WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-post knowledge test

  1. Measurable Changes in Pre-Post Test Scores in Iraqi 4-H Leader’s Knowledge of Animal Science Production Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen O. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 4-H volunteer program is a new concept to the people of Iraq, for decades the country has been closed to western ideas. Iraqi culture and the Arabic customs have not embraced the volunteer concept and even more the concept of scientific animal production technologies designed to increase profitability for producers. In 2011 the USAID-Inma Agribusiness program teamed with the Iraq 4-H program to create youth and community entrepreneurship opportunities for widowed families. Iraq 4-H provided the youth members and adult volunteers and Inma provided the financial capital (livestock and the animal science training program for the volunteers. The purpose of this study was to measure the knowledge level gained through intensive animal science training for Iraqi 4-H volunteers. Researchers designed and implemented a pre and post test to measure the knowledge of fifteen volunteers who participated in the three day course. The pretest exposed a general lack of animal science knowledge of all volunteers; over 80% of the participants incorrectly answered the questions. However, the post-test indicated positive change in the participants understanding of animal science production principles.

  2. On-line ethics education for occupational therapy clinician-educators: a single-group pre-/post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderKaay, Sandra; Letts, Lori; Jung, Bonny; Moll, Sandra E

    2018-05-20

    Ethics education is a critical component of training rehabilitation practitioners. There is a need for capacity-building among ethics educators regarding facilitating ethical decision-making among students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an on-line ethics education module for occupational therapy clinician-educators (problem-based learning tutors/clinical placement preceptors/evidence-based practice facilitators). The Knowledge-to-Action Process informed development and evaluation of the module. Clinician-educators (n = 33) viewed the module and reported on its impact on knowledge and facilitation practices via pre, post, and follow-up questionnaires. Pre- and post-test data indicated improvement in self-reported ethics knowledge (t = 8.275, p ethics education module for clinician-educators. Future recommendations include broader consideration of context, adding supplemental knowledge translation components, and further research exploring outcomes with larger samples, longer follow-up and randomized trial methodology. Implications for Rehabilitation The on-line ethics module has potential to improve rehabilitation practice by addressing the noted gap in knowledge among clinician-educators. Viewing an on-line module regarding approaches to ethics education may not be sufficient to change clinician-educators' teaching practices. More time and opportunities to discuss ethics with student occupational therapists may be required to effect practice change among clinician-educators. Developing ethics education tools for clinician-educators requires ongoing and iterative input from knowledge users to optimize translation of ideas to practice.

  3. An Effort to Improve Teacher Perceptions and Knowledge of Cyberbullying: A Pre-Post Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesshengel-Hopp, Marleny T.

    2017-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing concern, confounded by the limited training resources available for teachers. The problem undertaken in this study was determining the most effective way to teach teachers about cyberbullying given the limited 1-hour time constraint of a typical school in-service activity. Using a pre-test, post-test experimental…

  4. The implications of policy pre-post test scores for street-level bureaucratic discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorch, Edwina L

    2009-01-01

    Substantial reductions in audit error rates observed over the past few years suggest eligibility workers have moved toward an eligibility compliance culture described by Bane and Ellwood. However, the results of this study indicate that social service caseworkers responded correctly to 49% of the targeted policy items at the pre-test stage and 68% at the post-test stage. Such findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that, in instances when caseworkers lack policy knowledge, they use their own discretion. Such a finding not only supports Lipsky's theory but also supports the notion that administrators should be encouraged to utilize 'mastery learning' procedures whereby caseworkers are retained in new-hire and follow-up training classes until they have mastered 100% of targeted policy information. Retention of caseworkers may also reduce federal and local audit errors and errors in crediting the reduction of caseloads to social service policies when in fact significant components of them have not been implemented (learned or utilized). And, most importantly, retention in training classes may increase the appropriate provision of services to the needy.

  5. Learning to Work with Databases in Astronomy: Quantitative Analysis of Science Educators' and Students' Pre-/Post-Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; Burrows, Andrea C.; Myers, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is increasingly moving towards working with large databases, from the state-of-the-art Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10, to the historical Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard. Non-astronomy fields as well tend to work with large datasets, be it in the form of warehouse inventory, health trends, or the stock market. However very few fields explicitly teach students the necessary skills to analyze such data. The authors studied a matched set of 37 participants working with 200-entry databases in astronomy using Google Spreadsheets, with limited information about a random set of quasars drawn from SDSS DR5. Here the authors present the quantitative results from an eight question pre-/post-test, with questions designed to span Bloom's taxonomy, on both the topics of the skills of using spreadsheets, and the content of quasars. Participants included both Astro 101 summer students and professionals including in-service K-12 teachers and science communicators. All groups showed statistically significant gains (as per Hake, 1998), with the greatest difference between women's gains of 0.196 and men's of 0.480.

  6. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Ariel E.; Mulleady Bishop, Pauline; Dad, Luqman; Singh, Deeptej; Slanetz, Priscilla J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p ≤ 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology

  7. Does the 'Teddy Bear Hospital' enhance preschool children's knowledge? A pilot study with a pre/post-case control design in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Corinna; Margraf-Stiksrud, Jutta; Badners, Larissa; Szerencsi, Andrea; Maier, Rolf F

    2014-10-01

    The 'Teddy Bear Hospital' is a medical students' project, which has been increasingly established in many countries. To evaluate this concept, we examined the effects of a German Teddy Bear Hospital on children's knowledge relating to their body, health and disease. Using a quasi-experimental pre/post design, we examined 131 preschool children from 14 German kindergartens with pictorial interview-based scales. The analysis of covariance revealed that the children who visited the Teddy Bear Hospital had a significantly better knowledge concerning their body, health and disease than the children from the control group. This German Teddy Bear Hospital is a good health education vehicle for preschool children. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Agreement between pre-post measures of change and transition ratings as well as then-tests

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Thorsten; Richter, Susanne; Raspe, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Different approaches have been developed for measuring change. Direct measurement of change (transition ratings) requires asking a patient directly about his judgment about the change he has experienced (reported change). With indirect measures of change, the patients? status is assessed at different time points and differences between them are calculated (measured change). When using the quasi-indirect approach (?then-test?), patients are asked after an intervention to rate their ...

  9. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...... and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming...... increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently....

  10. A pre-post test evaluation of the impact of the PELICAN MDT-TME Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cath; Sippitt, Joanna M; Collins, Gary; McManus, Chris; Richardson, Alison; Dawson, Jeremy; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2010-06-29

    The PELICAN Multidisciplinary Team Total Mesorectal Excision (MDT-TME) Development Programme aimed to improve clinical outcomes for rectal cancer by educating colorectal cancer teams in precision surgery and related aspects of multidisciplinary care. The Programme reached almost all colorectal cancer teams across England. We took the opportunity to assess the impact of participating in this novel team-based Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members. The impact of participating in the programme on team members' self-reported job stress, job satisfaction and team performance was assessed in a pre-post course study. 333/568 (59%) team members, from the 75 multidisciplinary teams who attended the final year of the Programme, completed questionnaires pre-course, and 6-8 weeks post-course. Across all team members, the main sources of job satisfaction related to working in multidisciplinary teams; whilst feeling overloaded was the main source of job stress. Surgeons and clinical nurse specialists reported higher levels of job satisfaction than team members who do not provide direct patient care, whilst MDT coordinators reported the lowest levels of job satisfaction and job stress. Both job stress and satisfaction decreased after participating in the Programme for all team members. There was a small improvement in team performance. Participation in the Development Programme had a mixed impact on the working lives of team members in the immediate aftermath of attending. The decrease in team members' job stress may reflect the improved knowledge and skills conferred by the Programme. The decrease in job satisfaction may be the consequence of being unable to apply these skills immediately in clinical practice because of a lack of required infrastructure and/or equipment. In addition, whilst the Programme raised awareness of the challenges of teamworking, a greater focus on tackling these issues may have improved working lives further.

  11. Coaching in self-efficacy improves care responses, health and well-being in dementia carers: a pre/post-test/follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Lynn; Stein-Parbury, Jane; White, Danielle; McNeill, Georgene; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Zaratan, Beverley

    2016-05-04

    Maintaining the health and well-being of family carers of people with dementia is vital, given their potential for experiencing burden associated with the role. The study aimed to help dementia carers develop self-efficacy, be less hassled by the caring role and improve their health and well-being with goal-directed behaviour, by participating in an eight module carer coaching program. The study used mixed methods in a pre/post-test/follow-up design over 24 months, with assignment of consented dementia carers to either individualised (n = 16) or group coaching (n = 32), or usual carer support services (n = 43), depending on preference. Care-giving self-efficacy and hassles, carer health, well-being and goal-directed behaviours were assessed over time. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare changes over time and the effects of coaching on carer self-efficacy, hassles and health, using the Univariate General Linear Model (GLM). All carers were hassled by many aspects of caring at baseline. Participants receiving coaching reported non-significant improvements in most areas of self-efficacy for caring, hassles associated with caring and self-reported health at post-test and follow-up, than did carers receiving usual carer support. Group coaching had greater success in helping carers to achieve their goals and to seek help from informal and formal support networks and services. The study outcomes were generally positive, but need to be interpreted cautiously, given some methodological limitations. It has been shown, however, that health staff can assist dementia carers to develop self-efficacy in better managing their family member's limitations and behaviour, seek help from others and attend to their health. Teaching carers to use goal-directed behaviour may help them achieve these outcomes.

  12. Implementation of knowledge-based palliative care in nursing homes and pre-post post evaluation by cross-over design: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Gerd; Nilsen, Per; Benzein, Eva; Behm, Lina; Wallerstedt, Birgitta; Persson, Magnus; Sandgren, Anna

    2018-03-22

    The demography of the world is changing as the population is ageing. Because of this change to a higher proportion of older people, the WHO has called for improved palliative care for older persons. A large number of all deaths in the industrialised world occur while older people are living in nursing homes and therefore a key question becomes how the principles of palliative care can be implemented in that context. The aims of this study are: a) to describe a model of an educational intervention with the goal of implementing knowledge-based palliative care in nursing homes, and b) to describe the design of the evaluation of the effectiveness regarding the implementation of knowledge-based palliative care. A complex intervention is evaluated by means of a cross-over design. An educational intervention concerning palliative care consisting of five seminars during 6 months for staff and managers has been developed and conducted in 20 nursing homes in two counties. Before the intervention started, the feasibility was tested in a pilot study conducted in nursing homes not included in the main study. The intervention is evaluated through a non-randomized experimental design with intervention and control groups and pre- and post-assessments. The evaluation includes older persons living in nursing homes, next-of-kin, staff and managers. Data collection consists of quantitative methods such as questionnaires and register data and qualitative methods in the form of individual interviews, focus-group interviews and participant observations. The research will contribute to new knowledge about how to implement knowledge-based palliative care in a nursing home setting. A strength of this project is that the Medical Research Council framework of complex intervention is applied. The four recommended stages, Development, Feasibility and piloting, Evaluation and Implementation, are combined for the educational intervention, which functions as a strategy to achieve knowledge

  13. Test your troubleshooting knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, E

    2001-01-01

    While troubleshooting and repairing medical instrumentation may be all that BMETs would like to do, it's just too limited in scope to perform the job effectively. Flattened organizations can require greater responsibility for BMETs--and lead to greater ambiguity. Besides electronic troubleshooting skills, mechanical ability, and the knowledge of how medical equipment normally operates, additional skills are required of the BMET to effectively facilitate a repair--such as knowledge of pertinent codes and standards, job safety laws and guidelines, politeness, and empathy for the equipment user. You will notice that many of these relate to interpersonal relations. The ability to interact with fellow health care workers in a non-threatening manner and to have an appreciation for their perspectives are valuable customer service skills--potentially more valuable than being able to do component-level troubleshooting!

  14. Effectiveness of training to promote routine enquiry for domestic violence by midwives and nurses: A pre-post evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen M; Saito, Amornrat S; Eustace, Jennifer; Creedy, Debra K

    2017-11-01

    Asking women about experiences of domestic violence in the perinatal period is accepted best practice. However, midwives and nurses may be reluctant to engage with, or effectively respond to disclosures of domestic violence due a lack of knowledge and skills. To evaluate the impact of training on knowledge and preparedness of midwives and nurses to conduct routine enquiry about domestic violence with women during the perinatal period. A pre-post intervention design was used. Midwives and nurses (n=154) attended a full day workshop. Of these, 149 completed pre-post workshop measures of knowledge and preparedness. Additional questions at post-training explored participants' perceptions of organisational barriers to routine enquiry, as well as anticipated impact of training on their practice. Training occurred between July 2015 and October 2016. Using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, all post intervention scores were significantly higher than pre intervention scores. Knowledge scores increased from a pre-training mean of 21.5-25.6 (Z=-9.56, pworkplace allowed adequate time to respond to disclosures of DV. Brief training can improve knowledge, preparedness, and confidence of midwives and nurses to conduct routine enquiry and support women during the perinatal period. Training can assist midwives and nurses to recognise signs of DV, ask women about what would be helpful to them, and address perceived organisational barriers to routine enquiry. Practice guidelines and clear referral pathways following DV disclosure need to be implemented to support gains made through training. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of provider-initiated testing and counselling and integration of ART services on access to HIV diagnosis and treatment for children in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pre- post comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Sam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV prevalence in Malawi is 12% and Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH, in the capital Lilongwe, is the main provider of adult and paediatric HIV services in the central region. The Lighthouse at KCH offers opt-in HIV testing and counselling (HTC for adults and children. In June 2004, Lighthouse was the first clinic to provide free antiretroviral treatment (ART in the public sector, but few children accessed the services. In response, provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC and an ART clinic were introduced at the paediatric department at KCH in Quarter 4 (Q4 2004. Methods We analysed prospectively collected, aggregated data of quarterly reports from Q1 2003 to Q4 2006 from HTC centre registers, ART registers and clinic registrations at the ART clinics of both Lighthouse and the paediatric department. By comparing data of both facilities before (Q1 2003 to Q3 2004, and after the introduction of the services at the paediatric department (Q4 2004 to Q4 2006, we assessed the effect of this intervention on the uptake of HIV services for children at KCH. Results Overall, 3971 children were tested for HIV, 2428 HIV-infected children were registered for care and 1218 started ART. Between the two periods, the median (IQR number of children being tested, registered and starting ART per quarter rose from 101 (53-109 to 358 (318-440, 56 (50-82 to 226 (192-234 and 18 (8-23 to 139 (115-150, respectively. The median proportion of tested clients per quarter that were children rose from 3.8% (2.7-4.3 to 9.6% (8.8 to 10.0 (p = 0.0009 and the proportion of ART starters that were children rose from 6.9% (4.9-9.3 to 21.1% (19.2-24.2 (p = 0.0036. The proportion of registered children and adults starting ART each quarter increased similarly, from 26% to 53%, and 20% to 52%, respectively. Conclusions Implementation of PITC and integration of ART services within the paediatric ward are likely to be the main reasons for improved access to

  16. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peglow, S. G.; Molitoris, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by

  17. Test your knowledge and understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This quiz is designed to test your understanding of the concepts covered in this issue and to give you an opportunity to reflect on what you have learnt. These multiple true/false questions were produced in collaboration with the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO.

  18. Methodology for testing and validating knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, C.; Padalkar, S.; Sztipanovits, J.; Purves, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test and validation toolset developed for artificial intelligence programs is described. The basic premises of this method are: (1) knowledge bases have a strongly declarative character and represent mostly structural information about different domains, (2) the conditions for integrity, consistency, and correctness can be transformed into structural properties of knowledge bases, and (3) structural information and structural properties can be uniformly represented by graphs and checked by graph algorithms. The interactive test and validation environment have been implemented on a SUN workstation.

  19. Praxis II mathematics content knowledge test (0061)

    CERN Document Server

    McCune, Ennis Donice

    2007-01-01

    Your guide to a higher score on the Praxis II?: Mathematics Content Knowledge Test (0061) Why CliffsTestPrep Guides? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need--fast! Written by test-prep specialists About the contents: Introduction * Overview of the exam * How to use this book * Proven study strategies and test-taking tips Part I: Subject Review * Focused review of all exam topics: arithmetic and basic algebra, geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, functions and their graphs, calculus, probability and statistics, discrete mathematics, linear algebra, compute

  20. Does journal club membership improve research evidence uptake in different allied health disciplines: a pre-post study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarondo Lucylynn M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although allied health is considered to be one 'unit' of healthcare providers, it comprises a range of disciplines which have different training and ways of thinking, and different tasks and methods of patient care. Very few empirical studies on evidence-based practice (EBP have directly compared allied health professionals. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a structured model of journal club (JC, known as iCAHE (International Centre for Allied Health Evidence JC, on the EBP knowledge, skills and behaviour of the different allied health disciplines. Methods A pilot, pre-post study design using maximum variation sampling was undertaken. Recruitment was conducted in groups and practitioners such as physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech pathologists, social workers, psychologists, nutritionists/dieticians and podiatrists were invited to participate. All participating groups received the iCAHE JC for six months. Quantitative data using the Adapted Fresno Test (McCluskey & Bishop and Evidence-based Practice Questionnaire (Upton & Upton were collected prior to the implementation of the JC, with follow-up measurements six months later. Mean percentage change and confidence intervals were calculated to compare baseline and post JC scores for all outcome measures. Results The results of this study demonstrate variability in EBP outcomes across disciplines after receiving the iCAHE JC. Only physiotherapists showed statistically significant improvements in all outcomes; speech pathologists and occupational therapists demonstrated a statistically significant increase in knowledge but not for attitude and evidence uptake; social workers and dieticians/nutritionists showed statistically significant positive changes in their knowledge, and evidence uptake but not for attitude. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that a JC such as the iCAHE model is an effective method for improving the EBP knowledge

  1. The effect of training on teachers' knowledge of effective classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of training on teachers' knowledge of effective classroom management strategies in Jos metropolis. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... A single group pre-post test design was used, with a one-day training on classroom management techniques as the independent variable and the number of strategies ...

  2. The pre, post brachytherapy and postoperative CEA serum concentration of 53 rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Danh; Nguyen Kim Luu; Phan Van Dan

    2008-01-01

    CEA serum concentration level of 53 rectal cancer patients was measured at moments pre, post brachytherapy (45 Gy), post surgery one week, 6 months and 12 months. Response to radiation with reduce CEA serum concentration was achieved in 20/53 patients (37,7%), mainly at staging Dukes B, C. Postoperative CEA level of patients significantly decreased, especially in resection group. (author)

  3. Subjective knowledge of AIDS and use of HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K A

    1993-10-01

    Increasing knowledge is an important goal of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, although increased knowledge may not be associated with increased preventive behaviors. This study examines the association of (1) objective and subjective acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, and (2) both objective and subjective AIDS knowledge with HIV testing use. Data are from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey. Objective and subjective knowledge were only moderately correlated. In regression analyses, higher subjective knowledge was significantly associated with higher testing use, but objective knowledge was not. The results are relevant to other preventive behaviors for which knowledge is an important factor.

  4. Analysis of stress intensity factors for surface cracks in pre/post penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Toshiro; Yoshida, Yuichiro

    1988-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the penetration of surface cracks in a Leak-Before-Break analysis. Because the stress intensity factors for surface cracks in pre/post penetration had not yet been analyzed, the authors carried three-dimensional boundary element analyses in order to obtain them. First, the authors developed the technique of nodal breakdown appropriate for cracks with short ligament length in a two-dimensional boundary element analysis. Next, analyses of stress intensity factor for surface cracks in pre/post penetration were carried out using the technique of nodal breakdown for cracks with short ligament length and the three-dimensional boundary element code BEM 3 D which was designed for a supercomputer. (author)

  5. Intradialytic Laughter Yoga therapy for haemodialysis patients: a pre-post intervention feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Neal, Merv; Weinberg, Melissa K; Gilbert, Karen; Ockerby, Cherene; Rawson, Helen; Herbu, Corinne; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2015-06-09

    Laughter Yoga consists of physical exercise, relaxation techniques and simulated vigorous laughter. It has been associated with physical and psychological benefits for people in diverse clinical and non-clinical settings, but has not yet been tested in a haemodialysis setting. The study had three aims: 1) to examine the feasibility of conducting Laughter Yoga for patients with end stage kidney disease in a dialysis setting; 2) to explore the psychological and physiological impact of Laughter Yoga for these patients; and 3) to estimate the sample size required for future research. Pre/post intervention feasibility study. Eighteen participants were recruited into the study and Laughter Yoga therapists provided a four week intradialytic program (30-min intervention three times per week). Primary outcomes were psychological items measured at the first and last Laughter Yoga session, including: quality of life; subjective wellbeing; mood; optimism; control; self-esteem; depression, anxiety and stress. Secondary outcomes were: blood pressure, intradialytic hypotensive episodes and lung function (forced expiratory volume). Dialysis nurses exposed to the intervention completed a Laughter Yoga attitudes and perceptions survey (n = 11). Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics v22, including descriptive and inferential statistics, and sample size estimates were calculated using G*Power. One participant withdrew from the study for medical reasons that were unrelated to the study during the first week (94 % retention rate). There were non-significant increases in happiness, mood, and optimism and a decrease in stress. Episodes of intradialytic hypotension decreased from 19 pre and 19 during Laughter Yoga to 4 post Laughter Yoga. There was no change in lung function or blood pressure. All nurses agreed or strongly agreed that Laughter Yoga had a positive impact on patients' mood, it was a feasible intervention and they would recommend Laughter Yoga to their patients. Sample

  6. Reducing child abuse amongst adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: A pre-post trial in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska; Yakubovich, Alexa; Doubt, Jenny; Redfern, Alice; Ward, Catherine; Salah, Nasteha; De Stone, Sachin; Petersen, Tshiamo; Mpimpilashe, Phelisa; Romero, Rocio Herrero; Ncobo, Lulu; Lachman, Jamie; Tsoanyane, Sibongile; Shenderovich, Yulia; Loening, Heidi; Byrne, Jasmina; Sherr, Lorraine; Kaplan, Lauren; Gardner, Frances

    2016-07-13

    No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations. Two hundred thirty participants (adolescents and their primary caregivers) were recruited from schools, welfare services and community-sampling in rural, high-poverty South Africa (no exclusion criteria). All participated in a 12-week parenting programme, implemented by local NGO childcare workers to ensure real-world external validity. Standardised pre-post measures with adolescents and caregivers were used, and paired t-tests were conducted for primary outcomes: abuse (physical, emotional abuse and neglect), adolescent behaviour problems and parenting (positive and involved parenting, poor monitoring and inconsistent discipline), and secondary outcomes: mental health, social support and substance use. Participants reported high levels of socio-economic deprivation, e.g. 60 % of adolescents had either an HIV-positive caregiver or were orphaned by AIDS, and 50 % of caregivers experienced intimate partner violence. i) indicative effects: Primary outcomes comparing pre-test and post-test assessments showed reductions reported by adolescents and caregivers in child abuse (adolescent report 63.0 % pre-test to 29.5 % post-test, caregiver report 75.5 % pre-test to 36.5 % post-test, both p child abuse and improved caregiver and adolescent outcomes. It showed high acceptability and unexpected community-level diffusion. Findings indicate needs for adaptations, and

  7. Tacit knowledge: A refinement and empirical test of the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insch, Gary S; McIntyre, Nancy; Dawley, David

    2008-11-01

    Researchers have linked tacit knowledge to improved organizational performance, but research on how to measure tacit knowledge is scarce. In the present study, the authors proposed and empirically tested a model of tacit knowledge and an accompanying measurement scale of academic tacit knowledge. They present 6 hypotheses that support the proposed tacit knowledge model regarding the role of cognitive (self-motivation, self-organization); technical (individual task, institutional task); and social (task-related, general) skills. The authors tested these hypotheses with 542 responses to the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale, which included the respondents' grade point average-the performance variable. All 6 hypotheses were supported.

  8. Does knowledge make a difference? The association between knowledge about genes and attitudes toward gene tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jallinoja, P; Aro, A R

    2000-01-01

    that genetic testing will have positive consequences, but many also had worries related to the development of gene tests. We showed that there was an association between knowledge and attitudes, but better knowledge did not simply lead to unambiguous acceptance. Among those with the highest level of knowledge...... there was in many respects both more enthusiasm and more skepticism than among those with the lowest level of knowledge. Those with a low level of knowledge had more difficulties in taking a stance toward attitude statements. In general, steps should be taken, first, to increase citizens' capabilities to seek......A survey was conducted (n = 1,216) to evaluate the level of knowledge about basic facts of genetics and attitudes toward gene tests among the Finnish population. Our results show that a majority of the Finnish population generally approved of gene tests. Well over half of the respondents believed...

  9. Effects of a Food and Nutrition Course on the Self-Reported Knowledge and Behavior of Preschool Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unusan, Nurhan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined effects of food and nutrition knowledge on the self-reported behaviors of preschool teacher candidates who completed a 10-week course. Self-reported information was gathered at entry, after completion of the course, and follow up 4 months after completion of the course. A paired t-test compared responses at pre, post and follow…

  10. Reliability of two social cognition tests: The combined stories test and the social knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudeau, Élisabeth; Cellard, Caroline; Legendre, Maxime; Villeneuve, Karèle; Achim, Amélie M

    2018-04-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common in psychiatric disorders. Validated social cognition measures with good psychometric properties are necessary to assess and target social cognitive deficits. Two recent social cognition tests, the Combined Stories Test (COST) and the Social Knowledge Test (SKT), respectively assess theory of mind and social knowledge. Previous studies have shown good psychometric properties for these tests, but the test-retest reliability has never been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and the inter-rater reliability of the COST and the SKT. The COST and the SKT were administered twice to a group of forty-two healthy adults, with a delay of approximately four weeks between the assessments. Excellent test-retest reliability was observed for the COST, and a good test-retest reliability was observed for the SKT. There was no evidence of practice effect. Furthermore, an excellent inter-rater reliability was observed for both tests. This study shows a good reliability of the COST and the SKT that adds to the good validity previously reported for these two tests. These good psychometrics properties thus support that the COST and the SKT are adequate measures for the assessment of social cognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Estimating the return on investment in disease management programs using a pre-post analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Donald; Wennberg, David; Devries, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Disease management programs have become increasingly popular over the past 5-10 years. Recent increases in overall medical costs have precipitated new concerns about the cost-effectiveness of medical management programs that have extended to the program directors for these programs. Initial success of the disease management movement is being challenged on the grounds that reported results have been the result of the application of faulty, if intuitive, methodologies. This paper discusses the use of "pre-post" methodology approaches in the analysis of disease management programs, and areas where application of this approach can result in spurious results and incorrect financial outcome assessments. The paper includes a checklist of these items for use by operational staff working with the programs, and a comprehensive bibliography that addresses many of the issues discussed.

  12. Reducing child abuse amongst adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: A pre-post trial in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cluver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. ‘Parenting for Lifelong Health’ ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii to identify potential adaptations. Methods Two hundred thirty participants (adolescents and their primary caregivers were recruited from schools, welfare services and community-sampling in rural, high-poverty South Africa (no exclusion criteria. All participated in a 12-week parenting programme, implemented by local NGO childcare workers to ensure real-world external validity. Standardised pre-post measures with adolescents and caregivers were used, and paired t-tests were conducted for primary outcomes: abuse (physical, emotional abuse and neglect, adolescent behaviour problems and parenting (positive and involved parenting, poor monitoring and inconsistent discipline, and secondary outcomes: mental health, social support and substance use. Results Participants reported high levels of socio-economic deprivation, e.g. 60 % of adolescents had either an HIV-positive caregiver or were orphaned by AIDS, and 50 % of caregivers experienced intimate partner violence. i indicative effects: Primary outcomes comparing pre-test and post-test assessments showed reductions reported by adolescents and caregivers in child abuse (adolescent report 63.0 % pre-test to 29.5 % post-test, caregiver report 75.5 % pre-test to 36.5 % post-test, both p < 0.001 poor monitoring/inconsistent discipline (p < .001, adolescent delinquency/aggressive behaviour (both p < .001, and

  13. Objective and Subjective Knowledge and HIV Testing among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the knowledge domain specifically related to HIV testing among college students. Students (age 18-24) were recruited from a major university in the southeastern United States to participate in a Web-based survey during spring 2003 (N=440). About 21% of the students reported previous voluntary HIV tests.…

  14. Using Knowledge Management to Revise Software-Testing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogeste, Kersti; Walker, Derek H. T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to use a knowledge management (KM) approach to effectively revise a utility retailer's software testing process. This paper presents a case study of how the utility organisation's customer services IT production support group improved their test planning skills through applying the American Productivity and Quality Center…

  15. The knowledge game - motivating knowledge sharing and testing organization policies in this concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Seixas, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    The ageing of nuclear experts and operating personnel and the lack of attractiveness of nuclear jobs to younger generation were emphasized as two of the most important factors that could jeopardize the preservation and sustainable development of the present body of nuclear knowledge worldwide. The willingness to share knowledge is at the inner core of any process involving transfer and dissemination of knowledge. This paper deals with the development of a tool to demonstrate the advantages of a culture inductive of knowledge sharing and cooperation from both the organization's and individual's viewpoints and coins the basics of reward policies that foster the development of desirable cultures. The Knowledge Game is a software tool to: (a) show the importance of sharing knowledge to both the individual and the organization; (b) demonstrate the fact that collaborative behaviors achieve higher payoffs in the long run; (c) test organizational rewards policies. It is an agent based modeling tool in which users may play with other humans and/or built in agents with fixed strategies. Payoff rules, simulation speed, number of players and their strategies and number of cycles are set before beginning the simulation. Plots display results in real time and output files can be generated for further analysis. Tests encompassing proof of concept and application confirm the game's great potential as a demonstration and policy testing tool. To test policies more effectively future implementations of intelligent agents coupled with fitness selection of players should be a very key lever. (author)

  16. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tory M; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Data on 16,205 women aged 15-49 and 6822 men aged 15-59 from the 2008-2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes.

  17. Influence of PBL with open-book tests on knowledge retention measured with progress tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical

  18. Goal disturbance changes pre/post-renal transplantation are related to changes in distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Alicia M; Schulz, Torben; Westerhuis, Ralf; Navis, Gerjan J; Niesing, Jan; Ranchor, Adelita V; Schroevers, Maya J

    2017-09-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) is considered the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) given its association with lower mortality, and improved overall quality of life and psychological functioning compared to dialysis. However, much less is known about which factors underlie these psychological improvements across RTx. Goal theory suggests that experienced disturbances in important goals are related to lower psychological functioning. This study aimed to (1) identify the most disturbed and most important goals for patients before RTx, (2) to examine changes in goal disturbance and goal importance pre/post-RTx, and (3) to examine whether changes in goal disturbance are associated with changes in psychological distress over time, and whether this relationship is mediated by changes in perceived control. In this longitudinal study, 220 patients completed questionnaires before and after RTx, including questionnaires to assess goals (GOALS questionnaire), psychological distress (GHQ-12), and perceived control (Mastery scale). End-stage renal disease affected both general and disease-specific goals. Approximately 30% of the patients indicated to experience high or very high disturbance before transplantation. Goal disturbance generally decreased significantly pre- to post-RTx, whereas goal importance did not change significantly pre- to post-RTx. No mediation effect of perceived control was found. Instead, both changes in goal disturbance and perceived control showed independent effects on changes in distress. Intervention strategies targeting attainable and realistic goal setting, and perceived control in RTx recipients who do not benefit optimally from RTx, might enhance psychological functioning in this population. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Kidney transplantation improves patients' psychological functioning. Experienced disturbances in important life goals are related to lower psychological functioning in chronic

  19. The association between retrospective outcome evaluations and pre-post-treatment changes in psychodynamic group-psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In the present study of 203 patients in psychodynamic group psychotherapy, we explore associations between patient and therapist global retrospective outcome evaluations (ROE), and pre-post-treatment changes on the Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R) and non-symptomatic focus of therapy. The......, and associated with personality factors or domains not captured by standard questionnaires....

  20. HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions in sexual risk behaviours among men in Cape Town, South Africa. Lori AJ Scott-Sheldon, Michael P Carey, Kate B Carey, Demetria Cain, Leickness C Simbayi, Vuyelwa Mehlomakhulu, Seth C Kalichman ...

  1. Participation in blood glucose test, knowledge and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus causes great health complications which include cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Aim: To ascertain the participation in blood glucose test, knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of hyperglycemia among traders at New market, Enugu State. Methods: The study is a ...

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about HIV Testing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The major objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about HIV testing services and the uptake of this service amongst girls aged 15-19 in selected secondary schools in Malawi. A questionnaire was administered to 457 students and 18 focus group discussions and 45 in-depth interviews ...

  3. The knowledge game - motivating knowledge sharing and testing organization policies in this concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Seixas, Marcelo A., E-mail: barroso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ageing of nuclear experts and operating personnel and the lack of attractiveness of nuclear jobs to younger generation were emphasized as two of the most important factors that could jeopardize the preservation and sustainable development of the present body of nuclear knowledge worldwide. The willingness to share knowledge is at the inner core of any process involving transfer and dissemination of knowledge. This paper deals with the development of a tool to demonstrate the advantages of a culture inductive of knowledge sharing and cooperation from both the organization's and individual's viewpoints and coins the basics of reward policies that foster the development of desirable cultures. The Knowledge Game is a software tool to: (a) show the importance of sharing knowledge to both the individual and the organization; (b) demonstrate the fact that collaborative behaviors achieve higher payoffs in the long run; (c) test organizational rewards policies. It is an agent based modeling tool in which users may play with other humans and/or built in agents with fixed strategies. Payoff rules, simulation speed, number of players and their strategies and number of cycles are set before beginning the simulation. Plots display results in real time and output files can be generated for further analysis. Tests encompassing proof of concept and application confirm the game's great potential as a demonstration and policy testing tool. To test policies more effectively future implementations of intelligent agents coupled with fitness selection of players should be a very key lever. (author)

  4. Nursing care system development for patients with cleft lip-palate and craniofacial deformities in Srinagarind Hospital: pre-post operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsornwan, Darawan; Pattangtanang, Pantamanas; Pikhunthod, Kritsana

    2011-12-01

    Cleft lip and palate are the most common craniofacial anomalies. Srinagarind Hospital has 150-200 cases each year. The operating process of care requires continuity of care involving a multidisciplinary team. When the patients go to hospital to have operation, pain, limited activity and food are very different from normal life. During pre and post operative care nurses who work continuously and closely with the patients should have knowledge, experience and ability to take excellent care of their patients and families. This can prevent complications and help their decision process, decrease parents stress and encourage better co-operation. To develop a nursing care system for patients with cleft lip-palate undergoing operation. This is an action research divided into 3 phases. Phase 1, situation review: review of nursing care process by interview, focus group, observation and nursing documents. Phase 2, nursing system management: developing guidelines, composing nursing manual, handbook for parents, VCD for patients and family and story telling. Following that announcement and implementation. Phase 3: evaluation. The authors found that guidelines, nursing manual, handbook for parents, VCD for patients and family and story telling are appropriate and have good utilization, but the pictures in handbook for parents and storytelling were not clear, too small and not attractive. Nursing manual for giving information about pre-post operative care, handbook for parents, story telling and VCD about pre-post operative care provide optimal care for patients and family with cleft lip and palate, but need to evaluate further the nursing outcome after this nursing system development.

  5. Knowledge Prediction of Different Students’ Categories Trough an Intelligent Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zheliazkova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Student’s modelling, prediction, and grouping have remained open research issues in the multi-disciplinary area of educational data mining. The purpose of this study is to predict the correct knowledge of different categories of tested students: good, very good, and all. The experimental data set was gathered from an intelligent post-test performance containing student’s correct, missing, and wrong knowledge, time undertaken, and final mark. The proposed procedure applies consequently correlation analysis, simple and multiple liner regression using a power specialized tool for programming by the teacher. The finding is that the accuracy of the procedure is satisfactory for the three students’ categories. The experiment also confirms some findings of other researchers and previous authors’ team studies.

  6. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  7. Uncertainty management in knowledge based systems for nondestructive testing-an example from ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, C.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The use of fuzzy logic, as a framework for uncertainty management, in a knowledge-based system (KBS) for ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steels is described. Parameters that may contain uncertain values are identified. Methodologies to handle uncertainty in these parameters using fuzzy logic are detailed. The overall improvement in the performance of the knowledge-based system after incorporating fuzzy logic is discussed. The methodology developed being universal, its extension to other KBS for nondestructive testing and evaluation is highlighted. (author)

  8. Towards Intelligence and Flexibility of Learning and Knowledge Testing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerijus AUKSTAKALNIS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed goal oriented knowledge acquisition and assessment are based on the flexible educational model and allows to implement an adaptive control of the enhanced learning process according to the requirements of student's knowledge level, his state of cognition and subject learning history. The enhanced learner knowledge model specifies how the cognition state of the user will be achieved step by step. The use case actions definition is a starting point of the specification, which depends on different levels of learning scenarios and user cognition sub goals. The use case actions specification is used as a basis to set the requirements for service software specification and attributes of learning objects respectively. The paper presents the enhanced architecture of the student self-evaluation and on-line assessment system TestTool. The system is explored as an assessment engine capable of supporting and improving the individualized intelligent goal oriented self-instructional and simulation based mode of learning, grounded on the GRID distributed service architecture.

  9. Knowledge productivity : designing and testing a method to diagnose knowledge productivity and plan for enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Our economy has changed from an industrial into a knowledge economy in which knowledge productivity has become the main challenge. The lack of appropriate techniques to reveal knowledge productivity hinders organizations to design effective policies aiming at improving knowledge-based performance.

  10. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  11. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  12. From Knowledge to Innovation and Back: Empirical Testing of Knowledge-Intensive Industries in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Radovanović

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the technology and knowledge intensive industries, innovation and knowledge use are key elements for competitiveness. Organisations are oriented towards increasing their potential for exploiting innovation and developing knowledge base internally through various techniques employed. This research aims at analysing the relationship between the dynamics of knowledge use and innovation efforts of organisations. Research Design & Methods: The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a survey, while the data of this research were analysed with the application of descriptive statistical method (variance. Findings: The results of the study suggest that realised innovation correlates with the use of knowledge in organisations and that an increase in research and development activities, as well as in patented and non-patented products or services will likely lead to an increase in the volume of internal knowledge use by employees. Implications & Recommendations: The results of this research can be useful for researchers and practitioners in technology and knowledge intensive industries. The findings can be used as a basis for adjusting organisational policies towards developing competitiveness based on the enhancement of the use of existing knowledge and by developing innovation strength. Contribution & Value Added: This paper is a valuable contribution to research fields of organisational management, innovation management, knowledge management, absorptive capacity, and especially innovation management.

  13. Testing controlled productive knowledge of adverb-verb collocations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals that controlled productive knowledge of adverbverb collocations is less problematic. Based on these results, teaching strategies aimed at improving the use of adverb-verb collocations among EFL users are proposed. Keywords: academic writing, adverb-verb collocations, productive knowledge of ...

  14. Challenges of Testing Deep Word Knowledge of Vocabulary: Which ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal for Language Teaching ... Results indicate that (i) ESL students outperform their EFL counterparts of comparable class level, (ii) aspects of deep word knowledge among both higher education EFL and ESL students ... Furthermore, teaching implications aimed to foster deep word knowledge growth are discussed.

  15. Knowledge Acquisition and Readiness Assurance Testing: The Connected Notes Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The responsibility for knowledge acquisition is increasingly being shifted to students though the utilization of experiential learning, teamwork, online, and flipped classroom pedagogies. Students are expected to enter the classroom prepared to engage in thoughtful knowledge application activities; however, many students have not adequately…

  16. Managing Knowledge Performance: Testing the Components of a Knowledge Management System on Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Taejun; Korte, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study is to validate the framework of knowledge management (KM) capabilities created by Gold ("Towards a theory of organizational knowledge management capabilities." Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) 2001) in a study of South Korean companies. However, the original framework…

  17. A German e-learning-training in the context of early preventive intervention and child protection: preliminary findings of a pre-post evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressem, Kristina; Ziegenhain, Ute; Doelitzsch, Claudia; Hofer, Alexandra; Besier, Tanja; Fegert, Joerg M; Kuenster, Anne K

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of government-sponsored initiatives have been implemented in Germany that are focused on early preventive intervention in child protection. In response to the need for interdisciplinary training in this area, the internet-based e-learning program "Early Preventive Intervention and Child Protection" was developed for professionals in the child welfare and health care systems working with families with infants and toddlers. The program is currently undergoing evaluation for effectiveness and user satisfaction. In a pre-post design, users are requested to complete questionnaires that assess three measures of expertise: theoretical knowledge of relevant fields, the ability to correctly identify subtle signals of infant communication, and the ability to assess maternal sensitivity. This article presents the contents of the program and the pre-training results (N = 1.294 participants). Descriptive analyses as well as Pearson correlations and Bonferroni corrections of error were conducted using the statistical program SPSS v. 21.0. The findings show that a wide range of professionals are making use of the program, and that their existing theoretical knowledge about early preventive intervention, as well as their ability to identify subtle signals of infant communication, is relatively good. However, their ability to assess maternal sensitivity, which is considered a crucial indicator for the risk of child abuse, was low. The outcome of the pre-training results indicates that professionals working in the area of child protection need to develop more capability in recognizing maternal sensitivity, in order to ensure early detection of families who are at risk and thus in need of support. Finally, the number of years of professional experience did not correlate with the scores on any of the three measures, which emphasizes the importance of providing interdisciplinary training in this area for all those working in child and family services

  18. Mastery learning improves students skills in inserting intravenous access: a pre-post-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, Hendrik; Brouwer, Britta; Marschall, Bernhard; Weissenstein, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Inserting peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) has been identified as a core competency for medical students. Because the performance - even of hygienic standards - of both students and novice physicians is frequently inadequate, medical faculties must focus on competence-based learning objectives and deliberate practice, features that are combined in mastery learning. Our aim was to determine the competency of students in inserting PVCs before and after an educational intervention. This study comprised a skills assessment with pre- and post-tests of a group of third-year students who received a simulation-based intervention. A newly established curriculum involved one hour of practice at inserting PVCs on simulators. Students were required to pass a test (total 21 points, pass mark 20 points) developed on the concept of mastery learning. An unannounced follow-up test was performed one week (8 days) after the intervention. The simulation center of the medical faculty in Muenster. Third-year students who received the intervention. One hundred and nine complete data sets were obtained from 133 students (82.5%). Most students (97.2%) passed the test after the intervention (mean score increase from 15.56 to 20.50, Pstudents' performance after one week (8 days): only 74.5% of participants passed this retest (mean score reduction from 20.50 to 20.06, Plearning is an effective form of teaching practical skills to medical students, allowing a thorough preparation for the challenges of daily clinical practice.

  19. Stimulus Competition in Pre/Post and Online Ratings in an Evaluative Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkis, Helena M.; Lipp, Ottmar V.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluative learning is said to differ from Pavlovian associative learning in that it reflects stimulus contiguity, not contingency. Thus, evaluative learning should not be subject to stimulus competition, a proposal tested in the current experiments. Participants were presented in elemental and compound training phases with pictures of shapes as…

  20. The impact of individualized interaction on the quality of life of elderly dependent on care as a result of dementia: a study with a pre-post design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Hilde M; Hoogeboom, A M G Marcella; van Niekerk, Bob; den Ouden, Marjolein E M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of a one-to-one 30-min individualized interaction per day on the behavior and quality of life of care-dependent residents with dementia. In a pre-/post-test study, 15 care-dependent residents with dementia (mean age 88.8 years, 86.7% women) were included. Resident behavior was measured using video observation and quality of life using Qualidem. Health care professionals (n = 13) and direct relatives (n = 4) were interviewed about the effect of the intervention. The effect of the intervention was analyzed using the Friedman analysis of variance. The video observation showed that maintaining eye contact, touching, responding to speaking, tracking observable stimuli and asking questions about the activity significantly increased during the intervention. These findings were supported by interviews with nurses who described experiences of making human-to-human contact with the residents. No significant overall changes were found in quality of life. These findings were partially supported by interviews with health care professionals and relatives as some perceived effects beyond the 30-min intervention. Interaction offered on a one-to-one basis tailored to individual preferences significantly improved positive interactive behavior of care-dependent residents with dementia during the intervention. Surveys revealed no significant overall effect of the intervention. The interviews indicated there might be effects beyond the intervention for some residents.

  1. Revisiting Stock Market Integration Pre-Post Subprime Mortgage Crisis: Insight From BRIC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hong Puah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study revisits the long-run relationships and short-run dynamic causal linkages among BRIC stock market, with the particular attention to the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis. Extending related empirical studies, comparative analyses of pre-crisis, and post-crisis periods were conducted to comprehensively evaluate how stock market integration was affected by financial crises. In general, after employing cointegration test and VAR test, the results reveal the increase of stock market integration in BRICs after the subprime crisis. The evidence also found that China stock market is the most influential among the BRICs, in which China stock market has the ability to Granger cause the other three BRICs member countries. An important implication of our findings is that the degree of integration among countries tends to change over time, especially around periods marked by financial crises.

  2. Mastery learning improves students skills in inserting intravenous access: a pre-post-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederichs, Hendrik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inserting peripheral venous catheters (PVCs has been identified as a core competency for medical students. Because the performance – even of hygienic standards – of both students and novice physicians is frequently inadequate, medical faculties must focus on competence-based learning objectives and deliberate practice, features that are combined in mastery learning. Our aim was to determine the competency of students in inserting PVCs before and after an educational intervention. Design: This study comprised a skills assessment with pre- and post-tests of a group of third-year students who received a simulation-based intervention. A newly established curriculum involved one hour of practice at inserting PVCs on simulators. Students were required to pass a test (total 21 points, pass mark 20 points developed on the concept of mastery learning. An unannounced follow-up test was performed one week (8 days after the intervention.Setting: The simulation center of the medical faculty in Muenster.Participants: Third-year students who received the intervention.Results: One hundred and nine complete data sets were obtained from 133 students (82.5%. Most students (97.2% passed the test after the intervention (mean score increase from 15.56 to 20.50, <0.001. There was a significant decrease in students’ performance after one week (8 days: only 74.5% of participants passed this retest (mean score reduction from 20.50 to 20.06, <0.001. Conclusion: Mastery learning is an effective form of teaching practical skills to medical students, allowing a thorough preparation for the challenges of daily clinical practice.

  3. Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Noorkhairina Sowtali

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test was a valid and reliable tool to assess educational needs and to evaluate stroke knowledge among participants of group-based stroke education programs in Malaysia.

  4. Development and Validation of a Video-Based Social Knowledge Test for Junior Commissioned Army Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, R. J; Johnson, J. W

    2004-01-01

    Social knowledge/skill are increasingly critical to the success of U.S. Army officers. In this paper, we describe development and criterion-related validation of an experimental video-based social knowledge test...

  5. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA during treadmill running: Pre/post 2 treatment experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misic Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-Alanine (βA has been shown to improve performance during cycling. This study was the first to examine the effects of βA supplementation on the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA during incremental treadmill running. Methods Seventeen recreationally-active men (mean ± SE 24.9 ± 4.7 yrs, 180.6 ± 8.9 cm, 79.25 ± 9.0 kg participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pre/post test 2-treatment experimental design. Subjects participated in two incremental treadmill tests before and after 28 days of supplementation with either βA (6.0 g·d-1(βA, n = 8 or an equivalent dose of Maltodextrin as the Placebo (PL, n = 9. Heart rate, percent heart rate maximum (%HRmax, %VO2max@OBLA (4.0 mmol.L-1 blood lactate concentration and VO2max (L.min-1 were determined for each treadmill test. Friedman test was used to determine within group differences; and Mann-Whitney was used to determine between group differences for pre and post values (p Results The βA group experienced a significant rightward shift in HR@OBLA beats.min-1 (p 2max@OBLA increased (p 2max (L.min-1 decreased (p Conclusions βA supplementation for 28 days enhanced sub-maximal endurance performance by delaying OBLA. However, βA supplemented individuals had a reduced aerobic capacity as evidenced by the decrease in VO2max values post supplementation.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking cessation among pharmacy technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Alan J; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy technicians before and after attending a continuing education program about smoking cessation. A pre/post survey of a single group. Two statewide meetings of the Iowa Pharmacy Association. Pharmacy technicians. One 2-hour continuing education (CE) course about smoking cessation for pharmacy technicians. Changes in scores before and after the CE sessions among three domains (knowledge, efficacy, and outcome) of a validated survey instrument. Fifty-one technicians completed both the presession and postsession questionnaire. For the three survey domains, technicians' knowledge (P = .034), efficacy (P < .001), and outcome (P < .001) showed significant improvement between the presession and postsession surveys (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Pharmacy technicians who attended a CE program on smoking cessation improved their knowledge, attitudes, and self-confidence in helping smokers quit. Additional research should be conducted to test the role of pharmacy technicians in smoking cessation promotion.

