315). At age 1-2 and 2-5 years, no difference in overweight (11.0 v. 12.0%, P=0.917, and 15.7 v. 14.6%, P=0.693, respectively) was found, while obesity (8.0 v. 13.6%, P=0.019, and 8.4 v. 13.4%, P=0.014, respectively) was less frequent in the GDM offspring. At age 5-10 years, increased overweight (22.2 v. 12.1%, Pobesity (15.9 v. 9.0%, P=0.001) were found in the GDM group, which was associated with maternal obesity, being born large-for-gestational age, male gender and formula feeding. After adjusting for confounding factors, GDM remained an independent determinant of offspring overweight and obesity (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.61-3.22), suggesting that the effects of GDM were independent of breast feeding, as well as of maternal obesity and birth size.

  14. Unhealthy maternal lifestyle leads to rapid infant weight gain: prevention of future chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Mari; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    Infants' rapid (catch-up) weight gain is associated with later obesity and chronic adult diseases. The aim of this study was to determine maternal and environmental factors related to rapid weight gain at one month and 18 months after full-term birth in Japan. Subjects were 1,524 infants and their mothers who visited the 18-month check-up in Niigata City between October 1, 2007 and September 30, 2008. An anonymous questionnaire elicited information on the infant's weight (at birth, 1 month, and 18 months), sex, feeding method, presence of food allergy, gestational age, and caregiver. Mother's information was height, pre-pregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain, age at delivery, pregnancy toxicosis, number of daily meals during pregnancy, smoking and drinking habits. Some questionnaire items were obtained from a maternal and child health handbook. Independence of predictors for rapid weight gain (vs. slow or average weight gain), i.e. a score gain of 0.67 SD, during the first month and first 18 months was tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. In the first month, having a meal once or twice daily during pregnancy (P = 0.0016) and daily smoking in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.0175) were associated with rapid weight gain. In the first 18 months, use of daycare (P = 0.0083) and daily drinking in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.0130) were associated with rapid weight gain. We conclude that mother's pre-pregnancy smoking and drinking, dieting during pregnancy, and infant daycare attendance lead to rapid infant weight gain. Controlling these factors may prevent future chronic adult lifestyle-related diseases.

  15. Maternal adiposity prior to pregnancy is associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring: evidence from three prospective pregnancy cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, A; Miettunen, J.; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2007-01-01

    pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and a high ADHD symptom score in offspring, ORs ranged between 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.75) and 1.89 (95% CI: 1.13, 3.15) adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, weight gain, pregnancy smoking, maternal age, maternal education, child gender, family structure...... and cohort country of origin. Children of women who were both overweight and gained a large amount of weight during gestation had a 2-fold risk of ADHD symptoms (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.19, 3.72) compared to normal-weight women.Conclusions:We show for the first time that pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with ADHD......Objectives:We examine whether pregnancy weight (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or weight gain) is related to core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school-age offspring.Design:Follow-up of prospective pregnancy cohorts from Sweden, Denmark and Finland within...

  16. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Yang

    Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to

  17. Toddlers' bias to look at average versus obese figures relates to maternal anti-fat prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; O'Brien, Kerry S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Latner, Janet D; Hunter, John A

    2016-02-01

    Anti-fat prejudice (weight bias, obesity stigma) is strong, prevalent, and increasing in adults and is associated with negative outcomes for those with obesity. However, it is unknown how early in life this prejudice forms and the reasons for its development. We examined whether infants and toddlers might display an anti-fat bias and, if so, whether it was influenced by maternal anti-fat attitudes through a process of social learning. Mother-child dyads (N=70) split into four age groups participated in a preferential looking paradigm whereby children were presented with 10 pairs of average and obese human figures in random order, and their viewing times (preferential looking) for the figures were measured. Mothers' anti-fat prejudice and education were measured along with mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI) and children's television viewing time. We found that older infants (M=11months) had a bias for looking at the obese figures, whereas older toddlers (M=32months) instead preferred looking at the average-sized figures. Furthermore, older toddlers' preferential looking was correlated significantly with maternal anti-fat attitudes. Parental BMI, education, and children's television viewing time were unrelated to preferential looking. Looking times might signal a precursor to explicit fat prejudice socialized via maternal anti-fat attitudes.

  18. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.

  19. From fatalism to mitigation: A conceptual framework for mitigating fetal programming of chronic disease by maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Messer, Lynne C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Wallack, Lawrence; Thornburg, Kent L

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal development is recognized as a critical period in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic disease. Potential strategies to reduce maternal obesity-induced risk later in life have been largely overlooked. In this paper, we first propose a conceptual framework for the role of public health and preventive medicine in mitigating the effects of fetal programming. Second, we review a small but growing body of research (through August 2015) that examines interactive effects of maternal obesity and two public health foci - diet and physical activity - in the offspring. Results of the review support the hypothesis that diet and physical activity after early life can attenuate disease susceptibility induced by maternal obesity, but human evidence is scant. Based on the review, we identify major gaps relevant for prevention research, such as characterizing the type and dose response of dietary and physical activity exposures that modify the adverse effects of maternal obesity in the offspring. Third, we discuss potential implications of interactions between maternal obesity and postnatal dietary and physical activity exposures for interventions to mitigate maternal obesity-induced risk among children. Our conceptual framework, evidence review, and future research directions offer a platform to develop, test, and implement fetal programming mitigation strategies for the current and future generations of children.

  20. A review of national health policies and professional guidelines on maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, N L; Brinsden, H; Lobstein, T

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity creates an additional demand for health-care services, as the routine obstetric care pathway requires alterations to ensure the most optimal care for obese women of childbearing age. This review examines the extent to which relevant national health documents reflect and respond to the health implications of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. A targeted search of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was conducted for each country to identify national health documents, which were subsequently content analyzed according to an adapted framework. A total of 37 documents were identified, including one policy, 10 strategies and 26 guidelines, published within the last 10 years. Out of the 31 countries investigated, only 13 countries address maternal obesity while none address excessive gestational weight gain. We found inconsistencies and gaps in the recommendations to health-care service providers for the management of maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy. The findings show that only limited guidance on maternal obesity and gestational weight gain exists. The authors recommend that international, evidence-based guidelines on the management of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain should be developed to reduce the associated health-care and economic costs.

  1. Social cognitive maternal-mediated nutritional correlates of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the extent to which the maternal-facilitated, social cognitive theory constructs of environment, emotional coping, expectations, self-control, and self-efficacy predicted child fruit and vegetable consumption and sugar-free beverage intake. Instrumentation comprised three stages of data collection and analysis. Stage 1 included item generation, face and content validity by a panel of six experts, and readability by Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level tests. Stage 2 assessed stability of the theoretical constructs using the test-retest procedure with 30 participants. Structural equation modeling was used during Stage 3 to conduct confirmatory factor analysis and to establish predictive validity of the models. A total of 224 respondents participated in this study. Maternal-facilitated home environment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of child fruit and vegetable consumption while maternal-mediated home environment and emotional coping were significant predictors of child sugar-free beverage intake.

  2. Programming of Fetal Insulin Resistance in Pregnancies with Maternal Obesity by ER Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Westermeier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global epidemics of obesity during pregnancy and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG are major public health problems worldwide. Obesity and excessive GWG are related to several maternal and fetal complications, including diabetes (pregestational and gestational diabetes and intrauterine programming of insulin resistance (IR. Maternal obesity (MO and neonatal IR are associated with long-term development of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and increased global cardiovascular risk in the offspring. Multiple mechanisms of insulin signaling pathway impairment have been described in obese individuals, involving complex interactions of chronically elevated inflammatory mediators, adipokines, and the critical role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-dependent unfolded protein response (UPR. However, the underlying cellular processes linking MO and IR in the offspring have not been fully elucidated. Here, we summarize the state-of-the-art evidence supporting the possibility that adverse metabolic postnatal outcomes such as IR in the offspring of pregnancies with MO and/or excessive GWG may be related to intrauterine activation of ER stress response.

  3. Programming of Fetal Insulin Resistance in Pregnancies with Maternal Obesity by ER Stress and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Pablo J.; Villalobos-Labra, Roberto; Farías-Jofré, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The global epidemics of obesity during pregnancy and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are major public health problems worldwide. Obesity and excessive GWG are related to several maternal and fetal complications, including diabetes (pregestational and gestational diabetes) and intrauterine programming of insulin resistance (IR). Maternal obesity (MO) and neonatal IR are associated with long-term development of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and increased global cardiovascular risk in the offspring. Multiple mechanisms of insulin signaling pathway impairment have been described in obese individuals, involving complex interactions of chronically elevated inflammatory mediators, adipokines, and the critical role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the underlying cellular processes linking MO and IR in the offspring have not been fully elucidated. Here, we summarize the state-of-the-art evidence supporting the possibility that adverse metabolic postnatal outcomes such as IR in the offspring of pregnancies with MO and/or excessive GWG may be related to intrauterine activation of ER stress response. PMID:25093191

  4. 孕前体重指数对多囊卵巢综合征患者妊娠结局的影响%Effect of Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Pregnancy Outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧敏; 苏爱婵

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pre-pregnancy body mass index on the outcome of pregnancy in patients with polycystic ova-ry syndrome.Methods From January, 2014 to January, 2015, 68 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome in the hospital were selected.Clinical data of the patients in the two groups were retrospectively analyzed, according to the patient pre-pregnancy weight status.Patients were divided into normal group (n=34) and obesity and overweight (n=34) group.Patients of the two groups were followed up, and the patient pregnancy outcomes and neonatal health outcomes were understood.Results Abortion rate, the rate of gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes rate of assisted reproductive technology assisted reproductive rate, cesarean section rate, the rate of incidence of prema-ture birth children, the incidence of great children in obesity and overweight group were significantly higher than the normal group, P<0.05.Conclusion Polycystic ovary syndrome, pre-pregnancy body mass index, obesity and overweight patients will increase pregnancy complications, arose maternal adverse pregnancy outcomes, and increase the risk of pregnancy.%目的:探讨孕前体重指数对多囊卵巢综合征患者妊娠结局的影响。方法于2014-01—2015-01间选择广东省台山市人民医院68例多囊卵巢综合征患者作为研究对象,对两组患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,根据患者孕前体重状况,将其分为正常组34例和肥胖及超重组34例,对两组患者进行随访,了解患者妊娠结局及新生儿结局状况。结果肥胖及超重组患者流产率、妊娠期高血压率、妊娠期糖尿病率、辅助生殖技术助孕率、剖宫产率、新生儿早产儿发生率率、巨大儿发生率与正常组相比均明显较高,P<0.05。结论多囊卵巢综合征孕前体重指数肥胖及超重患者将会增加妊娠期并发症,引起不良母婴妊娠结局,增加妊娠风险。

  5. Dietary alleviation of maternal obesity and diabetes: increased resistance to diet-induced obesity transcriptional and epigenetic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Attig

    Full Text Available According to the developmental origins of health and diseases (DOHaD, and in line with the findings of many studies, obesity during pregnancy is clearly a threat to the health and well-being of the offspring, later in adulthood. We previously showed that 20% of male and female inbred mice can cope with the obesogenic effects of a high-fat diet (HFD for 20 weeks after weaning, remaining lean. However the feeding of a control diet (CD to DIO mice during the periconceptional/gestation/lactation period led to a pronounced sex-specific shift (17% to 43% from susceptibility to resistance to HFD, in the female offspring only. Our aim in this study was to determine how, in the context of maternal obesity and T2D, a CD could increase resistance on female fetuses. Transcriptional analyses were carried out with a custom-built mouse liver microarray and by quantitative RT-PCR for muscle and adipose tissue. Both global DNA methylation and levels of pertinent histone marks were assessed by LUMA and western blotting, and the expression of 15 relevant genes encoding chromatin-modifying enzymes was analyzed in tissues presenting global epigenetic changes. Resistance was associated with an enhancement of hepatic pathways protecting against steatosis, the unexpected upregulation of neurotransmission-related genes and the modulation of a vast imprinted gene network. Adipose tissue displayed a pronounced dysregulation of gene expression, with an upregulation of genes involved in lipid storage and adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia in obese mice born to lean and obese mothers, respectively. Global DNA methylation, several histone marks and key epigenetic regulators were also altered. Whether they were themselves lean (resistant or obese (sensitive, the offspring of lean and obese mice clearly differed in terms of several metabolic features and epigenetic marks suggesting that the effects of a HFD depend on the leanness or obesity of the mother.

  6. A systems approach to reducing maternal obesity: The Health in Preconception, Pregnancy and Postbirth (HIPPP) Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; Huang, Terry; Millar, Lynne; Kuhlberg, Jill; Dodd, Jodie; Callaway, Leonie; Forster, Della; Collins, Clare; Hills, Andrew; Harrison, Paul; Nagle, Cate; Moodie, Marj; Teede, Helena

    2015-08-01

    Obesity in our childbearing population has increased to epidemic proportions in developed countries; efforts to address this issue need to focus on prevention. The Health in Preconception, Pregnancy and Postbirth (HIPPP) Collaborative - a group of researchers, practitioners, policymakers and end-users - was formed to take up the challenge to address this issue as a partnership. Application of systems thinking, participatory systems modelling and group model building was used to establish research questions aiming to optimise periconception lifestyle, weight and health. Our goal was to reduce the burden of maternal obesity through systems change.

  7. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.

  8. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  9. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, A.; Wojcicki, J. M.; Bacardí-Gascón, M.; Castellón-Zaragoza, A.; García-Gallardo, J. L.; Schwartz, N.; Heyman, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children’s perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Methods Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children‘s and parents’ weights and heights were measured. Children were considered to have migrant parents if parents were not born in Baja California. Results One hundred and twenty-two children and their parents were recruited. The mean age of the children was 10.1 ± 1.0 years. Forty nine per cent of children were overweight or obese. Children with obese parents (BMI > 30) had greater odds of being obese, Odds Ratio (OR) 4.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.2–19, p = 0.03). Children with migrant parents had greater odds of being obese, OR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6–8.3), p = 0.01) and of having abdominal obesity, OR = 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4–7.1, p = 0.01). Children from migrant parents have greater risk of higher consumption of potato chips, OR = 8.0 (95% CI, 2.1–29.1, p = 0.01). Children from non-migrant parents had greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Conclusions Parental obesity and migration are associated with increased risk of obesity among Mexican children. Children whose parents were born in Baja California have greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Further studies should evaluate the role of migration on risk for childhood obesity. PMID:21519746

  10. Decreased maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in very severely obese pregnancy: Associations with birthweight and gestation at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrat, Laura I; O'Reilly, James R; Barr, Sarah M; Andrew, Ruth; Riley, Simon C; Howie, Alexander F; Bowman, Maria; Smith, Roger; Lewis, John G; Denison, Fiona C; Forbes, Shareen; Seckl, Jonathan R; Walker, Brian R; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2016-01-01

    The maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPAA) undergoes dramatic activation during pregnancy. Increased cortisol and corticotrophin-releasing-hormone (CRH) associate with low birthweight and preterm labor. In non-pregnant obesity, the HPAA is activated but circulating cortisol levels are normal or lower than in lean women. We hypothesized that maternal cortisol levels would be lower in obese pregnancy, and would associate with increased fetal size and length of gestation. Fasting serum cortisol was measured at 16, 28 and 36 weeks gestation and at 3-6 months postpartum in 276 severely obese and 135 lean women. In a subset of obese (n=20) and lean (n=20) we measured CRH, hormones that regulate bioavailable cortisol (corticosteroid-binding-globulin, estradiol, estriol, and progesterone). Urinary glucocorticoid metabolites were measured in pregnant (obese n=6, lean n=5) and non-pregnant (obese n=7, lean n=7) subjects. Maternal cortisol and HPAA hormones were lower in obese pregnancy. Total urinary glucocorticoid metabolites increased significantly in lean pregnancy, but not in obese. Lower maternal cortisol in obese tended to be associated with increased birthweight (r=-0.13, p=0.066). In obese, CRH at 28 weeks correlated inversely with gestational length (r=-0.49, p=0.04), and independently predicted gestational length after adjustment for confounding factors (mean decrease in CRH of -0.25 pmol/L (95% CI -0.45 to -0.043 pmol/L) per/day increase in gestation). In obese pregnancy, lower maternal cortisol without an increase in urinary glucocorticoid clearance may indicate a lesser activation of the HPAA than in lean pregnancy. This may offer a novel mechanism underlying increased birthweight and longer gestation in obese pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gestational diabetes and pre-pregnancy overweight: possible factors involved in newborn macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Pablo Roberto; Borzone, Gisella Rosa; Olmos, Roberto Ignacio; Valencia, Claudio Nicolás; Bravo, Felipe Andrés; Hodgson, María Isabel; Belmar, Cristián Gastón; Poblete, José Andrés; Escalona, Manuel Orlando; Gómez, Bernardita

    2012-01-01

    Good glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seems not to be enough to prevent macrosomia (large-for-gestational-age newborns). In GDM pregnancies we studied the effects of glycemic control (as glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]), pre-pregnancy body mass index (PP-BMI) and gestational weight gain per week (GWG-W) on the frequency of macrosomia.   We studied 251 GDM pregnancies, divided into two groups: PP-BMI1.28 was considered large-for-gestational-age. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Student's t-test and χ(2) -test, receiver-operator characteristic curves and linear and binary logistic regressions. Prevalence of macrosomia was 14.9% among GDM (n=202/251, 88.4%) with good glycemic control (mean HbA1cMacrosomia rates were 10.4% in the non-overweight group and 24.6% in the overweight group (P=0.00308), notwithstanding both having similar mean HbA1c (5.48±0.065 and 5.65±0.079%, P=0.269), and similar GWG-W (0.292±0.017 and 0.240±0.021kg/week, P=0.077). Binary logistic regressions showed that PP-BMI (P=0.012) and mean HbA1c (P=0.048), but not GWG-W (P=0.477), explained macrosomia. Good glycemic control in GDM patients was not enough to reduce macrosomia to acceptable limits (macrosomia. Thus, without ceasing in our efforts to improve glycemic control during GDM pregnancies, patients with overweight/obesity need to be treated prior to becoming pregnant. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. [Effect of breastfeeding on obesity of schoolchildren: influence of maternal education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudla, Katia Jakovljevic; Gonzaléz-Chica, David Alejandro; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between duration of breastfeeding (BF) and obesity in schoolchildren of Florianópolis (SC), and the role of possible effect modifiers. Cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,826 schoolchildren (7-14 years). Weight and height were measured according to standardized procedures. Data concerning BF and sociodemographic variables were obtained from a questionnaire sent to parents/guardians. Children's nutritional status was evaluated by BMI-for-age z-score for gender (WHO reference curves). Adjusted analyses were performed through logistic regression, considering a possible interaction among variables. Prevalence of obesity was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.6-9.7%) and 55.7% (95% CI: 53.8-57.6%) received breastmilk for ≥6 months. BF was not associated with obesity, even in the adjusted analysis. Stratified analysis according to maternal schooling showed that, in children aged 7-10 years and children whose mothers had 0-8 years of schooling, the chance of obesity was lower among those breastfeed for >1 month, especially among those who received breastmilk for 1-5 months (OR=0.22; 95% CI 0.08-0.62). Among children of women with higher educational level (>8 years), the chance of obesity was 44% lower in those who were breastfed for >12 months (p-value for interaction children (11-14 years). Among children of women with lower schooling, BF for any period longer than 1 month is protective against obesity; however, for a higher maternal schooling, BF for less than 12 months increases the odds of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal obesity impairs hippocampal BDNF production and spatial learning performance in young mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozuka, Yusuke; Kumon, Mami; Wada, Etsuko; Onodera, Masafumi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Wada, Keiji

    2010-10-01

    Maternal obesity may affect the child's long-term development and health, increasing the risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition to the metabolic and endocrine systems, recent reports have indicated that maternal obesity also modulates neural circuit formation in the offspring. However, this not yet been fully investigated. Here, we examined the effect of diet-induced maternal obesity on hippocampal development and function in the mouse offspring. Adult female mice were fed either a normal diet (ND, 4% fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 32% fat) before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, all offspring were fed with a normal diet. We found that HFD offspring showed increased lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus during early postnatal development. HFD offspring had less brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus than ND offspring. BDNF has been shown to play crucial roles in neuronal differentiation, plasticity and hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions such as spatial learning and memory. Using retroviral labeling, we demonstrated that dendritic arborization of new hippocampal neurons was impaired in the young HFD offspring. Finally, we evaluated cognitive function in these offspring using hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks. The Barnes maze test demonstrated that HFD offspring showed impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the young but not adult period. This study, using a mouse model, indicates that diet-induced maternal obesity impairs hippocampal BDNF production and spatial cognitive function in young offspring, possibly due to their metabolic and oxidative changes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Trolle, Ellen; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses, and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from early infant feeding to family foods is a major determinant for gut microbiota development. IMPORTANCE The potential influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Recent studies have suggested that the heritability of obesity may partly be caused by the transmission of "obesogenic" gut microbes. However, the findings presented here suggest that maternal obesity per

  15. Maternal obesity support services: a qualitative study of the perspectives of women and midwives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Twenty percent of pregnant women in the UK are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), reflecting the growing public health challenge of obesity in the 21st century. Obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy and birth and has significant cost implications for maternity services. Gestational weight management strategies are a high priority; however the evidence for effective, feasible and acceptable weight control interventions is limited and inconclusive. This qualitative study explored the experiences and perceptions of pregnant women and midwives regarding existing support for weight management in pregnancy and their ideas for service development. Methods A purposive sample of 6 women and 7 midwives from Doncaster, UK, participated in two separate focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Two overarching themes were identified, 'Explanations for obesity and weight management' and 'Best care for pregnant women'. 'Explanations' included a lack of knowledge about weight, diet and exercise during pregnancy; self-talk messages which excused overeating; difficulties maintaining motivation for a healthy lifestyle; the importance of social support; stigmatisation; and sensitivity surrounding communication about obesity between midwives and their clients. 'Best care' suggested that weight management required care which was consistent and continuous, supportive and non-judgemental, and which created opportunities for interaction and mutual support between obese pregnant women. Conclusions Women need unambiguous advice regarding healthy lifestyles, diet and exercise in pregnancy to address a lack of knowledge and a tendency towards unhelpful self-talk messages. Midwives expressed difficulties in communicating with their clients about their weight, given awareness that obesity is a sensitive and potentially stigmatising issue. This indicates more could be done to educate and support them in their work with obese pregnant women

  16. Maternal obesity support services: a qualitative study of the perspectives of women and midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearden Andy M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Twenty percent of pregnant women in the UK are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, reflecting the growing public health challenge of obesity in the 21st century. Obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy and birth and has significant cost implications for maternity services. Gestational weight management strategies are a high priority; however the evidence for effective, feasible and acceptable weight control interventions is limited and inconclusive. This qualitative study explored the experiences and perceptions of pregnant women and midwives regarding existing support for weight management in pregnancy and their ideas for service development. Methods A purposive sample of 6 women and 7 midwives from Doncaster, UK, participated in two separate focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Two overarching themes were identified, 'Explanations for obesity and weight management' and 'Best care for pregnant women'. 'Explanations' included a lack of knowledge about weight, diet and exercise during pregnancy; self-talk messages which excused overeating; difficulties maintaining motivation for a healthy lifestyle; the importance of social support; stigmatisation; and sensitivity surrounding communication about obesity between midwives and their clients. 'Best care' suggested that weight management required care which was consistent and continuous, supportive and non-judgemental, and which created opportunities for interaction and mutual support between obese pregnant women. Conclusions Women need unambiguous advice regarding healthy lifestyles, diet and exercise in pregnancy to address a lack of knowledge and a tendency towards unhelpful self-talk messages. Midwives expressed difficulties in communicating with their clients about their weight, given awareness that obesity is a sensitive and potentially stigmatising issue. This indicates more could be done to educate and support them in their work with

  17. Obesity and endocrine dysfunction programmed by maternal smoking in pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cristina Lisboa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic, and maternal smoking has been shown to be associated with the development of childhood obesity. Overall, approximately 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke at home. It is well known that environmental changes within a critical window of development, such as gestation or lactation, can initiate permanent alterations in metabolism that lead to diseases in adulthood, a phenomenon called programming. It is known that programming is based on epigenetic alterations (changes in DNA methylation, histone acetylation or small interfering RNA expression that change the expression pattern of several genes. However, little is known concerning the mechanisms by which smoke exposure in neonatal life programmes the adipose tissue and endocrine function. Here, we review several epidemiological and experimental studies that confirm the association between maternal nicotine or tobacco exposure during gestation or lactation and the development of obesity and endocrine dysfunction. For example, a positive correlation was demonstrated in rodents between increased serum leptin in the neonatal period and exposure of the mothers to nicotine during lactation, and the further development of leptin and insulin resistance, and thyroid and adrenal dysfunction, in adulthood in the same offspring. Thus, a smoke-free environment during the lactation period is essential to improving health outcomes in adulthood and reducing the risk for future diseases. An understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of smoking on programming can provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for obesity.

  18. Management of reproduction and pregnancy complications in maternal obesity: which role for dietary polyphenols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Carmela; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Filesi, Carmelina; Masella, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global and dramatic public health problem; maternal obesity represents one of the main risk factors of infertility and pregnancy complications as it is associated with adverse maternal and offspring outcomes. In the last few years, adipose tissue dysfunction associated with altered adipocytokine secretion has been suggested to play a critical role in all the phases of reproductive process. Obesity is a nutrition-related disorder. In this regard, dietary intervention strategies, such as high intake of fruit and vegetables, have shown significant effects in both preserving health and counteracting obesity-associated diseases. Evidence has been provided that polyphenols, important constituents of plant-derived food, can influence developmental program of oocyte and embryo, as well as pregnancy progression by modulating several cellular pathways. This review will examine the controversial results so far obtained on adipocytokine involvement in fertility impairment and pregnancy complications. Furthermore, the different effects exerted by polyphenols on oocyte, embryo, and pregnancy development will be also taken in account.

  19. Impact of lifestyle intervention for obese women during pregnancy on maternal metabolic and inflammatory markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, K M; Carlsen, E M; Hædersdal, S

    2017-01-01

    may alter this. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of lifestyle intervention on markers of maternal metabolism and inflammation in 'the TOP (Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women)-study', a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: In the TOP-study 425 participants with BMI⩾30 kg/m(2) were randomized......CRP), and Soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR), in week 18-20 and 28-30, and simultaneously a 2-hour oral glucose-tolerance-test was performed. Diet was assessed in gestational week 11-14 and 36-37 using a validated 360-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. RESULTS: Median levels of hs...... in obese women can reduce hsCRP representing a marker of inflammation during pregnancy. The effect may partly be mediated by more physical activity and partly by changes in intake of carbohydrates and the glycaemic load.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 17 January 2017. doi...

  20. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Palmer, Tom M.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L.; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Wood, Andrew R.; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J.; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E.; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P.; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Spector, Tim D.; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F.A.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Scholtens, Denise M.; Smith, George Davey; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F.; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Structured abstract Importance Neonates born to overweight/obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. Objective To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Design, Setting and Participants We used Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are causally related to offspring birth weight. Mendelian randomization makes use of the fact that genotypes are randomly determined at conception and are thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Data were analysed on 30,487 women from 18 studies. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies located in Europe, North America or Australia and participating in the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. We tested associations between a genetic score of 30 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (i) maternal BMI and (ii) birth weight, to estimate the causal relationship between BMI and birth weight. Analyses were repeated for other obesity-related traits. Exposures Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol level, vitamin D status and adiponectin level. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Offspring birth weight measured by trained study personnel (n=2 studies), from medical records (n= 10 studies) or from maternal report (n=6 studies). Results Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2g (95%CI: 0, 3g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P=0.008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were

  1. In utero exposure to prepregnancy maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet impair regulators of mitochondrial dynamics in rat placenta and offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Borengasser, Sarah J.; Faske, Jennifer; KANG, PING; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badger, Thomas M.; Shankar, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of pregnant women who are obese at conception continues to rise. Compelling evidence suggests the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of offspring health. Maternal obesity and unhealthy diets are shown to promote metabolic programming in the offspring. Mitochondria are maternally inherited, and we have previously shown impaired mitochondrial function in rat offspring exposed to maternal obesity in utero. Mitochondrial health is maintained by mitochondrial dynam...

