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Sample records for pre-mrna cleavage fragments

  1. Reaction between radicals and N-alkoxyamines As coordinated cleavage with fragmentation

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    Denisov, E. T.; Shestakov, A. F.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of the enthalpy and activation energy of two reactions with MeO{2/⊙} attacking the CH- and CH2-groups of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidineoxy-2'-butane are performed. It is shown that the cleavage of hydrogen atoms is accompanied by coordinated breaking of N-O-bonds in the former case and C-O-bonds in the latter. Based on the obtained results, a new scheme is proposed for the cyclic mechanism behind the cleavage of chains on nitroxyl radicals in oxidizing hydrocarbons and polymers that agrees with experimental data. At the center of this cyclic mechanism lies the fast exothermic reaction between peroxyl radicals and N-alkoxyamine with the cleavage of H atoms and the coordinated fragmentation of molecules. Using the model of intersecting parabolas, an algorithm for calculating the enthalpies, activation energies, and rate constants of these reactions with the participation of alkyl, alkoxy, aminyl, peroxyl, phenoxyl, thiyl, and hydroxyl radicals is proposed.

  2. PARP-1 cleavage fragments: signatures of cell-death proteases in neurodegeneration

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    Alexander Jonathan S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The normal function of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 is the routine repair of DNA damage by adding poly (ADP ribose polymers in response to a variety of cellular stresses. Recently, it has become widely appreciated that PARP-1 also participates in diverse physiological and pathological functions from cell survival to several forms of cell death and has been implicated in gene transcription, immune responses, inflammation, learning, memory, synaptic functions, angiogenesis and aging. In the CNS, PARP inhibition attenuates injury in pathologies like cerebral ischemia, trauma and excitotoxicity demonstrating a central role of PARP-1 in these pathologies. PARP-1 is also a preferred substrate for several 'suicidal' proteases and the proteolytic action of suicidal proteases (caspases, calpains, cathepsins, granzymes and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs on PARP-1 produces several specific proteolytic cleavage fragments with different molecular weights. These PARP-1 signature fragments are recognized biomarkers for specific patterns of protease activity in unique cell death programs. This review focuses on specific suicidal proteases active towards PARP-1 to generate signature PARP-1 fragments that can identify key proteases and particular forms of cell death involved in pathophysiology. The roles played by some of the PARP-1 fragments and their associated binding partners in the control of different forms of cell death are also discussed.

  3. Apoptosis stimulated by the 91-kDa caspase cleavage MEKK1 fragment requires translocation to soluble cellular compartments.

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    Schlesinger, Thomas K; Bonvin, Christelle; Jarpe, Matthew B; Fanger, Gary R; Cardinaux, Jean-Rene; Johnson, Gary L; Widmann, Christian

    2002-03-22

    MEKK1, a 196-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase, generates anti-apoptotic signaling as a full-length protein but induces apoptosis when cleaved by caspases. Here, we show that caspase-dependent cleavage of MEKK1 relocalizes the protease-generated 91-kDa kinase fragment from a particulate fraction to a soluble cytoplasmic fraction. Relocalization of MEKK1 catalytic activity is necessary for the pro-apoptotic function of MEKK1. The addition of a membrane-targeting signal to the 91-kDa fragment inhibits caspase activation and the induction of apoptosis but does not change the activation of JNK, ERK, NFkappaB, or p300. These results identify the caspase cleavage of MEKK1 as a dynamic regulatory mechanism that alters the subcellular distribution of MEKK1, changing its function to pro-apoptotic signaling, which does not depend on the currently described MEKK1 effectors.

  4. Expression of a naturally occurring angiotensin AT(1) receptor cleavage fragment elicits caspase-activation and apoptosis.

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    Cook, Julia L; Singh, Akannsha; DeHaro, Dawn; Alam, Jawed; Re, Richard N

    2011-11-01

    Several transmembrane receptors are documented to accumulate in nuclei, some as holoreceptors and others as cleaved receptor products. Our prior studies indicate that a population of the 7-transmembrane angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT(1)R) is cleaved in a ligand-augmented manner after which the cytoplasmic, carboxy-terminal cleavage fragment (CF) traffics to the nucleus. In the present report, we determine the precise cleavage site within the AT(1)R by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing. Cleavage occurs between Leu(305) and Gly(306) at the junction of the seventh transmembrane domain and the intracellular cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal domain. To evaluate the function of the CF distinct from the holoreceptor, we generated a construct encoding the CF as an in-frame yellow fluorescent protein fusion. The CF accumulates in nuclei and induces apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. All cell types show nuclear fragmentation and disintegration, as well as evidence for phosphotidylserine displacement in the plasma membrane and activated caspases. RASMCs specifically showed a 5.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in CF-induced active caspases compared with control and a 7.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in cleaved caspase-3 (Asp174). Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase was upregulated 4.8-fold (P < 0.001) in CF expressing cardiomyoblasts and colocalized with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). CF expression also induces DNA laddering, the gold-standard for apoptosis in all cell types studied. CF-induced apoptosis, therefore, appears to be a general phenomenon as it is observed in multiple cell types including smooth muscle cells and cardiomyoblasts.

  5. Scalable purification of the lantibiotic nisin and isolation of chemical/enzymatic cleavage fragments suitable for semi-synthesis.

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    Slootweg, Jack C; Liskamp, Rob M J; Rijkers, Dirk T S

    2013-11-01

    Herein, we describe a scalable purification of the lantibiotic nisin via an extraction/precipitation approach using a biphasic system, which can be carried out up to 40-80 gram scale. This approach results in an at least tenfold enrichment of commercially available preparations of nisin, which usually contain only 2.5% of the desired peptide, to allow further purification by preparative HPLC. As a follow-up study, the enriched nisin sample was digested either by trypsin or chymotrypsin, or treated by CNBr, and these reactions were monitored by LC-MS to identify and characterize the obtained fragments. Two previously unknown cleavage sites have been identified: Asn20-Met21 and Met21-Lys22 for trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. Furthermore, a novel and convenient enzymatic approach to isolate the native nisin C-ring [nisin fragment (13-20)] was uncovered. Finally, by means of preparative HPLC, nisin fragments (1-12), (1-20), (22-34), and (22-31) could be isolated and will be used in a semi-synthesis approach to elucidate the role of each fragment in the mode of action of nisin as an antimicrobial peptide.

  6. Osteopontin is highly susceptible to cleavage in bovine milk and the proteolytic fragments bind the αVβ3-integrin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Brian Søndergaard; Sørensen, Esben Skipper

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific and partial proteolysis of milk proteins can both alter and increase their biological activity. The milk protein osteopontin (OPN) is a highly phosphorylated integrin-binding molecule present in most tissues and body fluids. Osteopontin is a biological substrate for matrix...... a substantial effect on the functionality of OPN. Bovine milk OPN (bOPN) exists in both intact full-length and cleaved forms, and in this study, 6 N-terminal bOPN fragments originating from proteolytic cleavage were purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. These fragments were generated by cleavage...... at the Lys145-Ser146, Arg147-Ser148, Lys149-Lys150, Phe151-Arg152, Arg152-Arg153, and Arg153-Ser154 peptide bonds. The principal protease in milk, plasmin, appeared to cleave 3 of these sites. However, the major cleavage site was observed to be at the Phe151-Arg152 bond, which does not match the specificity...

  7. Molecular mechanism of the intramembrane cleavage of the β-carboxyl terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein by γ-secretase

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    Maho eMorishima-Kawashima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid β-protein (Aβ plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common age-associated neurodegenerative disorder. Aβ is generated through intramembrane proteolysis of the β-carboxyl terminal fragment (βCTF of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP by γ-secretase. The initial cleavage by γ-secretase occurs in the membrane/cytoplasm boundary of the βCTF, liberating the APP intracellular domain (AICD. The remaining βCTFs, which are truncated at the C-terminus (longer Aβs, are then cropped sequentially in a stepwise manner, predominantly at three residue intervals, to generate Aβ. There are two major Aβ product lines which generate Aβ40 and Aβ42 with concomitant release of three and two tripeptides, respectively. Additionally, many alternative cleavages occur, releasing peptides with three to six residues. These modulate the Aβ product lines and define the species and quantity of Aβ generated. Here, we review our current understanding of the intramembrane cleavage of the βCTF by γ-secretase, which may contribute to the future goal of developing an efficient therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease.

  8. Cleavage of Tau by calpain in Alzheimer's disease: the quest for the toxic 17 kD fragment.

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    Garg, Sarika; Timm, Thomas; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Wang, Yipeng

    2011-01-01

    The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) posits that the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) triggers Tau neurofibrillary pathology. Recently a "17 kD" calpain-induced Tau fragment, comprising residues 45-230 (molecular weight [MW], 18.7 kD), was proposed to mediate Aβ-induced toxicity. Here, we demonstrate that the "17 kD" fragment is actually much smaller, containing residues 125-230 (molecular weight, 10.7 kD). Inducing Tau phosphorylation by okadaic acid or mimicking phosphorylation by Glu mutations at the epitopes of Alzheimer-diagnostic antibodies AT100/AT8/PHF1 could not prevent the generation of this fragment. The fragment can be induced not only by Aβ oligomers, but also by other cell stressors, e.g., thapsigargin (a Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor) or glutamate (an excitatory neurotransmitter). However, overexpression of neither Tau(45-230) nor Tau(125-230) fragment is toxic to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, neuroblastoma cells (N2a) or primary hippocampal neurons. Finally, the calpain-induced fragment can be observed both in Alzheimer's disease brains and in control normal human brains. We conclude that the 17 kD Tau fragment is not a mediator of Aβ-induced toxicity, leaving open the possibility that upstream calpain activation might cause both Tau fragmentation and toxicity.

  9. The Prion Protein N1 and N2 Cleavage Fragments Bind to Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidic Acid; Relevance to Stress-Protection Responses.

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    Cathryn L Haigh

    Full Text Available Internal cleavage of the cellular prion protein generates two well characterised N-terminal fragments, N1 and N2. These fragments have been shown to bind to anionic phospholipids at low pH. We sought to investigate binding with other lipid moieties and queried how such interactions could be relevant to the cellular functions of these fragments. Both N1 and N2 bound phosphatidylserine (PS, as previously reported, and a further interaction with phosphatidic acid (PA was also identified. The specificity of this interaction required the N-terminus, especially the proline motif within the basic amino acids at the N-terminus, together with the copper-binding region (unrelated to copper saturation. Previously, the fragments have been shown to be protective against cellular stresses. In the current study, serum deprivation was used to induce changes in the cellular lipid environment, including externalisation of plasma membrane PS and increased cellular levels of PA. When copper-saturated, N2 could reverse these changes, but N1 could not, suggesting that direct binding of N2 to cellular lipids may be part of the mechanism by which this peptide signals its protective response.

  10. Cleavage of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and nuclear accumulation of the cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal fragment.

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    Cook, Julia L; Mills, Sarah J; Naquin, Ryan T; Alam, Jawed; Re, Richard N

    2007-04-01

    Our published studies show that the distribution of the ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor (AT(1)R), expressed as a enhanced yellow fluorescent fusion (YFP) protein (AT(1)R/EYFP), is altered upon cellular treatment with ANG II or coexpression with intracellular ANG II. AT(1)R accumulates in nuclei of cells only in the presence of ANG II. Several transmembrane receptors are known to accumulate in nuclei, some as holoreceptors and others as cleaved receptor products. The present study was designed to determine whether the AT(1)R is cleaved before nuclear transport. A plasmid encoding a rat AT(1)R labeled at the amino terminus with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and at the carboxy terminus with EYFP was employed. Image analyses of this protein in COS-7 cells, CCF-STTG1 glial cells, and A10 vascular smooth muscle cells show the two fluorescent moieties to be largely spatially colocalized in untreated cells. ANG II treatment, however, leads to a separation of the fluorescent moieties with yellow fluorescence accumulating in more than 30% of cellular nuclei. Immunoblot analyses of extracts and conditioned media from transfected cells indicate that the CFP domain fused to the extracellular amino-terminal AT(1)R domain is cleaved from the membrane and that the YFP domain, together with the intracellular cytoplasmic carboxy terminus of the AT(1)R, is also cleaved from the membrane-bound receptor. The carboxy terminus of the AT(1)R is essential for cleavage; cleavage does not occur in protein deleted with respect to this region. Overexpressed native AT(1)R (nonfusion) is also cleaved; the intracellular 6-kDa cytoplasmic domain product accumulates to a significantly higher level with ANG II treatment.

  11. Increased levels of plasma p3-alcα35, a major fragment of Alcadeinα by γ-secretase cleavage, in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Omori, Chiori; Kaneko, Madoka; Nakajima, Etsuko; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Waragai, Masaaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Morishima-Kawashima, Maho; Saito, Yuhki; Nakaya, Tadashi; Taru, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Tohru; Asada, Takashi; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    p3-Alcα is a metabolic fragment of Alcadeinα (Alcα). Similar to the generation of the p3 fragment from amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) processing, Alcα is cleaved by α- and γ-secretases, leading to the secretion of p3-Alcα peptides into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). p3-Alcα is also detected in the plasma, similar to amyloid-β (Aβ), which is a metabolic fragment of AβPP cleaved by amyloidogenic β- and γ-secretases. Because p3-Alcα is a non-aggregatable and stable peptide, unlike aggregatable Aβ and metabolically labile p3 of AβPP, the changes of p3-Alcα in quality and/or quantity in CSF and plasma are expected to be a marker for assessing alteration of substrate cleavage by γ-secretase, such as Aβ generation from AβPP. The present study describes a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantifying levels of p3-Alcα35, the major form of the p3-Alcα species, and examines levels of p3-Alcα35 in the plasma of three independent Japanese cohorts. In two of the three cohorts, the p3-Alcα35 levels were significantly increased with a concomitant decrease in the Mini-Mental State Examination score, or in clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, when compared with age-matched non-demented subjects. The values were significantly lower in AD subjects who were administered donepezil, when compared to AD subjects without donepezil treatment. The increase in plasma p3-Alcα35 levels may indicate an endophenotype in subjects in whom AD is due to a progressing cognitive impairment in subjects with a γ-secretase malfunction, or a disorder of the clearance of peptides.

  12. Physical map of polyoma viral DNA fragments produced by cleavage with a restriction enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius, endonuclease R-HaeIII.

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    Summers, J

    1975-04-01

    Digestion of polyoma viral DNA with a restriction enzyme from Haemophilus aegyptius generates at least 22 unique fragments. The fragments have been characterized with respect to size and physical order on the polyoma genome, and the 5' to 3' orientation of the (+) and (-) strands has been determined. A method for specific radiolabeling of adjacent fragments was employed to establish the fragment order. This technique may be useful for ordering the fragments produced by digestion of complex DNAs.

  13. [A method for determining DNA sequence by labeling the end of the molecule and cleaving at the base. Isolation of DNA fragments, end-labeling, cleavage, electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel and analysis of results].

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    Maxam, A M; Gilbert, W

    1986-01-01

    We elaborate basic chemical principles and current laboratory procedures for sequencing end-labeled DNA by partial cleavage and gel electrophoresis (A. M. Maxam and W. Gilbert, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1977, v. 74, p. 560-564). We provide step-by-step protocols for 32P-labeling DNA ends, segregating the labeled ends by cutting with a second restriction enzyme or separating strands, partially cleaving the DNA at specific bases with reagents, electrophoresing the labeled products of cleavage on sequencing gels, and interpreting sequencing band patterns. Many of these procedures have been condensed, to make them faster and easier, and some are new. We also discuss sequencing strategies, and suggest a technique which will reduce plasmid or viral DNA to a collection of singly-end-labeled fragments in one day, for efficient sequencing of these chromosomes in 250-nucleotide blocks.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two N-terminal fragments of the DNA-cleavage domain of topoisomerase IV from Staphylococcus aureus

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    Carr, Stephen B., E-mail: bmbsbc@bmb.leeds.ac.uk [Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Makris, George [Omega Mediation Hellas Ltd, Clinical and Pharma Consulting, 11525 N. Psychiko, Athens (Greece); Phillips, Simon E. V.; Thomas, Christopher D. [Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-01

    The crystallization and data collection of topoisomerase IV from S. aureus is described. Phasing by molecular replacement proved difficult owing to the presence of translational NCS and strategies used to overcome this are discussed. DNA topoisomerase IV removes undesirable topological features from DNA molecules in order to help maintain chromosome stability. Two constructs of 56 and 59 kDa spanning the DNA-cleavage domain of the A subunit of topoisomerase IV from Staphylococcus aureus (termed GrlA56 and GrlA59) have been crystallized. Crystals were grown at 291 K using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 3350 as a precipitant. Preliminary X-ray analysis revealed that GrlA56 crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, diffract to a resolution of 2.9 Å and possess unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 171.5, c = 87.8 Å, β = 90.1°, while crystals of GrlA59 belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.5, b = 171.89, c = 87.9 Å. These crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.8 Å. This is the first report of the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the DNA-cleavage domain of a topoisomerase IV from a Gram-positive organism.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two N-terminal fragments of the DNA-cleavage domain of topoisomerase IV from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Stephen B; Makris, George; Phillips, Simon E V; Thomas, Christopher D

    2006-11-01

    DNA topoisomerase IV removes undesirable topological features from DNA molecules in order to help maintain chromosome stability. Two constructs of 56 and 59 kDa spanning the DNA-cleavage domain of the A subunit of topoisomerase IV from Staphylococcus aureus (termed GrlA56 and GrlA59) have been crystallized. Crystals were grown at 291 K using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 3350 as a precipitant. Preliminary X-ray analysis revealed that GrlA56 crystals belong to space group P2(1), diffract to a resolution of 2.9 A and possess unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 171.5, c = 87.8 A, beta = 90.1 degrees, while crystals of GrlA59 belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.5, b = 171.89, c = 87.9 A. These crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.8 A. This is the first report of the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the DNA-cleavage domain of a topoisomerase IV from a Gram-positive organism.

  16. Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies

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    Vlasak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule. PMID:21487244

  17. Caspase-3-mediated cleavage of p65/RelA results in a carboxy-terminal fragment that inhibits IκBα and enhances HIV-1 replication in human T lymphocytes

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    Alcamí José

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degradation of p65/RelA has been involved in both the inhibition of NF-κB-dependent activity and the onset of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of NF-κB degradation are unclear and can vary depending on the cell type. Cleavage of p65/RelA can produce an amino-terminal fragment that was shown to act as a dominant-negative inhibitor of NF-κB, thereby promoting apoptosis. However, the opposite situation has also been described and the production of a carboxy-terminal fragment that contains two potent transactivation domains has also been related to the onset of apoptosis. In this context, a carboxy-terminal fragment of p65/RelA (ΔNH2p65, detected in non-apoptotic human T lymphocytes upon activation, has been studied. T cells constitute one of the long-lived cellular reservoirs of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Because NF-κB is the most important inducible element involved in initiation of HIV-1 transcription, an adequate control of NF-κB response is of paramount importance for both T cell survival and viral spread. Its major inhibitor IκBα constitutes a master terminator of NF-κB response that is complemented by degradation of p65/RelA. Results and conclusions In this study, the function of a caspase-3-mediated carboxy-terminal fragment of p65/RelA, which was detected in activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, was analyzed. Cells producing this truncated p65/RelA did not undergo apoptosis but showed a high viability, in spite of caspase-3 activation. ΔNH2p65 lacked most of DNA-binding domain but retained the dimerization domain, NLS and transactivation domains. Consequently, it could translocate to the nucleus, associate with NF-κB1/p50 and IκBα, but could not bind -κB consensus sites. However, although ΔNH2p65 lacked transcriptional activity by itself, it could increase NF-κB activity in a dose-dependent manner by hijacking IκBα. Thus, its expression resulted in a persistent

  18. Cleavage of a specific bond in troponin C by thrombin.

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    Leavis, P C; Rosenfeld, S; Lu, R C

    1978-08-21

    Limited proteolysis of rabbit skeletal troponin C with bovine thrombin yielded two fragments, TH1 (Mr = 11000) containing Ca2+ binding regions I--III and TH2 (Mr = 6000) containing region IV. Determination of the partial sequences of the fragments established the site of cleavage at Arg120-Ala121. Secondary cleavage by thrombin at other arginyl or lysyl residues in troponin C was ruled out by the sequence data and by the amino acid compositions of the two fragments.

  19. Dataset of cocoa aspartic protease cleavage sites

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    Katharina Janek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data provide information in support of the research article, “The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors” (Janek et al., 2016 [1]. Three different protein substrates were partially digested with the aspartic protease isolated from cocoa beans and commercial pepsin, respectively. The obtained peptide fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS and identified using the MASCOT server. The N- and C-terminal ends of the peptide fragments were used to identify the corresponding in-vitro cleavage sites by comparison with the amino acid sequences of the substrate proteins. The same procedure was applied to identify the cleavage sites used by the cocoa aspartic protease during cocoa fermentation starting from the published amino acid sequences of oligopeptides isolated from fermented cocoa beans.

  20. DNA fragmentation in apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cleavage of chromosomal DNA into oligonucleosomal size fragments is an integral part of apoptosis. Elegant biochemical work identified the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) as a major apoptotic endonuclease for DNA fragmentation in vitro. Genetic studies in mice support the importance of DFF in DNA fragmentation and possibly in apoptosis in vivo. Recent work also suggests the existence of additional endonucleases for DNA degradation. Understanding the roles of individual endonucleases in apoptosis, and how they might coordinate to degrade DNA in different tissues during normal development and homeostasis, as well as in various diseased states, will be a major research focus in the near future.

  1. Sensitive and fast mutation detection by solid phase chemical cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Lotte; Justesen, Just; Kruse, Torben A

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a solid phase chemical cleavage method (SpCCM) for screening large DNA fragments for mutations. All reactions can be carried out in microtiterwells from the first amplification of the patient (or test) DNA through the search for mutations. The reaction time is significantly...

  2. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage

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    He, Kaiyu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhou, Hui-Ren [Food Science and Human Nutrition (United States); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (United States); Food Science and Human Nutrition (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥ 25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. Highlights: ► Deoxynivalenol (DON) anisomycin, satratoxin G (SG) and ricin are ribotoxins. ► Ribotoxins induce 18s and 28s rRNA cleavage in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. ► Ribotoxins induce rRNA cleavage via

  3. Arthrobacter luteus restriction endonuclease cleavage map of X174 RF DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, J.M.; Mansfeld, A.D.M. van; Baas, P.D.; Jansz, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    Cleavage of X174 RF DNA with the restriction endonuclease from Arthrobacter luteus (Alu I) produces 23 fragments of approximately 24–1100 base pairs in length. The order of most of these fragments has been established by digestion of Haemophilus influenzae Rd (Hind II) and Haemophilus aegyptius (Hae

  4. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

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    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  5. Targets and intracellular signaling mechanisms for deoxynivalenol-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage.

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    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J

    2012-06-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a known translational inhibitor, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage. Here, we characterized this process relative to (1) specific 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage sites and (2) identity of specific upstream signaling elements in this pathway. Capillary electrophoresis indicated that DON at concentrations as low as 200 ng/ml evoked selective rRNA cleavage after 6 h and that 1000 ng/ml caused cleavage within 2 h. Northern blot analysis revealed that DON exposure induced six rRNA cleavage fragments from 28S rRNA and five fragments from 18S rRNA. When selective kinase inhibitors were used to identify potential upstream signals, RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck), and p38 were found to be required for rRNA cleavage, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase were not. Furthermore, rRNA fragmentation was suppressed by the p53 inhibitors pifithrin-α and pifithrin-μ as well as the pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Concurrent apoptosis was confirmed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry. DON activated caspases 3, 8, and 9, thus suggesting the possible coinvolvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in rRNA cleavage. Satratoxin G (SG), anisomycin, and ricin also induced specific rRNA cleavage profiles identical to those of DON, suggesting that ribotoxins might share a conserved rRNA cleavage mechanism. Taken together, DON-induced rRNA cleavage is likely to be closely linked to apoptosis activation and appears to involve the sequential activation of PKR/Hck →p38→p53→caspase 8/9→caspase 3.

  6. Quantum fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    1993-01-01

    Phenomenological and theoretical aspects of fragmentation for elementary particles (resp. nuclei) are discussed. It is shown that some concepts of classical fragmentation remain relevant in a microscopic framework, exhibiting non-trivial properties of quantum relativistic field theory (resp. lattice percolation). Email contact: pesch@amoco.saclay.cea.fr

  7. Fragmented Authoritarianism or Integrated Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    of these business leaders prompts the question of whether we are seeing the development of distinct interest groups that could challenge Party and state authority and create a fragmented polity. However, through the nomenklatura system the Party has an important instrument of control to wield over business groups...... and the Party-state, I suggest the notion of integrated fragmentation....

  8. Cleavage by MALT1 induces cytosolic release of A20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, Claire; Unterreiner, Adeline; Staal, Jens; Demeyer, Annelies; Galaup, Marion; Luyten, Marcel; Beyaert, Rudi; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2010-10-01

    The MALT1 paracaspase has arginine-directed proteolytic activity. A20 is a dual ubiquitin-editing enzyme involved in termination of NF-κB signaling. Upon T- or B-cell receptor engagement human (h) A20 is cleaved by MALT1 after arginine 439, yielding an N-terminal fragment (hA20p50) and a C-terminal one (hA20p37). The hA20p50 fragment has never been detected directly, thus limiting insight into the functional consequences of MALT1-mediated cleavage of A20. Here, various antibodies were tested, including newly generated hA20p50 and hA20p37 specific antibodies, leading to detection of the hA20p50 fragment produced after MALT1-mediated cleavage of ectopically expressed as well as endogenous A20 proteins. The properties of both A20 fragments, generated upon co-expression with a constitutively active MALT1 protein, were further studied by sub-cellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy. In contrast to full-length A20 which is particulate and insoluble, we found hA20p50 to be soluble and readily released into the cytosol whereas hA20p37 was partially soluble, thus suggesting loss of compartmentalization as a possible mechanism for MALT1-mediated dampening of A20 function.

  9. Centralspindlin in Rappaport's cleavage signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Cleavage furrow in animal cell cytokinesis is formed by cortical constriction driven by contraction of an actomyosin network activated by Rho GTPase. Although the role of the mitotic apparatus in furrow induction has been well established, there remain discussions about the detailed molecular mechanisms of the cleavage signaling. While experiments in large echinoderm embryos highlighted the role of astral microtubules, data in smaller cells indicate the role of central spindle. Centralspindlin is a constitutive heterotetramer of MKLP1 kinesin and the non-motor CYK4 subunit and plays crucial roles in formation of the central spindle and recruitment of the downstream cytokinesis factors including ECT2, the major activator of Rho during cytokinesis, to the site of division. Recent reports have revealed a role of this centralspindlin-ECT2 pathway in furrow induction both by the central spindle and by the astral microtubules. Here, a unified view of the stimulation of cortical contractility by this pathway is discussed. Cytokinesis, the division of the whole cytoplasm, is an essential process for cell proliferation and embryonic development. In animal cells, cytokinesis is executed using a contractile network of actin filaments driven by a myosin-II motor that constricts the cell cortex (cleavage furrow ingression) into a narrow channel between the two daughter cells, which is resolved by scission (abscission) [1-3]. The anaphase-specific organization of the mitotic apparatus (MA, spindle with chromosomes plus asters) positions the cleavage furrow and plays a major role in spatial coupling between mitosis and cytokinesis [4-6]. The nucleus and chromosomes are dispensable for furrow specification [7-10], although they contribute to persistent furrowing and robust completion in some cell types [11,12]. Likewise, centrosomes are not essential for cytokinesis, but they contribute to the general fidelity of cell division [10,13-15]. Here, classical models of cleavage furrow

  10. Magma Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2015-05-01

    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  11. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... into separate parts or systems: skeleton, skin, services, internal cladding, etc. Each building part/system is being conceived, produced, delivered and maintained by different construction companies. Basically the building is being fragmented into separate parts living their separate lives. The architect has...... to create architectural meaning and give character to an architecture of fragmentation. Layers are both seen as conceptual as well as material frames which define certain strong properties or meanings in the architectural work. Defining layers is a way of separating and organizing; it both defines...

  12. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Wagoner, Ashley R.; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the 0,2 A 2 ion from the sodiated forms. Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies.

  13. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Wagoner, Ashley R.; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the 0,2 A 2 ion from the sodiated forms . Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies.

  14. Proteolytic cleavage of cadherins: Functional role of the cleaved extracellular and cytoplasmic domains

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion is crucial for morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Cadherin adhesive function can be regulated by distinct proteolytic cleavage events, resulting in release of either the ectodomain or cytoplasmic domain. However, it is unclear if the released fragments have biological activity by themselves. This thesis analyses the functional significance of the generated cadherin fragments. Using Xenopus laevis development as model system, it was...

  15. Characterization and Modeling of the Collision Induced Dissociation Patterns of Deprotonated Glycosphingolipids: Cleavage of the Glycosidic Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožman, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Glycosphingolipid fragmentation behavior was investigated by combining results from analysis of a series of negative ion tandem mass spectra and molecular modeling. Fragmentation patterns extracted from 75 tandem mass spectra of mainly acidic glycosphingolipid species (gangliosides) suggest prominent cleavage of the glycosidic bonds with retention of the glycosidic oxygen atom by the species formed from the reducing end (B and Y ion formation). Dominant product ions arise from dissociation of sialic acids glycosidic bonds whereas product ions resulting from cleavage of other glycosidic bonds are less abundant. Potential energy surfaces and unimolecular reaction rates of several low-energy fragmentation pathways leading to cleavage of glycosidic bonds were estimated in order to explain observed dissociation patterns. Glycosidic bond cleavage in both neutral (unsubstituted glycosyl group) and acidic glycosphingolipids was the outcome of the charge-directed intramolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) mechanism. According to the suggested mechanism, the nucleophile in a form of carboxylate or oxyanion attacks the carbon at position one of the sugar ring, simultaneously breaking the glycosidic bond and yielding an epoxide. For gangliosides, unimolecular reaction rates suggest that dominant product ions related to the cleavage of sialic acid glycosidic bonds are formed via direct dissociation channels. On the other hand, low abundant product ions related to the dissociation of other glycosidic bonds are more likely to be the result of sequential dissociation. Although results from this study mainly contribute to the understanding of glycosphingolipid fragmentation chemistry, some mechanistic findings regarding cleavage of the glycosidic bond may be applicable to other glycoconjugates.

  16. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping as a strategy to reduce proteolytic cleavage of ataxin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Lodewijk J A; Schmidt, Iris; Luijsterburg, Martijn S; van Attikum, Haico; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C

    2016-10-12

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3 (SCA3) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in the ataxin-3 protein. Cleavage of mutant ataxin-3 by proteolytic enzymes yields ataxin-3 fragments containing the polyglutamine stretch. These shorter ataxin-3 fragments are thought to be involved in SCA3 pathogenesis due to their increased cellular toxicity and their involvement in formation of the characteristic neuronal aggregates. As a strategy to prevent formation of toxic cleavage fragments, we investigated an antisense oligonucleotide-mediated modification of the ataxin-3 pre-mRNA through exon skipping of exon 8 and 9, resulting in the removal of a central 88 amino acid region of the ataxin-3 protein. This removed protein region contains several predicted cleavage sites and two ubiquitin-interacting motifs. In contrast to unmodified mutant ataxin-3, the internally truncated ataxin-3 protein did not give rise to potentially toxic cleavage fragments when incubated with caspases. In vitro experiments did not show cellular toxicity of the modified ataxin-3 protein. However, the modified protein was incapable of binding poly-ubiquitin chains, which may interfere with its normal deubiquitinating function. Low exon skipping efficiencies combined with reduction in important ataxin-3 protein functions suggest that skipping of exon 8 and 9 is not a viable therapeutic option for SCA3.

  17. The caspase-generated cleavage product of Ets-1 p51 and Ets-1 p27, Cp17, induces apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choul-Li, Souhaila; Tulasne, David; Aumercier, Marc

    2016-11-04

    The transcription factor Ets-1 is involved in various physiological processes and invasive pathologies. Human Ets-1 exists under three isoforms: p51, the predominant full-length isoform, p42 and p27, shorter alternatively spliced isoforms. We have previously demonstrated that Ets-1 p51, but not the spliced variant Ets-1 p42, is processed by caspases in vitro and during apoptosis. However, the caspase cleavage of the second spliced variant Ets-1 p27 remains to investigate. In the present study, we demonstrate that Ets-1 p27 is a cleavage substrate of caspases. We show that Ets-1 p27 is processed in vitro by caspase-3, resulting in three C-terminal fragments Cp20, Cp17 and Cp14. Similarly, Ets-1 p27 was cleaved during apoptotic cell death induced by anisomycin, producing fragments consistent with those observed in in vitro cleavage assay. These fragments are generated by cleavage at three sites located in the exon VII-encoded region of Ets-1 p27. As a functional consequences, Cp17 fragment, the major cleavage product generated during apoptosis, induced itself apoptosis when transfected into cells. Our results show that Ets-1 p27 is cleaved in the same manner as Ets-1 p51 within the exon VII-encoded region, thus generating a stable C-terminal fragment that induces cell death by initiating apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Unusual Fragmentation of Peptide and Protein in Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuo Takayama

    2001-01-01

    Unusual amine - bond fragmentation on the peptide/protein backbone has been reported using matrix - assisted laser desorption/ionization time - of- flight mass spectrometry (MALDI - TOFMS)The amine - bond cleavage occurred without metastable decay, while the peptide - bond cleavage occurred with metastable decay of peptide ions in a drift region of TOF mass analyzer. It was presumed that the amine - bond cleavage occurred as a non - ergodic process independent of the ionization under MALDI conditions.

  19. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The Ph.D. -project Bespoke Fragments seeks to explore and utilise the space emerging between the potentials of digital drawing and fabrication and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Within this span, the project is situated in a shuttling between the virtual and the actual......, the emergence of virtual space is no longer limited to the computer's digital world, but extends into the materials' world. Creation and uncertainty are allowed as virtual parameters in both the digital and reality. Based on this notion the project suggests utilising that exact potential to develop...

  20. Simvastatin inhibits CD44 fragmentation in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terabe, Kenya; Takahashi, Nobunori; Takemoto, Toki; Knudson, Warren; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa

    2016-08-15

    In human osteoarthritic chondrocytes, the hyaluronan receptor CD44 undergoes proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface. CD44 cleavage is thought to require transit of CD44 into cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statins exert a protective effect on articular chondrocytes due to diminution of cholesterol. Three model systems of chondrocytes were examined including human HCS-2/8 chondrosarcoma cells, human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and normal bovine articular chondrocytes. Treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M resulted in a substantial increase in CD44 fragmentation in each of the three chondrocyte models. Pre-incubation with simvastatin prior to treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M decreased the level of CD44 fragmentation, decreased the proportion of CD44 that transits into the lipid raft fractions, decreased ADAM10 activity and diminished the interaction between CD44 and ADAM10. In HCS-2/8 cells and bovine articular chondrocytes, fragmentation of CD44 was blocked by the knockdown of ADAM10. Inhibition of CD44 fragmentation by simvastatin also resulted in improved retention of pericellular matrix. Addition of cholesterol and farnesyl-pyrophosphate reversed the protective effects of simvastatin. Thus, the addition of simvastatin exerts positive effects on chondrocytes including reduced CD44 fragmentation and enhanced the retention of pericellular matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies on the biotin-binding site of avidin. Minimized fragments that bind biotin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiller, Y; Bayer, E A; Wilchek, M

    1991-01-01

    The object of this study was to define minimized biotin-binding fragments, or 'prorecognition sites', of either the egg-white glycoprotein avidin or its bacterial analogue streptavidin. Because of the extreme stability to enzymic hydrolysis, fragments of avidin were prepared by chemical means and examined for their individual biotin-binding capacity. Treatment of avidin with hydroxylamine was shown to result in new cleavage sites in addition to the known Asn-Gly cleavage site (position 88-89 ...

  2. Exchanging Alkyl Groups through Unstrained C-C Bond Cleavage in the Presence of a Copper Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Noda, Yushi; Nishikata, Takashi

    2017-04-05

    Although numerous reports exist on strained C-C bond cleavage reactions in aryl substitutions, the cleavage methodology for unstrained C-C bonds in alkylation reactions has not yet been established. We found that unstrained allylic C-C bonds can be cleaved using α-radicals to form C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) bonds in the presence of a copper catalyst. In this reaction, the property of leaving and loading radicals is very important for radical fragmentations. In this paper, we investigated the effects of these properties in cleavage reactions for unstrained C-C bonds.

  3. Matricryptins and matrikines: biologically active fragments of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Salza, Romain

    2014-07-01

    Numerous extracellular proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) undergo limited enzymatic cleavage resulting in the release of fragments exerting biological activities, which are usually different from those of the full-length molecules. In this review, we define matrikines and matricryptins, which are bioactive fragments released from the extracellular matrix proteins, proteoglycans and GAGs and report their major biological activities. These fragments regulate a number of physiopathological processes including angiogenesis, cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and wound healing. The challenges to translate these fragments from molecules biologically active in vitro and in experimental models to potential drugs are discussed in the last part of the review.

  4. Fracto—emissions in Catastrophic Cleavage Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HonglaiTAN; WeiYANG

    1996-01-01

    Fracto-emissions accompanying crack propagation are observed in the recent experiments.The energy impulses during and after fracture stimulate the fracto-emissions.Model concerning atomic scale cleavage processes is proposed to formulate a catastrophic fracure theory relevant to these phenomena.A criterion for catastrophic jump of the cleavage potential is applied to representative crystals.

  5. Potential-modulated DNA cleavage by (N-salicylideneglycinato)copper(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Ling; Liu, Yun-Chun; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2005-11-01

    The interaction of aqua (N-salicylideneglycinato)copper(II) (Cu(salgly)2+) complex with calf thymus DNA has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Potential-modulated DNA cleavage in the presence of Cu(salgly)2+ complex was performed at a gold electrode in a thin layer cell. DNA can be efficiently cleaved by electrochemically reducing Cu(salgly)2+ complex to Cu(salgly)+ complex at -0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). When the solution was aerated with a small flow of O2 during electrolysis, the extent of DNA cleavage was dramatically enhanced, and hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibited DNA cleavage. These results suggested that O2 and hydroxyl radical were involved in potential-modulated DNA cleavage reaction. The percentage of DNA cleavage was enhanced as the working potential was shifted to more negative values and the electrolysis time was increased. It was also dependent on the ratio of Cu(salgly)2+ complex to DNA concentration. The cleaved DNA fragments were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental results indicated that the method for potential-modulated DNA cleavage by Cu(salgly)2+ complex was simple and efficient.