  7. Job Knowledge Test Design: A Cognitively-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    34 developed by Gelman and Gallistel (1978) and now incorporated into knowledge engineering techniques for expert systems (Hayes-Roth, Waterman & Lenat... Gallistel , R. (1978). The child’s understanding of number. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Greeno, J. G. (1989). A perspective on thinking

  8. BOT3P - Bologna Transport Analysis Pre-Post-Processors Version 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsi, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    BOT3P is a set of standard FORTRAN 77 language programs developed at the ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Centre. BOT3P Version 1.0 was originally conceived to give the users of the DORT and TORT deterministic transport codes some useful diagnostic tools to prepare and to check their input data files. BOT3P Version 3.0 contains some important additions in the input geometrical model description, such as 'rod' and 'hexagonal' geometrical objects, respecting the exact cross-sectional area value and very suitable to describe a reactor lattice in detail. Moreover, it has extended the possibility to produce the geometrical, material distribution, and fixed neutron source data for the deterministic transport codes TWODANT and THREEDANT of the DANTSYS system and for the PARTISN code too, starting from the same input to BOT3P. When users require X-Y-Z TORT/THREEDANT/PARTISN mesh grids to be generated, BOT3P Version 3.0 produces a geometrical input for the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code also, where the MCNP cells correspond to the X-Y-Z bodies created for TORT.BOT3P Version 3.0 lets users specify areas/volumes of the model where the zone/material distribution can be defined not only by a combinatorial geometry but also by an external source, such as one originated from computerized tomography scan data (only for three-dimensional applications) and from one or more external DORT/TORT input files. BOT3P was developed on a DIGITAL UNIX ALPHA 500/333 workstation and successfully used in some complex neutron shielding and criticality benchmarks. It was also tested on Red Hat Linux 7.1 and is designed to run on most UNIX platforms. All BOT3P versions are publicly available from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (NEA-1627, NEA-1678)

  9. Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Science and Classroom Practice: An Examination of Pre/Post NCLB Testing in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Andrea R.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Johnson, Carla C.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandated state science assessment on elementary teachers' beliefs about teaching science and their classroom practice is relatively unknown. For many years, the teaching of science has been minimized in elementary schools in favor of more emphasis on reading and mathematics. This study examines the…

  10. Personalized Hypertension Management Using Patient-Generated Health Data Integrated With Electronic Health Records (EMPOWER-H): Six-Month Pre-Post Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Xiao, Lan; Simmons, Martha L; Rosas, Lisa G; Chan, Albert; Entwistle, Martin

    2017-09-19

    EMPOWER-H (Engaging and Motivating Patients Online With Enhanced Resources-Hypertension) is a personalized-care model facilitating engagement in hypertension self-management utilizing an interactive Web-based disease management system integrated with the electronic health record. The model is designed to support timely patient-provider interaction by incorporating decision support technology to individualize care and provide personalized feedback for patients with chronic disease. Central to this process were patient-generated health data, including blood pressure (BP), weight, and lifestyle behaviors, which were uploaded using a smartphone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the program among patients within primary care already under management for hypertension and with uncontrolled BP. Using a 6-month pre-post design, outcome measures included office-measured and home-monitored BP, office-measured weight, intervention contacts, diet, physical activity, smoking, knowledge, and health-related quality of life. At 6 months, 55.9% of participants (N=149) achieved office BP goals (total intervention, behavioral, pharmaceutical contacts had significantly lower odds of achieving home BP goals but higher improvements in office BP (all Pmanagement. The experience gained in this study provides support for the feasibility and value of using carefully managed patient-generated health data in the day-to-day clinical management of patients with chronic conditions. A large-scale, real-world study to evaluate sustained effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and scalability is warranted. ©Nan Lv, Lan Xiao, Martha L Simmons, Lisa G Rosas, Albert Chan, Martin Entwistle. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 19.09.2017.

  11. Pending studies at hospital discharge: a pre-post analysis of an electronic medical record tool to improve communication at hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Molly A; Evans, Kambria H; Shieh, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Achieving safe transitions of care at hospital discharge requires accurate and timely communication. Both the presence of and follow-up plan for diagnostic studies that are pending at hospital discharge are expected to be accurately conveyed during these transitions, but this remains a challenge. To determine the prevalence, characteristics, and communication of studies pending at hospital discharge before and after the implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR) tool that automatically generates a list of pending studies. Pre-post analysis. 260 consecutive patients discharged from inpatient general medicine services from July to August 2013. Development of an EMR-based tool that automatically generates a list of studies pending at discharge. The main outcomes were prevalence and characteristics of pending studies and communication of studies pending at hospital discharge. We also surveyed internal medicine house staff on their attitudes about communication of pending studies. Pre-intervention, 70% of patients had at least one pending study at discharge, but only 18% of these were communicated in the discharge summary. Most studies were microbiology cultures (68%), laboratory studies (16%), or microbiology serologies (10%). The majority of study results were ultimately normal (83%), but 9% were newly abnormal. Post-intervention, communication of studies pending increased to 43% (p pending studies, but in usual practice, the presence of these studies has rarely been communicated to outpatient providers in the discharge summary. Communication significantly increased with the implementation of an EMR-based tool that automatically generated a list of pending studies from the EMR and allowed users to import this list into the discharge summary. This is the first study to our knowledge to introduce an automated EMR-based tool to communicate pending studies.

  12. Knowledge Management at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, David; Omberg, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: • Accessibility of information from FFTF has been substantially increased; • FFTF Startup Test information available – FFTF had a disciplined, organized approach; • Extensive Startup Characterization program data available; • Extensive Passive safety testing data available

  13. Testing knowledge of whole English collocations available for use in written production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revier, Robert Lee

    2014-01-01

    Testing knowledge of whole English collocations available for use in written production: Developing tests for use with intermediate and advanced Danish learners (dansk resume nedenfor) The present foreign language acquisition research derives its impetus from four assumptions regarding knowledge...... of English collocations. These are: (a) collocation knowledge can be conceptualized as an independent knowledge construct, (b) collocations are lexical items in their own right, (c) testing of collocation knowledge should also target knowledge of whole collocations, and (d) the learning burden of a whole...... the development of Danish EFL learners’ productive knowledge of whole English collocations. Five empirical studies were designed to generate information that would shed light on the reliability and validity of the CONTRIX as a measure of collocation knowledge available for use in written production. Study 1...

  14. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    well-being respectively worries in pregnancy. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with 6,427 pregnant women consecutively included before the time of a nuchal translucency scan. Participants were recruited from three Danish obstetric departments offering prenatal screening free of charge....... The results presented are based on 4,111 pregnant women (64%). Knowledge was measured by 15 knowledge questions. The primary outcomes were measured by use of pre-existing validated scales i.e. The Decisional Conflict Scale, the WHO well-being index, and the Cambridge Worry Scale. Associations were analysed...... associated with higher levels of well-being (adjusted linear coefficient 0.51 (0.26 to 0.75), p

  15. Knowledge from the web. Putting Wikipedia to the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Christian

    2011-01-01

    On January 15, 2011 Wikipedia, the star project of the Web 2.0 Community, celebrated its 10th birthday. Wikipedia has made not only friends over this decade. As a source of knowledge Wikipedia soon became popular among users of the Internet. Educational institutions, however, take a more sceptical view of developments, as they have made students unwilling to conduct literature searches and carefully investigate in all directions available. Students rely 100% on knowledge stored in the Internet without critically observing or examining the information found. To the normal Internet user, however, the encyclopedia reflects the Web 2.0 model. A huge community is engaged in updating and extending knowledge in the database. Moreover, there are no restrictions on taking part in the project. Literally anybody may participate. The subject portals in the ''Technology'' section in Wikipedia contain a ''Nuclear Power'' column. This subject portal is outstanding because of its large number of entries. Information can be found about all areas of nuclear technology, although a real absence of bias is difficult to detect. According to reports, this category of information is characterized by regular skirmishes about the correctness and absence of bias in contents. (orig.)

  16. Online system for knowledge assessment enhances students' results on school knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Benjamin; Glazar, Sasa Aleksej

    2013-01-01

    Variety of online tools were built to help assessing students' performance in school. Many teachers changed their methods of assessment from paper-and-pencil (P&P) to online systems. In this study we analyse the influence that using an online system for knowledge assessment has on students' knowledge. Based on both a literature study and our own research we designed and built an online system for knowledge assessment. The system is evaluated using two groups of primary school teachers and students (N = 686) in Slovenia: an experimental and a control group. Students solved P&P exams on several occasions. The experimental group was allowed to access the system either at school or at home for a limited period during the presentation of a selected school topic. Students in the experimental group were able to solve tasks and compare their own achievements with those of their coevals. A comparison of the P&P school exams results achieved by both groups revealed a positive effect on subject topic comprehension for those with access to the online self-assessment system.

  17. Licensure tests for special education teachers: how well they assess knowledge of reading instruction and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assess knowledge of evidence-based educational theories.

  18. Constructing a multiple choice test to measure elementary school teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of technology education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohaan, E.J.; Taconis, R.; Jochems, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and validation of a multiple choice test to measure elementary school teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of technology education. Pedagogical Content Knowledge is generally accepted to be a crucial domain of teacher knowledge and is, therefore, an important

  19. Confidence Testing for Knowledge-Based Global Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Shymansky, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This proposal advocates the position that the use of confidence wagering (CW) during testing can predict the accuracy of a student's test answer selection during between-subject assessments. Data revealed female students were more favorable to taking risks when making CW and less inclined toward risk aversion than their male counterparts. Student…

  20. Implementation of transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders in residential eating disorder programs: A preliminary pre-post evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boswell, James F; Espel-Huynh, Hallie; Brooks, Gayle; Lowe, Michael R

    2018-03-19

    Data are lacking from empirically supported therapies implemented in residential programs for eating disorders (EDs). Common elements treatments may be well-suited to address the complex implementation and treatment challenges that characterize these settings. This study assessed the preliminary effect of implementing a common elements therapy on clinician treatment delivery and patient (N = 616) symptom outcomes in two residential ED programs. The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders was adapted to address ED and co-occurring psychopathology and implemented across sites. Therapists' treatment fidelity was rated independently to assess implementation success. Additionally, longitudinal (pre-post) design compared treatment outcomes among patients treated before and after implementation. Patient outcomes included ED and depressive symptoms, experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and mindfulness. Following training and implementation, clinicians demonstrated adequate to good fidelity. Relative to pre-implementation, post-implementation patients showed significantly greater improvements in experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and mindfulness at discharge (ps ≤ .04) and more favorable outcomes on ED symptom severity, depression, and experiential avoidance at 6-month follow up (ps ≤ .0001). Preliminary pilot data support the feasibility of implementing transdiagnostic common elements therapy in residential ED treatment, and suggest that implementation may benefit transdiagnostic outcomes for patients.

  1. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Health Care Workers. A Pre-Post Intervention Study in an Italian Paediatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gilardi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite relevant recommendations and evidences on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in health care workers (HCWs, vaccination coverage rates in Europe and Italy currently do not exceed 25%. Aim of the study is to measure the variations in vaccination coverage rates in an Italian pediatric hospital after a promotion campaign performed in the period October–December 2017. The design is a pre-post intervention study. The intervention is based on a wide communication campaign and an expanded offer of easy vaccination on site. The study was carried out at Bambino Gesù Children’s hospital in Rome, Italy, on the whole population of HCWs. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Vaccination coverage rate increased in 2017/18 campaign compared with the 2016/17 one (+95 HCWs vaccinated; +4.4%. The highest increases were detected in males (+45.7%, youngest employees (+142.9%, mean age of employment (+175%, other HCWs (+209.1%, Emergency Area (+151.6% and Imaging Diagnostic Department (+200.0%. At multivariate logistic regression, working in some departments and being nurses represents a higher risk of being unvaccinated. Although the vaccination coverage rate remained low, a continuous increase of the coverage rate and development of a different consciousness in HCWs was highlighted. The study significantly identified the target for future campaigns.

  2. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Castillo-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT, to provide a snapshot of podiatry students’ basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n=247 correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n=7 incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times or the navicular (6 times. Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies.

  3. Development of knowledge tests for multi-disciplinary emergency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, J. L.; Thellesen, L.; Strandbygaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    and evaluating a multiple-choice question(MCQ) test for use in a multi-disciplinary training program inobstetric-anesthesia emergencies. Methods: A multi-disciplinary working committee with 12members representing six professional healthcare groups andanother 28 participants were involved. Recurrent revisions......, 40 out of originally50 items were included in the final MCQ test. The MCQ test wasable to distinguish between levels of competence, and good con-struct validity was indicated by a significant difference in the meanscore between consultants and first-year trainees, as well as betweenfirst...

  4. Topical Knowledge in L2 Speaking Assessment: Comparing Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Plakans, Lia

    2018-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) provide reading and/or listening input to serve as the basis for test-takers to formulate their oral responses. This study examined the influence of topical knowledge on integrated speaking test performance and compared independent speaking test performance and integrated speaking test performance…

  5. Impact of implementing electronic clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, control and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors: A pre-post controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Eva; Catalan-Ramos, Arantxa; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; Grau, Maria; Del Val, Jose Luis; Consola, Alicia; Amado, Ester; Pons, Angels; Mata-Cases, Manel; Franzi, Alicia; Ciurana, Ramon; Frigola, Eva; Cos, Xavier; Davins, Josep; Verdu-Rotellar, Jose M

    To evaluate the impact of computerized clinical practice guidelines on the management, diagnosis, treatment, control, and follow-up of the main cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pre-post controlled study. Catalonia, autonomous community located in north-eastern Spain. Individuals aged 35-74 years assigned to general practitioners of the Catalan Health Institute. The intervention group consisted of individuals whose general practitioners had accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines at least twice a day, while the control group consisted of individuals whose general practitioner had never accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines platform. The Chi-squared test was used to detect significant differences in the follow-up, control, and treatment variables for all three disorders (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus) between individuals assigned to users and non-users of the computerized clinical practice guidelines, respectively. A total of 189,067 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 56 years (standard deviation 12), and 55.5% of whom were women. Significant differences were observed in hypertension management, treatment and control; type 2 diabetes mellitus management, treatment and diagnoses, and the management and control of hypercholesterolaemia in both sexes. Computerized clinical practice guidelines are an effective tool for the control and follow-up of patients diagnosed with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia. The usefulness of computerized clinical practice guidelines to diagnose and adequately treat individuals with these disorders remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A structured framework improves clinical patient assessment and nontechnical skills of early career emergency nurses: a pre-post study using full immersion simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Belinda; Curtis, Kate; Murphy, Margaret; Strachan, Luke; Considine, Julie; Hardy, Jennifer; Wilson, Mark; Ruperto, Kate; Fethney, Judith; Buckley, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the new evidence-informed nursing assessment framework HIRAID (History, Identify Red flags, Assessment, Interventions, Diagnostics, reassessment and communication) on the quality of patient assessment and fundamental nontechnical skills including communication, decision making, task management and situational awareness. Assessment is a core component of nursing practice and underpins clinical decisions and the safe delivery of patient care. Yet there is no universal or validated system used to teach emergency nurses how to comprehensively assess and care for patients. A pre-post design was used. The performance of thirty eight emergency nurses from five Australian hospitals was evaluated before and after undertaking education in the application of the HIRAID assessment framework. Video recordings of participant performance in immersive simulations of common presentations to the emergency department were evaluated, as well as participant documentation during the simulations. Paired parametric and nonparametric tests were used to compare changes from pre to postintervention. From pre to postintervention, participant performance increases were observed in the percentage of patient history elements collected, critical indicators of urgency collected and reported to medical officers, and patient reassessments performed. Participants also demonstrated improvement in each of the four nontechnical skills categories: communication, decision making, task management and situational awareness. The HIRAID assessment framework improves clinical patient assessments performed by emergency nurses and has the potential to enhance patient care. HIRAID should be considered for integration into clinical practice to provide nurses with a systematic approach to patient assessment and potentially improve the delivery of safe patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Insomnia symptoms and their association with workplace productivity: cross-sectional and pre-post intervention analyses from a large multinational manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Colin A; Pawlecki, Brent; Waterfield, Dickon; Fitton, Kit; Radocchia, Michael; Luik, Annemarie I

    2018-06-01

    Symptoms of insomnia are common and might impact work productivity. We investigated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and workplace productivity in a global manufacturing company. Within an uncontrolled, cross-sectional study, employees from a US-based company were invited to participate in an online evaluation comprising the Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) measuring symptoms of insomnia (high score indicating better sleep), 2 items of the Work Productivity and Impairment Index (WPAI) measuring 'presenteeism' and 'absenteeism' (high score indicating loss of work productivity) and 1 item of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) from January 2015 onwards. Pre-post, within-subject data were collected to preliminary test effects of 'sleep tips' and digital cognitive behavioral therapy (dCBT). In 2798 employees [72% male; mean age 46.3(SD11.8) yrs] sleep was poorest in plant staff [SCI = 3.70(2.73)], then retail staff [4.34(3.02)], then office staff [4.95(2.83): overall F(2,2786) = 43.7, P work-related productivity, with stress only contributing a further 9%. A regression model for 'absenteeism' was statistically significant but of limited predictive value (R 2 = 3.4%). In a sample of 214 employees with pre- and post-intervention data, the SCI of those exposed to sleep tips significantly increased from 5.36(3.28) to 6.01(3.22), [t(123) = -3.02, P = .003] and from 3.08(2.24) to 6.03(2.97) for those who accessed dCBT [t(89) = -8.40, P work productivity. Additionally, targeted insomnia interventions may offer potential to improve sleep and work productivity. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Salud mental en reclusos: un análisis pre-post intervención psicosocial con grupo control de comparación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Jesús Bascón Díaz

    Full Text Available La literatura científica advierte de la elevada presencia de trastornos mentales en el medio penitenciario. Por ello, en este trabajo nos planteamos evaluar la salud psicosocial y la autorregulación de reclusos en relación a un grupo control de participantes no reclusos; adicionalmente tratamos de conocer la incidencia de la variable tiempo de reclusión y analizar el efecto intragrupo pre-post entrenamiento en habilidades sociales y comunicativas. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 20 varones, 10 reclusos (cinco con más de un año de condena y cinco con menos y 10 participantes sin antecedentes delictivos, a los que se les administró el cuestionario de salud GHQ-28 y la escala de autorregulación MAPA. Se aplicó la prueba no paramétrica Mann-Whitney (U para el cálculo de probabilidades y el test de Cramer (V como indicador del tamaño de efecto. Los resultados indicaron que la reclusión no implicó necesariamente peor salud y autorregulación, que el tiempo de condena no ejerció excesiva influencia sobre estas dos dimensiones y que el taller de habilidades sociales no pareció, según el análisis pre-postest, haber producido efectos sobre la salud y la autorregulación de los reclusos. Finalmente, se discuten algunas reflexiones generales así como nuevas propuestas para mejorar actuaciones futuras.

  9. Knowledge of Genetics and Attitudes toward Genetic Testing among College Students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwi, Duaa; Merdad, Leena; Ramadan, Eman

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing has been gradually permeating the practice of medicine. Health-care providers may be confronted with new genetic approaches that require genetically informed decisions which will be influenced by patients' knowledge of genetics and their attitudes toward genetic testing. This study assesses the knowledge of genetics and attitudes toward genetic testing among college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage stratified sample of 920 senior college students enrolled at King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Information regarding knowledge of genetics, attitudes toward genetic testing, and sociodemographic data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. In general, students had a good knowledge of genetics but lacked some fundamentals of genetics. The majority of students showed positive attitudes toward genetic testing, but some students showed negative attitudes toward certain aspects of genetic testing such as resorting to abortion in the case of an untreatable major genetic defect in an unborn fetus. The main significant predictors of knowledge were faculty, gender, academic year, and some prior awareness of 'genetic testing'. The main significant predictors of attitudes were gender, academic year, grade point average, and some prior awareness of 'genetic testing'. The knowledge of genetics among college students was higher than has been reported in other studies, and the attitudes toward genetic testing were fairly positive. Genetics educational programs that target youths may improve knowledge of genetics and create a public perception that further supports genetic testing. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Steps on a journey to TB control in Solomon Islands: a cross-sectional, mixed methods pre-post evaluation of a local language DVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Peter D; Asugeni, Rowena; Wakageni, John; Kekeubata, Esau; Maena'aadi, John; Laete'esafi, John; Waneagea, Jackson; Asugeni, Vunivesi; MacLaren, David; Speare, Richard

    2015-02-03

    In Solomon Islands many people with Tuberculosis (TB) have challenges in accessing services because of socio-cultural, geographic and health service reasons, resulting in delays in TB treatment and low detection rates. The purpose of this project was to (i) develop a local language audio-visual resource (DVD) about TB (ii) share this resource with people in remote villages and (iii) evaluate the process and outcomes. The project involved the development and evaluation of a DVD in local Kwaio language. The DVD included five short videos based on the Australian Respiratory Council TB Education Flipchart. The DVD also included short videos of: traditional music/chanting (ai'imae); drama that presented an allegory of TB; and a short documentary on the redevelopment of the local TB Ward. A mixed-methods approach evaluated changes in TB knowledge and investigated the impact of the DVD. The DVD was recorded and produced in March-June 2013 and screened in 41 villages and hamlets. The pre-post DVD survey was completed by 64% (255/400) of people who viewed the DVD in the villages. Pre-DVD survey responses showed a moderate to high knowledge about TB signs, symptoms and treatment but 76/255 (30%) stated TB was caused by sorcery and 85/255 (33%) incorrectly stated that TB medication should be stopped when a patient feels better. The post-DVD survey showed a significant increase in people in coastal villages reporting (i) a 3-week cough would trigger a medical assessment and (ii) TB is mainly spread through the air. Statements that TB is not caused by sorcery increased post-DVD in both coastal and mountain villages, however belief in sorcery in mountain villages remained high at 20/70 (29%). The local DVD resource was developed within local cultural understandings and oral traditions of Kwaio people. Using modern but accessible DVD technology generated a lot of interest about the disease and the stories. The project evaluation indicates that current delays in seeking treatment

  11. Testing controlled productive knowledge of adverb-verb collocations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A controlled productive test of adverb-verb collocations ..... The third approach to studying collocations, corpus analysis, ..... The collocation web model is thought to match Nation's (2001) psychological .... Theory, analysis, and applications. .... Canadian Modern ... Focus on vocabulary: Mastering the Academic Word List.

  12. Building a Remote Usability Testing Body of Knowledge (RUTBOK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizano, Fulvio; Stage, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Remote Usability Testing (RUT) is an alternative method of usability evaluations. The main aim of RUT is the reduction of costs in the usability evaluation process. Since middle of the 90s RUT, has emerged as a technique which seems as is gaining maturity across the time. In general any discipline...

  13. The psychenet public health intervention for anorexia nervosa: a pre-post-evaluation study in a female patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumz, Antje; Weigel, Angelika; Wegscheider, Karl; Romer, Georg; Löwe, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Aim This non-randomized pre-post-intervention study investigated the effect of a systemic public health intervention on the length of time between anorexia nervosa symptom onset and contact with the health care system as well as the initiation of treatment. Although systemic public health interventions have successfully been implemented in physical and mental health fields, their effect on the early treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa remains unclear. In total, 59 anorexia nervosa patients (mean age=21.5 years, SD=7.2) were recruited before a systemic public health intervention, and 18 patients (mean age=22.2 years, SD=8.9) were recruited afterwards. Using validated self-report measures and a semi-structured interview, the duration of untreated anorexia nervosa and the duration until first contact with the health care system were investigated. Findings At the beginning of the individual treatment initiation process, participants in both samples most frequently consulted their general practitioner or paediatrician about their eating disorder-related symptoms. Neither the mean duration of untreated anorexia nervosa, that is, the time between illness onset and the initiation of a recommended treatment, nor the duration until first contact with the health care system significantly decreased after the implementation of the systemic public health intervention. The mean duration of untreated anorexia nervosa was 36.5 months (SD=68.2) before the systemic public health intervention and 40.1 months (SD=89.4) after the implementation of the systemic public health intervention. The mean duration until first contact with the health care system was 25.0 months (SD=53.0) before the intervention and 32.8 months (SD=86.5) after the intervention. Primary care providers are crucial to the treatment initiation process and should be involved in future interventions to improve early detection and treatment commencement amongst patients with anorexia nervosa.

  14. The impact of evidence-based sepsis guidelines on emergency department clinical practice: a pre-post medical record audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Bernadine; Fry, Margaret; Roche, Michael

    2017-11-01

    To explore the number of patients presenting with sepsis before and after guideline implementation; the impact of sepsis guidelines on triage assessment, emergency department management and time to antibiotics. Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity within hospitals. Globally, strategies have been implemented to reduce morbidity and mortality rates, which rely on the early recognition and management of sepsis. To improve patient outcomes, the New South Wales government in Australia introduced sepsis guidelines into emergency departments. However, the impact of the guidelines on clinical practice remains unclear. A 12-month pre-post retrospective randomised medical record audit of adult patients with a sepsis diagnosis. Data were extracted from the emergency department database and paper medical record. Data included patient demographic (age, gender), clinical information (time of arrival, triage code, seen by time, disposition, time to antibiotic, pathology, time to intravenous fluids) and patient assessment data (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, oxygen saturations, medication). This study demonstrated a statistically significant 230-minute reduction in time to antibiotics post implementation of the guidelines. The post group (n = 165) received more urgent triage categories (n = 81; 49·1%), a 758-minute reduction in mean time to second litre of intravenous fluids and an improvement in collection of lactate (n = 112, 67·9%), also statistically significant. The findings highlight the impact the guidelines can have on clinician decision-making and behaviour that support best practice and positive patient outcomes. The sepsis guidelines improved the early assessment, recognition and management of patients presenting with sepsis in one tertiary referral emergency department. The use of evidenced-based guidelines can impact clinical decision-making and behaviour, resulting in the translation and support of

  15. Drug utilization evaluation of albumin in a teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran: an interventional pre-post design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Farzaneh; Ghazanfari, Saba; Elyasi, Sepideh; Iraji, Paria; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Nasser; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2017-08-01

    Background Albumin is a protein colloidal solution with limited availability and high cost. It should be used in such approved indications as paracentesis, extensive burn, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and nephrotic syndrome. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the appropriateness of albumin usage before and after an evidence-based guideline. Setting Four wards of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Method An interventional pre-post design study was performed on 2 groups of patients; in gGroup 1 as a preparation phase group in 6 months from February 2015 to July 2015 and Group 2 as an interventional group from September 2015 to February 2016. A guideline for proper indications of albumin, designed and finalized based on the physicians' comments, was implemented in Group 2. Main outcome measure The pattern of albumin consumption. Results Fifty patients were evaluated in each group. The implementation of the guideline resulted in reduction of improper albumin use from 62 to 57.5%, which was not statistically significant; however., it reduced inappropriate dose and duration of albumin therapy (55.5-16.7%), the number of consumed albumin vial, and the average cost for each patient (317.78 ± 3.15-149.81 ± 1.91 USD) significantly, as well. Conclusion This study illustrated that in this hospital in most cases, albumin was used inappropriately and at an alarming rate. This improved after the introduction of an evidence-based guideline. Moreover, guideline implementation resulted in significant cost reduction.

  16. Pre/post-closure assessment of groundwater pharmaceutical fate in a wastewater‑facility-impacted stream reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Barber, Larry B.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Duris, Joseph W.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Givens, Carrie E.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Journey, Celeste A.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical contamination of contiguous groundwater is a substantial concern in wastewater-impacted streams, due to ubiquity in effluent, high aqueous mobility, designed bioactivity, and to effluent-driven hydraulic gradients. Wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) closures are rare environmental remediation events; offering unique insights into contaminant persistence, long-term wastewater impacts, and ecosystem recovery processes. The USGS conducted a combined pre/post-closure groundwater assessment adjacent to an effluent-impacted reach of Fourmile Creek, Ankeny, Iowa, USA. Higher surface-water concentrations, consistent surface-water to groundwater concentration gradients, and sustained groundwater detections tens of meters from the stream bank demonstrated the importance of WWTF effluent as the source of groundwater pharmaceuticals as well as the persistence of these contaminants under effluent-driven, pre-closure conditions. The number of analytes (110 total) detected in surface water decreased from 69 prior to closure down to 8 in the first post-closure sampling event approximately 30 d later, with a corresponding 2 order of magnitude decrease in the cumulative concentration of detected analytes. Post-closure cumulative concentrations of detected analytes were approximately 5 times higher in proximal groundwater than in surface water. About 40% of the 21 contaminants detected in a downstream groundwater transect immediately before WWTF closure exhibited rapid attenuation with estimated half-lives on the order of a few days; however, a comparable number exhibited no consistent attenuation during the year-long post-closure assessment. The results demonstrate the potential for effluent-impacted shallow groundwater systems to accumulate pharmaceutical contaminants and serve as long-term residual sources, further increasing the risk of adverse ecological effects in groundwater and the near-stream ecosystem.

  17. Genetics educational needs in China: physicians' experience and knowledge of genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Tengda; Yashar, Beverly M

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between physicians' knowledge and utilization of genetic testing and to explore genetics educational needs in China. An anonymous survey about experience, attitudes, and knowledge of genetic testing was conducted among physicians affiliated with Peking Union Medical College Hospital during their annual health evaluation. A personal genetics knowledge score was developed and predictors of personal genetics knowledge score were evaluated. Sixty-four physicians (33% male) completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of them had used genetic testing in their clinical practice. Using a 4-point scale, mean knowledge scores of six common genetic testing techniques ranged from 1.7 ± 0.9 to 2.4 ± 1.0, and the average personal genetics knowledge score was 2.1 ± 0.8. In regression analysis, significant predictors of higher personal genetics knowledge score were ordering of genetic testing, utilization of pedigrees, higher medical degree, and recent genetics training (P education. This study demonstrated a sizable gap between Chinese physicians' knowledge and utilization of genetic testing. Participants had high self-perceived genetics educational needs. Development of genetics educational platforms is both warranted and desired in China.Genet Med 17 9, 757-760.

  18. A New Clinical Pain Knowledge Test for Nurses: Development and Psychometric Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhofer, Esther I; St Marie, Barbara; Bena, James F

    2017-08-01

    All nurses care for patients with pain, and pain management knowledge and attitude surveys for nurses have been around since 1987. However, no validated knowledge test exists to measure postlicensure clinicians' knowledge of the core competencies of pain management in current complex patient populations. To develop and test the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure pain management knowledge of postlicensure nurses. Psychometric instrument validation. Four large Midwestern U.S. hospitals. Registered nurses employed full time and part time August 2015 to April 2016, aged M = 43.25 years; time as RN, M = 16.13 years. Prospective survey design using e-mail to invite nurses to take an electronic multiple choice pain knowledge test. Content validity of initial 36-item test "very good" (95.1% agreement). Completed tests that met analysis criteria, N = 747. Mean initial test score, 69.4% correct (range 27.8-97.2). After revision/removal of 13 unacceptable questions, mean test score was 50.4% correct (range 8.7-82.6). Initial test item percent difficulty range was 15.2%-98.1%; discrimination values range, 0.03-0.50; final test item percent difficulty range, 17.6%-91.1%, discrimination values range, -0.04 to 1.04. Split-half reliability final test was 0.66. A high decision consistency reliability was identified, with test cut-score of 75%. The final 23-item Clinical Pain Knowledge Test has acceptable discrimination, difficulty, decision consistency, reliability, and validity in the general clinical inpatient nurse population. This instrument will be useful in assessing pain management knowledge of clinical nurses to determine gaps in education, evaluate knowledge after pain management education, and measure research outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Estimation of Knowledge Solidity Based on the Comparative Analysis of Different Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Khenner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the testing techniques of knowledge estimation are widely spread in educational system. However, this method is seriously criticized including its application to the Unified State Examinations. The research is aimed at studying the limitations of testing techniques. The authors recommend a new way of knowledge solid- ity estimation bases on the comparative results analysis of various kinds of tests. While testing the large group of students, the authors found out that the results of the closed and open tests substantially differ. The comparative analysis demonstrates that the open tests assessment of the knowledge solidity is more adequate than that of the closed ones. As the research is only based on a single experiment, the authors recommend using this method further, substantiating the findings concerning the differences in tests results, and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the tests in question. 

  20. EFFECTIVE KNOWLEDGE TESTS AND FEEDBACK IN FUNCTION OF IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Bjelica

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the project ”National frame of qualifications and quality providing in education”, run by the EU Delegation in Montenegro, is improvement of students’ study through effective knowledge tests and feedbacks. Knowledge tests do not only represent a problem of knowledge evaluation, but they significantly determine instructional design of the teaching process. Process of organisation and structuring of an exam, besides feasibility and applicability aspects, also has educative aspects. The knowledge tests should motivate a student to improve their own education as well as to motivate them to further studying. An exam should not be considered as individual method of knowledge evaluation, but as a procedure that will be pervaded with the educative programme. In that sense, availability of good-quality feedback enables the students to self-correct, and the chosen methods of examination have to provide relevant results

  1. Development of a Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test for the Moderately and Mildly Retarded. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Barbara; And Others

    The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…

  2. Making sense of knowledge productivity: beta testing the KP-enhancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaan Stam

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – purpose of this article is to report about the progress of the development of a method that makes sense of knowledge productivity, in order to be able to give direction to knowledge management initiatives. Methodology/approach – the development and testing of the method is based on the

  3. The psychotropic education and knowledge test for nurses in nursing homes : Striving for PEAK performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Azermai, Majda; Wauters, Maarten; Van Acker, Sandra; Versluys, Karen; Steeman, Els; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The psychotropic education and knowledge test for nurses in acute geriatric care (PEAK-AC) measures knowledge of psychotropic indications, doses and adverse drug reactions in older inpatients. Given the low internal consistency and poor discrimination of certain items, this study aims to

  4. The effectiveness of an Internet support forum for carers of people with dementia: a pre-post cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Vicky; Barker, Chris; Stott, Josh

    2014-02-28

    The well-being of informal carers of people with dementia is an important public health issue. Caring for an elderly relative with dementia may be burdensome and stressful, and can negatively affect the carer's social, family, and professional life. The combination of loss, the physical demands of caregiving, prolonged distress, and biological vulnerabilities of older carers may compromise their physical health, increase social isolation, and increase the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders. Caregiver stress is also linked to negative outcomes for the recipient of care and costs to society, including increased nursing home and hospital admissions. Consequently, carer support interventions are an important component of dementia care. Computer-mediated carer support offers a range of potential advantages compared to traditional face-to-face support groups, including accessibility and the possibility of tailoring to meet individual needs, but there has been little research on its effectiveness so far. This mixed-methods study examined the impact of a well-respected UK-based online support forum for carers of people with dementia. A total of 61 new forum users completed measures of anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, GAD-7), depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9), and quality of relationship with the person with dementia (Scale for the Quality of the Current Relationship in Caregiving, SQCRC), at baseline and again after 12 weeks of forum usage, within a pre-post design. In addition, 8 participants were interviewed about their experiences with using the forum. There was an improvement in the quality of the relationship with the person with dementia (SQCRC: P=.003). There was no change in users' depression (PHQ-9) or anxiety (GAD-7) over the 12-week study period. Interview participants reported a range of positive experiences and benefits from using the forum. Limited negative experiences were also reported. Many of the reported

  5. TESTING AS THE BASIC TECHNOLOGY OF THE KNOWLEDGE CONTROL OF LISTENERS OF COURSE ECDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kravtsov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of distance testing systems and their introduction for the knowledge control in the course of professional skill improvement under program ECDL with use of distance learning are presented.

  6. Test and Evaluation for Enhanced Security: A Quantitative Method to Incorporate Expert Knowledge into Test Planning Decisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Davinia [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blackburn, Mark [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Complex systems are comprised of technical, social, political and environmental factors as well as the programmatic factors of cost, schedule and risk. Testing these systems for enhanced security requires expert knowledge in many different fields. It is important to test these systems to ensure effectiveness, but testing is limited to due cost, schedule, safety, feasibility and a myriad of other reasons. Without an effective decision framework for Test and Evaluation (T&E) planning that can take into consideration technical as well as programmatic factors and leverage expert knowledge, security in complex systems may not be assessed effectively. Therefore, this paper covers the identification of the current T&E planning problem and an approach to include the full variety of factors and leverage expert knowledge in T&E planning through the use of Bayesian Networks (BN).

  7. The Predominance Of Integrative Tests Over Discrete Point Tests In Evaluating The Medical Students' General English Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam Heydarpour Meymeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Multiple choice tests are the most common type of tests used in evaluating the general English knowledge of the students in most medical universities, however the efficacy of these tests are not examined precisely. Wecompare and examine the integrative tests and discrete point tests as measures of the English language knowledge of medical students.Methods: Three tests were given to 60 undergraduate physiotherapy and Audiology students in their second year of study (after passing their general English course. They were divided into 2 groups.The first test for both groups was an integrative test, writing. The second test was a multiple - choice test 0.(prepositions for group one and a multiple - choice test of tensesfor group two. The same items which were mostfi-equently used wrongly in thefirst test were used in the items of the second test. A third test, a TOEFL, was given to the subjects in order to estimate the correlation between this test and tests one and two.Results: The students performed better in the second test, discrete point test rather than the first which was an integrative test. The same grammatical mistakes in the composition were used correctly in the multiple choice tests by the students.Conclusion:Our findings show that student perform better in non-productive rather than productive test. Since being competent English language user is an expected outcome of university language courses it seems warranted to switch to integrative tests as a measure of English language competency.Keywords: INTEGRATIVE TESTS, ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR MEDICINE, ACADEMIC ENGLISH

  8. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  9. Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowtali, Siti Noorkhairina; Yusoff, Dariah Mohd; Harith, Sakinah; Mohamed, Monniaty

    2016-04-01

    To date, there is a lack of published studies on assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of stroke education programs. This study developed and validated the Malay language version of the Stroke Knowledge Test research instrument. This study involved translation, validity, and reliability phases. The instrument underwent backward and forward translation of the English version into the Malay language. Nine experts reviewed the content for consistency, clarity, difficulty, and suitability for inclusion. Perceived usefulness and utilization were obtained from experts' opinions. Later, face validity assessment was conducted with 10 stroke patients to determine appropriateness of sentences and grammar used. A pilot study was conducted with 41 stroke patients to determine the item analysis and reliability of the translated instrument using the Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach's alpha. The final Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test included 20 items with good content coverage, acceptable item properties, and positive expert review ratings. Psychometric investigations suggest that Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test had moderate reliability with Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach's alpha of 0.58. Improvement is required for Stroke Knowledge Test items with unacceptable difficulty indices. Overall, the average rating of perceived usefulness and perceived utility of the instruments were both 72.7%, suggesting that reviewers were likely to use the instruments in their facilities. Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test was a valid and reliable tool to assess educational needs and to evaluate stroke knowledge among participants of group-based stroke education programs in Malaysia.

  10. A Short Test for the Assessment of Basic Knowledge in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a fixed-choice test for the assessment of basic knowledge in psychology, for use with undergraduate as well as graduate students. Test content is selected based on a core concepts approach and includes a sample of concepts which are indexed most frequently in common introductory psychology textbooks. In a…

  11. Construction of a valid and reliable test to determine knowledge on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The construction of a questionnaire, in the format of a test, to determine knowledge on dietary fat of higher-educated young adults. Design: The topics on dietary fat included were in accordance with those tested in other studies. Forty multiple-choice items were drafted as questions and incomplete statements ...

  12. Evolution of Student Knowledge in a Traditional Introductory Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2008-10-01

    In the physics education research community, a common format for evaluation is pre- and post-tests. In this study, we collect student test data many times throughout a course, allowing for the measurement of the changes of student knowledge with a time resolution on the order of a few days. The data cover the first two quarters (mechanics, E&M) of a calculus-based introductory sequence populated primarily by first- and second-year engineering majors. To avoid the possibility of test-retest effects, separate and quasi-random subpopulations of students are evaluated every week of the quarter on a variety of tasks. Unsurprisingly for a traditional introductory course, there is little change on many conceptual questions. However, the data suggest that some student ideas peak and decay rapidly during a quarter, a pattern consistent with memory research yet unmeasurable by pre-/post-testing.

  13. Orthopaedic nurses' knowledge and interrater reliability of neurovascular assessments with 2-point discrimination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Jennifer; Raley Noble, Deana; Kim, Son Chae

    2013-01-01

    : This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of education on knowledge and interrater reliability of neurovascular assessments with 2-point discrimination (2-PD) test among pediatric orthopaedic nurses. : A pre- and posttest study was done among 60 nurses attending 2-hour educational sessions. Neurovascular assessments with 2-PD test were performed on 64 casted pediatric patients by the nurses and 5 nurse experts before and after the educational sessions. : The mean neurovascular assessment knowledge score was improved at posteducation compared with the preeducation (p < .001). The 2-PD test interrater reliability also improved from Cohen's kappa value of 0.24-0.48 at posteducation. : The 2-hour educational session may be effective in improving nurses' knowledge and the interrater reliability of neurovascular assessment with 2-PD test.

  14. Expert Knowledge Influences Decision-Making for Couples Receiving Positive Prenatal Chromosomal Microarray Testing Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, M A; Werner-Lin, A; Barg, F K; Bernhardt, B A

    2017-09-01

    To assess how participants receiving abnormal prenatal genetic testing results seek information and understand the implications of results, 27 US female patients and 12 of their male partners receiving positive prenatal microarray testing results completed semi-structured phone interviews. These interviews documented participant experiences with chromosomal microarray testing, understanding of and emotional response to receiving results, factors affecting decision-making about testing and pregnancy termination, and psychosocial needs throughout the testing process. Interview data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. In the absence of certainty about the implications of results, understanding of results is shaped by biomedical expert knowledge (BEK) and cultural expert knowledge (CEK). When there is a dearth of BEK, as in the case of receiving results of uncertain significance, participants rely on CEK, including religious/spiritual beliefs, "gut instinct," embodied knowledge, and social network informants. CEK is a powerful platform to guide understanding of prenatal genetic testing results. The utility of culturally situated expert knowledge during testing uncertainty emphasizes that decision-making occurs within discourses beyond the biomedical domain. These forms of "knowing" may be integrated into clinical consideration of efficacious patient assessment and counseling.

  15. Test de Evaluacion de Conocimientos Medicos-CIIPME (Test of Evaluation of Medical Knowledge-CIIPME). Publication No. 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfici, C.; And Others

    The purpose of this research is to build a test for the evaluation of the knowledge needed by medical students before entering clinical courses in medical school. The criterion for this was provided by teachers in both the pre-clinical and clinical subjects. The Pilot instrument consisted of 335 items that covered 8 sections. Each one of these…

  16. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  17. Diabetes knowledge in nursing homes and home-based care services: a validation study of the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test adapted for use among nursing personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, Anne; Aarflot, Morten; Igland, Jannicke; Landbakk, Tilla; Graue, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Providing high-quality diabetes care in nursing homes and home-based care facilities requires suitable instruments to evaluate the level of diabetes knowledge among the health-care providers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test adapted for use among nursing personnel. The study included 127 nursing personnel (32 registered nurses, 69 nursing aides and 26 nursing assistants) at three nursing homes and one home-based care facility in Norway. We examined the reliability and content and construct validity of the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test. The items in both the general diabetes subscale and the insulin-use subscale were considered relevant and appropriate. The instrument showed satisfactory properties for distinguishing between groups. Item response theory-based measurements and item information curves indicate maximum information at average or lower knowledge scores. Internal consistency and the item-total correlations were quite weak, indicating that the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test measures a set of items related to various relevant knowledge topics but not necessarily related to each other. The Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test measures a broad range of topics relevant to diabetes care. It is an appropriate instrument for identifying individual and distinct needs for diabetes education among nursing personnel. The knowledge gaps identified by the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test could also provide useful input for the content of educational activities. However, some revision of the test should be considered.

  18. Combining Blink, Pupil, and Response Time Measures in a Concealed Knowledge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis eSeymour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The response time (RT based Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT has been shown to accurately detect participants’ knowledge of mock-crime related information. Tests based on ocular measures such as pupil size and blink rate have sometimes resulted in poor classification, or lacked detailed classification analyses. The present study examines the fitness of multiple pupil and blink related responses in the CKT paradigm. To maximize classification efficiency, participants’ concealed knowledge was assessed using both individual test measures and combinations of test measures. Results show that individual pupil-size, pupil-slope, and pre-response blink-rate measures produce efficient classifications. Combining pupil and blink measures yielded more accuracy classifications than individual ocular measures. Although RT-based tests proved efficient, combining RT with ocular measures had little incremental benefit. It is argued that covertly assessing ocular measures during RT-based tests may guard against effective countermeasure use in applied settings. A compound classification procedure was used to categorize individual participants and yielded high hit rates and low false-alarm rates without the need for adjustments between test paradigms or subject populations. We conclude that with appropriate test paradigms and classification analyses, ocular measures may prove as effective as other indices, though additional research is needed.

  19. Genetic counselors’ (GC) knowledge, awareness, and understanding of clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) genomic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, PM; Ruth, K; Matro, JM; Rainey, KL; Fang, CY; Wong, YN; Daly, MB; Hall, MJ

    2014-01-01

    Genomic tests are increasingly complex, less expensive, and more widely available with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS). We assessed knowledge and perceptions among genetic counselors pertaining to NGS genomic testing via an online survey. Associations between selected characteristics and perceptions were examined. Recent education on NGS testing was common, but practical experience limited. Perceived understanding of clinical NGS was modest, specifically concerning tumor testing. Greater perceived understanding of clinical NGS testing correlated with more time spent in cancer-related counseling, exposure to NGS testing, and NGS-focused education. Substantial disagreement about the role of counseling for tumor-based testing was seen. Finally, a majority of counselors agreed with the need for more education about clinical NGS testing, supporting this approach to optimizing implementation. PMID:25523111

  20. Genetic counselors' (GC) knowledge, awareness, understanding of clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, P M; Ruth, K; Matro, J M; Rainey, K L; Fang, C Y; Wong, Y N; Daly, M B; Hall, M J

    2015-12-01

    Genomic tests are increasingly complex, less expensive, and more widely available with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS). We assessed knowledge and perceptions among genetic counselors pertaining to NGS genomic testing via an online survey. Associations between selected characteristics and perceptions were examined. Recent education on NGS testing was common, but practical experience limited. Perceived understanding of clinical NGS was modest, specifically concerning tumor testing. Greater perceived understanding of clinical NGS testing correlated with more time spent in cancer-related counseling, exposure to NGS testing, and NGS-focused education. Substantial disagreement about the role of counseling for tumor-based testing was seen. Finally, a majority of counselors agreed with the need for more education about clinical NGS testing, supporting this approach to optimizing implementation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Home-based family intervention increases knowledge, communication and living donation rates: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S Y; Luchtenburg, A E; Timman, R; Zuidema, W C; Boonstra, C; Weimar, W; Busschbach, J J V; Massey, E K

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to develop and test an educational program to support well-informed decision making among patients and their social network regarding living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). One hundred sixty-three patients who were unable to find a living donor were randomized to standard care or standard care plus home-based education. In the education condition, patients and members of their social network participated in home-based educational meetings and discussed renal replacement therapy options. Patients and invitees completed pre-post self-report questionnaires measuring knowledge, risk perception, communication, self-efficacy and subjective norm. LDKT activities were observed for 6 months postintervention. Patients in the experimental group showed significantly more improvements in knowledge (p communication (p = 0.012) compared with the control group. The invitees showed pre-post increases in knowledge (p decision making and promotes access to LDKT. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Genetic testing for BRCA1: effects of a randomised study of knowledge provision on interest in testing and long term test uptake; implications for the NICE guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julia; Gray, Susan; A'Hern, Roger; Shanley, Susan; Watson, Maggie; Kash, Kathryn; Croyle, Robert; Eeles, Rosalind

    2009-01-01

    Interest in searching for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 is high. Knowledge regarding these genes and the advantages and limitations of genetic testing is limited. It is unknown whether increasing knowledge about breast cancer genetic testing alters interest in testing. Three hundred and seventy nine women (260 with a family history of breast cancer; 119 with breast cancer) from The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust were randomised to receive or not receive written educational information on cancer genetics. A questionnaire was completed assessing interest in BRCA1 testing and knowledge on breast cancer genetics and screening. Actual uptake of BRCA1 testing is reported with a six year follow-up. Eighty nine percent of women at risk of breast cancer and 76% of women with breast cancer were interested in BRCA1 testing (P testing, the families of 66% of the at risk group and 13% of the women with breast cancer would be eligible for testing (probability of BRCA1 mutation >or=20%). Within six years of randomisation, genetic testing was actually undertaken on 12 women, only 10 of whom would now be eligible, on the NICE guidelines. There is strong interest in BRCA1 testing. Despite considerable ignorance of factors affecting the inheritance of breast cancer, education neither reduced nor increased interest to undergo testing. The NICE guidelines successfully triage those with a high breast cancer risk to be managed in cancer genetics clinics.

  3. Developing and evaluating a paper-and-pencil test to assess components of physics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Sophie; Borowski, Andreas; Fischer, Hans E.; Gess-Newsome, Julie; von Aufschnaiter, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Teachers' professional knowledge is assumed to be a key variable for effective teaching. As teacher education has the goal to enhance professional knowledge of current and future teachers, this knowledge should be described and assessed. Nevertheless, only a limited number of studies quantitatively measures physics teachers' professional knowledge. The study reported in this paper was part of a bigger project with the broader goal of understanding teacher professional knowledge. We designed a test instrument to assess the professional knowledge of physics teachers (N = 186) in the dimensions of content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and pedagogical knowledge (PK). A model describing the relationships between these three dimensions of professional knowledge was created to inform the design of the tests used to measure CK, PCK, and PK. In this paper, we describe the model with particular emphasis on the PCK part, and the subsequent PCK test development and its implementation in detail. We report different approaches to evaluate the PCK test, including the description of content validity, the examination of the internal structure of professional knowledge, and the analysis of construct validity by testing teachers across different school subjects, teachers from different school types, pre-service teachers, and physicists. Our findings demonstrate that our PCK test results could distinguish physics teachers from the other groups tested. The PCK test results could not be explained by teachers' CK or PK, cognitive abilities, computational skills, or science knowledge.