  2. Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    M. Lepe; M. Bacardí Gascón; L. M. Castañeda-González; M.ª E. Pérez Morales; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by h...

  3. Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Edlow

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One in three pregnant women in the United States is obese. Their offspring are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental and metabolic morbidity. Underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a global gene expression analysis of mid-trimester amniotic fluid cell-free fetal RNA in obese versus lean pregnant women. METHODS: This prospective pilot study included eight obese (BMI≥30 and eight lean (BMI<25 women undergoing clinically indicated mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis. Subjects were matched for gestational age and fetal sex. Fetuses with abnormal karyotype or structural anomalies were excluded. Cell-free fetal RNA was extracted from amniotic fluid and hybridized to whole genome expression arrays. Genes significantly differentially regulated in 8/8 obese-lean pairs were identified using paired t-tests with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate of <0.05. Biological interpretation was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the BioGPS gene expression atlas. RESULTS: In fetuses of obese pregnant women, 205 genes were significantly differentially regulated. Apolipoprotein D, a gene highly expressed in the central nervous system and integral to lipid regulation, was the most up-regulated gene (9-fold. Apoptotic cell death was significantly down-regulated, particularly within nervous system pathways involving the cerebral cortex. Activation of the transcriptional regulators estrogen receptor, FOS, and STAT3 was predicted in fetuses of obese women, suggesting a pro-estrogenic, pro-inflammatory milieu. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity affects fetal neurodevelopmental and metabolic gene expression as early as the second trimester. These findings may have implications for postnatal neurodevelopmental and metabolic abnormalities described in the offspring of obese women.

  4. Programming of mouse obesity by maternal exposure to concentrated ambient fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjie; Wang, Xiaoke; Hu, Ziying; Zhou, Huifen; Xu, Yanyi; Qiu, Lianglin; Qin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yuhao; Ying, Zhekang

    2017-06-23

    Many diseases including obesity may originate through alterations in the early-life environment that interrupts fetal development. Increasing evidence has shown that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) is associated with abnormal fetal development. However, its long-term metabolic effects on offspring have not been systematically investigated. To determine if maternal exposure to PM2.5 programs offspring obesity, female C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) during pre-conception, pregnancy, and lactation, and the developmental and metabolic responses of offspring were assessed. The growth trajectory of offspring revealed that maternal exposure to CAP significantly decreased offspring birth weight but increased body weight of adult male but not female offspring, and the latter was expressed as increased adiposity. These adult male offspring had increased food intake, but were sensitive to exogenous leptin. Their hypothalamic expression of Socs3 and Pomc, two target genes of leptin, was not changed, and the hypothalamic expression of NPY, an orexigenic peptide that is inhibited by leptin, was significantly increased. These decreases in central anorexigenic signaling were accompanied by reduced plasma leptin and its expression in adipose tissues, the primary source of circulating leptin. In contrast, maternal exposure did not significantly change any of these indexes in adult female offspring. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that the leptin promoter methylation of adipocytes was significantly increased in CAP-exposed male but not female offspring. Our data indicate that maternal exposure to ambient PM2.5 programs obesity in male offspring probably through alterations in the methylation of the promoter region of the leptin gene.

  5. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is an independent risk factor for frequent wheezing in infants by age 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Sartini, Claudio; Mendez, Michelle; Morales, Eva; Guxens, Mònica; Basterrechea, Mikel; Arranz, Leonor; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity has been linked to the offspring's risk for subsequent asthma. We determined whether maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of wheezing phenotypes early in life. We used data on 1107 mother-child pairs from two birth cohorts from the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente project. Maternal height was measured and prepregnancy weight self-reported at enrolment (on average at 13.7 ± 2 weeks of gestation). Maternal prepregnancy body mass index was categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese according to WHO recommendations. Information on child's wheezing was obtained through questionnaires up to the age of 14 (± 1) months. Wheezing was classified as infrequent (<4 reported wheezing episodes) or frequent (≥ 4 episodes). Weight and length of infants were measured by trained study staff at 14.6 (± 1) months of age and weight-for-length z-scores computed. Although maternal obesity did not increase the risk of the child to have any or infrequent wheezing, children of obese mothers were more likely to have frequent wheezing than children of normal-weight mothers (11.8% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.002). In fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression models, including infants' weight-for-length z-scores and other covariates, maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with increased risk of frequent [adjusted relative risk (RR) 4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55, 11.3] but not infrequent (RR 1.05 [95% CI 0.55, 2.01]) wheezing in their children. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is independently associated with an increased risk of frequent wheezing in the infant by the age of 14 months. These findings add evidence on the potential effects of in utero exposures on asthma-related phenotypes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Maternal obesity alters feto-placental cytochrome P4501A1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, B N; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Pearson, J; Friedman, J E; Thornburg, K; Cherala, G

    2012-12-01

    Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), an important drug metabolizing enzyme, is expressed in human placenta throughout gestation as well as in fetal liver. Obesity, a chronic inflammatory condition, is known to alter CYP enzyme expression in non-placental tissues. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that maternal obesity alters the distribution of CYP1A1 activity in feto-placental unit. Placentas were collected from non-obese (BMI 30) women at term. Livers were collected from gestation day 130 fetuses of non-human primates fed either control diet or high-fat diet (HFD). Cytosol and microsomes were collected using differential centrifugation, and incubated with 7-ethoxyresorufin. The CYP1A1 specific activity (pmoles of resorufin formed/min/mg of protein) was measured at excitation/emission wavelength of 530/590 nm. Placentas of obese women had significantly reduced microsomal CYP1A1 activity compared to non-obese women (0.046 vs. 0.082; p feto-placental growth and thereby well-being of fetus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal obesity and malnourishment exacerbate perinatal oxidative stress resulting in diabetogenic programming in F1 offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M I; Abdelkhalek, T M; Haiba, M M; Saleh, M M; Hanafi, M Y; Tawfik, S H; Kamel, M A

    2016-06-01

    The effect of in-utero environment on fetal health and survival is long-lasting, and this is known as the fetal origin hypothesis. The oxidative stress state during gestation could play a pivotal role in fetal programming and development of diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of intra-uterine obesity and malnutrition on oxidative stress markers in pancreatic and peripheral tissues of F1 offspring both prenatally and postnatally. Furthermore, the effect of postnatal diet on oxidative stress profile was evaluated. The results indicated that intra-uterine obesity and malnourishment significantly increased oxidative stress in F1 offspring. Moreover, the programming effect of obesity was more pronounced and protracted than malnutrition. The obesity-induced programming of offspring tissues was independent of high-caloric environment that the offspring endured; however, high-caloric diet potentiated its effect. In addition, pancreas and liver were the most affected tissues by fetal reprogramming both prenatally and postnatally. In conclusion, maternal obesity and malnutrition-induced oxidative stress could predispose offspring to insulin resistance and diabetes.

  8. Maternal obesity is associated with ovarian inflammation and upregulation of early growth response factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebel, Meghan; Shankar, Kartik; Gaddy, Dana; Lindsey, Forrest; Badger, Thomas; Andres, Aline

    2016-07-01

    Obesity impairs reproductive functions through multiple mechanisms, possibly through disruption of ovarian function. We hypothesized that increased adiposity will lead to a proinflammatory gene signature and upregulation of Egr-1 protein in ovaries from obese (OB; n = 7) compared with lean (LN; n = 10) female Sprague-Dawley rats during the peri-implantation period at 4.5 days postcoitus (dpc). Obesity was induced by overfeeding (40% excess calories for 28 days) via total enteral nutrition prior to mating. OB dams had higher body weight (P ovaries from LN vs. OB dams (±1.3 fold, P ovaries from OB compared with LN (P ovaries. Moreover, Egr-1 was localized to granulosa cells, with the highest expression in cumulus cells of preovulatory follicles. mRNA expression of VCAN, AURKB, and PLAT (P obesity. In summary, maternal obesity led to an upregulation of inflammatory genes and Egr-1 expression in peri-implantation ovarian tissue and a concurrent downregulation of GLUTs and Akt and PI3K protein levels.

  9. Effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on adverse pregnancy outcomes%孕前肥胖与妊娠不良结局的相关性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟利若; 张立军; 陈淑芳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨孕前肥胖与妊娠不良结局的相关性。方法选取单胎、足月、无妊娠合并症及并发症的498例初产妇作为研究对象,根据孕前体质量指数(BMI)不同分为4组:低体重组(BMI 0.05),而超重组和肥胖组的子痫前期、妊娠期糖尿病、妊娠高血压、胎膜早破、产后出血、剖宫产、新生儿死亡和巨大胎儿的发生率均明显高于对照组和正常体质量组,组间比较差异具有统计学意义( P 0. 05). While in the overweight and obese groups,preeclampsia,gestational diabetes,pregnancy - induced hypertension,prema-ture rupture of membranes,postpartum hemorrhage,cesarean section,macrosomia and neonatal death was significantly higher than the incidence of low - weight group,normal weight group,the difference between the groups was statistically significant( P < 0. 05). Conclusion Overweight and obesity before pregnancy has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome,we should pay particular attention to the low level of education of preg-nant women weight control management. By pre - pregnancy body mass index of control,can effectively improve pregnancy outcomes,ensure ma-ternal and child health.

  10. Modulation of fatty acid transport and metabolism by maternal obesity in the human full-term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Evemie; Gravel, Ariane; Martin, Coralie; Desparois, Guillaume; Moussa, Issa; Ethier-Chiasson, Maude; Forest, Jean-Claude; Giguère, Yves; Masse, André; Lafond, Julie

    2012-07-01

    Knowledge of the consequences of maternal obesity in human placental fatty acids (FA) transport and metabolism is limited. Animal studies suggest that placental uptake of maternal FA is altered by maternal overnutrition. We hypothesized that high maternal body mass index (BMI) affects human placental FA transport by modifying expression of key transporters. Full-term placentas were obtained by vaginal delivery from normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) women. Blood samples were collected from the mother at each trimester and from cord blood at delivery. mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated with real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was evaluated using enzyme fluorescence. In vitro linoleic acid transport was studied with isolated trophoblasts. Our results demonstrated that maternal obesity is associated with increased placental weight, decreased gestational age, decreased maternal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels during the first and third trimesters, increased maternal triglyceride levels during the second and third trimesters, and increased maternal T3 levels during all trimesters, and decreased maternal cholesterol (CHOL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels during the third trimester; and increased newborn CHOL, LDL, apolipoprotein B100, and T3 levels. Increases in placental CD36 mRNA and protein expression levels, decreased SLC27A4 and FABP1 mRNA and protein and FABP3 protein expression, and increased LPL activity and decreased villus cytotrophoblast linoleic acid transport were also observed. No changes were seen in expression of PPARA, PPARD, or PPARG mRNA and protein. Overall this study demonstrated that maternal obesity impacts placental FA uptake without affecting fetal growth. These changes, however, could modify the fetus metabolism and its predisposition to develop diseases later in life.

  11. Effect of maternal obesity on diabetes development in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Pimenta, Walkyria de Paula; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2007-10-27

    This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal obesity leads to the onset of diabetes in adult Wistar rats offspring. MSG solution neonatally administration induced obesity in rats (F(1)MSG group, n=30); and saline solution was also administrated to control rats (F(1)CON group, n=13). In 3rd month of age, both control and MSG groups were mated for offspring (generation F(2)), named as F(2)CON, n=28 and F(2)MSG groups, n=15; and so both generations were studied until 7th month of life. Lee Index was measured for experimental obesity validation from 5th to 7th month. Glycemia was weekly determined during pregnancy and monthly from 3rd to 7th month. In the end of experimental period all rats were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with estimation of total area under the curve (AUC); and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Rats were then anesthetized and killed. Data were statistically analyzed with significance level of pgenerations showed significant maternal interference in control and MSG groups. OGTT analysis showed higher glycemia in obese rats (F(1)MSG) and their offspring (F(2)MSG) as compared to their respective controls; and MSG groups increased AUC from OGTT. As regards ITT, F(2)MSG showed higher glycemia at 30 and 120 min, suggesting a delay of insulin action decreasing. Although glucose intolerance and insulin resistance clinical conditions represent as a factors for type 2 Diabetes mellitus development, this experimental model proposal was not efficient to induce type 2 Diabetes mellitus, but for obesity developing, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in successive generations of rats.

  12. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States.

  13. Maternal-fetal hepatic and placental metabolome profiles are associated with reduced fetal growth in a rat model of maternal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Karen; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    : Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth. Methods: We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats...... were assigned to (a) control diet (CD; 1 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (b) high salt diet (SD; 4 % salt, 10 % kcal from fat), (c) high fat diet (HF; 1 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) or (d) high-fat high-salt diet (HFSD; 4 % salt, 45 % kcal from fat) 21 days prior to pregnancy and during gestation......Introduction: Maternal obesity is associated with a range of pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR), whereby a fetus fails to reach its genetically determined growth. Placental insufficiency and reduced nutrient transport play a role in the onset of FGR. Objectives...

  14. Obesity in pregnancy: why we must be concerned about maternal nutrition again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Farías Jofré

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The causes of the nutritional transition in our country can be accounted for by the reduction in the number of malnourished people, on the one hand, and the explosive increase in the proportion of overweight and obesity in all age groups, on the other. It comes as no surprise then that more than half of Chilean pregnant women are overweight and obese at their first prenatal visit and thus have an almost inevitable tendency to gain excess gestational weight. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of maternal overweight on women and their offspring, and the potential benefits of nutritional interventions in this area. Multiple population and experimental studies have demonstrated a two to three times greater likelihood of developing maternal and perinatal complications in pregnant women with overweight and obesity compared to women with normal nutritional status. Since the gestational period is critical for the development of an individual, metabolic changes in nutrients, hormones and inflammatory mediators could explain many of the adverse outcomes described in the medium and long term in children of mothers with excess weight during pregnancy. No significant effects on birth weight have been seen after employing various interventional strategies. However, both dietary interventions and those involving controlled physical activity during pregnancy have been found to limit total gestational weight gain. In consequence, it appears to be feasible to further evaluate potentially clinically significant differences, both at the maternal-fetal metabolic injury level during pregnancy, as well as later on in life in mothers and their offspring.

  15. An exploration of knowledge and attitudes related to pre-pregnancy care in women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, M; Alderdice, F A; Harper, R; McCance, D R; Holmes, V A

    2010-12-01

    Pre-pregnancy care optimizes pregnancy outcome in women with pre-gestational diabetes, yet most women enter pregnancy unprepared. We sought to determine knowledge and attitudes of women with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes of childbearing age towards pre-pregnancy care. Twenty-four women (18 with Type 1 diabetes and six with Type 2 diabetes) aged 17-40 years took part in one of four focus group sessions: young nulliparous women with Type 1 diabetes (Group A), older nulliparous women with Type 1 diabetes (Group B), parous women with Type 1 diabetes (Group C) and women with Type 2 diabetes of mixed parity (Group D). Content analysis of transcribed focus groups revealed that, while women were well informed about the need to plan pregnancy, awareness of the rationale for planning was only evident in parous women or those who had actively sought pre-pregnancy advice. Within each group, there was uncertainty about what pre-pregnancy advice entailed. Despite many women reporting positive healthcare experiences, frequently cited barriers to discussing issues around family planning included unsupportive staff, busy clinics and perceived social stereotypes held by health professionals. Knowledge and attitudes reported in this study highlight the need for women with diabetes, regardless of age, marital status or type of diabetes, to receive guidance about planning pregnancy in a motivating, positive and supportive manner. The important patient viewpoints expressed in this study may help health professionals determine how best to encourage women to avail of pre-pregnancy care. © 2010 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2010 Diabetes UK.

  16. Maternal body mass index and risk of birth and maternal health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Abe, S K; Kanda, M; Narita, S; Rahman, M S; Bilano, V; Ota, E; Gilmour, S; Shibuya, K

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies of maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the British Nursing Index were searched from inception to February 2014. Forty-two studies were included. Our study found that maternal underweight was significantly associated with higher risk of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.27), low birthweight (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.50-1.84) and small for gestational age (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.69-2.02). Compared with mothers with normal BMI, overweight or obese mothers were at increased odds of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, caesarean delivery and post-partum haemorrhage. The population-attributable risk (PAR) indicated that if women were entirely unexposed to overweight or obesity during the pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy period, 14% to 35% fewer women would develop gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension in Brazil, China, India, Iran or Thailand. The highest PAR of low birthweight attributable to maternal underweight was found in Iran (20%), followed by India (18%), Thailand (10%) and China (8%). Treatment and prevention of maternal underweight, overweight or obesity may help reduce the burden on maternal and child health in developing countries.

  17. Effects of Maternal Linseed Oil Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters in Cafeteria Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Nawel; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Narce, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Because linseed oil may influence maternal and fetal metabolisms, we investigated its role in the modulation of lipid metabolism in cafeteria diet-induced obese rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed control or cafeteria food, which were either supplemented or not supplemented with linseed oil (5%) for 1 month before and during gestation. At parturition, serum and tissue lipids and enzyme activities were analyzed. Cafeteria diet induced adverse metabolic alterations in both mothers and offspring. Linseed oil improved metabolic status. In conclusion, linseed oil displayed health benefits by modulating tissue enzyme activities in both obese mothers and their newborns. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal obesity and offspring dietary patterns at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Trolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Differences in the quality of complementary feeding between infants of obese and nonobese mothers have not been examined sufficiently. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary patterns, foods, nutrients and energy intakes of 9-month-old Danish infants in a cohort...... comprising obese mothers (SKOT II, n=184; SKOT, Danish abbreviation of small children's diet and well-being) with a cohort consisting mainly of nonobese mothers (SKOT I, n=329).Subjects/Methods:Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day records, and dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis.......Results:SKOT I was characterized by a lower maternal body mass index (BMI) and a higher social class than SKOT II in relation to parental education and occupation. Infants in SKOT II had lower scores on a Health-Conscious Food pattern reflected at the food group level, for example, with lower intake of the food...

  19. Maternal obesity and diabetes induces latent metabolic defects and widespread epigenetic changes in isogenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheryl C Y; Young, Paul E; Maloney, Christopher A; Eaton, Sally A; Cowley, Mark J; Buckland, Michael E; Preiss, Thomas; Henstridge, Darren C; Cooney, Gregory J; Febbraio, Mark A; Martin, David I K; Cropley, Jennifer E; Suter, Catherine M

    2013-06-01

    Intrauterine nutrition can program metabolism, creating stable changes in physiology that may have significant health consequences. The mechanism underlying these changes is widely assumed to involve epigenetic changes to the expression of metabolic genes, but evidence supporting this idea is limited. Here we have performed the first study of the epigenomic consequences of exposure to maternal obesity and diabetes. We used a mouse model of natural-onset obesity that allows comparison of genetically identical mice whose mothers were either obese and diabetic or lean with a normal metabolism. We find that the offspring of obese mothers have a latent metabolic phenotype that is unmasked by exposure to a Western-style diet, resulting in glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. The offspring show changes in hepatic gene expression and widespread but subtle alterations in cytosine methylation. Contrary to expectation, these molecular changes do not point to metabolic pathways but instead reside in broadly developmental ontologies. We propose that, rather than being adaptive, these changes may simply produce an inappropriate response to suboptimal environments; maladaptive phenotypes may be avoidable if postnatal nutrition is carefully controlled.

  20. Expression of epigenetic machinery genes is sensitive to maternal obesity and weight loss in relation to fetal growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Polina E; Voisin, Sarah; Jouin, Mélanie; Jouneau, Luc; Prézelin, Audrey; Lecoutre, Simon; Breton, Christophe; Jammes, Hélène; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity impacts fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes. To counteract the deleterious effects of obesity on fertility and pregnancy issue, preconceptional weight loss is recommended to obese women. Whether this weight loss is beneficial/detrimental for offspring remains poorly explored. Epigenetic mechanisms could be affected by maternal weight changes, perturbing expression of key developmental genes in the placenta or fetus. Our aim was to investigate the effects of chronic maternal obesity on feto-placental growth along with the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We also tested whether preconceptional weight loss could alleviate these effects. Female mice were fed either a control diet (CTRL group), a high-fat diet (obese (OB) group), or a high-fat diet switched to a control diet 2 months before conception (weight loss (WL) group). At mating, OB females presented an obese phenotype while WL females normalized metabolic parameters. At embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5), fetuses from OB females presented fetal growth restriction (FGR; -13 %) and 28 % of the fetuses were small for gestational age (SGA). Fetuses from WL females normalized this phenotype. The expression of 60 epigenetic machinery genes and 32 metabolic genes was measured in the fetal liver, placental labyrinth, and junctional zone. We revealed 23 genes altered by maternal weight trajectories in at least one of three tissues. The fetal liver and placental labyrinth were more responsive to maternal obesity than junctional zone. One third (18/60) of the epigenetic machinery genes were differentially expressed between at least two maternal groups. Interestingly, genes involved in the histone acetylation pathway were particularly altered (13/18). In OB group, lysine acetyltransferases and Bromodomain-containing protein 2 were upregulated, while most histone deacetylases were downregulated. In WL group, the expression of only a subset of these genes was normalized. This study highlights the high

  1. Obesity and overweight: Impact on maternal and milk microbiome and their role for infant health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mantrana, Izaskun; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Obesity, particularly in infants, is becoming a significant public health problem that has reached "epidemic" status worldwide. Obese children have an increased risk of developing obesity-related diseases, such as metabolic syndromes and diabetes, as well as increased risk of mortality and adverse health outcomes later in life. Experimental data show that maternal obesity has negative effects on the offspring's health in the short and long term. Increasing evidence suggests a key role for microbiota in host metabolism and energy harvest, providing novel tools for obesity prevention and management. The maternal environment, including nutrition and microbes, influences the likelihood of developing childhood diseases, which may persist and be exacerbated in adulthood. Maternal obesity and weight gain also influence microbiota composition and activity during pregnancy and lactation. They affect microbial diversity in the gut and breast milk. Such microbial changes may be transferred to the offspring during delivery and also during lactation, affecting infant microbial colonisation and immune system maturation. Thus, an adequate nutritional and microbial environment during the peri-natal period may provide a window of opportunity to reduce the risk of obesity and overweight in our infants using targeted strategies aimed at modulating the microbiota during early life.

  2. Maternal fat mass may predict overweight/obesity in non-instituzionalized women with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fornieles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have found a significant correlation between parents and offspring regarding overweight and obesity in general population at early life stages. However this issue has received no attention in people with intellectual disability (ID. Therefore, the present study was designed to find out potential correlations in overweight/obesity between young adult women with ID living in the family and their parents. Material and methods: In the present observational cross-sectional study, a total of thirty-four women with Down syndrome (n = 34; 22.6 ± 2.1 years; 29.6 ± 3.3 km/m² were recruited through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, biological mothers (n = 34; 59.6 ± 4.9 years; 28.5 ± 3.2 km/m² and fathers (n = 34; 61.5 ± 5.3 years; 26.2 ± 2.7 km/m² volunteered for this study. They all underwent an anthropometric assessment to determine body mass index (BMI. This protocol was approved by an Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: In the studied population, a total of 26 (76.5% women with ID were overweight/obese. Furthermore, there were 22 (66.6% overweight/obese mothers and 16(53.3% fathers. Results also showed significant correlations between participants BMI and their father (r = 0.327; p = 0.0116 and mother BMI (r = 0.412; p < 0.001. Lastly, overweight/obese women presented a stronger correlation with overweight/obese mothers (odds ratio 4.3; 95%CI 2.9-7.3 than fathers (odds ratio 3.1; 95%CI 1.6-4.4. Conclusion: Parental overweight/obesity, especially maternal one, was strongly associated to overweight/obesity in young adult women with DS. Accordingly, there is an urgent necessity of incorporating parents in the intervention programs designed to the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in people with ID.

  3. In utero exposure to prepregnancy maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet impair regulators of mitochondrial dynamics in rat placenta and offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proportion of obese women who become pregnant continues to rise. Compelling evidence suggests the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of offspring health. Maternal obesity and unhealthy diets are shown to promote metabolic programming in the offspring. Mitochondria are matern...

  4. Maternal-child nutrition practices and pediatric overweight/obesity in the United States and Chile: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Pawloski, Lisa R; Jaimovich, Sonia P; Campos, Maria C

    2012-10-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity is now epidemic in both developed countries and those undergoing economic transition. This study compared maternal and school-age child nutrition practices and body mass index in the United States and in Chile. Children (125 in the United States, 121 in Chile) and their mothers (116 in the United States, 101 in Chile) participated. Findings indicated that child nutrition practices were comparable, but mothers in the U.S. group demonstrated fewer healthy nutrition practices on behalf of their children. Significant associations were found between maternal and child nutrition practices. Substantially more children in the U.S. sample were overweight/obese. Implications for practice are presented.

  5. Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Obesity among Offspring: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Y. Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG and offspring’s body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n=23 were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child’s lifestyle factors.

  6. Maternal, fetal and perinatal alterations associated with obesity, overweight and gestational diabetes: an observational cohort study (PREOBE).

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Maternal overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes (GD) have been negatively associated with offspring development. Further knowledge regarding metabolic and nutritional alterations in these mother and their offspring are warranted. Methods: In an observational cohort study we included 331 pregnant women from Granada, Spain. The mothers were categorized into four groups according to BMI and their GD status; overweight (n:56), obese (n:64), GD (n:79), and healthy norma...

  7. Childhood overweight and obesity among Kenyan pre-school children: association with maternal and early child nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A

    2010-04-01

    To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.

  8. Maternal overweight and obesity and risk of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Martina; Cnattingius, Sven; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Johansson, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia in women without diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of maternal overweight and obesity on the risk of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. In a population-based cohort study including singleton births in Sweden, we estimated the risk of pre-eclampsia among women with type 1 diabetes (n = 7062) and type 2 diabetes (n = 886), and investigated whether maternal overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m(2)) modified the risk. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate crude and adjusted ORs with 95% CIs, using women without diabetes as the reference group (n = 1,509,525). Compared with women without diabetes, the adjusted ORs for pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were 5.74 (95% CI 5.31, 6.20) and 2.11 (95% CI 1.65, 2.70), respectively. The corresponding risks of pre-eclampsia combined with preterm birth were even higher. Risks of pre-eclampsia increased with maternal overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m(2)), foremost in women without diabetes, to a lesser extent in women with type 1 diabetes but not in women with type 2 diabetes. Maternal overweight and obesity increased risks of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes but not in women with type 2 diabetes. Even so, considering associations between maternal BMI and overall maternal and offspring risk, all women (with and without diabetes) should aim for a normal weight before pregnancy.