  6. Characterization of insulin-degrading enzyme-mediated cleavage of Aβ in distinct aggregation states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubin, Ellen; Cioffi, Federica; Rozenski, Jef; van Nuland, Nico A J; Broersen, Kerensa

    2016-06-01

    To enhance our understanding of the potential therapeutic utility of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied in vitro IDE-mediated degradation of different amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation states. Our findings show that IDE activity is driven by the dynamic equilibrium between Aβ monomers and higher ordered aggregates. We identify Met(35)-Val(36) as a novel IDE cleavage site in the Aβ sequence and show that Aβ fragments resulting from IDE cleavage form non-toxic amorphous aggregates. These findings need to be taken into account in therapeutic strategies designed to increase Aβ clearance in AD patients by modulating IDE activity.

  7. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Morris Jr, Chris Kinney, Ken Pytlewski and Y Adachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified 'classic' lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov–Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  8. ADAM13 cleavage of cadherin-11 promotes CNC migration independently of the homophilic binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Becker, Sarah F; Kashef, Jubin; Alfandari, Dominique

    2016-07-15

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a highly motile population of cells that is responsible for forming the face and jaw in all vertebrates and perturbing their migration can lead to craniofacial birth defects. Cell motility requires a dynamic modification of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. In the CNC, cleavage of the cell adhesion molecule cadherin-11 by ADAM13 is essential for cell migration. This cleavage generates a shed extracellular fragment of cadherin-11 (EC1-3) that possesses pro-migratory activity via an unknown mechanism. Cadherin-11 plays an important role in modulating contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in the CNC to regulate directional cell migration. Here, we show that while the integral cadherin-11 requires the homophilic binding site to promote CNC migration in vivo, the EC1-3 fragment does not. In addition, we show that increased ADAM13 activity or expression of the EC1-3 fragment increases CNC invasiveness in vitro and blocks the repulsive CIL response in colliding cells. This activity requires the presence of an intact homophilic binding site on the EC1-3 suggesting that the cleavage fragment may function as a competitive inhibitor of cadherin-11 adhesion in CIL but not to promote cell migration in vivo.

  9. Fragmentation and Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data, theoretical ideas and models concerning jet fragmentation and the hadronization process are reviewed, concentrating on the following topics: factorization and small-x resummation of fragmentation functions, hadronization models, single-particle yields and spectra in Z decay, comparisons between quark and gluon jets, current and target fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering, heavy quark fragmentation, Bose-Einstein correlations and WW fragmentation.

  10. Identification and characterization of a cleavage site in the proteolysis of orf virus 086 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ORF virus (ORFV is among the parapoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family, but little is known about the proteolytic pathways of ORFV encoding proteins. By contrast, the proteolysis mechanism of the vaccinia virus has been extensively explored. Vaccinia virus core protein P4a undergoes a proteolytic process that takes place at a conserved cleavage site Ala-Gly-X (where X is any amino acid and participates in virus assembly. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that an ORFV encoding protein, ORFV086, has a similar structure to the Vaccinia virus P4a core protein. In this study, we focus on the kinetic analysis and proteolysis mechanism of ORFV086. We found, via kinetic analysis, that ORFV086 is a late gene that starts to express at 8 hours post infection at mRNA level and 12 to 24 hours post infection at the protein level. The ORFV086 precursor and a 21kDa fragment can be observed in mature ORFV virions. The same bands were detected at only 3 hours post infection, suggesting that both the ORFV086 precursor and the 21kDa fragment are viral structural proteins. ORFV086 was cleaved from 12 to 24 hours post infection. The cleavage took place at different sites,resulting in seven bands with differing molecular weights. Sequence alignment revealed that five putative cleavage sites were predicted at C-terminal and internal regions of ORFV086. To investigate whether those cleavage sites are involved in proteolytic processing, full length and several deletion mutant ORFV086 recombinant proteins were expressed and probed. The GGS site that produced a 21kDa cleavage fragment was confirmed by identification of N/C-terminal FLAG epitope recombinant proteins, site-directed mutagenesis and Pulse-chase analysis. Interestingly, chase results demonstrated that, at late times, ORFV086 is partially cleaved. Taken together, we concluded that GGS is a cleavage site in ORFV086 and produces a 21kDa fragment post infection. Both ORFV086 precursor and the 21kDa fragment

  11. MicroRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage and 3'-uridylation in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Lin, Jing; Zandi, Roza; Roth, Jack A; Ji, Lin

    2016-07-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in targeted gene silencing by facilitating posttranscriptional and translational repression. However, the precise mechanism of mammalian miRNA-mediated gene silencing remains to be elucidated. Here, we used a stem-loop array reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to analyse miRNA-induced mRNA recognition, cleavage, posttranscriptional modification, and degradation. We detected endogenous let-7 miRNA-induced and Argonaute-catalysed endonucleolytic cleavage on target mRNAs at various sites within partially paired miRNA:mRNA sequences. Most of the cleaved mRNA 5'-fragments were 3'-oligouridylated by activities of terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases) in miRNA-induced silencing complexes and temporarily accumulated in the cytosol for 5'-3' degradation or other molecular fates. Some 3'-5' decayed mRNA fragments could also be captured by the miRNA-induced silencing complex stationed at the specific miRNA:mRNA target site and oligouridylated by other TUTases at its proximity without involving Argonaute-mediated RNA cleavage. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanics of mammalian miRNA-mediated gene silencing by coordinated target mRNA recognition, cleavage, uridylation and degradation.

  12. Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis Induced by Telomere Cleavage and TRF2 Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha S. Multani

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities involving telomeric associations (TAs often precede replicative senescence and abnormal chromosome configurations. We report here that telomere cleavage following exposure to proapoptotic agents is an early event in apoptosis. Exposure of human and murine cancer cells to a variety of pro-apoptotic stimuli (staurosporine, thapsigargin, anti-Fas antibody, cancer chemotherapeutic agents resulted in telomere cleavage and aggregation, finally their extrusion from the nuclei. Telomere loss was associated with arrest of cells in G2/M phase and preceded DNA fragmentation. Telomere erosion and subsequent large-scale chromatin cleavage were inhibited by overexpression of the anti -apoptotic protein, bcl-2, two peptide caspase inhibitors (BACMK and zVADfmk, indicating that both events are regulated by caspase activation. The results demonstrate that telomere cleavage is an early chromatin alteration detected in various cancer cell lines leading to drug-induced apoptosis, suggest that this event contributes to mitotic catastrophe and induction of cell death. Results also suggest that the decrease of telomeric-repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2 may be the earliest event in the ara-C-induced telomere shortening, induction of endoreduplication and chromosomal fragmentation leading to cell death.

  13. Surveillance and Cleavage of Eukaryotic tRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Megel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond their central role in protein synthesis, transfer RNAs (tRNAs have many other crucial functions. This includes various roles in the regulation of gene expression, stress responses, metabolic processes and priming reverse transcription. In the RNA world, tRNAs are, with ribosomal RNAs, among the most stable molecules. Nevertheless, they are not eternal. As key elements of cell function, tRNAs need to be continuously quality-controlled. Two tRNA surveillance pathways have been identified. They act on hypo-modified or mis-processed pre-tRNAs and on mature tRNAs lacking modifications. A short overview of these two pathways will be presented here. Furthermore, while the exoribonucleases acting in these pathways ultimately lead to complete tRNA degradation, numerous tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs are present within a cell. These cleavage products of tRNAs now potentially emerge as a new class of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs and are suspected to have important regulatory functions. The tRFs are evolutionarily widespread and created by cleavage at different positions by various endonucleases. Here, we review our present knowledge on the biogenesis and function of tRFs in various organisms.

  14. Prediction of proteasome cleavage motifs by neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesimir, C.; Nussbaum, A.K.; Schild, H.

    2002-01-01

    We present a predictive method that can simulate an essential step in the antigen presentation in higher vertebrates, namely the step involving the proteasomal degradation of polypeptides into fragments which have the potential to bind to MHC Class I molecules. Proteasomal cleavage prediction...... algorithms published so far were trained on data from in vitro digestion experiments with constitutive proteasomes. As a result, they did not take into account the characteristics of the structurally modified proteasomes-often called immunoproteasomes-found in cells stimulated by gamma-interferon under...... physiological conditions. Our algorithm has been trained not only on in vitro data, but also on MHC Class I ligand data, which reflect a combination of immunoproteasome and constitutive proteasome specificity. This feature, together with the use of neural networks, a non-linear classification technique, make...

  15. Manipulations of Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleavage Disrupt the Circadian Clock in Aging Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Matthew R.; Holbrook, Scott D.; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Chow, Eileen; Kretzschmar, Doris; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe cognitive deterioration. While causes of AD pathology are debated, a large body of evidence suggests that increased cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) producing the neurotoxic Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis. One of the detrimental behavioral symptoms commonly associated with AD is the fragmentation of sleep-activity cycles with increased nighttime activity and daytime n...

  16. Proteolytic cleavage of protein kinase Cmu upon induction of apoptosis in U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussermann, S; Kittstein, W; Rincke, G; Johannes, F J; Marks, F; Gschwendt, M

    1999-12-03

    Treatment of U937 cells with various apoptosis-inducing agents, such as TNFalpha and beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) alone or in combination with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), bryostatin 1 or cycloheximide, causes proteolytic cleavage of protein kinase Cmu (PKCmu) between the regulatory and catalytic domain, generating a 62 kDa catalytic fragment of the kinase. The formation of this fragment is effectively suppressed by the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK. In accordance with these in vivo data, treatment of recombinant PKCmu with caspase-3 in vitro results also in the generation of a 62 kDa fragment (p62). Treatment of several aspartic acid to alanine mutants of PKCmu with caspase-3 resulted in an unexpected finding. PKCmu is not cleaved at one of the typical cleavage sites containing the motif DXXD but at the atypical site CQND378/S379. The respective fragment (amino acids 379-912) was expressed in bacteria as a GST fusion protein (GST-p62) and partially purified. In contrast to the intact kinase, the fragment does not respond to the activating cofactors TPA and phosphatidylserine and is thus unable to phosphorylate substrates effectively.

  17. Computational analysis and modeling of cleavage by the immunoproteasome and the constitutive proteasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafuente Esther M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteasomes play a central role in the major histocompatibility class I (MHCI antigen processing pathway. They conduct the proteolytic degradation of proteins in the cytosol, generating the C-terminus of CD8 T cell epitopes and MHCI-peptide ligands (P1 residue of cleavage site. There are two types of proteasomes, the constitutive form, expressed in most cell types, and the immunoproteasome, which is constitutively expressed in mature dendritic cells. Protective CD8 T cell epitopes are likely generated by the immunoproteasome and the constitutive proteasome, and here we have modeled and analyzed the cleavage by these two proteases. Results We have modeled the immunoproteasome and proteasome cleavage sites upon two non-overlapping sets of peptides consisting of 553 CD8 T cell epitopes, naturally processed and restricted by human MHCI molecules, and 382 peptides eluted from human MHCI molecules, respectively, using N-grams. Cleavage models were generated considering different epitope and MHCI-eluted fragment lengths and the same number of C-terminal flanking residues. Models were evaluated in 5-fold cross-validation. Judging by the Mathew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC, optimal cleavage models for the proteasome (MCC = 0.43 ± 0.07 and the immunoproteasome (MCC = 0.36 ± 0.06 were obtained from 12-residue peptide fragments. Using an independent dataset consisting of 137 HIV1-specific CD8 T cell epitopes, the immunoproteasome and proteasome cleavage models achieved MCC values of 0.30 and 0.18, respectively, comparatively better than those achieved by related methods. Using ROC analyses, we have also shown that, combined with MHCI-peptide binding predictions, cleavage predictions by the immunoproteasome and proteasome models significantly increase the discovery rate of CD8 T cell epitopes restricted by different MHCI molecules, including A*0201, A*0301, A*2402, B*0702, B*2705. Conclusions We have developed models that are specific

  18. Limited caspase cleavage of human BAP31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, J; Hallikas, O; Welti, S; Hildén, P; Schröder, J; Kuismanen, E

    2000-11-10

    Human BAP31 was cleaved at both of its two identical caspase cleavage sites in two previously reported models of apoptosis. We show here that only the most carboxy-terminal site is cleaved during apoptosis induced in HeLa cells by tunicamycin, tumor necrosis factor and cycloheximide, or staurosporine. Similar results were obtained in HL-60 cells using Fas/APO-1 antibodies, or cycloheximide. This limited cleavage, which is inhibited by several caspase inhibitors, removes eight amino acids from human BAP31 including the KKXX coat protein I binding motif. Ectopic expression of the resulting cleavage product induces redistribution of mannosidase II from the Golgi and prevents endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport of virus glycoproteins.

  19. Effect of Presenilin Mutations on APP Cleavage; Insights into the Pathogenesis of FAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nuomin; Liu, Kefu; Qiu, Yunjie; Ren, Zehui; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by progressive memory loss, reduction in cognitive functions, and damage to the brain. The β-amyloid precursor protein can be sequentially cleaved by β- secretase and γ-secretase. Mutations in the presenilin1(PS1) are the most common cause of Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). PS1 mutations can alter the activity of γ-secretase on the cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein, causing increased Aβ production. Previous studies show that the βAPP-C-terminal fragment is first cleaved by β-scretase, primarily generating long fragments of Aβ48 and Aβ49, followed by the stepwise cleavage of every three amino acid residues at the C terminus, resulting in Aβ48-, 45-, 42 line and Aβ49-, 46-, 43-, 40 line. Here, we used LC-MS/MS to analyze unique peptides IAT, VVIA, ITL, TVI, IVI through sequential cleavage, combined with ELISA to test the level of Aβ42 and Aβ40 for validation. The results show that most FAD mutant PS1 can alter the level of Aβ42 and Aβ40 monitored by the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. Among them, six mutants (I143T, H163P, S170F, Q223R, M233V, and G384A) affect the Aβ42/40 ratio through both Aβ49-40 and Aβ48-38 lines; L166P through decreasing the Aβ49-40 line, six mutants (I143V, M146V, G217A, E280A, L381V, and L392V) through increasing the Aβ48-42 line. More importantly, we found some mutations can affect the γ-secretase cleavage preference of α-CTF and β-CTF. In conclusion, we found that the FAD PS1 mutations mainly increase the generation of Aβ42 by decreasing the cleavage of Aβ42-Aβ38 and Aβ43-Aβ40.

  20. Transcriptional down-regulation and rRNA cleavage in Dictyostelium discoideum mitochondria during Legionella pneumophila infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens employ a variety of survival strategies when they invade eukaryotic cells. The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is used as a model host to study the pathogenic mechanisms that Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease, uses to kill eukaryotic cells. Here we show that the infection of D. discoideum by L. pneumophila results in a decrease in mitochondrial messenger RNAs, beginning more than 8 hours prior to detectable host cell death. These changes can be mimicked by hydrogen peroxide treatment, but not by other cytotoxic agents. The mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA is also cleaved at three specific sites during the course of infection. Two LSU rRNA fragments appear first, followed by smaller fragments produced by additional cleavage events. The initial LSU rRNA cleavage site is predicted to be on the surface of the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome, while two secondary sites map to the predicted interface with the small subunit. No LSU rRNA cleavage was observed after exposure of D. discoideum to hydrogen peroxide, or other cytotoxic chemicals that kill cells in a variety of ways. Functional L. pneumophila type II and type IV secretion systems are required for the cleavage, establishing a correlation between the pathogenesis of L. pneumophila and D. discoideum LSU rRNA destruction. LSU rRNA cleavage was not observed in L. pneumophila infections of Acanthamoeba castellanii or human U937 cells, suggesting that L. pneumophila uses distinct mechanisms to interrupt metabolism in different hosts. Thus, L. pneumophila infection of D. discoideum results in dramatic decrease of mitochondrial RNAs, and in the specific cleavage of mitochondrial rRNA. The predicted location of the cleavage sites on the mitochondrial ribosome suggests that rRNA destruction is initiated by a specific sequence of events. These findings suggest that L. pneumophila specifically disrupts mitochondrial

  1. Cleavage site analysis in picornaviral polyproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Nikolaj; Hansen, Jan; Blaas, Dieter

    1996-01-01

    are indeed cleaved awaits experimental verification. Additionally, we report several errors detected in the protein databases. A computer server for prediction of cleavage sites by picornaviral proteinases is publicly available at the e-mail address NetPicoRNA@cbs.dtu.dk or via WWW at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetPicoRNA...

  2. Cleavage of CXCR1 on neutrophils disables bacterial killing in cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Dominik; Latzin, Philipp; Hordijk, Peter; Marcos, Veronica; Rudolph, Carsten; Woischnik, Markus; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne; Koller, Barbara; Reinhardt, Dietrich; Roscher, Adelbert A; Roos, Dirk; Griese, Matthias

    2007-12-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) activates neutrophils via the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. However, the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis are frequently colonized by bacterial pathogens, despite the presence of large numbers of neutrophils and IL-8. Here we show that IL-8 promotes bacterial killing by neutrophils through CXCR1 but not CXCR2. Unopposed proteolytic activity in the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis cleaved CXCR1 on neutrophils and disabled their bacterial-killing capacity. These effects were protease concentration-dependent and also occurred to a lesser extent in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Receptor cleavage induced the release of glycosylated CXCR1 fragments that were capable of stimulating IL-8 production in bronchial epithelial cells via Toll-like receptor 2. In vivo inhibition of proteases by inhalation of alpha1-antitrypsin restored CXCR1 expression and improved bacterial killing in individuals with cystic fibrosis. The cleavage of CXCR1, the functional consequences of its cleavage, and the identification of soluble CXCR1 fragments that behave as bioactive components represent a new pathophysiologic mechanism in cystic fibrosis and other chronic lung diseases.

  3. Ultrarapid mutation detection by multiplex, solid-phase chemical cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, G.; Saad, S.; Giannelli, F.; Green, P.M. [Guy`s & St. Thomas`s Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-10

    The chemical cleavage of mismatches in heteroduplexes formed by probe and test DNA detects and locates any sequence change in long DNA segments ({approximately}1.8 kb), and its efficiency has been well tested in the analysis of both average (e.g., coagulation factor IX) and large, complex genes (e.g., coagulation factor VIII and dystrophin). In the latter application RT/PCR products allow the examination of all essential sequences of the gene in a minimum number of reactions. We use two specific chemical reactants (hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide) and piperidine cleavage of the above procedure to develop a very fast mutation screening method. This is based on: (1) 5{prime} or internal fluorescent labeling to allow concurrent screening of three to four DNA fragments and (2) solid-phase chemistry to use a microliter format and reduce the time required for the procedure, from amplification of sequence to gel loading inclusive, to one person-working-day. We test the two variations of the method, one entailing 5{prime} labeling of probe DNA and the other uniform labeling of both probe and target DNA, by detecting 114 known hemophilia B (coagulation factor IX) mutations and by analyzing 129 new patients. Uniform labeling of both probe and target DNA prior to formation of the heteroduplexes leads to almost twofold redundancy in the ability to detect mutations. Alternatively, the latter procedure may offer very efficient though less than 100% screening for sequence changes with only hydroxylamine. The full method with two chemical reactions (hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide) should allow one person to screen with virtually 100% accuracy more than 300 kb of sequence in three ABI 373 gels in 1 day. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Different residues in the SARS-CoV spike protein determine cleavage and activation by the host cell protease TMPRSS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Lennart Michel; Spiegel, Martin; Plegge, Teresa; Hartleib, Anika; Nehlmeier, Inga; Gierer, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Markus; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Winkler, Michael; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mediates viral entry into target cells. Cleavage and activation of SARS S by a host cell protease is essential for infectious viral entry and the responsible enzymes are potential targets for antiviral intervention. The type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 cleaves and activates SARS S in cell culture and potentially also in the infected host. Here, we investigated which determinants in SARS S control cleavage and activation by TMPRSS2. We found that SARS S residue R667, a previously identified trypsin cleavage site, is also required for S protein cleavage by TMPRSS2. The cleavage fragments produced by trypsin and TMPRSS2 differed in their decoration with N-glycans, suggesting that these proteases cleave different SARS S glycoforms. Although R667 was required for SARS S cleavage by TMPRSS2, this residue was dispensable for TMPRSS2-mediated S protein activation. Conversely, residue R797, previously reported to be required for SARS S activation by trypsin, was dispensable for S protein cleavage but required for S protein activation by TMPRSS2. Collectively, these results show that different residues in SARS S control cleavage and activation by TMPRSS2, suggesting that these processes are more complex than initially appreciated.

  5. prpC-related signal transduction is influenced by copper, membrane integrity and the alpha cleavage site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cathryn L Haigh; Victoria A Lewis; Laura J Vella; Colin L Masters; Andrew F Hill; Victoria A Lawson; Steven J Collins

    2009-01-01

    The copper-binding, membrane-anchored, cellular prion protein (PrPC) has two constitutive cleavage sites pro-ducing distinct N- and C-terminal fragments (N1/C1 and N2/C2). Using RKI3 cells expressing either human PrPC, mouse PrPC or mouse PrPC carrying the 3F4 epitope, this study explored the influence of the PrPC primary sequence on endoproteolytic cleavage and one putative PrPC function, MAP kinase signal transduction, in response to exoge-nous copper with or without a perturbed membrane environment. PrPC primary sequence, especially that around the N1/C1 cleavage site, appeared to influence basal levels of proteolysis at this location and extracellular signal-regulat-ed kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, with increased processing demonstrating an inverse relationship with basal ERK1/2 activation. Human PrPC showed increased N1/C1 cleavage in response to copper alone, accompanied by spe-cific p38 and JNK/SAPK phosphorylation. Combined exposure to copper plus the cholesterol-sequestering antibiotic filipin resulted in a mouse PrPC-specific substantial increase in signal protein phosphorylation, accompanied by an increase in N1/C1 cleavage. Mouse PrPC harboring the human N1/C1 cleavage site assumed more human-like profiles basally and in response to copper and altered membrane environments. Our results demonstrate that the PrPC pri-mary sequence around the N1/C1 cleavage site influences endoproteolytic processing at this location, which appears linked to MAP kinase signal transduction both basally and in response to copper. Further, the primary sequence ap-pears to confer a mutual dependence of N1/C1 cleavage and membrane integrity on the fidelity of prpC-related signal transduction in response to exogenous stimuli.

  6. Proton-driven amide bond-cleavage pathways of gas-phase peptide ions lacking mobile protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J; Suhai, Sándor; Somogyi, Arpád; Paizs, Béla

    2009-10-07

    The mobile proton model (Dongre, A. R., Jones, J. L., Somogyi, A. and Wysocki, V. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118 , 8365-8374) of peptide fragmentation states that the ionizing protons play a critical role in the gas-phase fragmentation of protonated peptides upon collision-induced dissociation (CID). The model distinguishes two classes of peptide ions, those with or without easily mobilizable protons. For the former class mild excitation leads to proton transfer reactions which populate amide nitrogen protonation sites. This enables facile amide bond cleavage and thus the formation of b and y sequence ions. In contrast, the latter class of peptide ions contains strongly basic functionalities which sequester the ionizing protons, thereby often hindering formation of sequence ions. Here we describe the proton-driven amide bond cleavages necessary to produce b and y ions from peptide ions lacking easily mobilizable protons. We show that this important class of peptide ions fragments by different means from those with easily mobilizable protons. We present three new amide bond cleavage mechanisms which involve salt-bridge, anhydride, and imine enol intermediates, respectively. All three new mechanisms are less energetically demanding than the classical oxazolone b(n)-y(m) pathway. These mechanisms offer an explanation for the formation of b and y ions from peptide ions with sequestered ionizing protons which are routinely fragmented in large-scale proteomics experiments.

  7. Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Elena; Dianzani, Chiara; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Clemente, Nausicaa; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Toth, Erika; Raineri, Davide; Ferrara, Benedetta; Comi, Cristoforo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α 4 β 1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases.

  8. Regioselectivity in the Reductive Bond Cleavage of Diarylalkylsulfonium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeier, Jack; Mansurul Hoque, AKM; D. Saeva, Franklin;

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was stimulated by reports that one-electron reductions of monoaryldialkylsulfonium salts never give aryl bond cleavage whereas reductions of diarylmonoalkylsulfonium salts preferentially give aryl bond cleavage. We studied the product ratios from the reductive cleavage of di-4-...

  9. The cleavage of phosphoenolpyruvate by vanadate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, M; Leta, J; Madeira, V M; de Meis, L

    1994-05-30

    Vanadate rapidly promotes the cleavage of phosphoenolpyruvate with phosphate liberation. This was not observed when ATP, glucose-6-phosphate and acetyl phosphate were incubated with vanadate. 51V NMR spectra shows that phosphoenolpyruvate and acetyl phosphate broadened and shifted upfield the monomeric vanadate signal at -561 ppm, indicative of vanadate/phosphate interactions. Comparatively, smaller changes were detected when glucose-6-phosphate was added to the vanadate solution. The shift behavior was not observed in the presence of ATP, ADP or pyruvate.

  10. Cleavage of galectin-3 by matrix metalloproteases induces angiogenesis in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Wang, Yi; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Balan, Vitaly; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-3 cleavage is related to progression of human breast and prostate cancer and is partly responsible for tumor growth, angiogenesis and apoptosis resistance in mouse models. A functional polymorphism in galectin-3 gene, determining its susceptibility to cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2/-9 is related to racial disparity in breast cancer incidence in Asian and Caucasian women. The purpose of our study is to evaluate (i) if cleavage of galectin-3 could be related to angiogenesis during the progression of human breast cancer, (ii) the role of cleaved galectin-3 in induction of angiogenesis and (iii) determination of the galectin-3 domain responsible for induction of angiogenic response. Galectin-3 null breast cancer cells BT-459 were transfected with either cleavable full-length galectin-3 or its fragmented peptides. Chemotaxis, chemoinvasion, heterotypic aggregation, epithelial-endothelial cell interactions and angiogenesis were compared to noncleavable galectin-3. BT-549-H64 cells harboring cleavable galectin-3 exhibited increased chemotaxis, invasion and interactions with endothelial cells resulting in angiogenesis and 3D morphogenesis compared to BT-549-P64 cells harboring noncleavable galectin-3. BT-549-H64 cells induced increased migration and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in migrating endothelial cells. Endothelial cells cocultured with BT-549 cells transfected with galectin-3 peptides indicate that amino acids 1–62 and 33–250 stimulate migration and morphogenesis of endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of blood vessel density and galectin-3 cleavage in a breast cancer progression tissue array support the in vitro findings. We conclude that the cleavage of the N terminus of galectin-3 followed by its release in the tumor microenvironment in part leads to breast cancer angiogenesis and progression. PMID:20162566

  11. Cytoplasmic translocation, aggregation, and cleavage of TDP-43 by enteroviral proteases modulate viral pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, G; Shi, J; Deng, H; Hou, J; Wang, C; Hong, A; Zhang, J; Jia, W; Luo, H

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that infection by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a positive-stranded RNA enterovirus, results in the accumulation of insoluble ubiquitin–protein aggregates, which resembles the common feature of neurodegenerative diseases. The importance of protein aggregation in viral pathogenesis has been recognized; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain ill-defined. Transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is an RNA-binding protein that has an essential role in regulating RNA metabolism at multiple levels. Cleavage and cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 serves as a major molecular marker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration and contributes significantly to disease progression. In this study, we reported that TDP-43 is translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during CVB3 infection through the activity of viral protease 2A, followed by the cleavage mediated by viral protease 3C. Cytoplasmic translocation of TDP-43 is accompanied by reduced solubility and increased formation of protein aggregates. The cleavage takes place at amino-acid 327 between glutamine and alanine, resulting in the generation of an N- and C-terminal cleavage fragment of ~35 and ~8 kDa, respectively. The C-terminal product of TDP-43 is unstable and quickly degraded through the proteasome degradation pathway, whereas the N-terminal truncation of TDP-43 acts as a dominant-negative mutant that inhibits the function of native TDP-43 in alternative RNA splicing. Lastly, we demonstrated that knockdown of TDP-43 results in an increase in viral titers, suggesting a protective role for TDP-43 in CVB3 infection. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel model by which cytoplasmic redistribution and cleavage of TDP-43 as a consequence of CVB3 infection disrupts the solubility and transcriptional activity of TDP-43. Our results also reveal a mechanism evolved by enteroviruses to support efficient viral infection. PMID

  12. In vivo analysis of the Notch receptor S1 cleavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Lake

    Full Text Available A ligand-independent cleavage (S1 in the extracellular domain of the mammalian Notch receptor results in what is considered to be the canonical heterodimeric form of Notch on the cell surface. The in vivo consequences and significance of this cleavage on Drosophila Notch signaling remain unclear and contradictory. We determined the cleavage site in Drosophila and examined its in vivo function by a transgenic analysis of receptors that cannot be cleaved. Our results demonstrate a correlation between loss of cleavage and loss of in vivo function of the Notch receptor, supporting the notion that S1 cleavage is an in vivo mechanism of Notch signal control.

  13. Self-cleavage of Human CLCA1 Protein by a Novel Internal Metalloprotease Domain Controls Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Activation*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Randolph, David T.; Scheaffer, Suzanne M.; Roswit, William T.; Alevy, Yael G.; Patel, Anand C.; Heier, Richard F.; Romero, Arthur G.; Nichols, Colin G.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Tom J.

    2012-01-01

    The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. Despite relevance to homeostasis and disease, the mechanism of CLCA1 function remains largely undefined. We address this void by showing that CLCA proteins contain a consensus proteolytic cleavage site recognized by a novel zincin metalloprotease domain located within the N terminus of CLCA itself. CLCA1 mutations that inhibit self-cleavage prevent activation of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)-mediated chloride transport. CaCC activation requires cleavage to unmask the N-terminal fragment of CLCA1, which can independently gate CaCCs. Gating of CaCCs mediated by CLCA1 does not appear to involve proteolytic cleavage of the channel because a mutant N-terminal fragment deficient in proteolytic activity is able to induce currents comparable with that of the native fragment. These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface. PMID:23112050

  14. Self-cleavage of human CLCA1 protein by a novel internal metalloprotease domain controls calcium-activated chloride channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Randolph, David T; Scheaffer, Suzanne M; Roswit, William T; Alevy, Yael G; Patel, Anand C; Heier, Richard F; Romero, Arthur G; Nichols, Colin G; Holtzman, Michael J; Brett, Tom J

    2012-12-07

    The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. Despite relevance to homeostasis and disease, the mechanism of CLCA1 function remains largely undefined. We address this void by showing that CLCA proteins contain a consensus proteolytic cleavage site recognized by a novel zincin metalloprotease domain located within the N terminus of CLCA itself. CLCA1 mutations that inhibit self-cleavage prevent activation of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)-mediated chloride transport. CaCC activation requires cleavage to unmask the N-terminal fragment of CLCA1, which can independently gate CaCCs. Gating of CaCCs mediated by CLCA1 does not appear to involve proteolytic cleavage of the channel because a mutant N-terminal fragment deficient in proteolytic activity is able to induce currents comparable with that of the native fragment. These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface.

  15. SVM-based prediction of caspase substrate cleavage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Shoba

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspases belong to a class of cysteine proteases which function as critical effectors in apoptosis and inflammation by cleaving substrates immediately after unique sites. Prediction of such cleavage sites will complement structural and functional studies on substrates cleavage as well as discovery of new substrates. Recently, different computational methods have been developed to predict the cleavage sites of caspase substrates with varying degrees of success. As the support vector machines (SVM algorithm has been shown to be useful in several biological classification problems, we have implemented an SVM-based method to investigate its applicability to this domain. Results A set of unique caspase substrates cleavage sites were obtained from literature and used for evaluating the SVM method. Datasets containing (i the tetrapeptide cleavage sites, (ii the tetrapeptide cleavage sites, augmented by two adjacent residues, P1' and P2' amino acids and (iii the tetrapeptide cleavage sites with ten additional upstream and downstream flanking sequences (where available were tested. The SVM method achieved an accuracy ranging from 81.25% to 97.92% on independent test sets. The SVM method successfully predicted the cleavage of a novel caspase substrate and its mutants. Conclusion This study presents an SVM approach for predicting caspase substrate cleavage sites based on the cleavage sites and the downstream and upstream flanking sequences. The method shows an improvement over existing methods and may be useful for predicting hitherto undiscovered cleavage sites.

  16. Mechanisms in Impact Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittel, Falk K.; Carmona, Humberto A.; Kun, Ferenc; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    The brittle fragmentation of spheres is studied numerically by a 3D Discrete Element Model. Large scale computer simulations are performed with models that consist of agglomerates of many spherical particles, interconnected by beam-truss elements. We focus on a detailed description of the fragmentation process and study several fragmentation mechanisms involved. The evolution of meridional cracks is studied in detail. These cracks are found to initiate in the inside of the specimen with quasi...

  17. Cleavage crystallography of liquid metal embrittled aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, A. P.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The crystallography of liquid metal-induced transgranular cleavage in six aluminum alloys having a variety of microstructures has been determined via Laue X-ray back reflection. The cleavage crystallography was independent of alloy microstructure, and the cleavage plane was 100-plane oriented in all cases. It was further determined that the cleavage crystallography was not influenced by alloy texture. Examination of the fracture surface indicated that there was not a unique direction of crack propagation. In addition, the existence of 100-plane cleavage on alloy 2024 fracture surfaces was inferred by comparison of secondary cleavage crack intersection geometry on the 2024 surfaces with the geometry of secondary cleavage crack intersections on the test alloys.

  18. Talin contains a C-terminal calpain2 cleavage site important in focal adhesion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Bate

    Full Text Available Talin is a large (∼2540 residues dimeric adaptor protein that associates with the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules in cell-extracellular matrix junctions (focal adhesions; FAs, where it both activates integrins and couples them to the actin cytoskeleton. Calpain2-mediated cleavage of talin between the head and rod domains has previously been shown to be important in FA turnover. Here we identify an additional calpain2-cleavage site that removes the dimerisation domain from the C-terminus of the talin rod, and show that an E2492G mutation inhibits calpain cleavage at this site in vitro, and increases the steady state levels of talin1 in vivo. Expression of a GFP-tagged talin1 E2492G mutant in CHO.K1 cells inhibited FA turnover and the persistence of cell protrusion just as effectively as a L432G mutation that inhibits calpain cleavage between the talin head and rod domains. Moreover, incorporation of both mutations into a single talin molecule had an additive effect clearly demonstrating that calpain cleavage at both the N- and C-terminal regions of talin contribute to the regulation of FA dynamics. However, the N-terminal site was more sensitive to calpain cleavage suggesting that lower levels of calpain are required to liberate the talin head and rod fragments than are needed to clip off the C-terminal dimerisation domain. The talin head and rod liberated by calpain2 cleavage have recently been shown to play roles in an integrin activation cycle important in FA turnover and in FAK-dependent cell cycle progression respectively. The half-life of the talin head is tightly regulated by ubiquitination and we suggest that removal of the C-terminal dimerisation domain from the talin rod may provide a mechanism both for terminating the signalling function of the talin rod and indeed for inactivating full-length talin thereby promoting FA turnover at the rear of the cell.

  19. Post-translational processing of progastrin: inhibition of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation by brefeldin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varro, A; Dockray, G J

    1993-11-01

    The precursor for the acid-stimulating hormone gastrin provides a useful model for studies of post-translational processing because defined sites of cleavage, amidation, sulphation and phosphorylation occur within a dodecapeptide sequence. The factors determining these post-translational processing events are still poorly understood. We have used brefeldin A, which disrupts transport from rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to examine the mechanisms of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation of rat progastrin-derived peptides. Biosynthetic products were detected after immunoprecipitation using antibodies specific for the extreme C-terminus of progastrin, followed by reversed-phase and ion-exchange h.p.l.c. Gastrin cells incorporated [3H]tyrosine, [32P]phosphate and [35S]sulphate into both progastrin and its extreme C-terminal tryptic (nona-) peptide. Ion-exchange chromatography resolved four forms of the C-terminal tryptic fragment of progastrin which differed in whether they were phosphorylated at Ser96, sulphated at Tyr103, both or neither. The specific activity of [3H]tyrosine in the peak that was both phosphorylated and sulphated was higher than in the others. Brefeldin A inhibited the appearance of [3H]tyrosine-labelled C-terminal tryptic fragment but there was an accumulation of labelled progastrin and a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 46 residues of progastrin. Brefeldin A also inhibited incorporation of 32P and 35S into both progastrin and its C-terminal fragment. Thus phosphorylation of Ser96, sulphation of Tyr103 and cleavage at Arg94-Arg95 depend on passage of newly synthesized progastrin along the secretory pathway; as brefeldin A is thought to act proximal to the trans-Golgi, these processing steps would appear to occur distal to this point. The data also indicate that the stores of unphosphorylated C-terminal tryptic fragment are not available for phosphorylation, implying that this modification occurs proximal to the secretory

  20. Evidence of tRNA cleavage in apicomplexan parasites: half-tRNAs as new potential regulatory molecules of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several lines of evidence demonstrated that organisms ranging from bacteria to higher animals possess a regulated endonucleolytic cleavage pathway producing half-tRNA fragments. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of this phenomenon in two distantly related apicomplexan parasites, T...

  1. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  2. Decreased linear ubiquitination of NEMO and FADD on apoptosis with caspase-mediated cleavage of HOIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Eiji; Tokunaga, Fuminori

    2017-02-09

    NF-κB is crucial to regulate immune and inflammatory responses and cell survival. LUBAC generates a linear ubiquitin chain and activates NF-κB through ubiquitin ligase (E3) activity in the HOIP subunit. Here, we show that HOIP is predominantly cleaved by caspase at Asp390 upon apoptosis, and that is subjected to proteasomal degradation. We identified that FADD, as well as NEMO, is a substrate for LUBAC. Although the C-terminal fragment of HOIP retains NF-κB activity, linear ubiquitination of NEMO and FADD decreases upon apoptosis. Moreover, the N-terminal fragment of HOIP binds with deubiquitinases, such as OTULIN and CYLD-SPATA2. These results indicate that caspase-mediated cleavage of HOIP divides critical functional regions of HOIP, and that this regulates linear (de)ubiquitination of substrates upon apoptosis.