  4. 412th Test Engineering Group Vision for Future Knowledge Management (KM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-17

    Presentation 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 May 2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 412th Test Engineering Group Vision for Future Knowledge Management (KM... Engineering Group 307 E. Popson Ave Edwards AFB, CA 93523 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 412TW-PA...centers for the TENG test customers to allow the data to be readily available within minutes of a flight, for the data to be organized so that the engineer

  5. Reading Comprehension in Test Preparation Classes: An Analysis of Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Niakaris, Christine; Kiely, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical content knowledge which underpins the practices in reading lessons of experienced teachers in test preparation classes. It takes as a starting point the assumption that practice is shaped by teacher cognitions, which are established through professional training and classroom experience. Thus, the study…

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing among Rural Migrants in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger

    2009-01-01

    A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…

  7. The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Dube

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

  8. Knowledge of parents regarding newborn screening test, after accessing the website “Babies’ Portal” - Heel prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Antonelli Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the knowledge of mothers about the heel prick test, develop contents on this test to make it available on the "Babies’ Portal" website, evaluate and validate the informative material developed. Methods: this study was conducted in three stages, that is, the first stage which is about a descriptive study involving 105 mothers of newborn children before performing the neonatal screening "Heel Prick Test", the second one consisting in the development of the website "Babies’ Portal", and the third stage, the evaluation and validation of this material carried out by 20 parents of children between zero and 36 months old, who underwent the neonatal screening Heel Prick Test by accessing the website “Babies’ Portal”. Results: although the interviewed mothers knew that their children had the right to be tested, they showed no knowledge of the diseases that can be prevented, time of diagnosis, nor the consequences arising from the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. The website creation and validation gathered basic information about the Heel Prick Test, and the participants regarded the content from satisfactory to excellent. Conclusion: it is necessary that families know not only about the procedures their children will undergo, but also the reason they are performed and the consequences of failing in doing so.

  9. Testing knowledge sharing effectiveness: trust, motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and social network embedded model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Sabbir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this inquiry is to investigate the relationships among the antecedents of knowledge sharing effectiveness under the position of non-academic staff of higher learning institutions through an empirical test of a conceptual model consisting of trust, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, leadership style, workplace spirituality and online social network. This study used the respondents from the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions in Malaysia (n = 200, utilizing a self-administered survey questionnaire. The structural equation modeling approach was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The outcomes indicate that all the antecedents play a substantial function in knowledge sharing effectiveness. In addition, perceived risk plays a mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing effectiveness. On the other hand, this research also proved the communication skill also plays a mediating role between leadership style and knowledge sharing effectiveness. This study contributes to pioneering empirical findings on knowledge sharing literature under the scope of the non-academic staff perspective.

  10. Immunization knowledge and practice among Malaysian parents: a questionnaire development and pilot-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-lela, Omer Qutaiba; Bux, Siti Halimah; Elkalmi, Ramadan M; Hadi, Hazrina

    2014-10-27

    Parents are the main decision makers for their children vaccinations. This fact makes parents' immunization knowledge and practices as predictor factors for immunization uptake and timeliness. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument in Malaysian language to measure immunization knowledge and practice (KP) of Malaysian parents. A cross-sectional prospective pilot survey was conducted among 88 Malaysian parents who attended public health facilities that provide vaccinations. Translated immunization KP questionnaires (Bahasa Melayu version) were used. Descriptive statistics were applied, face and content validity were assessed, and internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were determined. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of the knowledge scores was 7.36 ± 2.29 and for practice scores was 7.13 ± 2.20. Good internal consistency was found for knowledge and practice items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.757 and 0.743 respectively); the test-retest reliability value was 0.740 (p = 0.014). A panel of three specialist pharmacists who are experts in this field judged the face and content validity of the final questionnaire. Parents with up-to-date immunized children had significantly better knowledge and practice scores than parents who did not (p Malaysian parents and therefore this version can be used in future research.

  11. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes towards genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  12. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes toward genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  13. Achievement goal orientation and situational motivation for a low-stakes test of content knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskiewicz, Rhonda A

    2012-05-10

    To determine the extent of the relationship between students' inherent motivation to achieve in a doctor of pharmacy program and their motivation to achieve on a single low-stakes test of content knowledge. The Attitude Toward Learning Questionnaire (ATL) was administered to 66 third-year pharmacy students at the beginning of the spring 2011 semester, and the Student Opinion Scale (SOS) was administered to the same group immediately following completion of the Pharmacy Curricular Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Significant differences were found in performance approach and work avoidance based on situational motivation scores. Situational motivation was also found to be directly correlated with performance and mastery approaches and inversely correlated with work avoidance. Criteria were met for predicting importance and effort from performance and mastery approaches and work avoidance scores of pharmacy students. The ability to predict pharmacy students' motivation to perform on a low-stakes standardized test of content knowledge increases the test's usefulness as a measure of curricular effectiveness.

  14. Pregnant Women's Knowledge of and Attitudes to HIV Testing at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Vn

    2005-06-01

    SummaryA questionnaire survey on the knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) in pregnancy of 334 antenatal attendants at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) was conducted. The survey showed that HIV/AIDS is recognized as a life-threatening condition and is mainly acquired through unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner, use of unsterile sharp instruments and blood transfusion. Knowledge about mother to child transmission (MTCT) was lacking.The majority of women who had done the test did so as a pre-requisite for church blessing of their marriage.VCT would be acceptable especially when anonymity is ensured and drug treatment is available for mother and child should the pregnant woman test positive for HIV.

  15. Knowledge acquisition and representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; Eike, David R.; Ames, Troy J.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this object by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures.

  16. KNODWAT: a scientific framework application for testing knowledge discovery methods for the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Zupan, Mario

    2013-06-13

    Professionals in the biomedical domain are confronted with an increasing mass of data. Developing methods to assist professional end users in the field of Knowledge Discovery to identify, extract, visualize and understand useful information from these huge amounts of data is a huge challenge. However, there are so many diverse methods and methodologies available, that for biomedical researchers who are inexperienced in the use of even relatively popular knowledge discovery methods, it can be very difficult to select the most appropriate method for their particular research problem. A web application, called KNODWAT (KNOwledge Discovery With Advanced Techniques) has been developed, using Java on Spring framework 3.1. and following a user-centered approach. The software runs on Java 1.6 and above and requires a web server such as Apache Tomcat and a database server such as the MySQL Server. For frontend functionality and styling, Twitter Bootstrap was used as well as jQuery for interactive user interface operations. The framework presented is user-centric, highly extensible and flexible. Since it enables methods for testing using existing data to assess suitability and performance, it is especially suitable for inexperienced biomedical researchers, new to the field of knowledge discovery and data mining. For testing purposes two algorithms, CART and C4.5 were implemented using the WEKA data mining framework.

  17. Formal testing and utilization of streaming media to improve flight crew safety knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, Marc A; Rankin, Peter M; Quisling, Jason; Gangnon, Ronald; Kohrs, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Increased concerns over the safety of air medical transport have prompted development of novel ways to increase safety. The objective of our study was to determine if an Internet streaming media safety video increased crew safety knowledge. 23 out of 40 crew members took an online safety pre-test, watched a safety video specific to our program and completed immediate and long-term post-testing 6 months later. Mean pre-test, post-test and 6 month follow up test scores were 84.9%, 92.3% and 88.4% respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in all scores (p Streaming media proved to be an accessible and effective supplement to safety training in our study.

  18. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers’ knowledge level of earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Süleyman, E-mail: yupul@hotmail.com; Haşiloğlu, M. Akif, E-mail: mehmet.hasiloglu@hotmail.com; Kunduraci, Ayşe, E-mail: ayse-kndrc@hotmail.com [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Faculty of Education, Science Education, Ağrı (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students’ knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers’ knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  19. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers’ knowledge level of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Süleyman; Haşiloğlu, M. Akif; Kunduraci, Ayşe

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students’ knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers’ knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (V.2016) in Arabic: Translation and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaiti, Ali Hassan; Alotaibi, Alanod Raffa; Jones, Linda Katherine; DaCosta, Cliff; Lenon, George Binh

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To translate the revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test into the Arabic language and examine its psychometric properties. Setting. Of the 139 participants recruited through King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 34 agreed to the second-round sample for retesting purposes. Methods. The translation process followed the World Health Organization’s guidelines for the translation and adaptation of instruments. All translations were examined for their validity and reliability...

  1. Hepatitis B knowledge, testing, and vaccination among Chinese and Vietnamese adults in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan H; Gu, Zhihong; Walton, Jodie; Peet, Anthony; Dean, Judith; Dunne, Michael P; Debattista, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis B is a significant public health challenge within some subpopulations in Australia, including Chinese and Vietnamese migrants. There has been limited research on hepatitis B knowledge and actions in these communities. The authors conducted a self-administered survey among 442 Chinese and 433 Vietnamese in Brisbane. Generally, the knowledge is best described as "moderate." One in 2 could not identify the sexual transmission risk and less than one third knew that sharing foods or drinks did not spread the disease. The majority of Vietnamese (80%) and 60% of Chinese respondents indicated prior testing. Vaccination was reported in 60% of the Vietnamese and in 52% of the Chinese. Knowledge was better among Chinese people who had been tested and vaccinated compared with those who were nontested and nonvaccinated. Only 3.5% of the Chinese, but 11.6% of the Vietnamese, indicated having a positive test result hepatitis B virus. This study helps identify strategies for programs targeting both communities and practitioners.

  2. Effects of Mental Health Parity on High Utilizers of Services: Pre-Post Evidence From a Large, Self-Insured Employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Eisenberg, Daniel; Jedele, Jenefer M; Smiley, Mary L

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated utilization of mental health and substance use services among enrollees at a large employee health plan following changes to benefit limits after passage in 2008 of federal mental health parity legislation. This study used a pre-post design. Benefits and claims data for 43,855 enrollees in the health plan in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed for utilization and costs after removal of a 30-visit cap on the number of covered mental health visits. There was a large increase in the proportion of health plan enrollees with more than 30 outpatient visits after the cap's removal, an increase of 255% among subscribers and 176% among dependents (pbenefit limit.

  3. Feasibility, Efficacy and Cost Analysis of Promoting Smoking Cessation at Outdoor Smoking "hotspots": a Pre-post Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Lam, Tai Hing; Li, William Ho Cheung; Wang, Man Ping; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2017-06-24

    To motivate smokers to quit, there is a need for enhanced smoking cessation (SC) recruitment and for innovative and proactive approaches to SC. This study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy and cost of promoting SC in public outdoor areas where smokers gather to smoke (smoking hotspots). We selected 14 smoking hotspots in Hong Kong for SC promotion in 2015. University students were trained as SC ambassadors to deliver brief SC intervention, and to recruit smokers for telephone follow-up. The proportion of smokers accepting the intervention components was recorded. Self-reported abstinence in the past 7 days and knowledge of smoking and health were assessed at the 6-month follow-up. The average costs of each smoker receiving our intervention and quitting were also compared. Of 3,080 smokers approached, 1,278 (41.5%) accepted the souvenir and 920 (29.9%) received brief advice. Of the 210 (6.8%) who consented to the follow-up, 24.5% were aged 15-29 and 46.4% were aged 30-49. Of the 151 smokers successfully contacted within 1 month after recruitment, 16 (10.6%; 1.3% of the 1,278 who received any form of intervention) reported abstinence, and their overall knowledge improved. The average costs for a smoker to receive brief advice, consent to follow-up by telephone, attempt to quit and quit successfully at the 6-month follow-up were US$30, US$132, US$601 and US$1,626, respectively. Promoting SC at smoking hotspots could be a feasible way to achieve satisfactory quitting outcomes at low cost and is useful in the absence of the strengthening of tobacco policies. Our study indicates that outdoor smoking hotspots are feasible platforms for promoting smoking cessation and recruiting smokers for cessation services; satisfactory outcomes can be achieved at a reasonable cost. Our promotion was particularly useful for recruiting young smokers and those who want to quit. It is feasible and efficacious to raise smokers' awareness of smoking cessation when other tobacco control

  4. High-Risk Palliative Care Patients' Knowledge and Attitudes about Hereditary Cancer Testing and DNA Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, John M; Emidio, Oluwabunmi; Ma, Brittany; Bailey, Lauryn; Smith, Thomas J; Kang, In Guk; Yu, Brandon J; Owodunni, Oluwafemi Patrick; Abusamaan, Mohammed; Razzak, Rab; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2017-12-04

    Even at the end of life, testing cancer patients for inherited susceptibility may provide life-saving information to their relatives. Prior research suggests palliative care inpatients have suboptimal understanding of genetic importance, and testing may be underutilized in this clinical setting. These conclusions are based on limited research. This study aimed to estimate genetic testing prevalence among high-risk palliative care patients in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. We also aimed to understand these patients' understanding of, and attitudes toward, hereditary cancer testing and DNA banking. Palliative care in-patients with cancer completed structured interviews, and their medical records were reviewed. Among patients at high risk for hereditary cancer, we assessed history of genetic testing/DNA banking; and related knowledge and attitudes. Among 24 high-risk patients, 14 (58.3%) said they/their relatives had genetic testing or they had been referred for a genetics consultation. Of the remaining 10 patients, seven (70%) said they would "probably" or "definitely" get tested. Patients who had not had testing were least concerned about the impact of future testing on their family relationships; two (20%) said they were "extremely concerned" about privacy related to genetic testing. Of patients without prior testing, five (50%) said they had heard or read "a fair amount" about genetic testing. No high-risk patients had banked DNA. Overall, 23 (95.8%) said they had heard or read "almost nothing" or "relatively little" about DNA banking. Written materials and clinician discussion were most preferred ways to learn about genetic testing and DNA banking. Overall, this study demonstrates underutilization of genetics services at the end of life continues to be problematic, despite high patient interest.

  5. Can education alter attitudes, behaviour and knowledge about organ donation? A pretest–post-test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Donal; Pierscionek, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective The emergence of evidence suggests that student nurses commonly exhibit concerns about their lack of knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. Formal training about organ donation has been shown to positively influence attitude, encourage communication and registration behaviours and improve knowledge about donor eligibility and brain death. The focus of this study was to determine the attitude and behaviour of student nurses and to assess their level of knowledge about organ donation after a programme of study. Design A quantitative questionnaire was completed before and after participation in a programme of study using a pretest–post-test design. Setting Participants were recruited from a University based in Northern Ireland during the period from February to April 2011. Participants 100 preregistration nurses (female : male=96 : 4) aged 18–50 years (mean (SD) 24.3 (6.0) years) were recruited. Results Participants’ knowledge improved over the programme of study with regard to the suitability of organs that can be donated after death, methods available to register organ donation intentions, organ donation laws, concept of brain death and the likelihood of recovery after brain death. Changes in attitude postintervention were also observed in relation to participants’ willingness to accept an informed system of consent and with regard to participants’ actual discussion behaviour. Conclusions The results provide support for the introduction of a programme that helps inform student nurses about important aspects of organ donation. PMID:24381257

  6. Evaluating Three Dimensions of Environmental Knowledge and Their Impact on Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tina; Dierkes, Paul

    2017-09-01

    This research evaluates the development of three environmental knowledge dimensions of secondary school students after participation in a singular 1-day outdoor education programme. Applying a cross-national approach, system, action-related and effectiveness knowledge levels of students educated in Germany and Singapore were assessed before and after intervention participation. Correlations between single knowledge dimensions and behaviour changes due to the environmental education intervention were examined. The authors applied a pre-, post- and retention test design and developed a unique multiple-choice instrument. Results indicate significant baseline differences in the prevalence of the different knowledge dimensions between subgroups. Both intervention subsamples showed a low presence of all baseline knowledge dimensions. Action-related knowledge levels were higher than those of system and effectiveness knowledge. Subsample-specific differences in performed pro-environmental behaviour were also significant. Both experimental groups showed significant immediate and sustained knowledge increases in the three dimensions after programme participation. Neither of the two control cohorts showed any significant increase in any knowledge dimension. Effectiveness knowledge improved most. The amount of demonstrated environmental actions increased significantly in both intervention groups. Both control cohorts did not show shifts in environmental behaviour. Yet, only weak correlations between any knowledge dimension and behaviour could be found.

  7. Development and psychometric evaluation of an information literacy self-efficacy survey and an information literacy knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Rodger; Tepe, Chabha

    2015-03-01

    To develop and psychometrically evaluate an information literacy (IL) self-efficacy survey and an IL knowledge test. In this test-retest reliability study, a 25-item IL self-efficacy survey and a 50-item IL knowledge test were developed and administered to a convenience sample of 53 chiropractic students. Item analyses were performed on all questions. The IL self-efficacy survey demonstrated good reliability (test-retest correlation = 0.81) and good/very good internal consistency (mean κ = .56 and Cronbach's α = .92). A total of 25 questions with the best item analysis characteristics were chosen from the 50-item IL knowledge test, resulting in a 25-item IL knowledge test that demonstrated good reliability (test-retest correlation = 0.87), very good internal consistency (mean κ = .69, KR20 = 0.85), and good item discrimination (mean point-biserial = 0.48). This study resulted in the development of three instruments: a 25-item IL self-efficacy survey, a 50-item IL knowledge test, and a 25-item IL knowledge test. The information literacy self-efficacy survey and the 25-item version of the information literacy knowledge test have shown preliminary evidence of adequate reliability and validity to justify continuing study with these instruments.

  8. A new technique for testing distribution of knowledge and to estimate sampling sufficiency in ethnobiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Thiago Antonio Sousa; Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; Melo, Joabe Gomes; Medeiros, Maria Franco Trindade; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Silva, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos; Almeida, Cecília Fátima Castelo Branco Rangel; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-03-15

    We propose a new quantitative measure that enables the researcher to make decisions and test hypotheses about the distribution of knowledge in a community and estimate the richness and sharing of information among informants. In our study, this measure has two levels of analysis: intracultural and intrafamily. Using data collected in northeastern Brazil, we evaluated how these new estimators of richness and sharing behave for different categories of use. We observed trends in the distribution of the characteristics of informants. We were also able to evaluate how outliers interfere with these analyses and how other analyses may be conducted using these indices, such as determining the distance between the knowledge of a community and that of experts, as well as exhibiting the importance of these individuals' communal information of biological resources. One of the primary applications of these indices is to supply the researcher with an objective tool to evaluate the scope and behavior of the collected data.

  9. Is conscious stimulus identification dependent on knowledge of the perceptual modality? Testing the "source misidentification hypothesis"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer; Svejstrup, Stinna

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to test a particular hypothesis derived from blindsight research, which we name the “source misidentification hypothesis.” According to this hypothesis, a subject may be correct about a stimulus without being correct about how she had access...... to this knowledge (whether the stimulus was visual, auditory, or something else). We test this hypothesis in healthy subjects, asking them to report whether a masked stimulus was presented auditorily or visually, what the stimulus was, and how clearly they experienced the stimulus using the Perceptual Awareness...... experience of the stimulus. To demonstrate that particular levels of reporting accuracy are obtained, we employ a statistical strategy, which operationally tests the hypothesis of non-equality, such that the usual rejection of the null-hypothesis admits the conclusion of equivalence....

  10. The effect of simulation courseware on critical thinking in undergraduate nursing students: multi-site pre-post study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsook; Ma, Hyunhee; Park, Jiyoung; Ji, Eun Sun; Kim, Dong Hee

    2015-04-01

    The use of simulations has been considered as opportunities for students to enhance their critical thinking (CT), but previous studies were limited because they did not provide in-depth information on the working dynamics of simulation or on the effects of the number of simulation exposures on CT. This study examined the effect of an integrated pediatric nursing simulation used in a nursing practicum on students' CT abilities and identified the effects of differing numbers of simulation exposures on CT in a multi-site environment. The study used a multi-site, pre-test, post-test design. A total of 237 nursing students at three universities enrolled in a pediatric practicum participated in this study from February to December 2013. All three schools used the same simulation courseware, including the same simulation scenarios, evaluation tools, and simulation equipment. The courseware incorporated high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients. Students at school A completed one simulation session, whereas students at schools B and C completed two and three simulation sessions, respectively. Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition tool (2008) was used to measure students' CT abilities. The gains in students' CT scores varied according to their numbers of exposures to the simulation courseware. With a single exposure, there were no statistically significant gains in CT, whereas three exposures to the courseware produced significant gains in CT. In seven subcategories of critical thinking, three exposures to the simulation courseware produced CT gains in the prudence and intellectual eagerness subcategories, and the overall simulation experience produced CT gains in the prudence, systematicity, healthy skepticism, and intellectual eagerness subcategories. Simulation courseware may produce positive learning outcomes for prudence in nursing education. In addition, the findings from the multi-site comparative study may contribute to greater understanding of how patient

  11. Evaluation of Salivary Flow Rate, pH and Buffer in Pre, Post & Post Menopausal Women on HRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D R, Mahesh; G, Komali; K, Jayanthi; D, Dinesh; T V, Saikavitha; Dinesh, Preeti

    2014-02-01

    Climateric is considered to be a natural phase of life which by definition is the period of life starting from decline in ovarian activity until after the end of ovarian function. It is accompanied by various health consequences that include the changes in saliva too. This study was carried out to evaluate the salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity in pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and post-menopausal women on HRT. (1) To evaluate the salivary flow rate, pH of resting saliva and stimulated saliva and buffer capacity of stimulated saliva in pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and post-menopausal women on Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). (2) To compare the above salivary findings between pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and post-menopausal women on HRT. The study was carried out on 60 patients. These patients were divided into three groups of 20 patients: Group 1: Pre-menopausal women (control), Group 2: post-menopausal women (case), Group 3: post-menopausal women on HRT (case). The control group consisted of 20 women volunteers, having regular ovulatory menstrual cycles with no known systemic illness and deleterious habits and Group 2 consists of 20 post-menopausal women and Group 3 will consist of 20 post-menopausal women on HRT. After clearing the mouth by swallowing, stimulated saliva was collected after chewing paraffin for 10 mins in to a glass centrifuge tube graded in 0.1 mL increments up to 10mL.in rare cases the collection time will be reduced or extended (5-15 min), salivary flow rate will be determined as ml/min, immediately after collection, pH was determined by dipping pH test paper directly into the sample of oral fluid, salivary buffer capacity was determined by using saliva check buffer kit (GC corporation). The data obtained was statistically evaluated using chi-square test, fisher exact test ANOVA analysis. In our study we found salivary flow rate significantly lower in the post-menopausal women in comparison with the menstruating women and also

  12. [Objective assessment of transfusion-related knowledge of nurses using modern test theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajki, Veronika; Deutsch, Tibor; Csóka, Mária; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-09-13

    Clinical practice requires knowledge of health professionals for the application of problem solving of different tasks in various clinical settings. Therefore, a set of reliable measurement tools is required to assess various components of the professional knowledge including factual knowledge, skills and competence as outcomes of nursing education and training. Traditional questionnaires and test methods do not allow the measurement of these characteristics properly, as these tools typically provide overall scores without relevant insight into areas in which nurses perform well, and those where their knowledge and/or skills should be improved substantially. The aim of this nationwide survey conducted among nurses between November 2014 and February 2015 was to determine how the teaching/training objectives have been achieved in the nurses' transfusion practice. The authors attempted to exceed the capabilities of classical test theory and acquire a detailed picture about what the nurses know about transfusion therapy and how they are involved and behave in routine clinical practice. The knowledge and skills of 657 participants were assessed using a validated instrument consisting of a set of questions covering every aspects of transfusion therapy. The answers to these items were evaluated on a binary (good or bad) scale. Recorded answers of the participants were analysed using hierarchical cluster analysis and item response theory tools such as the one-parametric Rasch model suitable for dichotomous data. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS program and the ltm module of the R statistical program. The paper presents the distribution of correct and incorrect answers to various questions about transfusion therapy along with the corresponding logit values and odds ratios, respectively. The characteristic curves of each item were determined on the basis of the number of correct answers that have been recorded. These curves highlight which questions were answered

  13. Shifting perceptions: a pre-post study to assess the impact of a senior resident rotation bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabreau, Gabriel; Elliott, Meghan; Khanna, Suneil; Minty, Evan; Wallace, Jean E; de Grood, Jill; Lewin, Adriane; Brown, Garielle; Bharwani, Aleem; Gilmour, Janet; Lemaire, Jane B

    2013-08-29

    Extended duty hours for residents are associated with negative consequences. Strategies to accommodate duty hour restrictions may also have unintended impacts. To eliminate extended duty hours and potentially lessen these impacts, we developed a senior resident rotation bundle that integrates a night float system, educational sessions on sleep hygiene, an electronic handover tool, and a simulation-based medical education curriculum. The aim of this study was to assess internal medicine residents' perceptions of the impact of the bundle on three domains: the senior residents' wellness, ability to deliver quality health care, and medical education experience. This prospective study compared eligible residents' experiences (N = 67) before and after a six-month trial of the bundle at a training program in western Canada. Data was collected using an on-line survey. Pre- and post-intervention scores for the final sample (N = 50) were presented as means and compared using the t-test for paired samples. Participants felt that most aspects of the three domains were unaffected by the introduction of the bundle. Four improved and two worsened perception shifts emerged post-intervention: less exposure to personal harm, reduced potential for medical error, more successful teaching, fewer disruptions to other rotations, increased conflicting role demands and less staff physician supervision. The rotation bundle integrates components that potentially ease some of the perceived negative consequences of night float rotations and duty hour restrictions. Future areas of study should include objective measures of the three domains to validate our study participants' perceptions.

  14. Self-efficacy and quality of life after low-intensity neuropsychological rehabilitation: A pre-post intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Ingrid; Custers, Maud; van Heugten, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Being highly self-efficacious is a key factor in successful chronic disease self-management. It is unknown whether neuropsychological rehabilitation improves self-efficacy in managing the consequences of brain injury. To investigate whether levels of general and brain injury specific self-efficacy and quality of life (QoL) increased after neuropsychological rehabilitation and whether cognitive performance was associated with self-efficacy. We conducted a retrospective clinical cohort study of 62 patients with acquired brain injury and cognitive complaints with measurements before start and after completion of treatment. QoL was measured with the visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) of the EuroQol (EQ-5D); self-efficacy with the TBI Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SEsx) and the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES). Cognitive performance was measured as a compound score of tests for memory, attention and information processing speed. Self-efficacy for managing brain injury-specific symptoms and QoL increased significantly after neuropsychological rehabilitation. Both general and brain injury-specific self-efficacy were positively associated with QoL after completion of the programme. Cognitive performance was not associated with self-efficacy for managing brain injury-specific symptoms nor with general self-efficacy. Self-efficacy and QoL improve after treatment. Further research is needed to identify the specific ingredients responsible for improvement of self-efficacy in patients with cognitive complaints.

  15. Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children With Mathematical Learning Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by testing using a web-based curriculum learning system. A total of 142 children with MLD were recruited; half of the children were in the experimental group (using the system), and the other half were in the control group (not using the system). The children were encouraged to use the web-based learning system at home for at least a 15-min session, at least once a week, for one and a half months. The mean accumulated time of testing on the system for children in the experimental group was 56.2 min. Children in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on their final mathematical examination compared to the control group. The results suggest that web-based curriculum learning through testing that promotes the building of knowledge structures for a mathematical course was helpful for children with MLD. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of the Revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (V.2016) in Arabic: Translation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaiti, Ali Hassan; Alotaibi, Alanod Raffa; Jones, Linda Katherine; DaCosta, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To translate the revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test into the Arabic language and examine its psychometric properties. Setting. Of the 139 participants recruited through King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 34 agreed to the second-round sample for retesting purposes. Methods. The translation process followed the World Health Organization's guidelines for the translation and adaptation of instruments. All translations were examined for their validity and reliability. Results. The translation process revealed excellent results throughout all stages. The Arabic version received 0.75 for internal consistency via Cronbach's alpha test and excellent outcomes in terms of the test-retest reliability of the instrument with a mean of 0.90 infraclass correlation coefficient. It also received positive content validity index scores. The item-level content validity index for all instrument scales fell between 0.83 and 1 with a mean scale-level index of 0.96. Conclusion. The Arabic version is proven to be a reliable and valid measure of patient's knowledge that is ready to be used in clinical practices. PMID:27995149

  17. HEPATITIS B AWARENESS, TESTING, AND KNOWLEDGE AMONG VIETNAMESE AMERICAN MEN AND WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Victoria M.; Choe, John H.; Yasui, Yutaka; Li, Lin; Burke, Nancy; Jackson, J. Carey

    2006-01-01

    Southeast Asians have higher rates of liver cancer than any other racial/ethnic group in the United States. Chronic carriage of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common underlying cause of liver cancer in the majority of Asian populations. Our objectives were to describe Vietnamese Americans’ awareness of hepatitis B, levels of HBV testing, and knowledge about hepatitis B transmission; and to compare the HBV knowledge and practices of men and women. A community-based, in-person survey of Vietnamese men and women was conducted in Seattle during 2002. Seven hundred and fifteen individuals (345 men and 370 women) completed the questionnaire. Eighty-one percent of the respondents had heard of hepatitis B (76% of men, 86% of women) and 67% reported HBV testing (66% of men, 68% of women). A majority of the participants knew that HBV can be transmitted during sexual intercourse (71% of men, 68% of women), by sharing toothbrushes (67% of men, 77% of women), and by sharing razors (59% of men, 67% of women). Less than one-half knew that hepatitis B is not spread by eating food prepared by an infected person (46% of men, 27% of women), nor by coughing (39% of men, 25% of women). One-third of our respondents did not recall being tested for HBV. Important knowledge deficits about routes of hepatitis B transmission were identified. Continued efforts should be made to develop and implement hepatitis B educational campaigns for Vietnamese immigrant communities. These efforts might be tailored to male and female audiences. PMID:16370056

  18. StudTest – A Platform Supporting Complex and Interactive Knowledge Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Glavinić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the model and prototype implementation of a knowledge assessment framework based on problem management components. In order to support student testing with complex problem types and enable usage of rich graphical user interfaces for solution entry, we have developed an e-examination model in which the core concept is a component that can generate complex questions and evaluate students' solutions with additional explanation generation, which we named prlet. The respective system implementation is described, which can operate under heavy loads.

  19. Improving Decision Making about Genetic Testing in the Clinic: An Overview of Effective Knowledge Translation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Robitaille, Hubert; Gane, Claire; Hébert, Jessica; Labrecque, Michel; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) interventions are attempts to change behavior in keeping with scientific evidence. While genetic tests are increasingly available to healthcare consumers in the clinic, evidence about their benefits is unclear and decisions about genetic testing are thus difficult for all parties. We sought to identify KT interventions that involved decisions about genetic testing in the clinical context and to assess their effectiveness for improving decision making in terms of behavior change, increased knowledge and wellbeing. We searched for trials assessing KT interventions in the context of genetic testing up to March 2014 in all systematic reviews (n = 153) published by two Cochrane review groups: Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) and Consumers and Communication. We retrieved 2473 unique trials of which we retained only 28 (1%). Two EPOC reviews yielded two trials of KT interventions: audit and feedback (n = 1) and educational outreach (n = 1). Both targeted health professionals and the KT intervention they assessed was found to be effective. Four Consumers and Communication reviews yielded 26 trials: decision aids (n = 15), communication of DNA-based disease risk estimates (n = 7), personalized risk communication (n = 3) and mobile phone messaging (n = 1). Among these, 25 trials targeted only health consumers or patients and the KT interventions were found to be effective in four trials, partly effective in seven, and ineffective in four. Lastly, only one trial targeted both physicians and patients and was found to be effective. More research on the effectiveness of KT interventions regarding genetic testing in the clinical context may contribute to patients making informed value-based decisions and drawing the maximum benefit from clinical applications of genetic and genomic innovations.

  20. Improving Decision Making about Genetic Testing in the Clinic: An Overview of Effective Knowledge Translation Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Légaré

    Full Text Available Knowledge translation (KT interventions are attempts to change behavior in keeping with scientific evidence. While genetic tests are increasingly available to healthcare consumers in the clinic, evidence about their benefits is unclear and decisions about genetic testing are thus difficult for all parties.We sought to identify KT interventions that involved decisions about genetic testing in the clinical context and to assess their effectiveness for improving decision making in terms of behavior change, increased knowledge and wellbeing.We searched for trials assessing KT interventions in the context of genetic testing up to March 2014 in all systematic reviews (n = 153 published by two Cochrane review groups: Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC and Consumers and Communication.We retrieved 2473 unique trials of which we retained only 28 (1%. Two EPOC reviews yielded two trials of KT interventions: audit and feedback (n = 1 and educational outreach (n = 1. Both targeted health professionals and the KT intervention they assessed was found to be effective. Four Consumers and Communication reviews yielded 26 trials: decision aids (n = 15, communication of DNA-based disease risk estimates (n = 7, personalized risk communication (n = 3 and mobile phone messaging (n = 1. Among these, 25 trials targeted only health consumers or patients and the KT interventions were found to be effective in four trials, partly effective in seven, and ineffective in four. Lastly, only one trial targeted both physicians and patients and was found to be effective.More research on the effectiveness of KT interventions regarding genetic testing in the clinical context may contribute to patients making informed value-based decisions and drawing the maximum benefit from clinical applications of genetic and genomic innovations.

  1. Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

    1998-01-01

    The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

  2. Consumers report lower confidence in their genetics knowledge following direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carere, Deanna Alexis; Kraft, Peter; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Roberts, J Scott; Green, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes to genetics knowledge and self-efficacy following personal genomic testing (PGT). New customers of 23andMe and Pathway Genomics completed a series of online surveys. We measured genetics knowledge (nine true/false items) and genetics self-efficacy (five Likert-scale items) before receipt of results and 6 months after results and used paired methods to evaluate change over time. Correlates of change (e.g., decision regret) were identified using linear regression. 998 PGT customers (59.9% female; 85.8% White; mean age 46.9 ± 15.5 years) were included in our analyses. Mean genetics knowledge score was 8.15 ± 0.95 (out of 9) at baseline and 8.25 ± 0.92 at 6 months (P = 0.0024). Mean self-efficacy score was 29.06 ± 5.59 (out of 35) at baseline and 27.7 ± 5.46 at 6 months (P reported lower self-efficacy following PGT. Change in self-efficacy was positively associated with health-care provider consultation (P = 0.0042), impact of PGT on perceived control over one's health (P consumers in response to receiving complex genetic information.Genet Med 18 1, 65-72.

  3. Increasing knowledge of best practices for occupational therapists treating post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect: results of a knowledge-translation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Salbach, Nancy M; Ahmed, Sara; Menon, Anita; Ogourtsova, Tatiana

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) the feasibility of delivering a multi-modal knowledge translation intervention specific to the management of acute post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect; and (ii) the impact of the knowledge translation intervention on occupational therapists' knowledge of evidence-based unilateral spatial neglect problem identification, assessment and treatment, and self-efficacy related to evidence-based practice implementation. A 3-period (pre-post) repeated measures design. Acute care occupational therapists treating patients with post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect were recruited from two major Canadian cities. Participants completed two pre-intervention assessments, took part in a day-long interactive multi-modal knowledge translation intervention and a subsequent 8-week follow-up, and completed a post-intervention assessment. Knowledge of evidence-based problem identification, assessment and treatment of unilateral spatial neglect, and self-efficacy to perform evidence-based practice activities were measured using standard scales. The intervention was tested on 20 occupational therapists. Results indicate a significant improvement in knowledge of best practice unilateral spatial neglect management (p knowledge translation intervention is feasible and can significantly improve occupational therapists' knowledge of unilateral spatial neglect best practices and self-efficacy. The findings should help advance best practices specific to the management of post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect as well as informing knowledge translation studies in other areas of practice.

  4. Factors associated with knowledge of diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes using the Diabetes Knowledge Test validated with Rasch analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva K Fenwick

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In patients with Type 2 diabetes, to determine the factors associated with diabetes knowledge, derived from Rasch analysis, and compare results with a traditional raw scoring method. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent a comprehensive clinical and biochemical assessment. Diabetes knowledge (main outcome was assessed using the Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT which was psychometrically validated using Rasch analysis. The relationship between diabetes knowledge and risk factors identified during univariate analyses was examined using multivariable linear regression. The results using raw and Rasch-transformed methods were descriptively compared. RESULTS: 181 patients (mean age±standard deviation = 66.97±9.17 years; 113 (62% male were included. Using Rasch-derived DKT scores, those with greater education (β = 1.14; CI: 0.25,2.04, p = 0.013; had seen an ophthalmologist (β = 1.65; CI: 0.63,2.66, p = 0.002, and spoke English at home (β = 1.37; CI: 0.43,2.31, p = 0.005 had significantly better diabetes knowledge than those with less education, had not seen an ophthalmologist and spoke a language other than English, respectively. Patients who were members of the National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS and had seen a diabetes educator also had better diabetes knowledge than their counterparts. Higher HbA1c level was independently associated with worse diabetes knowledge. Using raw measures, access to an ophthalmologist and NDSS membership were not independently associated with diabetes knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors were independently associated with diabetes knowledge based on both raw scores and Rasch-derived scores, which supports the implementation of targeted interventions to improve patients' knowledge. Choice of psychometric analytical method can affect study outcomes and should be considered during intervention

  5. Factors Associated with Knowledge of Diabetes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Diabetes Knowledge Test Validated with Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva K.; Xie, Jing; Rees, Gwyn; Finger, Robert P.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In patients with Type 2 diabetes, to determine the factors associated with diabetes knowledge, derived from Rasch analysis, and compare results with a traditional raw scoring method. Research Design & Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent a comprehensive clinical and biochemical assessment. Diabetes knowledge (main outcome) was assessed using the Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT) which was psychometrically validated using Rasch analysis. The relationship between diabetes knowledge and risk factors identified during univariate analyses was examined using multivariable linear regression. The results using raw and Rasch-transformed methods were descriptively compared. Results 181 patients (mean age±standard deviation = 66.97±9.17 years; 113 (62%) male) were included. Using Rasch-derived DKT scores, those with greater education (β = 1.14; CI: 0.25,2.04, p = 0.013); had seen an ophthalmologist (β = 1.65; CI: 0.63,2.66, p = 0.002), and spoke English at home (β = 1.37; CI: 0.43,2.31, p = 0.005) had significantly better diabetes knowledge than those with less education, had not seen an ophthalmologist and spoke a language other than English, respectively. Patients who were members of the National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS) and had seen a diabetes educator also had better diabetes knowledge than their counterparts. Higher HbA1c level was independently associated with worse diabetes knowledge. Using raw measures, access to an ophthalmologist and NDSS membership were not independently associated with diabetes knowledge. Conclusions Sociodemographic, clinical and service use factors were independently associated with diabetes knowledge based on both raw scores and Rasch-derived scores, which supports the implementation of targeted interventions to improve patients' knowledge. Choice of psychometric analytical method can affect study outcomes and should be considered during intervention development. PMID:24312484

  6. Physicians' knowledge about radiation dose and possible risks of common medical tests: a survey in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Farideh; Mianji, Fereidoun; Shakeri, Mahsa; Rajabpour, Mohammad Reza; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Recent data suggest that knowledge of radiation exposures among physicians is inadequate. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate their knowledge of the radiation doses their patients received and awareness of associated biological risks of radiation exposure. A questionnaire in multiple-choice format consisted of four sections with a total of 10 questions based on the literature review. A total of 136 questionnaires were returned from 69 general practitioners and 67 physicians in various specialties from 10 different hospitals in the capital city of Tehran, Iran. Fifty-four percent of general practitioners and twenty-five percent of specialties declared that they are not aware of biological risks of radiation exposure. Fifty-six percent of physicians did not know the correct definition of absorbed dose. Only 33% of physicians knew the dose exposure of a chest X-ray and only 31% knew the approximate doses of various procedures relative to a chest X-ray. Forty-seven percent of physicians incorrectly distinguished the stochastic effects of radiation from the deterministic effects, and thirty-eight of physicians did not know the organs of the body that are most sensitive to ionizing radiation. Only 23.5% of physicians were aware of the one in 2000 risk of induction of fatal carcinoma from computed tomography of the abdomen. Seventy-nine percent of physicians incorrectly underestimated the contribution of nuclear and radiological tests in exposure of an average person. The mean score of the specialties trended toward being more accurate than general practitioners (4.18 ± 1.28 vs. 3.89 ± 1.46, respectively, from a potential accurate total score of 9), but these differences were not statistically significant. Among specialists, orthopedics had the highest scores. The present study demonstrated the limited knowledge of radiation exposures among general practitioners and specialists and a need to improve their knowledge by means of targeted training and re

  7. Knowledge in schizophrenia: The Portuguese version of KAST (Knowledge About Schizophrenia Test) and analysis of social-demographic and clinical factors' influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltio, C S; Attux, C; Ferraz, M B

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, and the knowledge about it can have a positive impact. The purpose of this study was to make the translation and cultural adaptation of the Knowledge About Schizophrenia Test (KAST) into Portuguese and determine the influence of clinical and socio-demographic factors on knowledge. The test was applied to 189 caregivers of patients enrolled in Schizophrenia Program of the Federal University of São Paulo, 30 caregivers of clinical patients of the General Outpatient Clinic of the same University, and 30 health professionals. The face and content validity of the test was established. The mean value (SD) obtained with the application of the final version to caregivers of schizophrenic patients was 12.96 (2.45) - maximum 17. Level of knowledge increased considering the following order: caregivers of clinical patients, caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and mental health professionals. The intraclass correlation coefficient (0.592) obtained in the test-retest was statistically significant. An influence of social class, race, gender and education of the caregiver on the test was observed, and the last two factors were more relevant. The KAST translated and adapted into Portuguese is a valid instrument and can be used as an evaluation tool on psychoeducational interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of an office ergonomics training and chair intervention on worker knowledge, behavior and musculoskeletal risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michelle; Amick, Benjamin C; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Bazzani, Lianna; Harrist, Ron; Moore, Anne

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale field intervention study was undertaken to examine the effects of office ergonomics training coupled with a highly adjustable chair on office workers' knowledge and musculoskeletal risks. Office workers were assigned to one of three study groups: a group receiving the training and adjustable chair (n=96), a training-only group (n=63), and a control group (n=57). The office ergonomics training program was created using an instructional systems design model. A pre/post-training knowledge test was administered to all those who attended the training. Body postures and workstation set-ups were observed before and after the intervention. Perceived control over the physical work environment was higher for both intervention groups as compared to workers in the control group. A significant increase in overall ergonomic knowledge was observed for the intervention groups. Both intervention groups exhibited higher level behavioral translation and had lower musculoskeletal risk than the control group.

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Sudanese Women Regarding the Pap Smear Test and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, Ahmed O; Elbadawi, Ayman A; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Elhoweris, Mohammed H; Ahmed, Mohammed H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the established role of the Pap smear test (PST) in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan. Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. A total of 500 married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in 2014. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST. More than 52% of participating women were above 30 years of age, and the majority (78.8%) were university degree holders. A total of 486 (97.2 %) of participants were resident in urban areas of Khartoum State. However about 48% of the respondents had never heard about PST, and only 15.8% of the participants had undergone a Pap smear test previously; 46.6% (233/500) knew that the human papilloma virus (HPV) was the causative agent, but only 39.2% (196/500) had heard about HPV vaccination, and only 11.4% (57/500) had received the vaccine. However 68% of the respondents agreed to do Pap smear if properly informed about the test and 75.4% of the respondents agreed to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.

  10. Knowledge and attitude of women regarding breast cancer screening tests in Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izanloo, Azra; Ghaffarzadehgan, Kamran; Khoshroo, Fahimeh; Erfani Haghiri, Maryam; Izanloo, Sara; Samiee, Mohadeseh; Tabatabaei, Alireza; Mirshahi, Azadeh; Fakoor, Morteza; Moghadam, Najmeh Jafari; Sadrzadeh, Sayyed Majid

    2018-01-01

    According to recent statistics, there has been a rapid growth of breast cancer in developing countries. Thus, early detection is essential. This study is based on the perception of people in the Northeast of Iran regarding breast cancer screening. In a cross-sectional study, 1469 women were selected randomly in the period from April to November 2016. The study population consisted of women or their companions referring to outpatient clinics or people in public urban areas who filled out a breast cancer screening questionnaire in an interview. The patients' age was in the range of 14 to 84 years (mean = 38.8). More than 84% of interviewees were not informed of breast cancer and screening tests. The main reasons mentioned by patients for their failure to do screening tests was 'absence of any symptom or problem' and 'they did not think it was necessary'.There was not a significant difference between income level, marital status and knowledge of people about breast cancer screening tests (P > 0.05). However, employment, education level and family history had a positive effect on people's awareness of breast cancer and its screening tests (P economic classes was the main barrier to breast cancer screening. In this regard, organizing training programs by physicians and the media can help raise screening rates.

  11. Building the BIKE: Development and Testing of the Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Izci, Kemal; McClure, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    Identifying students' conceptual scientific understanding is difficult if the appropriate tools are not available for educators. Concept inventories have become a popular tool to assess student understanding; however, traditionally, they are multiple choice tests. International science education standard documents advocate that assessments should be reform based, contain diverse question types, and should align with instructional approaches. To date, no instrument of this type targeting student conceptions in biotechnology has been developed. We report here the development, testing, and validation of a 35-item Biotechnology Instrument for Knowledge Elicitation (BIKE) that includes a mix of question types. The BIKE was designed to elicit student thinking and a variety of conceptual understandings, as opposed to testing closed-ended responses. The design phase contained nine steps including a literature search for content, student interviews, a pilot test, as well as expert review. Data from 175 students over two semesters, including 16 student interviews and six expert reviewers (professors from six different institutions), were used to validate the instrument. Cronbach's alpha on the pre/posttest was 0.664 and 0.668, respectively, indicating the BIKE has internal consistency. Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability among the 6,525 total items was 0.684 indicating substantial agreement among scorers. Item analysis demonstrated that the items were challenging, there was discrimination among the individual items, and there was alignment with research-based design principles for construct validity. This study provides a reliable and valid conceptual understanding instrument in the understudied area of biotechnology.

  12. Physiotherapy treatment of the diabetic shoulder: a longitudinal study following patients with diabetes and shoulder pain using a pre-post treatment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyhlbäck, Maria; Schröder Winter, Helena; Thierfelder, Tomas; Söderlund, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate a physiotherapy program targeted to reduce pain intensity and improve the daily functioning of diabetics with shoulder problems. It was hypothesized that patients receiving specific physiotherapy treatment improved more frequently and rapidly than diabetic patients followed up without specific physiotherapeutic intervention. A pre-post treatment design was completed for a group of 10 subjects. The treatment protocol, also applied during the daily activities of the subjects, was aiming at reducing pain intensity and shoulder stiffness and improving impaired functioning in daily activities by muscle relaxation, light-load exercise and enhancing proper shoulder co-ordination. The group analysis showed significant decrease of pain intensity level as well as improved shoulder functioning and sustained level of subject self-efficacy beliefs throughout the study period. The results suggest that it is possible to relieve shoulder pain intensity and improve daily activities of patients with diabetes-related shoulder problems by employing a physiotherapy program focusing on muscle relaxation, light-load exercise and on the enhancement of proper shoulder co-ordination in daily activities. A physiotherapy program can be effective in reducing pain and improving shoulder function in diabetics with shoulder problems. The treatment should focus on muscle relaxation, light-load exercise and on the enhancement of proper shoulder co-ordination in daily activities.

  13. Accidents and Incidents Related to Intravenous Drug Administration: A Pre-Post Study Following Implementation of Smart Pumps in a Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Aurélie; Tourel, Julien; Delage, Emmanuelle; Duval, Stéphanie; David, Marie-Johanne; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    Smart pumps are expected to prevent and reduce medication errors. The implementation of smart pumps requires a significant effort and collaboration of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other stakeholders. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of new smart pumps on reported drug-related accidents and incidents (AIs). This is a descriptive retrospective pre-post study conducted at a women's and pediatric hospital with 500 beds. A strong multidisciplinary team (nurse, pharmacist, pharmacy resident, physician, biomedical technician, information technology technician, patient safety officer, manager) was involved in the planning, implementation, and monitoring technology implementation. A total of 1045 smart pumps were implemented in 2011 in our hospital. The reported number of AIs related to intravenous drug administration (AIIV) before and after the implementation of 1045 smart pumps were collected. A total of 2911 AI events related to medications, devices, and equipment were self-reported by clinical staff in the pre-phase (Y0), 3523 in the post-phase (Y1), and 2788 in the post-phase (Y2). The total AIIV increased from 1432 in Y0 to 1834 in Y1 and decreased to 1389 in Y2. We observed no risk reduction associated with the implementation of smart pumps in a 500 bed mother-child hospital. Further studies are required to explore the details of the potential risk reduction associated with the use of smart pumps.

  14. Effects of Unit Design on Acute Care Nurses' Walking Distances, Energy Expenditure, and Job Satisfaction: A Pre-Post Relocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Darcy; Chambers, Misty

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what differences occurred in steps taken and energy expenditure among acute care nurses when their work environment moved from a hospital with centralized nurses' stations to a hospital with decentralized nurses' stations. Additional goals were to determine design features nurses perceived as contributing to or deterring from their work activities and what changes occurred in reported job satisfaction. Since design features can also affect patient outcomes, patient falls were monitored. The construction of a replacement facility for a 224-bed Level 1 trauma center provided the opportunity to compare the effects of centralized versus decentralized nurses' stations on nurses' experiences of their work environments. A pre-post quasi-experimental design was used. RN participants completed an open-ended questionnaire and recorded pedometer data at the end of each shift, working for 3-month pre-relocation and for 3-month post-relocation. Nine months passed between the move and post-relocation data collection. There were significant reductions in nurses' energy expenditure ( p job satisfaction was high and improved post-relocation, and patient falls decreased by 55%. Post-relocation, a number of the dissatisfiers associated with the physical environment were eliminated, and nurses identified more satisfiers (in general and related to the physical environment). Patients are safer post-relocation as indicated by a decrease in falls. This decrease is even more noteworthy when considering that the numbers of patient beds on each unit is higher post-relocation.