  9. Adiposidade em adolescentes e obesidade materna Relationship between maternal obesity and adiposity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Petroli Frutoso

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a relação entre adiposidade na adolescência e obesidade materna. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal com 660 indivíduos de 8 a 18 anos, de ambos os sexos, matriculados em uma escola pública e outra privada do município de São Paulo. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevista, medidas antropométricas e inquérito alimentar. A adiposidade na adolescência foi mensurada a partir do índice de massa corporal e, por meio de análise de regressão, verificou-se sua relação com a obesidade materna, ajustada por sexo, idade, estágio de maturação sexual, valor energético total da dieta, atividade física, sedentarismo, peso ao nascer e escolaridade materna. RESULTADOS: Dos adolescentes estudados, 64,7% eram do sexo feminino. A média (desvio-padrão de idade foi de 12,4 (1,80, variando de 8 a 17 anos. Verificou-se maior prevalência de excesso de peso e obesidade entre os indivíduos do sexo masculino, não sendo observada associação significativa entre estado nutricional e sexo. Após ajuste pelas covariáveis, detectou-se que filhos de mães obesas têm risco quatro vezes maior de ser obesos, quando comparados aos adolescentes filhos de mães não obesas. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que a obesidade materna representa fator de risco importante para o desenvolvimento da obesidade na adolescência.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the relationship between teenager's adiposity and maternal obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done with 660 teenagers aged 8 to 18 years, of both genders, students of private and public schools of São Paulo. The data were collected by interviews, anthropometric measurements and food intake records. Teenagers' adiposity was determined by body mass index and regression analyses was used to verify its relationship with maternal obesity adjusted for gender, age, stage of sexual development, energy intake, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, birth weight and

  10. Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition exposure leads to reversal learning deficits and striatal disturbance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Deng, Shining; Li, Wei-Guang; Yu, Yongguo; Li, Fei; Mao, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition during pregnancy increases susceptibility to metabolic risks in adulthood, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes; however, whether and how it affects the cognitive system associated with the brain remains elusive. Here, we report that pregnant obesity induced by exposure to excessive high fatty or highly palatable food specifically impaired reversal learning, a kind of adaptive behavior, while leaving serum metabolic metrics intact in the offspring of rats, suggesting a much earlier functional and structural defects possibly occurred in the central nervous system than in the metabolic system in the offspring born in unfavorable intrauterine nutritional environment. Mechanically, we found that above mentioned cognitive inflexibility might be associated with significant striatal disturbance including impaired dopamine homeostasis and disrupted leptin signaling in the adult offspring. These collective data add a novel perspective of understanding the adverse postnatal sequelae in central nervous system induced by developmental programming and the related molecular mechanism through which priming of risk for developmental disorders may occur during early life.

  11. Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition exposure leads to reversal learning deficits and striatal disturbance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition during pregnancy increases susceptibility to metabolic risks in adulthood, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes; however, whether and how it affects the cognitive system associated with the brain remains elusive. Here, we report that pregnant obesity induced by exposure to excessive high fatty or highly palatable food specifically impaired reversal learning, a kind of adaptive behavior, while leaving serum metabolic metrics intact in the offspring of rats, suggesting a much earlier functional and structural defects possibly occurred in the central nervous system than in the metabolic system in the offspring born in unfavorable intrauterine nutritional environment. Mechanically, we found that above mentioned cognitive inflexibility might be associated with significant striatal disturbance including impaired dopamine homeostasis and disrupted leptin signaling in the adult offspring. These collective data add a novel perspective of understanding the adverse postnatal sequelae in central nervous system induced by developmental programming and the related molecular mechanism through which priming of risk for developmental disorders may occur during early life.

  12. Survey on Pre-pregnancy Health Knowledge and Service Demands among Un-pregnant Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-hua LI; Wei-jue CAO; Guo-liang ZHOU; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Hong LIANG; Li-feng ZHOU; Ren-li WANB; Er-sheng GAO; Wen-ping SHEN; Yue DONG; Zhi-hui GU; Rui-zhu CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To understand the pre-pregnancy health knowledge and service needs among un-pregnant married women in Shanghai.Methods A total of 968 newly-married un-pregnant women in Changqiao, Lingyun sub-districts and Huajing town of Xuhui district, Shanghai, were recruited and interviewed by structured questionnaire to collect the information on pre-pregnancy health knowledge and service demands.Results 1) Newly-married women thought the contraceptive methods suitable for them was male condom(84.4%), followed by oral contraceptives(54%), emergent contraceptive(52.5%) and contraceptive suppository (48. 3%). 2) The score of pre-pregnancy health knowledge was 54. 7±14.5 among the subjects. The participants with junior college or a bachelor had more knowledge than those with junior or senior high school, and those who were engaged in medicine/education/science field had higher score. 3) They had higher knowing rate on the common knowledge, and the rate was above 80%. But the knowing rate on the knowledge of birth defect was low,and all below 50%. 4)A proportion of 52. 7% of the respondents knew that there was a station for reproductive health service in their communities, but only 45.5% received the service from the station, 87. 0% thought they had insufficient or scarce knowledge,73.6% planned to consult before pregnancy and 63.6% were willing to attend the training courses on preparing pregnancy.Conclusion The participants had certain pre-pregnancy health knowledge, but still need being improved; in addition, they had higher needs on knowledge and service of birth defect prevention, at the same time they can't make full use of the existing reproductive health institution.

  13. Pregnancy Outcomes Based on Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index in Japanese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Kimiko; Aoki, Shigeru; Toma, Rie; Fujiwara, Kana; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To verify whether body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is valid in Japanese women. Method A study was conducted in 97,157 women with singleton pregnancies registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System between January 2013 and December 2013, to examine pregnancy outcomes in four groups stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI category according to the 2009 criteria recommended by the I...

  14. An evolving scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barlow, S; Bouchard, C; Catalano, P M; Hsia, D S; Inge, T H; Lovelady, C; Raynor, H; Redman, L M; Staiano, A E; Spruijt-Metz, D; Symonds, M E; Vickers, M; Wilfley, D; Yanovski, J A

    2014-07-01

    The 2013 Pennington Biomedical Research Center's Scientific Symposium focused on the treatment and management of pediatric obesity and was designed to (i) review recent scientific advances in the prevention, clinical treatment and management of pediatric obesity, (ii) integrate the latest published and unpublished findings and (iii) explore how these advances can be integrated into clinical and public health approaches. The symposium provided an overview of important new advances in the field, which led to several recommendations for incorporating the scientific evidence into practice. The science presented covered a range of topics related to pediatric obesity, including the role of genetic differences, epigenetic events influenced by in utero development, pre-pregnancy maternal obesity status, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain on developmental programming of adiposity in offspring. Finally, the relative merits of a range of various behavioral approaches targeted at pediatric obesity were covered, together with the specific roles of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery in pediatric populations. In summary, pediatric obesity is a very challenging problem that is unprecedented in evolutionary terms; one which has the capacity to negate many of the health benefits that have contributed to the increased longevity observed in the developed world.

  15. Gestational exposure to maternal obesity decreases mitochondrial SIRT3 and components of oxidative phosphorylation in offspring liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to maternal overweight (OW) during development influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. We reported that by postnatal day (PND) 120 male offspring from OW rat dams have greater body weight and fat mass (p<0.005), and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (HFD, 45% fat). OW...

  16. Maternal obesity leads to increased proliferation and numbers of astrocytes in the developing fetal and neonatal mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Won; Glendining, Kelly A; Grattan, David R; Jasoni, Christine L

    2016-10-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with chronic maternal, placental, and fetal inflammation; and it elevates the risk for offspring obesity. Changes in the development of the hypothalamus, a brain region that regulates body weight and energy balance, are emerging as important determinants of offspring risk, but such changes are only beginning to be defined. Here we focused on the hypothesis that the pathological exposure of developing hypothalamic astrocytes to cytokines would alter their development. A maternal high-fat diet (mHFD) mouse model was used to investigate changes in hypothalamic astrocytes in the fetus during late gestation and in early neonates by using immunochemistry, confocal microscopy, and qPCR. The number of astrocytes and the proportion of proliferating astrocytes was significantly higher in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus at both ages compared to control offspring from normal weight pregnancies. Supplemental to this we found that cultured fetal hypothalamic astrocytes proliferated significantly in response to IL6 (10ng/ml), one of the cytokines significantly elevated in fetuses of obese dams, via the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway. Thus, maternal obesity during pregnancy stimulated the proliferation and thereby increased numbers of astrocytes in the fetal as well as early neonatal hypothalamus, which may be driven, during fetal life, by IL6. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic maternal inflammation or high-fat-feeding programs offspring obesity in a sex-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudele, A; Hougaard, K S; Kjølby, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The current world-wide obesity epidemic partially results from a vicious circle whereby maternal obesity during pregnancy predisposes the offspring for accelerated weight gain and development of metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate whether low-grade inflammation......, characteristic of the obese state, provides a causal role for this disastrous fetal programming in mice. METHODS: We exposed pregnant and lactating C57BL/6JBom female mice to either high-fat diet (HFD), or continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent trigger of innate immunity, and studied offspring...... phenotypes. RESULTS: Both maternal LPS or HFD treatments rendered the offspring hyperphagic and inept of coping with a HFD challenge during adulthood, increasing their adiposity and weight gain. The metabolic effects were more pronounced in female offspring, while exposed male offspring mounted a larger...

  18. Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan Li

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1 control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON; 2 CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT; 3 maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose during pregnancy and lactation (MO; or 4 MO supplemented with taurine (MOT. Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation

  19. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...... composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from...

  20. Maternal obesity and neonatal mortality according to subtypes of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Vaeth, Michael; Bech, Bodil H

    2007-01-01

    -2002) who were interviewed during the second trimester. Information about pregnancy outcomes and neonatal deaths (n=230) was obtained from national registers. The association was estimated by Cox regression analyses and results were presented as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS.......6, CI 1.0-2.4, respectively). For preterm infants (n=3,934, 136 deaths), neonatal mortality in infants born after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) was significantly increased if they were born to an overweight or obese mother (adjusted hazard ratios 3.5, CI 1.4-8.7, and 5.7, CI 2.......2-14.8). There were no associations between high BMI and neonatal mortality in infants born after spontaneous preterm birth without preterm PROM or in infants born after induced preterm delivery. CONCLUSION: High maternal weight seems to increase the risk of neonatal mortality, especially in infants born after...

  1. Overweight and obesity knowledge prior to pregnancy: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitert Marloes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk for pregnancy complications. Knowledge about increased risks in overweight and obese women could contribute to successful prevention strategies and the aim of this study is to assess current levels of knowledge in a pregnant population. Methods Cross sectional survey of 412 consecutive unselected women in early pregnancy in Brisbane, Australia: 255 public women attending their first antenatal clinic visit and 157 women at private maternal fetal medicine clinics undergoing a routine ultrasound evaluation prior to 20 weeks gestation. The cohort was stratified according to pre pregnancy BMI ( Results Over 75% of respondents identified that obese women have an increased risk of overall complications, including gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy compared to women of normal weight. More than 60% of women asserted that obesity would increase the risk of caesarean section and less than half identified an increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. Women were less likely to know about neonatal complications (19.7% did not know about the effect of obesity on these than maternal complications (7.4%. Knowledge was similar amongst women recruited at the public hospital and those recruited whilst attending for an ultrasound scan at a private clinic. For most areas they were also similar between women of lower and higher BMI, but women with BMI Conclusions Many women correctly identify that overweight and obesity increases the overall risk of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. The increased risks of maternal complications associated with being obese are better known than the increased risk of neonatal complications. Maternal education status is a main determinant of the extent of knowledge and this should be considered when designing education campaigns.

  2. Maternal obesity: implications for pregnancy outcome and long-term risks-a link to maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Amir; Hod, Moshe; Yogev, Yariv

    2011-11-01

    As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, its prevalence during reproductive age is also increased. Alarming reports state that two-thirds of adults in the USA are overweight or obese, with half of them in the latter category, and the rate of obese pregnant women is estimated at 18-38%. These women are of major concern to women's health providers because they encounter numerous pregnancy-related complications. Obesity-related reproductive health complications range from infertility to a wide spectrum of diseases such as hypertensive disorders, coagulopathies, gestational diabetes mellitus, respiratory complications, and fetal complications such as large-for-gestational-age infants, congenital malformations, stillbirth, and shoulder dystocia. Recent reports suggest that obesity during pregnancy can be a risk factor for developing obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases in the newborn later in life. This review will address the implication of obesity on pregnancy and child health, and explore recent literature on obesity during pregnancy.

  3. Differential effects of exposure to maternal obesity or maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in the sheep on insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle of the offspring at 4 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nicholas

    Full Text Available Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3α and higher muscle GSK3α abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110β, aPKCζ, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation.

  4. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstenberg, Marina Kjærgaard; Nilsson, C; Secher, A

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic...... astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were...... than energy expenditure, suggesting differential programming of leptin sensitivity in ARC in SS offspring. Effects of the maternal S diet were normalized when offspring were fed a chow diet after weaning. Conclusions: Maternal intake of chocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences...

  5. Maternal obesity during gestation impairs fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial SIRT3 expression in rat offspring at weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Borengasser

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's risk of obesity in later life. We have also previously reported that offspring of obese rat dams develop hepatic steatosis, mild hyperinsulinemia, and a lipogenic gene signature in the liver at postnatal day (PND21. In the current study, we examined systemic and hepatic adaptations in male Sprague-Dawley offspring from lean and obese dams at PND21. Indirect calorimetry revealed decreases in energy expenditure (p<0.001 and increases in RER values (p<0.001, which were further exacerbated by high fat diet (45% kcals from fat consumption indicating an impaired ability to utilize fatty acids in offspring of obese dams as analyzed by PRCF. Mitochondrial function is known to be associated with fatty acid oxidation (FAO in the liver. Several markers of hepatic mitochondrial function were reduced in offspring of obese dams. These included SIRT3 mRNA (p = 0.012 and mitochondrial protein content (p = 0.002, electron transport chain complexes (II, III, and ATPase, and fasting PGC-1α mRNA expression (p<0.001. Moreover, hepatic LCAD, a SIRT3 target, was not only reduced 2-fold (p<0.001 but was also hyperacetylated in offspring of obese dams (p<0.005 suggesting decreased hepatic FAO. In conclusion, exposure to maternal obesity contributes to early perturbations in whole body and liver energy metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be an underlying event that reduces hepatic fatty acid oxidation and precedes the development of detrimental obesity associated co-morbidities such as insulin resistance and NAFLD.

  6. Weight stigma in maternity care: women’s experiences and care providers’ attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulherin Kate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight stigma is pervasive in Western society and in healthcare settings, and has a negative impact on victims’ psychological and physical health. In the context of an increasing focus on the management of overweight and obese women during and after pregnancy in research and clinical practice, the current studies aimed to examine the presence of weight stigma in maternity care. Addressing previous limitations in the weight stigma literature, this paper quantitatively explores the presence of weight stigma from both patient and care provider perspectives. Methods Study One investigated associations between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and experiences of maternity care from a state-wide, self-reported survey of 627 Australian women who gave birth in 2009. Study Two involved administration of an online survey to 248 Australian pre-service medical and maternity care providers, to investigate their perceptions of, and attitudes towards, providing care for pregnant patients of differing body sizes. Both studies used linear regression analyses. Results Women with a higher BMI were more likely to report negative experiences of care during pregnancy and after birth, compared to lower weight women. Pre-service maternity care providers perceived overweight and obese women as having poorer self-management behaviours, and reported less positive attitudes towards caring for overweight or obese pregnant women, than normal-weight pregnant women. Even care providers who reported few weight stigmatising attitudes responded less positively to overweight and obese pregnant women. Conclusions Overall, these results provide preliminary evidence that weight stigma is present in maternity care settings in Australia. They suggest a need for further research into the nature and consequences of weight stigma in maternity care, and for the inclusion of strategies to recognise and combat weight stigma in maternity care professionals’ training.

  7. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, M; Nilsson, C; Secher, A; Kildegaard, J; Skovgaard, T; Nielsen, M O; Grove, K; Raun, K

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were assigned to either S or C diet, giving four groups until the end of the experiment at 26 weeks of age. Results: As expected, adult offspring fed the S diet post weaning became obese (body weight: Pdifferential programming of leptin sensitivity in ARC in SS offspring. Effects of the maternal S diet were normalized when offspring were fed a chow diet after weaning. Conclusions: Maternal intake of chocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences for the metabolic phenotype in the offspring if they continued on the S diet in postnatal life. These offspring displayed obesity despite lowered energy intake associated with alterations in hypothalamic leptin signalling. PMID:28092346

  8. 孕前体质量指数与妊娠结局关系的评价%Effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index on pregnancy outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春明; 张为远

    2014-01-01

    used to estimate the association between BMI and adverse maternal,peripartum and perinatal outcomes with normal weight as a reference range.Results (1)Overweight and obese women were more likely to have hypertensive disorders with odds ratios of 2.29 and 6.02,gestational diabetes mellitus 2.27,4.99 ; (2) the odds ratios for fetal macrosomia increased among women with higher BMI as follows:0.59,1.99 and 3.15,whereas only lean women had significantly increased risk of delivering babies with low birth weight (LBW) 1.62 ; (3) increased BMI was associated with reduced rates of assisted vaginal delivery and increased rates of caesarean section.Conclusion As an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes,pre-pregnancy obesity should be managed properly.

  9. Males are from Mars, and females are from Venus: sex-specific fetal brain gene expression signatures in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Andrea G; Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Sverdlov, Deanna; Neri, Caterina; Bianchi, Diana W

    2016-05-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, including autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We previously identified second-trimester amniotic fluid and term cord blood gene expression patterns suggesting dysregulated brain development in fetuses of obese compared with lean women. We sought to investigate the biological significance of these findings in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. We evaluated sex-specific differences in fetal growth, brain gene expression signatures, and associated pathways. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet or 10% fat control diet for 12-14 weeks prior to mating. During pregnancy, obese dams continued on the high-fat diet or transitioned to the control diet. Lean dams stayed on the control diet. On embryonic day 17.5, embryos were weighed and fetal brains were snap frozen. RNA was extracted from male and female forebrains (10 per diet group per sex) and hybridized to whole-genome expression arrays. Significantly differentially expressed genes were identified using a Welch's t test with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Functional analyses were performed using ingenuity pathways analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. Embryos of dams on the high-fat diet were significantly smaller than controls, with males more severely affected than females (P = .01). Maternal obesity and maternal obesity with dietary change in pregnancy resulted in significantly more dysregulated genes in male vs female fetal brains (386 vs 66, P obesity with and without dietary change in pregnancy was associated with unique brain gene expression signatures for each sex, with an overlap of only 1 gene. Changing obese dams to a control diet in pregnancy resulted in more differentially expressed genes in the fetal brain than maternal obesity alone. Functional analyses identified common dysregulated

  10. Growth and obesity through the first 7 y of life in association with levels of maternal glycemia during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Yeyi; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    , including maternal prepregnancy obesity status. Design: FPG concentrations at 28 gestational weeks (IQR: 22-32 wk) were extracted from medical records for 661 pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Offspring's ponderal index was derived from...... prepregnancy BMI and sociodemographic and perinatal factors. Results: At birth, maternal FPG during pregnancy was significantly associated with offspring ponderal index (β = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.78 per 1-mmol/L increase) and risk of macrosomia (birth weight .4000 g) (RR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.38 per 1-mmol...

  11. Maternal Obesity Management Using Mobile Technology: A Feasibility Study to Evaluate a Text Messaging Based Complex Intervention during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Hora; Duxbury, Alexandra M. S.; Arden, Madelynne A.; Dearden, Andy; Furness, Penny J.; Garland, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Background. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are on the rise with negative impact on pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research into managing GWG using accessible technology is limited. The maternal obesity management using mobile technology (MOMTech) study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of text messaging based complex intervention designed to support obese women (BMI ≥ 30) with healthier lifestyles and limit GWG. Methods. Participants received two daily text messages, supported by four appointments with healthy lifestyle midwife, diet and activity goal setting, and self-monitoring diaries. The comparison group were obese mothers who declined to participate but consented for their routinely collected data to be used for comparison. Postnatal interviews and focus groups with participants and the comparison group explored the intervention's acceptability and suggested improvements. Results. Fourteen women completed the study which did not allow statistical analyses. However, participants had lower mean GWG than the comparison group (6.65 kg versus 9.74 kg) and few (28% versus 50%) exceeded the Institute of Medicine's upper limit of 9 kg GWG for obese women. Conclusions. MOMTech was feasible within clinical setting and acceptable intervention to support women to limit GWG. Before further trials, slight modifications are planned to recruitment, text messages, and the logistics of consultation visits. PMID:25960889

  12. Maternal Obesity Management Using Mobile Technology: A Feasibility Study to Evaluate a Text Messaging Based Complex Intervention during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hora Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG are on the rise with negative impact on pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research into managing GWG using accessible technology is limited. The maternal obesity management using mobile technology (MOMTech study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of text messaging based complex intervention designed to support obese women (BMI ≥ 30 with healthier lifestyles and limit GWG. Methods. Participants received two daily text messages, supported by four appointments with healthy lifestyle midwife, diet and activity goal setting, and self-monitoring diaries. The comparison group were obese mothers who declined to participate but consented for their routinely collected data to be used for comparison. Postnatal interviews and focus groups with participants and the comparison group explored the intervention’s acceptability and suggested improvements. Results. Fourteen women completed the study which did not allow statistical analyses. However, participants had lower mean GWG than the comparison group (6.65 kg versus 9.74 kg and few (28% versus 50% exceeded the Institute of Medicine’s upper limit of 9 kg GWG for obese women. Conclusions. MOMTech was feasible within clinical setting and acceptable intervention to support women to limit GWG. Before further trials, slight modifications are planned to recruitment, text messages, and the logistics of consultation visits.

  13. Influence of child and maternal variables on childhood obesity in the municipalities of Fundão, Montijo, Oeiras, Seixal and Viana do Castelo

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Filipa; Silva, Ana Lúcia; Ramos, Carlos; Carvalho, Maria Ana; Rito, Ana

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has been considered a global epidemic and its prevalence has increased worldwide in the last decades. Such trends as gain special interest in the scientific community and their causes have been large studied. In this context it is recognized the importance of more study on obesity’ influences. According to the literature childhood obesity is linked with some child and maternal features. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between child and maternal varia...

  14. Antenatal exercise in overweight and obese women and its effects on offspring and maternal health: design and rationale of the IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Obesity Via Exercise) randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sumudu N; Parry, Graham K; McCowan, Lesley Me; Ekeroma, Alec; Jiang, Yannan; Gusso, Silmara; Peres, Geovana; Rodrigues, Raquel O; Craigie, Susan; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2014-04-26

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring and mother. Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy such as antenatal exercise, are proposed to improve both short- and long-term health of mother and child. We hypothesise that regular moderate-intensity exercise during the second half of pregnancy will result in improved maternal and offspring outcomes, including a reduction in birth weight and adiposity in the offspring, which may be protective against obesity in later life. The IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Risks of Obesity Via Exercise) study is a two-arm parallel randomised controlled clinical trial being conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Overweight and obese women (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) aged 18-40 years, with a singleton pregnancy of exercise.Participants are randomised with 1:1 allocation ratio to either intervention or control group, using computer-generated randomisation sequences in variable block sizes, stratified on ethnicity and parity, after completion of baseline assessments. The intervention consists of a 16-week structured home-based moderate-intensity exercise programme utilising stationary cycles and heart rate monitors, commencing at 20 weeks of gestation. The control group do not receive any exercise intervention. Both groups undergo regular fetal ultrasonography and receive standard antenatal care. Due to the nature of the intervention, participants are un-blinded to group assignment during the trial.The primary outcome is offspring birth weight. Secondary offspring outcomes include fetal and neonatal body composition and anthropometry, neonatal complications and cord blood metabolic markers. Maternal outcomes include weight gain, pregnancy and delivery complications, aerobic fitness, quality of life, metabolic markers and post-partum body composition. The results of this trial will provide valuable insights on the effects of antenatal exercise on health outcomes in overweight and obese mothers and their

  15. Maternal nutrient restriction between early-to-mid gestation and its impact upon appetite regulation following juvenile obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébert, S.P.; Hyatt, M.A.; Chan, L.L.Y.; Patel, N.; Bell, R. C.; Keisler, D.; Stephenson, T.; Budge, H.; Symonds, M.E.; Gardner, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of maternal nutrient restriction during early-to-mid gestation, a period coinciding with early fetal brain development, on appetite regulation and energy balance in the offspring following juvenile obesity was examined. Pregnant sheep were either fed to fully meet their nutritional requirements throughout gestation or 50% of this amount between 30-80 days gestation. Following weaning, offspring were either made obese through exposure to a sedentary obesogenic environment or remained lean. Maternal nutrient restriction had no effect on birth weight or subsequent growth. At one week of age, only, gene expression for neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus was reduced in nutrient restricted offspring. By 1 year of age, all obese animals had raised plasma leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin, with the latter effect amplified in nutrient restricted offspring. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and cortisol were unaffected by obesity. The entrained reduction in physical activity that led to obesity persisted when all animals were maintained within individual pens. Obese nutrient restricted offspring, however, exhibited reduced daily food intake and were, therefore, no longer in positive “energy balance”. This adaptation was accompanied by elevated hypothalamic gene expression for the melanocortin-4 and insulin receptors, AMP-activated kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase α. In conclusion, nutrient restriction specifically targeted over the period of early fetal brain development, contributes to a profoundly different adaptation in energy balance following juvenile obesity. The extent to which this adaptive response may benefit the offspring or result in an exacerbated risk for type II diabetes remains to be established. PMID:18818297

  16. Maternal Body Mass Index and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Tang, Shiming; Xu, Shunsheng; Weng, Shenhong; Liu, Zhongchun

    2016-01-01

    Controversial results of the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring were reported among several studies. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall association between maternal BMI and risk of ASD in offspring. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched until January 2016. Cohort and case-control studies addressing the association between maternal BMI and risk of ASD in offspring were included. We used random-effect models to estimate the summary relative risks (RRs), we also performed a dose-response meta-analysis to estimate the trend from the correlated log RR estimates across levels of BMI quantitatively. Totally, 6 cohort studies and 1 case-control study involving 8,403 cases and 509,167 participants were included for analysis. The summary RR (95% confidence interval) for ASD in offspring in relation to maternal underweight, overweight, and obesity vs. normal weight during pre-pregnancy or pregnancy, was 1.07 (0.93, 1.23), 1.28 (1.19, 1.36) and 1.36 (1.03, 1.78), respectively. A linear dose-response relationship was found, with a pooled RR of 1.16 (1.01, 1.33) for each 5 kg/m2. increment in maternal BMI. The present study suggests that excessive maternal BMI is associated with increased ASD risk in offspring. PMID:27687989

  17. The impact of maternal obesity, age, pre-eclampsia and insulin dependent diabetes on severe maternal morbidity by mode of delivery-a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallasmaa, Nanneli; Ekblad, Ulla; Gissler, Mika; Alanen, Anna

    2015-02-01

    To determine the rate of severe maternal morbidity related to delivery by delivery mode and to assess if the impact of studied risk factors varies by delivery mode. A register-based study including all women having singleton delivery in Finland in 2007-2011, n = 292,253, data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Registry and Hospital Discharge Registry. Diagnoses and interventions indicating a severe maternal complication were searched and the mode of delivery was assessed by data linkage. The impact of obesity, maternal age 35 years or more, pre-eclampsia and insulin dependent diabetes on severe maternal morbidity (all severe complications, severe infections and severe) was studied in each mode of delivery and calculated as Odds ratios. The overall incidence of severe complications was 12.8/1,000 deliveries. The total complication rate was lowest in vaginal deliveries (VD) in all risk groups. Obesity increased the risk for all severe complications and severe infections in the total population, but not significantly in specific delivery modes. Age increased the risk of hemorrhage in VD. Pre-eclampsia increased the risk for hemorrhage in all deliveries except elective CS. In women with pre-eclampsia, overall morbidity was similar in VD, attempted VD and elective CS. The presence of any studied risk factor increased the risk for complications within the risk groups by the high proportion of emergency CS performed. An attempt of VD is the safest way to deliver even for high-risk women with the exception of women with pre-eclampsia, who had a similar risk in an attempt of VD and elective CS.