  3. Protein and peptide alkoxyl radicals can give rise to C-terminal decarboxylation and backbone cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    when the free amino acid does not, and that hydroperoxides can be formed on both the backbone (at alpha-carbon positions) and the side chain. Decomposition of alpha-carbon hydroperoxides by Fe(II)-EDTA gives initially an alkoxyl radical via a pseudo-Fenton reaction; these radicals fragment rapidly...... with k estimated as > or = 10(7) s(-1). With N-acetyl amino acids and dipeptides beta-scission of an alkoxyl radical at the C-terminal alpha-carbon results in C-terminal decarboxylation, with release of CO2.-; the corresponding amides undergo deamidation with release of .C(O)NH2. Cyclic dipeptides...... undergo analogous reactions with cleavage of the alpha-carbon to carbonyl-carbon bond and formation of .C(O)NHR radicals. With substrates with large aliphatic side chains, radicals from side-chain hydroperoxides are also observed. C-terminal decarboxylation and backbone fragmentation are also observed...

  4. Unique features of monoclonal IgG2b in the cleavage reaction with pepsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumii,Hiroshi

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparations of IgG2b purified from several mouse hybridoma clones were highly susceptible, compared to other subclasses, to peptic digestion under conditions usually used to prepare F (ab'2 fragments. Analyses of the digestion products revealed that no F (ab'2 was produced and that the main product was a Fab-like fragment. Demonstration of the hinge disulfides in the Fc portion clearly indicated that in IgG2b the primary peptic cleavage occurs on the NH2-terminal side of the inter-heavy chain disulfide bridge. The resulting Fab failed to bind with antigen, suggesting the importance of the CH1-hinge region in maintaining the native conformation of the antigen-binding site.

  5. The DNA cleavage reaction of topoisomerase II: wolf in sheep's clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweese, Joseph E; Osheroff, Neil

    2009-02-01

    Topoisomerase II is an essential enzyme that is required for virtually every process that requires movement of DNA within the nucleus or the opening of the double helix. This enzyme helps to regulate DNA under- and overwinding and removes knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out its critical physiological functions, topoisomerase II generates transient double-stranded breaks in DNA. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, the enzyme also has the capacity to fragment the genome. The DNA cleavage/ligation reaction of topoisomerase II is the target for some of the most successful anticancer drugs currently in clinical use. However, this same reaction also is believed to trigger chromosomal translocations that are associated with specific types of leukemia. This article will familiarize the reader with the DNA cleavage/ligation reaction of topoisomerase II and other aspects of its catalytic cycle. In addition, it will discuss the interaction of the enzyme with anticancer drugs and the mechanisms by which these agents increase levels of topoisomerase II-generated DNA strand breaks. Finally, it will describe dietary and environmental agents that enhance DNA cleavage mediated by the enzyme.

  6. String fragmentation; La fragmentation des cordes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-10-01

    The classical string model is used in VENUS as a fragmentation model. For the soft domain simple 2-parton strings were sufficient, whereas for higher energies up to LHC, the perturbative regime of the QCD gives additional soft gluons, which are mapped on the string as so called kinks, energy singularities between the leading partons. The kinky string model is chosen to handle fragmentation of these strings by application of the Lorentz invariant area law. The `kinky strings` model, corresponding to the perturbative gluons coming from pQCD, takes into consideration this effect by treating the partons and gluons on the same footing. The decay law is always the Artru-Menessier area law which is the most realistic since it is invariant to the Lorentz and gauge transformations. For low mass strings a manipulation of the rupture point is necessary if the string corresponds already to an elementary particle determined by the mass and the flavor content. By means of the fragmentation model it will be possible to simulate the data from future experiments at LHC and RHIC 3 refs.

  7. Fragmentation trees reloaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Sebastian; Dührkop, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics commonly uses liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to measure abundances of metabolites; subsequent tandem mass spectrometry is used to derive information about individual compounds. One of the bottlenecks in this experimental setup is the interpretation of fragmentation spectra to accurately and efficiently identify compounds. Fragmentation trees have become a powerful tool for the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data of small molecules. These trees are determined from the data using combinatorial optimization, and aim at explaining the experimental data via fragmentation cascades. Fragmentation tree computation does not require spectral or structural databases. To obtain biochemically meaningful trees, one needs an elaborate optimization function (scoring). We present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees, transforming the combinatorial optimization into a Maximum A Posteriori estimator. We demonstrate the superiority of the new scoring for two tasks: both for the de novo identification of molecular formulas of unknown compounds, and for searching a database for structurally similar compounds, our method SIRIUS 3, performs significantly better than the previous version of our method, as well as other methods for this task. SIRIUS 3 can be a part of an untargeted metabolomics workflow, allowing researchers to investigate unknowns using automated computational methods.Graphical abstractWe present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees from tandem mass spectrometry data based on Bayesian statistics. The best scoring fragmentation tree most likely explains the molecular formula of the measured parent ion.

  8. Intratree Variability of Cleavage Resistance of Chinese Fir from Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming; REN Haiqing; LUO Xiuqin; YIN Yafang

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the variation of cleavage resistance of Chinese fir wood from plantation.Six trees of 36 years old were investigated,and the cleavage resistance properties for 672 samples made of the trees were tested.The samples were cut from the sapwood and heartwood at different directions (south and north) and heights (1.3,3.3,5.3 and 7.3 m) of the trees.The result showed that:tangential cleavage resistance was higher than radial one, and cleavage resistance of sapwood was higher than that of heartwood,but there was no significant difference in cleavage resistances between sections of the north and the south of the trees.There was a little variation in cleavage resistance between the radial and tangential from butt to top log,which shows alittle decrease with the height from 1.3 to 5.3 m,but a rise in the top of the trees.

  9. Ion-Induced Fragmentation of Amino Acids : Effect of the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maclot, Sylvain; Capron, Michael; Maisonny, Remi; Lawicki, Arkadiusz; Mery, Alain; Rangama, Jimmy; Chesnel, Jean-Yves; Bari, Sadia; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Schlatholter, Thomas; Manil, Bruno; Adoui, Lamri; Rousseau, Patrick; Huber, Bernd A.

    2011-01-01

    In general, radiation-induced fragmentation of small amino acids is governed by the cleavage of the C-C(alpha) bond. We present results obtained with 300 keV Xe(20+) ions that allow molecules (glycine and valine) to be ionised at large distances without appreciable energy transfer. Also in the prese

  10. The Restriction Fragment Map of Rat-Liver Mitochondrial DNA : A Reconsideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepe, G.; Bakker, H.; Holtrop, M.; Bollen, J.E.; Bruggen, E.F.J. van; Cantatore, P.; Terpstra, P.; Saccone, C.

    1977-01-01

    1. Rat-liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains at least 8 cleavage sites for the restriction endonuclease Eco RI, 6 for the restriction endonuclease Hind III, 2 for the restriction endonuclease Bam HI and 11 for the restriction endonuclease Hap II. 2. The physical map of the restriction fragments o

  11. Social cleavages and electoral support in Turkey -- toward convergence?

    OpenAIRE

    Hazama, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    Studies on Western democracies have shown that deep-seated social cleavages stabilize the electoral behavior and thus reduce electoral volatility. But how do social cleavages affect a party system that is undergoing democratic consolidation, such as in Turkey? In this study, investigations were carried out on long- and short-term relationships between social cleavages (religiosity, ethnicity, and sectarism) and electoral volatility in Turkey during the 1961-2002 period. Cross-sectional multip...

  12. Fragmentation of metastable molecular ions of acetylanisoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Osamu; Noguchi, Tsutomu; Ogino, Kazuo; Tajima, Susumu

    1994-04-01

    The spontaneous unimolecular dissociation reactions of the molecular ions of ortho-, meta- and para-acetylanisoles have been investigated by mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry, high resolution mass spectrometry and deuterium labelling. Losses of CH3. from the molecular ions of all isomers occur exclusively from the acetyl group. The loss of CH3. for the o-isomer consists of two processes, i.e. one of them is a simple cleavage, and the other is a rearrangement. The latter is not observed for the m- and p-isomers. The loss of H2O from the molecular ion is also unique for the o-isomer, and the fragmentation mechanism is also explored.

  13. Energetics and Dynamics of the Fragmentation Reactions of Protonated Peptides Containing Methionine Sulfoxide or Aspartic Acid via Energy- and Time-Resolved Surface Induced Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lioe, Hadi; Laskin, Julia; Reid, Gavin E.; O' Hair, Richard Aj

    2007-10-25

    The surface-induced dissociation (SID) of six model peptides containing either methionine sulfoxide or aspartic acid (GAILM(O)GAILR, GAILM(O)GAILK, GAILM(O)GAILA, GAILDGAILR, GAILDGAILK, and GAILDGAILA) have been studied using a specially configured Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS). In particular, we have investigated the energetics and dynamics associated with (i) preferential cleavage of the methionine sulfoxide side chain via the loss of CH3SOH (64Da), and (ii) preferential cleavage of the amide bond C-terminal to aspartic acid. The role of proton mobility on these selective bond cleavage reactions was examined by changing the C-terminal residue of the peptide from arginine (non-mobile proton conditions) to lysine (partially-mobile proton conditions) to alanine (mobile proton conditions). Time- and energy-resolved fragmentation efficiency curves (TFEC) reveals that selective cleavages due to the methionine sulfoxide and aspartic acid residues are characterized by slow fragmentation kinetics. RRKM modeling of the experimental data suggests that the slow kinetics is associated with large negative entropy effects and these may be due to the presence of rearrangements prior to fragmentation. It was found that the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor (A) for peptide fragmentations occurring via selective bond cleavages are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than non-selective peptide fragmentation reactions, while the dissociation threshold (E0) is relatively invariant. This means that selective bond cleavage is kinetically disfavored compared to non-selective amide bond cleavage. It was also found that the energetics and dynamics for the preferential loss of CH3SOH from peptide ions containing methionine sulfoxide are very similar to selective C-terminal amide bond cleavage at the aspartic acid residue. These results suggest that while preferential cleavage can compete with amide bond cleavage energetically, dynamically, these

  14. Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...

  15. Fragmentation in Biaxial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G H; Archbold, G C; Hurricane, O A; Miller, P L

    2006-06-13

    We have carried out an experiment that places a ductile stainless steel in a state of biaxial tension at a high rate of strain. The loading of the ductile metal spherical cap is performed by the detonation of a high explosive layer with a conforming geometry to expand the metal radially outwards. Simulations of the loading and expansion of the metal predict strain rates that compare well with experimental observations. A high percentage of the HE loaded material was recovered through a soft capture process and characterization of the recovered fragments provided high quality data, including uniform strain prior to failure and fragment size. These data were used with a modified fragmentation model to determine a fragmentation energy.

  16. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  17. Fragmentation Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  18. Thermodynamics of fragment binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczy, György G; Keserű, György M

    2012-04-23

    The ligand binding pockets of proteins have preponderance of hydrophobic amino acids and are typically within the apolar interior of the protein; nevertheless, they are able to bind low complexity, polar, water-soluble fragments. In order to understand this phenomenon, we analyzed high resolution X-ray data of protein-ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank and found that fragments bind to proteins with two near optimal geometry H-bonds on average. The linear extent of the fragment binding site was found not to be larger than 10 Å, and the H-bonding region was found to be restricted to about 5 Å on average. The number of conserved H-bonds in proteins cocrystallized with multiple different fragments is also near to 2. These fragment binding sites that are able to form limited number of strong H-bonds in a hydrophobic environment are identified as hot spots. An estimate of the free-energy gain of H-bond formation versus apolar desolvation supports that fragment sized compounds need H-bonds to achieve detectable binding. This suggests that fragment binding is mostly enthalpic that is in line with their observed binding thermodynamics documented in Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) data sets and gives a thermodynamic rationale for fragment based approaches. The binding of larger compounds tends to more rely on apolar desolvation with a corresponding increase of the entropy content of their binding free-energy. These findings explain the reported size-dependence of maximal available affinity and ligand efficiency both behaving differently in the small molecule region featured by strong H-bond formation and in the larger molecule region featured by apolar desolvation.

  19. A strategy for developing a hammerhead ribozyme for selective RNA cleavage depending on substitutional RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Masatora; Kurihara, Kei; Tanaka, Yasuyoshi; Deshimaru, Masanobu

    2012-09-01

    Substitutional RNA editing plays a crucial role in the regulation of biological processes. Cleavage of target RNA that depends on the specific site of substitutional RNA editing is a useful tool for analyzing and regulating intracellular processes related to RNA editing. Hammerhead ribozymes have been utilized as small catalytic RNAs for cleaving target RNA at a specific site and may be used for RNA-editing-specific RNA cleavage. Here we reveal a design strategy for a hammerhead ribozyme that specifically recognizes adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and cytosine to uracil (C-to-U) substitutional RNA-editing sites and cleaves target RNA. Because the hammerhead ribozyme cleaves one base upstream of the target-editing site, the base that pairs with the target-editing site was utilized for recognition. RNA-editing-specific ribozymes were designed such that the recognition base paired only with the edited base. These ribozymes showed A-to-I and C-to-U editing-specific cleavage activity against synthetic serotonin receptor 2C and apolipoprotein B mRNA fragments in vitro, respectively. Additionally, the ribozyme designed for recognizing A-to-I RNA editing at the Q/R site on filamin A (FLNA) showed editing-specific cleavage activity against physiologically edited FLNA mRNA extracted from cells. We demonstrated that our strategy is effective for cleaving target RNA in an editing-dependent manner. The data in this study provided an experimental basis for the RNA-editing-dependent degradation of specific target RNA in vivo.

  20. Cleavage of serum response factor mediated by enteroviral protease 2A contributes to impaired cardiac function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerry Wong; Jingchun Zhang; Bobby Yanagawa; Zongshu Luo; Xiangsheng Yang; Jiang Chang; Bruce McManus; Honglin Luo

    2012-01-01

    Enteroviral infection can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM),which is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide.However,the pathogenetic mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.Serum response factor (SRF) is a cardiac-enriched transcription regulator controlling the expression of a variety of target genes,including those involved in the contractile apparatus and immediate early response,as well as microRNAs that silence the expression of cardiac regulatory factors.Knockout of SRF in the heart results in downregulation of cardiac contractile gene expression and development of DCM.The goal of this study is to understand the role of SRF in enterovirus-induced cardiac dysfunction and progression to DCM.Here we report that SRF is cleaved following enteroviral infection of mouse heart and cultured cardiomyocytes.This cleavage is accompanied by impaired cardiac function and downregulation of cardiac-specific contractile and regulatory genes.Further investigation by antibody epitope mapping and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that SRF cleavage occurs at the region of its transactivation domain through the action of virus-encoded protease 2A.Moreover,we demonstrate that cleavage of SRF dissociates its transactivation domain from DNA-binding domain,resulting in the disruption of SRF-mediated gene transactivation.In addition to loss of functional SRF,finally we report that the N-terminal fragment of SRF cleavage products can also act as a dominant-negative transcription factor,which likely competes with the native SRF for DNA binding.Our results suggest a mechanism by which virus infection impairs heart function and may offer a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate myocardial damage and progression to DCM.

  1. Isolation of recombinant phage antibodies targeting the hemagglutinin cleavage site of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Dong

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses, which have emerged in poultry and other wildlife worldwide, contain a characteristic multi-basic cleavage site (CS in the hemagglutinin protein (HA. Because this arginine-rich CS is unique among influenza virus subtypes, antibodies against this site have the potential to specifically diagnose pathogenic H5N1. By immunizing mice with the CS peptide and screening a phage display library, we isolated four antibody Fab fragment clones that specifically bind the antigen peptide and several HPAI H5N1 HA proteins in different clades. The soluble Fab fragments expressed in Escherichia coli bound the CS peptide and the H5N1 HA protein with nanomolar affinity. In an immunofluorescence assay, these Fab fragments stained cells infected with HPAI H5N1 but not those infected with a less virulent strain. Lastly, all the Fab clones could detect the CS peptide and H5N1 HA protein by open sandwich ELISA. Thus, these recombinant Fab fragments will be useful novel reagents for the rapid and specific detection of HPAI H5N1 virus.

  2. Sodium channel cleavage is associated with aberrant neuronal activity and cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Brian F; Leiser, Steven C; Ling, Huai-Ping; Nagy, Reka; Breysse, Nathalie; Zhang, Xiaohong; Hazra, Anupam; Brown, Jon T; Randall, Andrew D; Wood, Andrew; Pangalos, Menelas N; Reinhart, Peter H; Chin, Jeannie

    2013-04-17

    BACE1 is the rate-limiting enzyme that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) to produce the amyloid β peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1, which is elevated in AD patients and APP transgenic mice, also cleaves the β2-subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navβ2). Although increased BACE1 levels are associated with Navβ2 cleavage in AD patients, whether Navβ2 cleavage occurs in APP mice had not yet been examined. Such a finding would be of interest because of its potential impact on neuronal activity: previous studies demonstrated that BACE1-overexpressing mice exhibit excessive cleavage of Navβ2 and reduced sodium current density, but the phenotype associated with loss of function mutations in either Navβ-subunits or pore-forming α-subunits is epilepsy. Because mounting evidence suggests that epileptiform activity may play an important role in the development of AD-related cognitive deficits, we examined whether enhanced cleavage of Navβ2 occurs in APP transgenic mice, and whether it is associated with aberrant neuronal activity and cognitive deficits. We found increased levels of BACE1 expression and Navβ2 cleavage fragments in cortical lysates from APP transgenic mice, as well as associated alterations in Nav1.1α expression and localization. Both pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons exhibited evidence of increased Navβ2 cleavage. Moreover, the magnitude of alterations in sodium channel subunits was associated with aberrant EEG activity and impairments in the Morris water maze. Together, these results suggest that altered processing of voltage-gated sodium channels may contribute to aberrant neuronal activity and cognitive deficits in AD.

  3. Discrimination between temperature- and brefeldin A-sensitive steps in the sulfation, phosphorylation, and cleavage of progastrin and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varro, A; Henry, J; Vaillant, C; Dockray, G J

    1994-08-12

    Maturation of the acid-stimulating hormone gastrin involves precursor cleavage, tyrosine sulfation, serine phosphorylation, and COOH-terminal amidation. We have used brefeldin A and incubation at 22 degrees C to determine where and when these modifications occur. Immunogold studies of gastrin cells incubated at 22 degrees C revealed swollen Golgi cisternae, the terminal regions of which were associated with an accumulation of progastrin immunoreactivity. At 22 degrees C, [3H]tyrosine and [35S]sulfate were incorporated into progastrin, but Arg94-Arg95 cleavage, and Ser96 phosphorylation, were inhibited. When pulse labeling at 22 degrees C for 120 min was followed by a chase at 37 degrees C, [35S]progastrin was cleaved at Arg94-Arg95 with a t1/2 of about 10 min, compared with about 20 min for [3H]progastrin. Approximately 60% of the COOH-terminal cleavage fragment was phosphorylated, but there was little or no incorporation of [32P]phosphate into progastrin. Addition of brefeldin A during the chase substantially inhibited cleavage of [3H]progastrin, but not [35S]progastrin. However, when pulse labeling was limited to 20 min at 22 degrees C, the presence of brefeldin A in a subsequent chase at 37 degrees C completely inhibited cleavage of [35S]progastrin. The data indicate that progastrin sulfation occurs in the trans-Golgi network, exit from which involves passage through first a brefeldin A-sensitive and then a temperature-sensitive step. Cleavage at Arg94-Arg95 and Ser phosphorylation are closely linked, occur distal to the temperature-sensitive step, and are followed by amidation in secretory granules. It is known that mature secretory granules do not phosphorylate progastrin-derived peptides, and so phosphorylation appears to coincides with, and may provide a marker for, delivery of peptide from trans-Golgi work to immature secretory granules in gastrin cells.

  4. Presence of Meiotic Spindles Indicates Early Cleavage of Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the detection of the meiotic spindle could anticipate the appearance of early cleavage.Methods Oocytes were obtained from stimulated ovaries of consenting patients undergoing oocytes retrieval for ICSI.Spindles were imaged with the Polscope.After ICSI,oocytes with or without spindles were cultured for examination of early cleavage and embryo development.A total of 328 oocytes from 50 cycles were examined with the Polscope and inseminated by ICSI.Results Spindles were imaged in 81.7% of oocytes.After ICSI,more oocytes with spindles (78.4%) fertilized normally than oocytes without spindles (53.3%)(P<0.001).At 25-27 h post ICSI.more fertilized oocytes developed from oocytes with spindles (81.9%) were detected early cleavage than those from oocytes without spindles(28.1%)(P<0.001).Significantly more embryos with early cleavage (82.2%) developed to high quality embryos at d 3 compared with the embryos without early cleavage(48.3%)(P=0.001).The value of rs related to the relationship between spindles and early cleavage was 0.420(P<0.0001).Conclusion The existing of the early cleavage may have a predictive value on the opportunity of high quality embryos and the existing of the spindle may have a predictive value in the appearance of early cleavage.

  5. Electrospray ionization mass spectral characteristics and fragmentation mechanisms of Angiotensin II and its analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihui; Yuan, Gu

    2006-05-01

    The characteristic fragmentation pathways of Angiotensin II and eight analogues were investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The main fragmentations involve the cleavages of the CCO and CONH bonds with the loss of water, ammonia or carbon monoxide and rearrangements involving hydrogen atoms, and the MS/MS spectra give significant sequence information of these octapeptides. In addition, the two members of the analogues with the same mass and different elemental composition can be distinguished by the MS/MS spectra of [M + H]+ and fragment ions. These results show that ESI tandem mass spectrometry is an excellent tool for the structural identification of Angiotensin II and its analogues.

  6. Two Antagonistic MALT1 Auto-Cleavage Mechanisms Reveal a Role for TRAF6 to Unleash MALT1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginster, Stefanie; Bardet, Maureen; Unterreiner, Adeline; Malinverni, Claire; Renner, Florian; Lam, Stephen; Freuler, Felix; Gerrits, Bertran; Voshol, Johannes; Calzascia, Thomas; Régnier, Catherine H; Renatus, Martin; Nikolay, Rainer; Israël, Laura; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has arginine-directed proteolytic activity triggered by engagement of immune receptors. Recruitment of MALT1 into activation complexes is required for MALT1 proteolytic function. Here, co-expression of MALT1 in HEK293 cells, either with activated CARD11 and BCL10 or with TRAF6, was used to explore the mechanism of MALT1 activation at the molecular level. This work identified a prominent self-cleavage site of MALT1 isoform A (MALT1A) at R781 (R770 in MALT1B) and revealed that TRAF6 can activate MALT1 independently of the CBM. Intramolecular cleavage at R781/R770 removes a C-terminal TRAF6-binding site in both MALT1 isoforms, leaving MALT1B devoid of the two key interaction sites with TRAF6. A previously identified auto-proteolysis site of MALT1 at R149 leads to deletion of the death-domain, thereby abolishing interaction with BCL10. By using MALT1 isoforms and cleaved fragments thereof, as well as TRAF6 WT and mutant forms, this work shows that TRAF6 induces N-terminal auto-proteolytic cleavage of MALT1 at R149 and accelerates MALT1 protein turnover. The MALT1 fragment generated by N-terminal self-cleavage at R149 was labile and displayed enhanced signaling properties that required an intact K644 residue, previously shown to be a site for mono-ubiquitination of MALT1. Conversely, C-terminal self-cleavage at R781/R770 hampered the ability for self-cleavage at R149 and stabilized MALT1 by hindering interaction with TRAF6. C-terminal self-cleavage had limited impact on MALT1A but severely reduced MALT1B proteolytic and signaling functions. It also abrogated NF-κB activation by N-terminally cleaved MALT1A. Altogether, this study provides further insights into mechanisms that regulate the scaffolding and activation cycle of MALT1. It also emphasizes the reduced functional capacity of MALT1B as compared to MALT1A.

  7. Two Antagonistic MALT1 Auto-Cleavage Mechanisms Reveal a Role for TRAF6 to Unleash MALT1 Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Florian; Lam, Stephen; Freuler, Felix; Gerrits, Bertran; Voshol, Johannes; Calzascia, Thomas; Régnier, Catherine H.; Renatus, Martin; Nikolay, Rainer; Israël, Laura; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has arginine-directed proteolytic activity triggered by engagement of immune receptors. Recruitment of MALT1 into activation complexes is required for MALT1 proteolytic function. Here, co-expression of MALT1 in HEK293 cells, either with activated CARD11 and BCL10 or with TRAF6, was used to explore the mechanism of MALT1 activation at the molecular level. This work identified a prominent self-cleavage site of MALT1 isoform A (MALT1A) at R781 (R770 in MALT1B) and revealed that TRAF6 can activate MALT1 independently of the CBM. Intramolecular cleavage at R781/R770 removes a C-terminal TRAF6-binding site in both MALT1 isoforms, leaving MALT1B devoid of the two key interaction sites with TRAF6. A previously identified auto-proteolysis site of MALT1 at R149 leads to deletion of the death-domain, thereby abolishing interaction with BCL10. By using MALT1 isoforms and cleaved fragments thereof, as well as TRAF6 WT and mutant forms, this work shows that TRAF6 induces N-terminal auto-proteolytic cleavage of MALT1 at R149 and accelerates MALT1 protein turnover. The MALT1 fragment generated by N-terminal self-cleavage at R149 was labile and displayed enhanced signaling properties that required an intact K644 residue, previously shown to be a site for mono-ubiquitination of MALT1. Conversely, C-terminal self-cleavage at R781/R770 hampered the ability for self-cleavage at R149 and stabilized MALT1 by hindering interaction with TRAF6. C-terminal self-cleavage had limited impact on MALT1A but severely reduced MALT1B proteolytic and signaling functions. It also abrogated NF-κB activation by N-terminally cleaved MALT1A. Altogether, this study provides further insights into mechanisms that regulate the scaffolding and activation cycle of MALT1. It also emphasizes the reduced functional capacity of MALT1B as compared to MALT1A. PMID:28052131

  8. Differential neuregulin 1 cleavage in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: preliminary findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Marballi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuregulin 1 (NRG1 is a key candidate susceptibility gene for both schizophrenia (SCZ and bipolar disorder (BPD. The function of the NRG1 transmembrane proteins is regulated by cleavage. Alteration of membrane bound-NRG1 cleavage has been previously shown to be associated with behavioral impairments in mouse models lacking expression of NRG1-cleavage enzymes such as BACE1 and gamma secretase. We sought to determine whether alterations in NRG1 cleavage and associated enzymes occur in patients with SCZ and BPD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using human postmortem brain, we evaluated protein expression of NRG1 cleavage products and enzymes that cleave at the external (BACE1, ADAM17, ADAM19 and internal (PS1-gamma secretase sides of the cell membrane. We used three different cohorts (Controls, SCZ and BPD and two distinct brain regions: BA9-prefrontal cortex (Controls (n = 6, SCZ (n = 6 and BPD (n = 6 and hippocampus (Controls (n = 5, SCZ (n = 6 and BPD (n = 6. In BA9, the ratio of the NRG1 N-terminal fragment relative to full length was significantly upregulated in the SCZ cohort (Bonferroni test, p = 0.011. ADAM17 was negatively correlated with full length NRG1 levels in the SCZ cohort (r = -0.926, p = 0.008. In the hippocampus we found significantly lower levels of a soluble 50 kDa NRG1 fragment in the two affected groups compared the control cohort (Bonferroni test, p = 0.0018. We also examined the relationship of specific symptomatology criteria with measures of NRG1 cleavage using the Bipolar Inventory of Signs and Symptoms Scale (BISS and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Our results showed a positive correlation between ADAM19 and psychosis (r = 0.595 p = 0.019; PS1 and mania (r = 0.535, p = 0.040; PS1 and depression (r = 0.567, p = 0.027 in BA9, and BACE1 with anxiety (r = 0.608, p = 0.03 in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our preliminary findings suggest region-specific alterations in NRG1

  9. Hydrolytic protein cleavage mediated by unusual mononuclear copper(II) complexes: X-ray structures and solution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mauricio C B; Scarpellini, Marciela; Neves, Ademir; Terenzi, Hernán; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Szpoganics, Bruno; Greatti, Alessandra; Mangrich, Antônio S; de Souza, Emanuel M; Fernandez, Pablo M; Soares, Marcia R

    2005-02-21

    The crystal structures and redox and UV-vis/EPR spectroscopic properties of two new mononuclear copper(II) complexes, [Cu(HL1)Cl2] (1) and [Cu(L1)Cl] (2), prepared through the reaction between copper(II) chloride and the ligand 2-[(bis(pyridylmethyl)amino)methyl]-4-methyl-6-formylphenol (HL1) under distinct base conditions, are reported along with solution studies. Also, we demonstrate that these CuII complexes are able to cleave unactivated peptide bonds from bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the thermostable enzyme Taq DNA polymerase at micromolar concentration, under mild pH and temperature conditions. The cleavage activity seems to be specific with defined proteolytic fragments appearing after protein treatment. The location of the specific cleavage sites was tentatively assigned to solvent-accessible portions of the protein. These are two of the most active Cu(II) complexes described to date, since their cleavage activity is detected in minutes and evidence is here presented for a hydrolytic mechanism mediating protein cleavage by these complexes.

  10. Site specificity of DSP-PP cleavage by BMP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Robert T; Lim, Glendale L; Yee, Colin T; Fuller, Robert S; Ritchie, Helena H

    2014-08-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1), a metalloproteinase, is known to cleave a wide variety of extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting that a consensus substrate cleavage amino acid sequence might exist. However, while such a consensus sequence has been proposed based on P4 to P4' (i.e. the four amino acids flanking either side of the BMP1 cleavage site; P4P3P2P1|P1'P2'P3'P4') sequence homologies between two BMP1 substrates, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein phosphophoryn (DSP-PP) (i.e. xMQx|DDP), no direct testing has so far been attempted. Using an Sf9 cell expression system, we have been able to produce large amounts of uncleaved DSP-PP. Point mutations introduced into this recombinant DSP-PP were then tested for their effects on DSP-PP cleavage by either Sf9 endogenous tolloid-related protein 1 (TLR-1) or by its human homolog, BMP1. Here, we have measured DSP-PP cleavage efficiencies after modifications based on P4-P4' sequence comparisons with dentin matrix protein 1, as well as for prolysyl oxidase and chordin, two other BMP1 substrates. Our results demonstrate that any mutations within or outside of the DSP-PP P4 to P4' cleavage site can block, impair or accelerate DSP-PP cleavage, and suggest that its BMP1 cleavage site is highly conserved in order to regulate its cleavage efficiency, possibly with additional assistance from its conserved exosites. Thus, BMP1 cleavage cannot be based on a consensus substrate cleavage site.

  11. Chlamydia causes fragmentation of the Golgi compartment to ensure reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Dagmar; Rejman Lipinski, Anette; Machuy, Nikolaus; Karlas, Alexander; Wehrens, Andrea; Siedler, Frank; Brinkmann, Volker; Meyer, Thomas F

    2009-02-05

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis survives and replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole, termed the inclusion, which intercepts host exocytic pathways to obtain nutrients. Like many other intracellular pathogens, C. trachomatis has a marked requirement for host cell lipids, such as sphingolipids and cholesterol, produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. However, the mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens acquire host cell lipids are not well understood. In particular, no host cell protein responsible for transporting Golgi-derived lipids to the chlamydial inclusions has yet been identified. Here we show that Chlamydia infection in human epithelial cells induces Golgi fragmentation to generate Golgi ministacks surrounding the bacterial inclusion. Ministack formation is triggered by the proteolytic cleavage of the Golgi matrix protein golgin-84. Inhibition of golgin-84 truncation prevents Golgi fragmentation, causing a block in lipid acquisition and maturation of C. trachomatis. Golgi fragmentation by means of RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of distinct Golgi matrix proteins before infection enhances bacterial maturation. Our data functionally connect bacteria-induced golgin-84 cleavage, Golgi ministack formation, lipid acquisition and intracellular pathogen growth. We show that C. trachomatis subverts the structure and function of an entire host cell organelle for its own advantage.

  12. Fluctuations of fragment observables

    CERN Document Server

    Gulminelli, F

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a review of our present theoretical as well as experimental knowledge of different fluctuation observables relevant to nuclear multifragmentation. The possible connection between the presence of a fluctuation peak and the occurrence of a phase transition or a critical phenomenon is critically analyzed. Many different phenomena can lead both to the creation and to the suppression of a fluctuation peak. In particular, the role of constraints due to conservation laws and to data sorting is shown to be essential. From the experimental point of view, a comparison of the available fragmentation data reveals that there is a good agreement between different data sets of basic fluctuation observables, if the fragmenting source is of comparable size. This compatibility suggests that the fragmentation process is largely independent of the reaction mechanism (central versus peripheral collisions, symmetric versus asymmetric systems, light ions versus heavy ion induced reactions). Configurationa...

  13. Radiation-induced protein fragmentation and inactivation in liquid and solid aqueous solutions. Role of OH and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audette-Stuart, Marilyne [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, CANDU Life Sciences Center, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River Ont., K0J 1J0 (Canada); Houee-Levin, Chantal [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR-8000 CNRS-Universite Paris XI, Centre Universitaire, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)]. E-mail: chantal.houee-levin@lcp.u-psud.fr; Potier, Michel [Service de genetique medicale, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal Que., H3 T 1C5 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Irradiation of proteins in diluted liquid aqueous solutions produces cleavages and polymerizations of the peptidic chains. In frozen solutions, fragmentation is observed but polymerization products are absent. Loss of activity occurs in both cases. In the solid state, yields of fragmentation do not vary with the quantity of water. The use of scavengers indicates that hydroxyl radical does not contribute significantly to fragmentation and to inactivation in the solid state. Electrons within the water molecules closely associated with the protein are involved in the processes leading to protein fragmentation.

  14. Fragments of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Time travel films necessarily fragment linear narratives, as scenes are revisited with differences from the first time we saw it. Popular films such as Back to the Future mine comedy from these visitations, but there are many different approaches. One extreme is Chris Marker's La Jetée - a film...... made almost completely of still images, recounting the end of the world. These stills can be viewed as fragments that have survived the end of the world and now provide the only access to the events that occured. Shane Carruth's Primer has a different approach to time travel, the narrative diegesis...

  15. The Serendipity of Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate E.

    , it was the central government’s task to coordinate, steer and control the newly emerged decentralized organizations. This raises questions about the overall design of the public sector at present. Our paper engages with the prevalent public governance phenomenon of fragmentation from a design perspective in order...... form of organizing between networks and formal organization: lacking a single center and featuring multiplex and multifaceted relations within the politico-administrative apparatus and between government and PSOs, high fragmentation, local and robust action, but latent structures of significant formal...

  16. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  17. A cleavage toughness master curve model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odette, G. R.; He, M. Y.

    2000-12-01

    Development of fusion power will require a fracture toughness database, derived largely from small specimen tests, closely integrated with methods to assess first wall and blanket structural integrities. A master curve-shift (MC-ΔT) method has been proposed as an engineering expedient to treat the effects of structural geometry, irradiation, loading rates and safety margins. However, a number of issues related to the MC-ΔT method remain to be resolved, including the universality of MC shapes. A new micromechanical model of fracture toughness in the cleavage transition regime is proposed that combines analytical representations of finite element analysis simulations of crack-tip stress fields with a local critical stress-critical stressed area (σ∗-A∗) fracture criterion. This model, has been successful in predicting geometry effects, as well as high loading rate and irradiation hardening-induced Charpy shifts. By incorporating a modest temperature dependence in σ∗(T), an inconsistency between model predictions and an observed universal-type MC shape is resolved.

  18. Ostensible enzyme promiscuity: alkene cleavage by peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Francesco G; Lara, Miguel; Kroutil, Markus; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2010-12-17

    Enzyme promiscuity is generally accepted as the ability of an enzyme to catalyse alternate chemical reactions besides the 'natural' one. In this paper peroxidases were shown to catalyse the cleavage of a C=C double bond adjacent to an aromatic moiety for selected substrates at the expense of molecular oxygen at an acidic pH. It was clearly shown that the reaction occurs due to the presence of the enzyme; furthermore, the reactivity was clearly linked to the hemin moiety of the peroxidase. Comparison of the transformations catalysed by peroxidase and by hemin chloride revealed that these two reactions proceed equally fast; additional experiments confirmed that the peptide backbone was not obligatory for the reaction and only a single functional group of the enzyme was required, namely in this case the prosthetic group (hemin). Consequently, we propose to define such a promiscuous activity as 'ostensible enzyme promiscuity'. Thus, we call an activity that is catalysed by an enzyme 'ostensible enzyme promiscuity' if the reactivity can be tracked back to a single catalytic site, which on its own can already perform the reaction equally well in the absence of the peptide backbone.

  19. Fragmented Work Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    by exploring how different types of fragmentation create meanings. This is done by studying the work stories of job and personnel consultants and by drawing on the results of a narrative, ethnographic study of a consultancy. The analysis demonstrates how work stories are social practices negotiated, retold...

  20. Picking Up (On) Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Phil

    2015-01-01

    abstractThis article discusses the implications for archival and media archaeological research and reenactment artwork relating to a recent arts practice project: reenacttv: 30 lines / 60 seconds. It proposes that archival material is unstable but has traces and fragments that are full of creative p

  1. Fragments of the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  2. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pcoral tissue, but not in the zooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pcoral tissue (∼75% loss) and zooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (Pcoral against tissue loss after 45min of cryoprotectant exposure (P>0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pcoral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Picking Up (On) Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Phil

    2015-01-01

    abstractThis article discusses the implications for archival and media archaeological research and reenactment artwork relating to a recent arts practice project: reenacttv: 30 lines / 60 seconds. It proposes that archival material is unstable but has traces and fragments that are full of creative p

  4. Wildlife habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John. Lehmkuhl

    2005-01-01

    A primary issue in forest wildlife management is habitat fragmentation and its effects on viability, which is the "bottom line" for plant and animal species of conservation concern. Population viability is the likelihood that a population will be able to maintain itself (remain viable) over a long period of time-usually 100 years or more. Though it is true...