  15. Evaluation of Quality Indicators of Integrated Care in a Regional Psychiatry Budget – A Pre-Post Comparison by Secondary Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Berghöfer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Psychiatry Budget (RPB, as a special arrangement within the German Federal Hospital Refund Regulation, is based on the capitation principle. A lump sum is allocated to a major inpatient care provider in a large region on a yearly basis. Under this model, the provider is free to offer all forms of treatment and to construct individual models of integrated care that specifically suit the region and the needs of community members. The present study aimed to evaluate selected aspects that represent a change in the psychiatric health status of patients in the covered region under the conditions of the RPB. We performed a secondary data analysis of administrative data of 19,913 cases generated by the hospital in a pre-post comparison of the periods before and under RPB conditions.  The average length of an inpatient stay was reduced by approximately 22 % and could be partially replaced by day care. Selected indicators suggest equal or higher quality of care with stable cost in the population in need of psychiatric care in the district.

  16. An observational pre-post study of re-structuring Medicine inpatient teaching service: Improved continuity of care within constraint of 2011 duty hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Mueller, Daniel; Blum, Marissa; Ravreby, Hannah; Williams, Paul; Moyer, Darilyn; Caroline, Malka; Zack, Chad; Fisher, Susan G; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-09-01

    Implementation of more stringent regulations on duty hours and supervision by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in July 2011 makes it challenging to design inpatient Medicine teaching service that complies with the duty hour restrictions while optimizing continuity of patient care. To prospectively compare two inpatient Medicine teaching service structures with respect to residents' impression of continuity of patient care (primary outcome), time available for teaching, resident satisfaction and length-of-stay (secondary endpoints). Observational pre-post study. Surveys were conducted both before and after Conventional Medicine teaching service was changed to a novel model (MegaTeam). Academic General Medicine inpatient teaching service. Surveys before and after MegaTeam implementation were completed by 68.5% and 72.2% of internal medicine residents, respectively. Comparing conventional with MegaTeam, the % of residents who agreed or strongly agreed that the (i) ability to care for majority of patients from admission to discharge increased from 29.7% to 86.6% (pcare, decreases number of handoffs, provides adequate supervision and teaching of interns and medical students, increases resident overall satisfaction and decreases length-of-stay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The (Spatial) Memory Game: Testing the Relationship Between Spatial Language, Object Knowledge, and Spatial Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudde, Harmen B; Griffiths, Debra; Coventry, Kenny R

    2018-02-19

    The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly. Key to the development of the method was the need to collect data on language use (e.g., spatial demonstratives: "this/that") and spatial memory data under strictly controlled conditions, while retaining a degree of ecological validity. The language version (section 3.1) of the memory game tests how conditions affect language use. Participants refer verbally to objects placed at different locations (e.g., using spatial demonstratives: "this/that red circle"). Different parameters can be experimentally manipulated: the distance from the participant, the position of a conspecific, and for example whether the participant owns, knows, or sees the object while referring to it. The same parameters can be manipulated in the memory version of the memory game (section 3.2). This version tests the effects of the different conditions on object-location memory. Following object placement, participants get 10 seconds to memorize the object's location. After the object and location cues are removed, participants verbally direct the experimenter to move a stick to indicate where the object was. The difference between the memorized and the actual location shows the direction and strength of the memory error, allowing comparisons between the influences of the respective parameters.

  18. A checklist approach to caring for women seeking pregnancy testing: effects on contraceptive knowledge and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica; Papic, Melissa; Baldauf, Erin; Updike, Glenn; Schwarz, E Bimla

    2015-02-01

    To assess how a checklist reminding clinicians to deliver a bundled intervention affects contraceptive knowledge and use 3 months after women seek walk-in pregnancy testing. Pre-intervention, an inner-city family planning clinic provided unstructured care; during the intervention period, clinic staff used a checklist to ensure women received needed services. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing who wished to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys about their contraceptive knowledge and use immediately after and 3-months after visiting the study clinic. To assess the significance of changes over time, we used logistic regression models. Between January 2011 and May 2013, over 1500 women sought pregnancy testing from the study clinic; 323 completed surveys (95 pre-intervention and 228 during the intervention period). With this checklist intervention, participants were more likely to receive emergency contraception (EC) (22% vs. 5%, [aOR 4.66 (1.76-12.35)], [corrected] have an intrauterine device or implant placed at the time of their clinic visit (5% vs. 0%, p=0.02), or receive a contraceptive prescription (23% vs. 10%, pcontraception and were more likely to report at 3-month follow-up a method of contraception more effective than the method they used prior to seeking pregnancy testing from the study clinic (aOR=2.02, 95% CI=1.03-3.96). The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused. [corrected]. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appear more likely to receive EC and to have switched to a more effective form of birth control in the 3 months following their visit when clinic staff used a 3-item checklist and provided scripted counseling. A checklist reminding clinic staff to assess pregnancy intentions, provide scripted counseling about both emergency and highly-effective reversible contraception, and offer same-day contraceptive initiation to women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appears to increase use of

  19. Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. Suggestions for leisure time activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter some examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet as well as suggestions for leisure time activities are presented. Used and recommended literature is included.

  20. The study features of test procedures of students' knowledge on the physical training lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobejnik V.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine the significance of the relationship and special professional skills necessary to detect and correct errors and evaluating students in physical education classes. The surveys were a group of qualified teachers (n = 31 with different pedagogical experience. Each teacher was asked to arrange the professional quality of the places from 1 to 10. It was found that all investigated have a certain quality and a high level of relationship, but they are manifested in different periods of teaching. It is shown that the process of organizing and carrying out checks of expertise includes logically related mental operations which are the basis of test procedures of students' knowledge on the physical training lessons. Found that the most weighty qualities were related to skills: a rating, comment exposed estimate visually identify the error and determine its significance.

  1. Effectiveness of planned teaching intervention on knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among first year midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Hiwot; Mengistu, Daniel; Bedaso, Asres

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of cancer is growing rapidly in all parts of the word and Ethiopia is no exception. Secondary prevention, as simple as monthly breast self-examination, is the best option to tackle the rising of this epidemic. Health awareness programs on screening and early detection are the corner stones to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from breast cancer. The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program on knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among first year female midwifery students in Hawassa health Sciences College. A pre-experimental one group pre-posttest design was used among 61 students who were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and adapted and approved checklist. Data was entered using Epi-Info and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Pre-and post-intervention results were calculated using paired t-test. The mean age of the study participants was 20.13(±2.27) and 77% of the study participants were single. Before the intervention 14(23%) of respondents had information and practiced breast self-examination, only 8(13.1%) performed breast self -examination on a regular monthly basis. The number and percentage of the knowledgeable respondents pre-post intervention is 23(37.7%) and 35(57.4%), respectively. The mean knowledge difference for the pre-post intervention is 0.18±0.695 (P knowledge and practical competency scores showed highly significant increment after the intervention, showing that the research hypothesis was accepted. Planned teaching intervention on knowledge and Breast self-examination of students has resulted in an increment of both knowledge and the practice of breast self-examination. Teaching breast self-examination with demonstration to all at risk groups as a secondary prevention for breast cancer and large scale studies on heterogeneous groups is important.

  2. Construction of a valid and reliable test to determine knowledge on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowledge-dietary behaviour relationship require use of valid and reliable knowledge .... Which of the following beverages has the lowest energy content per cup (250 ml)?b .... Diploma (ND): Consumer Science: Food and Nutrition together.

  3. ANALYZE THE KNOWLEDGE INQUIRY SCIENCE PHYSICS TEACHER CANDIDATES WITH ESSENCE INQUIRY SCIENCE TEST INSTRUMENT OPTIKA GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this research to explore the relationship between ability of the knowledge essential features inquiry science and their reasons underlying sense of scientific inquiry for physics teacher candidates on content geometrical optics. The essential features of inquiry science are components that should arise during the learning process subject matter of geometrical optics reflectance of light on a flat mirror, the reflection of light on curved mirrors and refraction of light at the lens. Five of essential features inquiry science adopted from assessment system developed by the National Research Council. Content geometrical optics developed from an analysis of a college syllabus material. Based on the study of the essential features of inquiry and content develop the multiple choice diagnostic test three tier. Data were taken from the students who are taking courses in optics and wave from one the LPTK in North Sumatra totaled 38 students. Instruments showed Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.67 to test the essential features of inquiry science and 0.61 to there as on geometrical optics science inquiry.

  4. Pre/post evaluation of a pilot prevention with positives training program for healthcare providers in North West Province, Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Christopher G; de Kadt, Julia; Pillay, Erushka; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Naidoo, Evasen; Grignon, Jessica; Weaver, Marcia R

    2017-05-02

    Prevention interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS are an important component of HIV programs. We report the results of a pilot evaluation of a four-hour, clinic-based training for healthcare providers in South Africa on HIV prevention assessments and messages. This pre/post pilot evaluation examined whether the training was associated with providers delivering more prevention messages. Seventy providers were trained at four public primary care clinics with a high volume of HIV patients. Pre- and post-training patient exit surveys were conducted using Audio-Computer Assisted Structured Interviews. Seven provider appropriate messaging outcomes and one summary provider outcome were compared pre- and post-training using Poisson regression. Four hundred fifty-nine patients pre-training and 405 post-training with known HIV status were interviewed, including 175 and 176 HIV positive patients respectively. Among HIV positive patients, delivery of all appropriate messages by providers declined post-training. The summary outcome decreased from 56 to 50%; adjusted rate ratio 0.92 (95% CI = 0.87-0.97). Sensitivity analyses adjusting for training coverage and time since training detected fewer declines. Among HIV negative patients the summary score was stable at 32% pre- and post-training; adjusted rate ratio 1.05 (95% CI = 0.98-1.12). Surprisingly, this training was associated with a decrease in prevention messages delivered to HIV positive patients by providers. Limited training coverage and delays between training and post-training survey may partially account for this apparent decrease. A more targeted approach to prevention messages may be more effective.

  5. Using films as a psychoeducation tool for patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study using a quasi-experimental pre-post design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maffei, Christian; Görges, Frauke; Kissling, Werner; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2015-04-30

    Relapses and, subsequently, readmissions are common in patients with schizophrenia. Psychoeducation has been shown to reduce the number and duration of readmissions. Yet, only little more than 20% of psychiatric patients in German speaking countries receive psychoeducation. Among other reasons, costs may be considered too high by hospitals. The objective of the present study was to test the feasibility of a new cost-efficient approach in the psychoeducation of patients with schizophrenia. In this study, films were used to impart knowledge about the illness to inpatients. A total of 113 participants were initially included in the study, eleven of which were not included in the final analyses. Six films about the symptoms, diagnosis, causes, warning signs, treatment of schizophrenia and about the influence of family members and friends were shown in a group setting in the presence of nursing staff. All films combined facts, expert opinions, and personal experiences of peers. As the main outcome criterion of this feasibility pilot study, we measured the effects on knowledge. Secondary outcome measures included compliance, insight into illness, side effects, and quality of life. Data were collected directly after the intervention and about half a year afterwards. The number and the duration of readmissions to the hospital were recorded and compared to the number and duration of prior admissions. Patients were also asked to state their subjective opinion about the films. Main data analyses were done using paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Secondary analyses also involved ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. One hundred and two inpatients were included in the data analyses. Showing the films in the tested setting was shown to be feasible. Knowledge about schizophrenia (p < .001), compliance (ps < .01), insight into illness (p < .01), and quality of life (p < .001) all increased significantly after patients had watched the films and remained stable for at

  6. Measuring primary school teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in technology education with a multiple choice test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohaan, E.J.; Taconis, R.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Fatih Tasar, M.; Cakankci, G.; Akgul, E.

    2009-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a crucial part of a teacher’s knowledge base for teaching. Studies in the field of technology education for primary schools showed that this domain of teacher knowledge is related to pupils’ increased learning, motivation, and interest. The common methods to

  7. Knowledge and Opinion on the Nuclear Freeze: A Test of Three Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankard, James W., Jr.

    To explore how knowledge influences opinion in foreign policy, results of a survey on voter familiarity with and attitude toward nuclear policy issues were compared with three theoretical models of the knowledge/opinion relationship: (1) the enlightenment model--as knowledge increases, support for belligerent foreign policy stands decreases; (2)…

  8. Knowledge and social engagement change in intention to be screened for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Briant, Katherine J; Sanchez, Janeth I; O'Connell, Mary A; Thompson, Beti

    2018-07-01

    Innovative technologies have been used to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among the underserved. However, the impact of these innovative technologies on knowledge and social engagement likelihood as they relate to subsequent intention to be screened across different populations has not been fully explored. Using a pre-post-test design with an inflatable walk-through colon, we assessed changes in knowledge and social engagement likelihood across populations and their associations with intention to be screened in two community settings. One was a community setting in Washington State (WA); the other, a college campus in New Mexico (NM). Differential effects on knowledge and social engagement likelihood were examined across demographic groups (race/ethnicity, gender, age, education, insurance status, and geographic region). Finally, we assessed if changes in knowledge and social engagement likelihood were associated with CRC screening intention. NM males had greater gains in CRC knowledge than NM females; in WA, Hispanics, younger, less educated, and uninsured participants had greater gains in knowledge. NM females and younger WA participants were more likely to discuss CRC with their social networks than NM males and older WA participants. In WA, Hispanics and older adults reported greater intention to be screened for CRC. Change in social engagement likelihood, but not knowledge, was associated with intention to be screened. The effectiveness of health promotion technologies on knowledge and social engagement may vary across different demographic characteristics. Further, the importance of social engagement likelihood in interacting with intention to be screened was substantiated.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-06-14

    to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. verificar a associação entre o conhecimento, atitude e prática de mulheres em relação ao exame colpocitológico e a faixa etária. trata-se de pesquisa de corte transversal associada ao inquérito conhecimento, atitude e prática, em uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde. A amostra foi composta por 775 mulheres, distribuídas em três faixas etárias: adolescentes, jovens e idosas. embora o conhecimento inadequado tenha tido altas taxas em todas as faixas etárias, foi significativamente superior entre as adolescentes (p=0,000). Tendência semelhante no componente atitude por apresentar percentuais de inadequabilidade na adolescência e decair com o avançar da idade (p=0,000). Todavia, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos quanto à prática (p=0,852). o estudo demonstrou relação entre a faixa etária e o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico. verificar la asociación entre el conocimiento, la actitud y práctica de mujeres con relación a la prueba colpocitológica y el rango de edad. se trata de investigación trasversal asociada a la encuesta conocimiento, actitud y pr

  10. Breaking Health Insurance Knowledge Barriers Through Games: Pilot Test of Health Care America

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Juli

    2017-01-01

    Background Having health insurance is associated with a number of beneficial health outcomes. However, previous research suggests that patients tend to avoid health insurance information and often misunderstand or lack knowledge about many health insurance terms. Health insurance knowledge is particularly low among young adults. Objective The purpose of this study was to design and test an interactive newsgame (newsgames are games that apply journalistic principles in their creation, for example, gathering stories to immerse the player in narratives) about health insurance. This game included entry-level information through scenarios and was designed through the collation of national news stories, local personal accounts, and health insurance company information. Methods A total of 72 (N=72) participants completed in-person, individual gaming sessions. Participants completed a survey before and after game play. Results Participants indicated a greater self-reported understanding of how to use health insurance from pre- (mean=3.38, SD=0.98) to postgame play (mean=3.76, SD=0.76); t71=−3.56, P=.001. For all health insurance terms, participants self-reported a greater understanding following game play. Finally, participants provided a greater number of correct definitions for terms after playing the game, (mean=3.91, SD=2.15) than they did before game play (mean=2.59, SD=1.68); t31=−3.61, P=.001. Significant differences from pre- to postgame play differed by health insurance term. Conclusions A game is a practical solution to a difficult health issue—the game can be played anywhere, including on a mobile device, is interactive and will thus engage an apathetic audience, and is cost-efficient in its execution. PMID:29146564

  11. Board Level Proton Testing Book of Knowledge for NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This book of knowledge (BoK) provides a critical review of the benefits and difficulties associated with using proton irradiation as a means of exploring the radiation hardness of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) systems. This work was developed for the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Board Level Testing for the COTS task. The fundamental findings of this BoK are the following. The board-level test method can reduce the worst case estimate for a board's single-event effect (SEE) sensitivity compared to the case of no test data, but only by a factor of ten. The estimated worst case rate of failure for untested boards is about 0.1 SEE/board-day. By employing the use of protons with energies near or above 200 MeV, this rate can be safely reduced to 0.01 SEE/board-day, with only those SEEs with deep charge collection mechanisms rising this high. For general SEEs, such as static random-access memory (SRAM) upsets, single-event transients (SETs), single-event gate ruptures (SEGRs), and similar cases where the relevant charge collection depth is less than 10 µm, the worst case rate for SEE is below 0.001 SEE/board-day. Note that these bounds assume that no SEEs are observed during testing. When SEEs are observed during testing, the board-level test method can establish a reliable event rate in some orbits, though all established rates will be at or above 0.001 SEE/board-day. The board-level test approach we explore has picked up support as a radiation hardness assurance technique over the last twenty years. The approach originally was used to provide a very limited verification of the suitability of low cost assemblies to be used in the very benign environment of the International Space Station (ISS), in limited reliability applications. Recently the method has been gaining popularity as a way to establish a minimum level of SEE performance of systems that require somewhat higher reliability performance than previous applications. This sort of application of

  12. Environmental Knowledge and Behavioural Outcomes of Tourism Students in Australia: Towards Testing a Range of Mediation and Moderated Mediation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Johra Kayeser; Khan, Habib Zaman; Goh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the environmental knowledge (EK) and behavioural outcomes of students studying ecotourism in Sydney, Australia. Three competing models were tested to examine the relationships between EK, participation intention (PI) in ecotourism programs, landscape likeability (LL) and social interactions (SI); and the study also tested the…

  13. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  14. A Pre-Post Evaluation of OpenMinds: a Sustainable, Peer-Led Mental Health Literacy Programme in Universities and Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Annis, Jennifer; Sharpe, Helen; Newman, Robbie; Main, Dominic; Ragunathan, Thivvia; Parkes, Mary; Clarke, Kelly

    2017-11-01

    Engaging young people in the design and delivery of mental health education could lead to more effective interventions; however, few of these interventions have been evaluated. This study aimed to gain preliminary evidence with regards to the efficacy and acceptability of OpenMinds: a peer-designed and facilitated mental health literacy programme for university and secondary school students. The programme involves a structured programme of education and training for university medical students, who then deliver workshops in secondary schools. Pre- and post-surveys were completed by 234 school students who received two workshops and 40 university medical students who completed the OpenMinds programme and delivered the workshops. The main outcomes in both groups were components of mental health literacy (non-stigmatising attitudes, knowledge, social distance and helping attitudes). Perceived teaching efficacy and interest in mental health careers (university medical students) and workshop acceptability (school students) were also examined. University and school student participation in OpenMinds was associated with significant improvements in three of four mental health literacy elements in both samples. Knowledge and attitudes improved in both samples, social distance improved only in the university sample and knowledge of helping behaviours increased in the school sample. University students' perceived teaching efficacy improved but there was no change in their reported interest in pursuing psychiatry in their career. Acceptability was high; over 70% of the school students agreed that they enjoyed the workshops and liked being taught by a university student. This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability and efficacy of OpenMinds as a sustainable peer-led model of mental health education for young people. The OpenMinds programme is ready for efficacy testing in a randomised trial.

  15. Palliative Care: Improving Nursing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Karen; Price, Deborah; Duffy, Elizabeth; Galunas, Laura; Rodgers, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    Oncology nurses affect patient care at every point along the cancer journey. This creates the perfect opportunity to educate patients and caregivers about palliative care early and often throughout treatment. However, healthcare providers frequently do not have the knowledge and confidence to engage in meaningful conversations about palliative care.
. The specific aims were to improve oncology nurses' palliative care knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors by providing a palliative care nursing education program. An additional aim was to increase the number of conversations with patients and families about palliative care.
. This project had a pre-/post-test design to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at baseline and one month after implementation of an established education curriculum. The teaching strategy included one four-hour class for oncology RNs with topics about the definition of palliative care, pain and symptom management, and how to have palliative care conversations.
. Results showed a statistically significant difference after the educational intervention for knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The number of conversations with patients and caregivers about palliative and end-of-life care increased significantly.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and intended behaviours towards HIV testing and self-protection: a survey of Omani pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabri, A A; Youssef, R M; Hasson, S S; Balkhair, A A; Al-Belushi, M; Al-Saadoon, M; Mathew, M; Al-Mahroqi, S; Said, E; Koh, C Y; Idris, M A

    2014-10-20

    Routine HIV testing of all pregnant women in Oman has been introduced without prior knowledge of women's attitudes towards testing or their behaviour in the event of a positive test. This study recruited 1000 Omani pregnant women from antenatal clinics to explore their knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards HIV testing and intended behaviours in the event of a positive test. Mother-to-child transmission was recognized by 86.6% of the women but only 21.0% knew that it was preventable and a few acknowledged the important role of antiviral drugs. Half of the women (51.9%) reported having been tested for HIV and 75.8% agreed about routine HIV testing for all pregnant women. A higher level of knowledge was significantly associated with a favourable intended behaviour related to voluntary testing, disclosure and seeking professional assistance in the event of a positive HIV test. The results are discussed in relation to opt-in and opt-out approaches to voluntary testing during pregnancy.

  17. Safety and efficacy of at-home robotic locomotion therapy in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: a prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Rupp

    Full Text Available The compact Motorized orthosis for home rehabilitation of Gait (MoreGait was developed for continuation of locomotion training at home. MoreGait generates afferent stimuli of walking with the user in a semi-supine position and provides feedback about deviations from the reference walking pattern.Prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of an unsupervised home-based application of five MoreGait prototypes in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI.Twenty-five (5 tetraplegia, 20 paraplegia participants with chronic (mean time since injury: 5.8 ± 5.4 (standard deviation, SD years sensorimotor iSCI (7 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS C, 18 AIS D; Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II: Interquartile range 9 to 16 completed the training (45 minutes / day, at least 4 days / week, 8 weeks. Baseline status was documented 4 and 2 weeks before and at training onset. Training effects were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy.After therapy, 9 of 25 study participants improved with respect to the dependency on walking aids assessed by the WISCI II. For all individuals, the short-distance walking velocity measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test showed significant improvements compared to baseline (100% for both self-selected (Mean 139.4% ± 35.5% (SD and maximum (Mean 143.1% ± 40.6% (SD speed conditions as well as the endurance estimated with the six-minute walk test (Mean 166.6% ± 72.1% (SD. One device-related adverse event (pressure sore on the big toe occurred in over 800 training sessions.Home-based robotic locomotion training with MoreGait is feasible and safe. The magnitude of functional improvements achieved by MoreGait in individuals with iSCI is well within the range of complex locomotion robots used in hospitals. Thus, unsupervised MoreGait training potentially represents an option to prolong effective training aiming at recovery of locomotor function beyond in-patient rehabilitation

  18. Has India's national rural health mission reduced inequities in maternal health services? A pre-post repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Gupta, Adyya; Khan, Zaky; Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Ebrahim, Shah; Bowling, Ann; Doyle, Pat

    2017-02-01

    In 2005, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to strengthen the primary healthcare system. NRHM also aims to encourage pregnant women, particularly of low socioeconomic backgrounds, to use institutional maternal healthcare. We evaluated the impacts of NRHM on socioeconomic inequities in the uptake of institutional delivery and antenatal care (ANC) across high-focus (deprived) Indian states. Data from District Level Household and Facility Surveys (DLHS) Rounds 1 (1995-99) and 2 (2000-04) from the pre-NRHM period, and Round 3 (2007-08), Round 4 and Annual Health Survey (2011-12) from post-NRHM period were used. Wealth-related and education-related relative indexes of inequality, and pre-post difference-in-differences models for wealth and education tertiles, adjusted for maternal age, rural-urban, caste, parity and state-level fixed effects, were estimated. Inequities in institutional delivery declined between pre-NRHM Period 1 (1995-99) and pre-NRHM Period 2 (2000-04), but thereafter demonstrated steeper decline in post-NRHM periods. Uptake of institutional delivery increased among all socioeconomic groups, with (1) greater effects among the lowest and middle wealth and education tertiles than highest tertile, and (2) larger equity impacts in the late post-NRHM period 2011-12 than in the early post-NRHM period 2007-08. No positive impact on the uptake of ANC was found in the early post-NRHM period 2007-08; however, there was considerable increase in the uptake of, and decline in inequity, in uptake of ANC in most states in the late post-NRHM period 2011-12. In high-focus states, NRHM resulted in increased uptake of maternal healthcare, and decline in its socioeconomic inequity. Our study suggests that public health programs in developing country settings will have larger equity impacts after its almost full implementation and widest outreach. Targeting deprived populations and designing public health programs by linking maternal and child

  19. High Dephosphorylated-Uncarboxylated MGP in Hemodialysis patients: risk factors and response to vitamin K2, A pre-post intervention clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Mabel; Makki, Maha; Azar, Hiba; Matta, Hiam; Chelala, Dania Nehme

    2017-06-07

    Vascular calcifications are highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients. Dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) was found to increase in vitamin K-deficient patients and may be associated with vascular calcifications. Supplementation of hemodialysis patients with vitamin K 2 (menaquinone-7) has been studied in Europe with a maximum 61% drop of dp-ucMGP levels. The aim of this study is to assess first the drop of dp-ucMGP in an Eastern Mediterranean cohort after vitamin K 2 treatment and second the correlation between baseline dp-ucMGP and vascular calcification score. This is a prospective, pre-post intervention clinical trial involving 50 hemodialysis patients who received daily 360 μg of menaquinone-7 for 4 weeks. At baseline they were assessed for plasma dp-ucMGP levels and vascular calcification scores (AC-24) as well as for other demographic, clinical and biological variables. Dp-ucMGP levels were measured a second time at 4 weeks. At baseline, dp-ucMGP levels were extremely elevated with a median of 3179.15 (1825.25; 4339.50) pM and correlated significantly with AC-24 (Spearman's rho = 0.43, P = 0.002). Using a bivariate regression analysis, the association between dp-ucMGP levels and AC-24 was most significant when comparing dp-ucMGP levels less than 1000 to those more than 1000 pM (P = 0.02). Dp-ucMGP levels higher than 5000 pM were significantly associated with females, patients with recent fracture and patients with lower serum albumin (respectively P = 0.02, 0.004 and 0.046). The average drop of dp-ucMGP at 4 weeks of treatment was found to be 86% with diabetics having the lowest drop rate (P = 0.01). Vitamin K deficiency, as assessed by high dp-ucMGP levels, is profound in hemodialysis patients from the Eastern Mediterranean region and it is significantly correlated with vascular calcifications. Daily 360 μg of menaquinone-7, given for 4 weeks, effectively reduces dp-ucMGP in this population. Future studies are needed to assess

  20. Increasing use of mental health services in remote areas using mobile technology: a pre-post evaluation of the SMART Mental Health project in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Pallab K; Kallakuri, Sudha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Vadlamani, Vamsi Krishna; Jha, Vivekanand; Patel, Anushka

    2017-06-01

    About 25% of the Indian population experience common mental disorders (CMD) but only 15-25% of them receive any mental health care. Stigma, lack of adequate mental health professionals and mental health services account for this treatment gap, which is worse in rural areas. Our project evaluated task shifting and mobile-technology based electronic decision support systems to enhance the ability of primary care health workers to provide evidence-based mental health care for stress, depression, and suicidal risk in 30 remote villages in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The Systematic Medical Appraisal Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project between May 2014 and April 2016 trained lay village health workers (Accredited Social Health Activists - ASHAs) and primary care doctors to screen, diagnose and manage individuals with common mental disorders using an electronic decision support system. An anti-stigma campaign using multi-media approaches was conducted across the villages at the outset of the project. A pre-post evaluation using mixed methods assessed the change in mental health service utilization by screen positive individuals. This paper reports on the quantitative aspects of that evaluation. Training was imparted to 21 ASHAs and 2 primary care doctors. 5007 of 5167 eligible individuals were screened, and 238 were identified as being positive for common mental disorders and referred to the primary care doctors for further management. Out of them, 2 (0.8%) had previously utilized mental health services. During the intervention period, 30 (12.6%) visited the primary care doctor for further diagnosis and treatment, as advised. There was a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores between start and end of the intervention among those who had screened positive at the beginning. Stigma and mental health awareness in the broader community improved during the project. The intervention led to individuals being screened for common mental

  1. Knowledge of HIV Testing Guidelines Among US Internal Medicine Residents: A Decade After the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Routine HIV Testing Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandachi, Dima; Dang, Bich N; Wilson Dib, Rita; Friedman, Harvey; Giordano, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Ten years after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended universal HIV screening, rates remain low. Internal medicine residents are the front-line medical providers for large groups of patients. We evaluated the knowledge of internal medicine residents about HIV testing guidelines and examined adherence to universal HIV testing in an outpatient setting. A cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents at four residency programs in Chicago was conducted from January to March 2016. Aggregate data on HIV screening were collected from 35 federally qualified community health centers in the Chicago area after inclusion of an HIV testing best practice alert in patients' electronic medical records. Of the 192 residents surveyed, 130 (68%) completed the survey. Only 58% were aware of universal HIV screening and 49% were aware that Illinois law allows for an opt-out HIV testing strategy. Most of the residents (64%) ordered no more than 10 HIV tests in 6 months. The most frequently reported barriers to HIV testing were deferral because of urgent care issues, lack of time, and the perception that patients were uncomfortable discussing HIV testing. From July 2015 to February 2016, the average HIV testing adherence rate in the 35 health centers was 18.2%. More effort is needed to change HIV testing practices among internal medicine residents so that they will adopt this approach in their future clinical practice. Improving knowledge about HIV testing and addressing other HIV testing barriers are essential for such a successful change.

  2. Development and testing of a CD-ROM program for improving adolescent knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Lynelle M; Bohren, Janet R; Pentiuk, Scott; Baker, Raymond; Yi, Michael; Moyer, M Susan

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to design a theory-based educational program for adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using an interactive multimedia CD-ROM and to test its effectiveness in improving knowledge in IBD. Curriculum-based instruction using educational theory and principles was designed for adolescents on an interactive multimedia CD-ROM. Twenty subjects completed summative evaluation of the CD-ROM measuring gain in knowledge about IBD immediately and 9 months after instruction. Subjects found the CD-ROM to be informative, appealing, and easy to use. The mean baseline score of the adolescents on the Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge questionnaire was 12.2 (standard deviation 5.14, range 3-24). After an average of 30 minutes of self-directed learning, adolescent subjects increased their posttest score to a mean of 19.8, a gain of 7.6 points over baseline (95% confidence interval 5.2-10.1, P < 0.0001). Knowledge of medications, disease complications, and gastrointestinal structure and function was gained and retained upon retesting at 9 months with a mean Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge questionnaire score of 17.5 (standard deviation 3.9, range 12-26), which was still an improvement over the mean pretest knowledge score of 12.2 (P < 0.001). Adolescents with IBD have low baseline knowledge about their disease. A rigorously developed interactive educational tool is now available for instructing adolescent patients about their IBD.

  3. Awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic testing for cancer risk among ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Katie E J; Freeman, Madeleine; Fraser, Lindsay; Waller, Jo; Sanderson, Saskia C; Rahman, Belinda; Side, Lucy; Gessler, Sue; Lanceley, Anne

    2017-05-25

    Genetic testing for risk of hereditary cancer can help patients to make important decisions about prevention or early detection. US and UK studies show that people from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive genetic testing. It is important to understand various groups' awareness of genetic testing and its acceptability to avoid further disparities in health care. This review aims to identify and detail awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic counselling/testing for cancer risk prediction in ethnic minority groups. A search was carried out in PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase and MEDLINE. Search terms referred to ethnicity, genetic testing/counselling, cancer, awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions. Quantitative and qualitative studies, written in English, and published between 2000 and 2015, were included. Forty-one studies were selected for review: 39 from the US, and two from Australia. Results revealed low awareness and knowledge of genetic counselling/testing for cancer susceptibility amongst ethnic minority groups including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics. Attitudes towards genetic testing were generally positive; perceived benefits included positive implications for personal health and being able to inform family. However, negative attitudes were also evident, particularly the anticipated emotional impact of test results, and concerns about confidentiality, stigma, and discrimination. Chinese Australian groups were less studied, but of interest was a finding from qualitative research indicating that different views of who close family members are could impact on reported family history of cancer, which could in turn impact a risk assessment. Interventions are needed to increase awareness and knowledge of genetic testing for cancer risk and to reduce the perceived stigma and taboo surrounding the topic of cancer in ethnic minority groups. More detailed research is needed in countries other than the US and

  4. Parental monitoring and knowledge: Testing bidirectional associations with youths’ antisocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Nottingham, Kate; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Matthews, Timothy; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we used separate measures of parental monitoring and parental knowledge and compared their associations with youths’ antisocial behavior during preadolescence, between the ages of 10 and 12. Parental monitoring and knowledge were reported by mothers, fathers and youths taking part in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study which follows 1,116 families with twins. Information on youths’ antisocial behavior was obtained from mothers, as well as teachers. We report two main findings: First, longitudinal cross-lagged models revealed that greater parental monitoring did not predict less antisocial behavior later, once family characteristics were taken into account. Second, greater youth antisocial behavior predicted less parental knowledge later. This effect of youths’ behavior on parents’ knowledge was consistent across mothers’, fathers’, youths’, and teachers’ reports, and robust to controls for family confounders. The association was partially genetically-mediated according to a Cholesky decomposition twin model; youths’ genetically-influenced antisocial behavior led to a decrease in parents’ knowledge of youths’ activities. These two findings question the assumption that greater parental monitoring can reduce preadolescents’ antisocial behavior. They also indicate that parents’ knowledge of their children’s activities is influenced by youths’ behavior. PMID:27427796

  5. Parental monitoring and knowledge: Testing bidirectional associations with youths' antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Nottingham, Kate; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Matthews, Timothy; Pariante, Carmine M; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we used separate measures of parental monitoring and parental knowledge and compared their associations with youths' antisocial behavior during preadolescence, between the ages of 10 and 12. Parental monitoring and knowledge were reported by mothers, fathers, and youths taking part in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study that follows 1,116 families with twins. Information on youths' antisocial behavior was obtained from mothers as well as teachers. We report two main findings. First, longitudinal cross-lagged models revealed that greater parental monitoring did not predict less antisocial behavior later, once family characteristics were taken into account. Second, greater youth antisocial behavior predicted less parental knowledge later. This effect of youths' behavior on parents' knowledge was consistent across mothers', fathers', youths', and teachers' reports, and robust to controls for family confounders. The association was partially genetically mediated according to a Cholesky decomposition twin model; youths' genetically influenced antisocial behavior led to a decrease in parents' knowledge of youths' activities. These two findings question the assumption that greater parental monitoring can reduce preadolescents' antisocial behavior. They also indicate that parents' knowledge of their children's activities is influenced by youths' behavior.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding genetic testing for smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Marieke; Smerecnik, Chris; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Vries, Hein; van Schayck, Constant P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research strongly suggests that genetic variation influences smokers' ability to stop. Therefore, the use of (pharmaco) genetic testing may increase cessation rates. This study aims to assess the intention of smokers concerning undergoing genetic testing for smoking cessation and their knowledge, attitudes and preferences about this subject. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Database internet research company of which every inhabitant of the Netherlands of ≥12 years with an email address and capable of understanding Dutch can become a member. Participants 587 of 711 Dutch smokers aged ≥18 years, daily smokers for ≥5 years and smoke on average ≥10 cigarettes/day (response rate=83%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Smokers' knowledge, attitudes and preferences and their intention to undergo genetic testing for smoking cessation. Results Knowledge on the influence of genetic factors in smoking addiction and cessation was found to be low. Smokers underestimated their chances of having a genetic predisposition and the influence of this on smoking cessation. Participants perceived few disadvantages, some advantages and showed moderate self-efficacy towards undergoing a genetic test and dealing with the results. Smokers were mildly interested in receiving information and participating in genetic testing, especially when offered by their general practitioner (GP). Conclusions For successful implementation of genetic testing for smoking in general practice, several issues should be addressed, such as the knowledge on smoking cessation, genetics and genetic testing (including advantages and disadvantages) and the influence of genetics on smoking addiction and cessation. Furthermore, smokers allocate their GPs a crucial role in the provision of information and the delivery of a genetic test for smoking; however, it is unclear whether GPs will be able and willing to take on this role.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding genetic testing for smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerecnik, Chris; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Vries, Hein; van Schayck, Constant P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research strongly suggests that genetic variation influences smokers' ability to stop. Therefore, the use of (pharmaco) genetic testing may increase cessation rates. This study aims to assess the intention of smokers concerning undergoing genetic testing for smoking cessation and their knowledge, attitudes and preferences about this subject. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Database internet research company of which every inhabitant of the Netherlands of ≥12 years with an email address and capable of understanding Dutch can become a member. Participants 587 of 711 Dutch smokers aged ≥18 years, daily smokers for ≥5 years and smoke on average ≥10 cigarettes/day (response rate=83%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Smokers' knowledge, attitudes and preferences and their intention to undergo genetic testing for smoking cessation. Results Knowledge on the influence of genetic factors in smoking addiction and cessation was found to be low. Smokers underestimated their chances of having a genetic predisposition and the influence of this on smoking cessation. Participants perceived few disadvantages, some advantages and showed moderate self-efficacy towards undergoing a genetic test and dealing with the results. Smokers were mildly interested in receiving information and participating in genetic testing, especially when offered by their general practitioner (GP). Conclusions For successful implementation of genetic testing for smoking in general practice, several issues should be addressed, such as the knowledge on smoking cessation, genetics and genetic testing (including advantages and disadvantages) and the influence of genetics on smoking addiction and cessation. Furthermore, smokers allocate their GPs a crucial role in the provision of information and the delivery of a genetic test for smoking; however, it is unclear whether GPs will be able and willing to take on this role. PMID:22223839

  8. Easy and Informative: Using Confidence-Weighted True-False Items for Knowledge Tests in Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutke, Stephan; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a specific type of item for knowledge tests, confidence-weighted true-false (CTF) items, and review experiences of its application in psychology courses. A CTF item is a statement about the learning content to which students respond whether the statement is true or false, and they rate their confidence level. Previous studies using…

  9. Non-genetic health professionals' attitude towards, knowledge of and skills in discussing and ordering genetic testing for hereditary cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Kirsten F. L.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Allain, Dawn C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-genetic health professionals (NGHPs) have insufficient knowledge of cancer genetics, express educational needs and are unprepared to counsel their patients regarding their genetic test results. So far, it is unclear how NGHPs perceive their own communication skills. This study was undertaken to

  10. Development and Construct Validation of a Situational Judgment Test of Strategic Knowledge of Classroom Management in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Bernadette; Holodynski, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The current study describes the development and construct validation of a situational judgment test for assessing the strategic knowledge of classroom management in elementary schools. Classroom scenarios and accompanying courses of action were constructed, of which 17 experts confirmed the content validity. A pilot study and a cross-validation…

  11. Young Adults' Knowledge and Understanding of Personal Finance in Germany: Interviews with Experts and Test-Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Rüspeler, Ann-Katrin; Rothweiler, Jasmin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the financial education of young adults has gained importance in Germany; however, very few valid test instruments to assess the knowledge and understanding of personal finance are suitable for use in Germany. In this article, we describe results of a survey in which experts in Germany in areas related to personal finance judged…

  12. Health Orientation, Knowledge, and Attitudes toward Genetic Testing and Personalized Genomic Services: Preliminary Data from an Italian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Oliveri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study aims at assessing personality tendencies and orientations that could be closely correlated with knowledge, awareness, and interest toward undergoing genetic testing. Methods. A sample of 145 subjects in Italy completed an online survey, investigating demographic data, health orientation, level of perceived knowledge about genetic risk, genetic screening, and personal attitudes toward direct to consumer genetic testing (DTCGT. Results. Results showed that respondents considered genetic assessment to be helpful for disease prevention, but they were concerned that results could affect their life planning with little clinical utility. Furthermore, a very high percentage of respondents (67% had never heard about genetic testing directly available to the public. Data showed that personality tendencies, such as personal health consciousness, health internal control, health esteem, and confidence, motivation to avoid unhealthiness and motivation for healthiness affected the uptake of genetic information and the interest in undergoing genetic testing. Conclusions. Public knowledge and attitudes toward genetic risk and genetic testing among European countries, along with individual personality and psychological tendencies that could affect these attitudes, remain unexplored. The present study constitutes one of the first attempts to investigate how such personality tendencies could motivation to undergo genetic testing and engagement in lifestyle changes.

  13. Developing Conceptual Understanding of Natural Selection: The Role of Interest, Efficacy, and Basic Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Pugh, Kevin J.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in high school students' (n = 94) conceptions of natural selection were examined as a function of motivational beliefs (individual interest, academic self-efficacy), basic prior knowledge, and gender across three assessments (pre, post, follow-up). Results from variable-centered analyses suggested that these variables had relatively little…

  14. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  15. Emergency Contraception Education for Health and Human Service Professionals: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…

  16. Non-genetic health professionals' attitude towards, knowledge of and skills in discussing and ordering genetic testing for hereditary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Kirsten F L; Smets, Ellen M A; Allain, Dawn C

    2016-04-01

    Non-genetic health professionals (NGHPs) have insufficient knowledge of cancer genetics, express educational needs and are unprepared to counsel their patients regarding their genetic test results. So far, it is unclear how NGHPs perceive their own communication skills. This study was undertaken to gain insight in their perceptions, attitudes and knowledge. Two publically accessible databases were used to invite NGHPs providing cancer genetic services to complete a questionnaire. The survey assessed: sociodemographic attributes, experience in ordering hereditary cancer genetic testing, attitude, knowledge, perception of communication skills (e.g. information giving, decision-making) and educational needs. Of all respondents (N = 49, response rate 11%), most have a positive view of their own information giving (mean = 53.91, range 13-65) and decision making skills (64-77% depending on topic). NGHPs feel responsible for enabling disease and treatment related behavior (89-91%). However, 20-30% reported difficulties managing patients' emotions and did not see management of long-term emotions as their responsibility. Correct answers on knowledge questions ranged between 41 and 96%. Higher knowledge was associated with more confidence in NGHPs' own communication skills (r(s) = .33, p = 0.03). Although NGHPs have a positive view of their communication skills, they perceive more difficulties managing emotions. The association between less confidence in communication skills and lower knowledge level suggests awareness of knowledge gaps affects confidence. NGHPs might benefit from education about managing client emotions. Further research using observation of actual counselling consultations is needed to investigate the skills of this specific group of providers.

  17. Knowledge of carrier status and barriers to testing among mothers of sons with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, Lauren; Peay, Holly; Martin, Ann; Lucas, Ann; Ramchandren, Sindhu

    2016-12-01

    Our study objective was to survey female carriers for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy to identify barriers to carrier testing and the impact of carrier risk knowledge on cardiac and reproductive health management. We surveyed women who have or had biological sons with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy and were enrolled in the US DuchenneConnect patient registry, with questions assessing knowledge of carrier status and recurrence risk, knowledge of care standards for carriers, and barriers to testing. Of the 182 eligible respondents, 25% did not know their carrier status and 14% incorrectly classified themselves as not at risk. Cost of testing was the most commonly identified barrier to testing. Women reporting unknown carrier status were 13 times as likely to express uncertainty regarding their recurrence risk compared to women reporting positive carrier status. 37% of women at an increased risk for cardiomyopathy had never had an echocardiogram. Women who were certain of their positive carrier status were twice as likely to have had an echocardiogram in the last five years compared to women with unknown carrier status. Future research on reducing barriers to counseling and carrier testing, such as cost, may improve care standard adherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Educational intervention on knowledge of cervical cancer and uptake of Pap smear test among market women in Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Godwin Jiya; Oche, Mansur O; Ango, Jessica Timane; Kaoje, Aminu Umar; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Raji, Ismail A

    2017-12-31

    Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract carcinoma worldwide. It is increasingly becoming the leading carcinoma seen among women in the developing world. The aim of our study was to showcase the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge of cervical cancer and subsequently the uptake of Pap smear test amongst market women in Niger state, Nigeria. The state has a rich network of markets in all the local government areas because of the fishing activities, bountiful agricultural produce yearly and its situation to the North of the national capital, Abuja. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two groups with pre and post intervention data collection. Sample size was determined based on a previous similar study done in Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used for recruiting the study participants. SPSS statistical software was used for data entry, editing and analysis. Respondents' knowledge of cervical cancer were comparable at pre-intervention but were statistically significantly better (P<0.0001) at post-intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group for every variable measured. However, there was only a (Fisher's exact, P=0.621) compared to the control group. This study showed an increase in knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear test however the uptake of Pap smear test remained low even after intervention. This underscores the need for sustained intervention programs to eventually translate knowledge acquired to habitual practice.

  19. HPV, Cervical Cancer and Pap Test Related Knowledge Among a Sample of Female Dental Students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Karunakar, P; Deshpande, Kopparesh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to ascertain knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer (CC) and the Pap test among female dental students of Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, India. A self-administered questionnaire covering demographic details, knowledge relating to human papilloma virus (HPV) (8 items), cervical cancer (4 items) and the Pap smear (6 items) was employed. Responses were coded as "True, False and Don't Know". Mean and standard deviation (SD) for correct answers and levels of knowledge were determined. Based on the year of study, significant differences in knowledge of HPV were noted for questions on symptoms (p=0.01); transmission from asymptomatic partners (p=0.002); treatment with antibiotics (p=0.002); start of sexual activity (p=0.004); and recommended age for HPV vaccination (p=0.01). For knowledge regarding CC, significance was observed for the age group being affected (p=0.008) and symptoms of the disease in early stages (p=0.001). Indications for Pap smear tests like symptoms' of vaginal discharge (p=0.002), marital status (p=0.01) and women with children (p=0.02) had significant difference based on the year of study. Based on religion, transmission of HPV via pregnancy, HPV related diseases except CC and preventive measures except condom use and oral contraceptives showed significant differences. However, significant variation with religion was observed only for two preventive measures of CC (Pap test; p=0.004) and HPV vaccination (p=0.003). Likewise, only the frequency of Pap test showed a significant difference for religion (p=0.001). This study emphasizes the lack of awareness with regard to HPV, CC and screening with pap smear even among health professionals. Hence, regular health campaigns are essential to reduce the disease burden.

  20. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  1. 78 FR 78474 - Knowledge Testing of New Entrant Motor Carriers, Freight Forwarders and Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... regulations and industry practices for persons seeking registration authority as motor carriers (property... held at the Music City Center, 201 Fifth Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37203 in Room 202 C. In addition to... evidence of the individuals' knowledge of related rules, regulations, and industry practices.'' In...

  2. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  3. development of a food knowledge test for first-year students at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    barriers to maintaining or adopting a healthy lifestyle (Von Ah et al, ... The most common barriers facing students, aged 18 to 23 ..... knowledgeable about the topic. The students also completed a questionnaire to determine their demographic and biographic characteris- tics. The Pearson‟s chi-square statistic was used to ...

  4. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.; Tio, Rene A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  5. Job Performance Tests for CH-53E Helicopter Mechanics. Volume 2: Administrative Duties and Job Knowledge Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    SUBTmI.E 5 FU.NDING NUMBERS Job Performance Tests for CII-53E Helicopter Miechanacs - Volume I1: Admiutstrative Duties and Job Knowlede Tests C - N...performance measures to Marine Corps personnel managers . training instructors, and interested researchers who may find them useful. This work comprises...Corps personnel managers , training instructors, and interested researchers who may find them useful. 3. This work comprises two parts: volume I

  6. Knowledge of free voluntary HIV testing centres and willingness to do a test among migrants in Cayenne, French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In Cayenne, French Guiana, 80% of HIV+ patients followed at the hospital are migrants. Behavioral information is crucial for optimizing HIV testing for this vulnerable group. Predictors of ignorance of the existence of free VCT centre and willingness to get tested were investigated in 2006 among 398 migrants from Haiti, Guyana, Suriname, and Brazil using a structured questionnaire. Only 27 % of migrants knew simultaneously about the existence of free VCT, its localisation ...

  7. Developing a Vocabulary Size Test Measuring Two Aspects of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge: Visual versus Aural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kazumi; Iso, Tatsuo; Nadasdy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Testing learners' English proficiency is central to university English classes in Japan. This study developed and implemented a set of parallel online receptive aural and visual vocabulary tests that would predict learners' English proficiency. The tests shared the same target words and choices--the main difference was the presentation of the…

  8. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing for the diagnosis of conductive hearing loss: survey of pediatric otolaryngologists' knowledge and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargie, Jenna M; Zhou, Guangwei; Dornan, Briana K; Whittemore, Kenneth R

    2014-11-01

    To assess physicians' knowledge and beliefs regarding vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing in children. A survey was delivered via email in html format to 1069 members of the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery who identified as pediatric otolaryngologists. Study data were collected and managed using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) tools. 443 (41.4%) physicians opened the email. 190 (42.9% of opens) initiated the survey, of which 117 (61.9%) fully completed the survey of the physicians who responded to a question regarding knowledge of VEMP, 16% of respondents had never heard of the test. 16% of participants would use it in the setting of diagnosing pediatric conductive hearing loss. Responses regarding the youngest age at which VEMP is possible ranged from younger than 6 months through greater than 13 years of age. Beliefs regarding utility and reliability of VEMP varied, with 'unsure' as the most frequent response. Additionally, only 26% of pediatric otolaryngologists indicated some access to the test. The knowledge and availability of VEMP testing in the pediatric otolaryngology community varies widely. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge and perceptions of couples' voluntary counseling and testing in urban Rwanda and Zambia: a cross-sectional household survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April L Kelley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most incident HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur between cohabiting, discordant, heterosexual couples. Though couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT is an effective, well-studied intervention in Africa, <1% of couples have been jointly tested.We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in Kigali, Rwanda (n = 600 and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 603 to ascertain knowledge, perceptions, and barriers to use of CVCT.Compared to Lusaka, Kigali respondents were significantly more aware of HIV testing sites (79% vs. 56%; had greater knowledge of HIV serodiscordance between couples (83% vs. 43%; believed CVCT is good (96% vs. 72%; and were willing to test jointly (91% vs. 47%. Stigma, fear of partner reaction, and distance/cost/logistics were CVCT barriers.Though most respondents had positive attitudes toward CVCT, the majority were unaware that serodiscordance between cohabiting couples is possible. Future messages should target gaps in knowledge about serodiscordance, provide logistical information about CVCT services, and aim to reduce stigma and fear.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes towards genetic testing: a two-year follow-up in patients with asthma, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Morren, M.; Bensing, J.; Rijken, M.