  18. A DRD4 Gene by Maternal Sensitivity Interaction Predicts Risk for Overweight or Obesity in Two Independent Cohorts of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Robert D.; Jansen, Pauline; Wendland, Barbara; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Silveira, Patricia P.; Kennedy, James L.; Atkinson, Leslie; Fleming, Alison; Sokolowski, Marla; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Dubé, Laurette; Hamilton, Jill; Moss, Ellen; Wazana, Ashley; Meaney, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for obesity in children and adolescents. A separate line of study shows that the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) increases susceptibility to environmental factors including maternal sensitivity. The current study…

  19. The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on longer-term maternal and early childhood outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Jodie M.; Grivell, Rosalie M.; Louise, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    or is being undertaken. The primary maternal outcome is a diagnosis of maternal metabolic syndrome. The primary childhood outcome is BMI above 90%. We have identified 7 relevant trials, involving 5425 women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy, with approximately 3544 women and children with follow...

  20. A DRD4 Gene by Maternal Sensitivity Interaction Predicts Risk for Overweight or Obesity in Two Independent Cohorts of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Robert D.; Jansen, Pauline; Wendland, Barbara; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Silveira, Patricia P.; Kennedy, James L.; Atkinson, Leslie; Fleming, Alison; Sokolowski, Marla; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Dubé, Laurette; Hamilton, Jill; Moss, Ellen; Wazana, Ashley; Meaney, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for obesity in children and adolescents. A separate line of study shows that the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) increases susceptibility to environmental factors including maternal sensitivity. The current study…

  1. Translation of fetal abdominal circumference-guided therapy of gestational diabetes complicated by maternal obesity to a clinical outpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Stephen F; Bovbjerg, Marit L; Kington, Randi L

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of fetal abdominal circumference-guided therapy for gestational diabetes (GDM) in an outpatient population characterized by highly-prevalent maternal obesity. Data for this translational retrospective cohort study come from medical records. Fetal abdominal circumference was assessed by ultrasound in late second trimester, and sex- and gestational age-specific percentiles assigned. Taking fetal abdominal circumference percentile as a marker for adequacy of fetal growth, maternal glucose targets were set accordingly: loose, moderate or tight. Associations between mother's targets and neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and neonatal hypoglycemia) were assessed using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for pre-gravid body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. In 419 consecutive pregnancies complicated by GDM, neonatal outcomes compared favorably with previous randomized trials of intensive GDM management. Importantly, adverse outcomes were observed less often than might be expected in an obese GDM population. BMI did not have an independent effect on neonatal outcomes. Ultrasound-guided therapy of GDM, in general clinic use, can limit excess macrosomia and LGA, even in a population with significant maternal obesity.

  2. Epigenetic changes in the hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin gene: a mechanism linking maternal undernutrition to obesity in the offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam; Begum, Ghazala; White, Anne

    2011-06-11

    Maternal undernutrition is associated with programming of obesity in offspring. While previous evidence has linked programming to the hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal (HPA) axis it could also affect the hypothalamic neuropeptides which regulate food intake and energy balance. Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), a key regulator of these neuronal pathways, is derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which is therefore a prime target for the programming of obesity. Several models of maternal undernutrition have identified changes in POMC in hypothalami from foetuses or offspring at various ages. These models have also shown that the offspring go on to develop obesity and/or glucose intolerance. It is our hypothesis that programming leads to epigenetic changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide genes. Therefore when there is subsequent increased food availability, the epigenetic changes could cause dysfunctional transcriptional regulation of energy balance. We present evidence of epigenetic changes in the POMC gene promoter in foetal hypothalami after peri-conceptional undernutrition. In this model there are also epigenetic changes in the hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor with consequent up-regulation of the receptor which could lead to alterations in the regulation of POMC and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus. Thus maternal undernutrition could cause epigenetic changes in the POMC and glucocorticoid receptor genes, in the foetal hypothalamus, which may predispose the offspring to altered regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis, later in life. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of combined inositol supplementation on maternal metabolic profile in pregnancies complicated by metabolic syndrome and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Francesca; Facchinetti, Fabio; Ontiveros, Alejandra E; Roberts, Robyn P; Saade, Mia M; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M; Refuerzo, Jerrie S; Longo, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Myoinositol and D-chiroinositol improve insulin resistance in women with obesity and gestational diabetes and in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that offspring born to hypertensive dams lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase and fed a high-fat diet develop metabolic-like syndrome phenotype. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of a mixture of myoinositol/D-chiroinositol supplementation during pregnancy on the maternal metabolic profile in pregnancies complicated by the metabolic-like syndrome and obesity using a pregnant mouse model. Female heterozygous endothelial nitric oxide synthase(-/+) mice with moderate hypertension were placed on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks to induce a metabolic-like syndrome phenotype. Similarly, wild-type C57BL/6 mice were placed on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks to induce a murine obesity model. Mice were then bred with wild-type males. On gestational day 1, dams were randomly allocated to receive either a mixture of myoinositol/D-chiroinositol in water (7.2/0.18 mg/mL, respectively) or water as control (placebo). At term (gestational day 18), maternal weights, systolic blood pressure, and a glucose tolerance test were obtained. Dams were then killed; pups and placentas were weighed and maternal blood collected. Serum levels of metabolic biomarkers relevant to diabetes and obesity (ghrelin, gastric inhibitory peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, resistin) were measured by a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analysis was done comparing metabolic-like syndrome-myoinositol/D-chiroinositol-treated vs metabolic-like syndrome-nontreated mice and obese-myoinositol/D-chiroinositol-treated vs obese nontreated mice. Mean systolic blood pressure was lower in metabolic-like syndrome pregnant mice treated with myoinositol/D-chiroinositol compared with placebo (P = .04), whereas there was no difference in systolic blood pressure between treated and placebo

  4. High fat diet and in utero exposure to maternal obesity disrupts circadian rhythm and leads to metabolic programming of liver in rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Borengasser

    Full Text Available The risk of obesity in adulthood is subject to programming beginning at conception. In animal models, exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diets influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. Among other long-term changes, offspring from obese rats develop hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and lipogenic gene expression in the liver at weaning. However, the precise underlying mechanisms leading to metabolic dysregulation in the offspring remains unclear. Using a rat model of overfeeding-induced obesity, we previously demonstrated that exposure to maternal obesity from pre-conception to birth, is sufficient to program increased obesity risk in the offspring. Offspring of obese rat dams gain greater body weight and fat mass when fed high fat diet (HFD as compared to lean dam. Since, disruptions of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver, we examined the hypothesis that maternal obesity leads to perturbations of core clock components and thus energy metabolism in offspring liver. Offspring from lean and obese dams were examined at post-natal day 35, following a short (2 wk HFD challenge. Hepatic mRNA expression of circadian (CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERBα, CRY, PER and metabolic (PPARα, SIRT1 genes were strongly suppressed in offspring exposed to both maternal obesity and HFD. Using a mathematical model, we identified two distinct biological mechanisms that modulate PPARα mRNA expression: i decreased mRNA synthesis rates; and ii increased non-specific mRNA degradation rate. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that changes in PPARα transcription were associated with epigenomic alterations in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 histone marks near the PPARα transcription start site. Our findings indicated that offspring from obese rat dams have detrimental alternations to circadian machinery that may contribute to impaired liver metabolism in response to HFD, specifically via reduced PPAR

  5. Identification and comparative analyses of myocardial miRNAs involved in the fetal response to maternal obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Huffman, Steven; Cox, Laura A.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Myatt, Leslie; Nijland, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Human and animal studies show that suboptimal intrauterine environments lead to fetal programming, predisposing offspring to disease in later life. Maternal obesity has been shown to program offspring for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and obesity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that act as key regulators of numerous cellular processes. Compelling evidence links miRNAs to the control of cardiac development and etiology of cardiac pathology; however, little is known about their role in the fetal cardiac response to maternal obesity. Our aim was to sequence and profile the cardiac miRNAs that are dysregulated in the hearts of baboon fetuses born to high fat/high fructose-diet (HFD) fed mothers for comparison with fetal hearts from mothers eating a regular diet. Eighty miRNAs were differentially expressed. Of those, 55 miRNAs were upregulated and 25 downregulated with HFD. Twenty-two miRNAs were mapped to human; 14 of these miRNAs were previously reported to be dysregulated in experimental or human CVD. We used an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to integrate miRNA profiling and bioinformatics predictions to determine miRNA-regulated processes and genes potentially involved in fetal programming. We found a correlation between miRNA expression and putative gene targets involved in developmental disorders and CVD. Cellular death, growth, and proliferation were the most affected cellular functions in response to maternal obesity. Thus, the current study reveals significant alterations in cardiac miRNA expression in the fetus of obese baboons. The epigenetic modifications caused by adverse prenatal environment may represent one of the mechanisms underlying fetal programming of CVD. PMID:23922128

  6. Experimental Models of Maternal Obesity and Neuroendocrine Programming of Metabolic Disorders in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Reynolds

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity. Although the mechanistic basis for such developmental programming is not yet fully defined, a common feature derived from experimental animal models is that of alterations in the wiring of the neuroendocrine pathways that control energy balance and appetite regulation during early stages of developmental plasticity. The adipokine leptin has also received significant attention with clear experimental evidence that normal regulation of leptin levels during the early life period is critical for the normal development of tissues and related signaling pathways that are involved in metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. There is also increasing evidence that alterations in the epigenome and other underlying mechanisms including an altered gut–brain axis may contribute to lasting cardiometabolic dysfunction in offspring. Ongoing studies that further define the mechanisms between these associations will allow for identification of early risk markers and implementation of strategies around interventions that will have obvious beneficial implications in breaking a programmed transgenerational cycle of metabolic disorders.

  7. Cumulative incidence of youth obesity is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and with maternal overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Reis Gaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This longitudinal study evaluated the association between the incidence of youth overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF over 4 years and youths' and their parents' demographic and nutritional characteristics. The randomized sample comprised 398 youth, aged 7-17 years at baseline, from a city in southern Brazil. Subjects were classified as being Ow/Ob according to international body mass index (BMI parameters. Parental weight and height were determined by direct questioning. Youth CRF was measured by a 9-minute walk-and-run test. The cumulative incidences of Ow/Ob and of low CRF levels were 25.1% and 20.5%, respectively. Relative to other youth, youth who were classified as "unhealthy" at baseline (with respect to CRF and by the fourth year were more likely to be classified as Ow/Ob (relative risks: 1.12 and 1.10, respectively. Youth whose mothers were categorized as Ow/Ob were at higher risk of being classified as Ow/Ob than youth whose mothers had normal BMIs (relative risks: 1.19 at baseline and 1.20 in the fourth year. The incidence of Ow/Ob among the former youth was associated with low CRF levels and with maternal Ob.

  8. Improved maternal nutrition decreases children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Improved maternal nutrition to decrease children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity The nutritional well-being of pregnant women affects not only their health and their fetuses' development but also children's long-term risk of developing NCDs or obesity, according...... of death and disability in the WHO European Region. The need to address the current epidemics of obesity, diabetes and other NCDs is already identified as a major health priority: the European policy framework, Health 2020, and Sustainable Development Goal 3 have specific targets related to NCDs....... The evidence emphasizes the need to implement strategies to optimize the nutrition of reproductive-age women. The evidence suggests that such interventions are among the most effective and sustainable means of achieving positive effects on health and reducing health inequalities across the next generation...

  9. Maternal diet-induced obesity programs cardiovascular dysfunction in adult male mouse offspring independent of current body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Heather L; Niu, Youguo; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are unable to define causality. This study aimed to determine causality using a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by feeding a diet rich in simple sugars and saturated fat 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Control females were fed laboratory chow. Male offspring from both groups were weaned onto chow and studied at 3, 5, 8, and 12 weeks of age for gross cardiac morphometry using stereology, cardiomyocyte cell area by histology, and cardiac fetal gene expression using qRT-PCR. Cardiac function was assessed by isolated Langendorff technology at 12 weeks of age and hearts were analyzed at the protein level for the expression of the β1 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic type-2 acetylcholine receptor, and proteins involved in cardiac contraction. Offspring from obese mothers develop pathologic cardiac hypertrophy associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes. By young adulthood these offspring developed severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dominance. Importantly, cardiac dysfunction occurred in the absence of any change in corresponding body weight and despite the offspring eating a healthy low-fat diet. These findings provide a causal link to explain human observations relating maternal obesity with premature death from CVD in her offspring.

  10. Maternal obesity and postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal and caesarean delivery among nulliparous women at term: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fyfe Elaine M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of postpartum haemorrhage in developed countries over the past two decades are not explained by corresponding changes in risk factors and conjecture has been raised that maternal obesity may be responsible. Few studies investigating risk factors for PPH have included BMI or investigated PPH risk among nulliparous women. The aim of this study was to determine in a cohort of nulliparous women delivering at term whether overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for major postpartum haemorrhage (PPH ≥1000ml after vaginal and caesarean section delivery. Methods The study population was nulliparous singleton pregnancies delivered at term at National Women’s Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand from 2006 to 2009 (N=11,363. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for risk factors for major PPH. Results There were 7238 (63.7% women of normal BMI, 2631 (23.2% overweight and 1494 (13.1% obese. Overall, PPH rates were increased in overweight and obese compared with normal-weight women (n=255 [9.7%], n=233 [15.6%], n=524 [7.2%], p Conclusion Nulliparous obese women have a twofold increase in risk of major PPH compared to women with normal BMI regardless of mode of delivery. Higher rates of PPH among obese women are not attributable to their higher rates of caesarean delivery. Obesity is an important high risk factor for PPH, and the risk following vaginal delivery is emphasised. We recommend in addition to standard practice of active management of third stage of labour, there should be increased vigilance and preparation for PPH management in obese women.

  11. Maternal body mass index before pregnancy as a risk factor for ADHD and autism in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina Hebsgaard; Thomsen, Per Hove; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    The risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be influenced by environmental factors such as maternal obesity before pregnancy. Previous studies investigating those associations have found divergent results. We aim to investigate in a large...... birth cohort this association further in children with ADHD, ASD and comorbid ADHD and ASD. Our study population consisted of 81,892 mother-child pairs participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Information about pre-pregnancy weight and height was collected in week 16 of pregnancy......; the analysis was divided into groups based on BMI. Children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD and/or ASD were identified in the Danish health registries at an average age of 13.3 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using time-to-event analysis. Compared to normal weight mothers, the risk of having...

  12. Pre-Pregnancy Dating Violence and Birth Outcomes Among Adolescent Mothers in a National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W

    2014-07-01

    Although infants born to adolescent mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, little is known about contributors to birth outcomes in this group. Given past research linking partner abuse to adverse birth outcomes among adult mothers, we explored associations between pre-pregnancy verbal and physical dating violence and the birth weight and gestational age of infants born to adolescent mothers. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Waves I (1995/1996), II (1996), and IV (2007/2008) were analyzed. Girls whose first singleton live births occurred after Wave II interview and before age 20 (N = 558) self-reported infants' birth weight and gestational age at Wave IV. Dating violence victimization (verbal and physical) in the 18 months prior to Wave II interview was self-reported. Controls included Wave I age, parent education, age at pregnancy, time between reporting abuse and birth, and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Weighted multivariable regression models were performed separately by race (Black/non-Black).On average, births occurred 2 years after Wave II interview. Almost one in four mothers reported verbal dating violence victimization (23.6%), and 10.1% reported physical victimization. Birth weight and prevalence of verbal dating violence victimization were significantly lower in Black compared with non-Black teen mothers. In multivariable analyses, negative associations between physical dating abuse and birth outcomes became stronger as time increased for Black mothers. For example, pre-pregnancy physical dating abuse was associated with 0.79 kilograms lower birth weight (p< .001) and 4.72 fewer weeks gestational age (p< .01) for Black mothers who gave birth 2 years post-reporting abuse. Physical dating abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes among non-Black mothers, and verbal abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes for all mothers. Reducing physical dating violence in adolescent relationships prior to

  13. Behavioral counseling to prevent childhood obesity – study protocol of a pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustila Taina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The control group was recruited among families who visited the same clinics one year earlier. Eligibility criteria was mother at risk for gestational diabetes: body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, macrosomic newborn in any previous pregnancy, immediate family history of diabetes and/or age ≥ 40 years. All maternity clinics in town involved in recruitment. The gestational intervention consisted of individual counseling on diet and physical activity by a public health nurse, and of two group counseling sessions. Intervention continues until offspring’s age of five years. An option to participate a group counseling at child’s age 1 to 2 years was offered. The intervention includes advice on healthy diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleeping pattern. The main outcome measure is offspring BMI z-score and its changes by the age of six years. Discussion Early childhood is a critical time period for prevention of obesity. Pragmatic trials targeting this period are necessary in order to find effective obesity prevention programs feasible in normal health care practice. Trial registration Clinical Trials gov NCT00970710

  14. Beneficial effects of exercise on offspring obesity and insulin resistance are reduced by maternal high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, Juliane; Schumann, Sara; Schreiber, Saskia; Klaus, Susanne; Kanzleiter, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance.

  15. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...

  16. Maternal distress associates with placental genes regulating fetal glucocorticoid exposure and IGF2: Role of obesity and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Theresia H; Räikkönen, Katri; Riley, Simon C; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2015-09-01

    Maternal emotional distress symptoms, including life satisfaction, anxiety and depressed mood, are worse in Severely Obese (SO) than lean pregnancy and may alter placental genes regulating fetal glucocorticoid exposure and placental growth. We hypothesised that the associations between increased maternal distress symptoms and changes in placental gene expression including IGF2 and genes regulating fetal glucocorticoid exposure are more pronounced in SO pregnancy. We also considered whether there were sex-specific effects. Placental mRNA levels of 11β-HSDs, NR3C1-α, NR3C2, ABC transporters, mTOR and the IGF2 family were measured in term placental samples from 43 lean (BMI≤25kg/m(2)) and 50 SO (BMI≥40kg/m(2)) women, in whom distress symptoms were prospectively evaluated during pregnancy. The mRNA levels of genes with a similar role in regulating fetal glucocorticoid exposure were strongly inter-correlated. Increased maternal distress symptoms associated with increased NR3C2 and IGF2 isoform 1(IGF2-1) in both lean and SO group (p≤0.05). Increased distress was associated with higher ABCB1 and ABCG2 mRNA levels in SO but lower ABCB1 and higher 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels in lean (p≤0.05) suggesting a protective adaptive response in SO placentas. Increased maternal distress associated with reduced mRNA levels of ABCB1, ABCG2, 11β-HSD2, NR3C1-α and IGF2-1 in placentas of female but not male offspring. The observed sex differences in placental responses suggest greater vulnerability of female fetuses to maternal distress with potentially greater fetal glucocorticoid exposure and excess IGF2. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to test whether this translates to potentially greater negative outcomes of maternal distress in female offspring in early childhood.

  17. Antenatal exercise in overweight and obese women and its effects on offspring and maternal health: design and rationale of the IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Obesity Via Exercise) randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring and mother. Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy such as antenatal exercise, are proposed to improve both short- and long-term health of mother and child. We hypothesise that regular moderate-intensity exercise during the second half of pregnancy will result in improved maternal and offspring outcomes, including a reduction in birth weight and adiposity in the offspring, which may be protective against obesity in later life. Methods/Design The IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Risks of Obesity Via Exercise) study is a two-arm parallel randomised controlled clinical trial being conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Overweight and obese women (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) aged 18–40 years, with a singleton pregnancy of <20 weeks of gestation, from the Auckland region, are eligible for the trial. Exclusion criteria are ongoing smoking or medical contra-indications to antenatal exercise. Participants are randomised with 1:1 allocation ratio to either intervention or control group, using computer-generated randomisation sequences in variable block sizes, stratified on ethnicity and parity, after completion of baseline assessments. The intervention consists of a 16-week structured home-based moderate-intensity exercise programme utilising stationary cycles and heart rate monitors, commencing at 20 weeks of gestation. The control group do not receive any exercise intervention. Both groups undergo regular fetal ultrasonography and receive standard antenatal care. Due to the nature of the intervention, participants are un-blinded to group assignment during the trial. The primary outcome is offspring birth weight. Secondary offspring outcomes include fetal and neonatal body composition and anthropometry, neonatal complications and cord blood metabolic markers. Maternal outcomes include weight gain, pregnancy and delivery complications, aerobic fitness, quality of life, metabolic markers and

  18. Maternal depression, stress and feeding styles: towards a framework for theory and research in child obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Against the background of rising rates of obesity in children and adults in the USA, and modest effect sizes for obesity interventions, the aim of the present narrative review paper is to extend the UNICEF care model to focus on childhood obesity and its associated risks with an emphasis on the emot...

  19. Influence of maternal obesity, diet and exercise on epigenetic regulation of adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome has been increasing at an alarming rate in both children and adults. Obesity is associated with increased risk for development of metabolic syndrome and chronic diseases. Obesity is a leading cause of preventable death so there is an urgent need for u...

  20. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  1. The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on longer-term maternal and early childhood outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Jodie M; Grivell, Rosalie M; Louise, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    on the established International Weight Management in Pregnancy (i-WIP) IPD Collaborative Network, having identified researchers who have conducted randomised dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese, and where ongoing childhood follow-up of participants has been......BACKGROUND: The aim of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to evaluate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood outcomes at ages 3-5 years. METHODS/DESIGN: We will build...... or is being undertaken. The primary maternal outcome is a diagnosis of maternal metabolic syndrome. The primary childhood outcome is BMI above 90%. We have identified 7 relevant trials, involving 5425 women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy, with approximately 3544 women and children with follow...

  2. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ, 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ≥900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women.

  3. In utero exposure to prepregnancy maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet impair regulators of mitochondrial dynamics in rat placenta and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borengasser, Sarah J; Faske, Jennifer; Kang, Ping; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Shankar, Kartik

    2014-12-01

    The proportion of pregnant women who are obese at conception continues to rise. Compelling evidence suggests the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of offspring health. Maternal obesity and unhealthy diets are shown to promote metabolic programming in the offspring. Mitochondria are maternally inherited, and we have previously shown impaired mitochondrial function in rat offspring exposed to maternal obesity in utero. Mitochondrial health is maintained by mitochondrial dynamics, or the processes of fusion and fission, which serve to repair damaged mitochondria, remove irreparable mitochondria, and maintain mitochondrial morphology. An imbalance between fusion and fission has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and reproduction complications. In the present study, we examined the influence of maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) on key regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission in rat offspring at important developmental milestones which included postnatal day (PND)35 (2 wk HFD) and PND130 (∼16 wk HFD). Our results indicate HFD-fed offspring had reduced mRNA expression of presenilin-associated rhomboid-like (PARL), optic atrophy (OPA)1, mitofusin (Mfn)1, Mfn2, fission (Fis)1, and nuclear respiratory factor (Nrf)1 at PND35, while OPA1 and Mfn2 remained decreased at PND130. Putative transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial dynamics were reduced in rat placenta and offspring liver and skeletal muscle [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC1)α, PGC1β, and estrogen-related receptor (ERR)α], consistent with indirect calorimetry findings revealing reduced energy expenditure and impaired fat utilization. Overall, maternal obesity detrimentally alters mitochondrial targets that may contribute to impaired mitochondrial health and increased obesity susceptibility in later life.

  4. Impact of maternal obesity on inhaled corticosteroid use in childhood: a registry based analysis of first born children and a sibling pair analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Lowe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that maternal obesity during pregnancy may increase the risk that the child develops allergic disease and asthma, although the mechanisms underpinning this relationship are currently unclear. We sought to assess if this association may be due to confounding by genetic or environmental risk factors that are common to maternal obesity and childhood asthma, using a sibling pair analysis. METHODS: The study population comprised a Swedish national cohort of term children born between 1992 and 2008 to native Swedish parents. Maternal body mass index (BMI was measured at 8-10 weeks gestation. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to determine if maternal obesity was associated with increased risk of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS in 431,718 first-born children, while adjusting for potential confounders. An age-matched discordant sib-pair analysis was performed, taking into account shared genetic and environmental risk factors. RESULTS: Maternal over-weight and obesity were associated with increased risk that the child would require ICS (for BMI≥35 kg/m(2, aOR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.10-1.52 compared with normal weight mothers in children aged 6-12 years. Similar effects were seen in younger children, but in children aged 13-16 years, maternal obesity (BMI≥30 was related to increased risk of ICS use in girls (aOR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.07-1.53 but not boys (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.87-1.26. The sib-pair analysis, which included 2,034 sib-pairs older than six years who were discordant for both ICS use and maternal BMI category, failed to find any evidence that increasing maternal weight was related to increased risk of ICS use. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of childhood ICS use up to approximately 12 years of age, but only in girls after this age. These effects could not be confirmed in a sib pair analysis, suggesting either limited statistical power, or the effects

  5. Effect of maternal obesity on children's mental status%母亲肥胖对儿童神经精神状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐璐; 陶晔璇; 张军; 黄丽素

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,obesity is becoming one of the focus problems of social public concern.Maternal obesity may pose a threat on maternal health,for examble the increase of obstetrical complications,it may also affect the short-term and long-term health of the offspring.Maternal obesity may affect children's mental disorder,no review to date has discussed it systematically in China.Now,the health hazards of maternal obesity for the offspring including childhood autism spectrum disorder,attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,neural tube defects,neurobehavioral development disorders and so forth were reviewed,and to provide a reasonable guidance of obesity management.%近年来,肥胖正成为社会各界关注的焦点问题之一.母亲肥胖可能导致产科并发症增多,威胁母亲健康,还可能对子代的近期及远期健康产生重大影响.母亲肥胖可能对儿童神经系统产生影响,但目前国内还没有文献系统地阐述.现就母亲肥胖对儿童神经精神发育的影响进行综述,为指导育龄妇女调节体质量提供合理的建议.

  6. Maternal malnutrition and offspring sex determine juvenile obesity and metabolic disorders in a swine model of leptin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Barbero

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine, in a swine model of leptin resistance, the effects of type and timing of maternal malnutrition on growth patterns, adiposity and metabolic features of the progeny when exposed to an obesogenic diet during their juvenile development and possible concomitant effects of the offspring sex. Thus, four groups were considered. A CONTROL group involved pigs born from sows fed with a diet fulfilling their daily maintenance requirements for pregnancy. The treated groups involved the progeny of females fed with the same diet but fulfilling either 160% or 50% of pregnancy requirements during the entire gestation (OVERFED and UNDERFED, respectively or 100% of requirements until Day 35 of pregnancy and 50% of such amount from Day 36 onwards (LATE-UNDERFED. OVERFED and UNDERFED offspring were more prone to higher corpulence and fat deposition from early postnatal stages, during breast-feeding; adiposity increased significantly when exposed to obesogenic diets, especially in females. The effects of sex were even more remarkable in LATE-UNDERFED offspring, which had similar corpulence to CONTROL piglets; however, females showed a clear predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the three groups of pigs with maternal malnutrition showed evidences of metabolic syndrome and, in the case of individuals born from OVERFED sows, even of insulin resistance and the prodrome of type-2 diabetes. These findings support the main role of early nutritional programming in the current rise of obesity and associated diseases in ethnics with leptin resistance.