  5. Quantification of DNA cleavage specificity in Hi-C experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meluzzi, Dario; Arya, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Hi-C experiments produce large numbers of DNA sequence read pairs that are typically analyzed to deduce genomewide interactions between arbitrary loci. A key step in these experiments is the cleavage of cross-linked chromatin with a restriction endonuclease. Although this cleavage should happen specifically at the enzyme's recognition sequence, an unknown proportion of cleavage events may involve other sequences, owing to the enzyme's star activity or to random DNA breakage. A quantitative estimation of these non-specific cleavages may enable simulating realistic Hi-C read pairs for validation of downstream analyses, monitoring the reproducibility of experimental conditions and investigating biophysical properties that correlate with DNA cleavage patterns. Here we describe a computational method for analyzing Hi-C read pairs to estimate the fractions of cleavages at different possible targets. The method relies on expressing an observed local target distribution downstream of aligned reads as a linear combination of known conditional local target distributions. We validated this method using Hi-C read pairs obtained by computer simulation. Application of the method to experimental Hi-C datasets from murine cells revealed interesting similarities and differences in patterns of cleavage across the various experiments considered.

  6. Studies on the biotin-binding site of avidin. Minimized fragments that bind biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Y; Bayer, E A; Wilchek, M

    1991-09-01

    The object of this study was to define minimized biotin-binding fragments, or 'prorecognition sites', of either the egg-white glycoprotein avidin or its bacterial analogue streptavidin. Because of the extreme stability to enzymic hydrolysis, fragments of avidin were prepared by chemical means and examined for their individual biotin-binding capacity. Treatment of avidin with hydroxylamine was shown to result in new cleavage sites in addition to the known Asn-Gly cleavage site (position 88-89 in avidin). Notably, the Asn-Glu and Asp-Lys peptide bonds (positions 42-43 and 57-58 respectively) were readily cleaved; in addition, lesser levels of hydrolysis of the Gln-Pro (61-62) and Asn-Asp (12-13 and 104-105) bonds could be detected. The smallest biotin-binding peptide fragment, derived from hydroxylamine cleavage of either native or non-glycosylated avidin, was identified to comprise residues 1-42. CNBr cleavage resulted in a 78-amino acid-residue fragment (residues 19-96) that still retained activity. The data ascribe an important biotin-binding function to the overlapping region (residues 19-42) of avidin, which bears the single tyrosine moiety. This contention was corroborated by synthesizing a tridecapeptide corresponding to residues 26-38 of avidin; this peptide was shown to recognize biotin. Streptavidin was not susceptible to either enzymic or chemical cleavage methods used in this work. The approach taken in this study enabled the experimental distinction between the chemical and structural elements of the binding site. The capacity to assign biotin-binding activity to the tyrosine-containing domain of avidin underscores its primary chemical contribution to the binding of biotin by avidin.

  7. Measurement of a MMP-2 degraded Titin fragment in serum reflects changes in muscle turnover induced by atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S; Henriksen, K; Karsdal, M A;

    2014-01-01

    used to assess biological and clinical relevance. RESULTS: A technically robust ELISA measuring the Titin fragment was developed against a Titin peptide fragment identified in human urine. The fragment was shown to be produced primarily by MMP-2 cleavage of Titin. In the rat muscle DEX induced atrophy...... model, Titin-MMP2 fragment was decreased in the beginning of DEX treatment, and then significantly increased later on during DEX administration. In the human bed rest study, the Titin-MMP2 fragment was initially decreased 11.9 (±3.7) % after 1day of bed rest, and then gradually increased ending up...... at a 16.4 (±4.6) % increase at day 47. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a robust ELISA measuring a muscle derived MMP-2 generated Titin degradation fragment in rat and human serum. Importantly, the fragment can be measured in serum and that these levels are related to induction of skeletal muscle atrophy....

  8. Secondary structural analysis of the mRNA regions encoding the hemagglutinin cleavage site basic amino acids of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG SuXia; WANG Xin; CHEN XueFeng; CAO Huai; ZHANG Wen; LIU CiQuan

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the codon bias and the mRNA secondary structural features of the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site basic amino acid regions of avian influenza virus H5N1 subtypes. We have developed a dynamic extended folding strategy to predict RNA secondary structure with RNAstructure 4.1 program in an iterative extension process. Statistical analysis of the sequences showed that the HA cleavage site basic amino acids favor the adenine-rich codons, and the corresponding mRNA fragments are mainly in the folding states of single-stranded loops. Our sequential and structural analyses showed that to prevent and control these highly pathogenic viruses, that is, to inhibit the gene expression of avian influenza virus H5N1 subtypes, we should consider the single-stranded loop regions of the HA cleavage site-coding sequences as the targets of RNA interference.

  9. Implementation of a combinatorial cleavage and deprotection scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Rasmussen, Palle H.

    1996-01-01

    Phthalhydrazide libraries are synthesized in solution from substituted hydrazines and phthalimides in several different library formats including single compounds, indexed sub-libraries and a full library. When carried out during solid-phase synthesis, this combinatorial cleavage and deprotection...

  10. Specificity of the proteasome cleavage to the antigen protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the MHC classⅠmolecule binding antigenic peptides processing and presentation pathway,the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a key role in degrading the protein substrate.For the purpose of studying the specificities of proteasomal cleavage sites,partial least squares method is used to predict the proteasomal cleavage sites,and the predictive accuracy of the model is 82.8%.The specificities of the cleavage sites and the adjacent positions come from the contribution of the amino acids of the samples to the cleavage sites,showing the information of proteasome interacting with antigen protein.It demonstrates that the proteasome cleaving to target protein is selective,but not random.

  11. Synthesis and Cleavage Activity of Artifical Minic Polypeptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong YE; Xiao Lian HU; Ping LI; Ming Yu NIU; Li Feng CAO; Yu Fen ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Two artificial minic polypeptides which are synthetic analogues of natural products with DNA affinity were synthesized, and theirs cleavage activity with DNA were examined. The structures of these compounds was confirmed by 1H NMR, MS and IR.

  12. Actor proliferation and the fragmentation of violent groups in conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitriona Dowd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel application of a measure of actor fragmentation drawn from electoral studies to the growing field of conflict event data. The application facilitates comparison of conflict environments over time and across cases, while enabling researchers to take account of the relative activity levels of diverse actors. Analysis of the measure suggests that a fragmentation index diverges from a simple count of active conflict agents in important instances, including in providing a more accurate measure of dominant and weaker conflict agents, capturing dynamics of escalation and continuation of conflict over time and across country cases, and reflecting the coalescence of conflict agents around dominant conflict cleavages. The findings suggest that future research may benefit from combining measures of the discrete count of groups and their relative activity levels in order to accurately capture evolving conflict dynamics.

  13. Cell-surface acceleration of urokinase-catalyzed receptor cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Ploug, M; Behrendt, N;

    1997-01-01

    937 cell lysates, had the same amino termini as uPAR(2+3), generated by uPA in a purified system. In both cases cleavage had occurred at two positions in the hinge region connecting domain 1 and 2, between Arg83-Ala84 and Arg89-Ser90, respectively. The uPA-catalyzed cleavage of uPAR is a new negative...

  14. Electroeluting DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzosa-Alvarez, Ana L; Sandoval-Cabrera, Antonio; Torres-Huerta, Ana L; Bermudez-Cruz, Rosa M

    2010-09-05

    Purified DNA fragments are used for different purposes in Molecular Biology and they can be prepared by several procedures. Most of them require a previous electrophoresis of the DNA fragments in order to separate the band of interest. Then, this band is excised out from an agarose or acrylamide gel and purified by using either: binding and elution from glass or silica particles, DEAE-cellulose membranes, "crush and soak method", electroelution or very often expensive commercial purification kits. Thus, selecting a method will depend mostly of what is available in the laboratory. The electroelution procedure allows one to purify very clean DNA to be used in a large number of applications (sequencing, radiolabeling, enzymatic restriction, enzymatic modification, cloning etc). This procedure consists in placing DNA band-containing agarose or acrylamide slices into sample wells of the electroeluter, then applying current will make the DNA fragment to leave the agarose and thus be trapped in a cushion salt to be recovered later by ethanol precipitation.

  15. Affinity purification and enzymatic cleavage of inter-alpha inhibitor proteins using antibody and elastase immobilized on CIM monolithic disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yow-Pin; Josic, Djuro; Callanan, Helen; Brown, Jeanne; Hixson, Douglas C

    2005-02-11

    Epoxy-activated monolithic CIM disks seem to be excellent supports for immobilization of protein ligands. The potential use of enzymes, immobilized on monolithic disks for rapid preparative cleavage proteins in solution was investigated. Digestion of complex plasma proteins was demonstrated by using inter-alpha inhibitors with elastase, immobilized on epoxy-activated CIM disks. Recently, a monoclonal antibody against human inter-alpha inhibitor proteins (MAb 69.31) was developed. MAb 69.31 blocks the inhibitory activity of inter-alpha inhibitor proteins to serine proteases. These results suggest that the epitope defined by this antibody is located within or proximal to the active site of the inhibitor molecule. This antibody, immobilized on monolithic disk, was used for very rapid isolation of inter-alpha proteins. The isolated complex protein was used for enzymatic digestion and isolation of cleavage products, especially from inter-alpha inhibitor light chain to elucidate precisely the target sequence for MAb 69.31 by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Bovine pancreatic elastase immobilized on monolithic disk cleaves inter-alpha inhibitor protein complex into small fragments which are still reactive with MAb 69.31. One of these proteolytic fragments was isolated and partially sequenced. It could be shown that this sequence is located at the beginning of two proteinase inhibitor domains of the inter-alpha inhibitor light chain (bikunin). Elastase immobilized on monolithic disk offers a simple and rapid method for preparative isolation of protease cleavage fragments. The immobilized enzyme is stable and still active after repeated runs. A partial or complete digestion can be achieved by varying the flow rate.

  16. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Chul Lee

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to elucidate detailed event of early embryogenesis in chicken embryos using a noninvasive egg retrieval technique before oviposition. White Leghorn intrauterine eggs were retrieved from 95 cyclic hens aged up to 54-56 weeks and morphogenetic observation was made under both bright field and fluorescent image in a time course manner. Differing from mammals, asymmetric cleavage to yield preblastodermal cells was observed throughout early embryogenesis. The first two divisions occurred synchronously and four polarized preblastodermal cells resulted after cruciform cleavage. Then, asynchronous cleavage continued in a radial manner and overall cell size in the initial cleavage region was smaller than that in the distal area. Numerous sperms were visible, regardless of zygotic nuclei formation. Condensed sperm heads were present mainly in the perivitelline space and cytoplasm, and rarely in the yolk region, while decondensed sperm heads were only visible in the yolk. In conclusion, apparent differences in sperm dynamics and early cleavage events compared with mammalian embryos were detected in chick embryo development, which demonstrated polarized cleavage with penetrating supernumerary sperm into multiple regions.

  17. DNA cleavage system of nanosized graphene oxide sheets and copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliu; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Jiali; Zhou, Xuejiao; Xu, Dafeng; Zheng, Jing; Guo, Shouwu; Zhang, Jingyan

    2010-12-28

    The exploration of efficient DNA intercalative agents (intercalators) is essential for understanding DNA scission, repair, and signal transduction. In this work, we explored systematically the graphene oxide (GO) interaction with DNA molecules using fluorescence spectroscopic (FL) and circular dichroism (CD) studies, gel electrophoresis, and DNA thermal denaturation. We demonstrated that the GO nanosheets could intercalate efficiently into DNA molecules. Significantly, we illustrated that the scission of DNA by GO sheets combining with copper ions could take place pronouncedly. The scission of DNA by the GO/Cu(2+) system is critically dependent on the concentrations of GO and Cu(2+) and their ratio. DNA cleavage ability exhibited by the GO with several other metal ions and the fact that GO/Cu(2+)-cleaved DNA fragments can be partially relegated suggest that the mechanism of DNA cleavage by the GO/metal ion system is oxidative and hydrolytic. The result reveals that the GO/Cu(2+) could be used as a DNA cleaving system that should find many practical applications in biotechnology and as therapeutic agents.

  18. Viral protease cleavage of inhibitor of κBα triggers host cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Carlos; Saura, Marta; Padalko, Elizaveta Y.; Lopez-Rivera, Ester; Lizarbe, Tania R.; Lamas, Santiago; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is an innate immune response to viral infection that limits viral replication. However, the mechanisms by which cells detect viral infection and activate apoptosis are not completely understood. We now show that during Coxsackievirus infection, the viral protease 3Cpro cleaves inhibitor of κBα (IκBα). A proteolytic fragment of IκBα then forms a stable complex with NF-κB, translocates to the nucleus, and inhibits NF-κB transactivation, increasing apoptosis and decreasing viral replication. In contrast, cells with reduced IκBα expression are more susceptible to viral infection, with less apoptosis and more viral replication. IκBα thus acts as a sensor of viral infection. Cleavage of host proteins by pathogen proteases is a novel mechanism by which the host recognizes and responds to viral infection. PMID:17138672

  19. Cleavage of honeybee prepromelittin by an endoprotease from rat liver microsomes: identification of intact signal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollay, C; Vilas, U; Kreil, G

    1982-01-01

    It has previously been shown that rat liver microsomes contain a proteolytic enzyme that cleaves honeybee prepromelittin to yield promelittin. This enzyme has now been further purified by centrifugation on a sucrose-deoxycholate gradient and then reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. Incubation of prepromelittin with vesicles in the presence of melittin yields, in addition to promelittin, a hydrophobic peptide. The latter could be isolated by extraction with l-butanol and paper electrophoresis in 30% formic acid and was shown to be intact signal peptide by analysis of peptic fragments and automated Edman degradation. The microsomal enzyme is thus an endoprotease that hydrolyzes prepromelittin exclusively at the pre-pro junction. The precision of this cleavage of an insect preprotein by a rat liver enzyme indicates that we are dealing with the ubiquitous eukaryotic signal peptidase. PMID:7048315

  20. Synthetic Applications and Mechanistic Studies of the Hydroxide-Mediated Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Andrea; Makarov, Ilya S.; Fristrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The hydroxide-mediated cleavage of ketones into alkanes and carboxylic acids has been reinvestigated and the substrate scope extended to benzyl carbonyl compounds. The transformation is performed with a 0.05 M ketone solution in refluxing xylene in the presence of 10 equiv of potassium hydroxide....... The studies were complemented by a theoretical investigation where two possible pathways were characterized by DFT/M06-2X. The calculations showed that the scission takes place by nucleophilic attack of hydroxide on the ketone followed by fragmentation of the resulting oxyanion into the carboxylic acid...

  1. The eIF4G–homolog p97 can activate translation independent of caspase cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Nousch, Marco; Reed, Victoria; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.; Currie, Peter D.; Preiss, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G family plays a central role during translation initiation, bridging between the 5′ and 3′ ends of the mRNA via its N-terminal third while recruiting other factors and ribosomes through its central and C-terminal third. The protein p97/NAT1/DAP5 is homologous to the central and C-terminal thirds of eIF4G. p97 has long been considered to be a translational repressor under normal cellular conditions. Further, caspase cleavage liberates a p86 fragment tha...

  2. Mass spectral fragmentation patterns of some new benzo[b]thiophene- and thieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-dicarbonyldichlorides and -dicarbonyldianilides and anilidoquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karminski-Zamola, G; Dogan, J; Boykin, D W; Bajić, M

    1995-01-01

    The electron impact mass spectra of some benzo[b]thiophene- and thieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-dicarbonyldichlorides, 2,5-dicarbonyldianalides, 9-anilido-benzo[b]thienyl[2,3-c]quinolones and 9-anilidothieno[4,5-b']thienyl[2,3-c]quinolones are discussed. Dominant peaks in dianilides are formed by cleavage of the C-N bond on one side of the anilido group, as well as on the anilido group itself in anilidoquinolones. These ions fragment further by the cleavage of a C-C bond in dianilides and the CONRPh group is lost directly, while the quinolonic part of the molecule in quinolones fragments with low probability. Characteristic fragment ions of dicarbonyldichlorides arise by the cleavage of the C-C1 bond.

  3. Heavy meson fragmentation at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gomshi Nobary

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available   Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN will provide excellent opportunity to study the production and decay of heavy mesons and baryons with high statistics. We aim at the heavy mesons in this work and calculate their fragmentation functions consistent with this machine and present their total fragmentation probabilities and average fragmentation parameters.

  4. SCALING AND 4-QUARK FRAGMENTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLTEN, O; BOSVELD, GD

    1991-01-01

    The conditions for a scaling behaviour from the fragmentation process leading to slow protons are discussed- The scaling referred to implies that the fragmentation functions depend on the light-cone momentum fraction only. It is shown that differences in the fragmentation functions for valence- and

  5. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poksay, Karen S; Sheffler, Douglas J; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E; Cosford, Nicholas D P; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds - identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP - in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  6. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poksay, Karen S.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds – identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP – in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  7. Phosphorylated TDP-43 becomes resistant to cleavage by calpain: A regulatory role for phosphorylation in TDP-43 pathology of ALS/FTLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takenari; Teramoto, Sayaka; Kwak, Shin

    2016-06-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) pathology, which includes the presence of abnormal TDP-43-containing inclusions with a loss of nuclear TDP-43 in affected neurons, is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and/or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). TDP-43 in the pathological brains and spinal cords of ALS/FTLD patients is abnormally fragmented and phosphorylated. It is believed that the generation of aggregation-prone TDP-43 fragments initiates TDP-43 pathology, and we previously reported that calpain has an important role in the generation of such aggregation-prone TDP-43 fragments. However, the role of phosphorylation in TDP-43 pathology has not been largely elucidated, despite previous observations that several kinases and their kinases are involved in TDP-43 phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the role of TDP-43 phosphorylation in the calpain-dependent cleavage of TDP-43 and found that phosphorylated, full-length TDP-43 and calpain-dependent TDP-43 fragments were more resistant to cleavage by calpain than endogenous full-length TDP-43 was. These results suggest that both phosphorylated and calpain-cleaved TDP-43 fragments persist intracellularly for a length of time that is sufficient for self-aggregation, thereby serving as seeds for inclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Picking Up (On Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Ellis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the implications for archival and media archaeological research and reenactment artwork relating to a recent arts practice project: reenacttv: 30 lines / 60 seconds. It proposes that archival material is unstable but has traces and fragments that are full of creative potential to re-think and re-examine past media historical events through a media archaeological approach to reenactment. The article contains images and links to videos from the final reenactment artworks as well as from rehearsals in Vienna and Bradford.

  9. An Archeology of Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald L. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a short (fragmentary history of fragmentary writing from the German Romantics (F. W. Schlegel, Friedrich Hölderlin to modern and contemporary concrete or visual poetry. Such writing is (often deliberately a critique of the logic of subsumption that tries to assimilate whatever is singular and irreducible into totalities of various categorical or systematic sorts. Arguably, the fragment (parataxis is the distinctive feature of literary Modernism, which is a rejection, not of what precedes it, but of what Max Weber called “the rationalization of the world” (or Modernity whose aim is to keep everything, including all that is written, under surveillance and control.

  10. Generic behaviours in impact fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sator, N.; Mechkov, S.; Sausset, F. [Paris-6 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, UMR CNRS 7600, 75 - Paris (France); Mechkov, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Lab. de Physique Statistique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-02-15

    From atomic nuclei to supernovae, including plates and rocks, every cohesive system can be broken into fragments, provided that the deposited energy is sufficiently large compared to its cohesive energy. We present a simple numerical model for investigating the general properties of fragmentation. By use of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the impact fragmentation of a solid disk of interacting particles with a wall. Regardless of the particular form of the interaction potential, the fragment size distribution exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent that increases logarithmically with the energy deposited in the system, in agreement with experiments. We expect this behaviour to be generic in fragmentation phenomena. (authors)

  11. Stoichiometric expression of mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 modulates mitochondrial morphology and cristae structure via Opa1L cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungchun; Ahn, Younghee; Kang, Sung-Myung; Park, Youngjin; Jeon, You-Jin; Rho, Jong M; Kim, Sung-Woo

    2015-06-15

    Deregulation of mitochondrial heat-shock protein 40 (mtHsp40) and dysfunction of mtHsp70 are associated with mitochondrial fragmentation, suggesting that mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 may play roles in modulating mitochondrial morphology. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial fragmentation induced by mtHsp40 deregulation and mtHsp70 dysfunction remains unclear. In addition, the functional link between mitochondrial morphology change upon deregulated mtHsp40/mtHsp70 and mitochondrial function has been unexplored. Our coimmunoprecipitation and protein aggregation analysis showed that both overexpression and depletion of mtHsp40 accumulated aggregated proteins in fragmented mitochondria. Moreover, mtHsp70 loss and expression of a mtHsp70 mutant lacking the client-binding domain caused mitochondrial fragmentation. Together the data suggest that the molecular ratio of mtHsp40 to mtHsp70 is important for their chaperone function and mitochondrial morphology. Whereas mitochondrial translocation of Drp1 was not altered, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) short isoform accumulated in fragmented mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondrial fragmentation in this study results from aberration of mitochondrial inner membrane fusion. Finally, we found that fragmented mitochondria were defective in cristae development, OXPHOS, and ATP production. Taken together, our data suggest that impaired stoichiometry between mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 promotes Opa1L cleavage, leading to cristae opening, decreased OXPHOS, and triggering of mitochondrial fragmentation after reduction in their chaperone function.

  12. Mechanism and Thermodynamics of Reductive Cleavage of Carbon-Halogen Bonds in the Polybrominated Aliphatic Electrophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosokha, Sergiy V; Lukacs, Emoke; Ritzert, Jeremy T; Wasilewski, Adam

    2016-03-17

    Quantum-mechanical computations revealed that, despite the presence of electron-withdrawing and/or π-acceptor substituents, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) of the polybromosubstituted aliphatic molecules R-Br (R-Br = C3Br2F6, CBr3NO2, CBr3CN, CBr3CONH2, CBr3CO2H, CHBr3, CFBr3, CBr4, CBr3COCBr3) are delocalized mostly over their bromine-containing fragments. The singly occupied molecular orbitals in the corresponding vertically excited anion radicals (R-Br(•-))* are characterized by essentially the same shapes and show nodes in the middle of the C-Br bonds. An injection of an electron into the antibonding LUMO results in the barrierless dissociation of the anion-radical species and the concerted reductive cleavages of C-Br bonds leading to the formation of the loosely bonded {R(•)···Br(-)} associates. The interaction energies between the fragments of these ion-radical pairs vary from ∼10 to 20 kcal mol(-1) in the gas phase and from 1 to 3 kcal mol(-1) in acetonitrile. In accord with the concerted mechanism of reductive cleavage, all R-Br molecules showed completely irreversible reduction waves in the voltammograms in the whole range of the scan rates employed (from 0.05 to 5 V s(-1)). Also, the transfer coefficients α, established from the width of these waves and dependence of reduction peak potentials Ep on the scan rates, were significantly lower than 0.5. The standard reduction potentials of the R-Br electrophiles, E(o)R-Br/R·+X(-), and the corresponding R(•) radicals, E(o)R(•)/R(-), were calculated in acetonitrile using the appropriate thermodynamic cycles. In agreement with these calculations, which indicated that the R(•) radicals resulting from the reductive cleavage of the R-Br molecules are stronger oxidants than their parents, the reduction peaks' currents in cyclic voltammograms were consistent with the two-electron transfer processes.

  13. Cleavage entropy as quantitative measure of protease specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julian E; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Huber, Roland G; Margreiter, Michael A; Spitzer, Gudrun M; Wallnoefer, Hannes G; Liedl, Klaus R

    2013-04-01

    A purely information theory-guided approach to quantitatively characterize protease specificity is established. We calculate an entropy value for each protease subpocket based on sequences of cleaved substrates extracted from the MEROPS database. We compare our results with known subpocket specificity profiles for individual proteases and protease groups (e.g. serine proteases, metallo proteases) and reflect them quantitatively. Summation of subpocket-wise cleavage entropy contributions yields a measure for overall protease substrate specificity. This total cleavage entropy allows ranking of different proteases with respect to their specificity, separating unspecific digestive enzymes showing high total cleavage entropy from specific proteases involved in signaling cascades. The development of a quantitative cleavage entropy score allows an unbiased comparison of subpocket-wise and overall protease specificity. Thus, it enables assessment of relative importance of physicochemical and structural descriptors in protease recognition. We present an exemplary application of cleavage entropy in tracing substrate specificity in protease evolution. This highlights the wide range of substrate promiscuity within homologue proteases and hence the heavy impact of a limited number of mutations on individual substrate specificity.

  14. Cleavage entropy as quantitative measure of protease specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian E Fuchs

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A purely information theory-guided approach to quantitatively characterize protease specificity is established. We calculate an entropy value for each protease subpocket based on sequences of cleaved substrates extracted from the MEROPS database. We compare our results with known subpocket specificity profiles for individual proteases and protease groups (e.g. serine proteases, metallo proteases and reflect them quantitatively. Summation of subpocket-wise cleavage entropy contributions yields a measure for overall protease substrate specificity. This total cleavage entropy allows ranking of different proteases with respect to their specificity, separating unspecific digestive enzymes showing high total cleavage entropy from specific proteases involved in signaling cascades. The development of a quantitative cleavage entropy score allows an unbiased comparison of subpocket-wise and overall protease specificity. Thus, it enables assessment of relative importance of physicochemical and structural descriptors in protease recognition. We present an exemplary application of cleavage entropy in tracing substrate specificity in protease evolution. This highlights the wide range of substrate promiscuity within homologue proteases and hence the heavy impact of a limited number of mutations on individual substrate specificity.

  15. Fragmentation study of iridoid glucosides through positive and negative electrospray ionization, collision-induced dissociation and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Kerhoas, Lucien; Ducrot, Paul-Henri

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methodology based on the combined use of positive and negative electrospray ionization, collision-induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been applied to the mass spectral study of a series of six naturally occurring iridoids through in-source fragmentation of the protonated [M+H]+, deprotonated [M--H]- and sodiated [M+Na]+ ions. This led to the unambiguous determination of the molecular masses of the studied compounds and allowed CID spectra of the molecular ions to be obtained. Valuable structural information regarding the nature of both the glycoside and the aglycone moiety was thus obtained. Glycosidic cleavage and ring cleavages of both aglycone and sugar moieties were the major fragmentation pathways observed during CID, where the losses of small molecules, the cinnamoyl and the cinnamate parts were also observed. The formation of the ionized aglycones, sugars and their product ions was thus obtained giving information on their basic skeleton. The protonated, i.e. [M+H]+ and deprotonated [M--H]-, ions were found to fragment mainly by glycosidic cleavages. MS/MS spectra of the [M+Na]+ ions gave complementary information for the structural characterization of the studied compounds. Unlike the dissociation of protonated molecular ions, that of sodiated molecules also provided sodiated sugar fragments where the C0+ fragment corresponding to the glucose ion was obtained as base peak for all the studied compounds.

  16. Characteristic Fragmentation Behavior of Steroidal Phosphoramidate Conjugates in Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI, San-Hao; JU, Yong; XIAO, Qiang; ZHAO, Yu-Fen

    2006-01-01

    Novel steroidal phosphoramidate conjugates of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) and amino acid esters were synthesized and determined by positive and negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The MS fragmentation behaviors of the steroidal phosphoramidate conjugates have been investigated in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry of ESI-MS/MS. There were three characteristic fragment ions in the positive ion ESI mass spectra, which were the Na adduct ions with loss of steroidal moiety, amino acid ester moiety from pseudo molecular ion (M+Na)+, and the phosphoamino acid methyl ester Na adduct ion by a-cleavage of the phosphoramidate respectively. The main fragment ions in negative ion ESI mass spectra were the ion (M-HN3)-, the ion (M - AZT - H)- , and the ion (M-steroidal moiety-H)- besides the pseudo molecular ion (M-H)-. The fragmentation patterns did not depend on the attached amino acid ester moiety.

  17. Partial De Novo Sequencing and Unusual CID Fragmentation of a 7 kDa, Disulfide-Bridged Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Bohlen, Christopher J.

    2012-05-01

    A 7 kDa toxin isolated from the venom of the Texas coral snake ( Micrurus tener tener) was subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) analyses both before and after reduction at low pH. Manual and automated approaches to de novo sequencing are compared in detail. Manual de novo sequencing utilizing the combination of high accuracy CID and ETD data and an acid-related cleavage yielded the N-terminal half of the sequence from the reduced species. The intact polypeptide, containing 3 disulfide bridges produced a series of unusual fragments in ion trap CID experiments: abundant internal amino acid losses were detected, and also one of the disulfide-linkage positions could be determined from fragments formed by the cleavage of two bonds. In addition, internal and c-type fragments were also observed.

  18. A new cultural cleavage in post-modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The attitudes towards gender and homosexuality tend to be linked at the micro level (individuals, which explains the political saliency of this newly emerging cleavage. At the macro level (country, the main finding is that the value orientations towards gender and homosexuality are strongly embedded in the basic cultural or civilisation differences among countries. As developing countries modernise and enter post-modernity, they will also experience the gender cleavage, especially when they adhere to an individualistic culture. Cultural cleavages in the post-modern society, whether in rich or developing countries, can only be properly researched by the survey method. It opens up a large area for both micro and macro analyses in the social sciences.

  19. Photochemical cleavage of DNA by nitrobenzamides linked to 9-aminoacridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Jeppesen, C.; Egholm, M.; Buchardt, O.

    1988-08-23

    Nitrobenzamido ligands linked to the DNA intercalator 9-aminoacridine via poly(methylene) chains induce single-strand nicks in DNA upon irradiation with long-wavelength ultraviolet light (lambda greater than or equal to 300 nm). Optimal photocleavage activity was found for the reagent 9-((6-(4-nitrobenzamido)hexyl)amino)-acridine. Removal of the acridinyl ligand or changing the position of the nitro group from the 4- to the 2-position caused a 10-fold decrease in photocleavage efficiency, whereas a change to the 3-position caused a 30-fold reduction. The DNA cleavage was 5-fold enhanced by subsequent piperidine treatment and showed some sequence dependency with predominant cleavage at G and T residues. Furthermore, significant differences in cleavage preference were observed when the poly(methylene) linker length was changed.

  20. Variable context Markov chains for HIV protease cleavage site prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğul, Hasan

    2009-06-01

    Deciphering the knowledge of HIV protease specificity and developing computational tools for detecting its cleavage sites in protein polypeptide chain are very desirable for designing efficient and specific chemical inhibitors to prevent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In this study, we developed a generative model based on a generalization of variable order Markov chains (VOMC) for peptide sequences and adapted the model for prediction of their cleavability by certain proteases. The new method, called variable context Markov chains (VCMC), attempts to identify the context equivalence based on the evolutionary similarities between individual amino acids. It was applied for HIV-1 protease cleavage site prediction problem and shown to outperform existing methods in terms of prediction accuracy on a common dataset. In general, the method is a promising tool for prediction of cleavage sites of all proteases and encouraged to be used for any kind of peptide classification problem as well.

  1. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Shrivastava; Kailash

    2004-08-01

    The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment of the patients also takes comparatively more time because of more number of sittings. Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more disintegration efficiency of the lithotripters, which give better treatment to the patients.

  2. New Insight into the Cleavage Reaction of Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase in Natural and Nonnatural Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved β-apo-8′-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13C-14, C-15C-15′, and C-13′C-14′, revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4′-diaponeurosporene, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-al, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-oic acid, 4,4′-diapotorulene, and 4,4′-diapotorulen-4′-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14′-diapotorulenal, and apo-10′-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23524669

  3. New insight into the cleavage reaction of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in natural and nonnatural carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2013-06-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved β-apo-8'-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13 C-14, C-15 C-15', and C-13' C-14', revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4'-diaponeurosporene, 4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4'-al, 4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4'-oic acid, 4,4'-diapotorulene, and 4,4'-diapotorulen-4'-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14'-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13'-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10'-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14'-diapotorulenal, and apo-10'-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Optimization of a multi-stage, multi-subunit malaria vaccine candidate for the production in Pichia pastoris by the identification and removal of protease cleavage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Holger; Schinkel, Helga; Kastilan, Robin; Dahm, Pia; Boes, Alexander; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Chudobová, Ivana; Maskus, Dominika; Fendel, Rolf; Schillberg, Stefan; Reimann, Andreas; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrated the successful optimization of a recombinant multi-subunit malaria vaccine candidate protein for production in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris by the identification and subsequent removal of two protease cleavage sites. After observing protein degradation in the culture supernatant of a fed-batch fermentation, the predominant proteolytic fragment of the secreted recombinant protein was analyzed by mass spectrometry. The MS data indicated the cleavage of an amino acid sequence matching the yeast KEX2-protease consensus motif EKRE. The cleavage in this region was completely abolished by the deletion of the EKRE motif in a modified variant. This modified variant was produced, purified, and used for immunization of rabbits, inducing high antigen specific antibody titers (2 × 10(6) ). Total IgG from rabbit immune sera recognized different stages of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in immunofluorescence assays, indicating native folding of the vaccine candidate. However, the modified variant was still degraded, albeit into different fragments. Further analysis by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing revealed a second cleavage site downstream of the motif PEVK. We therefore removed a 17-amino-acid stretch including the PEVK motif, resulting in the subsequent production of the full-length recombinant vaccine candidate protein without significant degradation, with a yield of 53 mg per liter culture volume. We clearly demonstrate that the proteolytic degradation of recombinant proteins by endogenous P. pastoris proteases can be prevented by the identification and removal of such cleavage sites. This strategy is particularly relevant for the production of recombinant subunit vaccines, where product yield and stability play a more important role than for the production of a stringently-defined native sequence which is necessary for most therapeutic molecules.

  5. Comparison of SEC and CE-SDS methods for monitoring hinge fragmentation in IgG1 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Rao, Romesh; Jones, Natalie; Jaya, Nomalie; Salas-Solano, Oscar

    2017-10-25

    Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies is a critical quality attribute routinely monitored to assess the purity and integrity of the product from development to commercialization. Cleavage in the upper hinge region of IgG1 monoclonal antibodies is a common fragmentation pattern widely studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Capillary electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate (CE-SDS) is a well-established technique commonly used for monitoring antibody fragments as well, but its comparability to SEC in monitoring hinge fragments has not been established until now. We report a characterization strategy that establishes the correlation between hinge region fragments analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. Monoclonal antibodies with elevated hinge fragments were generated under low pH stress conditions and analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. The masses of the fragments generated were determined by LC-MS. Electrophoretic migration of the hinge fragmentation products in CE-SDS were determined based on their mass values. Comparative assessment of fragments by SEC, and CE-SDS showed similar correlation with incubation time. This study demonstrates that CE-SDS can be employed as a surrogate technique to SEC for monitoring hinge region fragments. Most importantly, combination of these techniques can be used to obtain comprehensive understanding of fragment related characteristics of therapeutic protein products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of an amino-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein E4 that localizes to neurofibrillary tangles of the Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Troy T; Catlin, Lindsey W; Coonse, Kendra G; Habig, Jeffrey W

    2012-09-26

    Although the risk factor for harboring the apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) allele in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well known, the mechanism by which apoE4 contributes to AD pathogenesis has yet to be clarified. Preferential cleavage of the ApoE4 isoform relative to other polymorphic forms appears to be significant, as the resulting fragments are associated with hallmarks of AD. To examine the possible role of apoE4 proteolysis in AD, we designed a site-directed antibody directed at position D172, which would yield a predicted amino-terminal fragment previously identified in AD brain extracts. Western blot analysis utilizing this novel antibody, termed the amino-terminal apoE4 cleavage fragment (nApoE4CF) Ab, consistently identified the predicted amino-terminal fragment (∼18kDa) in several commercially available forms of human recombinant apoE4 purified from E. coli. Mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of this 18kDa fragment as being an amino-terminal fragment of apoE4. Immunohistochemical experiments indicated the nApoE4CF Ab specifically labeled neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD frontal cortex sections that colocalized with the mature tangle marker PHF-1. Taken together, these results suggest a novel cleavage event of apoE4, generating an amino-terminal fragment that localizes within NFTs of the AD brain.

  7. Identification of E-cadherin signature motifs functioning as cleavage sites for Helicobacter pylori HtrA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas P.; Perna, Anna M.; Fugmann, Tim; Böhm, Manja; Jan Hiss; Haller, Sarah; Götz, Camilla; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Hoy, Benjamin; Rau, Tilman T.; Neri, Dario; Backert, Steffen; Schneider, Gisbert; Wessler, Silja

    2016-03-01

    The cell adhesion protein and tumour suppressor E-cadherin exhibits important functions in the prevention of gastric cancer. As a class-I carcinogen, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has developed a unique strategy to interfere with E-cadherin functions. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that H. pylori secretes the protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) which cleaves off the E-cadherin ectodomain (NTF) on epithelial cells. This opens cell-to-cell junctions, allowing bacterial transmigration across the polarised epithelium. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the HtrA-E-cadherin interaction and identified E-cadherin cleavage sites for HtrA. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and Edman degradation revealed three signature motifs containing the [VITA]-[VITA]-x-x-D-[DN] sequence pattern, which were preferentially cleaved by HtrA. Based on these sites, we developed a substrate-derived peptide inhibitor that selectively bound and inhibited HtrA, thereby blocking transmigration of H. pylori. The discovery of HtrA-targeted signature sites might further explain why we detected a stable 90 kDa NTF fragment during H. pylori infection, but also additional E-cadherin fragments ranging from 105 kDa to 48 kDa in in vitro cleavage experiments. In conclusion, HtrA targets E-cadherin signature sites that are accessible in in vitro reactions, but might be partially masked on epithelial cells through functional homophilic E-cadherin interactions.