    2007-01-01

    Adequate knowledge and personal attitudes towards DNA-testing are major determinants of optimal utilization of genetic testing. This study aims to (1) assess the genetic knowledge and attitude towards genetic testing of patients with asthma, diabetes mellitus type II and cardiovascular diseases, (2)

  11. Knowledge and attitudes towards genetic testing: a two year follow-up study in patients with asthma, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, Hiske; Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Bensing, J.

    Adequate knowledge and personal attitudes towards DNA-testing are major determinants of optimal utilization of genetic testing. This study aims to (1) assess the genetic knowledge and attitude towards genetic testing of patients with asthma, diabetes mellitus type II and cardiovascular diseases,

  12. key competences in the context of personnel policy and diagnostics of suitability ; a validation study of the START-W knowledge test for entry-level employees

    OpenAIRE

    Speckemeier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues the goal of further developing a testing procedure which precisely and reliably records the knowledge in the inductive conclusion allowing for a differentiated statement about the individual extent of knowledge as well as a prognosis about the future success of training. The START-W knowledge test is a component of the comprehensive START battery of tests which reproduces the individual basic competences at the commencement of work and is oriented on DIN Norm 33430. The...

  13. The BBN (Bolt Beranek and Newman) Knowledge Acquisition Project. Phase 1. Functional Description; Test Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Computers . " Symbolics. Inc. 8. Carnegie Group. Inc KnoiledgeCraft Carnegie Group, Inc.. 1985. .- 9. Moser, Margaret, An Overviev of NIKL. Section of BBN...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS I0. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK BBN Laboratories Inc. AREAAWoRIUNTNUMER_ 10 Moulton St. Cambridge, MA 02238 It...knowledge representation, expert systems; strategic computing , . A 20 ABSTRACT (Contnue an r rerse ide If neceaesary and Identify by block number) This

  14. Changes in knowledge and attitudes of hospital environmental services staff: The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brett G; White, Nicole; Farrington, Alison; Allen, Michelle; Page, Katie; Gardner, Anne; Halton, Kate; Riley, Thomas V; Gericke, Christian A; Paterson, David L; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2018-03-14

    The Researching Effective Approaches to Cleaning in Hospitals (REACH) study tested a multimodal cleaning intervention in Australian hospitals. This article reports findings from a pre/post questionnaire, embedded into the REACH study, that was administered prior to the implementation of the intervention and at the conclusion of the study. A cross-sectional questionnaire, nested within a stepped-wedge trial, was administered. The REACH intervention was a cleaning bundle comprising 5 interdependent components. The questionnaire explored the knowledge, reported practice, attitudes, roles, and perceived organizational support of environmental services staff members in the hospitals participating in the REACH study. Environmental services staff members in 11 participating hospitals completed 616 pre- and 307 post-test questionnaires (n = 923). Increases in knowledge and practice were seen between the pre-and post-test questionnaires. Minimal changes were observed in attitudes regarding the role of cleaning and in perceived organizational support. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report changes in knowledge, attitudes, and perceived organizational support in environmental services staff members, in the context of a large multicenter clinical trial. In this underexplored group of hospital workers, findings suggest that environmental services staff members have a high level of knowledge related to cleaning practices and understand the importance of their role. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Motivation in vigilance - A test of the goal-setting hypothesis of the effectiveness of knowledge of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm, J. S.; Riechmann, S. W.; Grasha, A. F.; Seibel, B.

    1973-01-01

    This study tested the prediction, derived from the goal-setting hypothesis, that the facilitating effects of knowledge of results (KR) in a simple vigilance task should be related directly to the level of the performance standard used to regulate KR. Two groups of Ss received dichotomous KR in terms of whether Ss response times (RTs) to signal detections exceeded a high or low standard of performance. The aperiodic offset of a visual signal was the critical event for detection. The vigil was divided into a training phase followed by testing, during which KR was withdrawn. Knowledge of results enhanced performance in both phases. However, the two standards used to regulate feedback contributed little to these effects.

  16. The nutrition for sport knowledge questionnaire (NSKQ): development and validation using classical test theory and Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes' nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate. An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis. The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant ( p  < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation ( r  = 0.92, p  < 0.001) between individuals' scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model. The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic

  17. Increasing HIV-related knowledge, communication, and testing intentions among Latinos: Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Espinoza, Lilia; Bird, Mara; Garcia, Melawhy; D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Bellamy, Laura; Scolari, Rosana

    2010-08-01

    Latinos are less likely to be aware of their HIV seropositivity than African Americans and Whites. 'Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba' is a culturally and linguistically-sensitive HIV/AIDS prevention and testing program targeting Latino families. Using community-based participatory research techniques, Spanish-speaking bicultural community health workers helped develop and then used an educational flip chart and materials to conduct outreach and HIV prevention education in diverse settings. The intervention was created to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, to improve communication regarding sexual risk, and to augment intentions to use condoms and test for HIV. A secondary purpose was to decrease HIV-related stigma by improving knowledge about transmission and reducing homophobia. Participants demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge, intention to practice safer sex and communicate sexual risk to partner(s), and intention to test for HIV. Improvements were also found in self-reported comfort levels when interacting with and caring for the HIV positive, thus decreasing HIV/AIDS-related stigma.

  18. Development and Initial Reliability Testing of NAK-50+: A Nutrition Attitude and Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults 50+ Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducak, Kate; Keller, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Few questionnaires to test nutrition knowledge and attitudes of older adults living independently in the community have been developed and tested to assess self-management tools such as Nutri-eSCREEN and other education programs. This study is a first step in the development of a questionnaire designed to evaluate the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of independent older adults (NAK-50+). The steps involved in this study were: (i) drafting initial questions based on the content of the Nutri-eSCREEN education material, (ii) using cognitive interviewing to determine if these questions were understandable and relevant (n = 9 adults ≥50 years of age), and (iii) completing test-retest reliability in a convenient community sample (n = 60 adults ≥50 years of age). Intra-class coefficients (ICC) and kappa were used to determine reliability. A 33-item questionnaire resulted from this development and analysis. ICC for the total score was 0.68 indicating good agreement and thus initial reliability. NAK-50+ is a face valid and reliable questionnaire that assesses nutrition knowledge and attitudes in independent adults aged ≥50 years. Further work to determine construct validity and to refine the questionnaire is warranted. Availability of the questionnaire for this age group will support rigorous evaluation of education and self-management interventions for this segment of the population.

  19. An investigation into the knowledge and attitudes towards radon testing among residents in a high radon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, Susan; Menezes, Gerard; Hevey, David

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of residents in the Castleisland area to radon. Castleisland in Co. Kerry was described as a high radon area following the discovery of a house in the area with radon levels 245 times that of the national reference level. Residents in this area were then asked to measure their homes for radon in the Castleisland radon survey. The uptake of this measurement was 17%. In order to investigate this response rate further, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to residents in the Castleisland area. This questionnaire measured the testing history of the participants, the reasons for testing/not testing, the factors important to them when considering having their home tested, radon knowledge and finally intentions to measure their home for radon. It was found that the main reason people do not test their home for radon is that they believe their home does not have a problem. Optimistic bias was thought to play a role here. The subjective norm component of the theory of planned behaviour was found to have a significant independent contribution in the variation in intentions to measure one’s home for radon and this in turn could be targeted to increase uptake of radon measurement in the future. (note)

  20. BEST-TEST2: assessment of hematology trainee knowledge of transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yulia; Tinmouth, Alan; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Haspel, Richard L

    2016-02-01

    As transfusion is a common therapy and key component in every hematologist's practice, hematology training programs should dedicate significant time and effort to delivering high-quality transfusion medicine education to their trainees. The current state of hematology trainee knowledge of transfusion medicine is not known. A validated assessment tool developed by the Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST) Collaborative was used to assess prior transfusion medicine education, attitudes, perceived ability, and transfusion medicine knowledge of hematology trainees. A total of 149 hematology trainees at 17 international sites were assessed. The overall mean exam score was 61.6% (standard deviation, 13.4%; range, 30%-100%) with no correlation in exam scores with postgraduate year or previous transfusion medicine education in medical school or internal medicine residency. However, better scores correlated with 3 or more hours of transfusion medicine education (p = 0.0003) and perceived higher-quality education during hematology training (p = 0.03). Hematology trainees at US sites, where hematology is often combined with oncology training, had statistically lower scores than trainees at non-US sites (56.2% vs. 67.4%; p hematology training programs to reevaluate the quality and quantity of transfusion medicine training and can assist in the development of targeted curricula. © 2015 AABB.

  1. Improvements in anatomy knowledge when utilizing a novel cyclical "Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat" learning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Hutchinson, Joseph; Thandi, Charankumal S; Keenan, Iain D

    2017-01-01

    Innovative educational strategies can provide variety and enhance student learning while addressing complex logistical and financial issues facing modern anatomy education. Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat (ORDER), a novel cyclical artistic process, has been designed based on cognitivist and constructivist learning theories, and on processes of critical observation, reflection and drawing in anatomy learning. ORDER was initially investigated in the context of a compulsory first year surface anatomy practical (ORDER-SAP) at a United Kingdom medical school in which a cross-over trial with pre-post anatomy knowledge testing was utilized and student perceptions were identified. Despite positive perceptions of ORDER-SAP, medical student (n = 154) pre-post knowledge test scores were significantly greater (P learning methods (3.26, SD = ±2.25) than with ORDER-SAP (2.17, ±2.30). Based on these findings, ORDER was modified and evaluated in the context of an optional self-directed gross anatomy online interactive tutorial (ORDER-IT) for participating first year medical students (n = 55). Student performance was significantly greater (P  0.05) to those students without these characteristics. These findings will be of value to anatomy instructors seeking to engage students from diverse learning backgrounds in a research-led, innovative, time and cost-effective learning method, in the context of contrasting learning environments. Anat Sci Educ 10: 7-22. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Pre-post, mixed-methods feasibility study of the WorkingWell mobile support tool for individuals with serious mental illness in the USA: a pilot study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joanne; Wright, Spenser M; Carlisle, Alyssa M

    2018-02-06

    Successful competitive employment has been found to be related to enhanced self-esteem, higher quality of life and reduced mental health service use for individuals living with serious mental illnesses (SMIs) including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. The effectiveness of the individual placement and support model has been demonstrated in multiple randomised controlled trials in many countries. The management of stress, depression and anxiety in the workplace may be effectively enhanced through digital mental health interventions. The WorkingWell mobile support tool ('app') is specifically designed to meet the need for illness management support for individuals with SMI in the workplace, as an adjunct to professional treatment. The WorkingWell app, grounded in evidence-based supported employment, is informed by user experience design. It will be tested in a pre-post design, mixed-methods pilot study to explore issues of feasibility, acceptability and usefulness, and to provide preliminary data on the impact of use. Putative mediators of improved job tenure and psychological well-being, including postintervention changes in social support, self-efficacy and work-related motivation, will be investigated. Forty individuals at least 18 years of age, meeting the eligibility requirements for supported employment services (ie, diagnosed with a mental illness meeting the criteria for severity, duration and treatment), working a minimum of 10 hours per week at study enrolment, and speaking, reading and writing in English will be recruited for the pilot study. Research staff will recruit individuals at community-based mental health agencies; provide orientation to the study, the study smartphones and the WorkingWell app; conduct research interviews including standardised measures as well as semistructured items; and provide technical assistance in telephone calls and inperson meetings. A sample of 10 agency staff will be recruited to obtain further

  3. [A test to measure the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition at the onset of elementary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic Marincovich, D; Castro Gómez, C G; Ivanovic Marincovich, R

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this work was to design a test to measure the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition in school-age children from elementary first and second grades. A graphic instrument was designed according to the psychological child development and was based on the specific objectives pursued by the curriculum programs of the Ministry of Education. The test was developed around the following topics through 15 items: Area 1: Basic Concepts on Food and Nutrition (9 items) and Area 2: Food, Personal and Environmental Hygiene (9 items). The test was pilot tested on 103 school-age children of both grades (1:1), of both sexes (1:1), belonging to Peñalolén and Las Condes counties from Chile's Metropolitan Region and from high and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1), measured through the Graffar's Modified Method. The final version of the test was applied in a representative sample of 1.482 school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region from elementary first and second grades during 1986-1987. Content validity was assured by a team of judges and by the curriculum programs. Reliability was assessed by the Spearman correlation with the Spearman-Brown correction. Item-test consistency was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were processed by the statistical analysis system (SAS) package. Results showed that reliability coefficient was 0.84 and item-test consistency was equal or above 0.25 in all items. It can be concluded that this test can be useful to determine the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition at the onset of elementary school, both in Chile and in other countries.

  4. Human papilloma virus testing knowledge and attitudes among women attending colposcopy clinic with ASCUS/LGSIL pap smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T; Hicks, W; Menard, C; Boyd, D; Hewson, T; Hopkins, L; Kee Fung, M Fung

    2004-09-01

    To study women's knowledge regarding the role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and their attitudes toward the integration of HPV testing as part of routine follow-up of atypical squamous cell of uncertain significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASCUS/LGSIL) abnormalities. Over a 12-month period, all women attending the University of Ottawa colposcopy clinic for evaluation and follow-up of ASCUS/LGSIL Pap smears were recruited. Demographic data included age, nature of the Pap smear abnormality, gravidity, parity, occupation and education level, smoking history, previous history of abnormal smears, colposcopic examination and treatment, and current method of contraception. The women were asked to rate their level of concern over their Pap smear abnormality, from 0 (not concerned) to 10 (very concerned). Women's knowledge regarding the role of HPV in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and the rationale behind the use of HPV testing was assessed by the clinic nurse as being minimal, moderate, or good, as defined by pre-specified criteria. Upon explanation by the nurses of the results of the recent ALTS (ASCUS/LGSIL Triage Study) trial, the women were asked to state whether they preferred to continue with regular colposcopic surveillance every 6 months, or to use the results of the HPV test, if negative, to reduce the number of colposcopy examinations to one annually. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to identify significant demographic factors associated with the women's preference for incorporation of HPV testing in their follow-up. All P values less than.10 were considered to be statistically significant, due to the exploratory nature of the study. Of the 100 women who participated in the study, 42% presented with ASCUS. The mean age (+/- SD) of the women was 33.63 +/- 11.25 years (range, 18-75 years); 66% were office workers with at least a community college degree, 86% reported

  5. Impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on HIV prevention practices among traditional birth attendants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-02-10

    Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.

  6. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Depressive cognition: a test of depressive realism versus negativity using general knowledge questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E R; Dodrill, C L; Johnson, N

    2001-11-01

    This research is an examination of whether cognition in depressed individuals incorporates a realistic view of the world or a general tendency toward negativity. Participants provided two types of probability judgments of the likelihood that they correctly answered general knowledge questions: the probability that they correctly answered each of the individual questions and an aggregate judgment, after completing the questionnaire, of the percentage of all the questions they thought they had correctly answered. These tasks generally elicit overconfidence and accuracy in nondepressives. In accord with theories of both depressive realism and general negativity, in their item-by-item assessments of their answers to the individual questions, depressed participants demonstrated less overconfidence than nondepressed participants. In accord with the theory of general negativity but not with the theory of depressive realism, however, depressed participants demonstrated underconfidence in their aggregate judgments. The implications of these findings on theories of depressive cognition are discussed.

  8. Whiteboard animation for knowledge mobilization: a test case from the Slave River and Delta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Lori E A; Bharadwaj, Lalita A

    2015-01-01

    To present the co-creation of a whiteboard animation video, an enhanced e-storytelling technique for relaying traditional knowledge interview results as narratives. We present a design for translating interview results into a script and accompanying series of figures, followed by technical steps to create a whiteboard animation product. Our project used content analysis and researcher triangulation, followed by a collaborative process to develop an animated video to disseminate research findings. A 13-minute long whiteboard animation video was produced from a research study about changing environments in northern Canadian communities and was distributed to local people. Three challenging issues in the video creation process including communication issues, technical difficulties and contextual debate were resolved among the supporting agencies and researchers. Dissemination of findings is a crucial step in the research process. Whiteboard animation video products may be a viable and culturally-appropriate form of relaying research results back to Indigenous communities in a storytelling format.

  9. PRACCIS: a didactic strategy based on hermeneutic for knowledge circulation or about a pilot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Agudelo, Elvia Maria; Aguirre Ramirez, Nestor Jaime; Grisales Franco, Lina Maria; Giraldo Mejia, Gloria Eugenia; Villabona, Silvia Lucia; Uribe Rozo, Erika Gissell; Velasquez, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how to apply the teaching strategy called PRACCIS through an educational booklet entitled Zooplankton Ayapel Swamp and its role in the ecology of this ecosystem as a product of the research entitled Spatial and temporal dynamics of Zooplankton associated with macrophyte in the wetland complex Ayapel, Cordoba; Colombia. Implementation of this strategy was envelopment as a pilot where the information was collected through various texts, namely: two field journals, five cards completed applications, 52 surveys processed by the non-scientific community and a conversation with the coordinator the workshop. These texts are read from a hermeneutic perspective, where from prejudice, are reflected, analyzed, compared, understood and interpreted, the situations and the occurrences of the event participants to find meaning units on course to achieve unity sense, ie, to endorse the teaching strategy to facilitate the movement of scientific knowledge in non-scientific communities and be able to generate culture, in this case, around the object water

  10. Models and procedures for interval evaluating the results of control of knowledge in computer systems testing of Navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pechnikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To implement effective military and professional training of Navy specialists, a corresponding educational and material base is needed. As a result of the reduction in the 1990s in the branches of the military-industrial complex developing weapons and equipment for the Navy, the latest models of this technology are now produced not in batches, but in individual copies. The question of the production of training and training samples is not worth it at all. Under these conditions, only virtual analogues of military equipment and weapons, developed by means of information technology, i.e., training and training systems (TOS, can be considered as the only means capable of providing military-professional training. At the modern level of the development of information technologies, testing is the only universal technical means of monitoring the knowledge of students. Procedures for knowledge control in modern computer testing systems do not meet the requirements for them according to the following characteristics: 1 the absence of the possibility of evaluating the error of the test results; 2 the absence of the possibility of stopping testing when the specified reliability of its results is achieved. In order to effectively implement the means of operational criteria-based pedagogical control of knowledge in the process of training specialists of the Navy and to enable joint analysis and processing of evaluations of learning outcomes, it is advisable to implement the following practical recommendations: 1. Formulating the teacher's preferences system regarding the quality of trainee training and the teacher's preferences system in relation to The significance of single test tasks in the test should be considered as the most important The essential steps in preparing a test for practical use. 2. The teacher who first enters the input of his preference systems should check their actual compliance on a sample of 5-10 such test results that cover the full

  11. Lessons with Living Harvest Mice: An empirical study of their effects on intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Matthias; Hußmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question of our study is to assess whether the use of living animals in the biology classroom supports intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition. In a pre-/post-test design, 185 fifth graders received two different treatments: the experimental group (N = 74) was taught with living harvest mice (Micromys minutus) and the control group (N = 111) received lessons with the same content which was presented in short film clips on laptop computers. Knowledge acquisition was assessed with open-ended and closed questions, while intrinsic motivation was tested with an adapted version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). There were no differences in knowledge acquisition between the treatments. However, the results of the IMI showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group in interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy. Thus, living animals exert a positive influence on motivation.

  12. The Impact of Regression to the Mean on Economic Evaluation in Quasi-Experimental Pre-Post Studies: The Example of Total Knee Replacement Using Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Chris; Petrie, Dennis; Dowsey, Michelle M; Choong, Peter F; Clarke, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Many treatments are evaluated using quasi-experimental pre-post studies susceptible to regression to the mean (RTM). Ignoring RTM could bias the economic evaluation. We investigated this issue using the contemporary example of total knee replacement (TKR), a common treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. Data (n = 4796) were obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative database, a longitudinal observational study of osteoarthritis. TKR patients (n = 184) were matched to non-TKR patients, using propensity score matching on the predicted hazard of TKR and exact matching on osteoarthritis severity and health-related quality of life (HrQoL). The economic evaluation using the matched control group was compared to the standard method of using the pre-surgery score as the control. Matched controls were identified for 56% of the primary TKRs. The matched control HrQoL trajectory showed evidence of RTM accounting for a third of the estimated QALY gains from surgery using the pre-surgery HrQoL as the control. Incorporating RTM into the economic evaluation significantly reduced the estimated cost effectiveness of TKR and increased the uncertainty. A generalized ICER bias correction factor was derived to account for RTM in cost-effectiveness analysis. RTM should be considered in economic evaluations based on quasi-experimental pre-post studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. What women want? A scoping survey on women's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards ovarian reserve testing and egg freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Yvonne; Martyn, Fiona; Glover, Louise E; Wingfield, Mary B

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to investigate women's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards ovarian reserve testing and egg freezing for non-medical reasons in the general population. This was a cross-sectional survey study of 663 women aged 18-44 years which assessed female perception of ovarian reserve testing and oocyte cryopreservation. An online forum was used to deliver the survey through the use of two social media sites. Participants were recruited through the technique of "snowballing", whereby existing study subjects recruited others from among their acquaintances. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS to explore descriptive statistics and frequencies relating to the participants' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards the practices of ovarian reserve testing and oocyte cryopreservation. Categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-squared; a p-value of women surveyed had knowledge of ovarian reserve testing. 64.8% would be interested in having testing performed. Younger women (women were also more likely to be interested, (73.6% v's 62.1%, p=0.022). 89.7% of women surveyed were aware of oocyte cryopreservation. 72.2% agreed that they would consider freezing their eggs to preserve fertility. There was no significant difference in the numbers of single women compared to women in a relationship who would consider egg freezing to preserve fertility (75.7% v's 71.2%, p=0.347, or in younger (women, (74.7% v's 71.1%, p=0.387). A majority (62.1%) of study participants believed that it is a woman's right to postpone pregnancy for social reasons and to freeze her eggs, with no significant difference in options noted between younger and older women. Knowledge of ovarian reserve testing and oocyte cryopreservation for non-medical reasons were higher than in previous studies, possibly reflecting increasing awareness of these issues among the general public. Additionally, we demonstrated that the women, in our study, were very open to the use of these modern technologies in

  14. Student Teachers' Evaluations of Slides of Children with Down Syndrome: Impact of Facial Plastic Surgery, Labelling and Factual Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkabetz, R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the impact of facial plastic surgery, labeling (mentally retarded, normal, Down's syndrome), and level of knowledge of Down's syndrome on 127 student teachers' evaluations of slides of persons with such characteristics. Although there was no overall significant main effect for the pre-post operation condition, there was a…

  15. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  16. Using Standardized Tests to Identify Prior Knowledge Necessary for Success in Algebra: A Predictive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a relationship between students' scores on the eighth-grade Indiana State Test of Education Progress Plus (ISTEP+) exam and success on Indiana's Algebra End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). Additionally, it sought to determine if algebra success could be significantly predicted by the achievement in one or…

  17. A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on "culture-free" tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2013-08-01

    Secular gains in intelligence test scores have perplexed researchers since they were documented by Flynn (1984, 1987). Gains are most pronounced on abstract, so-called culture-free tests, prompting Flynn (2007) to attribute them to problem-solving skills availed by scientifically advanced cultures. We propose that recent-born individuals have adopted an approach to analogy that enables them to infer higher level relations requiring roles that are not intrinsic to the objects that constitute initial representations of items. This proposal is translated into item-specific predictions about differences between cohorts in pass rates and item-response patterns on the Raven's Matrices (Flynn, 1987), a seemingly culture-free test that registers the largest Flynn effect. Consistent with predictions, archival data reveal that individuals born around 1940 are less able to map objects at higher levels of relational abstraction than individuals born around 1990. Polytomous Rasch models verify predicted violations of measurement invariance, as raw scores are found to underestimate the number of analogical rules inferred by members of the earlier cohort relative to members of the later cohort who achieve the same overall score. The work provides a plausible cognitive account of the Flynn effect, furthers understanding of the cognition of matrix reasoning, and underscores the need to consider how test-takers select item responses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. On the importance of the distance measures used to train and test knowledge-based potentials for proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Carlsen

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based potentials are energy functions derived from the analysis of databases of protein structures and sequences. They can be divided into two classes. Potentials from the first class are based on a direct conversion of the distributions of some geometric properties observed in native protein structures into energy values, while potentials from the second class are trained to mimic quantitatively the geometric differences between incorrectly folded models and native structures. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between energy and geometry when training the second class of knowledge-based potentials. We assume that the difference in energy between a decoy structure and the corresponding native structure is linearly related to the distance between the two structures. We trained two distance-based knowledge-based potentials accordingly, one based on all inter-residue distances (PPD, while the other had the set of all distances filtered to reflect consistency in an ensemble of decoys (PPE. We tested four types of metric to characterize the distance between the decoy and the native structure, two based on extrinsic geometry (RMSD and GTD-TS*, and two based on intrinsic geometry (Q* and MT. The corresponding eight potentials were tested on a large collection of decoy sets. We found that it is usually better to train a potential using an intrinsic distance measure. We also found that PPE outperforms PPD, emphasizing the benefits of capturing consistent information in an ensemble. The relevance of these results for the design of knowledge-based potentials is discussed.

  19. Knowledge translation regarding financial abuse and dementia for the banking sector: the development and testing of an education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, Carmelle; Bhatia, Sangita; Macnab, Jenna; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Financial abuse is the most common form of elder abuse. Capacity Australia, established to promote education regarding capacity and abuse prevention across health, legal and financial sectors, was awarded a grant by the Dementia Collaborative Research Centre to educate the banking sector on financial abuse and dementia. We aimed to develop a knowledge translation tool for bank staff on this issue. The banking sector across Australia was engaged and consulted to develop a tailored education tool based on Australian Banking Association's Guidelines on Financial Abuse Prevention, supplemented by information related to dementia, financial capacity and supported decision-making. The tool was tested on 69 banking staff across Australia from two major banks. An online education tool using adaptive learning was developed, comprising a pretest of 15 multiple choice questions, followed by a learning module tailored to the individual's performance on the pretest, and a post-test to assess knowledge translation. A significant increase in scores was demonstrated when baseline scores were compared with post-course scores (mean difference in scores = 3.5; SD = 1.94; t = 15.1; df = 68; p tool took approximately 10-20 min to complete depending on the knowledge of participant and continuity of completion. The Australian banking industry was amenable to assist in the development of a tailored education tool on dementia, abuse and financial capacity. This online e-tool provides an effective medium for knowledge translation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Continuous quality improvement intervention for adolescent and young adult HIV testing services in Kenya improves HIV knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anjuli D; Mugo, Cyrus; Bluemer-Miroite, Shay; Mutiti, Peter M; Wamalwa, Dalton C; Bukusi, David; Neary, Jillian; Njuguna, Irene N; O'Malley, Gabrielle; John-Stewart, Grace C; Slyker, Jennifer A; Kohler, Pamela K

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether continuous quality improvement (CQI) improves quality of HIV testing services for adolescents and young adults (AYA). CQI was introduced at two HIV testing settings: Youth Centre and Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Center, at a national referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Primary outcomes were AYA satisfaction with HIV testing services, intent to return, and accurate HIV prevention and transmission knowledge. Healthcare worker (HCW) satisfaction assessed staff morale. T tests and interrupted time series analysis using Prais-Winsten regression and generalized estimating equations accounting for temporal trends and autocorrelation were conducted. There were 172 AYA (Youth Centre = 109, VCT = 63) during 6 baseline weeks and 702 (Youth Centre = 454, VCT = 248) during 24 intervention weeks. CQI was associated with an immediate increase in the proportion of AYA with accurate knowledge of HIV transmission at Youth Centre: 18 vs. 63% [adjusted risk difference (aRD) 0.42,95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.63], and a trend at VCT: 38 vs. 72% (aRD 0.30, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.63). CQI was associated with an increase in the proportion of AYA with accurate HIV prevention knowledge in VCT: 46 vs. 61% (aRD 0.39, 95% CI 0.02-0.76), but not Youth Centre (P = 0.759). In VCT, CQI showed a trend towards increased intent to retest (4.0 vs. 4.3; aRD 0.78, 95% CI -0.11 to 1.67), but not at Youth Centre (P = 0.19). CQI was not associated with changes in AYA satisfaction, which was high during baseline and intervention at both clinics (P = 0.384, P = 0.755). HCW satisfaction remained high during intervention and baseline (P = 0.746). CQI improved AYA knowledge and did not negatively impact HCW satisfaction. Quality improvement interventions may be useful to improve adolescent-friendly service delivery.

  1. Whiteboard animation for knowledge mobilization: a test case from the Slave River and Delta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. A. Bradford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the co-creation of a whiteboard animation video, an enhanced e-storytelling technique for relaying traditional knowledge interview results as narratives. Design: We present a design for translating interview results into a script and accompanying series of figures, followed by technical steps to create a whiteboard animation product. Method: Our project used content analysis and researcher triangulation, followed by a collaborative process to develop an animated video to disseminate research findings. A 13-minute long whiteboard animation video was produced from a research study about changing environments in northern Canadian communities and was distributed to local people. Three challenging issues in the video creation process including communication issues, technical difficulties and contextual debate were resolved among the supporting agencies and researchers. Conclusions: Dissemination of findings is a crucial step in the research process. Whiteboard animation video products may be a viable and culturally-appropriate form of relaying research results back to Indigenous communities in a storytelling format.

  2. AUDILAB: a knowledge-based quality audit simulator for testing laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, A; Garnerin, P

    1997-05-01

    In order to obtain an accreditation, a laboratory must be prepared to provide a point-by-point check of various activities against the chosen reference standard, both from a general point of view and in relation to details of application. This paper describes AUDILAB, a computerized simulator accessible by network, able to provide testing laboratories with realistic quality audits performed in a customized way. AUDILAB establishes a detailed list of strengths (compliance with corresponding requirements of established standards) and weaknesses (improvements needed for laboratory's accreditation). The standard used by AUDILAB is the EN 45001 "General criteria for the operation of testing laboratories". A preliminary validation has already been completed. AUDILAB became operational in September 1993.

  3. Collaborative-group testing improves learning and knowledge retention of human physiology topics in second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-García, Mario

    2018-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between second-year medical students' group performance and individual performance in a collaborative-learning environment. In recent decades, university professors in the scientific and humanistic disciplines have successfully put into practice different modalities of collaborative approaches to teaching. Essentially, collaborative approach refers to a variety of techniques that involves the joint intellectual effort of a small group of students, which encourages interaction and discussion among students and professors. The present results show the efficacy of collaborative learning, which, furthermore, allowed students to participate actively in the physiology class. Average student's grades were significantly higher when they engaged in single-best-response, multiple-choice tests as a student team, compared with taking the same examinations individually. The method improved notably knowledge retention, as learning is more effective when performed in the context of collaborative partnership. A selected subset of questions answered wrongly in an initial test, both individually and collectively, was used on a second test to examine student retention of studied material. Grade averages were significantly improved, both individually and groupwise, when students responded to the subset of questions a second time, 1, 2, or 3 wk after the first attempt. These results suggest that the collaborative approach to teaching allowed a more effective understanding of course content, which meant an improved capacity for retention of human physiology knowledge.

  4. Development and validity of a questionnaire to test the knowledge of primary care personnel regarding nutrition in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, Lucinéia; Moura, Paulo Henrique Tolentino; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; de Botelho, Ana Cristina Carvalho; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2013-07-18

    In light of its epidemic proportions in developed and developing countries, obesity is considered a serious public health issue. In order to increase knowledge concerning the ability of health care professionals in caring for obese adolescents and adopt more efficient preventive and control measures, a questionnaire was developed and validated to assess non-dietitian health professionals regarding their Knowledge of Nutrition in Obese Adolescents (KNOA). The development and evaluation of a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of primary care practitioners with respect to nutrition in obese adolescents was carried out in five phases, as follows: 1) definition of study dimensions 2) development of 42 questions and preliminary evaluation of the questionnaire by a panel of experts; 3) characterization and selection of primary care practitioners (35 dietitians and 265 non-dietitians) and measurement of questionnaire criteria by contrasting the responses of dietitians and non-dietitians; 4) reliability assessment by question exclusion based on item difficulty (too easy and too difficult for non-dietitian practitioners), item discrimination, internal consistency and reproducibility index determination; and 5) scoring the completed questionnaires. Dietitians obtained higher scores than non-dietitians (Mann-Whitney U test, P validity of the questionnaire criteria. Items were discriminated by correlating the score for each item with the total score, using a minimum of 0.2 as a correlation coefficient cutoff value. Item difficulty was controlled by excluding questions answered correctly by more than 90% of the non-dietitian subjects (too easy) or by less than 10% of them (too difficult). The final questionnaire contained 26 of the original 42 questions, increasing Cronbach's α value from 0.788 to 0.807. Test-retest agreement between respondents was classified as good to very good (Kappa test, >0.60). The KNOA questionnaire developed for primary care practitioners is a

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and acceptability to provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling: patients' perspectives in Moshi and Rombo Districts, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manongi, Rachel; Mahande, Michael; Njau, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is referred to as routine testing in a clinical setting as part of a standard programme of medical services. PITC is initiated in order to avoid missed opportunities for people to get tested for HIV. While advocated as a strategy, there is dearth of information on patients' views on PITC in a number of districts in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and acceptability to PITC services among patients attending health care facilities in rural and urban settings in Kilimanjaro region A total of 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 99 (73 female and 26 male) patients enrolled into out-patient clinics in 8 (2 hospitals and 6 primary care centers) health facilities in Moshi Urban and Rombo districts in northern Tanzania. The study explored on knowledge, attitudes and acceptability of PITC, perceived benefits and barriers of PITC, and ethical issues related to PITC. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Non-numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software. Knowledge about PITC services was generally low. Compared to men, women had a more positive attitude towards PITC services, because of its ability to identify and treat undiagnosed HIV cases. HIV stigma was regarded as a major barrier to patients' uptake of PITC. Institutional factors such as lack of supplies and human resources were identified as barriers to successful provision of PITC. In conclusion, the findings highlight both opportunities and potential barriers in the successful uptake of PITC, and underscore the importance of informed consent, counseling and confidentiality and the need for specific strategies on advocacy for the service.

  6. Geographic-didactical games as interactive tools to test and improve student's basic knowledge in Physical Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S.; Tintrup Gen. Suntrup, A.

    2009-04-01

    Due to an increasing disproportion between experienced teaching staff and student numbers at German universities, the time available for teaching the fundamental basic knowledge in Physical Geography was condensed during the past decade. Unfortunately, this mainly has been achieved at the expense of practical lessons of testing student's knowledge. The recent introduction of the Bachelor/Master degree has not solved this problem, but rather accelerated that tend. The "losers" of this tendency are those students enrolled in trainee teacher studies in Geography. In conjunction with the recent modifications of the study programs putting more focus on applied or specialized fields of Geography and its methodology, the trainee teacher students often express their critics and urgently demand opportunities to improve and test their basic knowledge (because it is especially that knowledge, they need at school and for their traditional examination). As the study program is quite dense, there is no room for special courses or seminars. By contrast, one has to use some free time slots available e.g. in the evenings of the usually quite long German excursions or of weekend seminars. However, after a day in the field or in the classroom, the teacher has to find a method owing enough excitement and clearly visible benefit for the students to achieve sufficient motivation. Interactive geographic-didactical games have been developed exclusively for this purpose and applied at different occasions. Those games had the goal of testing student's basic knowledge in a rather unconventional and "casual" style in order to motivate active participation. Most of the games could be played in small groups of students with the teacher only occasionally being involved as referee. Of course, the games had the general aim of improving the basic knowledge - or at least give the students the possibility to discover their own strength (or weakness) just before it is too late (as it e.g. would be

  7. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  8. Developing and Testing a New Measurement Instrument for Documenting Instrumental Knowledge Utilisation: The Degrees of Knowledge Utilization (DoKU) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøllingtoft Knudsen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    Focus on evidence-based policymaking is greater than ever, and public spending on evaluations is rising. A primary merit of these expenditures is that politicians actually use new knowledge instrumentally--to influence and inform decision making. Nevertheless, we know surprisingly little about whether and how research-based knowledge is utilised.…

  9. Knowledge and attitude of general pratictioners towards direct-to-consumer genomic tests: a survey conducted in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baroncini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personal genomic tests (PGT offered directly-to-consumers (DTC for complex disease risk assessment have raised several concerns regarding their potential adverse impact. To mitigate worries continuing professional education has been advocated and the central gatekeeper role of family physicians has been highlighted. Nevertheless, to date, only few studies have been published on awareness, involvement and attitudes of  primary healthcare providers on DTC marketing of PGT and, to the best of our knowledge, none in Italy.Methods: An exploratory survey to achieve information about knowledge and attitudes towards DTC-PGT of a selected group of family physicians participating to courses on predictive medicine and public health genomics was conducted. Results: A total amount of 114 partially or fully filled questionnaires was obtained. The majority of the primary care providers (68,4%  expressed that they are unaware that companies are selling genomic tests directly to consumers, while 31,6% was aware.  In terms of attitudes toward testing 61,1% of the aware respondents deemed the DTC-PGT for chronic complex diseases to be ‘‘not clinically useful.’’  The overwhelming majority of our respondents (95,6% felt unprepared to answer patients’ questions on DTC-PGT. If only aware respondents are considered this percentage results obviously  lower (86,1%, though still very high. Conclusion: The low percentage of aware respondents suggests that DTC advertising in the realm of genomic testing is still limited in Italy. Should DTC-PGT become more widely used, a comprehensive education program may be necessary to increase family physicians’ awareness and help them discuss testing with their patients. 

  10. Present knowledge about Laboratory Testing of Axial Loading on Suction Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Offshore wind turbines are increasing in both efficiency and size. More economical foundations for such light structures are under investigation, and suction caisson was shown to be particularly suitable for this purpose. In multi-pod foundation configuration, the overturning moment given by loads...... on the structure is resisted by push-pull loads on the vertical axis of each suction caisson. Relevant works where this situation is examined by means of laboratory testing are summarized in this article, then different conclusions are followed by discussion and comparison. In the initial theoretical section...

  11. Embedding Evidence-based Practice Education into a Post-graduate Physiotherapy Program: Eight Years of pre-Post Course Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, L; Machotka, Z; Grimmer, K; Gibbs, C; Mahar, C; Kennedy, K

    2017-04-01

    Little has been published about the effectiveness of training postgraduate physiotherapy coursework students in research methods and evidence-based practice (EBP) theory. Graduate qualities in most universities include lifelong learning. Inclusion of EBP in post-graduate coursework students' training is one way for students to develop the knowledge and skills needed to implement current best evidence in their clinical practice after graduation, thereby facilitating lifelong learning. This paper reports on change in confidence and anxiety in knowledge of statistical terminology and concepts related to research design and EBP in eight consecutive years of post-graduate physiotherapy students at one Australian university. Pre-survey/post-survey instruments were administered to students in an intensive 3-week post-graduate course, which taught health research methods, biostatistics and EBP. This course was embedded into a post-graduate physiotherapy programme from 2007 to 2014. The organization and delivery of the course was based on best pedagogical evidence for effectively teaching adult physiotherapists. The course was first delivered each year in the programme, and no other course was delivered concurrently. There were significant improvements in confidence, significantly decreased anxiety and improvements in knowledge of statistical terminology and concepts related to research design and EBP, at course completion. Age, gender and country of origin were not confounders on learning outcomes, although there was a (non-significant) trend that years of practice negatively impacted on learning outcomes (p = 0.09). There was a greater improvement in confidence in statistical terminology than in concepts related to research design and EBP. An intensive teaching programme in health research methods and biostatistics and EBP, based on best practice adult physiotherapy learning principles, is effective immediately post-course, in decreasing anxiety and increasing

  12. Integrating prior knowledge in multiple testing under dependence with applications to detecting differential DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Pei Fen; Chiang, Derek Y

    2012-09-01

    DNA methylation has emerged as an important hallmark of epigenetics. Numerous platforms including tiling arrays and next generation sequencing, and experimental protocols are available for profiling DNA methylation. Similar to other tiling array data, DNA methylation data shares the characteristics of inherent correlation structure among nearby probes. However, unlike gene expression or protein DNA binding data, the varying CpG density which gives rise to CpG island, shore and shelf definition provides exogenous information in detecting differential methylation. This article aims to introduce a robust testing and probe ranking procedure based on a nonhomogeneous hidden Markov model that incorporates the above-mentioned features for detecting differential methylation. We revisit the seminal work of Sun and Cai (2009, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology)71, 393-424) and propose modeling the nonnull using a nonparametric symmetric distribution in two-sided hypothesis testing. We show that this model improves probe ranking and is robust to model misspecification based on extensive simulation studies. We further illustrate that our proposed framework achieves good operating characteristics as compared to commonly used methods in real DNA methylation data that aims to detect differential methylation sites. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  13. Exploring one aspect of pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants using the test of understanding graphs in kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maries

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K is a multiple-choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common difficulties of introductory physics students and explicitly take them into account in their instructional design. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first-year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. In particular, for each item on the TUG-K, the graduate students were asked to identify which incorrect answer choice they thought would be most commonly selected by introductory physics students if they did not know the correct answer after instruction in relevant concepts. We used the graduate student data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high school students to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is

  14. Comparison of knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, pap tests, and cervical cancer between US and Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chi-Son; Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer; Tharp, Philip; Walter, Jessica; Allmond, Lynn

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer among US and Peruvian women. A convenience sample of 275 US women in Augusta, GA, and 702 Peruvian women living in or near Cusco, Peru, completed 22- or 21-item questionnaires, respectively. These questionnaires determined their knowledge about HPV, the HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer. Simple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between location and language on the correct responses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. US Spanish- (OR = 0.02), Quechua- (OR = 0.05), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.03) were significantly less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 10.61, OR = 5.74), Quechua- (OR = 11.08, OR = 9.89), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 17.25, 14.43) were significantly more likely to be embarrassed and afraid, respectively, to get a Pap test compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 0.11), Quechua- (OR = 0.14), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.11) women were significantly less likely to know the HPV vaccine is safe and effective compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. Education must be implemented to address serious misconceptions and worrisome attitudes toward Pap tests and the HPV vaccine to decrease the rate of cervical cancer in Peru and US Spanish-speaking women.

  15. Knowledge of HIV and willingness to conduct oral rapid HIV testing among dentists in Xi'an China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Wang

    Full Text Available China is considered a country of low HIV prevalence (780,000 people living with HIV, however, HIV infections among high-risk populations continue to grow at alarming rates. Voluntary Counseling and Testing services were first implemented in 2003, and oral rapid HIV testing (ORHT began in 2012. Dentists, as oral health experts, would be well placed to conduct ORHT. We assessed willingness of dentists to undertake ORHT in their clinical practice.A cross-sectional, paper-based survey of dentists from the Xi'an region of China was conducted from April to June 2013. Dentists were recruited from Shaanxi Stomatological Association using a stratified sampling methodology. A 40-item survey was used to measure knowledge of HIV, attitudes toward people living with HIV and willingness to conduct ORHT.477 dentists completed the survey with a mean HIV knowledge test score of 13.2/18 (SD 1.9. If made available in the dental setting, 276 (57.9% preferred to use blood to diagnose HIV, only 190 (39.8% preferred saliva or both. Four hundred and thirty-five (91.2% thought that ORHT was needed in dental clinics. Female dentists felt more accepting of ORHT than males (93.8% vs. 87.8%; χ2=5.145; p<0.05. 42.6% of the participants who responded thought that lack of education on ORHT for dentists was the most urgent problem to solve for ORHT, 144 (31.3% thought that lack of support for ORHT from patients was the most urgent problem. There was statistically significant difference among dental hospital, dentistry and department of dentistry (χ2=24.176; p<0.05.The majority of Chinese dentists thought that ORHT was needed in the dental setting. Providing opportunities for dentists and dental students to learn about HIV testing guidelines and practices is needed as well as feasibility and implementation science research.

  16. Towards a kernel theory of external knowledge integration for high-tech firms: exploring a failed theory test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Groen, Arend J.

    2007-01-01

    Designing information systems (ISs) requires a thorough understanding of the organizational knowledge processes in which these systems are used. Although much is known about internal organizational knowledge processes, the understanding of external knowledge processes is less developed. Hence, this

  17. Low knowledge and anecdotal use of unauthorized online HIV self-test kits among attendees at a street-based HIV rapid testing programme in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, M José; Figueroa, Carmen; Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; Ruiz, Mónica; Vallejo, Fernando; de la Fuente, Luis

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentage of potential users who know that unauthorized HIV self-tests can be purchased online and the percentage of those who have already used them, and to determine socio-demographic and behavioural correlates. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect data from attendees at a street-based HIV testing programme. Logistic regression for rare events was performed. Of the 3340 participants, 5.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5-6.0%) had knowledge of self-tests being sold online and 7.5% (95% CI 6.6-8.5%) thought they existed but had never seen them; only 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-0.9%) had ever used one. Knowing that self-tests are sold online (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% CI 2.4-5.4) and using them (OR 7.3, 95% CI 2.2-23.8) were associated with having undergone more than two previous HIV tests. Use was also associated with being neither Spanish nor Latin American (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.0) and with having a university degree (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). At the time of the study, the impact on the population of issues related to the use of unauthorized tests was very low. However, media coverage following the approval of self-testing in the USA might have changed the situation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation and enhancement of medical knowledge competency by monthly tests: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahman; Siddiqui, Nauman Saleem; Thotakura, Raja; Hasan, Syed Shafae; Luni, Faraz Khan; Sodeman, Thomas; Hinch, Bryan; Kaw, Dinkar; Hariri, Imad; Khuder, Sadik; Assaly, Ragheb

    2015-01-01

    In-training examination (ITE) has been used as a predictor of performance at the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certifying examination. ITE however may not be an ideal modality as it is held once a year and represents snapshots of performance as compared with a trend. We instituted monthly tests (MTs) to continually assess the performance of trainees throughout their residency. To determine the predictors of ABIM performance and to assess whether the MTs can be used as a tool to predict passing the ABIM examination. The MTs, core competencies, and ITE scores were analyzed for a cohort of graduates who appeared for the ABIM examination from 2010 to 2013. Logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of a successful performance at the ABIM examination. Fifty-one residents appeared for the ABIM examination between 2010 and 2013 with a pass rate of 84%. The MT score for the first year (odds ratio [OR] =1.302, CI =1.004-1.687, P=0.04) and second year (OR =1.125, CI =1.004-1.261, P=0.04) were independent predictors of ABIM performance along with the second-year ITE scores (OR =1.248, CI =1.096-1.420, P=0.001). The MT is a valuable tool to predict the performance at the ABIM examination. Not only it helps in the assessment of likelihood of passing the certification examination, it also helps to identify those residents who may require more assistance earlier during their residency. It may also highlight the areas of weakness in program curriculum and guide curriculum development.