  7. Maternal obesity programs offspring non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through disruption of 24-h rhythms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouralidarane, A; Soeda, J; Sugden, D; Bocianowska, A; Carter, R; Ray, S; Saraswati, R; Cordero, P; Novelli, M; Fusai, G; Vinciguerra, M; Poston, L; Taylor, P D; Oben, J A

    2015-09-01

    Maternal obesity increases offspring propensity to metabolic dysfunctions and to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which may lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer. The circadian clock is a transcriptional/epigenetic molecular machinery synchronising physiological processes to coordinate energy utilisation within a 24-h light/dark period. Alterations in rhythmicity have profound effects on metabolic pathways, which we sought to investigate in offspring with programmed NAFLD. Mice were fed a standard or an obesogenic diet (OD), before and throughout pregnancy, and during lactation. Offspring were weaned onto standard or an OD at 3 weeks postpartum and housed in 12:12 light/dark conditions. Biochemical and histological indicators of NAFLD and fibrosis, analysis of canonical clock genes with methylation status and locomotor activity were investigated at 6 months. We show that maternal obesity interacts with an obesogenic post-weaning diet to promote the development of NAFLD with disruption of canonical metabolic rhythmicity gene expression in the liver. We demonstrate hypermethylation of BMAL-1 (brain and muscle Arnt like-1) and Per2 promoter regions and altered 24-h rhythmicity of hepatic pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators. These data implicate disordered circadian rhythms in NAFLD and suggest that disruption of this system during critical developmental periods may be responsible for the onset of chronic liver disease in adulthood.

  8. Maternal obesity in females born small: Pregnancy complications and offspring disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahizir, Dayana; Briffa, Jessica F; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wadley, Glenn D; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health crisis, with 1.6 billion adults worldwide being classified as overweight or obese in 2014. Therefore, it is not surprising that the number of women who are overweight or obese at the time of conception is increasing. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that perturbations during critical stages of development can result in adverse fetal changes that leads to an increased risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Of particular concern, children born to obese mothers are at a greater risk of developing cardiometabolic disease. One subset of the population who are predisposed to developing obesity are children born small for gestational age, which occurs in 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Epidemiological studies report that these growth-restricted children have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Importantly during pregnancy, growth-restricted females have a higher risk of developing cardiometabolic disease, indicating that they may have an exacerbated phenotype if they are also overweight or obese. Thus, the development of early pregnancy interventions targeted to obese mothers may prevent their children from developing cardiometabolic disease in adulthood.

  9. Pre-Pregnancy Fast Food Consumption Is Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus among Tehranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamyian, Minoor; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Moghaddam Banaem, Lida; Goshtasebi, Azita; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Tehranian women. This study was conducted over a 17-month period, on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 1026), aged 18-45 years, attending prenatal clinics in five hospitals affiliated with universities of medical sciences, located in different districts of Tehran, Iran. Dietary data were collected during gestational age ≤6 weeks, using a 168-item valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of total fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and French fries was calculated. Between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, all pregnant women underwent a scheduled 100 g 3 h oral glucose tolerance test. GDM was defined according to the American Diabetes Association definition. The mean age and pre-pregnancy body mass index BMI of participants were 26.7 ± 4.3 years and 25.4 ± 4.5 Kg/m², respectively. A total of 71 women developed GDM. After adjustment for confounders, the OR (95% CI) for GDM for total fast food consumption was 2.12 (1.12-5.43) and for French fries it was 2.18 (1.05-4.70). No significant association was found between hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and GDM. Fast food consumption in women of reproductive age was found to have undesirable effects in the prevalence of GDM.

  10. Importance of Pre-pregnancy Counseling in Iran: Results from the High Risk Pregnancy Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eslami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background To identify the prevalence of behavioural (Pre-pregnancy, obstetrical and medical risks of pregnancy in Iranian women. Methods A total of 2993 postpartum women who delivered in 23 randomly selected hospitals of six provinces were enrolled in this nationwide cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was completed based on interviewees’ self-reports and medical record data, consisting of socio-demographic characteristics, behavioural, obstetrical and medical risks, before and during pregnancy. Results Less than 6.0% had no health insurance and 5.0% had no prenatal visit before labour. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.5% of women. Waterpipe and/or cigarette smoking was reported by 7.1% of them and 0.9% abused opiates during pregnancy. Physical abuse by husband in the year before pregnancy occurred in 7.5% of participants. The rate of cesarean section was 50.4%. Preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth were seen in 6.8, 7.7, and 1.2% of deliveries respectively. The most frequent medical risk factors were urinary tract infection (32.5%, anemia (21.6%, and thyroid disease (4.1%. Conclusion More effort should be devoted by health policymakers to the establishment of a preconception counselling (health education and risk assessment and surveillance system; although obstetrical and medical risks should not be neglected too.

  11. Pre-pregnancy cytogenetic analysis of general couples in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Wang, Hexi; Gao, Min; Xu, Shuangshan; Xu, Xiaofen; Cao, Xinyu; Tao, Ying

    2014-11-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of chromosomal anomalies and the frequency of particular types of aberrations in general couples preparing for pregnancy and make recommendations for pregnancy on the basis of the medical literature. A total of 6,198 general couples were included in the present study. The karyotypes were generated from the peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and the cytogenetic analysis was performed using G-banding. In 12,396 cases, chromosomal anomalies were detected in 59 cases (0.48%, 59/12,396). Among of them, the frequency of translocation was 0.35% (n = 43). Sex chromosomal anomalies accounted for 0.07% (n = 9), including Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (n = 4), Turner syndrome (TS) (n = 4), and XYY syndrome (n = 1). The others, including inversions (n = 6) and deletion (n = 1), accounted for 0.06%. Our study indicates that clinically important chromosomal defects are present at a remarkable frequency in the general couples in eastern China, suggesting pre-pregnancy cytogenetic analysis should be routinely performed among general couples in this area so that informed decision can be made, which will help to improve the quality of the pregnancy.

  12. Pre-Pregnancy Fast Food Consumption Is Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus among Tehranian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamyian, Minoor; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Moghaddam Banaem, Lida; Goshtasebi, Azita; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Tehranian women. This study was conducted over a 17-month period, on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 1026), aged 18–45 years, attending prenatal clinics in five hospitals affiliated with universities of medical sciences, located in different districts of Tehran, Iran. Dietary data were collected during gestational age ≤6 weeks, using a 168-item valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of total fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and French fries was calculated. Between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, all pregnant women underwent a scheduled 100 g 3 h oral glucose tolerance test. GDM was defined according to the American Diabetes Association definition. The mean age and pre-pregnancy body mass index BMI of participants were 26.7 ± 4.3 years and 25.4 ± 4.5 Kg/m2, respectively. A total of 71 women developed GDM. After adjustment for confounders, the OR (95% CI) for GDM for total fast food consumption was 2.12 (1.12–5.43) and for French fries it was 2.18 (1.05–4.70). No significant association was found between hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and GDM. Fast food consumption in women of reproductive age was found to have undesirable effects in the prevalence of GDM. PMID:28257029

  13. Pre-Pregnancy Fast Food Consumption Is Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus among Tehranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoor Lamyian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM among Tehranian women. This study was conducted over a 17-month period, on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 1026, aged 18–45 years, attending prenatal clinics in five hospitals affiliated with universities of medical sciences, located in different districts of Tehran, Iran. Dietary data were collected during gestational age ≤6 weeks, using a 168-item valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of total fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef, pizza and French fries was calculated. Between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, all pregnant women underwent a scheduled 100 g 3 h oral glucose tolerance test. GDM was defined according to the American Diabetes Association definition. The mean age and pre-pregnancy body mass index BMI of participants were 26.7 ± 4.3 years and 25.4 ± 4.5 Kg/m2, respectively. A total of 71 women developed GDM. After adjustment for confounders, the OR (95% CI for GDM for total fast food consumption was 2.12 (1.12–5.43 and for French fries it was 2.18 (1.05–4.70. No significant association was found between hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef, pizza and GDM. Fast food consumption in women of reproductive age was found to have undesirable effects in the prevalence of GDM.

  14. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico IMC materno y migración como predictor de obesidad infantil de México

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jiménez-Cruz; J. M. Wojcicki; M. Bacardí-Gascón; A. Castellón-Zaragoza; J.L. García-Gallardo; Schwartz, N.; Heyman, M B

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Methods: Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weigh...

  15. Evaluation of Intervention Effect of Free Pre Pregnancy Checkups on Ad-verse Pregnancy Outcomes%免费孕前优生健康检查对不良妊娠结局的干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨业军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the free pre pregnancy checkups on adverse pregnancy outcomes (this mainly refers to the birth defects, miscarriage and stillbirth, similarly hereinafter) intervention effect. Methods Select 750 to meet the family planning policy, pre pregnancy underwent free pre pregnancy checkups have been pregnant couples as observation group of this research, and selecting 750 of pregnancy did not receive free pre pregnancy checkups have been pregnant couples as the control group. In the two groups respectively, the research object file establishment, compared two groups of the study object of adverse pregnancy outcome compared to register. Results 3 cases of birth defects, 27 cases of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth occurred in 3 patients in the observation group, the control group 9 cases of 7 cases of birth defects, 44 cases of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth. The obser-vation group of adverse pregnancy outcomes were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The development of free pre pregnancy check, and strictly implement in maternal pre pregnancy namely, to implement various prevention measures, can effectively reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes, has higher application value, should be popularized and applied.%目的:探讨免费孕前优生健康检查对不良妊娠结局(该文主要指出生缺陷、自然流产和死胎死产,下同)的干预效果。方法选取750对符合生育政策、孕前均行免费孕前优生健康检查已孕夫妇作为该研究的观察组,同时选取750对孕前未接受免费孕前优生健康检查已孕夫妇作为对照组。分别对两组研究对象建立档案,比较两组研究对象不良妊娠结局情况进行登记对比。结果观察组中出现3例出生缺陷儿、自然流产27例、死胎死产3例,对照组中共出现9例出生缺陷儿、自然流产44例、死胎死产7例。观察组不良妊娠结局发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)

  16. Maternal high-fat diet induces obesity and adrenal and thyroid dysfunction in male rat offspring at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, J G; Fernandes, T P; Rocha, C P D; Calviño, C; Pazos-Moura, C C; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G; Trevenzoli, I H

    2012-11-01

    Maternal nutritional status affects the future development of offspring. Both undernutrition and overnutrition in critical periods of life (gestation or lactation) may cause several hormonal changes in the pups and programme obesity in the adult offspring. We have shown that hyperleptinaemia during lactation results in central leptin resistance, higher adrenal catecholamine secretion, hyperthyroidism, and higher blood pressure and heart rate in the adult rats. Here, we evaluated the effect of a maternal isocaloric high-fat diet on breast milk composition and its impact on leptinaemia, energy metabolism, and adrenal and thyroid function of the offspring at weaning. We hypothesised that the altered source of fat in the maternal diet even under normal calorie intake would disturb the metabolism of the offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed a normal (9% fat; C group) or high-fat diet (29% fat as lard; HF group) for 8 weeks before mating and during pregnancy and lactation. HF mothers presented increased total body fat content after 8 weeks (+27%, P < 0.05) and a similar fat content at the end of lactation. In consequence, the breast milk from the HF group had higher concentration of protein (+18%, P < 0.05), cholesterol (+52%, P < 0.05) and triglycerides (+86%, P < 0.05). At weaning, HF offspring had increased body weight (+53%, P < 0.05) and adiposity (2 fold, P < 0.05), which was associated with lower β3-adrenoreceptor content in adipose tissue (-40%, P < 0.05). The offspring also presented hyperglycaemia (+30%, P < 0.05) and hyperleptinaemia (+62%, P < 0.05). In the leptin signalling pathway in the hypothalamus, we found lower p-STAT3/STAT3 (-40%, P < 0.05) and SOCS3 (-55%, P < 0.05) content in the arcuate nucleus, suggesting leptin resistance. HF offspring also had higher adrenal catecholamine content (+17%, P < 0.05), liver glycogen content (+50%, P < 0.05) and hyperactivity of the thyroid axis at weaning. Our results suggest that a high fat diet increases

  17. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are risk factors for infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siminerio, Lara L; Himes, Katherine P; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Lash, Timothy L; Parisi, Sara M; Abrams, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of the joint and independent relationships of gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) on risk of infant mortality was performed. This study used Pennsylvania linked birth-infant death records (2003-2011) from infants without anomalies born to mothers with prepregnancy BMI categorized as underweight (n = 58,973), normal weight (n = 610,118), overweight (n = 296,630), grade 1 obesity (n = 147,608), grade 2 obesity (n = 71,740), and grade 3 obesity (n = 47,277). Multivariable logistic regression models stratified by BMI category were used to estimate dose-response associations between z scores of gestational weight gain and infant death after confounder adjustment. Infant mortality risk was lowest among normal-weight women and increased with rising BMI category. For all BMI groups except for grade 3 obesity, there were U-shaped associations between gestational weight gain and risk of infant death. Weight loss and very low weight gain among women with grades 1 and 2 obesity were associated with high risks of infant mortality. However, even when gestational weight gain in women with obesity was optimized, the predicted risk of infant death remained higher than that of normal-weight women. Interventions aimed at substantially reducing preconception weight among women with obesity and avoiding very low or very high gestational weight gain may reduce risk of infant death. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. Central role for Melanocortin-4 receptors in offspring hypertension arising from maternal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samuelsson, Anne Maj S; Mullier, Amandine; Maicas, Nuria; Oosterhuis, Nynke R.; Bae, Sung Eun; Novoselova, Tatiana V.; Chan, Li F.; Pombo, Joaquim M.; Taylor, Paul D.; Joles, Jaap A.; Coen, Clive W.; Balthasar, Nina; Poston, Lucilla

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-expressing neurons in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), play an essential role in blood pressure (BP) control. Mc4r-deficient (Mc4rKO) mice are severely obese but lack obesity-related hypertension; they

  19. Health economic modelling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes and related macrosomia – a pilot evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eLenoir-Wijnkoop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes (GDM and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g. macrosomia, body adiposity and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life.Objective: Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes (GDM and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. Results: The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences.Conclusion: Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop

  20. Maternal and fetal outcomes in rheumatic heart disease in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivya Sethuraman

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The association of the pre pregnancy functional class with the risk of maternal events raises attention to the possibility of reducing these complications in pregnant women with mitral stenosis by means of early interventions aimed at improving their functional class. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1632-1637

  1. Pre-pregnancy weight status, early pregnancy lipid profile and blood pressure course during pregnancy: The ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Busschers, Wim B; Spierings, Eline J M; Roseboom, Tessa J; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2017-01-01

    Although pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile are known to influence blood pressure course during pregnancy, little is known about how these two factors interact. The association between pre-pregnancy weight status and blood pressure course during pregnancy was assessed in the prospective ABCD study and the role (independent/mediating/moderating) of early pregnancy lipid profile in this association was determined. We included 2500 normal weight (lipids [median (IQR): 13 (12-14) weeks of gestation] and blood pressure during pregnancy [mean (SD) = 10 (2.3)]. Lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids) were divided into tertiles. Multilevel piecewise linear spline models were used to describe the course of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in four time periods during gestation for overweight and normal weight women. Both SBP (5.3 mmHg) and DBP (3.9 mmHg) were higher in overweight compared to normal weight women and this difference remained the same over all four time periods. The difference in SBP and DBP was not mediated or moderated by the lipid profile. Lipid profile had an independent positive effect on both SBP (range 1.3-2.2 mmHg) and DBP (0.8-1.1 mmHg), but did not change blood pressure course. Both pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile independently increase blood pressure during pregnancy. Improving pre-pregnancy weight status and early pregnancy lipid profile might result in a healthier blood pressure course during pregnancy.

  2. Maternal depression, stress and feeding styles: towards a framework for theory and research in child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Behadli, Ana F; Sharp, Carla; Hughes, Sheryl O; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of rising rates of obesity in children and adults in the USA, and modest effect sizes for obesity interventions, the aim of the present narrative review paper is to extend the UNICEF care model to focus on childhood obesity and its associated risks with an emphasis on the emotional climate of the parent-child relationship within the family. Specifically, we extended the UNICEF model by applying the systems approach to childhood obesity and by combining previously unintegrated sets of literature across multiple disciplines including developmental psychology, clinical psychology and nutrition. Specifically, we modified the extended care model by explicitly integrating new linkages (i.e. parental feeding styles, stress, depression and mother's own eating behaviour) that have been found to be associated with the development of children's eating behaviours and risk of childhood obesity. These new linkages are based on studies that were not incorporated into the original UNICEF model, but suggest important implications for childhood obesity. In all, this narrative review offers important advancements to the scientific understanding of familial influences on children's eating behaviours and childhood obesity.

  3. Maternal obesity induced by a high fat diet causes altered cellular development in fetal brains suggestive of a predisposition of offspring to neurological disorders in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Ewa K; Srinivasan, Malathi; Stachowiak, Michal K; Patel, Mulchand S

    2013-12-01

    Fetal development in an obese maternal intrauterine environment has been shown to predispose the offspring for a number of metabolic disorders in later life. The observation that a large percentage of women of child-bearing age in the US are overweight/obese during pregnancy is therefore a source of concern. A high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in female rats has been used as a model for maternal obesity. The objective of this study was to determine cellular development in brains of term fetuses of obese rats fed a HF diet from the time of weaning. Fetal brains were dissected out on gestational day 21 and processed for immunohistochemical analysis in the hypothalamic as well as extra-hypothalamic regions. The major observation of this study is that fetal development in the obese HF female rat induced several alterations in the HF fetal brain. Marked increases were observed in orexigenic signaling and a significant decrease was observed for anorexigenic signaling in the vicinity of the 3rd ventricle in HF brains. Additionally, our results indicated diminished migration and maturation of stem-like cells in the 3rd ventricular region as well as in the brain cortex. The results from the present study indicate developmental alterations in the hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions in the HF fetal brain suggestive of a predisposition for the development of obesity and possibly neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the offspring.

  4. Pre-pregnancy restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease) is associated with perinatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesström, Jan; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Manconi, Mauro; Fulda, Stephany; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-05-15

    Both restless legs syndrome ([RLS], also known as Willis-Ekbom Disease [WED]) and depression are common during pregnancy. However, no prior studies have assessed if pregnant women with RLS have an elevated risk of depression during and/or after pregnancy. 1,428 women who were pregnant in gestational week 16-17 were asked to participate in a longitudinal survey. They were followed by web-based questionnaires in gestational week 17 and 32, and 6 weeks after delivery. Data were also retrieved from prenatal and birth records. Two different sets of criteria were used to examine the prevalence of RLS in the cohort (International Restless Legs Syndrome Society Group standard criteria and the later developed CH-RLSQ11 questionnaire). The latter questionnaire attempts to exclude those with common "mimics" of RLS. Adjusted odds ratio for depression in gestational week 17, 32, and postpartum week 6 in relation to pre-pregnancy RLS onset and moderate to severe symptom severity were 4.74 (2.30 - 9.76), 3.67 (1.85 - 7.28), and 2.58 (1.28 - 5.21), respectively. No significant associations were seen in pregnant women with de novo RLS during pregnancy. When using the standard diagnostic RLS criteria and frequency of symptoms more than 2-3 days per week, the prevalence of RLS was 12.3%. With the CH-RLSQ11 questionnaire and the same threshold for frequency of symptoms the prevalence was 6.5%. Women with RLS onset before pregnancy with moderate or severe symptoms had an increased risk of both antenatal and postnatal depression. The self-reported prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is lower when a questionnaire dealing with "mimics" is used.

  5. Lipids and leukocytes in newborn umbilical vein blood, birth weight and maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittos, T; de Souza, W B; Anschau, F; Pellanda, L

    2016-12-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy may influence fetal development and possibly predispose offspring to cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy, and newborn birth weight, with lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leukocyte in newborns. We performed a cross-sectional study of 245 mothers and their children. Blood was collected from the umbilical vein and assayed for lipid profile, hs-CRP and leukocyte count. Newborns average weight was 3241 g, total cholesterol 53.9 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) 21.9 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) 26.2 mg/dl, triglyceride 29.5 mg/dl and leukocytes 13,777/mm3. There was a direct correlation of pre-pregnancy BMI of overweight mothers with total cholesterol (r=0.220, P=0.037) and LDL-c (r=0.268, P=0.011) of newborns. Total cholesterol, LDL-c and HDL-c were higher in pre-term newborns (66.3±19.7, 35.9±14.6 and 25.2±7.7 mg/dl, respectively) that in full-term (52.4±13.1, 25.0±8.7 and 21.5±6.0 mg/dl), with P=0.001, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively. Leukocyte counts were higher in full-term newborns (14,268±3982/mm3) compared with pre-term (9792±2836/mm3, Pprogramming of the immune system.

  6. Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition exposure leads to reversal learning deficits and striatal disturbance in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Ting; Deng, Shining; Li, Wei-Guang; Yu, Yongguo; Li, Fei; Mao, Meng

    2013-01-01

    .... Here, we report that pregnant obesity induced by exposure to excessive high fatty or highly palatable food specifically impaired reversal learning, a kind of adaptive behavior, while leaving serum...

  7. Changes in mode of transportation to work or school from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Skreden

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of Norwegian women there was a significant change towards less active transportation to work or school and lower levels of physical activity from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy.

  8. Maternal Western Diet Overrides Genetic Resistance to Obesity: : Role of TRH-DE

    OpenAIRE

    Frihauf, Jennifer Becker

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic rise in obesity rates in the United States over the last 30 years is likely a result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic background can predispose an individual to obesity, while an environment rich in energy dense foods can promote overconsumption. Working in conjunction, genes and environment alter the regulatory systems responsible for maintaining energy balance. It has become increasingly clear that environmental factors can affect energy homeostasi...

  9. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J R Heerwagen

    Full Text Available Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02, and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05, while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02, as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02, which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, P<0.02. The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05, body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively, and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05, these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results

  10. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  11. Maternal Diet and Weight at 3 Months Postpartum Following a Pregnancy Intervention with a Low Glycaemic Index Diet: Results from the ROLO Randomised Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Horan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy increases the risk of being overweight at a later time period, particularly when there is excessive gestational weight gain. There remains a paucity of data into the effect of low glycaemic index (GI pregnancy interventions postpartum. Aim: To examine the impact of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on maternal diet 3 months postpartum. Methodology: This analysis examined the diet, weight and lifestyle of 460 participants of the ROLO study 3 months postpartum. Questionnaires on weight, physical activity, breastfeeding, supplement use, food label reading and dietary habits were completed. Results: The intervention group had significantly greater weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum than the control group (1.3 vs. 0.1 kg, p = 0.022. The intervention group reported greater numbers following a low glycaemic index diet (p < 0.001 and reading food labels (p = 0.032 and had a lower glycaemic load (GL (128 vs. 145, p = 0.014 but not GI (55 vs. 55, p = 0.809 than controls. Conclusions: Low GI dietary interventions in pregnancy result in improved health-behaviours and continued reported compliance at 3 months postpartum possibly through lower dietary GL as a result of portion control. Greater levels of weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum in the intervention group may have important positive implications for overweight and obesity.

  12. Maternal undernutrition and fetal developmental programming of obesity: the glucocorticoid connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Branco, Ana; Keating, Elisa; Martel, Fátima

    2015-02-01

    An adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy is crucial for the health outcome of offspring in adulthood. Maternal undernutrition during critical periods of fetal development can program the fetus for metabolic syndrome (MetS) later in life, especially when postnatally challenged with a hypernutritive diet. Adipogenesis, which begins in utero and accelerates in neonatal life, is a major candidate for developmental programming. During fetal development, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is extremely susceptible to programming, and the HPA tone is increased throughout life in undernourished conditions. As a consequence, an alteration in the expression and function of glucocorticoid (GC) receptors and of the major GC regulatory enzymes (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and -2) occurs. In this review, we will give insights into the role of maternoplacental adverse interactions under the specific context of maternal undernutrition, for later-in-life MetS development, with a special emphasis on the role of GCs.

  13. Maternal factors in predicting low birth weight babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hematram; Lee, Nagarajah

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal factors and low birth weight among newborns at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study where mothers were followed through from first booking till delivery. There were 666 mothers who delivered from May 2007 to March 2008. Infants' birth weight were compared with maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, fathers BMI, parity, ethnicity, per capita monthly income, and maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. A multiple logistic regressions was used to determine the relationship of maternal factors and low birth weight, while the ROC curve was constructed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the predictive model. Among the significant risk factors of low birth weight were older age (35 years and above), low pre-pregnancy BMI (per capita monthly income were included in the analysis.

  14. Maternal obesity in Europe: where do we stand and how to move forward?: A scientific paper commissioned by the European Board and College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter; Van Assche, André; Mathieu, Chantal; Mahmood, Tahir; Dunne, Fidelma; Bogaerts, Annick

    2016-06-01

    Paralleling the global epidemic of obesity figures in the general population, the incidence of maternal obesity (BMI>30kg/m(2) at the start of pregnancy) has been rising over the last world. While most European countries do not systematically report obesity figures in their pregnant population, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2) the optimal gestational weight gain to advise and the lifestyle messages to deliver in order to achieve this, (3) the optimal strategy and timing of screening for gestational diabetes (GDM) and (4) the optimal timing and mode of delivery. These controversies are reviewed in this review, with the exception of screening for gestational diabetes that is discussed extensively elsewhere in this issue (Benhalima et al.). An agenda for research is proposed with the hope that it will catch the attention of policy-makers and funders and ultimately lead to the development of European-wide evidence-based guidelines for clinicians.

  15. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  16. CCAAT-enhancer-binding Protein β (C/EBPβ) and Downstream Human Placental Growth Hormone Genes Are Targets for Dysregulation in Pregnancies Complicated by Maternal Obesity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Menticoglou, Savas; Cattini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) and placental growth hormone variant (GH-V) act as metabolic adaptors in response to maternal insulin resistance, which occurs in “normal” pregnancy. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this “resistance,” suggesting that CS, GH-V, or transcription factors that regulate their production might be targets. The human CS genes, hCS-A and hCS-B, flank the GH-V gene. A significant decrease in pre-term placental CS/GH-V RNA levels was observed in transgenic mice containing the CS/GH-V genes in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced maternal obesity. Similarly, a decrease in CS/GH-V RNA levels was detected in term placentas from obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2) versus lean (BMI 20–25 kg/m2) women. A specific decrease in transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) RNA levels was also seen with obesity; C/EBPβ is required for mouse placenta development and is expressed, like CS and GH-V, in syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding of C/EBPβ to the CS gene downstream enhancer regions, which by virtue of their position distally flank the GH-V gene, was reduced in placenta chromatin from mice on a HFD and in obese women; a corresponding decrease in RNA polymerase II associated with CS/GH-V promoters was also observed. Detection of decreased endogenous CS/GH-V RNA levels in human placental tumor cells treated with C/EBPβ siRNA is consistent with a direct effect. These data provide evidence for CS/GH-V dysregulation in acute HFD-induced obesity in mouse pregnancy and chronic obesity in human pregnancy and implicate C/EBPβ, a factor associated with CS regulation and placental development. PMID:23782703

  17. CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and downstream human placental growth hormone genes are targets for dysregulation in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Menticoglou, Savas; Cattini, Peter A

    2013-08-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) and placental growth hormone variant (GH-V) act as metabolic adaptors in response to maternal insulin resistance, which occurs in "normal" pregnancy. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this "resistance," suggesting that CS, GH-V, or transcription factors that regulate their production might be targets. The human CS genes, hCS-A and hCS-B, flank the GH-V gene. A significant decrease in pre-term placental CS/GH-V RNA levels was observed in transgenic mice containing the CS/GH-V genes in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced maternal obesity. Similarly, a decrease in CS/GH-V RNA levels was detected in term placentas from obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) versus lean (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2)) women. A specific decrease in transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) RNA levels was also seen with obesity; C/EBPβ is required for mouse placenta development and is expressed, like CS and GH-V, in syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding of C/EBPβ to the CS gene downstream enhancer regions, which by virtue of their position distally flank the GH-V gene, was reduced in placenta chromatin from mice on a HFD and in obese women; a corresponding decrease in RNA polymerase II associated with CS/GH-V promoters was also observed. Detection of decreased endogenous CS/GH-V RNA levels in human placental tumor cells treated with C/EBPβ siRNA is consistent with a direct effect. These data provide evidence for CS/GH-V dysregulation in acute HFD-induced obesity in mouse pregnancy and chronic obesity in human pregnancy and implicate C/EBPβ, a factor associated with CS regulation and placental development.