  8. Huntingtin cleavage product A forms in neurons and is reduced by gamma-secretase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betschart Claudia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mutation in Huntington's disease is a polyglutamine expansion near the N-terminus of huntingtin. Huntingtin expressed in immortalized neurons is cleaved near the N-terminus to form N-terminal polypeptides known as cleavage products A and B (cpA and cpB. CpA and cpB with polyglutamine expansion form inclusions in the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively. The formation of cpA and cpB in primary neurons has not been established and the proteases involved in the formation of these fragments are unknown. Results Delivery of htt cDNA into the mouse striatum using adeno-associated virus or into primary cortical neurons using lentivirus generated cpA and cpB, indicating that neurons in brain and in vitro can form these fragments. A screen of small molecule protease inhibitors introduced to clonal striatal X57 cells and HeLa cells identified compounds that reduced levels of cpA and are inhibitors of the aspartyl proteases cathepsin D and cathepsin E. The most effective compound, P1-N031, is a transition state mimetic for aspartyl proteases. By western blot analysis, cathepsin D was easily detected in clonal striatal X57 cells, mouse brain and primary neurons, whereas cathepsin E was only detectible in clonal striatal X57 cells. In primary neurons, levels of cleavage product A were not changed by the same compounds that were effective in clonal striatal cells or by mRNA silencing to partially reduce levels of cathepsin D. Instead, treating primary neurons with compounds that are known to inhibit gamma secretase activity either indirectly (Imatinib mesylate, Gleevec or selectively (LY-411,575 or DAPT reduced levels of cpA. LY-411,575 or DAPT also increased survival of primary neurons expressing endogenous full-length mutant huntingtin. Conclusion We show that cpA and cpB are produced from a larger huntingtin fragment in vivo in mouse brain and in primary neuron cultures. The aspartyl protease involved in forming cpA has cathepsin

  9. CONTROL OF FRAGMENTATION BY BLASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fragmentation influences the economy of the excavation operations. Characteristics of blasted rock such as fragment size, volume and mass are fundamental variables effecting the economics of a mining operation and are in effect the basis for evaluating the quality of a blast. The properties of fragmentation, such as size and shape, are very important information for the optimization of production. Three factors control the fragment size distribution: the rock structure, the quantity of explosive and its distribution within the rock mass. Over the last decade there have been considerable advances in our ability to measure and analyze blasting performance. These can now be combined with the continuing growth in computing power to develop a more effective description of rock fragmentation for use by future blasting practitioners. The paper describes a view of the fragmentation problem by blasting and the need for a new generation of engineering tools to guide the design and implementation of blasting operations.

  10. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Surface proteins Mhp385 and Mhp384 bind host cilia and glycosaminoglycans and are endoproteolytically processed by proteases that recognize different cleavage motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Ania T; Tacchi, Jessica L; Minion, F Chris; Padula, Matthew P; Crossett, Ben; Bogema, Daniel R; Jenkins, Cheryl; Kuit, Tracey A; Walker, Mark J; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2012-03-02

    P97 and P102 paralogues occur as endoproteolytic cleavage fragments on the surface of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae that bind glycosaminoglycans, plasminogen, and fibronectin and perform essential roles in colonization of ciliated epithelia. We show that the P102 paralogue Mhp384 is efficiently cleaved at an S/T-X-F↓X-D/E-like site, creating P60(384) and P50(384). The P97 paralogue Mhp385 is inefficiently cleaved, with tryptic peptides from a 115 kDa protein (P115(385)) and 88 kDa (P88(385)) and 27 kDa (P27(385)) cleavage fragments identified by LC-MS/MS. This is the first time a preprotein belonging to the P97 and P102 paralogue families has been identified by mass spectrometry. The semitryptic peptide (752)IQFELEPISLNV(763) denotes the C-terminus of P88(385) and defines the novel cleavage site (761)L-N-V↓A-V-S(766) in Mhp385. P115(385), P88(385), P27(385), P60(384), and P50(384) were shown to reside extracellularly, though it is unknown how the fragments remain attached to the cell surface. Heparin- and cilium-binding sites were identified within P60(384), P50(384), and P88(385). No primary function was attributed to P27(385); however, this molecule contains four tandem R1 repeats with similarity to porcine collagen type VI (α3 chain). P97 and P102 paralogue families are adhesins targeted by several proteases with different cleavage efficiencies, and this process generates combinatorial complexity on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae.

  11. Thermodynamical string fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nadine; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.

  12. Thermodynamical String Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from...

  13. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  14. Kinetics of phycocyanobilin cleavage from C-phycocyanin by methanolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Roda Serrat, Maria Cinta; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2016-01-01

    Phycocyanobilin (PCB) is an important linear tetrapyrrolic molecule for food as well as pharmaceutical industry. It is obtained from blue-green algae, where it is attached covalently to phycobiliproteins (C-PC and APC) present in the light harvesting complexes. In this work, cleavage of PCB from...

  15. Synthesis, Characterization and DNA Cleavage of Copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (UV) light. Results: ATR-FTIR confirmed the formation of copper(II) complex with DTT by binding through thiol group based on the .... DNA cleavage detection ... The infrared spectra of pure DTT and its Cu(II) .... and iron complexes. J Phys Conf ...

  16. Mitochondria localize to the cleavage furrow in mammalian cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Elizabeth J; Mandato, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with multiple cellular functions, including ATP production, calcium buffering, and lipid biosynthesis. Several studies have shown that mitochondrial positioning is regulated by the cytoskeleton during cell division in several eukaryotic systems. However, the distribution of mitochondria during mammalian cytokinesis and whether the distribution is regulated by the cytoskeleton has not been examined. Using live spinning disk confocal microscopy and quantitative analysis of mitochondrial fluorescence intensity, we demonstrate that mitochondria are recruited to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis in HeLa cells. After anaphase onset, the mitochondria are recruited towards the site of cleavage furrow formation, where they remain enriched as the furrow ingresses and until cytokinesis completion. Furthermore, we show that recruitment of mitochondria to the furrow occurs in multiple mammalian cells lines as well as in monopolar, bipolar, and multipolar divisions, suggesting that the mechanism of recruitment is conserved and robust. Using inhibitors of cytoskeleton dynamics, we show that the microtubule cytoskeleton, but not actin, is required to transport mitochondria to the cleavage furrow. Thus, mitochondria are specifically recruited to the cleavage furrow in a microtubule-dependent manner during mammalian cytokinesis. Two possible reasons for this could be to localize mitochondrial function to the furrow to facilitate cytokinesis and / or ensure accurate mitochondrial inheritance.

  17. Reactivity of anti-thyroid antibodies to thyroglobulin tryptic fragments: comparison of autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.B. Boechat

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies concerning the antigenicity of thyroglobulin fragments allow the characterization of the epitopes but do not consider the role of heavier antigenic fragments that could result in vivo from the action of endoproteases. Here we assess the relative importance of the fragments obtained from thyroglobulin by limited proteolysis with trypsin and compare by immunoblotting their reactivity to serum from patients with autoimmune (Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis and non-autoimmune (subacute thyroiditis disease. The results showed no difference in frequency of recognition of any peptide by sera from patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. In contrast, sera from patients with subacute thyroiditis reacted more frequently with a peptide of 80 kDa. These results suggest the presence of antibody subpopulations directed at fragments produced in vivo by enzymatic cleavage of thyroglobulin. This fragment and antibodies to it may represent markers for subacute thyroiditis.

  18. Effects of Sperm DNA Fragmentation on Semen Parameters and ICSI Outcome Determined by an Improved SCD Test,Halosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Demiroglu Zergeroğlu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sperm DNA fragmentation is known as an important cause of male infertility.The influence of sperm DNA damage on reproductive potential has been subject of many studiesindicating various results and remaining the subject controversial. In this study, we investigateddifferences of the semen parameters and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI outcome accordingto sperm DNA fragmentation levels (DFLs of patients.Materials and Methods: The DFLs were determined by Halosperm, a new improved spermchromatin dispersion (SCD test. Patients were grouped as low DNA fragmentation group (LFG≤30% and high fragmentation group (HFG >30%.Results: Our analysis showed that semen parameters including concentration of untreated spermand motility of prepared semen were low in HGF, whereas other parameters were not different.Sperm DNA fragmentation levels decreased in both groups after semen preparation by densitygradient technique.Conclusion: No difference was detected on ICSI outcomes (fertilization, embryo development,embryo cleavage, embryo quality and pregnancy rates between two group.

  19. An Algebra for Program Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1985-01-01

    Program fragments are described either by strings in the concrete syntax or by constructor applications in the abstract syntax. By defining conversions between these forms, both may be intermixed. Program fragments are constructed by terminal and nonterminal symbols from the grammar and by variab...

  20. Complete axiomatizations for XPath fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, B.; Litak, T.; Marx, M.

    2010-01-01

    We provide complete axiomatizations for several fragments of Core XPath, the navigational core of XPath 1.0 introduced by Gottlob, Koch and Pichler. A complete axiomatization for a given fragment is a set of equivalences from which every other valid equivalence is derivable; equivalences can be thou

  1. Facile identification by electrospray mass spectrometry of the insulin fragment A14-21-B17-30 produced by insulin proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, L; Stöcklin, R; Rose, K; Offord, R E

    1993-11-01

    We confirm the cleavage at position B16-17 of porcine insulin which occurs during in vitro digestion by insulin proteinase. The fragment A14-21-B17-30 was purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry, on the other hand, failed to detect the presence of this fragment.

  2. Fragmented inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors retain tetrameric architecture and form functional Ca2+ release channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzayady, Kamil J; Chandrasekhar, Rahul; Yule, David I

    2013-04-19

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms are a family of ubiquitously expressed ligand-gated channels encoded by three individual genes. The proteins are localized to membranes of intracellular Ca(2+) stores and play pivotal roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that IP3R1 is cleaved by the intracellular proteases calpain and caspase both in vivo and in vitro. However, the resultant cleavage products are poorly defined, and the functional consequences of these proteolytic events are not fully understood. We demonstrate that IP3R1 is cleaved during staurosporine-induced apoptosis, yielding N-terminal fragments encompassing the ligand-binding domain and the majority of the central modulatory domain together with a C-terminal fragment containing the channel domain and cytosolic tail. Notably, these fragments remain associated with the membrane after initiation of apoptotic cleavage. Furthermore, when recombinant IP3R1 fragments, corresponding to those predicted to be generated by caspase or calpain cleavage, are stably coexpressed in cells, they physically associate and form functional channels. These data provide novel insights regarding the regulation of IP3R1 during proteolysis and provide direct evidence that polypeptide continuity is not required for IP3R activation and Ca(2+) release.

  3. Catalytic activation of pre-substrates via dynamic fragment assembly on protein templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, Edyta; Rademann, Jörg

    2014-11-18

    Sensitive detection of small molecule fragments binding to defined sites of biomacromolecules is still a considerable challenge. Here we demonstrate that protein-binding fragments are able to induce enzymatic reactions on the protein surface via dynamic fragment ligation. Fragments binding to the S1 pocket of serine proteases containing a nitrogen, oxygen or sulphur nucleophile are found to activate electrophilic pre-substrates through a reversible, covalent ligation reaction. The dynamic ligation reaction positions the pre-substrate molecule at the active site of the protein thereby inducing its enzymatic cleavage. Catalytic activation of pre-substrates is confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The approach is investigated with 3 pre-substrates and 14 protein-binding fragments and the specific activation and the templating effect exerted by the enzyme is quantified for each protease-fragment-pre-substrate combination. The described approach enables the site-specific identification of protein-binding fragments, the functional characterization of enzymatic sites and the quantitative analysis of protein template-assisted ligation reactions.

  4. Identification of IGFBP-3 fragments generated by KLK2 and prevention of fragmentation by KLK2-inhibiting peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekim, Can; Riipi, Tero; Weisell, Janne; Närvänen, Ale; Koistinen, Riitta; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2010-04-01

    Kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (KLK2) degrades insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in vitro. IGFBP-3 forms complexes with IGFs, preventing them from binding to their receptors and stimulating cell proliferation and survival. IGF-independent actions have also been described for IGFBP-3. The degradation of IGFBP-3 by KLK2 or other proteases in the prostate may promote the growth of prostate cancer. We studied IGFBP-3 degradation by immunoblotting and two specific immunoassays, one recognizing only native non-fragmented IGFBP-3 and the other one recognizing both intact and proteolytically cleaved IGFBP-3. Peptides were used to inhibit the enzyme activity of KLK2 and cleavage sites in IGFBP-3 were identified by mass spectrometry. KLK2 proteolyzed IGFBP-3 into several small fragments, mostly after Arg residues, in keeping with the trypsin-like activity of KLK2. The fragmentation could be inhibited by KLK2-inhibiting peptides in a dose-dependent fashion. As degradation of IGFBP-3 could lead to a more aggressive cancer phenotype, inhibition of KLK2 activity might be useful for treatment of prostate cancer and other diseases associated with increased KLK2 activity.

  5. Analysis of proteolytic processes and enzymatic activities in the generation of huntingtin n-terminal fragments in an HEK293 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbenkamp, Andrew T N; Crosby, Keith W; Siemienski, Zoe B; Brown, Hilda H; Golde, Todd E; Borchelt, David R

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal fragments of mutant huntingtin (htt) that terminate between residues 90-115, termed cleavage product A or 1 (cp-A/1), form intracellular and intranuclear inclusion bodies in the brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD). These fragments appear to be proteolytic products of the full-length protein. Here, we use an HEK293 cell culture model to investigate huntingtin proteolytic processing; previous studies of these cells have demonstrated cleavage of htt to cp-A/1 like htt fragments. Recombinant N-terminal htt fragments, terminating at residue 171 (also referred to as cp-B/2 like), were efficiently cleaved to produce cp-A/1 whereas fragments representing endogenous caspase, calpain, and metalloproteinase cleavage products, terminating between residues 400-600, were inefficiently cleaved. Using cysteine-labeling techniques and antibody binding mapping, we localized the C-terminus of the cp-A/1 fragments produced by HEK293 cells to sequences minimally limited by cysteine 105 and an antibody epitope composed of residues 115-124. A combination of genetic and pharmacologic approaches to inhibit potential proteases, including γ-secretase and calpain, proved ineffective in preventing production of cp-A/1. Our findings indicate that HEK293 cells express a protease that is capable of efficiently cleaving cp-B/2 like fragments of htt with normal or expanded glutamine repeats. For reasons that remain unclear, this protease cleaves longer htt fragments, with normal or expanded glutamine expansions, much less efficiently. The protease in HEK293 cells that is capable of generating a cp-A/1 like htt fragment may be a novel protease with a high preference for a cp-B/2-like htt fragment as substrate.

  6. Driven fragmentation of granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Hidalgo, Raúl; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of homogeneously heated granular gases which fragment due to particle collisions is analyzed. We introduce a kinetic model which accounts for correlations induced at the grain collisions and analyze both the kinetics and relevant distribution functions these systems develop. The work combines analytical and numerical studies based on direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations. A broad family of fragmentation probabilities is considered, and its implications for the system kinetics are discussed. We show that generically these driven materials evolve asymptotically into a dynamical scaling regime. If the fragmentation probability tends to a constant, the grain number diverges at a finite time, leading to a shattering singularity. If the fragmentation probability vanishes, then the number of grains grows monotonously as a power law. We consider different homogeneous thermostats and show that the kinetics of these systems depends weakly on both the grain inelasticity and driving. We observe that fragmentation plays a relevant role in the shape of the velocity distribution of the particles. When the fragmentation is driven by local stochastic events, the long velocity tail is essentially exponential independently of the heating frequency and the breaking rule. However, for a Lowe-Andersen thermostat, numerical evidence strongly supports the conjecture that the scaled velocity distribution follows a generalized exponential behavior f(c) approximately exp(-cn) , with n approximately 1.2 , regarding less the fragmentation mechanisms.

  7. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution measurements on {gamma} rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Demasking kinetics of peptide bond cleavage for whey protein isolate hydrolysed by Bacillus licheniformis protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorob'ev, Mikhail M.; Butré, Claire I.; Sforza, Stefano; Wierenga, Peter A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    During enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins, some cleavage sites will be accessible in the intact protein. Others may only become accessible after demasking of the cleavage site, i.e. after cleavage of other bonds in the protein. Studies on demasking so far have used data of the release of few

  9. 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzenes: carcinogenicities and reductive cleavage by microsomal azo reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooy, J P; Koffman, B M

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four 4-dimethylaminoazobenzenes (DABs) in which systematic structural modifications have been made in the prime ring have been studied for substrate specificity for microsomal azo reductase. The DABs were also evaluated for carcinogenicity and it was found that there was no correlation between carcinogenicity and extent of azo bond cleavage by azo reductase. While any substituent in the prime ring reduces the rate of cleavage of the azo bond relative to the unsubstituted dye, there is a correlation between substituent size and susceptibility to the enzyme. Substituent size was also found to be a significant factor in the induction of hepatomas by the dyes. Preliminary studies have shown that there appears to be a positive correlation between microsomal riboflavin content and the activity of the azo reductase.

  10. Development and application of bond cleavage reactions in bioorthogonal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Peng R

    2016-03-01

    Bioorthogonal chemical reactions are a thriving area of chemical research in recent years as an unprecedented technique to dissect native biological processes through chemistry-enabled strategies. However, current concepts of bioorthogonal chemistry have largely centered on 'bond formation' reactions between two mutually reactive bioorthogonal handles. Recently, in a reverse strategy, a collection of 'bond cleavage' reactions has emerged with excellent biocompatibility. These reactions have expanded our bioorthogonal chemistry repertoire, enabling an array of exciting new biological applications that range from the chemically controlled spatial and temporal activation of intracellular proteins and small-molecule drugs to the direct manipulation of intact cells under physiological conditions. Here we highlight the development and applications of these bioorthogonal cleavage reactions. Furthermore, we lay out challenges and propose future directions along this appealing avenue of research.

  11. Cleavage and polyadenylation: Ending the message expands gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleavage and polyadenylation (pA) is a fundamental step that is required for the maturation of primary protein encoding transcripts into functional mRNAs that can be exported from the nucleus and translated in the cytoplasm. 3′end processing is dependent on the assembly of a multiprotein processing complex on the pA signals that reside in the pre-mRNAs. Most eukaryotic genes have multiple pA signals, resulting in alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), a widespread phenomenon that is important to establish cell state and cell type specific transcriptomes. Here, we review how pA sites are recognized and comprehensively summarize how APA is regulated and creates mRNA isoform profiles that are characteristic for cell types, tissues, cellular states and disease. PMID:28453393

  12. Sequence specific inhibition of DNA restriction enzyme cleavage by PNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Plasmids containing double-stranded 10-mer PNA (peptide nucleic acid chimera) targets proximally flanked by two restriction enzyme sites were challenged with the complementary PNA or PNAs having one or two mismatches, and the effect on the restriction enzyme cleavage of the flanking sites...... was assayed. The following PNAs were used: T10-LysNH2, T5CT4-LysNH2 and T2CT2CT4-LysNH2 and the corresponding targets cloned into pUC 19 were flanked by BamH1, Sal1 or Pstl sites, respectively. In all cases it was found that complete inhibition of restriction enzyme cleavage was obtained...

  13. Proton Mobility in b2 Ion Formation and Fragmentation Reactions of Histidine-Containing Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Carissa R.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Harrison, Alex G.; Bythell, Benjamin J.

    2016-03-01

    A detailed energy-resolved study of the fragmentation reactions of protonated histidine-containing peptides and their b2 ions has been undertaken. Density functional theory calculations were utilized to predict how the fragmentation reactions occur so that we might discern why the mass spectra demonstrated particular energy dependencies. We compare our results to the current literature and to synthetic b2 ion standards. We show that the position of the His residue does affect the identity of the subsequent b2 ion (diketopiperazine versus oxazolone versus lactam) and that energy-resolved CID can distinguish these isomeric products based on their fragmentation energetics. The histidine side chain facilitates every major transformation except trans-cis isomerization of the first amide bond, a necessary prerequisite to diketopiperazine b2 ion formation. Despite this lack of catalyzation, trans-cis isomerization is predicted to be facile. Concomitantly, the subsequent amide bond cleavage reaction is rate-limiting.

  14. Relationship between synthesis and cleavage of poliovirus-specific proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, A.A.; Voorma, H O; Boeye, A.

    1983-01-01

    Poliovirus proteinase was studied in vitro in lysates from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells. Preincubation of these lysates caused (i) a reduction in poliovirus proteinase activity and (ii) a partial dependence on exogenous mRNA for optimal translation. Proteins translated from endogenous poliovirus RNA in preincubated extracts from virus-infected HeLa cells are poorly cleaved. This cleavage deficiency is alleviated by adding fresh poliovirus RNA to the translation system, thus, allowing re-ini...

  15. Recent cleavages in the religious right in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Bilkent Univ., 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references. In this study,recent cleavages within the Prosperity Party is described. For this purpose, first the ideologies of the National Order Party and the National Salvation Party are taken up. For the PP is the continuation of the NOP and NSP, the PP cannot be understood as distinct from these two parties...

  16. Glutamic Acid Selective Chemical Cleavage of Peptide Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbone, Joseph M; Lahankar, Neelam; Buissereth, Lyssa; Raj, Monika

    2016-03-04

    Site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds at glutamic acid under neutral aqueous conditions is reported. The method relies on the activation of the backbone amide chain at glutamic acid by the formation of a pyroglutamyl (pGlu) imide moiety. This activation increases the susceptibility of a peptide bond toward hydrolysis. The method is highly specific and demonstrates broad substrate scope including cleavage of various bioactive peptides with unnatural amino acid residues, which are unsuitable substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  17. Cleavage Mapping the Topology of Protein Folding Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-13

    investigate the changes that occur in two of these mutants. V66L has a greatly lowered m value while that of A90S is substantially increased (5...stability of the folded state of nuclease. The cleavage technique will be used to investigate the changes that occur in two of these mutants. V66L...Connecticut, 06520 3Instituto de Qufmica y Fisicoquimica Biolögicas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioqufmica (UBA-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina 4

  18. Deformation-dependent enzyme mechanokinetic cleavage of type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Karla E-K; Bourne, Jonathan W; Torzilli, Peter A

    2009-05-01

    Collagen is a key structural protein in the extracellular matrix of many tissues. It provides biological tissues with tensile mechanical strength and is enzymatically cleaved by a class of matrix metalloproteinases known as collagenases. Collagen enzymatic kinetics has been well characterized in solubilized, gel, and reconstituted forms. However, limited information exists on enzyme degradation of structurally intact collagen fibers and, more importantly, on the effect of mechanical deformation on collagen cleavage. We studied the degradation of native rat tail tendon fibers by collagenase after the fibers were mechanically elongated to strains of epsilon=1-10%. After the fibers were elongated and the stress was allowed to relax, the fiber was immersed in Clostridium histolyticum collagenase and the decrease in stress (sigma) was monitored as a means of calculating the rate of enzyme cleavage of the fiber. An enzyme mechanokinetic (EMK) relaxation function T(E)(epsilon) in s(-1) was calculated from the linear stress-time response during fiber cleavage, where T(E)(epsilon) corresponds to the zero order Michaelis-Menten enzyme-substrate kinetic response. The EMK relaxation function T(E)(epsilon) was found to decrease with applied strain at a rate of approximately 9% per percent strain, with complete inhibition of collagen cleavage predicted to occur at a strain of approximately 11%. However, comparison of the EMK response (T(E) versus epsilon) to collagen's stress-strain response (sigma versus epsilon) suggested the possibility of three different EMK responses: (1) constant T(E)(epsilon) within the toe region (epsiloncollagen triple helix may be by a conformational change in the triple helix since the decrease in T(E)(epsilon) appeared concomitant with stretching of the collagen molecule.

  19. Effects of Cysteamine on Sheep Embryo Cleavage Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ö. ENGİNLER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress during in vitro culture leads to defects in development of gametes and embryos. Several antioxidants such as cysteamine, L-ascorbic acid, beta mercaptoethanol, cysteine, glutathione, proteins, vitamins have been used to supplement culture media to counter the oxidative stress. This study was conducted to detect the effect of adding cysteamine to the maturation medium to subsequent cleavage rates of sheep embryos. Totally 604 ovaries were obtained by ten replica and 2060 oocytes were collected. The cumulus oocyte complexes were recovered by the slicing method. A total of 1818 selected oocytes were divided into two groups and used for maturation (88.25%. The first group was created as supplemented with cysteamine (Group A and second group (Group B, control without cysteamine in TCM-199. The two groups were incubated for 24 h at 38.8 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in humidified air for in vitro maturation (IVM. After IVM, oocytes were fertilized with 50 x 107 / mL fresh ram semen in BSOF medium for 18 h. After fertilization, maturation groups were divided into two subgroups with different culture media: Group AI-SOF (Synthetic Oviduct Fluid medium, Group AII-CR1aa (Charles Rosencrans medium, Group BI-SOF and Group BII-CR1aa were achieved. Cleavage rates were evaluated at day 2. post insemination. The rates of cleavage were detected as 59.54% (184/309, 55.44% (173/312, 65.34% (215/329, 59.34% (200/337 respectively, with showing no statistically significant difference between the groups at the level of P>0.05. In conclusion, supplementing cysteamine to maturation media in TCM-199 did not affect the cleavage rates of sheep embryos in SOF and CR1aa culture media.

  20. Failure of cell cleavage induces senescence in tetraploid primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulos, Andreas; Pacios-Bras, Cristina; Choi, Justin; Yenjerla, Mythili; Sussman, Mark A; Fotedar, Rati; Margolis, Robert L

    2014-10-15

    Tetraploidy can arise from various mitotic or cleavage defects in mammalian cells, and inheritance of multiple centrosomes induces aneuploidy when tetraploid cells continue to cycle. Arrest of the tetraploid cell cycle is therefore potentially a critical cellular control. We report here that primary rat embryo fibroblasts (REF52) and human foreskin fibroblasts become senescent in tetraploid G1 after drug- or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced failure of cell cleavage. In contrast, T-antigen-transformed REF52 and p53+/+ HCT116 tumor cells rapidly become aneuploid by continuing to cycle after cleavage failure. Tetraploid primary cells quickly become quiescent, as determined by loss of the Ki-67 proliferation marker and of the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator/late cell cycle marker geminin. Arrest is not due to DNA damage, as the γ-H2AX DNA damage marker remains at control levels after tetraploidy induction. Arrested tetraploid cells finally become senescent, as determined by SA-β-galactosidase activity. Tetraploid arrest is dependent on p16INK4a expression, as siRNA suppression of p16INK4a bypasses tetraploid arrest, permitting primary cells to become aneuploid. We conclude that tetraploid primary cells can become senescent without DNA damage and that induction of senescence is critical to tetraploidy arrest.

  1. Elasto-viscoplastic phase field modelling of anisotropic cleavage fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthraj, P.; Svendsen, B.; Sharma, L.; Roters, F.; Raabe, D.

    2017-02-01

    A finite-strain anisotropic phase field method is developed to model the localisation of damage on a defined family of crystallographic planes, characteristic of cleavage fracture in metals. The approach is based on the introduction of an undamaged configuration, and the inelastic deformation gradient mapping this configuration to a damaged configuration is microstructurally represented by the opening of a set of cleavage planes in the three fracture modes. Crack opening is modelled as a dissipative process, and its evolution is thermodynamically derived. To couple this approach with a physically-based phase field method for brittle fracture, a scalar measure of the overall local damage is introduced, whose evolution is determined by the crack opening rates, and weakly coupled with the non-local phase field energy representing the crack opening resistance in the classical sense of Griffith. A finite-element implementation of the proposed model is employed to simulate the crack propagation path in a laminate and a polycrystalline microstructure. As shown in this work, it is able to predict the localisation of damage on the set of pre-defined cleavage planes, as well as the kinking and branching of the crack resulting from the crystallographic misorientation across the laminate boundary and the grain boundaries respectively.

  2. Cleavage mechanoluminescence in elemental and III-V semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, B P; Gour, A S; Chandra, V K; Gupta, R K

    2003-01-01

    The present paper reports the theory of mechanoluminescence (ML) produced during cleavage of elemental and III-V semiconductors. It seems that the formation of crack-induced localized states is responsible for the ML excitation produced during the cleavage of elemental and III-V semiconductors. According to this mechanism, as the atoms are drawn away from each other in an advancing crack tip, the decreasing wave function overlap across the crack may result in localized states which is associated with increasing electron energy. If the energy of these localized states approach that of the conduction band, transition to the conduction band via tunnelling would be possible, creating minority carriers, and consequently the electron-hole recombination may give rise to mechanoluminescence. When an elemental or III-V semiconductor is cleaved, initially the ML intensity increases with time, attains a peak value I sub m at the time t sub m corresponding to completion of the cleavage of the semiconductor, and then it d...

  3. Hyperphosphorylation and cleavage at D421 enhance tau secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Plouffe

    Full Text Available It is well established that tau pathology propagates in a predictable manner in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Moreover, tau accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of AD's patients. The mechanisms underlying the propagation of tau pathology and its accumulation in the CSF remain to be elucidated. Recent studies have reported that human tau was secreted by neurons and non-neuronal cells when it was overexpressed indicating that tau secretion could contribute to the spreading of tau pathology in the brain and could lead to its accumulation in the CSF. In the present study, we showed that the overexpression of human tau resulted in its secretion by Hela cells. The main form of tau secreted by these cells was cleaved at the C-terminal. Surprisingly, secreted tau was dephosphorylated at several sites in comparison to intracellular tau which presented a strong immunoreactivity to all phospho-dependent antibodies tested. Our data also revealed that phosphorylation and cleavage of tau favored its secretion by Hela cells. Indeed, the mimicking of phosphorylation at 12 sites known to be phosphorylated in AD enhanced tau secretion. A mutant form of tau truncated at D421, the preferential cleavage site of caspase-3, was also significantly more secreted than wild-type tau. Taken together, our results indicate that hyperphosphorylation and cleavage of tau by favoring its secretion could contribute to the propagation of tau pathology in the brain and its accumulation in the CSF.

  4. Examination of Early Cleavage an its Importance in IVF Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancsovits P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of assisted reproduction, the number of multiple pregnancies has increased due to the high number of transferred embryos. There is an urgent need for IVF specialists to reduce the number of embryos transferred without the risk of decreasing pregnancy rates. Embryos are selected for transfer on the basis of their developmental stage and morphology. The number of blastomeres of the embryo indicates the speed of early embryo development which correlates to the viability of the embryo. Examination of early embryo development, especially the timing of the first cleavage, can be recommended as a tool for predicting embryo viability. Observation of timing of the first cleavage and its different stages helps us to identify fast- and slow-developing embryos. Early pronuclear breakdown and early cleavage of the zygote are indicators of fast embryo development and good embryo viability. Thereby, they can lead to high implantation and pregnancy rates. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the timing of early embryo development and to show its significance in IVF treatment.

  5. MET receptor variant R970C favors calpain-dependent generation of a fragment promoting epithelial cell scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Rémi; Baranzelli, Anne; Muharram, Ghaffar; Catherine, Leroy; Lesaffre, Marie; Vinchent, Audrey; Kherrouche, Zoulika; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Cortot, Alexis B; Tulasne, David

    2017-01-04

    The receptor tyrosine kinase MET and its ligand, the hepatocyte growth factor, are essential to embryonic development, whereas deregulation of MET signaling is associated with tumorigenesis leading to various cancers, including lung carcinoma. Mutations in the MET kinase domain lead to constitutive kinase activity and are associated with tumorigenesis. In lung cancer, however, some mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain, and their functional consequences are unknown. Because the juxtamembrane domain of MET is targeted by several proteolytic cleavages, involved in its degradation during cell death or under steady-state conditions, we evaluated the influence of these mutations on the MET proteolytic cleavages. In stably transfected epithelial cells expressing MET, the juxtamembrane mutations R970C, P991S, and T992I were found not to modify the known caspase or presenilin-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Yet when overexpressed, the R970C variant caused generation of an as yet undescribed 45-kDa fragment (p45 MET). This fragment was found in the confluent lung cancer cell line NCI-H1437 carrying the R970C mutation and at a lesser extent in cell lines expressing WT MET, suggesting that R970C mutation favors this cleavage. Generation of p45 MET required the activity of the calpain proteases, confirming the involvement of proteolysis. Ectopic expression of reconstituted p45 MET in epithelial cell lines favored cell scattering and invasion indicating active role of this fragment in HGF/SF induced responses. Hence, although the juxtamembrane mutations of MET do not affect its known proteolytic cleavages, the R970C MET variant favors calpain dependent proteolytic cleavage in lung cancer cells.

  6. The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) localize differently in the compartments of dentin and growth plate of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Izabela; Cowan, Cameron; Svoboda, Kathy; Butler, William T; D'Souza, Rena; Qin, Chunlin

    2009-02-01

    Multiple studies have shown that dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is essential for bone and dentin mineralization. After post-translational proteolytic cleavage, DMP1 exists within the extracellular matrix of bone and dentin as an NH2-terminal fragment, a COOH-terminal fragment, and the proteoglycan form of the NH2-terminal fragment (DMP1-PG). To begin to assess the biological function of each fragment, we evaluated the distribution of both fragments in the rat tooth and bone using antibodies specific to the NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal regions of DMP1 and confocal microscopy. In rat first molar organs, the NH2-terminal fragment localized to predentin, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment was mainly restricted to mineralized dentin. In the growth plate of bone, the NH2-terminal fragment appeared in the proliferation and hypertrophic zones, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment occupied the ossification zone. Forster resonance energy transfer analysis showed colocalization of both fragments of DMP1 in odontoblasts and predentin, as well as hypertrophic chondrocytes within the growth plates of bone. The biochemical analysis of bovine teeth showed that predentin is rich in DMP1-PG, whereas mineralized dentin primarily contains the COOH-terminal fragment. We conclude that the differential patterns of expression of NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments of DMP1 reflect their potentially distinct roles in the biomineralization of dentin and bone matrices.

  7. Rapid cytochrome c release, activation of caspases 3, 6, 7 and 8 followed by Bap31 cleavage in HeLa cells treated with photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, D J; Carthy, C M; Jiang, H; Shore, G C; McManus, B M; Hunt, D W

    1998-10-16

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical approach that utilizes light-activated drugs for the treatment of a variety of pathologic conditions. The initiating events of PDT-induced apoptosis are poorly defined. It has been shown for other proapoptotic stimuli that the integral endoplasmic reticulum protein Bap31 is cleaved by caspases 1 and 8, but not by caspase-3. Further, a 20 kDa Bap31 cleavage fragment is generated which can induce apoptosis. In the current report, we sought to determine whether Bap31 cleavage and generation of p20 is an early event in PDT-induced apoptosis. The mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, involvement of caspases 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 10 and the status of several known caspase substrates, including Bap31, were evaluated in PDT-treated HeLa cells. Cytochrome c appeared in the cytosol immediately following light activation of the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A. Activation of caspases 3, 6, 7, and 8 was evident within 1-2 h post PDT. Processing of caspases 1, 2, 4, and 10 was not observed. Cleavage of Bap31 was observed at 2-3 h post PDT. The caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-fmk blocked caspase-8 and Bap31 cleavage suggesting that caspase-8 and Bap31 processing occur downstream of caspase-3 activation in PDT-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytoplasm is a primary event following PDT, preceding caspase activation and cleavage of Bap31. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a chemotherapeutic agent inducing caspase-8 activation and demonstrates that caspase-8 activation can occur after cytochrome c release.

  8. Herpes simplex virus DNA packaging sequences adopt novel structures that are specifically recognized by a component of the cleavage and packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, K; Salmon, B; Baines, J D

    2001-03-13

    The product of the herpes simplex virus type 1 U(L)28 gene is essential for cleavage of concatemeric viral DNA into genome-length units and packaging of this DNA into viral procapsids. To address the role of U(L)28 in this process, purified U(L)28 protein was assayed for the ability to recognize conserved herpesvirus DNA packaging sequences. We report that DNA fragments containing the pac1 DNA packaging motif can be induced by heat treatment to adopt novel DNA conformations that migrate faster than the corresponding duplex in nondenaturing gels. Surprisingly, these novel DNA structures are high-affinity substrates for U(L)28 protein binding, whereas double-stranded DNA of identical sequence composition is not recognized by U(L)28 protein. We demonstrate that only one strand of the pac1 motif is responsible for the formation of novel DNA structures that are bound tightly and specifically by U(L)28 protein. To determine the relevance of the observed U(L)28 protein-pac1 interaction to the cleavage and packaging process, we have analyzed the binding affinity of U(L)28 protein for pac1 mutants previously shown to be deficient in cleavage and packaging in vivo. Each of the pac1 mutants exhibited a decrease in DNA binding by U(L)28 protein that correlated directly with the reported reduction in cleavage and packaging efficiency, thereby supporting a role for the U(L)28 protein-pac1 interaction in vivo. These data therefore suggest that the formation of novel DNA structures by the pac1 motif confers added specificity on recognition of DNA packaging sequences by the U(L)28-encoded component of the herpesvirus cleavage and packaging machinery.

  9. Cleavage of model substrates by archaeal RNase P: role of protein cofactors in cleavage-site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinapah, Sylvie; Wu, Shiying; Chen, Yu; Pettersson, B M Fredrik; Gopalan, Venkat; Kirsebom, Leif A

    2011-02-01

    RNase P is a catalytic ribonucleoprotein primarily involved in tRNA biogenesis. Archaeal RNase P comprises a catalytic RNase P RNA (RPR) and at least four protein cofactors (RPPs), which function as two binary complexes (POP5•RPP30 and RPP21• RPP29). Exploiting the ability to assemble a functional Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) RNase P in vitro, we examined the role of RPPs in influencing substrate recognition by the RPR. We first demonstrate that Pfu RPR, like its bacterial and eukaryal counterparts, cleaves model hairpin loop substrates albeit at rates 90- to 200-fold lower when compared with cleavage by bacterial RPR, highlighting the functionally comparable catalytic cores in bacterial and archaeal RPRs. By investigating cleavage-site selection exhibited by Pfu RPR (±RPPs) with various model substrates missing consensus-recognition elements, we determined substrate features whose recognition is facilitated by either POP5•RPP30 or RPP21•RPP29 (directly or indirectly via the RPR). Our results also revealed that Pfu RPR + RPP21•RPP29 displays substrate-recognition properties coinciding with those of the bacterial RPR-alone reaction rather than the Pfu RPR, and that this behaviour is attributable to structural differences in the substrate-specificity domains of bacterial and archaeal RPRs. Moreover, our data reveal a hierarchy in recognition elements that dictates cleavage-site selection by archaeal RNase P.