  19. Impact of an intervention programme on knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare staff regarding pharmaceutical waste management, Gaza, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabash, M I; Hussein, R A; Mahmoud, A H; El-Borgy, M D; Abu-Hamad, B A

    2016-09-01

    To assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of healthcare staff regarding pharmaceutical waste management; and to determine the impact of an educational programme on the KAP survey items. Pre-post-test intervention study. The pre-intervention phase was performed using a sample of 530 out of 1500 healthcare workers. A predesigned interview questionnaire was used to assess KAP. Next, an educational programme was designed and offered to a subsample of 69 healthcare workers. KAP were re-assessed for the programme attendees using the same interview questionnaire, both immediately (post-test) and six months after the end of the programme (follow-up test). The parametric paired sample t-test was used to assess the difference between pre-test and follow-up test results. Poor knowledge and poor practice levels (scores 50%) detected in the pre-intervention phase were found to improve to satisfactory levels (scores ≥75%) in the follow-up phase. Attitude was found to be positive (score ≥75%) in all phases of the study. The educational programme led to a significant improvement in KAP of healthcare staff regarding pharmaceutical waste management (P<0.001). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Developing and pilot testing a comprehensive health literacy communication training for health professionals in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Marise S; Sixsmith, Jane; Koot, Jaap A R; Meijering, Louise B; van Twillert, Sacha; Giammarchi, Cinzia; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Barry, Margaret M; Doyle, Priscilla; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2018-01-01

    Skills to address different health literacy problems are lacking among health professionals. We sought to develop and pilot test a comprehensive health literacy communication training for various health professionals in Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands. Thirty health professionals participated in the study. A literature review focused on evidence-informed training-components. Focus group discussions (FGDs) explored perspectives from seventeen professionals on a prototype-program, and feedback from thirteen professionals following pilot-training. Pre-post questionnaires assessed self-rated health literacy communication skills. The literature review yielded five training-components to address functional, interactive and critical health literacy: health literacy education, gathering and providing information, shared decision-making, enabling self-management, and supporting behaviour change. In FGDs, professionals endorsed the prototype-program and reported that the pilot-training increased knowledge and patient-centred communication skills in addressing health literacy, as shown by self-rated pre-post questionnaires. A comprehensive training for health professionals in three European countries enhances perceived skills to address functional, interactive and critical health literacy. This training has potential for wider application in education and practice in Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Melanoma risk: adolescent females' perspectives on skin protection pre/post-viewing a ultraviolet photoaged photograph of their own facial sun damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastabrook, Suzette; Chang, Paul; Taylor, Myra F

    2018-03-01

    Suntanning increases skin cancer risk and prematurely ages skin. Photoageing photography is an effective means of increasing adult ultraviolet radiation (UVR) awareness and skin-protection practices. While adults' largely positive suntanning-deterrence responses to photoageing photography are well-documented, comparatively little is known about the deterrence effectiveness of photoageing photography with adolescents. To help fill this knowledge gap, in-depth interviews were collected from 10 adolescent females and were subsequently subjected to interpretive phenomenological analysis. The emergent central theme - Having a tan and looking good in the short-term is okay, however, in the longer-term you can end up looking far worse… but still a tan is worth it - and its component subthemes reveal that the adolescent female's desire for a suntan is largely appearance driven. While photoaged photography is effective in increasing their awareness of the skin damage that UVR exposure causes, it does not alter their suntanning intentions. The analysis also revealed that one of the major barriers to adolescent females' adoption of skin-protective behaviours is their belief in their own invincibility. Hence, skin-protection interventions that lessen the aura of invincibility around adolescent females' understanding of their risk for developing skin cancers are vital to reducing the incidence of malignant melanoma.

  2. Effects of Provided Trainings Regarding Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation on the Knowledge Level of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonay Göktaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Having experienced members in the team for obtaining successful outcomes in non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV is important. The aim of our study is to determine the effectiveness of training on nurse’s level of knowledge about NIMV Methods: This study was done with 70 nurses who were working at an university hospital. The data collection tools that were used were form for individual characteristics and knowledge test questions form consisting of multiple-choice for NIMV. Firstly, Pre-tests have been collected in the survey. Secondly, courses regarding NIMV indications, contraindications and patients management topics were given verbally by researchers. Finally, final tests were performed and data were collected. Analyzing for data were used frequency, percentage, wilcoxon and dependent samples Mc Nemar tests. Results: Mean age were 33.2±7.3, 87.1% were female, 68.6% had bachelor degrees. Of 47.1% were working in intensive care. 54.3% often provide care to NIMV applied patients. 94.7% mentioned that they don’t have any knowledge of NIMV applications. The differences between the pre-post training scores were higher statistically (p<0.001. It was determined that knowledge levels of nurses about NIMV indications and contraindications after training increased statistically significantly. (p<0.05. Conclusion: In our research it was understood that nurses’ knowledge has increased significantly after the training for non-invasive applications. By means of these trainings that will develop the affective, cognitive and psychomotor skills of nurses, it is expected to reveal the results of the extensive research and successful outcomes for NIMV applications will increase.

  3. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Marion; Chukwu, Emeka; Ojo, Oluwayemisi; Shekhar, Navendu; Gill, Christopher J; Salami, Habeeb; Jega, Farouk

    2015-01-01

    Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs) are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre. Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care. Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (pmobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  4. Test Your Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its technical-sounding name, this chemical has no ties to the gasoline we use in cars. Try ... Because tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient in marijuana, can bind to receptors in the hippocampus, marijuana can impair ...

  5. Brief educational interventions to improve performance on novel quality metrics in ambulatory settings in Kenya: A multi-site pre-post effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom, Robert Ryan; Onguka, Stephanie; Halestrap, Peter; McAlhaney, Maureen; Adam, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The quality of primary care delivered in resource-limited settings is low. While some progress has been made using educational interventions, it is not yet clear how to sustainably improve care for common acute illnesses in the outpatient setting. Management of urinary tract infection is particularly important in resource-limited settings, where it is commonly diagnosed and associated with high levels of antimicrobial resistance. We describe an educational programme targeting non-physician health care providers and its effects on various clinical quality metrics for urinary tract infection. We used a series of educational interventions including 1) formal introduction of a clinical practice guideline, 2) peer-to-peer chart review, and 3) peer-reviewed literature describing local antimicrobial resistance patterns. Interventions were conducted for clinical officers (N = 24) at two outpatient centers near Nairobi, Kenya over a one-year period. The medical records of 474 patients with urinary tract infections were scored on five clinical quality metrics, with the primary outcome being the proportion of cases in which the guideline-recommended antibiotic was prescribed. The results at baseline and following each intervention were compared using chi-squared tests and unpaired two-tailed T-tests for significance. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess for possible confounders. Clinician adherence to the guideline-recommended antibiotic improved significantly during the study period, from 19% at baseline to 68% following all interventions (Χ2 = 150.7, p quality score also improved significantly from an average of 2.16 to 3.00 on a five-point scale (t = 6.58, p educational interventions can dramatically improve the quality of care for routine acute illnesses in the outpatient setting. Measurement of quality metrics allows for further targeting of educational interventions depending on the needs of the providers and the community. Further study is needed to expand

  6. Assessment of the quality of antenatal care services provided by health workers using a mobile phone decision support application in northern Nigeria: a pre/post-intervention study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion McNabb

    Full Text Available Given the shortage of skilled healthcare providers in Nigeria, frontline community health extension workers (CHEWs are commonly tasked with providing maternal and child health services at primary health centers. In 2012, we introduced a mobile case management and decision support application in twenty primary health centers in northern Nigeria, and conducted a pre-test/post-test study to assess whether the introduction of the app had an effect on the quality of antenatal care services provided by this lower-level cadre.Using the CommCare mobile platform, the app dynamically guides CHEWs through antenatal care protocols and collects client data in real time. Thirteen health education audio clips are also embedded in the app for improving and standardizing client counseling. To detect changes in quality, we developed an evidence-based quality score consisting of 25 indicators, and conducted a total of 266 client exit interviews. We analyzed baseline and endline data to assess changes in the overall quality score as well as changes in the provision of key elements of antenatal care.Overall, the quality score increased from 13.3 at baseline to 17.2 at endline (p<0.0001, out of a total possible score of 25, with the most significant improvements related to health counseling, technical services provided, and quality of health education.These study results suggest that the introduction of a low-cost mobile case management and decision support application can spur behavior change and improve the quality of services provided by a lower level cadre of healthcare workers. Future research should employ a more rigorous experimental design to explore potential longer-term effects on client health outcomes.

  7. Continuing dental education in radiation protection: knowledge retention following a postgraduate course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absi, E G; Drage, N A; Thomas, H S; Newcombe, R G; Cowpe, J

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate medium-term knowledge retention of dental personnel following attendance at a postgraduate course in radiation protection. Knowledge was measured using identical pre- and post-course validated single best-answer multiple-choice instruments, administered immediately before and after training and at follow-up at 6 or 12 months. These comprise 16 questions each with 5 choices. The range of possible scores was from 0 to 16, and scores were scaled to percentages. Participants were predominantly dental practitioners, but a minority consisted of dental care professionals (dental nurses, hygienists and therapists). Of 285 participants, 272 (95.4%) completed both pre- and post-course questionnaires. One hundred and seventeen (43%) of these also completed the follow-up test, but only 109 (40%) individuals could be linked to the original course. Mean (standard deviation) pre-, post-course and follow-up-corrected percentage scores were 39.1 (16.1), 74.6 (16.9) and 58.9 (22.7), respectively. There was attrition in knowledge at follow-up: the average increase in adjusted score after training was 35.5 points, but only 56% of this was retained at follow-up. Paired t-tests confirmed that the mean score at follow-up was firmly intermediate between the pre- and post-course scores. Of the 109 participants, 7 (6%) achieved a satisfactory score pre-training, 82 (75%) immediately post-training and 41 (38%) at follow-up. There were gross differences between the levels of performance achieved for the eight subject areas tested. Immediate post-course assessments have indicated that current postgraduate courses in radiation protection are effective. However, a substantial amount of knowledge is lost by 6-12 months following course attendance. To achieve long-term knowledge retention, early or repeated reinforcement may be necessary. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Brief educational interventions to improve performance on novel quality metrics in ambulatory settings in Kenya: A multi-site pre-post effectiveness trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onguka, Stephanie; Halestrap, Peter; McAlhaney, Maureen; Adam, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Background The quality of primary care delivered in resource-limited settings is low. While some progress has been made using educational interventions, it is not yet clear how to sustainably improve care for common acute illnesses in the outpatient setting. Management of urinary tract infection is particularly important in resource-limited settings, where it is commonly diagnosed and associated with high levels of antimicrobial resistance. We describe an educational programme targeting non-physician health care providers and its effects on various clinical quality metrics for urinary tract infection. Methods We used a series of educational interventions including 1) formal introduction of a clinical practice guideline, 2) peer-to-peer chart review, and 3) peer-reviewed literature describing local antimicrobial resistance patterns. Interventions were conducted for clinical officers (N = 24) at two outpatient centers near Nairobi, Kenya over a one-year period. The medical records of 474 patients with urinary tract infections were scored on five clinical quality metrics, with the primary outcome being the proportion of cases in which the guideline-recommended antibiotic was prescribed. The results at baseline and following each intervention were compared using chi-squared tests and unpaired two-tailed T-tests for significance. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess for possible confounders. Findings Clinician adherence to the guideline-recommended antibiotic improved significantly during the study period, from 19% at baseline to 68% following all interventions (Χ2 = 150.7, p < 0.001). The secondary outcome of composite quality score also improved significantly from an average of 2.16 to 3.00 on a five-point scale (t = 6.58, p < 0.001). Interventions had different effects at different clinical sites; the primary outcome of appropriate antibiotic prescription was met 83% of the time at Penda Health, and 50% of the time at AICKH, possibly reflecting

  9. Effects of jump and balance training on knee kinematics and electromyography of female basketball athletes during a single limb drop landing: pre-post intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Yasuharu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some research studies have investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury prevention programs on knee kinematics during landing tasks; however the results were different among the studies. Even though tibial rotation is usually observed at the time of ACL injury, the effects of training programs for knee kinematics in the horizontal plane have not yet been analyzed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a jump and balance training program on knee kinematics including tibial rotation as well as on electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings in female athletes. Methods Eight female basketball athletes participated in the experiment. All subjects performed a single limb landing at three different times: the initial test, five weeks later, and one week after completing training. The jump and balance training program lasted for five weeks. Knee kinematics and simultaneous electromyography of the rectus femoris and Hamstrings before training were compared with those measured after completing the training program. Results After training, regarding the position of the knee at foot contact, the knee flexion angle for the Post-training trial (mean (SE: 24.4 (2.1 deg was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (19.3 (2.5 deg (p Conclusions The jump and balance training program successfully increased knee flexion and hamstring activity of female athletes during landing, and has the possibility of producing partial effects to avoid the characteristic knee position observed in ACL injury, thereby preventing injury. However, the expected changes in frontal and transverse kinematics of the knee were not observed.

  10. Effects of jump and balance training on knee kinematics and electromyography of female basketball athletes during a single limb drop landing: pre-post intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yasuharu; Ida, Hirofumi; Akai, Masami; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-07-14

    Some research studies have investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs on knee kinematics during landing tasks; however the results were different among the studies. Even though tibial rotation is usually observed at the time of ACL injury, the effects of training programs for knee kinematics in the horizontal plane have not yet been analyzed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a jump and balance training program on knee kinematics including tibial rotation as well as on electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings in female athletes. Eight female basketball athletes participated in the experiment. All subjects performed a single limb landing at three different times: the initial test, five weeks later, and one week after completing training. The jump and balance training program lasted for five weeks. Knee kinematics and simultaneous electromyography of the rectus femoris and Hamstrings before training were compared with those measured after completing the training program. After training, regarding the position of the knee at foot contact, the knee flexion angle for the Post-training trial (mean (SE): 24.4 (2.1) deg) was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (19.3 (2.5) deg) (p training trial (40.2 (1.9) deg) was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (34.3 (2.5) deg) (p training. A significant increase was also found in the activity of the hamstrings 50 ms before foot contact (p jump and balance training program successfully increased knee flexion and hamstring activity of female athletes during landing, and has the possibility of producing partial effects to avoid the characteristic knee position observed in ACL injury, thereby preventing injury. However, the expected changes in frontal and transverse kinematics of the knee were not observed.

  11. Urban-rural inequality regarding drug prescriptions in primary care facilities - a pre-post comparison of the National Essential Medicines Scheme of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiang; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Liu, Zhiyong; Sun, Ju

    2015-07-30

    To assess the impact of the National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) with respect to urban-rural inequalities regarding drug prescriptions in primary care facilities. A stratified two-stage random sampling strategy was used to sample 23,040 prescriptions from 192 primary care facilities from 2009 to 2010. Difference-in-Difference (DID) analyses were performed to test the association between NEMS and urban-rural gaps in prescription patterns. Between-Group Variance and Theil Index were calculated to measure urban-rural absolute and relative disparities in drug prescriptions. The use of the Essential Medicines List (EML) achieved a compliance rate of up to 90% in both urban and rural facilities. An overall reduction of average prescription cost improved economic access to drugs for patients in both areas. However, we observed an increased urban-rural disparity in average expenditure per prescription. The rate of antibiotics and glucocorticoids prescription remained high, despite a reduced disparity between urban and rural facilities. The average incidence of antibiotic prescription increased slightly in urban facilities (62 to 63%) and reduced in rural facilities (67% to 66%). The urban-rural disparity in the use of parenteral administration (injections and infusions) increased, albeit at a high level in both areas (44%-52%). NEMS interventions are effective in reducing the overall average prescription costs. Despite the increased use of the EML, indicator performances with respect to rational drug prescribing and use remain poor and exceed the WHO/INRUD recommended cutoff values and worldwide benchmarks. There is an increased gap between urban and rural areas in the use of parenteral administration and expenditure per prescription.

  12. Developing and Evaluating a Paper-and-Pencil Test to Assess Components of Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Sophie; Borowski, Andreas; Fischer, Hans E.; Gess-Newsome, Julie; von Aufschnaiter, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' professional knowledge is assumed to be a key variable for effective teaching. As teacher education has the goal to enhance professional knowledge of current and future teachers, this knowledge should be described and assessed. Nevertheless, only a limited number of studies quantitatively measures physics teachers' professional…

  13. Effectiveness of resistance training in combination with botulinum toxin-A on hand and arm use in children with cerebral palsy: a pre-post intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvrum Ann-Kristin G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of additional resistance training after use of Botulinum Toxin-A (BoNT-A on the upper limbs in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Methods Ten children with CP (9–17 years with unilaterally affected upper limbs according to Manual Ability Classification System II were assigned to two intervention groups. One group received BoNT-A treatment (group B, the other BoNT-A plus eight weeks resistance training (group BT. Hand and arm use were evaluated by means of the Melbourne assessment of unilateral upper limb function (Melbourne and Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA. Measures of muscle strength, muscle tone, and active range of motion were used to assess neuromuscular body function. Measurements were performed before and two and five months after intervention start. Change scores and differences between the groups in such scores were subjected to Mann–Whitney U and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests, respectively. Results Both groups had very small improvements in AHA and Melbourne two months after BoNT-A injections, without differences between groups. There were significant, or close to significant, short-term treatment effects in favour of group BT for muscle strength in injected muscles (elbow flexion strength, p = .08 and non-injected muscles (elbow extension and supination strength, both p = .05, without concomitant increases in muscle tone. Active supination range improved in both groups, but more so in group BT (p = .09. There were no differences between the groups five months after intervention start. Conclusions Resistance training strengthens non-injected muscles temporarily and may reduce short-term strength loss that results from BoNT-A injections without increasing muscle tone. Moreover, additional resistance training may increase active range of motion to a greater extent than BoNT-A alone. None of the improvements in neuromuscular impairments further

  14. The facilitative effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visuospatial working memory in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy: a pre-post sham-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI-JEN WU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM can lead to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN and cognitive deficits that manifest as peripheral and central neuropathy, respectively. In this study we investigated the relationship between visuospatial working memory (VSWM capacity and DPN severity, and attempted to improve VSWM in DPN patients via the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Sixteen DPN patients and sixteen age- and education-matched healthy control subjects received Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA for baseline cognitive assessment. A forward- and backward-recall computerized Corsi block tapping task (CBT, both with and without a concurrent motor interference task was used to measure VSWM capacity. Each DPN patient underwent a pre-treatment CBT, followed by tDCS or sham treatment, then a post-treatment CBT on two separate days. We found that although patients with severe DPN (Dyck’s grade 2a or 2b showed comparable general intelligence scores on WAIS-IV as their age- and education-matched healthy counterparts, they nonetheless showed mild cognitive impairment on MOCA and working memory deficit on digit-span test of WAIS-IV. Furthermore, patients’ peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV was positively correlated with their VSWM span in the most difficult CBT condition that involved backward-recall with motor interference such that patients with worse NCV also had lower VSWM span. Most importantly, anodal tDCS over the right DLPFC was able to improve low-performing patients’ VSWM span to be on par with the high-performers, thereby eliminating the correlation between NCV and VSWM. In summary, these findings suggest that 1 mild cognitive impairment and severe peripheral neuropathy can coexist with unequal severity in diabetic patients, 2 the positive correlation of VSWM and NCV suggests a link between peripheral and central neuropathies and 3 anodal tDCS over the right DLPFC can

  15. Gamma-ray spectrometry combined with acceptable knowledge (GSAK). A technique for characterization of certain remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. Part 2. Testing and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwell, J.K.; McIlwain, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry combined with acceptable knowledge (GSAK) is a technique for the characterization of certain remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes. GSAK uses gamma-ray spectrometry to quantify a portion of the fission product inventory of RH-TRU wastes. These fission product results are then coupled with calculated inventories derived from acceptable process knowledge to characterize the radionuclide content of the assayed wastes. GSAK has been evaluated and tested through several test exercises. These tests and their results are described; while the former paper in this issue presents the methodology, equipment and techniques. (author)

  16. Development and testing of a novel survey to assess Stakeholder-driven Community Diffusion of childhood obesity prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Ariella R; Hennessy, Erin; Hammond, Ross A; Allender, Steven; Gillman, Matthew W; Kasman, Matt; McGlashan, Jaimie; Millar, Lynne; Owen, Brynle; Pachucki, Mark C; Swinburn, Boyd; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D

    2018-05-31

    Involving groups of community stakeholders (e.g., steering committees) to lead community-wide health interventions appears to support multiple outcomes ranging from policy and systems change to individual biology. While numerous tools are available to measure stakeholder characteristics, many lack detail on reliability and validity, are not context specific, and may not be sensitive enough to capture change over time. This study describes the development and reliability of a novel survey to measure Stakeholder-driven Community Diffusion via assessment of stakeholders' social networks, knowledge, and engagement about childhood obesity prevention. This study was completed in three phases. Phase 1 included conceptualization and online survey development through literature reviews and expert input. Phase 2 included a retrospective study with stakeholders from two completed whole-of-community interventions. Between May-October 2015, 21 stakeholders from the Shape Up Somerville and Romp & Chomp interventions recalled their social networks, knowledge, and engagement pre-post intervention. We also assessed one-week test-retest reliability of knowledge and engagement survey modules among Shape Up Somerville respondents. Phase 3 included survey modifications and a second prospective reliability assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed in May 2016 among 13 stakeholders involved in ongoing interventions in Victoria, Australia. In Phase 1, we developed a survey with 7, 20 and 50 items for the social networks, knowledge, and engagement survey modules, respectively. In the Phase 2 retrospective study, Shape Up Somerville and Romp & Chomp networks included 99 and 54 individuals. Pre-post Shape Up Somerville and Romp & Chomp mean knowledge scores increased by 3.5 points (95% CI: 0.35-6.72) and (- 0.42-7.42). Engagement scores did not change significantly (Shape Up Somerville: 1.1 points (- 0.55-2.73); Romp & Chomp: 0.7 points (- 0.43-1.73)). Intraclass correlation

  17. Knowledge and Concern about STIs/HIV and Sociodemographic Variables Associated with Getting Tested for HIV Among the General Population in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; de Araújo, Ludgleydson Fernandes; de la Paz Bermúdez, María

    2018-07-04

    HIV testing is important in terms of prevention and treatment. However, HIV testing rates in the Spanish general population remains low. Therefore, HIV testing promotion constitutes a key issue. A high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS is associated with having been tested for HIV. The general aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of people who had ever been tested for HIV in Spain. The sample consisted of 1,106 participants from the general population - 60.0% females and 40.0% males - aged between 17 and 55 years old. The assessment instruments were a questionnaire on sociodemographic data and HIV testing, a scale of knowledge about STIs and HIV/AIDS, and a scale of concern about STIs/HIV. Results showed that greater knowledge about STIs and HIV was associated with a greater likelihood of being tested for HIV (OR = .77; 95.0% CI = .73-.82; p concern about HIV/AIDS decreased the likelihood of not having been tested for HIV (OR = .87; 95.0% CI = .83-.92; p concern about STIs was, the lower their likelihood of not having been tested for HIV was (OR = .87; 95.0% CI = .83-.91; p < .05). It is necessary to promote HIV testing in the general population as well as to consider their socio-demographic and psychological characteristics.

  18. Comparison of graduate-entry and direct school leaver student performance on an applied dental knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, K; Zahra, D; Tredwin, C

    2017-11-01

    To compare the academic performance of graduate-entry and direct school leavers in an undergraduate dental programme. This study examined the results of students in applied dental knowledge (ADK) progress tests conducted during two academic years. A mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the performance of graduate-entry and direct school leavers. ADK was treated as a repeated measures variable, and the outcome variable of interest was percentage score on the ADK. The results show statistically significant main effects for ADK [F (1,113) = 61.58, P < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.35], Cohort [F (1,113) = 88.57, P < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.44] and Entry [F (1,113) = 11.31, P = 0.001, η 2 p = 0.09]. That is, students do better on each subsequent test (main effect of ADK), students in later years of the programme perform better than those in earlier years (main effect of cohort), and graduate-entry students outperform direct school leavers. This is the first study to explore the differences in the academic performance of graduate-entry and direct school leavers in an undergraduate dental programme. The results show that the academic performance of graduate students was better than the direct school leavers in years 2 and 3. Further research is required to compare the performance of students longitudinally across the entire duration of undergraduate dental programmes and evaluate whether this difference persists throughout. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Contributions to a herpetological community of practice: Funds of knowledge of Lumbee youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mary Callis

    ASH, MARY CALLIS, Ph.D. Contributions to a Herpetological Community of Practice: Funds of Knowledge of Lumbee Youth. (2015) Directed by Dr. Catherine Matthews. 348 pp. American Indian K-12 students comprise less than 1% of the student population in the US. In southeastern North Carolina, the largest North Carolina tribe of American Indians, Lumbees, live and attend schools where they often perform poorly on standardized tests. The Lumbee Indians generally live in areas that are rural and economically disadvantaged and they speak a dialect of English, which is seldom heard except near their homeland. Away from their homeland, Lumbee speech is often construed as non-Standard English. The Lumbees have close knit family relationships and where you come from and where you live are important facts to assess. Because Lumbees live in rural areas, they are often involved in outdoor activities such as hunting, fishing, and gardening. They have a strong sense of place, particularly regarding the Lumber River, which runs through their homeland. Historically, schools, community organizations and universities have not provided sufficient informal science education opportunities for Lumbee youth. The purpose of this study was to document the experiences of nine Lumbee youths at a residential, week-long herpetological education experience for Lumbee students and others. The Funds of Knowledge (FoK) that these students brought to this experience and how these FoK were integrated into the herpetology program's Community of Practice (CoP) were examined. A mixed methods, ethnographically inspired, single case study was conducted and both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Data collected included individual interviews, pre/post-tests, pre/post-surveys, observations and field notes. Analyses of qualitative and quantitative data demonstrated specific FoK of these Lumbee youths and the strategies they employed to be dynamic, contributing members of the informal science

  20. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  1. Dilemmatic Spaces: High-Stakes Testing and the Possibilities of Collaborative Knowledge Work to Generate Learning Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parlo; Märtsin, Mariann; Glasswell, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines collaborative researcher-practitioner knowledge work around assessment data in culturally diverse, low socio-economic school communities in Queensland, Australia. Specifically, the paper draws on interview accounts about the work of a cohort of school-based researchers who acted as mediators bridging knowledge flows between a…

  2. Stop the drama Downunder: a social marketing campaign increases HIV/sexually transmitted infection knowledge and testing in Australian gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Alisa; Hellard, Margaret; Guy, Rebecca; El-Hayek, Carol; Gouillou, Maelenn; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Nguyen, Phuong; Stoovè, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Since 2000, notifications of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have increased significantly in Australian gay men. We evaluated the impact of a social marketing campaign in 2008-2009 aimed to increase health-seeking behavior and STI testing and enhance HIV/STI knowledge in gay men. A convenience sample of 295 gay men (18-66 years of age) was surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Participants were asked about campaign awareness, HIV/STI knowledge, health-seeking behavior, and HIV/STI testing. We examined associations between recent STI testing and campaign awareness. Trends in HIV/STI monthly tests at 3 clinics with a high case load of gay men were also assessed. Logistic and Poisson regressions and χ tests were used. Both unaided (43%) and aided (86%) campaign awareness was high. In a multivariable logistic regression, awareness of the campaign (aided) was independently associated with having had any STI test within the past 6 months (prevalence ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-2.4. Compared with the 13 months before the campaign, clinic data showed significant increasing testing rates for HIV, syphilis, and chlamydia among HIV-negative gay men during the initial and continued campaign periods. These findings suggest that the campaign was successful in achieving its aims of increasing health-seeking behavior, STI testing, and HIV/STI knowledge among gay men in Victoria.

  3. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  4. Opinion and knowledge among hospital medical staff regarding diagnosis of diabetes and proper usage of a specific test tube for glucose analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Dayan, Y; Bogaiov, A; Boaz, M; Landau, Z; Wainstein, J

    2014-02-01

    Accuracy of blood sugar values, as examined by glucose analysis, has significant importance on the diagnosis of diabetes and follow up of diabetes treatment. Usage of a designated test tube significantly improves the accuracy of measurement. Knowledge of the medical staff is a major determinant in the current usage of such a technology. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge exhibited by medical staff in the diabetes field and specifically for the usage of a designated tube to test blood glucose level. A prospective study. The staff of the internal and surgical departments and outpatient clinics at the Wolfson Medical Center completed a questionnaire that assessed the level of knowledge about the designated glucose test tube, other randomly used test tubes, the parameters that influence the blood glucose values in a non-designated tube and the diagnosis of diabetes. A number of 160 questionnaires (50% from internal departments, 36% from surgical departments and 14% from outpatient clinics) were analysed. The majority of the staff members (65%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed by glucose levels in blood. Of the 35% that did not know, 91% were nurses. The majority (75%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed during fasting conditions; however, most of the staff indicated that 12 h is needed. Only 25% knew of the designated test tube, and most of the staff indicated that a regular chemistry tube was the tube of choice for them. The staff exhibited poor level of knowledge regarding the parameters that influence the quality of the test. Staff members are not aware of the various aspects of diabetes diagnosis and the designated test tube for glucose measurements, and most of them use a tube that gives inaccurate measurements, therefore there is an urgent need to improve diabetes knowledge among staff members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bilingual approach to online cancer genetics education for Deaf American Sign Language users produces greater knowledge and confidence than English text only: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Berman, Barbara A; Wolfson, Alicia; Duarte, Lionel; Venne, Vickie L; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2017-01-01

    Deaf American Sign Language-users (ASL) have limited access to cancer genetics information they can readily understand, increasing risk for health disparities. We compared effectiveness of online cancer genetics information presented using a bilingual approach (ASL with English closed captioning) and a monolingual approach (English text). Bilingual modality would increase cancer genetics knowledge and confidence to create a family tree; education would interact with modality. We used a parallel 2:1 randomized pre-post study design stratified on education. 150 Deaf ASL-users ≥18 years old with computer and internet access participated online; 100 (70 high, 30 low education) and 50 (35 high, 15 low education) were randomized to the bilingual and monolingual modalities. Modalities provide virtually identical content on creating a family tree, using the family tree to identify inherited cancer risk factors, understanding how cancer predisposition can be inherited, and the role of genetic counseling and testing for prevention or treatment. 25 true/false items assessed knowledge; a Likert scale item assessed confidence. Data were collected within 2 weeks before and after viewing the information. Significant interaction of language modality, education, and change in knowledge scores was observed (p = .01). High education group increased knowledge regardless of modality (Bilingual: p information than a monolingual approach. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge and use of unauthorized HIV self-test kits among men who have sex with men in Spain, following approval of an over-the-counter self-test in the U.S: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutentakis, Konstantinos; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Ruiz, Mónica; Agustí, Cristina; de la Fuente, Luis; Belza, María José

    2016-07-08

    Shortly after the approval of an over-the-counter HIV self-test in the US, we conducted a study to estimate the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain who knew that unauthorized HIV self-tests could be purchased online, and the proportion that had already used these tests, as well as their socio-demographic and behavioural correlates. Between September 2012 and February 2013, MSM users of gay dating websites were invited to complete an online questionnaire. We calculated estimates of the knowledge and use of unauthorized HIV self-testing and assessed the associated factors by rare event logit regression models. Among 8620 participants, 4.2 % (95 % CI:3.8-4.6) knew they could buy an unauthorized HIV self-test kit online, and 12.7 % (95 % CI:12.0-13.4) thought that such a test might exist, although they had never seen one. Only 0.7 % (95 % CI:0.5-0.9) had ever self-tested. In the multivariable analysis, knowledge of online availability of self-tests was associated with being a non-Latin American foreigner, having at least two previous HIV tests, intending to test for HIV in the next year, and knowing about U.S. approval of self-testing. Ever-use of HIV self-testing was associated with being over 34 years of age, living outside Spain during the last 12 months, and knowing about U.S. approval of self-testing. Both knowledge and use of unauthorized HIV self-testing among MSM in Spain was very low among HIV negative or untested MSM in Spain. The recent approval in the United Kingdom and France might increase the number of MSM seeking such testing and possibly using unauthorized test kits not meeting quality standards.

  7. Governing by Testing: Circulation, Psychometric Knowledge, Experts and the "Alliance for Progress" in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the activities, members, and effects of an inter-American expert network for the diffusion of psychometric knowledge, specifically of standardized aptitude testing for university admission in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s. Within the framework of educational transfer studies, the role of international,…

  8. [Effect of a simulation-based education on cardio-pulmonary emergency care knowledge, clinical performance ability and problem solving process in new nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Hee; Jang, Keum Seong

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of simulation-based education regarding care in a cardio-pulmonary emergency care as related to knowledge, clinical performance ability, and problem solving process in new nurses. An equivalent control group pre-post test experimental design was used. Fifty new nurses were recruited, 26 nurses for the experimental group and 24 nurses for the control group. The simulation-based cardio-pulmonary emergency care education included lecture, skill training, team-based practice, and debriefing, and it was implemented with the experimental group for a week in May, 2009. Data were analyzed using frequency, ratio, chi-square, Fisher's exact probability and t-test with the SPSS program. The experimental group who had the simulation-based education showed significantly higher know-ledge (t=5.76, pproblem solving process was not included (t=1.11, p=.138). The results indicate that a simulation-based education is an effective teaching method to improve knowledge and clinical performance ability in new nurses learning cardio-pulmonary emergency care. Further study is needed to identify the effect of a simulation-based team discussion on cognitive outcome of clinical nurses such as problem solving skills.

  9. An evaluation of the telehealth facilitation of diabetes and cardiovascular care in remote Australian Indigenous communities: - protocol for the telehealth eye and associated medical services network [TEAMSnet] project, a pre-post study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, Laima; Jenkins, Alicia; Keech, Anthony; Ryan, Chris; Bursell, Sven-Erik

    2017-01-05

    Despite substantial investment in detection, early intervention and evidence-based treatments, current management strategies for diabetes-associated retinopathy and cardiovascular disease are largely based on real-time and face-to-face approaches. There are limited data re telehealth facilitation in type 2 diabetes management. Therefore, we aim to investigate efficacy of telehealth facilitation of diabetes and cardiovascular disease care in high-risk vulnerable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in remote/very remote Australia. Using a pre-post intervention design, 600 Indigenous Australians with type 2 diabetes will be recruited from three primary-care health-services in the Northern Territory. Diabetes status will be based on clinical records. There will be four technological interventions: 1. Baseline retinal imaging [as a real-time patient education/engagement tool and telehealth screening strategy]. 2. A lifestyle survey tool administered at ≈ 6-months. 3. At ≈ 6- and 18-months, an electronic cardiovascular disease and diabetes decision-support tool based on current guidelines in the Standard Treatment Manual of the Central Australian Rural Practitioner's Association to generate clinical recommendations. 4. Mobile tablet technology developed to enhance participant engagement in self-management. Data will include: Pre-intervention clinical and encounter-history data, baseline retinopathy status, decision-support and survey data/opportunistic mobile tablet encounter data. The primary outcome is increased participant adherence to clinical appointments, a marker of engagement and self-management. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed. Remoteness is a major barrier to provision and uptake of best-practice chronic disease management. Telehealth, beyond videoconferencing of consultations, could facilitate evidence-based management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Indigenous Australians and serve as a model for other conditions. Australia

  10. Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Lydersen, Stian; Åsheim, Merethe; Fossum, Sturla

    2016-10-26

    Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1 st - 3 rd grade (age 6-8 years) assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls). Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.

  11. Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Kirkhaug

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1st – 3rd grade (age 6–8 years assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter–Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls. Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. Results In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. Conclusion The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) and Preferences for Risk Information among High School Students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgsson, Susanne; Sahlin, Ellika; Iwarsson, Moa; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Gustavsson, Peter; Iwarsson, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) was recently introduced for prenatal testing of genetic disorders. Cell-free fetal DNA is present in maternal blood during pregnancy and enables detection of fetal chromosome aberrations in a maternal blood sample. The public perspective to this new, simple method has not been illuminated. The views of young people (i.e. future parents) are important to develop suitable counseling strategies regarding prenatal testing. The aim was to explore Swedish high school students' attitudes, knowledge and preferences regarding NIPT. A questionnaire was completed by 305 students recruited from one high school in Stockholm, November and December 2014. Most students (80 %) considered prenatal testing as good. The majority (65 %) was positive or very positive towards NIPT and 62 % stated that they potentially would like to undergo the test if they or their partner was pregnant. The vast majority (94 %) requested further information about NIPT. Most students (61 %) preferred verbal information, whereas 20 % preferred information via the Internet. The majority of the high school students was positive towards prenatal testing and most was positive towards NIPT. Further, information was requested by the vast majority before making a decision about NIPT. Most of the students preferred verbal information and to a lesser extent information via the Internet. The attitudes, knowledge and preferences for risk information concerning NIPT in young adults are important, in order to increase knowledge on how to educate and inform future parents.

  13. Do School-Based Tutoring Programs Significantly Improve Student Performance on Standardized Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Terri; Henderson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This study used a pre-post, nonequivalent control group design to examine the impact of an in-district, after-school tutoring program on eighth grade students' standardized test scores in language arts and mathematics. Students who had scored in the near-passing range on either the language arts or mathematics aspect of a standardized test at the…

  14. The frequency of having pap-smear tests among women between 15-64 years old and the evaluation of the level of their knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevil, S.; Kevser, O.; Aleattin, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Pap smear testing among women and to evaluate their level of knowledge about the test and other relevant factors. Methods: The study comprised women who presented to the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Polyclinic of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, between April 1 and 30, 2012. The questionnaire was developed in line with the objectives of the study. They were filled by the participants who were supervised during the process. Women who had had at least one Pap smear test in life were considered to have taken a Pap smear test , and those who had heard of the test were accepted as women who k new of the Pap smear test . Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0. Chi-square test was used for analyses, and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The age of 601 subjects ranged between 15 and 64 years, with a mean of 31.09+-10.49 years. Of the total, 115 (19.1%) had taken a Pap smear test before and 293 (48.8%) knew of the test. The proportion of the women who had had a Pap smear test was higher among those who were over 30 years of age (n=73; 63.47%), had post-high school educational degrees (n=68; 59.13%), had moderate familial income status (n=74; 64.34%), were married (n=109; 94.78%), had first sexual experience after 25 years of age(n=42; 36.52%), and were not using a contraceptive method (n=97; 84.34%) (p<0.05 for each). Besides, more women with previous knowledge of the test had taken the test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The subjects did not have sufficient information on Pap smear and the frequency of having a test was low. Raising awareness would prove beneficial. (author)

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of voluntary HIV counselling and testing among rural migrants in central China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Zhang, Jinling; Gao, Meiyang; He, Na; Detels, Roger

    2012-04-01

    To document knowledge, attitudes and practices of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants in central China. A cross-sectional study with face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Among 1280 participants, 87.9% reported having had sexual intercourse during their lifetime, with 69% of singles reporting having had sexual intercourse and 49.1% having had sex in the past month. Only 21% always used condoms, 84.4% knew HIV infection was diagnosed through blood testing, 56.6% had heard of VCT, but only 3.8% perceived their own risk for HIV infection. Only 43 (2.3%) had ever been tested for HIV, and none had ever been tested at a VCT site. About two-thirds (64.5%) would be willing to use VCT services upon awareness of HIV risk. A logistic regression model showed that females, those having little knowledge of HIV/AIDS, those unwilling to work with HIV-infected individuals, never having been tested for HIV and having low awareness regarding HIV risk were less willing to use VCT. The results of this study indicated that much greater efforts are needed to improve HIV/AIDS and VCT knowledge, to promote safer sex and to improve VCT acceptance among rural migrants in central China, particularly those engaging in risky behaviours.

  16. Knowledge, group-based medical mistrust, future expectations, and perceived disadvantages of medical genetic testing: perspectives of Black African immigrants/refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, A; Kelber, S; Millon-Underwood, S; Stevens, P; Townsend, L

    2014-01-01

    Reasons for low participation of ethnic minorities in genetic studies are multifactorial and often poorly understood. Based on published literature, participation in genetic testing is low among Black African immigrants/refugees although they are purported to bear disproportionate disease burden. Thus, research involving Black African immigrant/refugee populations that examine their perspectives on participating in genetic studies is needed. This report examines and describes the knowledge of medical genetics, group-based medical mistrust, and future expectations of genetic research and the influence of these measures on the perceived disadvantages of genetic testing among Black African immigrants/refugees. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a nonprobability sample (n = 212) of Black African immigrants/refugees was administered a questionnaire. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 61 years (mean = 38.91, SD = 9.78). The questionnaire consisted of 5 instruments: (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) Knowledge of Medical Genetics scale, (c) Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale, (d) Future Expectations/Anticipated Consequences of Genetics Research scale, and (e) Perceived Disadvantages of Genetic Testing scale. Participants were concerned that genetic research may result in scientists 'playing God,' interfering with the natural order of life. In multivariate analyses, the perceived disadvantages of genetic testing increased as medical mistrust and anticipated negative impacts of genetic testing increased. Increase in genetic knowledge contributed to a decrease in perceived disadvantages. Our findings suggest that recruitment of Black African immigrants/refugees in genetic studies should address potential low knowledge of genetics, concerns about medical mistrust, the expectations/anticipated consequences of genetic research, and the perceived disadvantages of genetic testing.

  17. Parental Support and Knowledge and Adolescents' Sexual Health: Testing Two Mediational Models in a National Dutch Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Hanneke; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Woertman, Liesbeth; Keijsers, Loes; Meijer, Suzanne; Meeus, Wim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated age- and gender-specific associations between parental support and parental knowledge of the child's whereabouts, on the one hand, and sexual experience and sexual health (the ability to have safe and pleasurable sexual experiences) on the other hand. A representative Dutch sample of 1,263 males and 1,353 females (aged…

  18. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  19. Genetic testing for susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer: evaluating the impact of a direct-to-consumer marketing campaign on physicians' knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melanie F; Chang, Man-Huei; Jorgensen, Cynthia; Whitworth, William; Kassim, Sidibe; Litch, James A; Armstrong, Lori; Bernhardt, Barbara; Faucett, W Andrew; Irwin, Debra; Mouchawar, Judy; Bradley, Linda A

    2006-06-01

    To assess the impact of direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic testing for risk of breast and ovarian cancer by a biotechnology company on: 1) physicians' knowledge; 2) reasons given when asking questions about the test; and 3) physicians' practice patterns in two pilot cities where the campaign took place and two control cities. Survey of randomly selected family physicians, internists, obstetrician-gynecologists, and oncologists from May 1-May 21, 2003. Physicians' knowledge did not differ between pilot and control cities. Significant differences (pilot versus control cities) were seen in the reasons patients gave for asking questions about testing. More physicians in pilot cities (14%) than control cities (7%) reported an increase in the number of times they ordered genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer risk in the previous 6 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Awareness of professional guidelines and being in a practice with a policy on genetic testing for risk of breast and ovarian cancer were associated with physicians' behaviors and interest among patients in testing. Given the complexity and limitations of genetic testing for risk of breast and ovarian cancer, the development and broad dissemination of clinical guidelines and education of physicians are needed.

  20. Impact of health education on knowledge and practices about menstruation among adolescent school girls of rural part of district Ambala, Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Arora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of health education on knowledge regarding menstruation, misconceptions related to it as the prevalence of RTI is still very high in India.  Aims: To study the existing level of status of hygiene, knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent school girls and to assess the change in their knowledge level and practices after health education. Materials A community-based pre and post interventional study was conducted among 200 adolescents’ girls of class IX and X of rural part of district Ambala. Multistage random sampling technique was used to draw the representative sample. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered and later health education regarding menstruation and healthy menstrual practices was imparted to the girls. Post-test was done after 3 months to assess the impact of health education. Pre- and post-intervention, data were compared using the paired t test, z test for proportions, chi-squared test for paired proportions. Difference between Proportions of the pre-post data and its 95% confidence interval has been calculated of the findings. SPSS for Windows software version 20 (IBM, Chicago, USA have been used for data analysis. The level of significance has been considered at p value 0.05 while in the post-test preceding health education, significant improvements were observed in their practices. Conclusion: Overall significant improvement was found in knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent school girls.

  1. The effect of a translating research into practice intervention to promote use of evidence-based fall prevention interventions in hospitalized adults: A prospective pre-post implementation study in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titler, Marita G; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret A; Ripley, Robert; Tsodikov, Alex; Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Falls are a major public health problem internationally. Many hospitals have implemented fall risk assessment tools, but few have implemented interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks. Little research has been done to examine the effect of implementing evidence-based fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors in hospitalized adults. To evaluate the impact of implementing, in 3 U.S. hospitals, evidence-based fall prevention interventions targeted to patient-specific fall risk factors (Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle). Fall rates, fall injury rates, types of fall injuries and adoption of the Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle were compared prior to and following implementation. A prospective pre-post implementation cohort design. Thirteen adult medical-surgical units from three community hospitals in the Midwest region of the U.S. Nurses who were employed at least 20hours/week, provided direct patient care, and licensed as an RN (n=157 pre; 140 post); and medical records of patients 21years of age or older, who received care on the study unit for more than 24hours during the designated data collection period (n=390 pre and post). A multi-faceted Translating Research Into Practice Intervention was used to implement the Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle composed of evidence-based fall prevention interventions designed to mitigate patient-specific fall risks. Dependent variables (fall rates, fall injury rates, fall injury type, use of Targeted Risk Factor Fall Prevention Bundle) were collected at baseline, and following completion of the 15month implementation phase. Nurse questionnaires included the Stage of Adoption Scale, and the Use of Research Findings in Practice Scale to measure adoption of evidence-based fall prevention practices. A Medical Record Abstract Form was used to abstract data about use of targeted risk-specific fall prevention interventions. Number of falls, and number and

  2. Testing the impact of a multimedia video CD of patient-controlled analgesia on pain knowledge and pain relief in patients receiving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Yang, Hui-Ju

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a multimedia video CD (VCD) of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and test its effects on pain knowledge and pain relief in patients receiving surgery. This multimedia VCD of PCA was created to convey fundamental knowledge to both patients and their family members and help patients properly utilize PCA devices to relieve pain and improve recovery. The content of multimedia VCD of PCA included pre-admission pain education, introduction of PCA, nursing care procedures, and questions and answers. This study used a quasi-experimental research design to test effects of the multimedia education program in the experimental group of 30 subjects compared to the control subjects of equal number (without the multimedia VCD of PCA). (1) The intervention of multimedia VCD of PCA resulted in a statistically significant difference in pain knowledge between the experimental and control groups. (2) Subjects in the experimental group obtained a better outcome of pain relief compared to control subjects. (3) Subjects in the experimental group indicated that the multimedia VCD of PCA indeed helped them effectively operate their PCA devices to relieve surgery pain. The clinical application of the multimedia VCD of PCA could help patients improve knowledge on pain, learn how to use PCA devices, achieve proper pain relief, and increase effectiveness of recovery activities.

  3. Knowledge from the web. Putting Wikipedia to the test; Wissen aus dem Netz. Wikipedia auf dem Pruefstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Christian [atw Redaktion, Hattingen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    On January 15, 2011 Wikipedia, the star project of the Web 2.0 Community, celebrated its 10th birthday. Wikipedia has made not only friends over this decade. As a source of knowledge Wikipedia soon became popular among users of the Internet. Educational institutions, however, take a more sceptical view of developments, as they have made students unwilling to conduct literature searches and carefully investigate in all directions available. Students rely 100% on knowledge stored in the Internet without critically observing or examining the information found. To the normal Internet user, however, the encyclopedia reflects the Web 2.0 model. A huge community is engaged in updating and extending knowledge in the database. Moreover, there are no restrictions on taking part in the project. Literally anybody may participate. The subject portals in the ''Technology'' section in Wikipedia contain a ''Nuclear Power'' column. This subject portal is outstanding because of its large number of entries. Information can be found about all areas of nuclear technology, although a real absence of bias is difficult to detect. According to reports, this category of information is characterized by regular skirmishes about the correctness and absence of bias in contents. (orig.)

  4. Improvement of cardiovascular risk prediction: time to review current knowledge, debates, and fundamentals on how to assess test characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanens, Michel; Ackermann, Franz; Spence, John David; Darioli, Roger; Rodondi, Nicolas; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Pencina, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment might be improved with the addition of emerging, new tests derived from atherosclerosis imaging, laboratory tests or functional tests. This article reviews relative risk, odds ratios, receiver-operating curves, posttest risk calculations based on likelihood ratios, the net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination. This serves to determine whether a new test has an added clinical value on top of conventional risk testing and how this can be verified statistically. Two clinically meaningful examples serve to illustrate novel approaches. This work serves as a review and basic work for the development of new guidelines on cardiovascular risk prediction, taking into account emerging tests, to be proposed by members of the 'Taskforce on Vascular Risk Prediction' under the auspices of the Working Group 'Swiss Atherosclerosis' of the Swiss Society of Cardiology in the future.

  5. Impact of an infection-control program on nurses' knowledge and attitude in pediatric intensive care units at Cairo University hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Yasmine S; Labib, John R; Abouelhamd, Walaa A

    2014-04-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is a prominent problem among patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) as it could result in significant morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and increase in medical care costs. The role of nurses is extremely important in preventing hazards and sequela of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a health education program regarding infection-control measures on nurses' knowledge and attitude in PICUs at Cairo University hospitals. This was a pre-post test interventional study in which a convenient sample of 125 nurses was taken from the nursing staff in different PICUs at Cairo University hospitals. The study took place in three phases. In the first phase, the nursing staff's knowledge, attitude and practice concerning infection-control measures were tested using a self-administered pretested questionnaire and an observation checklist. The second phase included health education sessions in the form of powerpoint and video presentations; and in the third phase the nurses' knowledge and attitude on infection-control measures were reassessed. A significantly higher level of knowledge was revealed in the postintervention phase as compared with the preintervention phase with regards to the types of nosocomial infections (94.4 vs. 76.8%, Pcontrol nosocomial infections (89.6 vs. 68%, Pcontrol measures could protect them completely from acquiring infection (79.2 vs. 65.6%, P=0.033). Statistically significant higher total knowledge and attitude scores were revealed in the postintervention phase as compared with the preintervention one (PHospital (88%), whereas it was the lowest in the emergency pediatric unit (65%). There is scope for improvement in knowledge and attitude after educational program was offered to the nursing staff. Educational training programs should be multidisciplinary interventions in the era of quality control to help healthcare workers realize the importance of basic

  6. The effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving student nurses' knowledge and performance during patient deterioration: A pre and post test design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg Sapiano, Alexis; Sammut, Roberta; Trapani, Josef

    2018-03-01

    Preparing nursing students to perform competently in complex emergency situations, such as during rapid patient deterioration, is challenging. Students' active engagement in such scenarios cannot be ensured, due to the unexpected nature of such infrequent events. Many students may consequently not experience and integrate the management of patient deterioration into their knowledge and practical competency by the end of their studies, making them unprepared to manage such situations as practicing nurses. This study investigated the effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving performance during rapid patient deterioration. To investigate the effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving student nurses' knowledge and performance during rapid patient deterioration. A pre- and post-test design was used. Nursing students at a university in Malta were invited to participate in a virtual simulation program named FIRST 2 ACTWeb™, using their own computer devices. A total of 166 (response rate=50%) second and third year diploma and degree nursing students participated in the study. The simulation included three scenarios (Cardiac-Shock-Respiratory) portraying deteriorating patients. Performance feedback was provided at the end of each scenario. Students completed pre- and post-scenario knowledge tests and performance during each scenario was recorded automatically on a database. Findings showed a significant improvement in the students' post-scenario knowledge (z=-6.506, psimulation as an effective learning tool for pre-registration nursing students in different programs. Simulation improves both knowledge about and performance during patient deterioration. Virtual simulation of rare events should be a key component of undergraduate nurse education, to prepare students to manage complex situations as practicing nurses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PEDIATRIC NURSING MODELLING APPROACH ON MOTHER'S KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE ABILITY AND MATERNAL CONFIDENCE OF INFANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyanti Saleh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first five years of age of a child is a critical time that will affect the child growth development process. Any untreated disorders may impair the process that subsequently influences quality of life of the child in the future. Therefore, it is imperative for a mother to optimize the growth development process. This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of health education with modelling approach on mother's knowledge, practice ability and maternal confidence of infant (0-6 months growth and development. Method: A quasy eksperimental pre-post with control group design was used. The intervention given was health education with modelling approach related to lactation management and infant growth development stimulation. The research was conducted in Maros Regency wiht 81 samples (41 in the treatment group and 40 in the control group. Result: The wilcoxon test reveals that there was a signi fi cant difference between treatment and control group, accordingly, knowledge (p = 0.00, p = 0.01, practice ability (p = 0.00, p = 0,006 and maternal confidence (p = 0.03, p = 0.03. In addition, from mann whitney test, between the two group, the data obtained are: knowledge (p = 0,950, practice ability (p = 0.00 and maternal con fi dence (p = 0,061. Discussion: Health education with modelling approach conducting by nurse was effective in increasing knowledge, practice ability, maternal confidence breastfeeding and baby stimulation, which was in turn can optimize baby growth and development. That is why, community health nurses role should be increase by making community health nursing program as one of primary public health centre program.