  18. Maternal Obesity Induces Epigenetic Modifications to Facilitate Zfp423 Expression and Enhance Adipogenic Differentiation in Fetal Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi-Yuan; Liang, Jun-Fang; Rogers, Carl J.; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) predisposes offspring to obesity and type 2 diabetes despite poorly defined mechanisms. Zfp423 is the key transcription factor committing cells to the adipogenic lineage, with exceptionally dense CpG sites in its promoter. We hypothesized that MO enhances adipogenic differentiation during fetal development through inducing epigenetic changes in the Zfp423 promoter and elevating its expression. Female mice were subjected to a control (Con) or obesogenic (OB) diet for 2 months, mated, and maintained on their diets during pregnancy. Fetal tissue was harvested at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), when the early adipogenic commitment is initiated. The Zfp423 expression was 3.6-fold higher and DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter was lower in OB compared with Con. Correspondingly, repressive histone methylation (H3K27me3) was lower in the Zfp423 promoter of OB fetal tissue, accompanied by reduced binding of enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2). Gain- and loss-of-function analysis showed that Zfp423 regulates early adipogenic differentiation in fetal progenitor cells. In summary, MO enhanced Zfp423 expression and adipogenic differentiation during fetal development, at least partially through reducing DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter, which is expected to durably elevate adipogenic differentiation of progenitor cells in adult tissue, programming adiposity and metabolic dysfunction later in life. PMID:23884886

  19. Unconscious collusion: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the maternity care experiences of women with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m²).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sandra; McNamara, Patricia Mannix

    2017-06-01

    obstetric and midwifery literature continually emphasise incidence and consequence of obesity in pregnancy. However, they offer less consensus on how best to support women who are obese. Therefore, this study explores in depth the lived experience of women who have a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30kg/m². This exploration provides a bio-psycho-social understanding of the lived experience of women to identify how best to support them throughout their childbirth experience. an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) design was adopted for this qualitative study. Purposive sampling of participants was conducted on the postnatal wards of a maternity hospital in the Republic of Ireland. In total, 15 participants volunteered to take part in semi-structured interviews conducted at six to ten weeks postnatally. Data were analysed utilising the IPA framework. the results indicate that participants were conscious of the problematics of communicating obesity in pregnancy. The narrative data revealed an unconscious collusion between healthcare professionals and women as they navigate obesity related conversations. The behaviours related to unconscious collusion are incorporated in the sub-ordinate themes; 'just recorded and that's all', 'but what's eating healthy? 'pussy footing around' and 'I hate that word obesity. the findings highlight a lack of information received by participants from healthcare professionals regarding increased BMI or weight management. The data suggests that healthcare professionals appeared to collude with women to avoid challenging discussions regarding obesity. This may be related to avoidance on participants' part and/or may be linked with healthcare professionals' reluctance to communicate issues relating to increased BMI. Although participants were generally unhappy with the communication skills of health professionals, they readily acknowledged the sensitive nature of obesity related communications. The findings provide healthcare

  20. Maternal obesity down-regulates microRNA (miRNA) let-7g expression, a possible mechanism for enhanced adipogenesis during ovine fetal skeletal muscle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Rogers, Carl J.; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Ford, Stephen P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Du, Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity in women of childbearing age is increasing at an alarming rate. Growing evidence shows that maternal obesity induces detrimental effects on offspring health including pre-disposition to obesity. We have shown that maternal obesity increases fetal intramuscular adipogenesis at mid-gestation. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate mRNA stability. We hypothesized that maternal obesity alters fetal muscle miRNA expression, thereby influencing intramuscular adipogenesis. Methods Non-pregnant ewes received a control diet (Con, fed 100% of NRC recommendations, n = 6) or obesogenic diet (OB; 150% NRC recommendations, n = 6) from 60 days before to 75 days after conception when the fetal longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was sampled and miRNA expression analyzed by miRNA microarray. One of miRNAs with differential expression between Con and OB fetal muscle, let-7g, was further tested for its role in adipogenesis and cell proliferation in C3H10T1/2 cells. Results A total of 155 miRNAs were found with a signal above 500, among which, 3 miRNAs, hsa-miR-381, hsa-let-7g and bta-miR-376d, were differentially expressed between Con and OB fetuses, and confirmed by QRT-PCR analyses. Reduced expression of miRNA let-7g, an abundantly expressed miRNA, in OB fetal muscle was correlated with higher expression of its target genes. Over-expression of let-7g in C3H10T1/2 cells reduced their proliferation rate. Expression of adipogenic markers decreased in cells over-expressing let-7g, and the formation of adipocytes was also reduced. Over-expression of let-7g decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Fetal muscle miRNA expression was altered due to maternal obesity, and let-7g down-regulation may enhance intramuscular adipogenesis during fetal muscle development in the setting of maternal obesity. PMID:22614057

  1. Pre-pregnancy and Early Prenatal Care are Associated with Lower Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy Complications in the Medicaid Population: 2004-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Debra B; Cain, Loretta; Hasham Dahlquist, Irma; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Complications are more common among women with Medicaid or no insurance compared to those with private insurance. It is unknown whether preventive care prior to pregnancy and prenatal care, which are covered by Medicaid, would decrease complications if they were more fully utilised. Medicaid claims were used to identify a clinical cohort of women who experienced an ectopic pregnancy during 2004-08 among all female Medicaid enrolees from a large 14-state population, ages 15-44. Diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify ectopic pregnancies and associated complications. The primary outcomes were complications associated with ectopic pregnancy: blood transfusion, sterilisation, or hospitalisation with length of stay greater than 2 days. Independent variables were documentation of preventive care within 1 year prior to the ectopic pregnancy and prenatal care within 4 months prior. Controlling for race, age, and state of residence, women's risks of any ectopic pregnancy complication were independently higher among those who did not receive any Medicaid-covered preventive care within 1 year before the ectopic pregnancy compared to those who did (RR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.16), and among those who did not receive any Medicaid-covered prenatal care within 4 months prior, compared to those who did (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.83, 1.96). Pre-pregnancy and prenatal care are independently associated with decreased risk of ectopic pregnancy complications among Medicaid beneficiaries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Maternal Characteristics and Incidence of Overweight/Obesity in Children: A 13-Year Follow-up Study in an Eastern Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Amiri, Parisa; Abbasi, Behnood; Karimi, Mehrdad; Cheraghi, Leila; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-05-01

    Objectives To investigate clustering of parental sociobehavioral factors and their relationship with the incidence of overweight and obesity in Iranian children. Methods Demographics, body weight, and certain medical characteristics of the parents of 2999 children were used to categorize parents by cluster; children's weights were assessed for each cluster. Specifically, survival analysis and Cox regression models were used to test the effect of parental clustering on the incidence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results Maternal metabolic syndrome, education level, age, body weight status, and paternal age had important roles in distinguishing clusters with low, moderate, and high risk. Crude incidence rates (per 10,000 person-years) of overweight and obesity were 416.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 388.2-447.5) and 114.7 (95% CI 101.2-129.9), respectively. Children of parents with certain constellations of demographic and medical characteristics were 37.0 and 41.0% more likely to become overweight and obese, respectively. Conclusions for Practice The current study demonstrated the vital role of maternal characteristics in distinguishing familial clusters, which could be used to predict the incidence of overweight and obesity in children.

  3. Diet-Induced Maternal Obesity Alters Insulin Signalling in Male Mice Offspring Rechallenged with a High-Fat Diet in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Thaís de; Simino, Laís Angélica; Reginato, Andressa; Payolla, Tanyara Baliani; Vitoréli, Débora Cristina Gustavo; Souza, Monique de; Torsoni, Márcio Alberto; Milanski, Marciane; Torsoni, Adriana Souza

    2016-01-01

    Modern lifestyle has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities in pregnant women and the young population. It has been well established that the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) has many direct effects on glucose metabolism. However, it is important to assess whether maternal consumption of a HFD during critical periods of development can lead to metabolic changes in the offspring metabolism. This study evaluated the potential effects of metabolic programming on the impairment of insulin signalling in recently weaned offspring from obese dams. Additionally, we investigated if early exposure to an obesogenic environment could exacerbate the impairment of glucose metabolism in adult life in response to a HFD. Swiss female mice were fed with Standard Chow (SC) or a HFD during gestation and lactation and tissues from male offspring were analysed at d28 and d82. Offspring from obese dams had greater weight gain and higher adiposity and food intake than offspring from control dams. Furthermore, they showed impairment in insulin signalling in central and peripheral tissues, which was associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Adipose tissue was ultimately the most affected in adult offspring after HFD rechallenge; this may have contributed to the metabolic deregulation observed. Overall, our results suggest that diet-induced maternal obesity leads to increased susceptibility to obesity and impairment of insulin signalling in offspring in early and late life that cannot be reversed by SC consumption, but can be aggravated by HFD re-exposure.

  4. Maternal obesity reduces milk lipid production in lactating mice by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase and impairing fatty acid synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Saben

    Full Text Available Maternal metabolic and nutrient trafficking adaptations to lactation differ among lean and obese mice fed a high fat (HF diet. Obesity is thought to impair milk lipid production, in part, by decreasing trafficking of dietary and de novo synthesized lipids to the mammary gland. Here, we report that de novo lipogenesis regulatory mechanisms are disrupted in mammary glands of lactating HF-fed obese (HF-Ob mice. HF feeding decreased the total levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC, and this effect was exacerbated in obese mice. The relative levels of phosphorylated (inactive ACC, were elevated in the epithelium, and decreased in the adipose stroma, of mammary tissue from HF-Ob mice compared to those of HF-fed lean (HF-Ln mice. Mammary gland levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, which catalyzes formation of inactive ACC, were also selectively elevated in mammary glands of HF-Ob relative to HF-Ln dams or to low fat fed dams. These responses correlated with evidence of increased lipid retention in mammary adipose, and decreased lipid levels in mammary epithelial cells, of HF-Ob dams. Collectively, our data suggests that maternal obesity impairs milk lipid production, in part, by disrupting the balance of de novo lipid synthesis in the epithelial and adipose stromal compartments of mammary tissue through processes that appear to be related to increased mammary gland AMPK activity, ACC inhibition, and decreased fatty acid synthesis.

  5. Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Eurídice; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Methods Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standar...

  6. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  7. Pre-pregnancy risk assessment and counselling of the cardiac patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women with heart disease often have an increased risk of maternal cardiovascular and offspring complications. The magnitude of these risks varies depending on the type and severity of the underlying disease. Therefore risk assessment should be performed before pregnancy. This can be accompl

  8. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on offspring overweight in early infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months old in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2011, health care records of 38,539 pregnant women had been collected, and their children had been measured body weight and length at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The independent and joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with anthropometry in the offspring were examined using General Linear Model and Logistic Regression. RESULTS: Prepregnancy BMI and maternal GWG were positively associated with Z-scores for birth weight-for-gestational age, birth length-for-gestational age, and birth weight-for-length. Infants born to mothers with excessive GWG had the greatest changes in Z-scores for weight-for-age from birth to Month 3, and from Month 6 to Month 12, and the greatest changes in Z-scores for length-for-age from birth to months 3 and 12 compared with infants born to mothers with adequate GWG. Excessive GWG was associated with an increased risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 12 months old in all BMI categories except underweight. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater weight gain and length gain of offspring in early infancy. Excessive GWG was associated with increased infancy overweight and obesity risk.

  9. Is risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index and parity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene

    Background Obesity among women may influence the risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs) and contribute to poor quality of life. Parity, which constitutes a sudden natural increase in weight as well it affects long-term body mass index (BMI), may put strain on the musculoskeletal s...

  10. IFPA meeting 2015 workshop report IV: placenta and obesity; stem cells of the feto-maternal interface; placental immunobiology and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumaree, M H; Almutairi, A; Cash, S; Boeuf, P; Chamley, L W; Gamage, T; James, J L; Kalionis, B; Khong, T Y; Kolahi, K S; Lim, R; Liong, S; Morgan, T K; Motomura, K; Peiris, H N; Pelekanos, R A; Pelzer, E; Shafiee, A; Lash, G E; Natale, D

    2016-12-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialised topics. At the 2015 IFPA annual meeting there were 12 themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology and collectively covered areas of obesity and the placenta, stem cells of the feto-maternal interface, and placental immunobiology and infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal obesity induced by diet in rats permanently influences central processes regulating food intake in offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona L Kirk

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic systems which regulate appetite may be permanently modified during early development. We have previously reported hyperphagia and increased adiposity in the adult offspring of rodents fed an obesogenic diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. We now report that offspring of obese (OffOb rats display an amplified and prolonged neonatal leptin surge, which is accompanied by elevated leptin mRNA expression in their abdominal white adipose tissue. At postnatal Day 30, before the onset of hyperphagia in these animals, serum leptin is normal, but leptin-induced appetite suppression and phosphorylation of STAT3 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC are attenuated; the level of AgRP-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH, which derives from neurones in the ARC and is developmentally dependent on leptin, is also diminished. We hypothesise that prolonged release of abnormally high levels of leptin by neonatal OffOb rats leads to leptin resistance and permanently affects hypothalamic functions involving the ARC and PVH. Such effects may underlie the developmental programming of hyperphagia and obesity in these rats.

  12. Maternal obesity induced by diet in rats permanently influences central processes regulating food intake in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Shona L; Samuelsson, Anne-Maj; Argenton, Marco; Dhonye, Hannah; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Coen, Clive W

    2009-06-11

    Hypothalamic systems which regulate appetite may be permanently modified during early development. We have previously reported hyperphagia and increased adiposity in the adult offspring of rodents fed an obesogenic diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. We now report that offspring of obese (OffOb) rats display an amplified and prolonged neonatal leptin surge, which is accompanied by elevated leptin mRNA expression in their abdominal white adipose tissue. At postnatal Day 30, before the onset of hyperphagia in these animals, serum leptin is normal, but leptin-induced appetite suppression and phosphorylation of STAT3 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are attenuated; the level of AgRP-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH), which derives from neurones in the ARC and is developmentally dependent on leptin, is also diminished. We hypothesise that prolonged release of abnormally high levels of leptin by neonatal OffOb rats leads to leptin resistance and permanently affects hypothalamic functions involving the ARC and PVH. Such effects may underlie the developmental programming of hyperphagia and obesity in these rats.

  13. Overweight is more prevalent than stunting and is associated with socioeconomic status, maternal obesity, and a snacking dietary pattern in school children from Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Baylin, Ana; Arsenault, Joanne E; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Villamor, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight in school-aged children from Bogotá, Colombia and to examine its associations with sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and indicators of physical activity. We measured height and weight in 3075 children between 5 and 12 y of age who attended public primary schools in 2006 and we obtained information on maternal sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. The survey was representative of children from low and middle socioeconomic backgrounds. The prevalences of child overweight (including obesity) and obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria were 11.1 and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 9.8%. In multivariate analysis, child overweight was positively associated with indicators of higher socioeconomic status (SES), including low maternal parity and ownership of household assets. The prevalence of overweight was 3.6 times greater in children whose mothers were obese compared with children whose mothers had an adequate BMI (adjusted prevalence ratio = 3.61; 95% CI = 2.64, 4.93). Child overweight was positively associated with adherence to a "snacking" dietary pattern (P-trend = 0.06) and to frequent intake of hamburgers or hot dogs (adjusted prevalence ratio for at least once per week vs. never = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.03, 3.62), independent of total energy intake and other potential confounders. Time spent viewing television or playing outside the household were not significantly related to the prevalence of child overweight. In conclusion, child overweight in Bogotá is more common than stunting and is associated with higher SES, maternal obesity, and a snacking dietary pattern.

  14. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PRE-PREGNANCY OBESITY AND WEIGHT GAIN IN PREGNANCY, WITH GROWTH DEVIATIONS IN NEWBORNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Buenrostro, Dennis; Pérez-Molina, J Jesús; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Panduro-Barón, J Guadalupe

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la obesidad en el embarazo se ha relacionado con mayor morbilidad para la madre y el feto. Objetivo: cuantificar la asociación entre obesidad en el embarazo con desviaciones del crecimiento de sus recién nacidos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, no pareado, basado en el Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara “Dr. Juan I Menchaca” de 2012 a 2013. Las variables dependientes fueron recién nacido grande (GEG) y pequeño para edad gestacional (PEG), y la independiente obesidad pre-gestacional. Se recabaron datos socioeconómicos y ginecoobstétricos. La asociación entre las variables dependientes con las independientes, se evaluó con regresión logística. Resultados: se estudiaron 143 díadas madre-hijo con desviaciones en el crecimiento de sus RN, y 137 díadas madre-hijo sin desviaciones. La edad de las embarazadas fue 24.7 ± 6.3 vs 24.0 ± 6.0 años, y la edad gestacional 38±1.2 vs 38±1.5. Los factores asociados con desviaciones en el crecimiento fueron: obesidad pre-gestacional (RM 2.65, IC95% 1.29-5.44), ganancia de peso durante el embarazo elevada (RM 1.98, IC95% 1.04-3.76) y enfermedades durante el embarazo (RM 2.62, IC95% 1.05-6.76). Un modelo multivariado, con la variable dependiente GEG, y las covariables asociadas, demostró que la obesidad pregestacional y ganancia de peso gestacional elevada fueron predictores de GEG (RM 2.43, IC95% 1.10- 5.40) y (RM 3.31, IC95% 1.83-5.96). Conclusiones: en una población de mujeres jóvenes de escasos recursos económicos, la obesidad pregestacional y la ganancia de peso durante el embarazo alta, fueron predictores de productos GEG.

  15. Maternal Body-Mass Index and Cord Blood Circulating Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Miranda, Maria L.; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J.; Stiefel, Pablo; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Bernal-Bermejo, Jose; Jimenez-Jimenez, Luis M.; Villar, Jose; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that are particularly abundant in umbilical cord blood. We sought to determine whether ECFC abundance in cord blood is associated with maternal body-mass index (BMI) in non-pathological pregnancies. Study design We measured the level of ECFCs in the cord blood of neonates (n=27) born from non-obese healthy mothers with non-pathological pregnancies and examined whether ECFC abundance correlated with maternal BMI. We also examined the effect of maternal BMI on ECFC phenotype and function using angiogenic and vasculogenic assays. Results We observed variation in ECFC abundance among subjects and found a positive correlation between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and ECFC content (r=0.51, P=0.007), which was independent of other obstetric factors. Despite this variation, ECFC phenotype and functionality were deemed normal and highly similar between subjects with maternal BMI <25 kg/m2 and BMI between 25–30 kg/m2, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. Conclusions This study underlines the need to consider maternal BMI as a potential confounding factor for cord blood levels of ECFCs in future comparative studies between healthy and pathological pregnancies. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of progenitor cells that circulate in peripheral blood and can give rise to endothelial cells (1,2), contributing to the formation of new vasculature and the maintenance of vascular integrity (3–5). The mechanisms that regulate the abundance of these cells in vivo remain poorly understood. ECFCs are rare in adult peripheral blood (1,2,10). In contrast, there is an elevated number of these cells in fetal blood during the third trimester of pregnancy (11–13). Emerging evidence indicates that deleterious conditions during fetal life can impair ECFC content and function. For instance, offspring of diabetic mothers have been shown to have

  16. Maternal medical conditions during pregnancy and gross motor development up to age 24 months in the Upstate KIDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Wylie, Amanda; Bell, Erin; Bello, Scott C; Yeung, Edwina

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether children of mothers with a medical condition diagnosed before or during pregnancy took longer to achieve gross motor milestones up to age 24 months. We obtained information on medical conditions using self-reports, birth certificates, and hospital records in 4909 mothers participating in Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort. Mothers reported on their children's motor milestone achievement at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. After adjustment for covariates (including pre-pregnancy body mass index), children of mothers with gestational diabetes took longer to achieve sitting without support (hazard ratio [HR]=0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.93), walking with assistance (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.98), and walking alone (HR=0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) than children of females with no gestational diabetes. Similar findings emerged for maternal diabetes. Gestational hypertension was associated with a longer time to achieve walking with assistance. These associations did not change after adjustment for gestational age or birthweight. Severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were related to a longer time to achieve milestones, but not after adjustment for perinatal factors. Children exposed to maternal diabetes, gestational or pre-gestational, may take longer to achieve motor milestones than non-exposed children, independent of maternal obesity. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Prenatal origin of obesity and their complications: Gestational diabetes, maternal overweight and the paradoxical effects of fetal growth restriction and macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher

    2011-09-01

    Pregestational (PGDM) and gestational (GDM) diabetes may be associated with a variety of fetal effects including increased rate of spontaneous abortions, intrauterine fetal death, congenital anomalies, neurodevelopmental problems and increased risk of perinatal complications. Additional problems of concern are fetal growth disturbances causing increased or decreased birth weight. Optimal control of maternal blood glucose is known to reduce these changes. Among the long lasting effects of these phenomena are a high rate of overweight and obesity at childhood and a high tendency to develop the "metabolic syndrome" characterized by hypertension, cardio-vascular complications and type 2 diabetes. Similarly, maternal overweight and obesity during pregnancy or excessive weight gain are also associated with increased obesity and complications in the offspring. Although there are different causes for fetal growth restriction (FGR) or for fetal excessive growth (macrosomis), paradoxically both are associated with the "metabolic syndrome" and its long term consequences. The exact mechanism(s) underlying these long term effects on growth are not fully elucidated, but they involve insulin resistance, fetal hyperleptinemia, hypothalamic changes and most probably epigenetic changes. Preventive measures to avoid the metabolic syndrome and its complications seem to be a tight dietary control and physical activity in the children born to obese or diabetic mothers or who had antenatal growth disturbances for other known or unknown reasons.

  18. Physical activity and maternal obesity: cardiovascular adaptations, exercise recommendations, and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Michelle F

    2013-10-01

    Although a healthy lifestyle approach is intuitive for obese pregnant women, no guidelines currently exist to manage these women throughout pregnancy. Women who are medically prescreened for contraindications can engage in a walking program three to four times per week, starting at 25 min per session and adding 2 min per week until reaching 40 min, with sessions continuing until delivery. A target heart rate of 102-124 beats per minute should be promoted for women 20-29 years of age and a rate of 101-120 beats per minute for women 30-39 years of age. A pedometer step count of 10,000 steps per day is suggested as a goal, as this level of activity provides important health benefits. Combining healthy eating with a walking plan prevents excessive weight gain during pregnancy and promotes a healthy fetal environment.

  19. How maternal malnutrition affects linear growth and development in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal malnutrition is common in the developing world and has detrimental effects on both the mother and infant. Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy are positively related to fetal growth and development. Internationally, there is no agreement on the method of diagnos...

  20. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time......-invariant heterogeneity between mothers, I compare outcomes of mothers' consecutive children. Mothers who work during the first pregnancy trimester have a lower risk of preterm birth. I fi nd no eff ect on the probability of having a baby of small size for gestational age (SGA). To rule out the possibility that health...

  1. Association Between Obesity During Pregnancy and the Adequacy of Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozzaro-Smith, Paula E; Bacak, Stephen; Conway, Ciara; Park, Jennifer; Glantz, J Christopher; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, more than a third of women are obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30]. Although obese populations utilize health care at increased rates and have higher health care costs than non-obese patients, the adequacy of prenatal care in this population is not well established and assumed to be suboptimal. We therefore evaluated adequacy of prenatal care among obese women. We utilized an electronic database including 7094 deliveries with pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 18.5 from January 2009 through December 2011. Subjects were categorized as normal weight 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, and obese ≥30 kg/m2 (class I-II-III). Adequacy of prenatal care (PNC) was evaluated using the Kotelchuck Index (KI), corrected for gestational age at delivery. Adequate care was defined as KI "adequate" or "adequate plus," and non-adequate as "intermediate" or "inadequate." Chi square and logistic regression were used for comparisons. When compared to non-obese women, obese women were more likely to have adequate PNC (74.1 vs. 68.7%; OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.47). After adjusting for age, race, education, diabetes, hypertension, and practice type, obesity remained a significant predictor of adequate prenatal care (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.14-1.46). While age and hypertension were not significant independent predictors of adequate PNC, college education, Caucasian, diabetes, and resident or MFM care had positive associations. Maternal obesity is associated with increased adequacy of prenatal care. Although some comorbidities associated with obesity increase utilization of prenatal services, this did not explain the improvement in PNC adequacy associated with obesity. Overweight and obese women are at a higher risk of pregnancy complications with obesity contributing to increased morbidity and mortality of the mother. Several studies have evaluated barriers to routine health care services, with obese parturients perceiving their weight to be a barrier to obtaining appropriate

  2. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain: Influence of Molecular Genetic Predisposition to Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofus C Larsen

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG, and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup.To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity.A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC sampling the most obese women (n = 990 and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128. Replication of statistically significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC (n = 4,841. We included 32 body mass index (BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS. Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined.In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P<0.01. For total fish and lean fish, similar patterns were observed, but these associations were not statistically significant. We found no association between GRS and GWG, and no interactions between GRS and dietary fish on GWG. However, we found an interaction between the PPARG Pro12Ala variant and dietary fish. Each additional Pro12Ala G-allele was associated with a GWG of -0.83 kg (95% CI: -1.29, -0.37, P<0.01 per portion/week of dietary fish, with the same pattern for both lean and fatty fish. In ALSPAC, we were unable to replicate these findings.We found no consistent evidence of association between fish consumption and GWG, and our results indicate that the association between dietary fish and GWG has little or no dependency on GRS or individual SNPs.

  3. Fit for Birth - the effect of weight changes in obese pregnant women on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a pilot prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, R P; Weeks, A D; Quenby, S; Rycroft, D; Hart, A; Longworth, H; Charnley, M; Abayomi, J; Topping, J; Turner, M A; Wilding, J P H

    2016-02-01

    The 'Fit for Birth' study aimed to explore patterns of gestational weight gain and their relationship with pregnancy outcomes. The study had three aims: 1. To explore the feasibility of conducting a large cohort study in this setting. 2. To describe patterns of weight gain through pregnancy in obese women. 3. To explore associations of weight change during pregnancy with outcomes. Pregnant women with a BMI ≥ 30 kg m(-2) at first antenatal clinic visit. This was a single centre pilot observational study based at the Liverpool Women's Hospital, a large UK maternity hospital.Women were recruited into the study at their antenatal booking visit and had weights measured throughout pregnancy. Patterns of weight gain were described and related to maternal and neonatal outcomes. The primary outcome was a composite measure consisting of any of 12 adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. This was compared by categorized pregnancy weight gain (9 kg). Eight hundred and twenty four women consented to participation between June 2009 and June 2010. Weight data were collected on 756 women. Only 385 women had weights measured in all three study assessment periods (6-20 weeks, 20 + 1 to 32 weeks and >32 weeks gestation) while 427 women had weights measured in period 3. Individual patterns of weight gain varied widely and missing data were common and non-random. There was a significant association between increased weight gain during pregnancy and poor maternal and foetal outcome. Weight gain in obese women during pregnancy can be highly variable. Our study supports an association between increased weight gain in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes. © 2015 World Obesity.