  10. Computational Investigation and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange of the Fixed Charge Derivative Tris(2,4,6-Trimethoxyphenyl)Phosphonium: Implications for the Aspartic Acid Cleavage Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kristin A.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Vorpagel, Erich R.

    2005-05-25

    Aspartic acid (Asp)-containing peptides with the fixed charge derivative tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium (tTMP-P+) were explored computationally and experimentally by H/D exchange and fragmentation studies in order to probe the phenomenon of selective cleavage C-terminal to Asp in the absence of a ''mobile'' proton. Ab initio modeling of the tTMP-P+ electrostatic potential demonstrates the positive charge is distributed on the phosphonium group and therefore is not initiating or directing fragmentation as would a ''mobile'' proton. Geometry optimizations and vibrational analyses of different aspartic acid conformations show the aspartic acid structure with a hydrogen bond between the side chain hydroxy and backbone carbonyl lies 2.8 kcal/mol above the lowest energy conformer. In reactions with D2O, the phosphonium-derived doubly charged peptide (H+)P+LDIFSDF rapidly exchanges all 12 of its exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium and also displays a non-exchanging population. With no added proton, P+LDIFSDF exchanges a maximum of four of eleven exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium. No exchange is observed when all acidic groups are converted to the corresponding methyl esters. Together, these H/D exchange results indicate that the acidic hydrogens are ''mobile locally'' because they are able to participate in exchange even in the absence of an added proton. Fragmentation of two distinct (H+)P+LDIFSDF ion populations shows the non-exchanging population displays selective cleavage, while the exchanging population fragments more evenly across the peptide backbone. This result demonstrates that H/D exchange can sometimes distinguish between and provide a means of separation of different protonation motifs, and that these protonation motifs can have an effect on the fragmentation.

  11. Fragments of the bacterial toxin microcin B17 as gyrase poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Frédéric; Thompson, Robert E; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Payne, Richard J; Maxwell, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are very important drugs in the clinical antibacterial arsenal; their success is principally due to their mode of action: the stabilisation of a gyrase-DNA intermediate (the cleavage complex), which triggers a chain of events leading to cell death. Microcin B17 (MccB17) is a modified peptide bacterial toxin that acts by a similar mode of action, but is unfortunately unsuitable as a therapeutic drug. However, its structure and mechanism could inspire the design of new antibacterial compounds that are needed to circumvent the rise in bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. Here we describe the investigation of the structural features responsible for MccB17 activity and the identification of fragments of the toxin that retain the ability to stabilise the cleavage complex.

  12. Fragments of the bacterial toxin microcin B17 as gyrase poisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Collin

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones are very important drugs in the clinical antibacterial arsenal; their success is principally due to their mode of action: the stabilisation of a gyrase-DNA intermediate (the cleavage complex, which triggers a chain of events leading to cell death. Microcin B17 (MccB17 is a modified peptide bacterial toxin that acts by a similar mode of action, but is unfortunately unsuitable as a therapeutic drug. However, its structure and mechanism could inspire the design of new antibacterial compounds that are needed to circumvent the rise in bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. Here we describe the investigation of the structural features responsible for MccB17 activity and the identification of fragments of the toxin that retain the ability to stabilise the cleavage complex.

  13. Caspase-Resistant BAP31 Inhibits Fas-Mediated Apoptotic Membrane Fragmentation and Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Mai; Breckenridge, David G.; Ducret, Axel; Shore, Gordon C

    2000-01-01

    BAP31 is a 28-kDa integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum whose cytosolic domain contains two identical caspase recognition sites (AAVD.G) that are preferentially cleaved by initiator caspases, including caspase 8. Cleavage of BAP31 during apoptosis generates a p20 fragment that remains integrated in the membrane and, when expressed ectopically, is a potent inducer of cell death. To examine the consequences of maintaining the structural integrity of BAP31 during apoptosis, the ...

  14. Agonist-regulated Cleavage of the Extracellular Domain of Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Type 1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Christoph; Schulz, Stefan; Calebiro, Davide; Lohse, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    The receptor for parathyroid hormone (PTHR) is a main regulator of calcium homeostasis and bone maintenance. As a member of class B of G protein-coupled receptors, it harbors a large extracellular domain, which is required for ligand binding. Here, we demonstrate that the PTHR extracellular domain is cleaved by a protease belonging to the family of extracellular metalloproteinases. We show that the cleavage takes place in a region of the extracellular domain that belongs to an unstructured loop connecting the ligand-binding parts and that the N-terminal 10-kDa fragment is connected to the receptor core by a disulfide bond. Cleaved receptor revealed reduced protein stability compared with noncleaved receptor, suggesting degradation of the whole receptor. In the presence of the agonistic peptides PTH(1–34), PTH(1–14), or PTH(1–31), the processing of the PTHR extracellular domain was inhibited, and receptor protein levels were stabilized. A processed form of the PTHR was also detected in human kidney. These findings suggest a new model of PTHR processing and regulation of its stability. PMID:20080964

  15. Agonist-regulated cleavage of the extracellular domain of parathyroid hormone receptor type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Christoph; Schulz, Stefan; Calebiro, Davide; Lohse, Martin J

    2010-03-19

    The receptor for parathyroid hormone (PTHR) is a main regulator of calcium homeostasis and bone maintenance. As a member of class B of G protein-coupled receptors, it harbors a large extracellular domain, which is required for ligand binding. Here, we demonstrate that the PTHR extracellular domain is cleaved by a protease belonging to the family of extracellular metalloproteinases. We show that the cleavage takes place in a region of the extracellular domain that belongs to an unstructured loop connecting the ligand-binding parts and that the N-terminal 10-kDa fragment is connected to the receptor core by a disulfide bond. Cleaved receptor revealed reduced protein stability compared with noncleaved receptor, suggesting degradation of the whole receptor. In the presence of the agonistic peptides PTH(1-34), PTH(1-14), or PTH(1-31), the processing of the PTHR extracellular domain was inhibited, and receptor protein levels were stabilized. A processed form of the PTHR was also detected in human kidney. These findings suggest a new model of PTHR processing and regulation of its stability.

  16. Proteolytic cleavage of apolipoprotein E4 as the keystone for the heightened risk associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Troy T

    2013-07-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by microscopic lesions consisting of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The majority of cases are defined as sporadic and are likely caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Of the genetic risk factors identified, the 34 kDa protein, apolipoprotein (apo) E4, is of significant importance as APOE4 carriers account for 65%-80% of all AD cases. Although apoE4 plays a normal role in lipoprotein transport, how it contributes to AD pathogenesis is currently unknown. One potential mechanism by which apoE4 contributes to disease risk is its propensity to undergo proteolytic cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragments. The purpose of this review will be to examine the mechanisms by which apoE4 contributes to AD pathogenesis focusing on the potential loss or gain of function that may occur following cleavage of the full-length protein. In this context, a discussion of whether targeting apoE4 therapeutically is a rationale approach to treating this disease will be assessed.

  17. Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew induces apoptosis without PARP or cytokeratin 18 cleavage in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aztopal, Nazlihan; Cevatemre, Buse; Sarimahmut, Mehmet; Ari, Ferda; Dere, Egemen; Ozel, Mustafa Zafer; Firat, Mehmet; Ulukaya, Engin

    2016-01-01

    Pelargonium species have various uses in folk medicine as traditional remedies, and several of them have been screened for their biological activity, including anticancer. Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew (P. quercetorum) is traditionally used for its anthelminthic activity. However, little is known about its biological activity or its effect on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxic activity of P. quercetorum extract on lung cancer cell lines with varying properties. Following the analyses of its chemical composition, the cytotoxic activity was screened by the adenosine triphosphate viability test. M30-Apoptosense® and M65 EpiDeath® enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine the cell death mode (apoptosis vs. necrosis). For apoptosis, additional methods, including Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and Hoechst 33342 staining, were employed. The cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was assayed by western blotting to further dissect the apoptosis mechanism. The methanol extract of P. quercetorum caused cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of cell death was apoptosis, as evidenced by the positive staining of the cells for Annexin-V-FITC and the presence of pyknotic nuclei. Notably, neither PARP cleavage nor cytokeratin 18 fragmentation were observed. P.quercetorum caused cell death by an apoptosis mechanism that is slightly different from classical apoptosis. Therefore, future in vivo experiments are required for further understanding of the effect of this plant on cancer cells. PMID:27446448

  18. The Serine Protease Pic From Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Mediates Immune Evasion by the Direct Cleavage of Complement Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Afonso G; Fraga, Tatiana R; Granados Martínez, Adriana P; Kondo, Marcia Y; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Isaac, Lourdes; Barbosa, Angela S; Elias, Waldir P

    2015-07-01

    Enteroaggregative and uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri 2a, and the hybrid enteroaggregative/Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strain (O104:H4) are important pathogens responsible for intestinal and urinary tract infections, as well as sepsis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. They have in common the production of a serine protease called Pic. Several biological roles for Pic have been described, including protection of E. coli DH5α from complement-mediated killing. Hereby we showed that Pic significantly reduces complement activation by all 3 pathways. Pic cleaves purified C3/C3b and other proteins from the classic and lectin pathways, such as C4 and C2. Cleavage fragments of C3, C4, and C2 were also observed with HB101(pPic1) culture supernatants, and C3 cleavage sites were mapped by fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides. Experiments using human serum as a source of complement proteins confirmed Pic proteolytic activity on these proteins. Furthermore, Pic works synergistically with the human complement regulators factor I and factor H, promoting inactivation of C3b. In the presence of both regulators, further degradation of C3 α' chain was observed. Therefore, Pic may contribute to immune evasion of E. coli and S. flexneri, favoring invasiveness and increasing the severity of the disorders caused by these pathogens.

  19. Identification of protein SUMOylation sites by mass spectrometry using combined microwave-assisted aspartic acid cleavage and tryptic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osula, Omoruyi; Swatkoski, Stephen; Cotter, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMO (Small-Ubiquitin-like MOdifier) is a post-translational modifier of protein substrates at lysine residues that conjugates to proteins in response to various changes in the cell. As a result of SUMO modification, marked changes in transcription regulation, DNA repair, subcellular localization, and mitosis, among other cellular processes, are known to occur. However, while the identification of ubiquitylation sites by mass spectrometry is aided in part by the presence of a small di-amino acid GlyGly “tag” that remains on lysine residues following tryptic digestion, SUMOylation poses a particular challenge as the absence of a basic residue near to the SUMO C-terminus results in a significant 27 or 32 amino acid sequence branch conjugated to the substrate peptide. MS/MS analyses of these branch peptides generally reveal abundant fragment ions resulting from cleavage of the SUMO tail, but which obscure those needed for characterizing the target peptide sequence. Other approaches for identifying SUMO substrates exist and include overexpression of the SUMO isoforms using an N-terminal histidine tag, as well as site-directed mutagenesis of the C-terminal end of the SUMO sequence. Here, we employ combined enzymatic/chemical approaches which serve to shorten the SUMO tag, and thus help to simplify SUMO spectra, making interpretation of mass spectra and location of the SUMOylation site easier. As described in this report, we demonstrate a method for identifying SUMOylation sites using three commercially available SUMO- modified isoforms, and by employing acid-only and acid/trypsin cleavage strategies. These approaches were carried out using MALDI-TOF and LC/MS instrumentation, along with CID and ETD fragmentation. PMID:22576878

  20. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui, E-mail: thiamtsu@yahoo.com [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheah, Yew-Hoong [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Meenakshii, Nallappan [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  1. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric studies on the characteristic fragmentation of Asp/cyclen conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunying; Li, Chao; Luan, Xingrong; Zhang, Jin; Qiao, Renzhong; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-03-30

    Differentiation and structural characterization of Asp/cyclen conjugates by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) are significantly important for their biomedical application. Hence, the present study is conducted. The fragmentations of Asp/cyclen conjugates generated by positive ion mode electrospray ionization were examined here by low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). ESI-MS(n) spectra of cyclen were acquired to confirm cyclen contraction products derived from the studied compounds. The fragments derived from the Asp/cyclen conjugates were proved by deuterium-exchange experiments. Asp/cyclen conjugates displayed characteristic dissociation pathways, including cleavages of amide bonds, loss of NH3 and cyclen contraction pathways. It was observed that cleavages of C-terminal amide bonds generated b2 and b2  + H2O ions from the protonated CyclenAspAspAsp and a b1  + H2O ion from the protonated CyclenAspAsp. In addition, various cyclen contraction products were also observed. In ESI-MS(n) spectra of studied compounds, fragments of bn-1  + H2O or cyclic anhydride were generated due to facile mobilization of C-terminal or side-chain COOH protons. In addition, the cyclen contraction products were detected. These results might provide sufficient information for the identification of Asp/cyclen conjugates by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cheng; Tsang, M B; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear energy released by splitting Uranium and Thorium isotopes into two, three, four, up to eight fragments with nearly equal size are studied. We found that the energy released come from equally splitting the $^{235,238}$U and $^{230,232}$Th nuclei into to three fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model is employed to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for the excited nuclei. Weighing the the probability distributions of fragments multiplicity at different excitation energies for the $^{238}$U nucleus, we found that an excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u is optimal for the $^{235}$U, $^{238}$U, $^{230}$Th and $^{232}$Th nuclei to release nuclear energy of about 0.7-0.75 MeV/u.

  3. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  4. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry.

  5. Synthesis and enzymatic cleavage of dual-ligand quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, Sarah L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Giorgio, Todd D., E-mail: todd.d.giorgio@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2009-05-05

    Site directed therapy promises to minimize treatment-limiting systemic effects associated with cytotoxic agents that have no specificity for pathologic tissues. One general strategy is to target cell surface receptors uniquely presented on particular tissues. Highly specific in vivo targeting of an emerging neoplasm through a single molecular recognition mechanism has not generally been successful. Nonspecific binding and specific binding to non-target cells compromise the therapeutic index of small molecule, ubiquitous cancer targeting ligands. In this work, we have designed and fabricated a nanoparticle (NP) construct that could potentially overcome the current limitations of targeted in vivo delivery. Quantum dots (QDs) were functionalized with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified to enable specific cleavage by matrix metalloprotease-7 (MMP-7). The QDs were further functionalized with folic acid, a ligand for a cell surface receptor that is overexpressed in many tumors, but also expressed in some normal tissues. The nanomolecular construct is designed so that the PEG initially conceals the folate ligand and construct binding to cells is inhibited. MMP-7 activated peptide cleavage and subsequent unmasking of the folate ligand occurs only near tumor tissue, resulting in a proximity activated (PA) targeting system. QDs functionalized with both the MMP-7 cleavable substrate and folic acid were successfully synthesized and characterized. The proteolytic capability of the dual ligand QD construct was quantitatively assessed by fluorometric analysis and compared to a QD construct functionalized with only the PA ligand. The dual ligand PA nanoparticles studied here exhibit significant susceptibility to cleavage by MMP-7 at physiologically relevant conditions. The capacity to autonomously convert a biopassivated nanostructure to a tissue-specific targeted delivery agent in vivo represents a paradigm change for site-directed therapies.

  6. Phenomenology of Dihadron Fragmentation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Courtoy, A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the phenomenological results obtained through Dihadron Fragmentation Functions related processes. In 2015, an update on the fitting techniques for the Dihadron Fragmentation Functions has led to an improved extraction of the transversity PDF and, as a consequence, the nucleon tensor charge. We discuss the impact of the determination of the latter on search for physics Beyond the Standard Model, focusing on the error treatment. We also comment on the future of the extraction of the subleading-twist PDF $e(x)$ from JLab soon-to-be-released Beam Spin Asymmetry data.

  7. Transversity and dihadron fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, A; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Radici, Marco

    2005-01-01

    The observation of the quark transversity distribution requires another soft object sensitive to the quark's transverse spin. Dihadron fragmentation functions represent a convenient tool to analyze partonic spin, which can influence the angular distribution of the two hadrons. In particular, the so-called interference fragmentation functions can be used to probe transversity both in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering as well as proton-proton collisions. We discuss two single-spin asymmetries sensitive to transversity in the these two processes, at leading twist and leading order in alpha_S.

  8. RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W

    2003-08-08

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator project involves generating heavy-element ion beams for use in a fragmentation target line to produce beams for physics research. The main beam, after passing through the fragmentation target, may be dumped into a beam dump located in the vacuum cavity of the first dipole magnet. For a dump beam power of 100 kW, cooling is required to avoid excessive high temperatures. The proposed dump design involves rotating cylinders to spread out the energy deposition and turbulent subcooled water flow through internal water cooling passages to obtain high, nonboiling, cooling rates.

  9. Cleavage of desmin by cysteine proteases: Calpains and cathepsin B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, S.; Purslow, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The intermediate filament protein, desmin, was purified from pork longissimus dorsi and incubated with either P-calpain, m-calpain or cathepsin B. Proteolysis of desmin was followed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. After incubation of desmin with the proteases, cleavage sites on the desmin...... a sequential C-terminal degradation pattern characteristic of this dipeptylpeptidase. The substrate primary structure was not found to be essential for regulation of the proteolytic activity of the cysteine peptidases studied. However, the degradation patterns obtained imply that calpains are involved...

  10. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M E; Gonzales, N O; Zimmerman, L W; Yang, J

    2006-03-17

    The cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide, in the presence of sulfuric acid, to form phenol and acetone has been examined by adiabatic calorimetry. As expected, acid can catalyze cumene hydroperoxide reaction at temperatures below that of thermally-induced decomposition. At elevated acid concentrations, reactivity is also observed at or below room temperature. The exhibited reactivity behavior is complex and is significantly affected by the presence of other species (including the products). Several reaction models have been explored to explain the behavior and these are discussed.

  11. PACdb: PolyA Cleavage Site and 3'-UTR Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, J Michael; Singh, Priyam; Liu, Donglin; Quinlan, Sean; Salisbury, Jesse; Graber, Joel H

    2005-09-15

    The PolyA Cleavage Site and 3'-UTR Database (PACdb) is a web-accessible database that catalogs putative 3'-processing sites and 3'-UTR sequences for multiple organisms. Sites have been identified primarily via expressed sequence tag-genome alignments, enabling delineation of both the specificities and heterogeneity of 3'-processing events. By web browser or CGI: PACdb: http://harlequin.jax.org/pacdb/; AtPACdb: http://harlequin.jax.org/atpacdb/. Available online at http://harlequin.jax.org/pacdb/supplemental.php.

  12. A thermodynamic theory of dynamic fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yew, Ching H. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Taylor, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    We present a theory of dynamic fragmentation of brittle materials based on thermodynamic arguments. We recover the expressions for average fragment size and number as originally derived by Grady. We extend the previous work by obtaining descriptions of fragment size distribution and compressibility change due to the fragmentation process. The size distribution is assumed to be proportional to the spectral power of the strain history and a sample distribution is presented for a fragmentation process corresponding to a constant rate strain history. The description of compressibility change should be useful in computational studies of fragmentation. These results should provide insight into the process of fragmentation of brittle materials from hypervelocity impact.

  13. Symmetrical P4 cleavage at cobalt: characterization of intermediates on the way from P4 to coordinated P2 units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Simon; Ertler, Daniel; Radius, Udo

    2012-03-19

    Degradation of white phosphorus (P(4)) in the coordination sphere of transition metals is commonly divided into two major pathways depending on the P(x) ligands obtained. Consecutive metal-assisted P-P bond cleavage of four bonds of the P(4) tetrahedron leads to complexes featuring two P(2) ligands (symmetric cleavage) or one P(3) and one P(1) ligand (asymmetric cleavage). A systematic investigation of the degradation of white phosphorus P(4) to coordinated μ,η(2:2)-bridging diphosphorus ligands in the coordination sphere of cobalt is presented herein as well as isolation of each of the decisive intermediates on the reaction pathway. The olefin complex [Cp*Co((i)Pr(2)Im)(η(2)-C(2)H(4))], 1 (Cp* = η(5)-C(5)Me(5), (i)Pr(2)Im = 1,3-di-isopropylimidazolin-2-ylidene), reacts with P(4) to give [Cp*Co((i)Pr(2)Im)(η(2)-P(4))], 2, the insertion product of [Cp*Co((i)Pr(2)Im)] into one of the P-P bonds. Addition of a further equivalent of the Co(I) complex [Cp*Co((i)Pr(2)Im)(η(2)-C(2)H(4))], 1, induces cleavage of a second P-P bond to yield the dinuclear complex [{Cp*Co((i)Pr(2)Im)}(2)(μ,η(2:2)-P(4))], 3, in which a kinked cyclo-P(4)(4-) ligand bridges two cobalt atoms. Consecutive dissociation of the N-heterocyclic carbene with concomitant rearrangement of the cyclo-P(4) ligand and P-P dissociation leads to complexes [Cp*Co(μ,η(4:2)-P(4))Co((i)Pr(2)Im)Cp*], 4, featuring a P(4) chain, and [{Cp*Co(μ,η(2:2)-P(2))}(2)], 5, in which two isolated P(2)(2-) ligands bridge two [Cp*Co] fragments. Each of these reactions is quantitative if performed on an NMR scale, and each compound can be isolated in high yields and large quantities.

  14. Population pressure and farm fragmentation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    small but farms are further fragmented into diminutive size fields due to ... terms of household characteristics; land use and performance indicators; technology adoption .... 'best' unit of measurement of farm size, and size of enterprises within farms will ..... less common, accounting for 18 percent (3 percent) and 10 percent (7.

  15. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  16. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  17. The Fragmentation of Literary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Syllabi from some 20 colleges and universities were reviewed with prominent English and literature departments and a discussion was held with a number of professors who teach literary theory. It is suggested that devolution and fragmentation of theory might be a survival strategy, an adaptation to the new realties of academic institutions.

  18. Fragmented nature : consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  19. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Ritchie, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  20. Fragmented nature : consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  1. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Ritchie, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  2. In vivo proof-of-concept of removal of the huntingtin caspase cleavage motif-encoding exon 12 approach in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaca-Carreira, João; Toonen, Lodewijk J A; Evers, Melvin M; Jahanshahi, Ali; van-Roon-Mom, Willeke M C; Temel, Yasin

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominant disease, caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HTT gene, resulting in an expanded polyglutamine stretch at the N-terminal of the huntingtin protein. An important event in HD pathogenesis appears to be the proteolysis of the mutant protein, which forms N-terminal huntingtin fragments. These fragments form insoluble aggregates and are found in nuclei and cytoplasm of affected neurons where they interfere with normal cell functioning. Important cleavage sites are encoded by exon 12 of HTT. A novel approach is Htt protein modification through exon skipping, which has recently been proven effective both in vitro and in vivo. Here we report proof-of-concept of AON 12.1 in vivo using the YAC128 mouse model of HD. Our results support and encourage future longitudinal studies exploring the therapeutic effects of sustained infusions in the YAC128 mouse model.

  3. Caspase-2 cleavage of tau reversibly impairs memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Kotilinek, Linda A; Smith, Benjamin; Hlynialuk, Chris; Zahs, Kathleen; Ramsden, Martin; Cleary, James; Ashe, Karen H

    2016-11-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies, the tau protein forms fibrils, which are believed to be neurotoxic. However, fibrillar tau has been dissociated from neuron death and network dysfunction, suggesting the involvement of nonfibrillar species. Here we describe a novel pathological process in which caspase-2 cleavage of tau at Asp314 impairs cognitive and synaptic function in animal and cellular models of tauopathies by promoting the missorting of tau to dendritic spines. The truncation product, Δtau314, resists fibrillation and is present at higher levels in brains from cognitively impaired mice and humans with AD. The expression of tau mutants that resisted caspase-2 cleavage prevented tau from infiltrating spines, dislocating glutamate receptors and impairing synaptic function in cultured neurons, and it prevented memory deficits and neurodegeneration in mice. Decreasing the levels of caspase-2 restored long-term memory in mice that had existing deficits. Our results suggest an overall treatment strategy for re-establishing synaptic function and restoring memory in patients with AD by preventing tau from accumulating in dendritic spines.

  4. CLEAVAGE OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP FIBRES BY HCL AND CELLULASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ander

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new pulp fibre testing procedure called the HCl method was used to compare different spruce and pine fibres and mixtures of these fibres to calculate number of fibre cleavages in dislocations and other weak points. This method was compared with treatment of softwood kraft pulp fibres using different cellulase mixtures. The HCl method can distinguish between mill- and laboratory-made softwood kraft pulp fibres from the same wood batch. The sugar release is characterized by xylose and other hemicellulose sugars and little glucose. This is in contrast to cellulases, which despite strong fibre cleavage, did not distinguish between mill- and laboratory-made pulp fibres and released large amounts of glucose from the fibres. Hemicellulose degradation by HCl and deep penetration of the acid into the primary and secondary fibre cell walls at 80°C seems to be of major importance for the differentiation between mill and laboratory pulp fibres. Cellulases, in contrast, act mostly on the fibre surfaces, and deep penetration only takes place in amorphous regions of dislocations.

  5. piRNA-directed cleavage of meiotic transcripts regulates spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Wee Siong Sho; Falciatori, Ilaria; Tam, Oliver H; Burgess, Ralph; Meikar, Oliver; Kotaja, Noora; Hammell, Molly; Hannon, Gregory J

    2015-05-15

    MIWI catalytic activity is required for spermatogenesis, indicating that piRNA-guided cleavage is critical for germ cell development. To identify meiotic piRNA targets, we augmented the mouse piRNA repertoire by introducing a human meiotic piRNA cluster. This triggered a spermatogenesis defect by inappropriately targeting the piRNA machinery to mouse mRNAs essential for germ cell development. Analysis of such de novo targets revealed a signature for pachytene piRNA target recognition. This enabled identification of both transposable elements and meiotically expressed protein-coding genes as targets of native piRNAs. Cleavage of genic targets began at the pachytene stage and resulted in progressive repression through meiosis, driven at least in part via the ping-pong cycle. Our data support the idea that meiotic piRNA populations must be strongly selected to enable successful spermatogenesis, both driving the response away from essential genes and directing the pathway toward mRNA targets that are regulated by small RNAs in meiotic cells.

  6. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, M. O.; Bryś, T.; Gamboni, Th.; Geerts, W.; Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.; Borcea, R.

    2013-12-01

    The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF) technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD) show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  7. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frégeau M.O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  8. Up-regulation of c-Jun inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via caspase-triggered c-Abl cleavage in human multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Klaus; Raab, Marc S; Tonon, Giovanni; Sattler, Martin; Barilà, Daniela; Zhang, Jing; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Yasui, Hiroshi; Raje, Noopur; DePinho, Ronald A; Hideshima, Teru; Chauhan, Dharminder; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2007-02-15

    Here we show the antimyeloma cytotoxicity of adaphostin and carried out expression profiling of adaphostin-treated multiple myeloma (MM) cells to identify its molecular targets. Surprisingly, c-Jun was the most up-regulated gene even at the earliest point of analysis (2 h). We also observed adaphostin-induced c-Abl cleavage in immunoblot analysis. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, but not melphalan or dexamethasone, induced similar effects, indicating unique agent-dependent mechanisms. Using caspase inhibitors, as well as caspase-resistant mutants of c-Abl (TM-c-Abl and D565A-Abl), we then showed that c-Abl cleavage in MM cells requires caspase activity. Importantly, both overexpression of the c-Abl fragment or c-Jun and knockdown of c-Abl and c-Jun expression by small interfering RNA confirmed that adaphostin-induced c-Jun up-regulation triggers downstream caspase-mediated c-Abl cleavage, inhibition of MM cell growth, and induction of apoptosis. Finally, our data suggest that this mechanism may not only be restricted to MM but may also be important in a broad range of malignancies including erythroleukemia and solid tumors.

  9. Resonance Raman spectroscopy reveals pH-dependent active site structural changes of lactoperoxidase compound 0 and its ferryl heme O-O bond cleavage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Piotr J; Thammawichai, Warut; Wiedenhoeft, Dennis; Kincaid, James R

    2015-01-14

    The first step in the enzymatic cycle of mammalian peroxidases, including lactoperoxidase (LPO), is binding of hydrogen peroxide to the ferric resting state to form a ferric-hydroperoxo intermediate designated as Compound 0, the residual proton temporarily associating with the distal pocket His109 residue. Upon delivery of this "stored" proton to the hydroperoxo fragment, it rapidly undergoes O-O bond cleavage, thereby thwarting efforts to trap it using rapid mixing methods. Fortunately, as shown herein, both the peroxo and the hydroperoxo (Compound 0) forms of LPO can be trapped by cryoradiolysis, with acquisition of their resonance Raman (rR) spectra now permitting structural characterization of their key Fe-O-O fragments. Studies were conducted under both acidic and alkaline conditions, revealing pH-dependent differences in relative populations of these intermediates. Furthermore, upon annealing, the low pH samples convert to two forms of a ferryl heme O-O bond-cleavage product, whose ν(Fe═O) frequencies reflect substantially different Fe═O bond strengths. In the process of conducting these studies, rR structural characterization of the dioxygen adduct of LPO, commonly called Compound III, has also been completed, demonstrating a substantial difference in the strengths of the Fe-O linkage of the Fe-O-O fragment under acidic and alkaline conditions, an effect most reasonably attributed to a corresponding weakening of the trans-axial histidyl imidazole linkage at lower pH. Collectively, these new results provide important insight into the impact of pH on the disposition of the key Fe-O-O and Fe═O fragments of intermediates that arise in the enzymatic cycles of LPO, other mammalian peroxidases, and related proteins.

  10. Vasoinhibins: a family of N-terminal prolactin fragments that inhibit angiogenesis and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Carmen; González, Carmen; Macotela, Yazmín; Aranda, Jorge; Rivera, José C; García, Celina; Guzmán, Jessica; Zamorano, Miriam; Vega, Claudia; Martín, Cecilia; Jeziorski, Michael C; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Antiangiogenic molecules derived from prolactin (PRL) are not a single entity, but rather a family of peptides with different molecular masses, all containing the N-terminal region of PRL. Cleavage of PRL by cathepsin-D or by matrix metalloproteases generates N-terminal fragments that act on endothelial cells to suppress vasodilation and angiogenesis and promote vascular regression. N-terminal PRL fragments have been identified in cartilage and retina, where angiogenesis is highly restricted. In vivo experiments demonstrate that these PRL fragments exert a tonic and essential suppression of retinal blood vessel growth and dilation. Similar PRL fragments have been detected in the pituitary gland, a highly vascularized organ where the control of vascular growth may differ from that in tissues where angiogenesis is highly restricted. We have previously proposed the name vasoinhibins to describe the collection of N-terminal PRL fragments having blood vessel-blocking activity, and here we discuss their promise as factors to control vascular function in health and disease.

  11. Measurement of fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the multistep heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Jesse H.; Smith, Jared D.; Che, Dung L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2009-03-10

    The competition between the addition of polar, oxygen-containing functional groups (functionalization) and the cleavage of C-C bonds (fragmentation) has a governing influence on the change in volatility of organic species upon atmospheric oxidation, and hence on the loading of tropospheric organic aerosol. However the branching between these two channels is generally poorly constrained for oxidized organics. Here we determine functionalization/fragmentation branching ratios for organics spanning a range of oxidation levels, using the heterogeneous oxidation of squalane (C30H62) as a model system. Squalane particles are exposed to high concentrations of OH in a flow reactor, and measurements of particle mass and elemental ratios enable the determination of absolute elemental composition (number of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen atoms) of the oxidized particles. At low OH exposures, the oxygen content of the organics increases, indicating that functionalization dominates, whereas at higher exposures the amount of carbon in the particles decreases, indicating the increasing importance of fragmentation processes. Once the organics are moderately oxidized (O/C~;;0.4), fragmentation completely dominates, and the increase in O/C ratio upon further oxidation is due to the loss of carbon rather than the addition of oxygen. These results suggest that fragmentation reactions may be key steps in the atmospheric formation and evolution of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA).

  12. 213 nm Ultraviolet Photodissociation on Peptide Anions: Radical-Directed Fragmentation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Mohammad A.; Girod, Marion; MacAleese, Luke; Lemoine, Jérôme; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of acidic peptides and proteins is greatly hindered due to lack of suitable analytical techniques. Here we present the implementation of 213 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) in high-resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer in negative polarity for peptide anions. Radical-driven backbone fragmentation provides 22 distinctive fragment ion types, achieving the complete sequence coverage for all reported peptides. Hydrogen-deficient radical anion not only promotes the cleavage of Cα-C bond but also stimulates the breaking of N-Cα and C-N bonds. Radical-directed loss of small molecules and specific side chain of amino acids are detected in these experiments. Radical containing side chain of amino acids (Tyr, Ser, Thr, and Asp) may possibly support the N-Cα backbone fragmentation. Proline comprising peptides exhibit the unusual fragment ions similar to reported earlier. Interestingly, basic amino acids such as Arg and Lys also stimulated the formation of abundant b and y ions of the related peptide anions. Loss of hydrogen atom from the charge-reduced radical anion and fragment ions are rationalized by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculation, locating the potential energy surface (PES) of ππ* and repulsive πσ* excited states of a model amide system.

  13. Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Riitters

    2009-01-01

    Effective resource management takes into account the administrative and biophysical settings within which natural resources occur. A setting may be described in many ways; for example, by forest land ownership, by reserved and roadless designation, or by the distribution of human populations in relation to forest (chapter 3). The physical arrangement of forest in a...

  14. Fragmentation of Singly, Doubly, and Triply Charged Hydrogen Deficient Peptide Radical Cations in Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation and Electron Induced Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalli, Anastasia; Hess, Sonja

    2012-02-01

    Gas phase fragmentation of hydrogen deficient peptide radical cations continues to be an active area of research. While collision induced dissociation (CID) of singly charged species is widely examined, dissociation channels of singly and multiply charged radical cations in infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) and electron induced dissociation (EID) have not been, so far, investigated. Here, we report on the gas phase dissociation of singly, doubly and triply charged hydrogen deficient peptide radicals, [M + nH](n+1)+· ( n = 0, 1, 2), in MS3 IRMPD and EID and compare the observed fragmentation pathways to those obtained in MS3 CID. Backbone fragmentation in MS3 IRMPD and EID was highly dependent on the charge state of the radical precursor ions, whereas amino acid side chain cleavages were largely independent of the charge state selected for fragmentation. Cleavages at aromatic amino acids, either through side chain loss or backbone fragmentation, were significantly enhanced over other dissociation channels. For singly charged species, the MS3 IRMPD and EID spectra were mainly governed by radical-driven dissociation. Fragmentation of doubly and triply charged radical cations proceeded through both radical- and charge-driven processes, resulting in the formation of a wide range of backbone product ions including, a-, b-, c-, y-, x-, and z-type. While similarities existed between MS3 CID, IRMPD, and EID of the same species, several backbone product ions and side chain losses were unique for each activation method. Furthermore, dominant dissociation pathways in each spectrum were dependent on ion activation method, amino acid composition, and charge state selected for fragmentation.

  15. Efficient and accurate fragmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Spencer R; Bertoni, Colleen; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Three novel fragmentation methods that are available in the electronic structure program GAMESS (general atomic and molecular electronic structure system) are discussed in this Account. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method can be combined with any electronic structure method to perform accurate calculations on large molecular species with no reliance on capping atoms or empirical parameters. The FMO method is highly scalable and can take advantage of massively parallel computer systems. For example, the method has been shown to scale nearly linearly on up to 131 000 processor cores for calculations on large water clusters. There have been many applications of the FMO method to large molecular clusters, to biomolecules (e.g., proteins), and to materials that are used as heterogeneous catalysts. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a model potential approach that is fully derived from first principles and has no empirically fitted parameters. Consequently, an EFP can be generated for any molecule by a simple preparatory GAMESS calculation. The EFP method provides accurate descriptions of all types of intermolecular interactions, including Coulombic interactions, polarization/induction, exchange repulsion, dispersion, and charge transfer. The EFP method has been applied successfully to the study of liquid water, π-stacking in substituted benzenes and in DNA base pairs, solvent effects on positive and negative ions, electronic spectra and dynamics, non-adiabatic phenomena in electronic excited states, and nonlinear excited state properties. The effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is a merger of the FMO and EFP methods, in which interfragment interactions are described by the EFP potential, rather than the less accurate electrostatic potential. The use of EFP in this manner facilitates the use of a smaller value for the distance cut-off (Rcut). Rcut determines the distance at which EFP interactions replace fully quantum

  16. A single molecule assay for measuring site-specific DNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Stefano; Mousley, Briana; Cathcart, Lindsay; Winship, Janelle; Loparo, Joseph J; Price, Allen C

    2016-02-15

    Sequence-specific DNA cleavage is a key step in a number of genomic transactions. Here, we report a single-molecule technique that allows the simultaneous measurement of hundreds of DNAs, thereby collecting significant statistics in a single experiment. Microbeads are tethered with single DNA molecules in a microfluidic channel. After the DNA cleavage reaction is initiated, the time of cleavage of each DNA is recorded using video microscopy. We demonstrate the utility of our method by measuring the cleavage kinetics of NdeI, a type II restriction endonuclease.

  17. Caspase cleavage product of BAP31 induces mitochondrial fission through endoplasmic reticulum calcium signals, enhancing cytochrome c release to the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, David G; Stojanovic, Marina; Marcellus, Richard C; Shore, Gordon C

    2003-03-31

    Stimulation of cell surface death receptors activates caspase-8, which targets a limited number of substrates including BAP31, an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recently, we reported that a caspase-resistant BAP31 mutant inhibited several features of Fas-induced apoptosis, including the release of cytochrome c (cyt.c) from mitochondria (Nguyen, M., D.G. Breckenridge, A. Ducret, and G.C. Shore. 2000. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20:6731-6740), implicating ER-mitochondria crosstalk in this pathway. Here, we report that the p20 caspase cleavage fragment of BAP31 can direct pro-apoptotic signals between the ER and mitochondria. Adenoviral expression of p20 caused an early release of Ca2+ from the ER, concomitant uptake of Ca2+ into mitochondria, and mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1, a dynamin-related protein that mediates scission of the outer mitochondrial membrane, resulting in dramatic fragmentation and fission of the mitochondrial network. Inhibition of Drp1 or ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling prevented p20-induced fission of mitochondria. p20 strongly sensitized mitochondria to caspase-8-induced cyt.c release, whereas prolonged expression of p20 on its own ultimately induced caspase activation and apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptosome stress pathway. Therefore, caspase-8 cleavage of BAP31 at the ER stimulates Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial fission, enhancing the release of cyt.c in response to this initiator caspase.