  8. The effect of a multifaceted evidence-based practice programme for nurses on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and perceived barriers: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Goot, Wieke E; Keers, Joost C; Kuipers, Ruud; Nieweg, Roos M B; de Groot, Martijn

    2018-04-01

    The Dutch professional nursing standard of 2012 stipulates that Dutch nursing practices are to be evidence-based. Not all practicing nurses can satisfy these requirements, therefore, an educational programme about Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) was developed for a Dutch teaching hospital. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of a six month in-house EBP programme on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and perceived barriers of nurses (four European Credits equals two US Credit Hours). A multiple-cohort study was conducted with a pre-post-test design. In the period of 2011-2015, a total of 58 nurses (9 cohorts) followed the programme. Baseline and follow-up assessments consisted of three questionnaires each: the Dutch Modified Fresno, the two subscales of the McColl questionnaire, and the BARRIER scale to assess knowledge and skills, attitudes, and perceived barriers, respectively. Fifty nurses completed both assessments. The results demonstrated that actual knowledge and skills significantly increased by approximately 40%. Self-perceived knowledge increased significantly, while attitudes towards EBP remained (moderately) positive. Perceived barriers did not notably change except for the Research subscale which received many "no opinion" responses prior to the programme but fewer afterwards. Our multifaceted in-house EBP programme led to a significant improvement of approximately 40% in EBP knowledge and skills of participating nurses. Most nurses who followed the EBP programme are currently applying their knowledge and skills in practice. Managerial support and allocated time for EBP are important facilitators for its implementation. Furthermore, to maintain and expand nurses' EBP knowledge and skills and translate them into practice, follow-up interventions, such as journal clubs, may well be beneficial. Based on the positive results of our programme, we will implement it throughout the hospital with an emphasis on training more groups of nurses. Copyright

  9. Knowledge and attitudes of pregnant women with regard to collection, testing and banking of cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Conrad V; Gordon, Kevin; Van den Hof, Michiel; Taweel, Shaureen; Baylis, Françoise

    2003-03-18

    Umbilical cord blood is used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant disease. We sought to examine pregnant women's knowledge and attitudes regarding cord blood banking, as their support is crucial to the success of cord blood transplant programs. A questionnaire examining sociodemographic factors and women's attitudes to cord blood banking was developed on the basis of findings from 2 focus groups and a pilot study. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 women attending antenatal clinics at a regional women's hospital between April and July 2001. A total of 443 women (68%) responded. More than half of the women (307/438 or 70% [95% confidence interval, CI, 66% to 74%]) reported poor or very poor knowledge about cord blood banking. Many of the respondents (299/441 or 68% [95% CI 63% to 72%]) thought that physicians should talk to pregnant women about the collection of cord blood, and they wanted to receive information about this topic from health care professionals (290/441 or 66% [95% CI 61% to 70%]) or prenatal classes (308/441 or 70% [95% CI 65% to 74%]). Most of the women (379/442 or 86% [95% CI 82% to 89%]) would elect to store cord blood in a public bank, many citing altruism as the reason for this choice. A much smaller proportion (63/442 or 14% [95% CI 11% to 18%]) would elect private banking, indicating that this would be a good investment or that they would feel guilty if the blood had not been stored. Additional acceptable uses for cord blood included research (mentioned by 294/436 women or 67% [95% CI 63% to 72%]) and gene therapy (mentioned by 169/437 women or 39% [95% CI 34% to 43%]). Most of the women in this study supported the donation of cord blood to public cord blood banks for potential transplantation and research.

  10. Middle-aged women's decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud'homme, Denis

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to assess middle-aged women's needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m(2) (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m(2)), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others' decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). When making decisions about body weight management, women's needs were "getting information" and "getting support." The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required.

  11. On the importance of the distance measures used to train and test knowledge-based potentials for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Martin; Koehl, Patrice; Røgen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    (PPD), while the other had the set of all distances filtered to reflect consistency in an ensemble of decoys (PPE). We tested four types of metric to characterize the distance between the decoy and the native structure, two based on extrinsic geometry (RMSD and GTD-TS*), and two based on intrinsic...... geometry (Q* and MT). The corresponding eight potentials were tested on a large collection of decoy sets. We found that it is usually better to train a potential using an intrinsic distance measure. We also found that PPE outperforms PPD, emphasizing the benefits of capturing consistent information...

  12. Technical Knowledge Creation: Enabling Tacit Knowledge Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates knowledge creation in nascent technical industries, a somewhat neglected empirical setting concerning knowledge creation. Frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation assume that knowledge creation depends on language creation and neglect the benefits involved...... by allowing elements of new product and process ideas to mature in a tacit form, whereas cognitive neuroscience data suggests that technical knowledge creation is largely nonlinguistic. The four case studies point to excessive reliance on group discussion, a need for more trial and error and that field tests...... and prototypes generate new learnings that save time and lowers subsequent risks. Technical knowledge creation in nascent high tech industries requires opportunities to work with and further develop knowledge in its tacit form. The paper refines frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation...

  13. High HIV Prevalence, Suboptimal HIV Testing, and Low Knowledge of HIV-Positive Serostatus Among Injection Drug Users in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussova, Olga V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Barbour, Russell; Heimer, Robert; Kozlov, Andrei P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and testing patterns among injection drug users (IDUs) in St. Petersburg, Russia. HIV prevalence among 387 IDUs in the sample was 50%. Correlates of HIV-positive serostatus included unemployment, recent unsafe injections, and history/current sexually transmitted infection. Seventy-six percent had been HIV tested, but only 22% of those who did not report HIV-positive serostatus had been tested in the past 12 months and received their test result. Correlates of this measure included recent doctor visit and having been in prison or jail among men. Among the 193 HIV-infected participants, 36% were aware of their HIV-positive serostatus. HIV prevalence is high and continuing to increase in this population. Adequate coverage of HIV testing has not been achieved, resulting in poor knowledge of positive serostatus. Efforts are needed to better understand motivating and deterring factors for HIV testing in this setting. PMID:18843531

  14. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated knowledge...

  15. [E-learning in orthopedics and traumatology. A comparative pilot study on acceptance and knowledge acquisition among users and non-users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, E; Haberstroh, N; Sostmann, K; Perka, C; Putzier, M; Schmidmaier, G; Back, D A

    2014-07-01

    Additional internet-based learning tools (e-learning) are successfully used in the curricula of many disciplines and are highly accepted among students. However, in orthopedics and traumatology e-learning is underrepresented and scientific papers are rare. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate the acceptance of the e-learning module network for students in traumatology and orthopedics (NESTOR) among users and non-users and to analyze the effect of this additional learning tool on knowledge acquisition. A total of 544 students were asked to complete evaluation questionnaires at the end of two semesters using different ones for NESTOR users and non-users. The gain of knowledge was analyzed by two written knowledge tests (pre-post test, 20 multiple choice questions) at the beginning and end of the semester comparing these two groups. A total of 191 students took part in the evaluation and 152 completed both written tests. The NESTOR users showed a high acceptance of the e-learning system and non-users considered e-learning beneficial as well. Reasons given for not using NESTOR were lack of time, lack of information about the existence of NESTOR and a lack of interest in this discipline and e-learning in general. Both groups significantly increased their level of knowledge during the course of the semester (p e-learning project NESTOR in teaching students in orthopedics and traumatology. Based on experience and these results the permanent implementation of an additional e-learning module in the curriculum can be recommended for other faculties. In this process the critical comments of the non-users determined in the present study should be addressed.

  16. Testing the importance of family solidarity, community structure, information access, and social capital in predicting nutrition health knowledge and food choices in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Robert L; Jicha, Karl A; Thompson, Gretchen H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of family solidarity, community structure, information access, social capital, and socioeconomic status on the extent of nutrition and health knowledge (NHK) among primary household meal planners. In turn, we pose the question: does this knowledge influence dietary decision making? Data are taken from a survey determining socioeconomic impacts of vitamin A fortified peanut butter on Philippine households. Questions on the relationships of nutrition to health were selected to construct a knowledge index on which household respondents could be ranked. We then tested hypotheses regarding what types of individual, family-level, and community structural characteristics would predict performance on this index. The results indicate that the strongest predictors of NHK come from sociological theory related to family solidarity and community centrality, in addition to information accessibility and household income. Our findings also indicate that NHK influences dietary choices with regard to the purchase of a vitamin fortified staple food product, which is essential when addressing nutritional deficiency problems in developing countries.

  17. Evaluating change in virtual reality adoption for brain injury rehabilitation following knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glegg, Stephanie M N; Holsti, Liisa; Stanton, Sue; Hanna, Steven; Velikonja, Diana; Ansley, Barbara; Sartor, Denise; Brum, Christine

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of knowledge translation (KT) on factors influencing virtual reality (VR) adoption and to identify support needs of therapists. Intervention will be associated with improvements in therapists' perceived ease of use and self-efficacy, and an associated increase in intentions to use VR. Single group mixed-methods pre-test-post-test evaluation of convenience sample of physical, occupational and rehabilitation therapists (n=37) from two brain injury rehabilitation centres. ADOPT-VR administered pre/post KT intervention, consisting of interactive education, clinical manual, technical and clinical support. Increases in perceived ease of use (p=0.000) and self-efficacy (p=0.001), but not behavioural intention to use VR (p=0.158) were found following KT, along with decreases in the frequency of perceived barriers. Post-test changes in the frequency and nature of perceived facilitators and barriers were evident, with increased emphasis on peer influence, organisational-level supports and client factors. Additional support needs were related to clinical reasoning, treatment programme development, technology selection and troubleshooting. KT strategies hold potential for targeting therapists' perceptions of low self-efficacy and ease of use of this technology. Changes in perceived barriers, facilitators and support needs at post-test demonstrated support for repeated evaluation and multi-phased training initiatives to address therapists' needs over time. Implications for Rehabilitation Therapists' learning and support needs in integrating virtual reality extend beyond technical proficiency to include clinical decision-making and application competencies spanning the entire rehabilitation process. Phased, multi-faceted strategies may be valuable in addressing therapists' changing needs as they progress from novice to experienced virtual reality users. The ADOPT-VR is a sensitive measure to re-evaluate the personal, social, environmental, technology

  18. Learners’ knowledge and and perceptions of voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV and AIDS in the Free State Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Botma

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the perceptions of the youth regarding Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT and sexual aspects related to HIV and AIDS. The study was grounded in qualitative methodology, using 4 focus group interviews for data collection - triangulating the results with field notes and literature. The participants of the four focus groups proved to be well informed on the topic and had clear perceptions concerning several aspects. They were very positive regarding the advantages of VCT for the prevention and management of HIV and AIDS. The participants recognised the need for the youth to be better informed about VCT and HIV and AIDS. They were much concerned by the lack of parental involvement in sexual education as well as the permissiveness of the youth who partook in alcohol and drug abuse as well as prostitution. Participants of the study stated that this problem was exacerbated by poverty and poor socio economic conditions.

  19. Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Paul J.

    Path analysis techniques were used to test a hypothesized structural model of direct and indirect causal effects of student variables on science process skills. The model was tested twice using data collected at the beginning and end of the school year from 67 9th- and 10th-grade biology students who lived in a rural Franco-American community in New England. Each student variable was found to have significant effects, accounting for approximately 80% of the variance in science process skills achievement. Academic ability, biology knowledge, and language preference had significant direct effects. There were significant mediated effects by cognitive development, parents' education, and attitude toward science in school. The variables of cognitive development and academic ability had the greatest total effects on science process skills. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  20. Encouraging post-stroke patients to be active seems possible: results of an intervention study with knowledge brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Mia; Schröder, Carin; van der Weijden, Trudy; Post, Marcel W; Visser-Meily, Anne M

    2016-08-01

    Although physical activity and exercise for stroke patients is highly recommended for fast recovery, patients in hospitals and rehabilitation centres are insufficiently encouraged to be physically active. In this study, we investigated the impact of knowledge brokers (KBs), enterprising nurses and therapists, on health professionals' (HP) performance to encourage stroke inpatients to be physically active. This multicenter intervention study used a pre-post test design. Two or three KBs were trained in each stroke unit of 12 hospitals and 10 rehabilitation centres in The Netherlands. Questionnaires were completed by patients and HPs before and after the KB-intervention. The primary outcome was encouragement given by HPs to their patients to be physically active, as reported by patients and HPs. After the KB-intervention, many more patients (48%; N=217) reported at least some encouragement by HPs to be physically active than before (26%; N=243, pbrokers (KBs), since the KB-intervention was shown to increase the encouragement felt by stroke patients to be physically active. It seems worthwhile to involve physicians, nurses and patients' families more frequently in efforts to encourage stroke patients to be physically active.

  1. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Attitude Toward Voluntary Counselling and Testing Among Antenatal Clinic Attendees at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, H; Kumar, S; Lakshminarayanan, S; Papa, D; Abi, C

    2015-04-01

    Maternal to child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for over 90 % of all childhood HIV infections. Lack of awareness regarding HIV and preventive practices against MTCT maybe one of the reasons behind high HIV transmission rates. In our study, we assessed the knowledge of HIV/AIDS in antenatal women, attending a tertiary care hospital in India as well as their attitude toward voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for HIV. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out from May-July 2012 using a pretested interview-based questionnaire given to 386 antenatal women after obtaining consent. Data were abstracted for knowledge of HIV, MTCT, and attitude toward VCT. Results were expressed as percentages using SPSS v.16 software. Amongst the respondents, 92.5 % had heard of HIV and in 41 % of them, the source of information was through mass media. 81 % were aware of sexual intercourse as a mode of transmission of HIV while 55 % knew that sharing sharp objects and infected blood products can spread HIV. 37.6 % of respondents were aware of MTCT and 44 % heard of antiretroviral therapy as a method of prevention of MTCT. While 68 % were willing to get tested for HIV, 18.9 % knew about the steps involved and 44 % knew where to get VCT. There exists a lack of adequate knowledge regarding HIV and preventive practices against MTCT. Health education and awareness campaigns on MTCT prevention and VCT promotion should target women in their antenatal period in order to increase acceptability and accessibility of these services.

  2. Proper knowledge on toxicokinetics improves human hazard testing and subsequent health risk characterisation. A case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessems, Jos G M; Geraets, Liesbeth

    2013-12-01

    In the current EU legislative frameworks on chemicals safety, the requirements with respect to information on general kinetic parameters (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion or ADME) or integrated toxicokinetic parameters (TK, i.e. plasma concentration-time curve, area under the curve etcetera) in humans and experimental animals vary widely. For agrochemicals and cosmetics, there are regulatory requirements whereas for other frameworks, such as food ingredients, biocides, consumer products and high production volume chemicals (REACH) there are very little or no requirements. This paper presents case studies that illustrate the importance of ADME and TK data in regulatory risk characterisations. The examples were collected by interviewing regulatory risk assessors from various chemicals (non-pharmaceutical) frameworks. The case studies illustrate how (1) applying ADME/TK in an early phase of toxicity testing can be used to improve study design and support the 3R-goals and how (2) increased use of ADME/TK data can improve the final risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer-based medical education in Benha University, Egypt: knowledge, attitude, limitations, and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayomy, Hanaa; El Awadi, Mona; El Araby, Eman; Abed, Hala A

    2016-12-01

    Computer-assisted medical education has been developed to enhance learning and enable high-quality medical care. This study aimed to assess computer knowledge and attitude toward the inclusion of computers in medical education among second-year medical students in Benha Faculty of Medicine, Egypt, to identify limitations, and obtain suggestions for successful computer-based learning. This was a one-group pre-post-test study, which was carried out on second-year students in Benha Faculty of Medicine. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to compare students' knowledge, attitude, limitations, and suggestions toward computer usage in medical education before and after the computer course to evaluate the change in students' responses. The majority of students were familiar with use of the mouse and keyboard, basic word processing, internet and web searching, and e-mail both before and after the computer course. The proportion of students who were familiar with software programs other than the word processing and trouble-shoot software/hardware was significantly higher after the course (Pcomputer (P=0.008), the inclusion of computer skills course in medical education, downloading lecture handouts, and computer-based exams (Pcomputers limited the inclusion of computer in medical education (Pcomputer labs, lack of Information Technology staff mentoring, large number of students, unclear course outline, and lack of internet access were more frequently reported before the course (Pcomputer labs, inviting Information Technology staff to support computer teaching, and the availability of free Wi-Fi internet access covering several areas in the university campus; all would support computer-assisted medical education. Medical students in Benha University are computer literate, which allows for computer-based medical education. Staff training, provision of computer labs, and internet access are essential requirements for enhancing computer usage in medical

  4. Knowledge and Outcome Measure of HbA1c Testing in Asian Indian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes from a Tertiary Care Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpatla, Satyavani; Medempudi, Srikanth; Manoharan, Deepa; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    Aim: HbA1c test is considered to be the reliable measure for evaluating long-term glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether knowledge about HbA1c test is associated with a better glycemic control. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 480 (M:F; 287:193) adults with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary care center during a period of four months. Baseline demographic and clinical data of all the subjects was obtained. Subject’s knowledge about HbA1c test and their target goal was assessed using a questionnaire. Recent HbA1c results were obtained from medical records. Results: Seventy four per cent of the subjects had awareness about HbA1c test and about 43% of those who knew HbA1c test also knew their target goal. 33% remember their last HbA1c result. The mean A1C of Group A was significantly lower when compared with Group B (8.1 ± 1.7 vs 9.2 ± 1.9, P<0.0001). Group C had lower A1C levels compared to Group D (7.7 ± 1.4 vs 8.5 ± 1.9, p<0.0001). Patients who kept their HbA1c less than 7% were significantly higher in Group C than in Group D. (37.8 vs 12.7%, p<0.00001). Subjects had good glycemic control with increasing levels of awareness about HbA1c. Conclusion: Majority of the diabetic patients who attended the tertiary care center for diabetes care knew HbA1c test and half of them were aware about their target goal. Awareness about HbA1c had a positive impact on maintenance of better glycemic control. PMID:20922109

  5. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...

  6. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  7. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  8. Does Knowledge Sharing Pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben; Venzin, Markus

    are developed using a simultaneous equation model applied to a unique dataset encompassing a German MNC, HeidelbergCement. Enablers and impediments of knowledge outflows are assessed in order to explain why subsidiaries share their knowledge with other MNC units. Implications are examined by studying the link......This empirical paper explores knowledge outflow from MNC subsidiaries and its impact on the MNC performance. We develop and test hypotheses derived from literature on MNC knowledge flows integrated with the perspective of knowledge-creating, self-interested MNC subsidiaries. The hypotheses...... between knowledge outflows and subsidiary performance. Our findings suggest that knowledge outflows increase a subsidiary's performance only up to a certain point and that too much knowledge sharing may be detrimental to the contributing subsidiary's performance....

  9. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these findings. Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of online educational approaches to increase fertility knowledge and support informed family planning decisions. Web

  10. Managing Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Niall

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a perspective on what knowledge is, why knowledge is important, and how we might encourage good knowledge behaviours. A knowledge management framework is described, and although the framework is project management-centric the basic principles are transferrable to other contexts. From a strategic perspective, knowledge can be considered an asset that has the potential to provide a competitive advantage provided that it has intrinsic value, it is not easily accessible by ...

  11. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  12. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...... of parent firms to share knowledge is manifested in an increased capacity to articulate and codify knowledge and create opportunities to transfer this knowledge. Mediated by the effective use of organizational communication channels, articulation and codification capabilities have a significant impact...

  13. Stop the Knowledge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    knowledge protection intensity. In addition, technological cluster regions in the host country can be expected to provide opportunities for knowledge sourcing and MNC subsidiaries may be willing to protect knowledge less intensively to participate in cluster networks. We test our hypotheses using a dataset...... of knowledge protection intensity of MNC subsidiaries. We argue that knowledge protection intensity is determined by MNC subsidiary mandates and by opportunities and risks originating from the host region. We hypothesize that not just competence-creating but also competence-exploiting mandates increase...

  14. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  15. The Response Shift Bias in Self-Report Tests: A Function of an Expectation of Change or a Shift in Internal Scaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sharon; And Others

    Self-report, pre/post testing is a frequently employed measure of therapeutic change. To investigate whether expectation of change might be an alternative explanation to the scale shift explanation of response shift bias in a self-report measure, a two-session assertiveness training intervention for college women was evaluated under manipulated…

  16. A school mental health literacy curriculum resource training approach: effects on Tanzanian teachers' mental health knowledge, stigma and help-seeking efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Gilberds, Heather; Ubuguyu, Omary; Njau, Tasiana; Brown, Adena; Sabuni, Norman; Magimba, Ayoub; Perkins, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Mental health literacy (MHL) is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction, and care; School supported information pertaining to MHL in sub-Saharan Africa is extremely limited, including in Tanzania. Successful application of a school MHL curriculum resource may be an effective way to increase teacher MHL and therefore help to improve mental health outcomes for students. Secondary school teachers in Tanzania were trained on the African Guide (AG) a school MHL curriculum resource culturally adapted from a Canadian MHL resource (The Guide) for use in Africa. Teacher training workshops on the classroom application of the AG were used to evaluate its impact on mental health literacy in a sample of Tanzanian Secondary school teachers. Pre-post training assessment of participant knowledge and attitudes was conducted. Help-seeking efficacy for teachers themselves and their interventions for students, friends, family members and peers were determined. Paired t test (n = 37) results demonstrate highly significant improvements in teacher's overall knowledge (p Teachers' stigma against mental illness decreased significantly following the training (p teacher's overall knowledge (p Teachers also reported high rates (greater than ¾ of the sample) of positive help-seeking efficacy for themselves as well as for their students, friends, family members and peers. As a result of the training, the number of students teachers identified for potential mental health care totaled over 200. These positive results, when taken together with other research, suggest that the use of a classroom-based resource (the AG) that integrates MHL into existing school curriculum through training teachers may be an effective and sustainable way to increase the MHL (improved knowledge, decreased stigma and positive help-seeking efficacy) of teachers in Tanzania. As this study replicated the results of a previous intervention in Malawi, consideration could be given to

  17. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  18. Creating Illusions of Knowledge: Learning Errors that Contradict Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks…

  19. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  20. Characterization of medical students recall of factual knowledge using learning objects and repeated testing in a novel e-learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira-Gomes, Tiago; Prado-Costa, Rui; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-24

    Spaced-repetition and test-enhanced learning are two methodologies that boost knowledge retention. ALERT STUDENT is a platform that allows creation and distribution of Learning Objects named flashcards, and provides insight into student judgments-of-learning through a metric called 'recall accuracy'. This study aims to understand how the spaced-repetition and test-enhanced learning features provided by the platform affect recall accuracy, and to characterize the effect that students, flashcards and repetitions exert on this measurement. Three spaced laboratory sessions (s0, s1 and s2), were conducted with n=96 medical students. The intervention employed a study task, and a quiz task that consisted in mentally answering open-ended questions about each flashcard and grading recall accuracy. Students were randomized into study-quiz and quiz groups. On s0 both groups performed the quiz task. On s1 and s2, the study-quiz group performed the study task followed by the quiz task, whereas the quiz group only performed the quiz task. We measured differences in recall accuracy between groups/sessions, its variance components, and the G-coefficients for the flashcard component. At s0 there were no differences in recall accuracy between groups. The experiment group achieved a significant increase in recall accuracy that was superior to the quiz group in s1 and s2. In the study-quiz group, increases in recall accuracy were mainly due to the session, followed by flashcard factors and student factors. In the quiz group, increases in recall accuracy were mainly accounted by flashcard factors, followed by student and session factors. The flashcard G-coefficient indicated an agreement on recall accuracy of 91% in the quiz group, and of 47% in the study-quiz group. Recall accuracy is an easily collectible measurement that increases the educational value of Learning Objects and open-ended questions. This metric seems to vary in a way consistent with knowledge retention, but further

  1. Point-of-Care Testing for Anemia, Diabetes, and Hypertension: A Pharmacy-Based Model in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, Enrique M; Vodicka, Elisabeth; La Rosa, Sayda; Valderrama, Maria; Garcia, Patricia J

    Prevention and control of chronic diseases is a high priority for many low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of training pharmacy workers to provide point-of-care testing for 3 chronic diseases-hypertension, diabetes, and anemia-to improve disease detection and awareness through private pharmacies. We developed a multiphase training curriculum for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians to build capacity for identification of risk factors, patient education, point-of-care testing, and referral for abnormal results. We conducted a pre-post evaluation with participants and evaluated results using Student t test for proportions. We conducted point-of-care testing with pharmacy clients and evaluated acceptability by patient characteristics (age, gender, and type of patient) using multiple logistic regression. In total, 72 pharmacy workers (66%) completed the full training curriculum. Pretest scores indicated that pharmacists had more knowledge and skills in chronic disease risk factors, patient education, and testing than pharmacy technicians. All participants improved their knowledge and skills after the training, and post-test scores indicated that pharmacy technicians achieved the same level of competency as pharmacists (P anemia than a traditional health center. Fast service was very important: 41% ranked faster results and 30% ranked faster attention as the most important factor for receiving diagnostic testing in the pharmacy. We found that it is both feasible for pharmacies and acceptable to clients to train pharmacy workers to provide point-of-care testing for anemia, diabetes, and hypertension. This innovative approach holds potential to increase early detection of risk factors and bolster disease prevention and management efforts in Peru and other low- and middle-income settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  3. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  4. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  5. Knowledge Brokerage for Impact Assessment of Land Use Scenarios in Inner Mongolia, China: Extending and Testing the FoPIA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes J. König

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While land serves numerous societal functions and contributes to sustainable development, it is often unclear how these functions are affected by political decisions and common drivers of land use change, such as economic development, climate change and demographic change. This study evaluates alternative land use scenarios in reference to a rural region of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (China, where various processes and decisions have historically triggered unsustainable development. The scientifically tested “Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA” method is developed further to address specific features of the case study region, and its function as a knowledge-brokerage (KB tool is evaluated. Three scenarios are developed and analysed in expert workshops. “Land intensification: Agriculture” and “Land intensification: Mining” scenarios are found to have mainly negative environmental and social effects and positive economic impacts, while the “Environmental conservation and tourism” scenario is found to more positively affect all three sustainability dimensions. Assessments of methodological phases show that the FoPIA primarily serves to establish the KB process and that the framework particularly benefits from early examinations of scientific results by policy makers.

  6. Creating illusions of knowledge: learning errors that contradict prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K; Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2013-02-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks before they read stories that contained errors (e.g., "Franklin invented the light bulb"). On a later general-knowledge test, participants reproduced story errors despite previously answering the questions correctly. This misinformation effect was found even for questions that were answered correctly on the initial test with the highest level of confidence. Furthermore, prior knowledge offered no protection against errors entering the knowledge base; the misinformation effect was equivalent for previously known and unknown facts. Errors can enter the knowledge base even when learners have the knowledge necessary to catch the errors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. "If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichon, Kathryn A.

    The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if

  8. Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.

  9. Development and feasibility testing of an education program to improve knowledge and self-care among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robyn A; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Buitendyk, Natahlia J; Adams, Michael J; Howie-Esquivel, Jill; Dracup, Kathleen A; Berry, Narelle M; Atherton, John; Johnson, Stella

    2015-01-01

    There is a 70% higher age-adjusted incidence of heart failure (HF) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, three times more hospitalisations and twice as many deaths as among non-Aboriginal people. There is a need to develop holistic yet individualised approaches in accord with the values of Aboriginal community health care to support patient education and self-care. The aim of this study was to re-design an existing HF educational resource (Fluid Watchers-Pacific Rim) to be culturally safe for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, working in collaboration with the local community, and to conduct feasibility testing. This study was conducted in two phases and utilised a mixed-methods approach (qualitative and quantitative). Phase 1 used action research methods to develop a culturally safe electronic resource to be provided to Aboriginal HF patients via a tablet computer. An HF expert panel adapted the existing resource to ensure it was evidence-based and contained appropriate language and images that reflects Aboriginal culture. A stakeholder group (which included Aboriginal workers and HF patients, as well as researchers and clinicians) then reviewed the resources, and changes were made accordingly. In Phase 2, the new resource was tested on a sample of Aboriginal HF patients to assess feasibility and acceptability. Patient knowledge, satisfaction and self-care behaviours were measured using a before and after design with validated questionnaires. As this was a pilot test to determine feasibility, no statistical comparisons were made. Phase 1: Throughout the process of resource development, two main themes emerged from the stakeholder consultation. These were the importance of identity, meaning that it was important to ensure that the resource accurately reflected the local community, with the appropriate clothing, skin tone and voice. The resource was adapted to reflect this, and members of the local community voiced the recordings for the

  10. High-Stakes and Non-Stakes Testing States and the Transfer of Knowledge to Students' Advanced Placement Test, Advanced Placement U.S. History Test, and SAT Exam Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Karen Jean

    2010-01-01

    The Federal education policy No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has initiated high-stakes testing among U.S. public schools. The premise of the NCLB initiative is that all students reach proficiency in reading and math by 2014. Under NCLB, individual state education departments were required to implement annual assessments in grades two through eight…

  11. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  12. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  13. Igualación equipercentil del Examen de Habilidades y Conocimientos Básicos (EXHCOBA. [Equipercentile equating of the Basic Ability and Knowledge Test (EXHCOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Larrazolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Equipercentile equating method is a statistical procedure where student raw scores of two different versions of the same test are considered equated if they correspond to the same percentile range. A graphic curve is presented to describe the difficult differences from version to version of a test. This work was aimed to estimate the equipercentil equating values, by academic content area, of the Basic Ability and Knowledge Test (EXHCOBA, by its Spanish acronym that is used by the University of Baja California (UABC as a selection student test. This norm-referenced test has excellent quality standards, a high technological development, several reliability and validity support studies, and others good psychometric parameters. Estimation of equating parameters was done applying the analytic method described by Kolen and Brennan (1995, with the random group procedure utilized by UABC to collect data. Results shows that equating was effective to adjust four statistical moments (mean, standard deviation, bias, and kurtosis of the frequency distributions of EXHCOBA´s version 3 and 4 compared with version 2, by content area, producing equal score distributions. Nevertheless, irregularities appeared at the ends of the curves that suggests the need of a smoothing procedure. La igualación equipercentil es un método estadístico en el cual los puntajes crudos de dos versiones de una prueba se consideran igualados si ellos corresponden al mismo rango percentilar en un grupo de examinados. En la igualación equipercentil se presenta una curva para describir las diferencias de dificultad de versión a versión. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo estimar la igualación equipercentil sin suavizado de las versiones 3 y 4, con la versión 2, por área temática del Examen de Habilidades y Conocimientos Básicos (EXHCOBA que utiliza la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC para la selección de aspirantes, examen que posee un nivel de calidad excelente

  14. When knowledge of a heritable gene mutation comes out of the blue: treatment-focused genetic testing in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, B; Quinn, V F; Gleeson, M; Kirk, J; Tucker, K M; Rahman, B; Saunders, C; Watts, K J; Peate, M; Geelhoed, E; Barlow-Stewart, K; Field, M; Harris, M; Antill, Y C; Mitchell, G

    2016-11-01

    Selection of women for treatment-focused genetic testing (TFGT) following a new diagnosis of breast cancer is changing. Increasingly a patient's age and tumour characteristics rather than only their family history are driving access to TFGT, but little is known about the impact of receiving carrier-positive results in individuals with no family history of cancer. This study assesses the role of knowledge of a family history of cancer on psychosocial adjustment to TFGT in both women with and without mutation carrier-positive results. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 women who had undergone TFGT, and who had been purposively sampled to represent women both family history and carrier status, and subjected to a rigorous qualitative analysis. It was found that mutation carriers without a family history reported difficulties in making surgical decisions quickly, while in carriers with a family history, a decision regarding surgery, electing for bilateral mastectomy (BM), had often already been made before receipt of their result. Long-term adjustment to a mutation-positive result was hindered by a sense of isolation not only by those without a family history but also those with a family history who lacked an affected relative with whom they could identify. Women with a family history who had no mutation identified and who had not elected BM reported a lack of closure following TFGT. These findings indicate support deficits hindering adjustment to positive TFGT results for women with and without a family history, particularly in regard to immediate decision-making about risk-reducing surgery.

  15. Test on the effectiveness of the sum over paths approach in favoring the construction of an integrated knowledge of quantum physics in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Malgieri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of a research-based teaching-learning sequence on introductory quantum physics based on Feynman’s sum over paths approach in the Italian high school. Our study focuses on students’ understanding of two founding ideas of quantum physics, wave particle duality and the uncertainty principle. In view of recent research reporting the fragmentation of students’ mental models of quantum concepts after initial instruction, we collected and analyzed data using the assessment tools provided by knowledge integration theory. Our results on the group of n=14 students who performed the final test indicate that the functional explanation of wave particle duality provided by the sum over paths approach may be effective in leading students to build consistent mental models of quantum objects, and in providing them with a unified perspective on both the photon and the electron. Results on the uncertainty principle are less clear cut, as the improvements over traditional instruction appear less significant. Given the low number of students in the sample, this work should be interpreted as a case study, and we do not attempt to draw definitive conclusions. However, our study suggests that (i the sum over paths approach may deserve more attention from researchers and educators as a possible route to introduce basic concepts of quantum physics in high school, and (ii more research should be focused not only on the correctness of students’ mental models on individual concepts, but also on the ability of students to connect different ideas and experiments related to quantum theory in an organized whole.

  16. Evaluación pre-post de una actividad preventiva de la infección por VIH dirigida a los adolescentes de las comarcas del sur de Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rebull Fatsini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH es uno de los principales problemas de salud pública que tiene nuestro país. La educación preventiva ha demostrado ser un instrumento útil en la disminución de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la efectividad de una intervención preventiva realizada en los Institutos de Enseñanza Secundaria (IES de las comarcas del Baix Ebre y el Montsià correspondientes a la Región Sanitaria de Tortosa, orientada a reducir el riesgo de transmisión del VIH y aumentar el conocimiento de dicha enfermedad. Método: Se realizó un estudio de intervención antes-después, sin grupo control. Se invitó a participar a 19 centros docentes, correspondientes a los cursos de 4º de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria y 1º de Bachillerato. La actividad consistía en un taller de 60-90 minutos de duración, adjuntando material didáctico. El instrumento de medida fue un cuestionario. Resultados: Aceptaron participar 12 centros, obteniendo 896 respuestas en el pre-test y 805 respuestas en el post-test. En el 52 % (10/19 de los ítems se observó un incremento, estadísticamente significativo, de las respuestas correctas en el post-test. En 4 de los 5 ítems (80% sobre actitudes y en 5 de los 8 (62,5% ítems sobre conocimientos generales de la infección se observó, después de la intervención, una mejora estadísticamente significativa. Sólo en 1 de los 6 ítems (16,6% sobre los conocimientos en prevención se observó una mejoría estadísticamente significativa. Conclusiones: Las actividades preventivas en forma de talleres participativos son un buen instrumento para aumentar los conocimientos y mejorar las actitudes respecto al VIH/SIDA de los adolescentes que participan. Al no existir tratamiento curativo para esta enfermedad, la prevención desde el ámbito educativo es relevante para frenar el aumento de transmisión del VIH.

  17. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  18. Sharing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  19. A Mobile Phone-Based Life Skills Training Program for Substance Use Prevention Among Adolescents: Pre-Post Study on the Acceptance and Potential Effectiveness of the Program, Ready4life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Paz Castro, Raquel; Meyer, Christian; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P

    2017-10-04

    Substance use and misuse often first emerge during adolescence. Generic life skills training that is typically conducted within the school curriculum is effective at preventing the onset and escalation of substance use among adolescents. However, the dissemination of such programs is impeded by their large resource requirements in terms of personnel, money, and time. Life skills training provided via mobile phones might be a more economic and scalable approach, which additionally matches the lifestyle and communication habits of adolescents. The aim of this study was to test the acceptance and initial effectiveness of an individually tailored mobile phone-based life skills training program in vocational school students. The fully automated program, named ready4life, is based on social cognitive theory and addresses self-management skills, social skills, and substance use resistance skills. Program participants received up to 3 weekly text messages (short message service, SMS) over 6 months. Active program engagement was stimulated by interactive features such as quiz questions, message- and picture-contests, and integration of a friendly competition with prizes in which program users collected credits with each interaction. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses were used to investigate for changes between baseline and 6-month follow-up in the following outcomes: perceived stress, self-management skills, social skills, at-risk alcohol use, tobacco smoking, and cannabis use. The program was tested in 118 school classes at 13 vocational schools in Switzerland. A total of 1067 students who owned a mobile phone and were not regular cigarette smokers were invited to participate in the life skills program. Of these, 877 (82.19%, 877/1067; mean age=17.4 years, standard deviation [SD]=2.7; 58.3% females) participated in the program and the associated study. A total of 43 students (4.9%, 43/877) withdrew their program participation during the intervention period

  20. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  1. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  2. Effective nationwide school-based participatory extramural program on adolescent body mass index, health knowledge and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Jimenez, Camille C; Lim, Jean; Isasi, Carmen R; Blank, Arthur E; Lounsbury, David W; Fredericks, Lynn; Bouchard, Michelle; Faith, Myles S; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2018-01-16

    Adolescent obesity is a major public health concern. Open to all high school students regardless of weight status, HealthCorps is a nationwide program offering a comprehensive high school-based participatory educational program to indirectly address obesity. We tested a hypothesis that the HealthCorps program would decrease BMI z-scores among overweight or obese students, and reduce obesity rates, and evaluated its effects on health knowledge and behaviors. HealthCorps aimed to improve student knowledge and behaviors regarding nutrition quality, physical activity, sleep, breakfast intake, and mental resilience. Participating students received through HealthCorps coordinators weekly or bi-weekly classroom lessons either for a semester or a year in addition to various during- and after-school health-promoting activities and mentorship. Self-reported height and weight were collected along with questionnaires assessing knowledge and behaviors during 2013-2014 academic year among 14 HealthCorps-participating New York City high schools. This quasi experimental two-arm pre-post trial included 611 HealthCorps and 221 comparison arm students for the analytic sample. Sex-specific analyses stratified by weight status were adjusted for age and Hispanic ethnicity with clustering effects of schools and students taken into account. HealthCorps female overweight/obese and obese student had a significant decrease in BMI z-scores (post-pre delta BMI z-score = -0.16 (95%CI = (-0.26, -0.05), p = 0.004 for the former; and = -0.23 (-0.44, -0.03), p = 0.028, for the latter) whereas comparison female counterparts did not. The HealthCorps students, but not the comparison students, had a significant increase for all knowledge domains except for the breakfast realm, and reported a greater number of significant behavior changes including fruit and vegetable intake and physical activities. The HealthCorps program was associated with reduced BMI z-score in overweight/obese and obese

  3. The Validity and Incremental Validity of Knowledge Tests, Low-Fidelity Simulations, and High-Fidelity Simulations for Predicting Job Performance in Advanced-Level High-Stakes Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of…

  4. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    ; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case......Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world...

  5. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  6. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  7. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  8. Expanding the test of counterfeit deviance: are sexual knowledge, experience and needs a factor in the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lockhart, Karen

    2010-01-01

    It is posited within the literature that the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability may be influenced by low levels of sexual knowledge, lack of sexual experience and unmet sexual needs. In this study, individuals with sexualised challenging behaviour were identified and matched for gender, age and ability level with individuals recruited to the non-sexualised and no challenging behaviour groups. All (n=24) were interviewed using the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Tool - Revised (SSKAAT-R) and the Sexual Knowledge, Experience and Needs Scale for Intellectual Disability (Sex-Ken-ID) to assess their sexual knowledge, experience and needs. Adaptive behaviour was measured as a covariate. In the current study, contrary to expectations in the wider literature, the sexualised challenging behaviour group showed significantly higher levels of sexual knowledge in several areas when adaptive behaviour was controlled. Their needs in relation to Dating and Intimacy were also significantly higher but no differences were found between groups in relation to sexual experience. The implications of these findings for service provision are outlined along with the considerations of directions for future research.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  10. HIV-related knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and utilisation of HIV counselling and testing: a venue-based intercept commuter population survey in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimoyi, Lucy; Tshuma, Ndumiso; Muloongo, Keith; Setswe, Geoffrey; Sarfo, Bismark; Nyasulu, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5%) were females and (n=780, 68.1%) were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83%) with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001). For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02-2.78, p-value: 0.041) and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15-3.47, p-value: 0.014), whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31-0.62, p-value: Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services. One favourable intervention would be the use of home-based HCT programmes.

  11. Development and validation of the Psychotropic Education and Knowledge (PEAK) test on psychotropic drugs for nurses in an acute geriatric care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauters, Maartin; Azermai, Majda; Perehudoff, Sammi-Jo; Versluys, Karen; Steeman, Els; Petrovic, Mirko

    Introduction: In Belgium, psychotropic drug use is high among older people. With low proven long-term effectiveness and possible severe side effects, psychotropic drugs in geriatric patients should be prescribed with utmost caution. Nursing staff’s knowledge on psychotropic drugs can be crucial in

  12. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized)…

  13. Knowledge and attitudes towards genetic testing, a 2 year follow-up study in patients with astma, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Morren, M.; Bensing, J.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Scientific knowledge on genetics is growing fast, resulting in farreaching implications for the possibilities and choices in health care and in daily life. Especially for patients with chronic diseases that (partially) have a genetic aetiology, such as asthma, diabetes mellitus (DM), and

  14. Domain knowledge patterns in pedagogical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    This paper shows a proposal of representation of knowledge patterns in RDF(S) language. Knowledge patterns are used for reuse of knowledge. They can be divided into two groups - Top-level knowledge patterns and Domain knowledge patterns. Pedagogical diagnostics is aimed at testing of knowledge of students at primary and secondary school. An example of domain knowledge pattern from pedagogical diagnostics is part of this paper.

  15. Tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexander Muir

    2017-04-01

    Information that is not made explicit is nonetheless embedded in most of our standard procedures. In its simplest form, embedded information may take the form of prior knowledge held by the researcher and presumed to be agreed to by consumers of the research product. More interesting are the settings in which the prior information is held unconsciously by both researcher and reader, or when the very form of an "effective procedure" incorporates its creator's (unspoken) understanding of a problem. While it may not be productive to exhaustively detail the embedded or tacit knowledge that manifests itself in creative scientific work, at least at the beginning, we may want to routinize methods for extracting and documenting the ways of thinking that make "experts" expert. We should not back away from both expecting and respecting the tacit knowledge the pervades our work and the work of others.

  16. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  17. The knowledge base of journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svith, Flemming

    In this paper I propose the knowledge base as a fruitful way to apprehend journalism. With the claim that the majority of practice is anchored in knowledge – understood as 9 categories of rationales, forms and levels – this knowledge base appears as a contextual look at journalists’ knowledge......, and place. As an analytical framework, the knowledge base is limited to understand the practice of newspaper journalists, but, conversely, the knowledge base encompasses more general beginnings through the inclusion of overall structural relationships in the media and journalism and general theories...... on practice and knowledge. As the result of an abductive reasoning is a theory proposal, there is a need for more deductive approaches to test the validity of this knowledge base claim. It is thus relevant to investigate which rationales are included in the knowledge base of journalism, as the dimension does...

  18. Retention of Emergency Care Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes, Mardie E.; Shao, Kung Ping Pam

    1984-01-01

    Data on the emergency care knowledge of college students were measured by a pretest, posttest, and retention test. A high relationship was found between students' posttest scores and retention test scores. Findings are discussed. (Author/DF)

  19. HIV-related knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and utilisation of HIV counselling and testing: a venue-based intercept commuter population survey in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Chimoyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV counselling and testing (HCT and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. Objective: To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. Design: A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. Results: 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5% were females and (n=780, 68.1% were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83% with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001. For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.78, p-value: 0.041 and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15–3.47, p-value: 0.014, whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31–0.62, p-value: <0.001. For females, having one sexual partner (aOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.19–5.90, p-value: 0.017 and a low perceived benefit for HIV testing (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.96, p-value: 0.035 were associated with HIV testing. Conclusion: The overall HIV/AIDS knowledge was generally high. Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services

  20. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    -organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...

  1. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  2. Co-occurrence of antisocial behavior and substance use: testing for sex differences in the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Salekin, Randall T; Marti, C Nathan; Lester, Whiney S; Barker, Edward D

    2014-04-01

    Delinquency and substance use (SU) are commonly comorbid during adolescence. In the present study we investigate this co-morbidity with 3 main objectives: 1. Evaluate reciprocal relationships between delinquency/SU across early adolescence. 2. Assess the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency on subsequent development and inter-relationships of delinquency and SU. 3. Evaluate sex differences in these relationships. We applied cross-lagged structural equation models to the analysis of a longitudinal sample (n=3699). Findings demonstrated: (1) At ages 13-14 delinquency predicted SU more so than vice versa but effects became equal between ages 14 and 15. (2) Low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency predicted delinquency and SU. Older male friends predicted ASB. (3) Sex differences were present. For example, in the absence of antisocial friends low parent knowledge at age 12 indirectly predicted increased age 15 SU for girls more than boys. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-01-01

    The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  4. An evaluation of The Great Escape: can an interactive computer game improve young children's fire safety knowledge and behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Schwebel, David C; Bell, Melissa; Stewart, Julia; Davis, Aaron L

    2012-07-01

    Fire is a leading cause of unintentional injury and, although young children are at particularly increased risk, there are very few evidence-based resources available to teach them fire safety knowledge and behaviors. Using a pre-post randomized design, the current study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer game (The Great Escape) for teaching fire safety information to young children (3.5-6 years). Using behavioral enactment procedures, children's knowledge and behaviors related to fire safety were compared to a control group of children before and after receiving the intervention. The results indicated significant improvements in knowledge and fire safety behaviors in the intervention group but not the control. Using computer games can be an effective way to promote young children's understanding of safety and how to react in different hazardous situations.

  5. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  6. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  7. Knowledge management in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Swaminathan, P.; Raj, Baldev

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the work that is being carried out in Knowledge Management of Fast Reactors at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) including a few examples of how the knowledge acquired because of various incidents in the initial years has been utilized for the successful operation of Fast Breeder Test Reactor. It also briefly refers to the features of the IAEA initiative on the preservation of Knowledge in the area of Fast Reactors in the form of 'Fast Reactor Knowledge Organization System' (FR-KOS), which is based on a taxonomy for storage and mining of Fast Reactor Knowledge. (author)

  8. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  9. Nurses caring for ENT patients in a district general hospital without a dedicated ENT ward score significantly less in a test of knowledge than nurses caring for ENT patients in a dedicated ENT ward in a comparable district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, C R; Black, D; Muhlschlegel, J; Jardine, A

    2014-12-01

    To assess whether there is a difference in ENT knowledge amongst nurses caring for patients on a dedicated ENT ward and nurses caring for ENT patients in a similar hospital without a dedicated ENT ward. A test of theoretical knowledge of ENT nursing care was devised and administered to nurses working on a dedicated ENT ward and then to nurses working on generic non-subspecialist wards regularly caring for ENT patients in a hospital without a dedicated ENT ward. The test scores were then compared. A single specialist ENT/Maxillo-Facial/Opthalmology ward in hospital A and 3 generic surgical wards in hospital B. Both hospitals are comparable district general hospitals in the south west of England. Nursing staff working in hospital A and hospital B on the relevant wards were approached during the working day. 11 nurses on ward 1, 10 nurses on ward 2, 11 nurses on ward 3 and 10 nurses on ward 4 (the dedicated ENT ward). Each individual test score was used to generate an average score per ward and these scores compared to see if there was a significant difference. The average score out of 10 on ward 1 was 6.8 (+/-1.6). The average score on ward two was 4.8 (+/-1.6). The average score on ward three was 5.5 (+/-2.1). The average score on ward 4, which is the dedicated ENT ward, was 9.7 (+/-0.5). The differences in average test score between the dedicated ENT ward and all of the other wards are statistically significant. Nurses working on a dedicated ENT ward have an average higher score in a test of knowledge than nurses working on generic surgical wards. This difference is statistically significant and persists despite banding or training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...... for usage in KIWI system (Sections 3). This document is intended for technological partners to understand how for example the software development concepts can be applied to a semantic wiki framework....