  4. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics.

  5. 孕前体重指数、孕期增重对泌乳时间影响的纵向研究%The effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain on the onset of lactation: a longitudinal study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润; 刘丹; 王玥; 代正燕; 周容; 刘婧; 张琚; 曾果

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on the onset time of lactation (OL).Methods In this longitudinal study,751 healthy single pregnant women were selected from three hospitals in Chengdu as subjects of baseline survey during March and September 2013 and were followed before and after delivery,respectively.Finally,data from a total of 473 pregnant women were analyzed.Data on pre-pregnancy weight,delivery mode,birth weight of neonate,information of lactation and maternal demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaire and medical records.Height and weight at the last week before delivery were measured and GWG were calculated.After controlling the potential confounders,a serial of multi-factor ordinal logistic regression models were performed to test the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI,GWG and OL.Results The proportions of OL at the < 1,1-,24-,48-and ≥72 h groups were 16.3%,37.0%,17.5%,18.6% and 10.6%,respectively.When compared to women with normal weight,the ORs for prolonged OL were 2.85 (1.91-4.27) and 3.42 (1.69-6.90) among pre-pregnant underweight and overweight/obese women,respectively.When compared to women with normal weight and adequate GWG,pre-pregnant underweight women with adequate and excessive GWG showed greater odds of prolonged OL (OR=2.34,95% CI:1.31-4.18;OR=3.42,95% CI:1.67-7.00),respectively.Pre-pregnant overweight/obese women with excessive GWG had increased the odds of prolonged OL (OR=3.10,95% CI:1.15-8.37).Conclusion Pre-pregnant BMI appeared an independently factor,associated with OL while GWG might have an effect on OL,when pre-pregnant BMI was considered.%目的 探讨孕前BMI和孕期增重对泌乳时间的影响.方法 采用纵向研究方法,于2013年3-9月选取成都市妇幼医疗机构产前门诊751名单胎健康孕妇作为基线调查对象,在其分娩前后各随访一次,最终以473名孕妇作为研究对象,

  6. Analysis of the general risk factors in pre-pregnancy eugenics inspection%孕前优生健康检查一般风险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹超英; 谢芳; 熊桂荣; 周立晓; 郭昭鹏; 刘鲁峰; 谢辉艳; 李鸿敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨计划妊娠的夫妇孕前风险因素,降低导致出生缺陷等不良妊娠结局的风险因素。方法收集深圳市罗湖区2013年9429名计划妊娠夫妇的免费孕前优生检查资料,对待孕夫妇存在的孕前风险因素进行分析。结果女性孕前风险因素排在前五位的是:生殖系统检查异常(60.51%)、甲状腺功能异常(23.56%)、环境风险因素(19.83%)、低体重(18.53%)、不良妊娠史(13.58%)。男性风险因素排在前五位的是:超重和肥胖(41.94%);生殖系统检查异常(30.39%)、吸烟(28.76%)、环境风险因素(20.66%)、心理风险因素(19.14%)。结论应针对孕前风险因素对已婚育龄夫妇进行规范化的孕前优生指导,加强一级预防,减少出生缺陷儿的发生率。%Objective Through the analysis of the result among planned pregnancy couples with pre -pregnancy eugenics inspection, reduce the risk factors associated with birth defects or other adverse pregnancy outcomes in planned pregnancy couples . Methods Collect and analyze the results of 9 429 people of planned pregnancy couples with free pre -pregnancy eugenics inspection during 2013, to find out the risk factors before pregnancy .Results According to the analysis of the inspection results , the top five risk of the factors before pregnancy of female are: abnormality of genital system ( 60.51 %) , thyroid dysfunction ( 23.56 %) , environment risk factor(19.83 %), low body weight(18.53 %), abnormal pregnancy (13.58 %).The top five risk of the factors male are:hypergravitation and obesity(41.94%), abnormality of genital system(30.39%), smoking(28.76%), environment risk factor(20.66 %), psychological hazard(19.14 %).Conclusion Strengthen pre -pregnancy eugenics inspection of child -bearing age couples , standardize pre -pregnancy guidance and effective primary prevention have important significance for reducing the incidence of

  7. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarton, Cheryl; Lichter, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes. PMID:27747104

  8. Maternal-child overweight/obesity and undernutrition in Kenya: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa R; Curtin, Kevin M; Gewa, Constance; Attaway, David

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine geographic relationships of nutritional status (BMI), including underweight, overweight and obesity, among Kenyan mothers and children. Spatial relationships were examined concerning BMI of the mothers and BMI-for-age percentiles of their children. These included spatial statistical measures of the clustering of segments of the population, in addition to inspection of co-location of significant clusters. Rural and urban areas of Kenya, including the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa, and the Kisumu region. Mother-child pairs from Demographic and Health Survey data including 1541 observations in 2003 and 1592 observations in 2009. These mother-child pairs were organized into 399 locational clusters. There is extremely strong evidence that high BMI values exhibit strong spatial clustering. There were co-locations of overweight mothers and overweight children only in the Nairobi region, while both underweight mothers and children tended to cluster in rural areas. In Mombasa clusters of overweight mothers were associated with normal-weight children, while in the Kisumu region clusters of overweight children were associated with normal-weight mothers. These findings show there is geographic variability as well as some defined patterns concerning the distribution of malnutrition among mothers and children in Kenya, and suggest the need for further geographic analyses concerning the potential factors which influence nutritional status in this population. In addition, the methods used in this research may be easily applied to other Demographic and Health Survey data in order to begin to understand the geographic determinants of health in low-income countries.

  9. The effect of pre-pregnancy body mass and gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcome%孕前体重和孕期增重对妊娠结局的影响观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘三连

    2015-01-01

    gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM),pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH),dystocia,caesarean section in obesity group were 6.47%,7.43%,51.56%,47.48% respectively,the rates of PIH,dystocia,caesarean section in obesity group were significantly higher than those in low body weight group and normal control group (P<0.05),the rate of GDM in obesity group was significantly higher than that in normal control group (P<0.05).The rates of neonatal asphyxia,fetal distress,macrosomia in obesity group were 6.47%,5.52%,11.27% respectively,significantly higher than those in normal control group (P<0.05).(2)The rates of GDM,PIH,dystocia,caesarean section in high weight gain group were 5.57%,9.79%,56.43%,49.32% respectively,the rates of PIH,dystocia,caesarean section in high weight gain group were significantly higher than those in low weight gain group and normal weight gain group (P<0.05),the rate of GDM in high weight gain group was significantly higher than that in normal weight gain group (P<0.05).The rates of neonatal asphyxia,macrosomia in high weight gain group were 6.53%,14.97% respectively,significantly higher than those in low weight gain group and normal weight gain group (P<0.05).Conclusion 18.5-24 kg/m2 pre-pregnancy BMI and 10-15 kg gestational weight gain will lead to satisfactory pregnancy outcome.

  10. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  11. A maternal 'junk food' diet in pregnancy and lactation promotes an exacerbated taste for 'junk food' and a greater propensity for obesity in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayol, Stéphanie A; Farrington, Samantha J; Stickland, Neil C

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is generally associated with high intake of junk foods rich in energy, fat, sugar and salt combined with a dysfunctional control of appetite and lack of exercise. There is some evidence to suggest that appetite and body mass can be influenced by maternal food intake during the fetal and suckling life of an individual. However, the influence of a maternal junk food diet during pregnancy and lactation on the feeding behaviour and weight gain of the offspring remains largely uncharacterised. In this study, six groups of rats were fed either rodent chow alone or with a junk food diet during gestation, lactation and/or post-weaning. The daily food intakes and body mass were measured in forty-two pregnant and lactating mothers as well as in 216 offspring from weaning up to 10 weeks of age. Results showed that 10 week-old rats born to mothers fed the junk food diet during gestation and lactation developed an exacerbated preference for fatty, sugary and salty foods at the expense of protein-rich foods when compared with offspring fed a balanced chow diet prior to weaning or during lactation alone. Male and female offspring exposed to the junk food diet throughout the study also exhibited increased body weight and BMI compared with all other offspring. This study shows that a maternal junk food diet during pregnancy and lactation may be an important contributing factor in the development of obesity.

  12. Timing of Maternal Exposure to a High Fat Diet and Development of Obesity and Hyperinsulinemia in Male Rat Offspring: Same Metabolic Phenotype, Different Developmental Pathways?

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    Graham J. Howie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Offspring born to mothers either fed an obesogenic diet throughout their life or restricted to pregnancy and lactation demonstrate obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia, irrespective of their postweaning diet. We examined whether timing of a maternal obesogenic diet results in differential regulation of pancreatic adipoinsular and inflammatory signaling pathways in offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups: (1 control (CONT: fed a control diet preconceptionally and during pregnancy and lactation; (2 maternal high fat (MHF: fed an HF diet throughout their life and during pregnancy and lactation; (3 pregnancy and lactation HF (PLHF: fed a control diet throughout life until mating, then HF diet during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were fed the control diet postweaning. Plasma and pancreatic tissue were collected, and mRNA concentrations of key factors regulating adipoinsular axis signaling were determined. Results. MHF and PLHF offspring exhibited increased adiposity and were hyperinsulinemic and hyperleptinemic compared to CONT. Despite a similar anthropometric phenotype, MHF and PLHF offspring exhibited distinctly different expression for key pancreatic genes, dependent upon maternal preconceptional nutritional background. Conclusions. These data suggest that despite using differential signaling pathways, obesity in offspring may be an adaptive outcome of early life exposure to HF during critical developmental windows.

  13. Maternal Body Mass Index and Regional Anaesthesia Use at Term: Prevalence and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Frances M; Marshall, Nicole E; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2017-08-22

    There is an evidence gap regarding the use of regional anaesthesia (epidural, spinal, or combined epidural/spinal anaesthesia) and associated complications by maternal body mass index (BMI). We examine associations between regional anaesthesia, mode of delivery, and regional anaesthesia complications by pre-pregnancy BMI categories among term deliveries. Retrospective cohort study of births in California, 2007-2010, utilizing linked birth certificate data and patient discharge data. Outcomes were mode of delivery (among laboured deliveries) and select regional anaesthesia complications. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to adjust for maternal characteristics. In women undergoing labour (i.e. laboured delivery), women with higher BMI categories were more likely to receive regional analgesia in a dose-response fashion (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 1.11 for primiparous women with category I obesity), and in those receiving regional anaesthesia, were less likely to deliver vaginally (e.g. RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.84, 0.85 for the same category of women). Regional anaesthesia complications displayed a complex relationship with maternal BMI, with women in intermediate obesity categories having decreased odds as compared to normal-weight women, and women in the highest BMI category having a twofold increased risk of complications (RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.37, 4.02 for primiparous women). Labouring women in higher BMI categories were more likely to receive regional anaesthesia and more likely to deliver via caesarean compared to normal weight women and women without regional anaesthesia. Rates of anaesthesia complications were highest among women in the highest BMI category. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pre-pregnancy dietary patterns and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: results from an Australian population-based prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Callaway, L.K.; Mishra, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis - We examined the associations between pre-pregnancy dietary patterns and the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population-based cohort study of women of reproductive age. Methods - The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health included 3,853 women without

  15. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Simon; Oger, Frederik; Pourpe, Charlène; Butruille, Laura; Marousez, Lucie; Dickes-Coopman, Anne; Laborie, Christine; Guinez, Céline; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Junien, Claudine; Eberlé, Delphine; Gabory, Anne; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Breton, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, maternal obesity and accelerated growth in neonates predispose offspring to white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation. In rodents, adipogenesis mainly develops during lactation. The mechanisms underlying the phenomenon known as developmental programming remain elusive. We previously reported that adult rat offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams (called HF) exhibited hypertrophic adipocyte, hyperleptinemia and increased leptin mRNA levels in a depot-specific manner. We hypothesized that leptin upregulation occurs via epigenetic malprogramming, which takes place early during development of WAT. As a first step, we identified in silico two potential enhancers located upstream and downstream of the leptin transcription start site that exhibit strong dynamic epigenomic remodeling during adipocyte differentiation. We then focused on epigenetic modifications (methylation, hydroxymethylation, and histone modifications) of the promoter and the two potential enhancers regulating leptin gene expression in perirenal (pWAT) and inguinal (iWAT) fat pads of HF offspring during lactation (postnatal days 12 (PND12) and 21 (PND21)) and in adulthood. PND12 is an active period for epigenomic remodeling in both deposits especially in the upstream enhancer, consistent with leptin gene induction during adipogenesis. Unlike iWAT, some of these epigenetic marks were still observable in pWAT of weaned HF offspring. Retained marks were only visible in pWAT of 9-month-old HF rats that showed a persistent "expandable" phenotype. Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  16. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age--A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Torres-Espinola

    Full Text Available Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring.The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life.This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56, obese (n:64, gestational diabetic (n:79, and healthy normal weight controls (n:132. At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment.At 6 months (n=215, we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035 for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197, the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups.Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts further confirmative studies to explore

  17. Role of Maternal Periodontitis in Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyu; Du, Minquan

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, many studies have focused on whether periodontitis is a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). However, both epidemiological investigation and intervention trials have reached contradictory results from different studies. What explains the different findings, and how should future studies be conducted to better assess this risk factor? This article reviews recent epidemiological, animal, and in vitro studies as well as intervention trials that evaluate the link between periodontitis and PTB. Periodontitis may act as a distant reservoir of microbes and inflammatory mediators and contribute to the induction of PTB. Animal studies revealed that maternal infections with periodontal pathogens increase levels of circulating IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and TNF-α and induce PTB. In vitro models showed that periodontal pathogens/byproducts induce COX-2, IL-8, IFN-γ, and TNF-α secretion and/or apoptosis in placental tissues/cells. The effectiveness of periodontal treatment to prevent PTB is influenced by the diagnostic criteria of periodontitis, microbial community composition, severity of periodontitis, treatment strategy, treatment efficiency, and the period of treatment during pregnancy. Although intervention trials reported contradictory results, oral health maintenance is an important part of preventive care that is both effective and safe throughout pregnancy and should be supported before and during pregnancy. As contradictory epidemiological and intervention studies continue to be published, two new ideas are proposed here: (1) severe and/or generalized periodontitis promotes PTB and (2) periodontitis only promotes PTB for pregnant women who are young or HIV-infected or have preeclampsia, pre-pregnancy obesity, or susceptible genotypes. PMID:28243243

  18. Prenatal programming in an obese swine model: sex-related effects of maternal energy restriction on morphology, metabolism and hypothalamic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óvilo, Cristina; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Benítez, Rita; Ayuso, Miriam; Barbero, Alicia; Pérez-Solana, Maria L; Barragán, Carmen; Astiz, Susana; Fernández, Almudena; López-Bote, Clemente

    2014-02-01

    Maternal energy restriction during pregnancy predisposes to metabolic alterations in the offspring. The present study was designed to evaluate phenotypic and metabolic consequences following maternal undernutrition in an obese pig model and to define the potential role of hypothalamic gene expression in programming effects. Iberian sows were fed a control or a 50 % restricted diet for the last two-thirds of gestation. Newborns were assessed for body and organ weights, hormonal and metabolic status, and hypothalamic expression of genes implicated in energy homeostasis, glucocorticoid function and methylation. Weight and adiposity were measured in adult littermates. Newborns of the restricted sows were lighter (P gene was down-regulated in the restricted animals (P gene expression at birth and higher growth and adiposity in adulthood suggest a female-specific programming effect for a positive energy balance, possibly due to overexposure to endogenous stress-induced glucocorticoids.

  19. Health economic modeling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes, and related macrosomia - a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J C; Uauy, Ricardo D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g., macrosomia), body adiposity, and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, GDM, and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences. Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop diabetes emphasizes the urgent need to collect more country

  20. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Kusaka, Takashi [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Warita, Katsuhiko [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Yokoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Bioresource and Agrobiosciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan); Jamal, Mostofa [Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Ueki, Masaaki [Department of Anesthesia, Nishiwaki Municipal Hospital (Japan); Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Sumitani, Kazunori [Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Hosomi, Naohisa [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Japan); Takeuchi, Yoshiki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved by separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.

  1. Prospective population-based cohort study of maternal obesity as a source of error in gestational age estimation at 11-14weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Geske S; Sperling, Lene; Källén, Karin

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionAn impact of maternal obesity on ultrasound dating of pregnancy at 11-14 gestational weeks is possible and was investigated. Material and methodsA prospective cohort study based on the Danish national population during a 4-year period in which we entered all mothers with singleton...... pregnancies who had a known last menstrual period (LMP), a recorded booking of body mass index (BMI), and a late first trimester ultrasound dating scan using crown-rump-length measurement (gestational age 11(+0)-13(+6)weeks). Almost all scans were performed transabdominally. Transvaginal ultrasound was only.......8% were overweight and 12.3% obese. Ultrasound EDD was 7days later than by LMP in 5.8% of normal-weight women, 7.3% of obese women, and 10.0% of women with morbid obesity. Compared with normal BMI (18.5-24.9), the OR for postponing EDD increased with increasing BMI; BMI 25-29.9 [OR 0.97, 95% confidence...

  2. Nutritional status and dietary intake among pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kaoru; Takemi, Yukari; Hayashi, Fumi; Hosokawa, Momo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study examined nutritional status and dietary intake of pregnant women in Japan in relation to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).Methods Participants included 141 Japanese women with singleton pregnancies, from the outpatient department of the S hospital, Gunma prefecture, Japan. Two-day food records, dietary assessment questionnaires, and clinical records were obtained at 20 weeks gestation. Nine patients were excluded from the study due to morning sickness. The remaining 132 participants were divided into 3 groups according to pre-pregnancy BMI: underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Nutritional status and dietary intake were analyzed in relation to BMI using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, employment status, and total energy intake.Results Women who were underweight before pregnancy were more frequently working full-time than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight women were also more frequently anemic (P=0.038, underweight 39.3%, normal weight 24.7%, overweight 0%) and had lower mean hemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.021, underweight 11.3 g/dL, normal weight 11.6 g/dL, overweight 12.1 g/dL) and hematocrit (Hct) levels (P=0.025, underweight 33.7%, normal weight 34.3%, overweight 36.0%). Their dietary intake of protein, iron, magnesium, and folic acid was lower than that of normal weight and overweight women. Their meals tended to include fewer meat, fish, egg, and soybean dishes (underweight, mean of 4.7 servings per day; normal weight, 6.1 servings; overweight, 6.1 servings).Conclusion Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy had increased risk of anemia as well as reduced Hb and Hct levels. They had lower dietary intake of protein, iron and folic acid compared to women in the other BMI categories. Anemia and these nutrient deficiencies are known risk factors for low birth weight. Our findings suggest

  3. Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62. The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04. In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50. Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.Objetivo: La falta de lactancia o su corta duración ha sido asociada con la obesidad materna. El propósito de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios prospectivos que estudiaron el efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed, se incluyeron estudios prospectivos del efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la iniciación, la intención y la duración de la lactancia: se encontraron 653 artículos, y siete fueron estudios prospectivos. Después de agregar otros estudios seleccionados a mano, se

  4. The Influence of Maternal Dietary Patterns on Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain in Urban Black South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrottesley, Stephanie V; Pisa, Pedro T; Norris, Shane A

    2017-07-11

    Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and subsequent gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong predictors of maternal and infant outcomes; however the influence of dietary patterns on BMI-specific GWG is unclear. This study identifies patterns of habitual dietary intake in urban South African women and explores their associations with first trimester BMI and GWG. Habitual dietary intake of 538 pregnant women was assessed using a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns were depicted via principle component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI-specific GWG were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, Traditional and Mixed. Western and Mixed diet patterns were associated with 35 g/week (p = 0.021) and 24 g/week (p = 0.041) higher GWG in normal weight and obese women respectively. Additionally, high intakes of a Traditional diet pattern were associated with a reduced odds of excessive weight gain in the total sample (OR: 0.81; p = 0.006) and in normal weight women (OR: 0.68; p = 0.003). Increased intake of a traditional diet pattern-high in whole grains, legumes, vegetables and traditional meats-and decreased intake of refined, high sugar and fat driven diets may reduce GWG (including risk of excessive weight gain) in urban South African women.

  5. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...

  6. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  7. 孕前体质量指数与妊娠不良结局的相关性研究%Study on effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on adverse outcome of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小绒

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨孕前体质量指数(BMI)与妊娠不良结局相关性。方法收集4614例分娩的孕妇临床资料,根据孕前 BMI 不同将其分为低体质量组、正常体质量组、超重组和肥胖组,比较各组的子痫前期、妊娠期糖尿病、剖宫产、新生儿死亡、妊娠高血压、巨大胎儿、胎膜早破、耐糖量异常、产后出血等妊娠不良结局的发病率。结果低体质量组占13.5%,正常体质量组占70.5%,超重组占13.4%和肥胖组占2.6%。随着孕前 BMI 的增大,妊娠期的不良结局的风险也越来越大。除新生儿死亡以外,在其他妊娠不良结局中超重组和肥胖组的发病率要明显要高于正常体质量组,差异具有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05)。低体质量组的产后出血、耐糖量异常、新生儿死亡、剖宫产、妊娠期糖尿病的发病率与正常体质量组相比无明显的差异( P ﹥0.05),而子痫前期、妊娠高血压、巨大胎儿、胎膜早破的发生率明显低于正常体质量组,差异具有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05)。结论孕妇的孕前 BMI 对妊娠不良结局有较大的影响,加强对孕妇的孕前 BMI 控制,可以减少母婴并发症。%Objective To explore the significance of pre - pregnancy body mass index(BMI)in adverse outcome of pregnancy. Methods A total of 4 614 nulliparous. women selected on population - based cohort were categorized into 4 groups,pre - eclampsia,emergency caesare-an,gestational diabetes,postpartum haemorrhage,and other adverse pregnancy outcomes were compared among them by univariate and multivari-ate analyses. Results They were classified by pre - pregnancy BMI,625 women as underweight(13. 5% ),3 253 as normal(70. 5% ),617 as overweight(13. 4% ),and 119 as obese(2. 6% ). The risk of adverse pregnancy outcome had been increased with the increase of pre - pregnancy BMI( P ﹤ 0. 05). The risks for gestational hypertension,pre - eclampsia

  8. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, K

    2014-01-01

    obese and 80 normal weight mothers and their newborn infants and assessed the babies' body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The total and abdominal fat masses of infants born to mother who were obese before pregnancy were 135 g (p ... for gestational age (5.2%) and appropriate for gestational age (9.8%) (p born to obese mothers had higher fat mass at birth, with abdominal fat accumulation. Low birthweight...

  9. Maternal caloric restriction prior to pregnancy increases the body weight of the second-generation male offspring and shortens their longevity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araminaite, Violeta; Zalgeviciene, Violeta; Simkunaite-Rizgeliene, Renata; Stukas, Rimantas; Kaminskas, Arvydas; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2014-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition can affect offspring's physical status and various health parameters that might be transmittable across several generations. Many studies have focused on undernutrition throughout pregnancy, whereas maternal undernutrition prior to pregnancy is not sufficiently studied. The objective of our study was to explore the effects of food restriction prior to and during pregnancy on body weight and longevity of the second generation offspring. Adult female Wistar rats ("F0" generation) were 50% food restricted for one month prior to pregnancy (pre-pregnancy) or during pre-pregnancy and pregnancy. The third group was fed normally (control). The first generation offspring were normally fed until the 6(th) month of age to produce the second generation offspring; namely, the first-generation female rats were mated with male breeders from outside the experiment. The second generation offspring thus obtained were observed until natural death (up to 36 months). Compared to the controls, the second-generation male offspring whose "grandmothers (F0 females)" undernourished only during pre-pregnancy were significantly heavier from the 8(th) month of age, whereas no significant weight difference was found in the male offspring whose "grandmothers" were food-restricted during pre-pregnancy and pregnancy. Shorter lifespan was observed in the second-generation male offspring of "grandmothers" that were food-restricted either during pre-pregnancy or during pre-pregnancy and pregnancy. By contrast, no differences in body weight and lifespan were observed in all second-generation female offspring. In conclusion, maternal caloric restriction prior to pregnancy increases the body weight and shortens the longevity of the second-generation male offspring, indicating the sex-dependent transgenerational effect of maternal caloric restriction.

  10. Retrospective cohort study of the effects of obesity in early pregnancy on maternal weight gain and obstetric outcomes in an obstetric population in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka A Iyoke,1 George O Ugwu,1 Frank O Ezugwu,2 Osaheni L Lawani,3 Azubuike K Onyebuchi31Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, 2Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, 3Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, NigeriaObjective: The purpose of this study was to compare maternal weight gain in pregnancy and obstetric outcomes between women with obesity in early pregnancy and those with a normal body mass index (BMI in early pregnancy.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of women with obesity in early pregnancy and those with a normal BMI who were seen at three teaching hospitals in South-East Nigeria. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 software, with descriptive and inferential statistics at the 95% level of confidence.Results: The study sample consisted of 648 women (324 obese and 324 healthy-weight. The mean age of the obese women was 26.7 ± 5.1 years and that of the healthy-weight women was 26.6 ± 4.9 years. Although both excessive weight gain (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.54 and inadequate weight gain (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.04–0.15 were less common in women with early pregnancy obesity than in healthy-weight women, a significantly higher proportion of obese women with excessive weight gain had adverse fetomaternal outcomes. Also, a significantly higher proportion of obese women had specific complications, such as premature rupture of membranes (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.12–5.04, gestational hypertension/pre-eclampsia (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12–5.04, antepartum hemorrhage (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.02–7.93, gestational diabetes (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.62–11.74, cesarean delivery (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2–5.44, macrosomia (OR 4.08, 95% CI 1.06–8.41, severe birth asphyxia (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6

  11. 225名育龄妇女孕前、孕中及产后微量元素调查%Survey on Microelements of Pre - pregnancy, Pregnancy and Postpartum Periods Among 225 Childbearing Age Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels and influencing factors of the microelements in pre- pregnancy, pregnancy, and postpartum periods among the childbearing age women, and to offer the scientific evidence for the health care of childbearing age women. Methods We collected the blood samples of 225 childbearing age women who received the examination during the pre- pregnancy, pregnancy, and postpartum periods in the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hunan Province from January 2009 to May 2011. Atomic absorption spectrometer was used to detect the contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu in serum. Results The levels of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu showed a skewed distribution in different periods. The deficiency of Fe was common in the pregnancy and postpartum periods (P<0.05); and moreover, the levels of Zn and Ca were generally lower in the pregnancy and postpartum periods (P<0.05). Conclusions The levels of the microelements in the pregnancy and postpartum periods are lower, which suggest that it has significance to the growth of fetus and the recovery of puerpera through scientific intake of the nutrition and necessary microelements according to the eating habits and strengthening the physical exercises.%目的 了解育龄妇女在孕前、孕中及产后微量元素水平变化及影响因素,为育龄妇女营养保健提供科学依据.方法 连续收集2009年1月- 2011年5月在本院孕前、孕中检查及产后体检的225例育龄妇女血样,用原子吸收光谱分析仪检测Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu的含量.结果 不同时期妇女全血中Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu含量呈偏态分布,孕期及产后铁缺乏常见(P<0.05).另外,孕期和产后妇女锌、钙也总体偏低(P<0.05).结论 孕期及产后妇女微量元素营养状况处在一个较低的水平,提示应注意合理营养摄人,根据饮食习惯科学补充必需的微量元素,适当加强锻炼,对体内胎儿发育及自身恢复都有一定的意义.