  18. Gas-phase fragmentation of protonated piplartine and its fungal metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Junior, E A; Paludo, C R; Gouvea, D R; Kato, M J; Furtado, N A J C; Lopes, N P; Vessecchi, R; Pupo, M T

    2017-08-01

    Piplartine, an alkaloid produced by plants in the genus Piper, displays promising anticancer activity. Understanding the gas-phase fragmentation of piplartine by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry can be a useful tool to characterize biotransformed compounds produced by in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies. As part of our efforts to understand natural product fragmentation in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, the gas-phase fragmentation of piplartine and its two metabolites 3,4-dihydropiplartine and 8,9-dihydropiplartine, produced by the endophytic fungus Penicillium crustosum VR4 biotransformation, were systematically investigated. Proposed fragmentation reactions were supported by ESI-MS/MS data and computational thermochemistry. Cleavage of the C-7 and N-amide bond, followed by the formation of an acylium ion, were characteristic fragmentation reactions of piplartine and its analogs. The production of the acylium ion was followed by three consecutive and competitive reactions that involved methyl and methoxyl radical eliminations and neutral CO elimination, followed by the formation of a four-member ring with a stabilized tertiary carbocation. The absence of a double bond between carbons C-8 and C-9 in 8,9-dihydropiplartine destabilized the acylium ion and resulted in a fragmentation pathway not observed for piplartine and 3,4-dihydropiplartine. These results contribute to the further understanding of alkaloid gas-phase fragmentation and the future identification of piplartine metabolites and analogs using tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Fragmentation in the biopharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Andrew D; Varela, Francisco E

    2017-02-01

    The large number of biopharmaceutical mergers and acquisitions (M&A) that occurred over the past decade has generated questions about whether the industry is consolidating around too-few players, negatively impacting both the number of medicines developed and overall innovation. However, closer examination of the level of biopharmaceutical consolidation by prescription sales shows that the industry was more fragmented in 2015 than in 2003. The trend towards increasing fragmentation is also observed across noncommercial and independent metrics over the same time period. The number and size of M&A deals has masked an active and competitive marketplace in which market growth and the number of companies entering the market exceeded the apparent reduction in the number of players caused by acquisitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  1. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, L.; Erdelyi, B.; Hausmann, M.; Kubo, T.; Nolen, J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B.M. (Physics); (MSU); (Northern Illinois Univ.); (RIKEN)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  2. Fragment correlations from NAUTILUS multidetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizard, G. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    1995-12-31

    It is shown on a few examples how heavy fragment correlations, induced either by conservation laws or by Coulomb interaction can bring physical information on nuclear reactions. All the experimental data discussed have been obtained at GANIL using the NAUTILUS gaseous multi detectors DELF and XYZT, which - due to their good spatial and time resolution and their large solid angle coverage - have proved to be efficient tools for multifragment correlation studies. Different reactions of Ar, Kr, Xe, and Pb beams on Au targets are discussed. It is shown that velocity and angular correlations between fragments provide a powerful clock to scrutinize the details of the hot nuclei decay history. (K.A.). 18 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Fragmentation in filamentary molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, Yanett; Rathborne, Jill M; Sanhueza, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Recent surveys of dust continuum emission at sub-mm wavelengths have shown that filamentary molecular clouds are ubiquitous along the Galactic plane. These structures are inhomogeneous, with over-densities that are sometimes associated with infrared emission and active of star formation. To investigate the connection between filaments and star formation, requires an understanding of the processes that lead to the fragmentation of filaments and a determination of the physical properties of the over-densities (clumps). In this paper, we present a multi-wavelength study of five filamentary molecular clouds, containing several clumps in different evolutionary stages of star formation. We analyse the fragmentation of the filaments and derive the physical properties of their clumps. We find that the clumps in all filaments have a characteristic spacing consistent with the prediction of the `sausage' instability theory, regardless of the complex morphology of the filaments or their evolutionary stage. We also find t...

  4. Fragmentering og korridorer i landskabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, M.; Madsen, A. B.

    , at fragmentering af habitater resulterer i en reduktion og isolering af mange plante- og dyrepopulationer. Det er desuden vist, at korridorer har en funktion som habitater, hvilket er medvirkende til, at et område med korridorer kan huse flere arter og individer end et tilsvarende område uden korridorer. Der......Rapporten indeholder en litteraturudredning, der er baseret på en bearbejdning af den tilgængelige nationale og internationale litteratur omhandlende fragmentering og korridorer på det botaniske og zoologiske område. I alt 1.063 titler ligger til grund for udredningen. Udredningen har vist...... mangler dog entydige beviser for, at korridorer kan være af afgørende betydning for rekolonisering af habitater, i hvilke en given art er forsvundet. Afslutningsvis gives en liste med forskningsbehov samt en række anbefalinger....

  5. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-01

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping Atotal fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of 197Au+27Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  6. The fragmentation of Kosmos 2163

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    On 6 Dec. 1991 Kosmos 2163, a maneuverable Soviet spacecraft which had been in orbit for 58 days, experienced a major breakup at an altitude of approximately 210 km. Although numerous pieces of debris were created, the fragments decayed rapidly leaving no long-term impact on the near-Earth environment. The assessed cause of the event is the deliberate detonation of an explosive device. Details of this event are presented.

  7. Modeling of Fragmentation of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Carlozzi, Alexander; Hart, Kenneth; Bryson, Katie; Sears, Derek

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand fragmentation and fracture of a given asteroid and mechanisms of break-up. The focus of the present work is to develop modeling techniques for stony asteroids in 10m-100m range to answer two questions: 1) What is the role of material makeup of an asteroid in the stress distribution? 2)How is stress distribution altered in the presence of pre-existing defects?

  8. MicroRNA directs mRNA cleavage of the transcription factor NAC1 to downregulate auxin signals for arabidopsis lateral root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Shan; Xie, Qi; Fei, Ji-Feng; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2005-05-01

    Although several plant microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play a role in plant development, no phenotype has yet been associated with a reduction or loss of expression of any plant miRNA. Arabidopsis thaliana miR164 was predicted to target five NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC) domain-encoding mRNAs, including NAC1, which transduces auxin signals for lateral root emergence. Here, we show that miR164 guides the cleavage of endogenous and transgenic NAC1 mRNA, producing 3'-specific fragments. Cleavage was blocked by NAC1 mutations that disrupt base pairing with miR164. Compared with wild-type plants, Arabidopsis mir164a and mir164b mutant plants expressed less miR164 and more NAC1 mRNA and produced more lateral roots. These mutant phenotypes can be complemented by expression of the appropriate MIR164a and MIR164b genomic sequences. By contrast, inducible expression of miR164 in wild-type plants led to decreased NAC1 mRNA levels and reduced lateral root emergence. Auxin induction of miR164 was mirrored by an increase in the NAC1 mRNA 3' fragment, which was not observed in the auxin-insensitive mutants auxin resistant1 (axr1-12), axr2-1, and transport inhibitor response1. Moreover, the cleavage-resistant form of NAC1 mRNA was unaffected by auxin treatment. Our results indicate that auxin induction of miR164 provides a homeostatic mechanism to clear NAC1 mRNA to downregulate auxin signals.

  9. Mutation G805R in the transmembrane domain of the LDL receptor gene causes familial hypercholesterolemia by inducing ectodomain cleavage of the LDL receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Bismo Strøm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 1700 mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene have been found to cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. These are commonly divided into five classes based upon their effects on the structure and function of the LDLR. However, little is known about the mechanism by which mutations in the transmembrane domain of the LDLR gene cause FH. We have studied how the transmembrane mutation G805R affects the function of the LDLR. Based upon Western blot analyses of transfected HepG2 cells, mutation G805R reduced the amounts of the 120 kDa precursor LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. This led to reduced amounts of the mature 160 kDa LDLR at the cell surface. However, significant amounts of a secreted 140 kDa G805R-LDLR ectodomain fragment was observed in the culture media. Treatment of the cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat largely restored the amounts of the 120 and 160 kDa forms in cell lysates, and prevented secretion of the 140 kDa ectodomain fragment. Together, these data indicate that a metalloproteinase cleaved the ectodomain of the 120 kDa precursor G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. It was the presence of the polar Arg805 and not the lack of Gly805 which led to ectodomain cleavage. Arg805 also prevented γ-secretase cleavage within the transmembrane domain. It is conceivable that introducing a charged residue within the hydrophobic membrane lipid bilayer, results in less efficient incorporation of the 120 kDa G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and makes it a substrate for metalloproteinase cleavage.

  10. Alternative Selection of β-Site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1) Cleavage Sites in Amyloid β-Protein Precursor (APP) Harboring Protective and Pathogenic Mutations within the Aβ Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ayano; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2016-11-11

    β-Site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) cleaves amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) at the bond between Met(671) and Asp(672) (β-site) to generate the carboxyl-terminal fragment (CTFβ/C99). BACE1 also cleaves APP at another bond between Thr(681) and Gln(682) (β'-site), yielding CTFβ'/C89. Cleavage of CTFβ/C99 by γ-secretase generates Aβ(1-XX), whereas cleavage of CTFβ'/C89 generates Aβ(11-XX). Thus, β'-site cleavage by BACE1 is amyloidolytic rather than amyloidogenic. β' cleavage of mouse APP is more common than the corresponding cleavage of human APP. We found that the H684R substitution within human Aβ, which replaces the histidine in the human protein with the arginine found at the corresponding position in mouse, facilitated β' cleavage irrespective of the species origin of BACE1, thereby significantly increasing the level of Aβ(11-XX) and decreasing the level of Aβ(1-XX). Thus, amino acid substitutions within the Aβ sequence influenced the selectivity of alternative β- or β'-site cleavage of APP by BACE1. In familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), the APP gene harbors pathogenic variations such as the Swedish (K670N/M671L), Leuven (E682K), and A673V mutations, all of which decrease Aβ(11-40) generation, whereas the protective Icelandic mutation (A673T) increases generation of Aβ(11-40). Thus, A673T promotes β' cleavage of APP and protects subjects against AD. In addition, CTFβ/C99 was cleaved by excess BACE1 activity to generate CTFβ'/C89, followed by Aβ(11-40), even if APP harbored pathogenic mutations. The resultant Aβ(11-40) was more metabolically labile in vivo than Aβ(1-40). Our analysis suggests that some FAD mutations in APP are amyloidogenic and/or amyloidolytic via selection of alternative BACE1 cleavage sites.

  11. Structure and Synaptic Function of Metal Binding to the Amyloid Precursor Protein and its Proteolytic Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Klemens; August, Alexander; Pietrzik, Claus U.; Kins, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is ultimately linked to the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, current research reveals an important synaptic function of APP and APP-like proteins (APLP1 and 2). In this context various neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions have been reported for the APP proteolytic fragments sAPPα, sAPPβ and the monomeric amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ). APP is a metalloprotein and binds copper and zinc ions. Synaptic activity correlates with a release of these ions into the synaptic cleft and dysregulation of their homeostasis is linked to different neurodegenerative diseases. Metal binding to APP or its fragments affects its structure and its proteolytic cleavage and therefore its physiological function at the synapse. Here, we summarize the current data supporting this hypothesis and provide a model of how these different mechanisms might be intertwined with each other. PMID:28197076

  12. Realizing directional cloning using sticky ends produced by 3ʹ-5ʹ exonuclease of Klenow fragment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guojie Zhao; Jun Li; Tianyu Hu; Hua Wei; Yifu Guan

    2013-12-01

    The Klenow fragment (KF) has been used to make the blunt end as a tool enzyme. Its 5′-3′ polymerase activity can extend the 5′ overhanging sticky end to the blunt end, and 3′-5′ exonuclease activity can cleave the 3′ overhanging sticky end to the blunt end. The blunt end is useful for cloning. Here, we for the first time determined that a sticky end can be made by using the 3′-5′ exonuclease activity of KF. We found that KF can cleave the blunt end into certain sticky ends under controlled conditions. We optimized enzyme cleavage conditions, and characterized the cleaved sticky ends to be mainly 2 nt 5′ overhang. By using these sticky ends, we realized ligation reaction in vitro, and accomplished cloning short oligonucleotides directionally with high cloning efficiency. In some cases, this method can provide sticky end fragments in large scale for subsequent convenient cloning at low cost.

  13. Molecular modeling of sialyloligosaccharide fragments into the active site of influenza virus N9 neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluraja, K; Suresh, M X; Christlet, T H; Rafi, Z A

    2001-08-01

    Molecular modeling studies have been carried out to investigate the interactions between substrate sialyloligosaccharide (SOS) fragments bearing different glycosidic linkages and influenza virus N9 neuraminidase, a surface glycoprotein of influenza virus subtype N9. The studies revealed that the allowed orientation for sialic acid (SA) is less than 1% in the Eulerian space at the active site. The active site of this enzyme has enough space to accommodate various SOS fragments, NeuNAcalpha(2-3)Gal, NeuNAcalpha(2-6)Gal, NeuNAcalpha(2-8)NeuNAc and NeuNAcalpha(2-9)NeuNAc, but on specific conformations. In the bound conformation, among these substrates there exists a conformational similarity leading to a structural similarity, which may be an essential requirement for the cleavage activity of the neuraminidases irrespective of the type of glycosidic linkage.

  14. Fragmentation measurement using image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, first of all, the existing problems in fragmentation measurement are reviewed for the sake of its fast and reliable evaluation. Then, the available methods used for evaluation of blast results are mentioned. The produced errors especially in recognizing the rock fragments in computer-aided methods, and also, the importance of determination of their sizes in the image analysis methods are described. After reviewing the previous work done, an algorithm is proposed for the automated determination of rock particles’ boundary in the Matlab software. This method can determinate automatically the particles boundary in the minimum time. The results of proposed method are compared with those of Split Desktop and GoldSize software in two automated and manual states. Comparing the curves extracted from different methods reveals that the proposed approach is accurately applicable in measuring the size distribution of laboratory samples, while the manual determination of boundaries in the conventional software is very time-consuming, and the results of automated netting of fragments are very different with the real value due to the error in separation of the objects.

  15. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  16. Intramolecular Aminocyanation of Alkenes via N–CN Bond Cleavage**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhongda; Pound, Sarah M.; Rondla, Naveen R.; Douglas, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    A metal-free, Lewis acid-promoted intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes was developed. B(C6F5)3 activates N-sulfonyl cyanamides, leading an formal cleavage of the N-CN bonds in conjunction with vicinal addition of sulfonamide and nitrile groups across an alkene. This method enables atom-economical access to indolines and tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields, and provides a complementary strategy for regioselective alkene difunctionalizations with sulfonamide and nitrile groups. Labeling experiments with 13C suggest a fully intramolecular cyclization pattern due to lack of label scrambling in double crossover experiments. Catalysis with Lewis acid is realized and the reaction can be conducted under air. PMID:24719371

  17. Intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes by N-CN bond cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhongda; Pound, Sarah M; Rondla, Naveen R; Douglas, Christopher J

    2014-05-12

    A metal-free, Lewis acid promoted intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes was developed. B(C6F5)3 activates N-sulfonyl cyanamides, thus leading to a formal cleavage of the N-CN bonds in conjunction with vicinal addition of sulfonamide and nitrile groups across an alkene. This method enables atom-economical access to indolines and tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields, and provides a complementary strategy for regioselective alkene difunctionalizations with sulfonamide and nitrile groups. Labeling experiments with (13)C suggest a fully intramolecular cyclization pattern due to the lack of label scrambling in double crossover experiments. Catalysis with Lewis acid is realized and the reaction can be conducted under air. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cleavage of an amide bond by a ribozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, X.; De Mesmaeker, A.; Joyce, G. F.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A variant form of a group I ribozyme, optimized by in vitro evolution for its ability to catalyze magnesium-dependent phosphoester transfer reactions involving DNA substrates, also catalyzes the cleavage of an unactivated alkyl amide when that linkage is presented in the context of an oligodeoxynucleotide analog. Substrates containing an amide bond that joins either two DNA oligos, or a DNA oligo and a short peptide, are cleaved in a magnesium-dependent fashion to generate the expected products. The first-order rate constant, kcat, is 0.1 x 10(-5) min-1 to 1 x 10(-5) min-1 for the DNA-flanked substrates, which corresponds to a rate acceleration of more than 10(3) as compared with the uncatalyzed reaction.

  19. Regulation of DNA Replication in Early Embryonic Cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chames Kermi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early embryonic cleavages are characterized by short and highly synchronous cell cycles made of alternating S- and M-phases with virtually absent gap phases. In this contracted cell cycle, the duration of DNA synthesis can be extraordinarily short. Depending on the organism, the whole genome of an embryo is replicated at a speed that is between 20 to 60 times faster than that of a somatic cell. Because transcription in the early embryo is repressed, DNA synthesis relies on a large stockpile of maternally supplied proteins stored in the egg representing most, if not all, cellular genes. In addition, in early embryonic cell cycles, both replication and DNA damage checkpoints are inefficient. In this article, we will review current knowledge on how DNA synthesis is regulated in early embryos and discuss possible consequences of replicating chromosomes with little or no quality control.

  20. Dinitrogen cleavage and hydrogenation by a trinuclear titanium polyhydride complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Takanori; Hu, Shaowei; Luo, Gen; Kang, Xiaohui; Luo, Yi; Hou, Zhaomin

    2013-06-28

    Both the Haber-Bosch and biological ammonia syntheses are thought to rely on the cooperation of multiple metals in breaking the strong N≡N triple bond and forming an N-H bond. This has spurred investigations of the reactivity of molecular multimetallic hydrides with dinitrogen. We report here the reaction of a trinuclear titanium polyhydride complex with dinitrogen, which induces dinitrogen cleavage and partial hydrogenation at ambient temperature and pressure. By (1)H and (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray crystallographic, and computational studies of some key reaction steps and products, we have determined that the dinitrogen (N2) reduction proceeds sequentially through scission of a N2 molecule bonded to three Ti atoms in a μ-η(1):η(2):η(2)-end-on-side-on fashion to give a μ2-N/μ3-N dinitrido species, followed by intramolecular hydrogen migration from Ti to the μ2-N nitrido unit.

  1. Formation and cleavage of aromatic disulfide radical anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, Sabrina; Daasbjerg, Kim; Jensen, Henrik; Taddei, Ferdinando; Maran, Flavio

    2003-12-03

    The electron transfer (ET) to a series of para-substituted diaryl disulfides, having the general formula (X-C(6)H(4)S-)(2), has been studied. The X groups were selected as to have a comprehensive variation of the substituent effect, being X = NH(2), MeO, H, F, Cl, CO(2)Et, CN, and NO(2). The reduction was carried out experimentally, using N,N-dimethylformamide as the solvent, and by molecular orbital (MO) ab initio calculations. The ET was studied heterogeneously, by voltammetric reduction and convolution analysis, and homogeneously, by using electrogenerated radical anions as the solution electron donors. The reduction is dissociative, leading to the cleavage of the S-S bond in a stepwise manner. Both experimental approaches led us to estimate the E degrees and the intrinsic barrier values for the formation of the radical anions. Comparison of the independently obtained results allowed obtaining, for the first time, a quantitative description of the correlation between heterogeneous and homogeneous rate constants of ETs associated with significant inner reorganization energy. The experimental outcome was fully supported by the theoretical calculations, which provided information about the disulfide lowest unoccupied MOs (LUMOs) and singly occupied MO (SOMO), the bond dissociation energies, and the most significant structural modifications associated with radical anion formation. With disulfides bearing electron-donating or mildly electron-withdrawing groups, the inner reorganization is particularly large, which reflects the significant stretching of the S-S bond experienced by the molecule upon ET. The process entails formation of loose radical anion species in which the SOMO is heavily localized, as the LUMO, onto the frangible bond. As a consequence of the formation of these sigma-radical anions, the S-S bond energy of the latter is rather small and the cleavage rate constant is very large. With electron-withdrawing groups, the extent of delocalization of the

  2. Enzymic Pathways for Formation of Carotenoid Cleavage Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Peter; Zorn, Holger

    Degraded carotenoids (apocarotenoids, norisoprenoids) have been a subject of intensive research for several decades. From the perspective of human physiology and nutrition, the retinoids, acting as vitamins, signalling molecules, and visual pigments, attracted the greatest attention (Chapters 15 and 16). Plant scientists, however, detected a wealth of different apocarotenoids, presumably derived by the excentric cleavage of carotenoids in various species, the plant hormone abscisic acid (1, Scheme 6) being the best-investigated example. With the onset of fruit ripening, flower opening or senescence of green tissues, carotenoids are degraded oxidatively to smaller, volatile compounds. The natural biological functions of the reaction products are outlined in Chapter 15. As many of these apocarotenoids act as potent flavour compounds, food chemists and flavourists worldwide have investigated meticulously their structural and sensory properties. Many aspects of carotenoid metabolites and breakdown products as aroma compounds are presented in a comprehensive book [1].

  3. Localization of double bonds in wax esters by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry utilizing the fragmentation of acetonitrile-related adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Háková, Martina; Pecková, Karolina; Urbanová, Klára; Cvačka, Josef

    2011-04-15

    Unsaturated wax esters (WEs) provided molecular adducts with C(3)H(5)N ([M + 55](+•)) in APCI sources in the presence of acetonitrile. CID MS/MS of [M + 55](+•) yielded fragments allowing the localization of double bond(s) in the hydrocarbon chains of the WEs. These fragments were formed by a cleavage on each side of the double bond. In methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated WEs, diagnostic fragments related to each double bond were detected; the most abundant were those corresponding to the cleavage of the C-C bond next to the first and the last double bond. To differentiate between those fragments differing in their structure or origin, a simple nomenclature based on α and ω ions has been introduced. Fragmentation of the α-type ions (fragments containing an ester bond) provided information on the occurrence of a double bond in the acid or alcohol part of the WEs. While no significant differences between the spectra of the WEs differing by cis/trans isomerism were found, the isomers were separated chromatographically. A data-dependent HPLC/APCI-MS(2) method for the comprehensive characterization of WEs in their complex mixtures has been developed and applied to natural mixtures of WEs isolated from jojoba oil and beeswax. More than 50 WE molecular species were completely identified, including the information on the acid and alcohol chain length and the position of the double bonds.

  4. Nudged elastic band method and density functional theory calculation for finding a local minimum energy pathway of p-benzoquinone and phenol fragmentation in mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Natsuhiko; Igarashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Reiko; Shibue, Toshimichi

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the fragmentation pathways of molecules in mass spectrometry gives a fundamental insight into gas-phase ion chemistry. However, the conventional intrinsic reaction coordinates method requires knowledge of the transition states of ion structures in the fragmentation pathways. Herein, we use the nudged elastic band method, using only the initial and final state ion structures in the fragmentation pathways, and report the advantages and limitations of the method. We found a minimum energy path of p-benzoquinone ion fragmentation with two saddle points and one intermediate structure. The primary energy barrier, which corresponded to the cleavage of the C-C bond adjacent to the CO group, was calculated to be 1.50 eV. An additional energy barrier, which corresponded to the cleavage of the CO group, was calculated to be 0.68 eV. We also found an energy barrier of 3.00 eV, which was the rate determining step of the keto-enol tautomerization in CO elimination from the molecular ion of phenol. The nudged elastic band method allowed the determination of a minimum energy path using only the initial and final state ion structures in the fragmentation pathways, and it provided faster than the conventional intrinsic reaction coordinates method. In addition, this method was found to be effective in the analysis of the charge structures of the molecules during the fragmentation in mass spectrometry.

  5. C-S bond cleavage by a polyketide synthase domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Lohman, Jeremy R; Liu, Tao; Shen, Ben

    2015-08-18

    Leinamycin (LNM) is a sulfur-containing antitumor antibiotic featuring an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. The 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety is essential for LNM's antitumor activity, by virtue of its ability to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate capable of alkylating DNA. We have previously cloned and sequenced the lnm gene cluster from Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140. In vivo and in vitro characterizations of the LNM biosynthetic machinery have since established that: (i) the 18-membered macrolactam backbone is synthesized by LnmP, LnmQ, LnmJ, LnmI, and LnmG, (ii) the alkyl branch at C-3 of LNM is installed by LnmK, LnmL, LnmM, and LnmF, and (iii) leinamycin E1 (LNM E1), bearing a thiol moiety at C-3, is the nascent product of the LNM hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS). Sulfur incorporation at C-3 of LNM E1, however, has not been addressed. Here we report that: (i) the bioinformatics analysis reveals a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent domain, we termed cysteine lyase (SH) domain (LnmJ-SH), within PKS module-8 of LnmJ; (ii) the LnmJ-SH domain catalyzes C-S bond cleavage by using l-cysteine and l-cysteine S-modified analogs as substrates through a PLP-dependent β-elimination reaction, establishing l-cysteine as the origin of sulfur at C-3 of LNM; and (iii) the LnmJ-SH domain, sharing no sequence homology with any other enzymes catalyzing C-S bond cleavage, represents a new family of PKS domains that expands the chemistry and enzymology of PKSs and might be exploited to incorporate sulfur into polyketide natural products by PKS engineering.

  6. A designer bleomycin with significantly improved DNA cleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Feng, Zhiyang; Wang, Liyan; Galm, Ute; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Yang, Dong; Tao, Meifeng; Coughlin, Jane M; Duan, Yanwen; Shen, Ben

    2012-08-15

    The bleomycins (BLMs) are used clinically in combination with a number of other agents for the treatment of several types of tumors, and the BLM, etoposide, and cisplatin treatment regimen cures 90-95% of metastatic testicular cancer patients. BLM-induced pneumonitis is the most feared, dose-limiting side effect of BLM in chemotherapy, which can progress into lung fibrosis and affect up to 46% of the total patient population. There have been continued efforts to develop new BLM analogues in the search for anticancer drugs with better clinical efficacy and lower lung toxicity. We have previously cloned and characterized the biosynthetic gene clusters for BLMs from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003, tallysomycins from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, and zorbamycin (ZBM) from Streptomyces flavoviridis SB9001. Comparative analysis of the three biosynthetic machineries provided the molecular basis for the formulation of hypotheses to engineer novel analogues. We now report engineered production of three new analogues, 6'-hydroxy-ZBM, BLM Z, and 6'-deoxy-BLM Z and the evaluation of their DNA cleavage activities as a measurement for their potential anticancer activity. Our findings unveiled: (i) the disaccharide moiety plays an important role in the DNA cleavage activity of BLMs and ZBMs, (ii) the ZBM disaccharide significantly enhances the potency of BLM, and (iii) 6'-deoxy-BLM Z represents the most potent BLM analogue known to date. The fact that 6'-deoxy-BLM Z can be produced in reasonable quantities by microbial fermentation should greatly facilitate follow-up mechanistic and preclinical studies to potentially advance this analogue into a clinical drug.

  7. Augmenting Tractable Fragments of Abstract Argumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Ordyniak, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We present a new and compelling approach to the efficient solution of important computational problems that arise in the context of abstract argumentation. Our approach makes known algorithms defined for restricted fragments generally applicable, at a computational cost that scales with the distance from the fragment. Thus, in a certain sense, we gradually augment tractable fragments. Surprisingly, it turns out that some tractable fragments admit such an augmentation and that others do not. More specifically, we show that the problems of credulous and skeptical acceptance are fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the distance from the fragment of acyclic argumentation frameworks. Other tractable fragments such as the fragments of symmetrical and bipartite frameworks seem to prohibit an augmentation: the acceptance problems are already intractable for frameworks at distance 1 from the fragments. For our study we use a broad setting and consider several different semantics. For the algorithmic results...

  8. Mapping of late adenovirus genes by cell-free translation of RNA selected by hybridization to specific DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J B; Atkins, J F; Anderson, C W; Baum, P R; Gesteland, R F

    1975-04-01

    Cytoplasmic RNA, isolated from cells late after infection by adenovirus type 2 and fractionated by hybridization to specific fragments of adenovirus DNA produced by cleavage with the endonuclease R-EcoRI, was used as template for protein synthesis in cell-free mammalian extracts. Each of the R-EcoRI fragments of DNA selects RNA that encodes specific subsets of the viral polypeptides. From the known order of the R-EcoRI fragments, the following partial map is deduced: (III, IIIa, IVa2, V, P-VII, IX), (II, P-VI), 100K, IV-where the relative order of the components enclosed in parentheses has not yet been determined.

  9. Caspase-resistant BAP31 inhibits fas-mediated apoptotic membrane fragmentation and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M; Breckenridge, D G; Ducret, A; Shore, G C

    2000-09-01

    BAP31 is a 28-kDa integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum whose cytosolic domain contains two identical caspase recognition sites (AAVD.G) that are preferentially cleaved by initiator caspases, including caspase 8. Cleavage of BAP31 during apoptosis generates a p20 fragment that remains integrated in the membrane and, when expressed ectopically, is a potent inducer of cell death. To examine the consequences of maintaining the structural integrity of BAP31 during apoptosis, the caspase recognition aspartate residues were mutated to alanine residues, and Fas-mediated activation of caspase 8 and cell death were examined in human KB epithelial cells stably expressing the caspase-resistant mutant crBAP31. crBAP31 only modestly slowed the time course for activation of caspases, as assayed by the processing of procaspases 8 and 3 and the measurement of total DEVDase activity. As a result, cleavage of the caspase targets poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase and endogenous BAP31, as well as the redistribution of phosphatidylserine and fragmentation of DNA, was observed. In contrast, cytoplasmic membrane blebbing and fragmentation and apoptotic redistribution of actin were strongly inhibited, cell morphology was retained near normal, and the irreversible loss of cell growth potential following removal of the Fas stimulus was delayed. Of note, crBAP31-expressing cells also resisted Fas-mediated release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and the mitochondrial electrochemical potential was only partly reduced. These results argue that BAP31 cleavage is important for manifesting cytoplasmic apoptotic events associated with membrane fragmentation and reveal an unexpected cross talk between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum during Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo.

  10. Charge state dependent fragmentation of gaseous [alpha]-synuclein cations via ion trap and beam-type collisional activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthamontri, Chamnongsak; Liu, Jian; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-06-01

    Ions derived from nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) of [alpha]-synuclein, a 14.5 kDa, 140 amino acid residue protein that is a major component of the Lewy bodies associated with Parkinson's disease, have been subjected to ion trap and beam-type collisional activation. The former samples products from fragmentation at rates generally lower than 100 s-1 whereas the latter samples products from fragmentation at rates generally greater than 103 s-1. A wide range of protein charge states spanning from as high as [M+17H]17+ to as low as [M+4H]4+ have been formed either directly from nano-ESI or via ion/ion proton transfer reactions involving the initially formed protein cations and have been subjected to both forms of collision-induced dissociation (CID). The extent of sequence information (i.e., number of distinct amide bond cleavages) available from either CID method was found to be highly sensitive to protein precursor ion charge state. Furthermore, the relative contributions of the various competing dissociation channels were also dependent upon precursor ion charge state. The qualitative trends in the changes in extent of amide bond cleavages and identities of bonds cleaved with precursor ion charge state were similar for two forms of CID. However, for every charge state examined, roughly twice the primary sequence information resulted from beam-type CID relative to ion trap CID. For example, evidence for cleavage of 86% of the protein amide bonds was observed for the [M+9H]9+ precursor ion using beam-type CID whereas 41% of the bonds were cleaved for the same precursor ion using ion trap CID. The higher energies required to drive fragmentation reactions at rates necessary to observe products in the beam experiment access more of the structurally informative fragmentation channels, which has important implications for whole protein tandem mass spectrometry.

  11. Membrane tethering of APP c-terminal fragments is a prerequisite for T668 phosphorylation preventing nuclear sphere generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Hassan; Kolbe, Katharina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Loosse, Christina; Schröder, Elisabeth; Knauer, Shirley; Marcus, Katrin; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    A central molecular hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which causes the generation of different c-terminal fragments like C99, AICD57, or AICD50 that fully or in part contain the APP transmembrane domain. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane-tethered C99 is phosphorylated by JNK3A at residue T668 (APP695 numbering) to a higher extent than AICD57, whereas AICD50 is not capable of being phosphorylated. The modification decreases the turnover of APP, while the blockade of APP cleavage increases APP phosphorylation. Generation of nuclear spheres, complexes consisting of the translocated AICD, FE65 and other proteins, is significantly reduced as soon as APP c-terminal fragments are accessible for phosphorylation. This APP modification, which we identified as significantly reduced in high plaque-load areas of the human brain, is linearly dependent on the level of APP expression. Accordingly, we show that APP abundance is likewise capable of modulating nuclear sphere generation. Thus, the precise and complex regulation of APP phosphorylation, abundance, and cleavage impacts the generation of nuclear spheres, which are under discussion of being of relevance in neurodegeneration and dementia. Future pharmacological manipulation of nuclear sphere generation may be a promising approach for AD treatment.

  12. The N-terminal 81-aa fragment is critical for UT-A1 urea transporter bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haidong; Yang, Yuan; Eaton, Douglas C; Sands, Jeff M; Chen, Guangping

    2010-01-01

    The serine protease, furin, is involved in the activation of a number of proteins most notably epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). The urea transporter UT-A1, located in the kidney inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), is important for urine concentrating ability. UT-A1's amino acid sequence has a consensus furin cleavage site (RSKR) in the N-terminal region. Despite the putative cleavage site, we find that UT-A1, either from the cytosolic or cell surface pool, is not cleaved by furin in CHO cells. This result was further confirmed by an inability of furin to cleave in vitro an (35)S-labeled UT-A1 or the 126 N-terminal UT-A1 fragment. Functionally, mutation of the furin site (R78A, R81A) does not affect UT-A1 urea transport activity. However, deletion of the 81-aa N-terminal portion does not affect UT-A1 cell surface trafficking, but seriously impair UT-A1 urea transport activity. Our results indicate that UT-A1 maturation and activation does not require furin-dependent cleavage. The N-terminal 81-aa fragment is required for proper UT-A1 urea transport activity, but its effect is not through changing UT-A1 membrane trafficking.

  13. Energy-loss distributions of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, N.N.; Nakhutin, I.E.; Shatunov, V.G.

    1976-03-05

    The f-f coincidence method was used to investigate the change in the form of the energy-loss distributions of Cf/sup 252/ fission fragments in air, down to fragment energies approx.0.8 MeV. A theoretical model is considered for the estimate of the mean-squared deviations of the fragment energy-loss distributions. (AIP)

  14. Self-organized criticality in fragmenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, L.; Dimon, P.; Bohr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured mass distributions of fragments from 26 fractured objects of gypsum, soap, stearic paraffin, and potato show evidence of obeying scaling laws; this suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmenting. The probability of finding a fragment scales inversely to a power...

  15. Low pressure microfluidic-based DNA fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Bomer, Johan G.; Jin, Mingliang; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We report a low-pressure microfluidic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation device based on a combination of me-chanical hydrodynamic shearing and low temperature sample heating. Conventional DNA fragmentation based on hydrody-namic shearing is capable of achieving fragment lengths (FL) < 10k bp

  16. Scaling and four-quark fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Bosveld, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    The conditions for a scaling behaviour from the fragmentation process leading to slow protons are discussed. The scaling referred to implies that the fragmentation functions depend on the light-cone momentum fraction only. It is shown that differences in the fragmentation functions for valence- and

  17. Secretory signal peptide modification for optimized antibody-fragment expression-secretion in Leishmania tarentolae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klatt Stephan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretory signal peptides (SPs are well-known sequence motifs targeting proteins for translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. After passing through the secretory pathway, most proteins are secreted to the environment. Here, we describe the modification of an expression vector containing the SP from secreted acid phosphatase 1 (SAP1 of Leishmania mexicana for optimized protein expression-secretion in the eukaryotic parasite Leishmania tarentolae with regard to recombinant antibody fragments. For experimental design the online tool SignalP was used, which predicts the presence and location of SPs and their cleavage sites in polypeptides. To evaluate the signal peptide cleavage site as well as changes of expression, SPs were N-terminally linked to single-chain Fragment variables (scFv’s. The ability of L. tarentolae to express complex eukaryotic proteins with highly diverse post-translational modifications and its easy bacteria-like handling, makes the parasite a promising expression system for secretory proteins. Results We generated four vectors with different SP-sequence modifications based on in-silico analyses with SignalP in respect to cleavage probability and location, named pLTEX-2 to pLTEX-5. To evaluate their functionality, we cloned four individual scFv-fragments into the vectors and transfected all 16 constructs into L. tarentolae. Independently from the expressed scFv, pLTEX-5 derived constructs showed the highest expression rate, followed by pLTEX-4 and pLTEX-2, whereas only low amounts of protein could be obtained from pLTEX-3 clones, indicating dysfunction of the SP. Next, we analysed the SP cleavage sites by Edman degradation. For pLTEX-2, -4, and -5 derived scFv’s, the results corresponded to in-silico predictions, whereas pLTEX-3 derived scFv’s contained one additional amino-acid (AA. Conclusions The obtained results demonstrate the importance of SP-sequence optimization for efficient

  18. Oxidative cleavage of benzylic C-N bonds under metal-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin-Long; Qi, Xinxin; Wei, Duo; Feng, Jian-Bo; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-10-14

    An interesting procedure for the oxidative cleavage of benzylic C-N bonds has been developed. Using TBAI as the catalyst and H2O2 as the oxidant, various benzylamines were transformed into their corresponding aromatic aldehydes in moderate to good yields. Notably, this is the first example of an oxidative cleavage of benzylic C-N bonds under metal-free conditions.

  19. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in activation of the prodrug nabumetone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N A; Park, Hyoung-Goo;

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their su...

  20. Unexpected tolerance of alpha-cleavage of the prion protein to sequence variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B Oliveira-Martins

    Full Text Available The cellular form of the prion protein, PrP(C, undergoes extensive proteolysis at the alpha site (109K [see text]H110. Expression of non-cleavable PrP(C mutants in transgenic mice correlates with neurotoxicity, suggesting that alpha-cleavage is important for PrP(C physiology. To gain insights into the mechanisms of alpha-cleavage, we generated a library of PrP(C mutants with mutations in the region neighbouring the alpha-cleavage site. The prevalence of C1, the carboxy adduct of alpha-cleavage, was determined for each mutant. In cell lines of disparate origin, C1 prevalence was unaffected by variations in charge and hydrophobicity of the region neighbouring the alpha-cleavage site, and by substitutions of the residues in the palindrome that flanks this site. Instead, alpha-cleavage was size-dependently impaired by deletions within the domain 106-119. Almost no cleavage was observed upon full deletion of this domain. These results suggest that alpha-cleavage is executed by an alpha-PrPase whose activity, despite surprisingly limited sequence specificity, is dependent on the size of the central region of PrP(C.