  11. Energy knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, E. [Lancaster Univ., Centre for the Study of Environmental Change (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    James Thurber`s grandmother `lived the latter years of her life in the horrible suspicion that electricity was dripping invisibly all over the house`. The idea that electricity might leak from empty light sockets is both bizarre and at the same time strangely plausible. Delivered in a variety of forms, gas, electricity, oil, coal, wood etc.; energy permits countless services and is embodied in almost everything we find around us. Both everywhere, and nowhere, it remains a mysterious if not magical feature of everyday life. So the image of leaking light sockets is appealing not just because it is a quaintly ridiculous idea conjured up by a confused old lady but because it precisely articulates lingering uncertainty about the intangible qualities of this most pervasive resource. Taking the invisibility of energy as a point of departure, this paper explores the different kind of knowledge we have of energy use. Although the technologies of domestic energy measurement are familiar enough, we know what a meter looks like and we all get energy bills, it still requires an act of faith to believe in the `reality` of energy consumption. Those who have learned the official languages of energy efficiency have access to richer vocabularies of revealing terminology and can talk more confidently in terms of kilowatts, U values and the rest. But how do these different knowledge relate, and how do different ways of knowing energy influence perceptions of the possibilities and problems of energy conservation? In exploring these issues, the paper re-examines theories of energy and knowledge implicit in energy policy and energy related research. (au) 22 refs.

  12. Acute Pre-/Post-Treatment with 8th Day SOD-Like Supreme (a Free Radical Scavenging Health Product Protects against Oxidant-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes In Vitro as Well as in Mouse Myocardium and Liver In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pou Kuan Leong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available 8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Incubation with SOD-Like Supreme (0.5–3% (v/v was shown to protect against menadione-induced toxicity in H9c2 and AML12 cells, as evidenced by increases in cell viability. The ability of SOD-Like Supreme to protect against menadione cytotoxicity was associated with an elevation in the cellular reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG ratio in menadione-challenged cells. Consistent with the cell-based studies, pre-/post-treatment with SOD-Like Supreme (0.69 and 2.06 mL/kg, three intermittent doses per day for two consecutive days was found to protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice. The cardio/hepatoprotection afforded by SOD-Like Supreme was also paralleled by increases in myocardial/hepatic mitochondrial GSH/GSSG ratios in the SOD-Like Supreme-treated/oxidant-challenged mice. In conclusion, incubation/treatment with SOD-Like Supreme was found to protect against oxidant-induced injury in vitro and in vivo, presumably by virtue of its free radical scavenging activity.

  13. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  14. The effect of an interactive delirium e-learning tool on healthcare workers' delirium recognition, knowledge and strain in caring for delirious patients: a pilot pre-test/post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detroyer, Elke; Dobbels, Fabienne; Debonnaire, Deborah; Irving, Kate; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Fick, Donna M; Joosten, Etienne; Milisen, Koen

    2016-01-15

    Studies investigating the effectiveness of delirium e-learning tools in clinical practice are scarce. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a delirium e-learning tool on healthcare workers' delirium recognition, delirium knowledge and care strain in delirium. A pilot pre-posttest study in a convenience sample of 59 healthcare workers recruited from medical, surgical, geronto-psychiatric and rehabilitation units of a university hospital. The intervention consisted of a live information session on how to use the e-learning tool and, a 2-month self-active learning program. The tool included 11 e-modules integrating knowledge and skill development in prevention, detection and management of delirium. Case vignettes, the Delirium Knowledge Questionnaire, and the Strain of Care for Delirium Index were used to measure delirium recognition, delirium knowledge and experienced care strain in delirium respectively. Subgroup analyses were performed for healthcare workers completing 0 to 6 versus 7 to 11 modules. The delirium recognition score improved significantly (mean 3.1 ± SD 0.9 versus 2.7 ± 1.1; P = 0.04), and more healthcare workers identified hypoactive (P = 0.04) and hyperactive (P = 0.007) delirium in the posttest compared to the pretest phase. A significant difference in the change of recognition levels over time between the 0 to 6 and 7 to 11 module groups was demonstrated (P = 0.03), with an improved recognition level in the posttest phase within the 7 to 11 module group (P = 0.007). After adjustment for potential confounders, this difference in the change over time was not significant (P = 0.07) and no change in recognition levels within the 7 to 11 module group was noted (P = 0.19). The knowledge score significantly improved in the posttest compared to the pretest phase (mean 31.7 ± SD2.6 versus 28.3 ± 4.5; P e-learning tool improved healthcare workers' delirium recognition and knowledge. The effect

  15. Fallible Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério P. de Andrade

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a natureza do conhecimento em um ambiente sócio-econômico caracterizado por incerteza genuína. O ponto de partida é considerar que ambientes incertos tornam o conhecimento falível e contingente. O conhecimento é falível tanto em virtude de interações no espaço que acontecem ao mesmo tempo (complexidade, como devido à passagem do tempo. O artigo enfatiza dois tipos de conhecimento: “knowledge how” e “knowledge that”. O primeiro consiste em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do modo como fazemos algo e o segundo em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do porque fazemos algo. Uma forma que os agentes encontram para lidar com a condição de conhecimento falível é recorrer a convenções (Keynes e regras (Hayek. Convenções e regras são uma espécie de reservatório de uma forma de conhecimento social e intersubjetiva que os agentes podem adquirir, armazenar e comunicar uns com os outros. Elas fornecem em parte a informação necessária para o desempenho de suas atividades cotidianas.

  16. Knowledge repositories in knowledge cities: institutions, conventions and knowledge subnetworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger

  17. Knowledge claim evaluation : a fundamental issue for knowledge management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.; Maruster, L.; Jorna, R.J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to present a classification of approaches toward knowledge claim evaluation (KCE), which is the process of evaluating and testing knowledge claims in organizations, and to position KCE as a fundamental research issue for KM. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws

  18. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  19. Reconsidering vocational interests for personnel selection: the validity of an interest-based selection test in relation to job knowledge, job performance, and continuance intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Putka, Dan J; Campbell, John P

    2011-01-01

    Although vocational interests have a long history in vocational psychology, they have received extremely limited attention within the recent personnel selection literature. We reconsider some widely held beliefs concerning the (low) validity of interests for predicting criteria important to selection researchers, and we review theory and empirical evidence that challenge such beliefs. We then describe the development and validation of an interests-based selection measure. Results of a large validation study (N = 418) reveal that interests predicted a diverse set of criteria—including measures of job knowledge, job performance, and continuance intentions—with corrected, cross-validated Rs that ranged from .25 to .46 across the criteria (mean R = .31). Interests also provided incremental validity beyond measures of general cognitive aptitude and facets of the Big Five personality dimensions in relation to each criterion. Furthermore, with a couple exceptions, the interest scales were associated with small to medium subgroup differences, which in most cases favored women and racial minorities. Taken as a whole, these results appear to call into question the prevailing thought that vocational interests have limited usefulness for selection.

  20. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  1. TESTING THE KNOWLEDGE OF NURSES IN A COMMUNITY HEALTH FOUNDATION OF THE CITY OF SINOP / MT ON THE TREATMENT OF WOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dill

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to observe the technical and scientific knowledge of nurses in a Community Health Foundation of Sinop / MT, related to wound care. For it belongs to the nurse assessment and differential with the development and implementation of a plan of care, evaluation and reevaluation of treatment used for each patient diagnosis. Check autonomy and the scientific expertise of the nurse related to the procedure in curative practices; Assess the knowledge of nurses regarding the guidance given their nursing staff on the implementation of curative and delegation practices. It is a field research with an applied nature, quantitative and qualitative approach with exploratory and descriptive characteristic. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire consisting of 28 objective and subjective questions. The selection criterion was the 21 nurses working in the following clinics: Medical, Surgical Clinic, Maternity Clinic, Pediatrics, Adult ICU, Private Practice Private Practice I and II. Inclusion criteria are: nurses who work in the area of health care that perform related care and wound care practices. Were excluded from the research nurse who does not exercise direct activities of health care nurses respectively of CCIH and CME. The sample was characterized for female nurses, with over two years of training, more time in the job (50% has <1-1 year. As for the update on injuries (80.96% of nurses said update themselves by research sources with: congress, lectures articles, magazines and newspapers. Over (50% of nurses claim to always seek professional medical information with another nurse. Questioned whether it is in the institution's protocol wounds and if it is used (47.61% claimed to have the protocol, it is noteworthy that there is an institutional protocol on wounds. As the autonomy of the professional nurse in treatment decision occurred, 11 (52.38% stated that it is always the doctor who prescribes the conduct of wound

  2. The relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature: A review of current knowledge and a test using a sample of adult Portuguese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Marinho, Luísa; Albanese, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of cadaver length and forensic stature as a proxy for living standing height has not been scrutinized in detail. In this paper we present a brief review of the current knowledge on the relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature; assess the magnitude and nature of the differences between these three measures of stature; and investigate the potential impact of these differences in forensic contexts. The study uses a sample of 84 males who were autopsied in 2008 at the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (Porto, Portugal), where stature data were collected from three different sources: cadaver stature was obtained from the corpse prior to autopsy, living stature was obtained from military conscription records and forensic stature was obtained from national citizenship identification card records. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and linear regression are used to analyze the data. The results show that cadaver stature is the highest measure, followed by forensic and by living stature, and the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than expected (4.3cm). Results also show considerable individual variation in the differences between the three measures of stature and that differences decrease with stature, although only slightly. This study has shown that the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than previously thought and suggests that previously reported correction factors are a minimum rather than a mean correction. Forensic stature is likely to be incorrectly estimated and can jeopardize identification if methods estimate living rather than forensic stature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-collection based HPV testing for cervical cancer screening among women living with HIV in Uganda: a descriptive analysis of knowledge, intentions to screen and factors associated with HPV positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sheona M; Pedersen, Heather N; Eng Stime, Evelyn; Sekikubo, Musa; Moses, Erin; Mwesigwa, David; Biryabarema, Christine; Christilaw, Jan; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2017-01-13

    Women living with HIV (WHIV) are disproportionately impacted by cervical dysplasia and cancer. The burden is greatest in low-income countries where limited or no access to screening exists. The goal of this study was to describe knowledge and intentions of WHIV towards HPV self-collection for cervical cancer screening, and to report on factors related to HPV positivity among women who participated in testing. A validated survey was administered to 87 HIV positive women attending the Kisenyi Health Unit aged 30-69 years old, and data was abstracted from chart review. At a later date, self-collection based HPV testing was offered to all women. Specimens were tested for high risk HPV genotypes, and women were contacted with results and referred for care. Descriptive statistics, Chi Square and Fischer-exact statistical tests were performed. The vast majority of WHIV (98.9%) women did not think it necessary to be screened for cervical cancer and the majority of women had never heard of HPV (96.4%). However, almost all WHIV found self-collection for cervical cancer screening to be acceptable. Of the 87 WHIV offered self-collection, 40 women agreed to provide a sample at the HIV clinic. Among women tested, 45% were oncogenic HPV positive, where HPV 16 or 18 positivity was 15% overall. In this group of WHIV engaged in HIV care, there was a high prevalence of oncogenic HPV, a large proportion of which were HPV genotypes 16 or 18, in addition to low knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer screening. Improved education and cervical cancer screening for WHIV are sorely needed; self-collection based screening has the potential to be integrated with routine HIV care in this setting.

  4. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  5. Knowledge Management: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Morrow, Noreen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

  6. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international accla...

  7. As relações entre saber e poder em testes psicodiagnósticos a partir de M. Foucault The relations between knowledge and power in psychodiagnostic tests based on M. Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Caron

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo tenho o objetivo de abordar algumas questões relativas aos testes utilizados nos processos psicodiagnósticos de crianças consideradas portadoras de dificuldades de aprendizagem. Tomando como pano de fundo histórico, principalmente, o livro de Foucault Vigiar e Punir (1975/1986, pretendo investigar a hipótese de que a criança é considerada doente, anormal devido a fatores relacionados às normas impostas e não a organicidade e/ou patologia neurológica. Interessa-me refletir sobre os indícios que permitem apontar a concepção de linguagem escrita subjacente aos testes, linguagem esperada e privilegiada, mas que pode não ser a linguagem que a criança usa, vive e experiencia.In this article my main objective is to approach some questions related to the tests used in psychodiagnostics processes of children who are considered as having learning difficulties. Having the book Discipline and Punish (1975/1986 by Foucault as theoretical basis, I intend to investigate the hypothesis that the child is considered ill or abnormal due to the factors related to imposed norms and not to organic aspects and/or neurological pathology. My interest is to analyse the signs that allow us to point out the written language conception of tests. This language is expected and privileged, however it may not be the language that the child uses and experiences every day.

  8. Relations among conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and procedural flexibility in two samples differing in prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R

    2011-11-01

    Competence in many domains rests on children developing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as procedural flexibility. However, research on the developmental relations between these different types of knowledge has yielded unclear results, in part because little attention has been paid to the validity of the measures or to the effects of prior knowledge on the relations. To overcome these problems, we modeled the three constructs in the domain of equation solving as latent factors and tested (a) whether the predictive relations between conceptual and procedural knowledge were bidirectional, (b) whether these interrelations were moderated by prior knowledge, and (c) how both constructs contributed to procedural flexibility. We analyzed data from 2 measurement points each from two samples (Ns = 228 and 304) of middle school students who differed in prior knowledge. Conceptual and procedural knowledge had stable bidirectional relations that were not moderated by prior knowledge. Both kinds of knowledge contributed independently to procedural flexibility. The results demonstrate how changes in complex knowledge structures contribute to competence development.

  9. "Qual destas moças é você?" o autoconhecimento produzido pelos testes da imprensa feminina "Which one of these girls are you?" Self-knowledge produced by female press tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina Xavier Filha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende refletir acerca dos discursos veiculados e produzidos por um elemento textual peculiar da imprensa feminina: os testes. O estudo fundamenta-se nos pressupostos de gênero e de alguns conceitos dos estudos foucaultianos. Pretende discutir os enunciados expressos na imprensa (revistas Capricho e Cláudia com a temática da feminilidade e da sexualidade nas primeiras décadas da segunda metade do século XX. Os testes, mediante enunciados prescritivos e normalizadores, revelaram ser instrumentos de dispositivos pedagógicos com o objetivo de "conduzir as condutas" femininas, uma vez que se tornam capazes de provocar o exame e a confissão, tornando o discurso da intimidade visível e verbalizado. Indicam conceitos de "verdade", apoiados em códigos morais e, especialmente, em preceitos fundamentados em teorias científicas a respeito da conduta feminina. O conceito de verdade está ligado a sistemas de poder, que apontam para regimes não necessariamente negativos ou repressivos, mas, fundamentalmente, produtivos, porque incitam à reflexão e propiciam possibilidades de trabalho pessoal.Tthis paper aims to make a reflection on the discourses conveyed and produced by a peculiar textual element in the female press: tests. The study is based on gender assumptions and some foucaultian concepts. It intends to discuss statements found in the press (magazines Capricho and Cláudia regarding female themes and sexuality in the first decades of the second half of the 20th century. By using prescriptive and normalizing statements, the tests were revealed to act as pedagogical tools whose objective was "to guide female conduct", as they were able to prompt examination and confession, thus making it possible for the inner discourse to be visible and verbalized. The tests indicate concepts of "truth" supported by moral codes and, especially, by precepts based on scientific theories about female conduct. The concept of truth is connected to

  10. Refinement of an Instrument to Assess Readiness for Knowledge Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Landon C

    2007-01-01

    ... for knowledge management. This study culminates in the development and field-testing of the resultant knowledge management readiness instrument, filling in an important gap in contemporary literature.

  11. Test Your Knowledge of Internet Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Vicki Smith

    1998-01-01

    Answers common questions about the Internet, i.e., what it is, its components, and the definitions of its various features. Questions include what Web pages and browsers are, and the definitions of URLs, ISPs, home pages, search engines, and hyperlinks. (GR)

  12. Test Your Knowledge about Kids' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Tips Tips to Protect Yourself from Germ Monsters Make Summer Safe for Kids Websites for Kids ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329- ...

  13. Test Your Knowledge of Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specialize in spina bifida, to high health care costs from frequent surgeries and hospitalizations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) projects improve the quality of life and encourage full participation at every ...

  14. Tacit knowledge emergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge

  15. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility....... By common standard, the proclaimed responsibility of knowledge management is shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action in an organization. The significance of the practices of knowledge management is the intention of shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action....

  16. Knowledge management: organizing nursing care knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane A; Willson, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Almost everything we do in nursing is based on our knowledge. In 1984, Benner (From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley; 1984) described nursing knowledge as the culmination of practical experience and evidence from research, which over time becomes the "know-how" of clinical experience. This "know-how" knowledge asset is dynamic and initially develops in the novice critical care nurse, expands within competent and proficient nurses, and is actualized in the expert intensive care nurse. Collectively, practical "know-how" and investigational (evidence-based) knowledge culminate into the "knowledge of caring" that defines the profession of nursing. The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of knowledge management as a framework for identifying, organizing, analyzing, and translating nursing knowledge into daily practice. Knowledge management is described in a model case and implemented in a nursing research project.

  17. Assessing Knowledge in Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Strømgren, Ole; Sato, Toyoko

    2013-01-01

    The Synopsis–Based Oral Examination (S–BOE) is described as deployed in international management education programs in a Danish business school. It assesses students in light of specified learning objectives through time–constrained presentation and dialogue. The format is premised on prior...... submission of a synopsis, although the synopsis has no bearing on grade assessment. Practitioner experience and student feedback suggest that students experience this type of examination as an important learning experience, in itself, in addition to testing course–related knowledge. We reviewed the current...... epistemological basis for grading, providing a critical realism corrective to enhance assessment and appropriation of this exam format....

  18. Interprofessional Simulations Promote Knowledge Retention and Enhance Perceptions of Teamwork Skills in a Surgical-Trauma-Burn Intensive Care Unit Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Katie L; Quatrara, Beth

    semistructured debriefing guided by the TENTS tool highlighted important aspects of teamwork. Participants took knowledge and Teamwork Skills Scale (TSS) pretests, posttests, and 1-month posttests. Mean scores were calculated for each time point (pre, post, and 1-month post), and paired t tests were used to evaluate changes. Mean knowledge test and TSS scores both significantly increased after the simulation and remained significantly elevated at 1-month follow-up. Participants recommended retraining intervals of 3 to 6 months. Cost of each simulation was estimated to be $324.44. Analysis of nursing turnover rates did not demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in turnover; however, confounding factors were not controlled for. Significant improvements on both knowledge test and TSS scores demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention, and retention of the information gained and teamwork skills learned. Participants valued the intervention and recommended to increase the frequency of training. Future studies should develop a framework for "best practice" IPS, analyze the relationship with nursing turnover, and ultimately seek correlations between IPS and improved patient outcomes.

  19. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge management

    Five (5) research questions guided the study and three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of ... key factor of knowledge management is knowledge sharing. ... difference has been recorded in terms of skills acquisition, information literacy, classroom ... However, little is known about knowledge-sharing strategies and their ...

  20. Science knowledge and biblical literalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigerell, L J

    2012-04-01

    Biblical literalists are often described as scientific illiterates, but little if any empirical research has tested this claim. Analysis of a sixteen-item battery from the 2008 US General Social Survey revealed that literalists possess less science knowledge than those with other views of Scripture, but that much of this deficit can be attributed to demographic factors and unequal educational attainment. The marginal direct effect of biblical belief suggests that literalism is not incompatible with knowledge of science and, therefore, the best avenue for increasing science knowledge among literalists may be to foster interest in science and design science courses to attenuate any perceived conflict between science and religion.

  1. Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

  2. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-09-01

    Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance. Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’. Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

  3. Threads of common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  4. Development and testing of a decision aid on goals of care for advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einterz, Seth F; Gilliam, Robin; Lin, Feng Chang; McBride, J Marvin; Hanson, Laura C

    2014-04-01

    Decision aids are effective to improve decision-making, yet they are rarely tested in nursing homes (NHs). Study objectives were to (1) examine the feasibility of a goals of care (GOC) decision aid for surrogate decision-makers (SDMs) of persons with dementia; and (2) to test its effect on quality of communication and decision-making. Pre-post intervention to test a GOC decision aid intervention for SDMs for persons with dementia in NHs. Investigators collected data from reviews of resident health records and interviews with SDMs at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Two NHs in North Carolina. Eighteen residents who were over 65 years of age, had moderate to severe dementia on the global deterioration scale (5, 6, or 7), and an English-speaking surrogate decision-maker. (1) GOC decision aid video viewed by the SDM and (2) a structured care plan meeting between the SDM and interdisciplinary NH team. Surrogate knowledge, quality of communication with health care providers, surrogate-provider concordance on goals of care, and palliative care domains addressed in the care plan. Eighty-nine percent of the SDMs thought the decision aid was relevant to their needs. After viewing the video decision aid, SDMs increased the number of correct responses on knowledge-based questions (12.5 vs 14.2; P communication scores (6.1 vs 6.8; P = .01) and improved concordance on primary goal of care with NH team (50% vs 78%; P = .003). The number of palliative care domains addressed in the care plan increased (1.8 vs 4.3; P decision-support intervention piloted in this study was feasible and relevant for surrogate decision-makers of persons with advanced dementia in NHs, and it improved quality of communication between SDM and NH providers. A larger randomized clinical trial is underway to provide further evidence of the effects of this decision aid intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perspectives on knowledge in engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdorf, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Various perspectives are given of the knowledge currently used in engineering design, specifically dealing with knowledge-based expert systems (KBES). Constructing an expert system often reveals inconsistencies in domain knowledge while formalizing it. The types of domain knowledge (facts, procedures, judgments, and control) differ from the classes of that knowledge (creative, innovative, and routine). The feasible tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, where generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select a knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations.

  6. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how de...

  7. From Knowledge to Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Møller, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, focus has been on the utilisation of research-based knowledge and evidence in social work policy and practice in order to make it more effective. A part of this process has been the launch of knowledge portals to make use of knowledge from research. In this article, we investigate...... how knowledge portals about vulnerable children and youth present knowledge and evidence, and how they try to work as ?knowledge brokers? or intermediaries of evidence. We argue that knowledge portals are not merely channels for dissemination of knowledge. Knowledge portals could be considered as part...... of a greater process of bringing knowledge to action, encompassing the social and organisational contexts of research utilisation. The article concludes by stating that knowledge portals have the potential to be effective instruments in knowledge-to-action processes. The two main challenges, however...

  8. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge......An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...

  9. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  10. Knowledge and skill retention of a mobile phone data collection protocol in rural Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R; Boyd, Carol J; Andreatta, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    With a large number of births occurring outside the formal health system, it is difficult to determine the number of pregnant women in rural regions of Liberia. The exponential growth of mobile phone use in developing countries provides a potential avenue for data collection on maternal and child health in such rural, remote regions. A pre-, post-, and one-year posttest design was used to collect data on knowledge and skill retention for 7 essential items required for mobile phone use among traditional birth attendants (TBAs) trained in a short message service (SMS) texting data collection protocol (N = 99) in rural Liberia. Sixty-three participants (63.6% retention) completed the one-year posttest and displayed evidence of statistically significant knowledge and skill retention in 6 of the 7 tasks (P < .005), including the ability to: 1) turn on the phone, 2) use the mobile phone to make a call, 3) recognize that they have coverage, 4) recognize that the mobile phone is charged, 5) create a SMS text message without help, and 6) send a SMS text message without help. The TBAs continued to have difficulty with more complex tasks such as adding minutes to a phone. The mobile phone data-collection protocol proved feasible with TBAs demonstrating knowledge retention in a one-year posttest; however, clinical significance needs further investigation. The protocol increased communication and collaboration among TBAs, certified midwives, and clinic staff. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  11. Effectiveness of online simulation training: Measuring faculty knowledge, perceptions, and intention to adopt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujeong; Park, Chang; O'Rourke, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Best practice standards of simulation recommend standardized simulation training for nursing faculty. Online training may offer an effective and more widely available alternative to in-person training. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, this study evaluated the effectiveness of an online simulation training program, examining faculty's foundational knowledge of simulation as well as perceptions and intention to adopt. One-group pretest-posttest design. A large school of nursing with a main campus and five regional campuses in the Midwestern United States. Convenience sample of 52 faculty participants. Knowledge of foundational simulation principles was measured by pre/post-training module quizzes. Perceptions and the intention to adopt simulation were measured using the Faculty Attitudes and Intent to Use Related to the Human Patient Simulator questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in faculty knowledge after training and observable improvements in attitudes. Attitudes significantly influenced the intention to adopt simulation (B=2.54, p<0.001). Online simulation training provides an effective alternative for training large numbers of nursing faculty who seek to implement best practice of standards within their institutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  13. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing commercial…

  14. Effectiveness of an Integrated Community- and Clinic-Based Intervention on HIV Testing, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk Behavior of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Poe Poe; Ryan, Claire; Bajracharya, Ashish; Pasricha, Naanki; Thein, Zaw Win; Agius, Paul A; Sein, Than Tun; Willenberg, Lisa; Soe, Ei Mon; Zaw, Ne Tun; Tun, Waimar; Yam, Eileen; Luchters, Stanley

    2017-02-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Myanmar are disproportionately affected by HIV, with prevalence five times that of the general population. The Link Up project implemented an intervention using peer education and outreach providing education and counseling on health seeking around sexually transmitted infections and reproductive health, combined with focused clinic capacity building to improve the sexual and reproductive health of YMSM. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the intervention. Using a mixed-methods approach, and employing a quasi-experimental design, we conducted two quantitative repeat cross-sectional surveys in purposively selected control (no intervention) and intervention townships, before and after implementation of the Link Up intervention. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit YMSM aged 15-24 years, and study participants were administered a structured questionnaire assessing intervention exposure, health service access, knowledge of HIV, and sexual risk behavior. Focus group discussions were held to elicit perspectives on the use and acceptability of the health services and peer outreach. At baseline, 314 YMSM were recruited in the intervention townships and 309 YMSM in the control townships. At end line, 267 (intervention) and 318 (control) YMSM were recruited. Coverage of the program was relatively low, with one-third of participants in the intervention townships having heard of the Link Up program by the end line. Comparing changes between baseline and end line, a greater proportion of HIV-negative or unknown status YMSM accessed HIV testing in the past 3 months in intervention townships (from 45.0% to 57.1%) compared with those in control townships (remained at 29.0%); however, this difference in the effect over time was not statistically significant in multivariate modeling (adjusted odds ratio: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: .66-3.17). Qualitative findings showed that the intervention

  15. Metaphors for Knowledge in Knowledge Intensive Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of different....... The dataset of the dissertation consists of six conversations of six creative startups. In addition one case from a large Danish food production company was studied. All seven groups were taken through the same process. First they built three buildings in toy bricks of the brand LEGO Serious Play...... cognitive process rather than a number of individual processes. The dissertation is a compilation of four contributions in addition to an introductory part on theory and methodology and a concluding part. The four contributions are: 1. A book chapter for Handbook of Language and Metaphor to be published...

  16. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  17. Does educational intervention improve doctors’ knowledge and perceptions of generic medicines and their generic prescribing rate? A study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Zhi Yen; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Mohamad Yahaya, Abdul Haniff; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the impact of an educational intervention on doctors’ knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines and their generic (international non-proprietary name) prescribing practice. Methods: This is a single-cohort pre-/post-intervention pilot study. The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Perak, Malaysia. All doctors from the internal medicine department were invited to participate in the educational intervention. The intervention consisted of an interactive lecture, an educational booklet and a drug list. Doctors’ knowledge and perceptions were assessed by using a validated questionnaire, while the international non-proprietary name prescribing practice was assessed by screening the prescription before and after the intervention. Results: The intervention was effective in improving doctors’ knowledge towards bioequivalence, similarity of generic medicines and safety standards required for generic medicine registration (p = 0.034, p = 0.034 and p = 0.022, respectively). In terms of perceptions towards generic medicines, no significant changes were noted (p > 0.05). Similarly, no impact on international non-proprietary name prescribing practice was observed after the intervention (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about generic medicines before the intervention. Moreover, international non-proprietary name prescribing was not a common practice. However, the educational intervention was only effective in improving doctors’ knowledge of generic medicines. PMID:26770747

  18. Knowledge Repository for Fmea Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time

  19. The new genesis of knowledge: Shared leadership for knowledge development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, J.P.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Today’s issues, like sustainable growth, are demanding for leaders, employees, knowledge and organisational innovation. Leadership literature until now is restrained by a hierarchical bias. This study takes an Ecologic System Model, and tests the contribution of shared leadership, self-directive

  20. How Knowledge Influences Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how children's knowledge can be measured/described, knowledge patterns across diverse concepts, interaction of knowledge/learning, and ways children construct more advanced problem-solving rules to replace less adequate ones. Evidence, drawn from studies on children's acquisition of knowledge about balance beams, suggests that knowledge…

  1. Knowledge and Its Enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    As libraries are the physical manifestations of knowledge, some refection about the concept of knowledge would not be unjustified. In modern societies, knowledge plays such a central role that it requires some effort and imagination to understand on what grounds knowledge could be rejected. Karl Popper wrote about the open society and its enemies.…

  2. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  3. Cernavoda NPP Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valache, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a description of the Knowledge Transfer (KT) process implemented at Cernavoda NPP, its designing and implementation. It is underlined that applying a KT approach should improve the value of existing processes of the organization through: • Identifying business, operational and safety risks due to knowledge gaps, • Transfer of knowledge from the ageing workforce to the peers and/or the organization, • Continually learning from successes and failures of individual or teams, • Convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, • Improving operational and safety performance through creating both new knowledge and better access to existing knowledge. (author

  4. Knowledge base mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, M; Furukawa, K; Makinouchi, A; Mizoguchi, T; Mizoguchi, F; Yamasaki, H

    1982-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the Fifth Generation Computer System Project for the coming decade is to develop a methodology for building knowledge information processing systems which will provide people with intelligent agents. The key notion of the fifth generation computer system is knowledge used for problem solving. In this paper the authors describe the plan of Randd on knowledge base mechanisms. A knowledge representation system is to be designed to support knowledge acquisition for the knowledge information processing systems. The system will include a knowledge representation language, a knowledge base editor and a debugger. It is also expected to perform as a kind of meta-inference system. In order to develop the large scale knowledge base systems, a knowledge base mechanism based on the relational model is to be studied in the earlier stage of the project. Distributed problem solving is also one of the main issues of the project. 19 references.

  5. Knowledge, indigenous knowledge, peace and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to understand the nature of knowledge, introduce the concept of indigenous knowledge, provide some idea of the status of Indigenous ... African professionals, scholars, researchers, policy makers and activists attempting to understand or promote IK run the risk of a cool reception, ridicule or even outright ...

  6. Tacit Knowledge: Revisiting the Epistemology of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The concept of tacit knowledge encompasses all of the intricacy of the different experiences that people acquire over time, and which they utilize and bring to bear in carrying out tasks effectively, reacting to unforeseen circumstances, or innovating. The intuitive nature of tacit knowledge, its particular context, and the difficulty of…

  7. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  8. Supporting students' knowledge integration with technology-enhanced inquiry curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer Lopseen

    Dynamic visualizations of scientific phenomena have the potential to transform how students learn and understand science. Dynamic visualizations enable interaction and experimentation with unobservable atomic-level phenomena. A series of studies clarify the conditions under which embedding dynamic visualizations in technology-enhanced inquiry instruction can help students develop robust and durable chemistry knowledge. Using the knowledge integration perspective, I designed Chemical Reactions, a technology-enhanced curriculum unit, with a partnership of teachers, educational researchers, and chemists. This unit guides students in an exploration of how energy and chemical reactions relate to climate change. It uses powerful dynamic visualizations to connect atomic level interactions to the accumulation of greenhouse gases. The series of studies were conducted in typical classrooms in eleven high schools across the country. This dissertation describes four studies that contribute to understanding of how visualizations can be used to transform chemistry learning. The efficacy study investigated the impact of the Chemical Reactions unit compared to traditional instruction using pre-, post- and delayed posttest assessments. The self-monitoring study used self-ratings in combination with embedded assessments to explore how explanation prompts help students learn from dynamic visualizations. The self-regulation study used log files of students' interactions with the learning environment to investigate how external feedback and explanation prompts influence students' exploration of dynamic visualizations. The explanation study compared specific and general explanation prompts to explore the processes by which explanations benefit learning with dynamic visualizations. These studies delineate the conditions under which dynamic visualizations embedded in inquiry instruction can enhance student outcomes. The studies reveal that visualizations can be deceptively clear

  9. Conceptual Knowledge of Fraction Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Understanding an arithmetic operation implies, at minimum, knowing the direction of effects that the operation produces. However, many children and adults, even those who execute arithmetic procedures correctly, may lack this knowledge on some operations and types of numbers. To test this hypothesis, we presented preservice teachers (Study 1),…

  10. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  11. Generative Knowledge Interviewing: A Method for Knowledge Transfer and Talent Management at the University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Melissa R.; Walsh, Katherine; Sober, Robin; Rawak, Christine S.

    2010-01-01

    Experts and leaders within most fields possess knowledge that is largely tacit and unconscious in nature. The leaders of most organizations do not "know what they know" and cannot share their knowledge with others. The loss of this essential knowledge is of major concern to organizations. This study tested an innovative method of tacit…

  12. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

  13. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  14. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin; Ghitescu, Petre

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear knowledge is characterized by high-complexity and variety of the component topics and long duration required by the build-up of individual competence. At organizational level, these characteristics made the power of an organization or institution to be determined by the capital accumulated of existing knowledge. Furthermore, the capacity of an organization to re-generate and raise the knowledge capital according to the specific processes it is running according to the existing demand decides its position/ranking in the economy of nuclear field. Knowledge management emphasizes re-utilization of existing practice and experience, upgrade, enrich and re-value of accumulated knowledge. The present paper identifies and classifies the nuclear knowledge steps, namely: tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge, preserving, transfer, knowledge capture etc. On this basis there are identified the existing problems of nuclear knowledge management in Romania such as: difficulties to keep within the country the existing expertise, lack of interest in nuclear education, low level of organization of existing knowledge due to a small number of data bases, an insufficient integration of existing knowledge in IT systems, lack of ontology and taxonomy or an average structuralism. Nuclear knowledge in Romania is facing a major challenge which is generated by the future development of nuclear facilities. It is related to the rising demand of expertise and experts. This challenge is better solved by partnership between end users and institutions of Research and Development and university organization as well which could ensure the generation, transfer and preservation of nuclear knowledge. (authors)

  15. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  16. The tourism knowledge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribe, John; Liburd, Janne J.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual study addresses the significant need for every mature field of knowledge to understand itself. It builds upon previous studies of the epistemology and ontology of tourism by critiquing, synthesising, discarding, re-ordering and adding material. Its contribution is an original...... reconceptualisation of the structure, systems, processes and outcomes that define the field of tourism. These are explained by the creation of a model and detailed analysis that examines knowledge space, the knowledge force-field, knowledge networks, four key domains in knowledge creation and their interrelationships....... Finally the model is used to examine some of the key challenges and consequences that the knowledge system reveals for tourism and its research....

  17. A study to assess the knowledge about sexual health among male students of junior colleges of an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Ramchandra Kalkute

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of personality of adolescents. The age of sexual debut is falling globally. The subject of adolescent sexuality is taboo in most societies. Since 2007 sexual health education program has been banned in six states including Maharashtra and Karnataka. This may lead to misconceptions about sexual heath knowledge and practices among young people. Objective: The aim was to assess the knowledge about sexual health among male students of junior colleges of an urban area and to evaluate the change in their knowledge after imparting sexual health education. Settings and Design: Pre-post-intervention study. Materials and Methods: All 245 male students of 11 th standard of all three educational streams of two junior colleges were included in the study. The data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 18. Results: Science students had "adequate" knowledge about sexual health when compared to arts and commerce students (P = 0.004. Students whose parents were unskilled and semiskilled by occupation had "inadequate" knowledge about sexual health when compared with students whose parents were skilled by occupation (P < 0.05. Education of parents had positive effect on the knowledge about sexual health of students (P = 0.062. In posttest, the knowledge about sexual health of students was found to have increased significantly when compared to pretest. The mean posttest score was 12.61 (standard deviation [SD] 3.12, which was significantly higher than the mean pretest score of 6.34 (SD 3.23 (P < 0.001. Students from nuclear families had "adequate" knowledge about sexual health when compared to students from joint families (P = 0.158 Conclusion: Imparting knowledge about sexual health in adolescent age will be beneficial to the students in avoiding risky sexual behavior. Such educational programs must be given due importance to achieve desirable behavior change among them.

  18. Knowledge and Skills for PISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2007-01-01

    to the claims of PISA, PISA is not an assessment of the ‘knowledge and skills for life' of students, but only of ‘knowledge and skills in assessment situations'. Even this latter form of assessment is not fully reliable, however, because of problems at the level of concrete test items and because of an inherent......This article gives a critique of the methodology of OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). It is argued that PISA is invalidated by the fact that the methodology chosen does not constitute an adequate operationalisation of the question of inquiry. Therefore, contrary...

  19. Ontologies, Knowledge Bases and Knowledge Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chalupsky, Hans

    2002-01-01

    ...) an application called Strategy Development Assistant (SDA) that uses that ontology. The JFACC ontology served as a basis for knowledge sharing among several applications in the domain of air campaign planning...

  20. Tailoring and field-testing the use of a knowledge translation peer support shared decision making strategy with First Nations, Inuit and Métis people making decisions about their cancer care: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Janet; Mazereeuw, Maegan; Sheppard, Amanada; Kewayosh, Alethea; Steiner, Richard; Graham, Ian D

    2018-01-01

    Tailoring and testing a peer support decision making strategy with First Nations, Inuit and Métis people making decisions about their cancer care: A study protocol.First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) people face higher risks for cancer compared to non-FNIM populations. They also face cultural barriers to health service use. Within non-FNIM populations an approach to health decision making, called shared decision making (SDM), has been found to improve the participation of people in their healthcare. Peer support with SDM further improves these benefits. The purpose of this study is to tailor and test a peer support SDM strategy with community support workers to increase FNIM people's participation in their cancer care.This project has two phases that will be designed and conducted with a Steering Committee that includes members of the FNIM and cancer care communities. First, a peer support SDM strategy will be tailored to meet the needs of cancer system users who are receiving care in urban settings, and training in the SDM strategy developed for community support workers. Three communities will be supported for participation in the study and community support workers who are peers from each community will be trained to use the SDM strategy.Next, each community support worker will work with a community member who has a diagnosis of cancer or who has supported a family member with cancer. Each community support worker and community member pair will use the SDM strategy. The participation and experience of the community support worker and community member will be evaluated.The research will be used to develop strategies to support people who are making decisions about their health. Tailoring and field-testing the use of a knowledge translation peer support shared decision making strategy with First Nations, Inuit and Métis people making decisions about their cancer care: A study protocol Background First Nations, Inuit and Métis ("FNIM") people face increased

  1. Collaborative Knowledge Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... collaboration of knowledge. The organizational structures and ... enables organizations to see the collective knowledge as a base element of ..... requirements for communication across different equipment and applications by ...

  2. Knowledge dissemination: Determining impact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molapo, D

    2007-07-17

    Full Text Available , efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability may be used respectively. Techniques of analyzing applied knowledge data abound. Two techniques of applied knowledge analysis which are used in the CSIR namely, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Cost...

  3. Evolution of knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of business and management is changing rapidly, and changes are expected to continue. Emerging concepts and paradigms are being introduced and applied to organizational life. Knowledge management (KM is not new but rather newly structured concept. Although the concept was not popularized until the last two decades of the 20th century, transmitting and managing knowledge stretch back into distant history. The aim of this paper is to analyse knowledge management evolutionary history and to investigate the use of knowledge management as management tool in organizations. This paper is focused on systematic review of literature on knowledge management. Emphasis is placed on correlation between knowledge management and information and communication technology and advent and use of new tools and techniques; change in the way knowledge has been conceptualized; social context of KM, big data and analytics, artificial intelligence. The importance of knowledge itself was not questioned, as it is recognized as highly valuable resource.

  4. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  5. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    In the area of knowledge management and knowledge governance, previous research has mostly focused on either knowledge stocks or knowledge flows of firms or organizational units. Contrary to this work, our study is among the first to integrate these two perspectives in order to shed light...... on the complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC). We investigate intra-functional as well as cross-functional complementarity effects from the perspective of the knowledge recipient. We test the impact of stocks on flows on the benefit that is created...... for MNC units. Based on a comprehensive sample of 324 relationships between MNC units we find that both types of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross...

  6. Accessing vs Sourcing Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram

    2015-01-01

    to get on par with industry leaders. An in-depth comparison of knowledge flows reveals that within AMNEs, headquarters often serves the primary source of knowledge for R&D subsidiaries. In contrast, within EMNEs, headquarters accesses knowledge from R&D subsidiaries in advanced economies for innovation...

  7. Sharing experience and knowledge with wearable computers

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Marcus; Drugge, Mikael; Parnes, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Wearable computer have mostly been looked on when used in isolation. But the wearable computer with Internet connection is a good tool for communication and for sharing knowledge and experience with other people. The unobtrusiveness of this type of equipment makes it easy to communicate at most type of locations and contexts. The wearable computer makes it easy to be a mediator of other people knowledge and becoming a knowledgeable user. This paper describes the experience gained from testing...

  8. Community intervention to improve knowledge and practices on commonly used drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, K K; Karkee, S B; Shrestha, N; Prasad, R R; Bhuju, G B; Das, P L; Chataut, B D

    2010-01-01

    World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that about half of all medicines are inappropriately prescribed, dispensed and sold and about half of all patients fail to take their medicines properly. The overall objective of the study was improving use of medicines in the community by creating awareness among different target groups. It was a pre-post comparison of intervention implemented at the community level in purposively selected Bhaktapur District of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The study was conducted in the private schools of the study district. Twelve schools were randomly selected. Thereafter, students from 6-9 grades were listed from the selected schools. Then 15% of the total students in each grade were randomly selected to get six students from each grade of the each school, totaling 288 students. The households of the selected students served as the sample households for the study. Thus, there were 288 households sampled for the study. The intervention and the targeted intermediary groups consisted of a. training of schools teachers b. training of journalists c. interactive discussions of trained school teachers with school children using key messages and c. communication of key messages through the local F.M. radio, newspaper/magazine. There was a significant increase in correct knowledge on action of antibiotics and excellent knowledge on the methods of administration of antibiotics of households after the intervention. Similarly, there was a significant increase in knowledge on cough as a disease and a significant decrease in the use of cough medicines after intervention. There was also a significant increase in excellent knowledge on the sources of vitamins and a significant decrease in the use of vitamin/tonics after the intervention. The participation of intermediary groups eg. school teachers, journalists and school children in the implementation of intervention were successful. The groups have fulfilled the commitments in implementing the plan of

  9. KNOWLEDGE WORKERS’ MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona TODERICIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The empirical research of this paper deals with knowledge workers in Romanian organizations from different fields of activity, with the purpose of distinguishing them from other types of employees and clarifying their profile and individual characteristics. Also, the paper presents the most important challenges concerning the knowledge workers’ management: identifying, developing and evaluating knowledge workers, motivating and rewarding them, as well as describing specific structure of the organizations that rely mostly on knowledgeable workforce. The findings of the research represent an important factor in developing future efficient human resources strategies and practices regarding workers that fuel the knowledge economy.

  10. Knowledge Management at CNAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callosada, C. de la

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge management at CNAT (Almaraz & Trillo NPPs) representsa significant part of our safety-oriented management system. The purpose is to generate for the stations useful knowledge, which should be then preserved and made easily accessible for everyone in the organization. The aim is to promote knowledge usage for ensuring safe plant operation and facilitating the required generational change-over. In fact, knowledge management is considered one of the main policies at CNAT, with everyone in the organization being expected to collaborate in it. Similarly, some general behavioral expectations at CNAT are directly or indirectly related to knowledge management (i.e. qualification, teamwork, learning and continuous improvement). (Author)

  11. Knowledge and Practice of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the knowledge and practice of the 2000 CPR guidelines of doctors and nurses in Benin City, Nigeria was evaluated. This cross sectional study was conducted in six health facilities in Benin City. A structured self administered questionnaire was used to test the knowledge and practice of CPR of 145 doctors and ...

  12. Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Hu, Kaiyan; Chen, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge and application of model play an important role in students' development of modeling ability and scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated Chinese chemistry teachers' knowledge and application of models. Data were collected through test questionnaire and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The result indicated…

  13. Knowledge and luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, John; Buckwalter, Wesley; Blouw, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nearly all success is due to some mix of ability and luck. But some successes we attribute to the agent's ability, whereas others we attribute to luck. To better understand the criteria distinguishing credit from luck, we conducted a series of four studies on knowledge attributions. Knowledge is an achievement that involves reaching the truth. But many factors affecting the truth are beyond our control, and reaching the truth is often partly due to luck. Which sorts of luck are compatible with knowledge? We found that knowledge attributions are highly sensitive to lucky events that change the explanation for why a belief is true. By contrast, knowledge attributions are surprisingly insensitive to lucky events that threaten, but ultimately fail to change the explanation for why a belief is true. These results shed light on our concept of knowledge, help explain apparent inconsistencies in prior work on knowledge attributions, and constitute progress toward a general understanding of the relation between success and luck.

  14. MOBILIZING KNOWLEDGE IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge mobilization is not only a new expression in a Danish context. It is also an interesting concept to introduce and discuss. For doesn’t knowledge mobilization have more – or, at least, as much – to do with politics as with education research or education in itself? Doesn’t modern knowledge...... mobilization have to do with a new political will to mobilize the population by creating a connection between education research and education? On the basis of this report on the Danish efforts with respect to ’knowledge mobilization’, these questions can be answered affirmatively; the extent of knowledge...... competition state – that is to be realized by fulfilling the ambitions for comprehensive knowledge mobilization through education.1 On the other hand, Denmark is having a hard time finding a broad consensus when what is, in principle, supposed to be a common political will is to be translated into knowledge...

  15. Knowledge and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Assumptions about the knowledge held by economic agents have been an integral part of the theory of economic organization since its inception. However, recent work—here called “knowledge governance”—has more explicitly highlighted knowledge as both an independent and dependent variable. Thus......, knowledge may also be seen as being caused by governance mechanisms and structures; specifically, incentives, allocations of decision rights, organizational structure and so on influence the search for knowledge, and the creation, sharing and integration of knowledge. More philosophically, the concern...... with the role of knowledge in the context of economic organization prompts a reevaluation of a number of the fundamental assumptions that are often used to guide theory-building in the economics of organization (e.g., Bayesian and game theoretical foundations)....

  16. Knowledge that Acts: Evaluating the Outcomes of a Knowledge Brokering Intervention in Western Australia's Ningaloo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kelly; Boschetti, Fabio; Fulton, Elizabeth; Horwitz, Pierre; Jones, Tod; Scherrer, Pascal; Syme, Geoff

    2017-11-01

    Knowledge exchange involves a suite of strategies used to bridge the divides between research, policy and practice. The literature is increasingly focused on the notion that knowledge generated by research is more useful when there is significant interaction and knowledge sharing between researchers and research recipients (i.e., stakeholders). This is exemplified by increasing calls for the use of knowledge brokers to facilitate interaction and flow of information between scientists and stakeholder groups, and the integration of scientific and local knowledge. However, most of the environmental management literature focuses on explicit forms of knowledge, leaving unmeasured the tacit relational and reflective forms of knowledge that lead people to change their behaviour. In addition, despite the high transaction costs of knowledge brokering and related stakeholder engagement, there is little research on its effectiveness. We apply Park's Manag Learn 30(2), 141-157 (1999); Knowledge and Participatory Research, London: SAGE Publications (2006) tri-partite knowledge typology as a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of knowledge brokering in the context of a large multi-agency research programme in Australia's Ningaloo coastal region, and for testing the assumption that higher levels of interaction between scientists and stakeholders lead to improved knowledge exchange. While the knowledge brokering intervention substantively increased relational networks between scientists and stakeholders, it did not generate anticipated increases in stakeholder knowledge or research application, indicating that more prolonged stakeholder engagement was required, and/or that there was a flaw in the assumptions underpinning our conceptual framework.

  17. Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

    2011-12-01

    Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy.

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices toward Post Exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Attitude and Practices toward Post Exposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... Data related to HIV PEP was collected by pre‑designed, pre‑tested, self‑administered ...

  19. CRESST Human Performance Knowledge Mapping System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Gregory K; Michiuye, Joanne K; Brill, David G; Sinha, Ravi; Saadat, Farzad; de Vries, Linda F; Delacruz, Girlie C; Bewley, William L; Baker, Eva L

    2002-01-01

    .... This report presents a review of knowledge mapping scoring methods and current online mapping systems, and the overall design, functionality, scoring, usability testing, and authoring capabilities of the CRESST system...

  20. Knowledge Loss: Managing Local Knowledge in Rural Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Caleb; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge loss is not a remote phenomenon, unique to one knowledge system. Rather we argue that the loss of knowledge is an issue for other knowledge systems as well. Knowledge loss is certainly a concern for anthropologists working on indigenous knowledge, fearful of ‘losing’ indigenous knowledge entirely as a result of modernisation (cf. Cox, 2000). Equally, staff movements within the corporate world probably lead to a large amount of knowledge displacement, yet staff (and thus knowledge) r...