  12. A comparison of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women referred to Asali hospital in 91-92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheila Akbari

    2014-09-01

    Results: In this study, 600pregnant women were evaluated.Mean BMI befor pregnancy in the women with GDM was significantly higher than in the women without the above-mentioned problems(P=0.0001. The mean weight gained during pregnancy in the women with these symptoms was significantly higher than that in the women without the above –mentioned problems(P=0.039(P=0.0001. Compared to pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy had a higher with GDM(0.278 vs 0.077. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy BMI in comparison with weight gain during pregnancy, had a higher correlation with GDM and macrosomia

  13. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  14. The impact of maternal obesity on intra-partum events during pregnancy: a retrospective study at Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulagammal A.

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Obese women had increased incidence of difficult intra-partum events like increased blood loss and post-partum haemorrhage, increased requirement of oxytocin augmentation, higher rates of caesarean and instrumental deliveries, when compared to non-obese women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 994-997

  15. Maternal obesity is associated with ovarian inflammation and up-regulation of early growth response factor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity impairs reproductive functions through multiple mechanisms, possibly through disruption of ovarian function. We hypothesized that increased adiposity will lead to a pro-inflammatory gene signature and up-regulation of Egr-1 protein in ovaries from obese (OB, n=7) compared to lean (LN, n=10) ...

  16. Health economic modeling to assess short-term costs of maternal overweight, gestational diabetes, and related macrosomia – a pilot evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M.; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J. C.; Uauy, Ricardo D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g., macrosomia), body adiposity, and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. Objective: Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, GDM, and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. Results: The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences. Conclusion: Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop diabetes emphasizes the

  17. 妊娠糖尿病患者孕前体质指数与血糖及孕期膳食营养的关系%Correlation Between Pre - pregnancy Body Mass Index of Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Blood Glucose and Dietary Nutrition During Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕研霞; 洪忠新; 丁冰杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pre - pregnancy body mass index,nutrition intake during second trimester and weight gain during pregnancy of women with gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)and to explore the effects of those factors on the pathogenesis of GDM,so as to provide a further scientific basis for nutritional guidance during pregnancy. Methods A total of 170 cases of patients with GDM who received treatment in the nutrition outpatient department of Beijing Friendship Hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 were enrolled in this study. According to pre - pregnancy body mass index,the subjects were divided into four groups:low weight group,normal weight group,overweight group and obesity group. By using 24 h dietary recall survey and food frequency survey method,dietary intake of nutrient during the second trimester was analyzed. Pearson correlation analyses were conducted on pre - pregnancy BMI,OGTT results,weight gain during pregnancy and total energy intake from diet. Results The obesity group was higher(P 0. 05)than the low weight group in 1 h and 2 h blood glucose after OGTT. The four groups were not significantly different(P >0. 05)in the total intake of energy,protein,fat and carbohydrate. The low weight group was higher(P 0. 05)in weight gain during pregnancy. The BMI before pregnancy was positively correlated( r = 0. 387,P < 0. 05)with fasting blood glucose,positively correlated( r =0. 279,P < 0. 05)with 1 h blood glucose after a meal and also positively correlated( r = 0. 164,P < 0. 05)with 2 h blood glucose after a meal. The weight gain during pregnancy was positively correlated(r = 0. 242,P < 0. 05)with the total intake of energy during pregnancy. Conclusion Overweight or obesity before pregnancy,unreasonable diet structure and excessive weight gain during pregnancy have correlation with gestational diabetes mellitus. Reasonable diet during pregnancy,balanced nutrition, the promotion of education about nutrition,the improvement of health care during

  18. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be active, eat right" study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); I. Vogel (Ineke); L. van Rossem (Lenie); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIt is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among

  19. Pre-pregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy have an influence on pregnancy outcome%孕前体质指数及孕期体重的增加对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟国花; 周玲

    2012-01-01

    ( normal weight pre-pregnancy )the number of which was 541, Group C( overweight and obesity pre-pregnancy )the number of which was 60,The incidence rates of GDM in Group A,B,C was 2. 5%( 4/157 ),6. 7%( 36/541 ),and 15%( 9/60 ). There was difference in the three groups( P <0. 05 ),The incidence rate of GDM in Group C was the highest. The incidence rates of eclampsism in Group A,B,C wereO.6%( 1/157 ),3.0%( 16/541 ),8. 3%( 5/60 ). There was difference in the three groups( P <0. 05 ). The incidence rate of eclampsism in Group C was the highest. The incidence rates of large for date infant in Group A,B,C were 1.3%(2/157),7.4%( 40/ 541 ),20%( 12/60 ). There was difference in the three groups( P <0. 05 ). The incidence rate of large for date infant in Group C was the highest. The incidence rates of uterine-incision delivery in Group A,B,C were 31. 8%( 50/157 ),31.2%( 169/541 ),51.7%( 31/60 ). There was difference in the three groups( P <0. 05 ). The incidence rate of uterine-incision delivery in Group C was the highest, while there was no difference in the three groups about the incidence rate of premature delivery. Patients were divided into different groups ac-cording to weight gain during pregnancy. Group D( low weight gain during pregnancy )the number of which was 61, Group E( normal weight gain during pregnancy )the number of which was 209, Group F( much weight gain during pregnancy )the number of which was 488. The incidence rates of GDM in Group D,E,F were 14. 8%(9/61 )、5.7%( 12/209 )、5.7%( 28/488 ). There was difference in the three groups( P <0.05 ). The incidence rates of GDM in Group D was the highest. The incidence rates of large for date infant in Group D,E,F were 1.3%(2/157 ),7.4%( 40/541 ),20%( 12/60 ). There was difference in the three groups( P <0. 05 ). The incidence rate of large for date infant in Group F was the highest;The incidence rate of uterine-incision delivery in Group D,E,F were 18. 0%( 11/61 ),24. 4% ( 51/209 ),38. 5%( 188/488 ). There was

  20. Maternal air pollution exposure induces fetal neuroinflammation and predisposes offspring to obesity in aduthood in a sex-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal air pollution exposure would predispose the offspring to weight gain in adulthood. Pre...

  1. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...... the national CP registries. Associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CP in offspring were investigated by using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts had 390 eligible cases of CP (2.1 per 1000 live-born children). Compared with mothers in the lower normal weight group, mothers...

  2. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p healthy home food environment (p = 0.021) and demonstrated less modelling of healthy eating in front of their children (p eat or restriction, based on their own weight status. Mothers with overweight/obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influences of gestational obesity on associations between genotypes and gene expression levels in offspring following maternal gastrointestinal bypass surgery for obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Guénard

    Full Text Available METHODS: Whole-genome genotyping and gene expression analyses in blood of 22 BMS and 23 AMS offspring from 19 mothers were conducted using Illumina HumanOmni-5-Quad and HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips, respectively. Using PLINK we analyzed interactions between offspring gene variations and maternal surgical status on offspring gene expression levels. Altered biological functions and pathways were identified and visualized using DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS: Significant interactions (p ≤ 1.22 x 10(-12 were found for 525 among the 16,060 expressed transcripts: 1.9% of tested SNPs were involved. Gene function and pathway analysis demonstrated enrichment of transcription and of cellular metabolism functions and overrepresentation of cellular stress and signaling, immune response, inflammation, growth, proliferation and development pathways. CONCLUSION: We suggest that impaired maternal gestational metabolic fitness interacts with offspring gene variations modulating gene expression levels, providing potential mechanisms explaining improved cardiometabolic risk profiles of AMS offspring related to ameliorated maternal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

  4. Maternal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms, Self-Esteem, Body Dissatisfaction and Preschooler Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to cross-sectionally examine the associations between maternal psychosocial variables, child feeding practices, and preschooler body mass index z-score (BMI-z) in children (aged 2-4 years). A secondary aim was to examine differences in child weight outcomes between mothers scoring above and below specified…

  5. Maternal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms, Self-Esteem, Body Dissatisfaction and Preschooler Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to cross-sectionally examine the associations between maternal psychosocial variables, child feeding practices, and preschooler body mass index z-score (BMI-z) in children (aged 2-4 years). A secondary aim was to examine differences in child weight outcomes between mothers scoring above and below specified…

  6. Higher adherence to Mediterranean diet prior to pregnancy is associated with decreased risk for deviation from the maternal recommended gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Alexatou, Olga; Kousaiti, Savvina; Gkretsi, Elisavet; Vasios, George; Sampani, Anastasia; Tolia, Maria; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N; Giaginis, Constantinos

    2017-06-14

    The present retrospective study was conducted on 1482 women in order to evaluate whether their pre-pregnancy adherence to the Mediterranean diet may affect maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). For this purpose, the study population was classified according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations concerning GWG. Pre-pregnancy adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with 11 food patterns groups based on their contribution in the Mediterranean diet pyramid. Women with high adherence to the Mediterranean diet were more frequently characterised by GWG inside the IOM recommendations. In multivariate analysis, women with low Mediterranean diet adherence were almost twice at risk in presenting deflection from recommended GWG regardless of various confounding factors. These findings suggested that high pre-pregnancy adherence to the Mediterranean diet may be associated with reduced risk for GWG outside the IOM recommendations. However, larger prospective studies are strongly recommended in order for more precise conclusions to be drawn.

  7. MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES IN GDM: A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Sheela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India today is the diabetic capital of the world. A venous blood sugar level more than 140 mg/dl is suggestive of Gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM and more than 90% of these people are managed by mea l plan alone. GDM tends to occur in older women with higher body mass index, higher parity, and other associated risk factor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the hospital prevalence of GDM, maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GDM compared with non - diabetic pregnancies managed at a tertia ry care unit during the study period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Study was conducted at KING GEORGE HOSPITAL, Visakhapatnam, over a period of 2 years from October 2011 to October 2013. A total of 64 subjects of GDM were recruited and compared with 100 contro ls selected randomly that matched that matched for age, parity, BMI, who delivered in the hospital during the study period. RESULTS: Prevalence of GDM increases as the parity of the woman increases. Incidence of GDM increases as the age of the pregnant wom an increases. Obesity and pre pregnancy weight act as high risk factors for the development of GDM. Patients with known risk factors are more likely to have GDM than those with risk factors. There is increased incidence of operative delivery among GDM case s compare to controls. There is increased prevalence of macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia and hypoglycemia in GDM cases compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes of pregnancy in women with GDM in this study showed significantly raised incidence of hypertens ive disorders, LGA Neonates, macrosomia and NICU admissions for more than 24hrs compared to non - diabetic mothers who delivered in the hospital.

  8. Developing a tool for obtaining maternal skinfold thickness measurements and assessing inter-observer variability among pregnant women who are overweight and obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannieappan, Lavern M; Deussen, Andrea R; Grivell, Rosalie M; Yelland, Lisa; Dodd, Jodie M

    2013-02-19

    It is estimated that between 34% and 50% of Australian women entering pregnancy are overweight and obese, which is associated with an increased risk in complications for both the woman and her infant. Current tools used in clinical and research practice for measuring body composition include body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and bioimpedance analysis. Not all of these measures are applicable for use during pregnancy due to a lack of differentiation between maternal and fetal contributions. While skinfold thickness measurement (SFTM) is increasingly being used in pregnancy, there is limited data and a lack of a standard tool for its use in overweight and obese pregnant women. We developed a standard tool for evaluating SFTM among women with a BMI≥25 kg/m2. Forty-nine women were measured as part of a prospective cohort study nested within a multicentre randomised controlled trial (The LIMIT Randomised Controlled Trial). Two blinded observers each performed 2 skinfold measurements on the biceps, triceps and subscapular of each woman. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were used to analyse SFTM, body fat percentage (BF%) and inter-observer variability. The ICC for inter-observer variability in measurements were considered moderate for biceps SFTM (ICC=0.56) and triceps SFTM (ICC=0.51); good for subscapular SFTM (ICC=0.71) and BF% (ICC=0.74); and excellent for arm circumference (ICC=0.97). The standard error of measurements ranged from 0.53 cm for arm circumference to 3.58 mm for the subscapular SFTM. Our findings indicate that arm circumference and biceps, triceps and subscapular SFTM can be reliably obtained from overweight and obese pregnant women to calculate BF%, using multiple observers, and can be used in a research setting. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000161426.

  9. How maternal malnutrition affects linear growth and development in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Peggy C; Singh, Lauren N; Manary, Mark J

    2016-11-05

    Maternal malnutrition is common in the developing world and has detrimental effects on both the mother and infant. Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy are positively related to fetal growth and development. Internationally, there is no agreement on the method of diagnosis or treatment of moderate or severe malnutrition during pregnancy. Establishing clear guidelines for diagnosis and treatment will be essential in elevating the problem. Possible anthropometric measurements used to detect and monitor maternal malnutrition include pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain, and mid upper arm circumference. Food supplements have the potential to increase gestational weight gain and energy intake which are positively associated with fetal growth and development. Overall more studies are needed to conclude the impact of food/nutrient supplements on infant growth in undernourished pregnant women in developing countries. Currently, a study underway may provide much needed documentation of the benefits of treating malnutrition in pregnancy.

  10. Poor Pre-Pregnancy and Antepartum Mental Health Predicts Postpartum Mental Health Problems among US Women: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740

  11. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-06-06

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.

  12. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydian Veldhuis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582 and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82, and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55. Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood health.

  13. 国家免费孕前优生检查及风险评估的意义%The state of free pre pregnancy examination and risk assessment of the significance of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the content and effect of risk assessment of free national pre-pregnancy eugenics. Methods 1025 couples who planned pregnancy in our county were provided with pre-pregnancy eugenics service, their pregnancy risk factors were evaluated, and the satisfaction survey was also conducted. Results Among 1025 females in the examination, 168 females had a history of adverse pregnancy. 111 males and 90 females had abnormal indicators. Diseases leading to high pregnancy risk included:2 cases of TB infection and 1 case of epilepsy among males;38 cases of gynecologic inflammation, 3 cases of thyroid disease, 35 cases of hypertension, 17 cases of diabetes and fasting blood glucose, 47 cases of obesity, and 41 cases of advanced age among females. 60 males and 66 females had high risk factors of family history;118 males and 49 females had high environmental risk factors. The follow-up visits lasted for 6 months to 2 years, and 86 cases of follow-up visits were lost. The follow up results:541 cases of unpregnancy, 398 cases of pregnancy, 176 cases of delivery, 161 cases of full term, 2 cases of premature delivery, 7 cases of spontaneous abortion, and 6 cases of induced abortion. The satisfaction survey was conducted among 100 patients and the total satisfaction was 67.2%, with 81.2%selecting convenience, 76.1%selecting comprehensive examination, 61.7% selecting good communication, 64.2% selecting good technology, 70.5%selecting good service attitude, and 49.7%selecting high service efficiency. Conclusion The promotion of free national pre-pregnancy eugenics inspection and risk assessment can improve the effect of eugenics work and protect the safety of mothers and newborns, and has positive significance for society and families. The communication and service efficiency of the pre-pregnancy eugenics need to be improved.%目的:探讨国家免费孕前优生中的风险评估内容和效果。方法对我县1025对计划妊娠的夫妇提供了孕前优生服

  14. Maternal low-protein diet up-regulates the neuropeptide Y system in visceral fat and leads to abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ruijun; Li, Aiyun; Lijun LI; Kitlinska, Joanna B.; Zukowska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates stress-induced obesity in adult male mice by activating its Y2 receptor (Y2R) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here, we studied whether the NPY-Y2R system is also activated by maternal low-protein diet (LPD) and linked to obesity in offspring. Prenatal LPD offspring had lower birth weights compared to normal-protein diet (NPD) offspring. Female prenatal and lactation stress (PLS) offspring from mothers fed an LPD developed abdominal adiposity and glucose intoler...

  15. Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens; Damm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macr......, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy....

  16. Impact of Restricted Maternal Weight Gain on Fetal Growth and Perinatal Morbidity in Obese Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Rasmussen, S.S.; Kelstrup, Louise

    2013-01-01

    ) gestational weight gains were 3.7 kg (-4.7 to 5 kg) and 12.1 kg (5.5-25.5 kg), respectively. Prepregnancy BMI was 33.5 kg/m(2) (30-53 kg/m(2)) vs. 36.8 kg/m(2) (30-48 kg/m(2)), P = 0.037, and median HbA(1c) was 6.7% at first visit in both groups and decreased to 5.7 and 6.0%, P = 0.620, in late pregnancy......OBJECTIVESince January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0-5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA retrospective cohort comprised...... the records of 58 singleton pregnancies in obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes giving birth between 2008 and 2011. Birth weight was evaluated by SD z score to adjust for gestational age and sex.RESULTSSeventeen women (29%) gained ≤5 kg, and the remaining 41 gained >5 kg. The median (range...

  17. “Childhood overweight and obesity: maternal perceptions of the time for engaging in child weight management”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warschburger Petra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing awareness of the impact of parental risk perception on the weight course of the child and the parent’s readiness to engage in preventive efforts, but only less is known about factors related to the parental perception of the right time for the implementation of preventive activities. The aim of this study was to examine parental perceptions of the appropriate time to engage in child weight management strategies, and the factors associated with different weight points at which mothers recognize the need for preventive actions. Methods 352 mothers with children aged 2–10 years took part in the study. We assessed mothers’ perceptions of the actual and preferred weight status of their child, their ability to identify overweight and knowledge of its associated health risks, as well as perceptions of the right time for action to prevent overweight in their child. A regression analysis was conducted to examine whether demographic and weight related factors as well as the maternal general risk perception were associated with recognizing the need to implement prevention strategies. Results Although most of the parents considered a BMI in the 75th to 90th percentile a valid reason to engage in the prevention of overweight, 19% of the mothers were not willing to engage in prevention until their child reached the 97th percentile. Whereas the child’s sex and the identification of an elevated BMI were significant predictors for parents’ recognition of the 75th percentile as right point to engage in prevention efforts, an inability to recognize physical health risks associated with overweight silhouettes emerged as a significant factor predicting which parents would delay prevention efforts until a child’s BMI reached the 97th percentile. Conclusion Parental misperceptions of overweight and associated health risks constitute unfavorable conditions for preventive actions. Feedback on the health risks

  18. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico IMC materno y migración como predictor de obesidad infantil de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez-Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile, obesity (BMI > 95% ile and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile. Methods: Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weights and heights were measured. Children were considered to have migrant parents if parents were not born in Baja California. Results: One hundred and twenty-two children and their parents were recruited. The mean age of the children was 10.1 ± 1.0 years. Forty nine per cent of children were overweight or obese. Children with obese parents (BMI > 30 had greater odds of being obese, Odds Ratio (OR 4.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.2-19, p = 0.03. Children with migrant parents had greater odds of being obese, OR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6-8.3, p = 0.01 and of having abdominal obesity, OR = 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4-7.1, p = 0.01. Children from migrant parents have greater risk of higher consumption of potato chips, OR = 8.0 (95% CI, 2.1 -29.1, p = 0.01. Children from non-migrant parents had greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Conclusions: Parental obesity and migration are associated with increased risk of obesity among Mexican children. Children whose parents were born in Baja California have greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Further studies should evaluate the role of migration on risk for childhood obesity.Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre la inmigración materna a Baja California, el índice de masa corporal (IMC, la percepción de inseguridad alimentaria de los niños, y los estilos de vida y el sobrepeso, (BMI > 85% ila, la obesidad (BMI > 95% ila y la obesidad abdominal (Circunferencia de Cintura > 90% ila. Métodos: Se realizó una muestra por

  19. Developing a tool for obtaining maternal skinfold thickness measurements and assessing inter-observer variability among pregnant women who are overweight and obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannieappan Lavern M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that between 34% and 50% of Australian women entering pregnancy are overweight and obese, which is associated with an increased risk in complications for both the woman and her infant. Current tools used in clinical and research practice for measuring body composition include body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and bioimpedance analysis. Not all of these measures are applicable for use during pregnancy due to a lack of differentiation between maternal and fetal contributions. While skinfold thickness measurement (SFTM is increasingly being used in pregnancy, there is limited data and a lack of a standard tool for its use in overweight and obese pregnant women. Methods We developed a standard tool for evaluating SFTM among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Forty-nine women were measured as part of a prospective cohort study nested within a multicentre randomised controlled trial (The LIMIT Randomised Controlled Trial. Two blinded observers each performed 2 skinfold measurements on the biceps, triceps and subscapular of each woman. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and standard error of measurement (SEM were used to analyse SFTM, body fat percentage (BF% and inter-observer variability. Results The ICC for inter-observer variability in measurements were considered moderate for biceps SFTM (ICC = 0.56 and triceps SFTM (ICC = 0.51; good for subscapular SFTM (ICC = 0.71 and BF% (ICC = 0.74; and excellent for arm circumference (ICC = 0.97. The standard error of measurements ranged from 0.53 cm for arm circumference to 3.58 mm for the subscapular SFTM. Conclusion Our findings indicate that arm circumference and biceps, triceps and subscapular SFTM can be reliably obtained from overweight and obese pregnant women to calculate BF%, using multiple observers, and can be used in a research setting. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  20. 妊娠期糖尿病孕前体质指数对围产期母婴结局的影响%Effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index of gestational diabetes mellitus on perinatal outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙影; 吴艳芳; 李秀琴; 吴亚雪

    2014-01-01

    ratio without formal treatment increased sig-nificantly in the overweight group than those in the low body weight and normal group (P0.05).The weight gain and the BMI growth during the period of gestation decreased significantly in the obesity group than those in the other three groups (P0.05).Conclusion The pre-pregnancy body mass index of gestational diabetes mellitus has significant correlation with the perinatal outcomes.The BMI should be controlled between 18.5- 25.0 kg/m 2 before pregnancy.We should strengthen the management on the pre-pregnancy overweight and obese groups, control the weight gain during pregnancy to reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Maternal Diet Supplementation with n-6/n-3 Essential Fatty Acids in a 1.2 : 1.0 Ratio Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in MSG-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Josiane Morais; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Alves, Vander Silva; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Pavanello, Audrei; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Banafé, Elton Guntendeorfer; Martin, Clayton Antunes; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to study whether a diet supplemented with a mixture of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, during perinatal life, attenuates outcomes of long-term metabolic dysfunction in prediabetic and obese mice. Seventy-day-old virgin female mice were mated. From the conception day, dams were fed a diet supplemented with sunflower oil and flaxseed powder (containing an n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio of 1.2 : 1.0) throughout pregnancy and lactation, while control dams received a commercial diet. Newborn mice were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG, 4 mg g−1 body weight per day) for the first 5 days of age. A batch of weaned pups was sacrificed to quantify the brain and pancreas total lipids; another batch were fed a commercial diet until 90 days of age, where glucose homeostasis and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) as well as retroperitoneal fat and Lee index were assessed. MSG-treated mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pancreatic islet dysfunction, and higher fat stores. Maternal flaxseed diet-supplementation decreased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio in the brain and pancreas and blocked glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, GIIS impairment, and obesity development. The n-6/n-3 essential PUFAs in a ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 supplemented in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation prevent metabolic dysfunction in MSG-obesity model. PMID:28050167

  2. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, L; Ekelund, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...

  3. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, Line; Ekelund, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...

  4. Obesity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chu Chin; Mahmood, Tahir

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions globally, and continues to rise in both developed and developing countries. Maternal obesity has become one of the most commonly occurring risk factors in obstetric practice. The 2003-2005 report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom highlighted obesity as a significant risk for maternal death [1]. More than half of all women who died from direct or indirect causes were either overweight or obese. For the mother, obesity increases the risk of obstetric complications during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period, as well as contributing to technical difficulties with fetal assessment. The offspring of obese mothers also have a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and an increased risk of long-term health problems.

  5. Association of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Pregnancy-Related Weight Changes, and Parity With the Risk of Developing Degenerative Musculoskeletal Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine how pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and pregnancy-related weight changes are associated with long-term risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions. Methods A total of 79,687 mothers with singleton births from the Danish National Birth Cohort were included....... Information on height and weight prior to pregnancy and 6 months postpartum as well as gestational weight gain (GWG) was obtained from telephone interviews, while parity was derived from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Diagnoses of musculoskeletal conditions, including osteoarthritis, disc disorders, low...... back pain, and soft tissue disorders, were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results The cumulative incidence of musculoskeletal conditions during a median follow-up of 12.4 years was 19.7%. The risk...

  6. Pre-pregnancy habitual intake of vitamin D from diet and supplements in relation to risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Song, Yiqing; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tobias, Deirdre K; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mills, James L; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-10-04

    Vitamin D may play a pivotal role in regulating insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, the impact of vitamin D intake either from diet or from supplements on the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unknown. We prospectively examined the association of pre-pregnancy habitual intake of vitamin D from diet and supplements with risk of incident GDM in a well-established cohort. We included 21,356 singleton pregnancies from 15,225 women in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Diet information, including vitamin D intakes from food sources and supplements, was assessed in 1991 and every four years thereafter by validated food frequency questionnaires. We used log-binomial models with generalized estimating equations to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We documented 865 incident GDM cases during 10 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, parity, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, dietary and lifestyle factors, and body mass index, the RRs (95% CIs) of GDM risk associated with supplemental vitamin D intake of 0, 1-399, ≥ 400 IU/d were 1.00 (reference), 0.80 (0.67-0.96), and 0.71 (0.56-0.90), respectively (P for trend = 0.002). Dietary and total vitamin D intakes were also inversely associated with GDM risk, but the associations were not statistically significant. Pre-pregnancy supplemental vitamin D intake was significantly and inversely associated with risk of GDM. Our study indicates potential benefits of increasing vitamin D intake from supplements in the prevention of GDM in women of reproductive age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring obesity and metabolic and vascular traits in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Abigail; Tilling, Kate; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Sattar, Naveed; Brion, Marie-Jo; Benfield, Li; Ness, Andy; Deanfield, John; Hingorani, Aroon; Nelson, Scott M; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2010-06-15

    We sought to examine the association of gestational weight gain (GWG) and prepregnancy weight with offspring adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 5154 (for adiposity and blood pressure) and 3457 (for blood assays) mother-offspring pairs from a UK prospective pregnancy cohort were used. Random-effects multilevel models were used to assess incremental GWG (median and range of repeat weight measures per woman: 10 [1, 17]). Women who exceeded the 2009 Institute of Medicine-recommended GWG were more likely to have offspring with greater body mass index, waist, fat mass, leptin, systolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels. Children of women who gained less than the recommended amounts had lower levels of adiposity, but other cardiovascular risk factors tended to be similar in this group to those of offspring of women gaining recommended amounts. When examined in more detail, greater prepregnancy weight was associated with greater offspring adiposity and more adverse cardiovascular risk factors at age 9 years. GWG in early pregnancy (0 to 14 weeks) was positively associated with offspring adiposity across the entire distribution but strengthened in women gaining >500 g/wk. By contrast, between 14 and 36 weeks, GWG was only associated with offspring adiposity in women gaining >500 g/wk. GWG between 14 and 36 weeks was positively and linearly associated with adverse lipid and inflammatory profiles, with these associations largely mediated by the associations with offspring adiposity. Greater maternal prepregnancy weight and GWG up to 36 weeks of gestation are associated with greater offspring adiposity and adverse cardiovascular risk factors. Before any GWG recommendations are implemented, the balance of risks and benefits of attempts to control GWG for short- and long-term outcomes in mother and child should be ascertained.

  8. Sexual dimorphism in fat distribution and metabolic profile in mice offspring from diet-induced obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornellas, Fernanda; Mello, Vanessa Souza; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Aguila, Marcia B

    2013-10-06

    To investigate whether the effects of diet-induced obesity in mothers are passed on to their offspring fed a control diet in a gender-specific manner. Mother mice received either standard chow (SC; 17% energy from fat) or high-fat (HF; 49% energy from fat) diet for eight weeks pre-pregnancy until lactation. After weaning (at 21 days of age), offspring received SC diet and were divided into f