  1. Chromium(VI) reduction by catechol(amine)s results in DNA cleavage in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, D I; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Levina, A;

    2001-01-01

    ) or 4-tert-butylcatechol (5) do not damage DNA. The Cr(VI)/catechol(amine) reactions have been studied at low added H(2)O(2) concentrations, which lead to enhanced DNA cleavage with 1 and induce DNA cleavage with 4. The Cr(V) and organic intermediates generated by the reactions of Cr(VI) with 1 or 4...

  2. Comparative and phylogenetic perspectives of the cleavage process in tailed amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnitskiy, Alexey G; Litvinchuk, Spartak N

    2015-10-01

    The order Caudata includes about 660 species and displays a variety of important developmental traits such as cleavage pattern and egg size. However, the cleavage process of tailed amphibians has never been analyzed within a phylogenetic framework. We use published data on the embryos of 36 species concerning the character of the third cleavage furrow (latitudinal, longitudinal or variable) and the magnitude of synchronous cleavage period (up to 3-4 synchronous cell divisions in the animal hemisphere or a considerably longer series of synchronous divisions followed by midblastula transition). Several species from basal caudate families Cryptobranchidae (Andrias davidianus and Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) and Hynobiidae (Onychodactylus japonicus) as well as several representatives from derived families Plethodontidae (Desmognathus fuscus and Ensatina eschscholtzii) and Proteidae (Necturus maculosus) are characterized by longitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and the loss of synchrony as early as the 8-cell stage. By contrast, many representatives of derived families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae have latitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and extensive period of synchronous divisions. Our analysis of these ontogenetic characters mapped onto a phylogenetic tree shows that the cleavage pattern of large, yolky eggs with short series of synchronous divisions is an ancestral trait for the tailed amphibians, while the data on the orientation of third cleavage furrows seem to be ambiguous with respect to phylogeny. Nevertheless, the midblastula transition, which is characteristic of the model species Ambystoma mexicanum (Caudata) and Xenopus laevis (Anura), might have evolved convergently in these two amphibian orders.

  3. Coronavirus 3CL(pro) proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiemer, Lars; Lund, Ole; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR), transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-I, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions: Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified...

  4. Real-time monitoring of DNAzyme cleavage process using fluorescent assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Xian Meng; Xiao Hai Yang; Ke Min Wang; Wei Hong Tan; Qiu Ping Guo

    2009-01-01

    Detection of deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) cleavage process usually needs complex and time-consuming radial labeling, gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. This paper reported an approach to detect DNAzyme cleavage process in real time using a fluorescence probe. The probe was employed as DNAzyme substrate to convert directly the cleavage information into fluorescence signal in real time. Compared with traditional approach, this non-isotope method not only brought a convenient means to monitor the DNAzyme cleavage reaction, but also offered abundant dynamic data for choosing potential gene therapeutic agents. It provides a new tool for DNAzyme research, as well as a new insight into research on human disease diagnosis. Based on this method, 8-17deoxyribozyme (8-17DNAzyme) against hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) was designed and the cleavage process was studied in real time.

  5. Ultrasensitive monitoring of ribozyme cleavage product using molecular-beacon-ligation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG XiangXian; TANG ZhiWen; WANG KeMin; TAN WeiHong; YANG XiaoHai; LI Jun; GUO QiuPing

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a new approach to detect ribozyme cleavage product based on the molecular- beacon-ligation system. The molecular beacon, designed in such a way that one-half of its loop is complementary to ribozyme cleavage product, is used to monitor ligation process of RNA/DNA complex in a homogeneous solution and to convert directly cleavage product information into fluorescence signal. The method need not label ribozyme and ribozyme substrate, which is fast, simple and ultrasensitive for detection of cleavage product. Detection limit of the assay is 0.05 nmol/L. The cleavage product of hammerhead ribozyme against hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) was detected perfectly based on this assay. Owing to its ultrasensitivity, excellent specificity, convenience and fidelity, this method might hold out great promise in ribozyme reaction and ribozyme gene therapy.

  6. Altered cleavage patterns in human tripronuclear embryos and their association to fertilization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Mette Warming; Agerholm, Inge; Hindkjaer, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the cleavage patterns in dipronuclear (2PN) and tripronuclear (3PN) embryos in relation to fertilization method. METHOD: Time-lapse analysis. RESULTS: Compared to 2PN, more 3PN IVF embryos displayed early cleavage into 3 cells (p cell...... stage (p cell divisions within the cleavage cycles differed between the two groups. In contrast......, the completion of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd cleavage cycle was delayed, but with a similar division pattern for 3PN ICSI compared with the 2PN ICSI embryos. 3PN, more often than 2PN ICSI embryos, displayed early cleavage into 3 cells (p = 0.03) and arrested development from the compaction stage and onwards (p = 0...

  7. Site Specificity of Cleavage of DSP-PP by BMP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Robert T.; Lim, Glendale L.; Yee, Colin T.; Fuller, Robert S.; Ritchie, Helena H.

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1), a metalloproteinase, is known to cleave a wide variety of extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting that a consensus substrate cleavage amino acid sequence might exist. However, while such a consensus sequence has been proposed based on P4 to P4′ (i.e., the four amino acids flanking either side of the BMP1 cleavage site; P4P3P2P1|P1′P2′P3′P4′) sequence homologies between two BMP1 substrates, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein phosphophoryn (DSP-PP) (i.e., xMQx | DDP), no direct testing has so far been attempted. Using an Sf9 cell expression system, we have been able to produce large amounts of uncleaved DSP-PP,. Point mutations introduced into this recombinant DSP-PP were then tested for their affects on DSP-PP cleavage by either Sf9 endogenous tolloid-related protein 1 (TLR-1) or by its human homolog, BMP1. Here we have measured DSP-PP cleavage efficiencies after modifications based on P4-P4′ sequence comparisons with dentin matrix protein 1, as well as for prolysyl oxidase and chordin, two other BMP1 substrates. Our results demonstrate that any mutations within or outside of the DSP-PP P4 to P4′ cleavage site can block, impair or accelerate DSP-PP cleavage, and suggest that its BMP1 cleavage site is highly conserved in order to regulate its cleavage efficiency, possibly with additional assistance from its conserved exosites. Thus, BMP1 cleavage cannot be based on a consensus substrate cleavage site. PMID:25158199

  8. Requirements for efficient proteolytic cleavage of prelamin A by ZMPSTE24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowman, Jemima; Hamblet, Corinne; Kane, Megan S; Michaelis, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The proteolytic maturation of the nuclear protein lamin A by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is critical for human health. The lamin A precursor, prelamin A, undergoes a multi-step maturation process that includes CAAX processing (farnesylation, proteolysis and carboxylmethylation of the C-terminal CAAX motif), followed by ZMPSTE24-mediated cleavage of the last 15 amino acids, including the modified C-terminus. Failure to cleave the prelamin A "tail", due to mutations in either prelamin A or ZMPSTE24, results in a permanently prenylated form of prelamin A that underlies the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) and related progeroid disorders. Here we have investigated the features of the prelamin A substrate that are required for efficient cleavage by ZMPSTE24. We find that the C-terminal 41 amino acids of prelamin A contain sufficient context to allow cleavage of the tail by ZMPSTE24. We have identified several mutations in amino acids immediately surrounding the cleavage site (between Y646 and L647) that interfere with efficient cleavage of the prelamin A tail; these mutations include R644C, L648A and N650A, in addition to the previously reported L647R. Our data suggests that 9 of the 15 residues within the cleaved tail that lie immediately upstream of the CAAX motif are not critical for ZMPSTE24-mediated cleavage, as they can be replaced by the 9 amino acid HA epitope. However, duplication of the same 9 amino acids (to increase the distance between the prenyl group and the cleavage site) impairs the ability of ZMPSTE24 to cleave prelamin A. Our data reveals amino acid preferences flanking the ZMPSTE24 cleavage site of prelamin A and suggests that spacing from the farnesyl-cysteine to the cleavage site is important for optimal ZMPSTE24 cleavage. These studies begin to elucidate the substrate requirements of an enzyme activity critical to human health and longevity.

  9. Working mechanism of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease: cleavage of IgA1 antibody to Neisseria meningitidis PorA requires de novo synthesis of IgA1 Protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidarsson, G; Overbeeke, N; Stemerding, AM

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis secretes a protease that specifically cleaves the hinge region of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), releasing the effector (Fc) domain of IgA1 from the antigen binding (Fab) determinants. Theoretically, the remaining Fab fragments can block pathogen receptors or toxins and still....... No cleavage of IgA1 was found on an isogenic H44/76 strain lacking IgA1 protease. Furthermore, our data indicate that PorA-bound IgA1 is masked by the serogroup B polysaccharide capsule, rendering the IgA1 less accessible to degradation by secreted IgA1 protease present in the bacterial surroundings....... Experiments with protein synthesis inhibitors showed that de novo production of IgA1 protease was responsible for cleavage of PorA-bound IgA1 on encapsulated bacteria. Finally, our data suggest that cleavage of IgA1 by IgA1 protease releases a significant proportion of Fab fragments from the bacterium...

  10. Mechanistic Investigation of Phosphate Ester Bond Cleavages of Glycylphosphoserinyltryptophan Radical Cations under Low-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Quan; Hao, Qiang; Song, Tao; Siu, Chi-Kit; Chu, Ivan K.

    2013-04-01

    Under the conditions of low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID), the canonical glycylphosphoserinyltryptophan radical cation having its radical located on the side chain of the tryptophan residue ([G p SW]•+) fragments differently from its tautomer with the radical initially generated on the α-carbon atom of the glycine residue ([G• p SW]+). The dissociation of [G• p SW]+ is dominated by the neutral loss of H3PO4 (98 Da), with backbone cleavage forming the [b2 - H]•+/y1 + pair as the minor products. In contrast, for [G p SW]•+, competitive cleavages along the peptide backbone, such as the formation of [G p SW - CO2]•+ and the [c2 + 2H]+/[z1 - H]•+ pair, significantly suppress the loss of neutral H3PO4. In this study, we used density functional theory (DFT) to examine the mechanisms for the tautomerizations of [G• p SW]+ and [G p SW]•+ and their dissociation pathways. Our results suggest that the dissociation reactions of these two peptide radical cations are more efficient than their tautomerizations, as supported by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) modeling. We also propose that the loss of H3PO4 from both of these two radical cationic tautomers is preferentially charge-driven, similar to the analogous dissociations of even-electron protonated peptides. The distonic radical cationic character of [G• p SW]+ results in its charge being more mobile, thereby favoring charge-driven loss of H3PO4; in contrast, radical-driven pathways are more competitive during the CID of [G p SW]•+.

  11. Isoscaling of projectile-like fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Chen; Chen Jin-Hui; Guo Wei; Ma Chun-Wang; Ma Guo-Liang; Su Qian-Min; Yan Ting-Zhi; Zuo Jia-Xu; Ma Yu-Gang; Fang De-Qing; Cai Xiang-Zhou; Chen Jin-Gen; Shen Wen-Qing; Tian Wen-Dong; Wang Kun; Wei Yi-Bin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the isotopic and isotonic distributions of projectile fragmentation products have been simulated by a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model and the isoscaling behaviour of projectile-like fragments has been discussed. The isoscaling parameters α andβ have been extracted respectively, for hot fragments before evaporation and cold fragments after evaporation. It looks that the evaporation has stronger effect on α than β. For cold fragments,a monotonic increase of α and |β| with the increase of Z and N is observed. The relation between isoscaling parameter and the change of isospin content is discussed.

  12. Structural and functional basis for RNA cleavage by Ire1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroud Robert M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unfolded protein response (UPR controls the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Central to this signaling pathway is the ER-resident bifunctional transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1. The endoribonuclease (RNase domain of Ire1 initiates a non-conventional mRNA splicing reaction, leading to the production of a transcription factor that controls UPR target genes. The mRNA splicing reaction is an obligatory step of Ire1 signaling, yet its mechanism has remained poorly understood due to the absence of substrate-bound crystal structures of Ire1, the lack of structural similarity between Ire1 and other RNases, and a scarcity of quantitative enzymological data. Here, we experimentally define the active site of Ire1 RNase and quantitatively evaluate the contribution of the key active site residues to catalysis. Results This analysis and two new crystal structures suggest that Ire1 RNase uses histidine H1061 and tyrosine Y1043 as the general acid-general base pair contributing ≥ 7.6 kcal/mol and 1.4 kcal/mol to transition state stabilization, respectively, and asparagine N1057 and arginine R1056 for coordination of the scissile phosphate. Investigation of the stem-loop recognition revealed that additionally to the stem-loops derived from the classic Ire1 substrates HAC1 and Xbp1 mRNA, Ire1 can site-specifically and rapidly cleave anticodon stem-loop (ASL of unmodified tRNAPhe, extending known substrate specificity of Ire1 RNase. Conclusions Our data define the catalytic center of Ire1 RNase and suggest a mechanism of RNA cleavage: each RNase monomer apparently contains a separate catalytic apparatus for RNA cleavage, whereas two RNase subunits contribute to RNA stem-loop docking. Conservation of the key residues among Ire1 homologues suggests that the mechanism elucidated here for yeast Ire1 applies to Ire1 in metazoan cells, and to the only known Ire1 homologue RNase L.

  13. Triggered fragmentation in gravitationally unstable discs: forming fragments at small radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meru Farzana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We carry out three dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations of gravitationally unstable discs using to explore the movement of mass in a disc following its fragmentation. Compared to a more quiescent state before it fragments, the radial velocity of the gas increases by up to a factor of ≈ 2 – 3 after fragmentation. While the mass movement occurs both inwards and outwards, the inwards motion can cause the inner spirals to be suciently dense that they may become unstable and potentially fragment. Consequently, the dynamical behaviour of fragmented discs may cause subsequent fragmentation at smaller radii after an initial fragment has formed in the outer disc.

  14. Analysis of Transmissions Scheduling with Packet Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Menakerman

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a scheduling problem in which packets, or datagrams, may be fragmented. While there are a few applications to scheduling with datagram fragmentation, our model of the problem is derived from a scheduling problem present in data over CATV networks. In the scheduling problem datagrams of variable lengths must be assigned (packed into fixed length time slots. One of the capabilities of the system is the ability to break a datagram into several fragments. When a datagram is fragmented, extra bits are added to the original datagram to enable the reassembly of all the fragments. We convert the scheduling problem into the problem of bin packing with item fragmentation, which we define in the following way: we are asked to pack a list of items into a minimum number of unit capacity bins. Each item may be fragmented in which case overhead units are added to the size of every fragment. The cost associated with fragmentation renders the problem NP-hard, therefore an approximation algorithm is needed. We define a version of the well-known Next-Fit algorithm, capable of fragmenting items, and investigate its performance. We present both worst case and average case results and compare them to the case where fragmentation is not allowed.

  15. Impact of numerical models on fragmentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Mathieu; Gezahengn, Belien; Abbas, Micheline; Bourgeois, Florent

    2013-06-01

    Simulated fragmentation process in granular assemblies is a challenging problem which date back the beginning of the 90'. If first approaches have focus on the fragmentation on a single particle, with the development of robust, fast numerical method is is possible today to simulated such process in a large collection of particles. But the question of the fragmentation problem is still open: should the fragmentation be done dynamically (one particle becoming two fragments) and according which criterion or should the fragment paths be defined initially and which is the impact of the discretization and the model of fragments? The present contribution proposes to investigate the second aspect i.e. the impact of fragment modeling on the fragmentation processes. First to perform such an analysis, the geometry of fragments (disks/sphere or polygon/polyhedra), their behavior (rigid/deformable) and the law governing their interactions are investigated. Then such model will be used in a grinding application where the evolution of fragments and impact on the behavior of the whole packing are investigate.

  16. Optimisation and evaluation of restriction fragment length polimorfism method for apolipoprotein E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drljević Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism is characterized by the presence of three common alleles, e2, e3 and e4, which encode three isoforms of apolipoprotein E in plasma E2, E3 and E4. Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E gene are predictive markers for the development of numerous disorders of lipid metabolism, already proven in a large number of clinical trials. This study was aimed at assessing the success rate of restriction fragment length polymorphism method for the detections of genes coding for isoenzymes E2, E3 and E4. Material and Methods. Deoxyribonucleic acid, used in this study, was extracted from blood by standard procedure using chloroform and phenol. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify the coding sequence of fourth exon of the apolipoprotein E gene. Amplification products were digested with HhaI. The fragments obtained were separated by electrophoresis and visualized with ultraviolet light. Results. Our results showed that the restriction fragment length polymorphism method is optimal for detection of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms. The restriction enzyme HhaI achieved the cleavage of the gene on the specific loci, directly depend of presence or absence of mutations at positions 112 and 158, of different alleles. Conclusion. This method enables simple, rapid and efficient analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, directly determining the patient’s genotype.

  17. Elucidation of the mass fragmentation pathways of potato glycoalkaloids and aglycons using Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael G; Caprioli, Giovanni; Vittori, Sauro; James, Kevin J

    2010-09-01

    The mass fragmentation of potato glycoalkaloids, α-solanine and α-chaconine, and the aglycons, demissidine and solasodine were studied using the Orbitrap Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometer. Using the linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry, multistage collisional-induced dissociation (CID) experiments (MS(n)) on the [M + H](+) precursor ions were performed to aid the elucidation of the mass fragmentation pathways. In addition, higher energy collisional-induced dissociation (HCD) mass spectra were generated for these toxins at a high resolution setting [100,000 FWHM (full width at half maximum)] using the Orbitrap. This hybrid mass spectrometry instrumentation was exploited to produce MS(3) spectra by selecting MS(2) product ions, generated using LIT MS, and fragmentation using HCD. The accurate mass data in the MS(3) spectra aided the confirmation of proposed product ion formulae. The precursor and product ions from glycoalkaloids lost up to four sugars from different regions during MS(n) experiments. Mass fragmentation of the six-ring aglycons were similar, generating major product ions that resulted from cleavages at the B-rings and E-rings.

  18. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on assisted reproductive technology treatment category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Qian-jin; Ni Wu-hua; Huang Xue-feng; Ye Bi-lu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF)and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Methods: A total of 242 cycles (154 IVF and 88 ICSI) from 235 couples were included.Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and routine semen analysis were performed on the retrieval day.The rates of fertilization,embryo cleavage,good quality embryos,implantation and clinical pregnancy were measured.Results: Sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in ICSI group was significantly higher than that in IVF group (P<0.01).The rates of fertilization,implantation and clinical pregnancy in ICSI were significantly higher than those in IVF with DFI≥24% (P<0.05).When DFI exceeded 24%,the OR for clinical pregnancy was 3.85 (95%CI 1.40-10.59) comparing ICSI with IVF,and the OR for clinical pregnancy increased to 4.61 (95% CI 1.09-19.57) after inclusion of sperm concentration,progressively motile sperm percentage and female age as covariates.Conclusions: High DNA fragmentation might affect the outcome of ICSI and IVF.When DFI exceeds 24%,ICSI should be chosen instead of IVF.

  19. Aβ-induced Golgi fragmentation in Alzheimer’s disease enhances Aβ production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gunjan; Chi, Youjian; Huang, Zheping; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2014-01-01

    Golgi fragmentation occurs in neurons of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the underlying molecular mechanism causing the defects and the subsequent effects on disease development remain unknown. In this study, we examined the Golgi structure in APPswe/PS1∆E9 transgenic mouse and tissue culture models. Our results show that accumulation of amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) leads to Golgi fragmentation. Further biochemistry and cell biology studies revealed that Golgi fragmentation in AD is caused by phosphorylation of Golgi structural proteins, such as GRASP65, which is induced by Aβ-triggered cyclin-dependent kinase-5 activation. Significantly, both inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase-5 and expression of nonphosphorylatable GRASP65 mutants rescued the Golgi structure and reduced Aβ secretion by elevating α-cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Our study demonstrates a molecular mechanism for Golgi fragmentation and its effects on amyloid precursor protein trafficking and processing in AD, suggesting Golgi as a potential drug target for AD treatment. PMID:24639524

  20. The formation of planets by disc fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the role that disc fragmentation plays in the formation of gas giant and terrestrial planets, and how this relates to the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, and ultimately to the process of star formation. Protostellar discs may fragment, if they are massive enough and can cool fast enough, but most of the objects that form by fragmentation are brown dwarfs. It may be possible that planets also form, if the mass growth of a proto-fragment is stopped (e.g. if this fragment is ejected from the disc, or suppressed and even reversed (e.g by tidal stripping. I will discuss if it is possible to distinguish whether a planet has formed by disc fragmentation or core accretion, and mention of a few examples of observed exoplanets that are suggestive of formation by disc fragmentation.

  1. Reframing landscape fragmentation's effects on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Suarez-Castro, Andrés F; Martinez-Harms, Maria; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive; Gaston, Kevin J; Johansen, Kasper; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Landscape structure and fragmentation have important effects on ecosystem services, with a common assumption being that fragmentation reduces service provision. This is based on fragmentation's expected effects on ecosystem service supply, but ignores how fragmentation influences the flow of services to people. Here we develop a new conceptual framework that explicitly considers the links between landscape fragmentation, the supply of services, and the flow of services to people. We argue that fragmentation's effects on ecosystem service flow can be positive or negative, and use our framework to construct testable hypotheses about the effects of fragmentation on final ecosystem service provision. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework are critical to improving landscape management for multiple ecosystem services.

  2. Extraction of 16th Century Calender Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jakob Povl; Etheridge, Christian

    at the Cultural Heritage & Archaeometric Research Team, SDU. Upon finding medieval manuscript fragments in the university library’s special collections, scholars at the Centre for Medieval Literature are consulted. In most cases, digital pictures of the finds will circulate in the international community...... of medieval scholars. Thousands of 16th and 17th Century books are stored in the University Library of Southern Denmark. One out of five of these books is expected to contain medieval manuscript fragments or fragments of rare prints, e.g. incunabula....... fragments may require extensive use of Big Data and other forms of analysis in order to be identified. Usually, the university library prefers not to remove the fragments from their “fragment carriers”. In order to read fragments that are only partially visible or invisible, x-ray technology may be deployed...

  3. Dihadron Fragmentation Functions and Transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results for an updated extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. Data for proton and deuteron targets by HERMES and COMPASS allow for a flavor separation of the valence components of transversity, while di-hadron fragmentation functions are taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation. The latter data from Belle have been reanalyzed using the replica method and a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function has been obtained. After encoding this piece of information into the deep-inelastic scattering cross section, the transversity has been re-extracted by using the most recent and more precise COMPASS data for proton target. This picture represents the current most realistic estimate of the uncertainties on our knowledge of tran...

  4. Dihadron Fragmentation Functions and Transversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radici Marco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results for an updated extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. Data for proton and deuteron targets by HERMES and COMPASS allow for a flavor separation of the valence components of transversity, while di-hadron fragmentation functions are taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in e+e− annihilation. The latter data from Belle have been reanalyzed using the replica method and a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function has been obtained. After encoding this piece of information into the deep-inelastic scattering cross section, the transversity has been re-extracted by using the most recent and more precise COMPASS data for proton target. This picture represents the current most realistic estimate of the uncertainties on our knowledge of transversity. The preliminary results indicate that the valence up component seems smaller and with a narrower error band than in previous extraction.

  5. Computational redesign of endonuclease DNA binding and cleavage specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Justin; Havranek, James J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sussman, Django; Monnat, Raymond J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Baker, David

    2006-06-01

    The reprogramming of DNA-binding specificity is an important challenge for computational protein design that tests current understanding of protein-DNA recognition, and has considerable practical relevance for biotechnology and medicine. Here we describe the computational redesign of the cleavage specificity of the intron-encoded homing endonuclease I-MsoI using a physically realistic atomic-level forcefield. Using an in silico screen, we identified single base-pair substitutions predicted to disrupt binding by the wild-type enzyme, and then optimized the identities and conformations of clusters of amino acids around each of these unfavourable substitutions using Monte Carlo sampling. A redesigned enzyme that was predicted to display altered target site specificity, while maintaining wild-type binding affinity, was experimentally characterized. The redesigned enzyme binds and cleaves the redesigned recognition site ~10,000 times more effectively than does the wild-type enzyme, with a level of target discrimination comparable to the original endonuclease. Determination of the structure of the redesigned nuclease-recognition site complex by X-ray crystallography confirms the accuracy of the computationally predicted interface. These results suggest that computational protein design methods can have an important role in the creation of novel highly specific endonucleases for gene therapy and other applications.

  6. Sox11 Reduces Caspase-6 Cleavage and Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Waldron-Roby

    Full Text Available The apoptotic cascade is an orchestrated event, whose final stages are mediated by effector caspases. Regulatory binding proteins have been identified for caspases such as caspase-3, -7, -8, and -9. Many of these proteins belong to the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP family. By contrast, caspase-6 is not believed to be influenced by IAPs, and little is known about its regulation. We therefore performed a yeast-two-hybrid screen using a constitutively inactive form of caspase-6 for bait in order to identify novel regulators of caspase-6 activity. Sox11 was identified as a potential caspase-6 interacting protein. Sox11 was capable of dramatically reducing caspase-6 activity, as well as preventing caspase-6 self- cleavage. Several regions, including amino acids 117-214 and 362-395 within sox11 as well as a nuclear localization signal (NLS all contributed to the reduction in caspase-6 activity. Furthermore, sox11 was also capable of decreasing other effector caspase activity but not initiator caspases -8 and -9. The ability of sox11 to reduce effector caspase activity was also reflected in its capacity to reduce cell death following toxic insult. Interestingly, other sox proteins also had the ability to reduce caspase-6 activity but to a lesser extent than sox11.

  7. Diaphanous gene mutation affects spiral cleavage and chirality in snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Reiko; Fujikura, Kohei; Abe, Masanori; Hosoiri, Yuji; Asakawa, Shuichi; Shimizu, Miho; Umeda, Shin; Ichikawa, Futaba; Takahashi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    L-R (left and right) symmetry breaking during embryogenesis and the establishment of asymmetric body plan are key issues in developmental biology, but the onset including the handedness-determining gene locus still remains unknown. Using pure dextral (DD) and sinistral (dd) strains of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as well as its F2 through to F10 backcrossed lines, the single handedness-determining-gene locus was mapped by genetic linkage analysis, BAC cloning and chromosome walking. We have identified the actin-related diaphanous gene Lsdia1 as the strongest candidate. Although the cDNA and derived amino acid sequences of the tandemly duplicated Lsdia1 and Lsdia2 genes are very similar, we could discriminate the two genes/proteins in our molecular biology experiments. The Lsdia1 gene of the sinistral strain carries a frameshift mutation that abrogates full-length LsDia1 protein expression. In the dextral strain, it is already translated prior to oviposition. Expression of Lsdia1 (only in the dextral strain) and Lsdia2 (in both chirality) decreases after the 1-cell stage, with no asymmetric localization throughout. The evolutionary relationships among body handedness, SD/SI (spiral deformation/spindle inclination) at the third cleavage, and expression of diaphanous proteins are discussed in comparison with three other pond snails (L. peregra, Physa acuta and Indoplanorbis exustus). PMID:27708420

  8. DNA targeting and cleavage by an engineered metalloprotein dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Deyrup, Siu Wah; Prasannan, Charulata; Dupureur, Cynthia M; Franklin, Sonya J

    2012-03-01

    Nature has illustrated through numerous examples that protein dimerization has structural and functional advantages. We previously reported the design and characterization of an engineered "metallohomeodomain" protein (C2) based on a chimera of the EF-hand Ca-binding motif and the helix-turn-helix motif of homeodomains (Lim and Franklin in Protein Sci. 15:2159-2165, 2004). This small metalloprotein binds the hard metal ions Ca(II) and Ln(III) and interacts with DNA with modest sequence preference and affinity, yet exhibits only residual DNA cleavage activity. Here we have achieved substantial improvement in function by constructing a covalent dimer of this C2 module (F2) to create a larger multidomain protein. As assayed via fluorescence spectroscopy, this F2 protein binds Ca(II) more avidly (25-fold) than C2 on a per-domain basis; in gel shift selection experiments, metallated F2 exhibits a specificity toward 5'-TAATTA-3' sequences. Finally, Ca(2)F2 cleaves plasmid DNA and generates a linear product in a Ca(II)-dependent way, unlike the CaC2 monomer. To the best of our knowledge this activation of Ca(II) in the context of an EF-hand binding motif is unique and represents a significant step forward in the design of artificial metallonucleases by utilizing biologically significant metal ions.

  9. Pre-Mrna Introns as a Model for Cryptographic Algorithm:. Theory and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The RNA-Crypto System (shortly RCS) is a symmetric key algorithm to cipher data. The idea for this new algorithm starts from the observation of nature. In particular from the observation of RNA behavior and some of its properties. In particular the RNA sequences have some sections called Introns. Introns, derived from the term "intragenic regions", are non-coding sections of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) or other RNAs, that are removed (spliced out of the RNA) before the mature RNA is formed. Once the introns have been spliced out of a pre-mRNA, the resulting mRNA sequence is ready to be translated into a protein. The corresponding parts of a gene are known as introns as well. The nature and the role of Introns in the pre-mRNA is not clear and it is under ponderous researches by Biologists but, in our case, we will use the presence of Introns in the RNA-Crypto System output as a strong method to add chaotic non coding information and an unnecessary behaviour in the access to the secret key to code the messages. In the RNA-Crypto System algorithm the introns are sections of the ciphered message with non-coding information as well as in the precursor mRNA.

  10. Hsp20 Protects against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion-Induced Golgi Fragmentation and Apoptosis through Fas/FasL Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingwu Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury plays an important role in the development of tissue injury after acute ischemic stroke. Finding effective neuroprotective agents has become a priority in the treatment of ischemic stroke. The Golgi apparatus (GA is a pivotal organelle and its protection is an attractive target in the treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Protective effects of Hsp20, a potential cytoprotective agent due to its chaperone-like activity and involvement in regulation of many vital processes, on GA were assessed in an ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a (N2a cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGDR insult. OGDR induces Golgi fragmentation, apoptosis, and p115 cleavage in N2a cells. However, transfection with Hsp20 significantly attenuates OGDR-induced Golgi fragmentation and apoptosis. Hsp20 interacts with Bax, decreases FasL and Bax expression, and inhibits caspases 3 and p115 cleavage in N2a cells exposed to OGDR. Our data demonstrate that increased Hsp20 expression protects against OGDR-induced Golgi fragmentation and apoptosis, likely through interaction with Bax and subsequent amelioration of the OGDR-induced elevation in p115 cleavage via the Fas/FasL signaling pathway. This neuroprotective potential of Hsp20 against OGDR insult and the underlying mechanism will pave the way for its potential clinical application for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion related disorders.

  11. Evidence that the amyloid-β protein precursor intracellular domain, AICD, derives from β-secretase-generated C-terminal fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brice; Pardossi-Piquard, Raphaëlle; Sevalle, Jean; Debayle, Delphine; Dabert-Gay, Anne-Sophie; Thévenet, Aurélie; Lauritzen, Inger; Checler, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    One of the major pathological hallmarks of brains affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the senile plaque, an extracellular deposit mainly composed of a set of highly insoluble peptides of various lengths (39-43 amino acids) referred to as amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Aβ peptides are derived from combined proteolytic cleavages undergone on the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by a set of enzymes called secretases. Several lines of anatomical and biological evidence suggest that Aβ peptides would not account for all pathological stigmata and molecular dysfunctions taking place in AD. In amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways, AβPP first undergoes β- or α-secretases-mediated cleavages yielding C99 and C83, respectively. These two membrane-embedded C-terminal fragments are both potential targets of subsequent γ-secretase-mediated proteolysis. The latter cleavage not only generates either p3 or Aβ peptides but similarly gives rise to an AβPP IntraCellular Domain (AICD fragment) that could modulate the transcription of several genes linked to AD pathology. It is therefore striking that AICD theoretically derives from both amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic AβPP processing pathways. Here we show that AICD predominantly derives from C99 by means of recombinant substrates and transiently transfected cells expressing C99. Our data suggest a preferred pathogenic pathway for AICD production and suggests that this fragment, in addition to C99 and Aβ peptides, could contribute to AD pathology.

  12. Single chain Fab (scFab fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenneis Mariam

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH and and the variable part of the light chain (VL by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Results Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd and the light chain (LC, resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab, can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabΔC connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1 and the constant part of the light chain (CL were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies as well as multimers were characterised. Conclusion A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of

  13. Functional characterization of the cleavage specificity of the sapovirus chymotrypsin-like protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Ivonne; Gebhardt, Julia; Mesters, Jeroen R; Gorbalenya, Alexander; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Rohayem, Jacques

    2008-08-01

    Sapovirus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a translational strategy based on processing of a polyprotein precursor by a chymotrypsin-like protease. So far, the molecular mechanisms regulating cleavage specificity of the viral protease are poorly understood. In this study, the catalytic activities and substrate specificities of the predicted forms of the viral protease, the 3C-like protease (NS6) and the 3CD-like protease-polymerase (NS6-7), were examined in vitro. The purified NS6 and NS6-7 were able to cleave synthetic peptides (15 to 17 residues) displaying the cleavage sites of the sapovirus polyprotein, both NS6 and NS6-7 proteins being active forms of the viral protease. High-performance liquid chromatography and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of digested products showed a specific trans cleavage of peptides bearing Gln-Gly, Gln-Ala, Glu-Gly, Glu-Pro, or Glu-Lys at the scissile bond. In contrast, peptides bearing Glu-Ala or Gln-Asp at the scissile bond (NS4-NS5 and NS5-NS6, or NS6-NS7 junctions, respectively) were resistant to trans cleavage by NS6 or NS6-7 proteins, whereas cis cleavage of the Glu-Ala scissile bond of the NS5-NS6 junction was evidenced. Interestingly, the presence of a Phe at position P4 overruled the resistance to trans cleavage of the Glu-Ala junction (NS5-NS6), whereas substitutions at the P1 and P2' positions altered the cleavage efficiency. The differential cleavage observed is supported by a model of the substrate-binding site of the sapovirus protease, indicating that the P4, P1, and P2' positions in the substrate modulate the cleavage specificity and efficiency of the sapovirus chymotrypsin-like protease.

  14. Functional Characterization of the Cleavage Specificity of the Sapovirus Chymotrypsin-Like Protease▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Ivonne; Gebhardt, Julia; Mesters, Jeroen R.; Gorbalenya, Alexander; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Rohayem, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Sapovirus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a translational strategy based on processing of a polyprotein precursor by a chymotrypsin-like protease. So far, the molecular mechanisms regulating cleavage specificity of the viral protease are poorly understood. In this study, the catalytic activities and substrate specificities of the predicted forms of the viral protease, the 3C-like protease (NS6) and the 3CD-like protease-polymerase (NS6-7), were examined in vitro. The purified NS6 and NS6-7 were able to cleave synthetic peptides (15 to 17 residues) displaying the cleavage sites of the sapovirus polyprotein, both NS6 and NS6-7 proteins being active forms of the viral protease. High-performance liquid chromatography and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of digested products showed a specific trans cleavage of peptides bearing Gln-Gly, Gln-Ala, Glu-Gly, Glu-Pro, or Glu-Lys at the scissile bond. In contrast, peptides bearing Glu-Ala or Gln-Asp at the scissile bond (NS4-NS5 and NS5-NS6, or NS6-NS7 junctions, respectively) were resistant to trans cleavage by NS6 or NS6-7 proteins, whereas cis cleavage of the Glu-Ala scissile bond of the NS5-NS6 junction was evidenced. Interestingly, the presence of a Phe at position P4 overruled the resistance to trans cleavage of the Glu-Ala junction (NS5-NS6), whereas substitutions at the P1 and P2′ positions altered the cleavage efficiency. The differential cleavage observed is supported by a model of the substrate-binding site of the sapovirus protease, indicating that the P4, P1, and P2′ positions in the substrate modulate the cleavage specificity and efficiency of the sapovirus chymotrypsin-like protease. PMID:18550673

  15. Molecular determinants of survival motor neuron (SMN protein cleavage by the calcium-activated protease, calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Fuentes

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a leading genetic cause of childhood mortality, caused by reduced levels of survival motor neuron (SMN protein. SMN functions as part of a large complex in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs. It is not clear if defects in snRNP biogenesis cause SMA or if loss of some tissue-specific function causes disease. We recently demonstrated that the SMN complex localizes to the Z-discs of skeletal and cardiac muscle sarcomeres, and that SMN is a proteolytic target of calpain. Calpains are implicated in muscle and neurodegenerative disorders, although their relationship to SMA is unclear. Using mass spectrometry, we identified two adjacent calpain cleavage sites in SMN, S192 and F193. Deletion of small motifs in the region surrounding these sites inhibited cleavage. Patient-derived SMA mutations within SMN reduced calpain cleavage. SMN(D44V, reported to impair Gemin2 binding and amino-terminal SMN association, drastically inhibited cleavage, suggesting a role for these interactions in regulating calpain cleavage. Deletion of A188, a residue mutated in SMA type I (A188S, abrogated calpain cleavage, highlighting the importance of this region. Conversely, SMA mutations that interfere with self-oligomerization of SMN, Y272C and SMNΔ7, had no effect on cleavage. Removal of the recently-identified SMN degron (Δ268-294 resulted in increased calpain sensitivity, suggesting that the C-terminus of SMN is important in dictating availability of the cleavage site. Investigation into the spatial determinants of SMN cleavage revealed that endogenous calpains can cleave cytosolic, but not nuclear, SMN. Collectively, the results provide insight into a novel aspect of the post-translation regulation of SMN.

  16. Fluid fragmentation from hospital toilets

    CERN Document Server

    Traverso, G; Lu, C -C; Maa, R; Langer, R; Bourouiba, L

    2013-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent significant health and financial burdens to society. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a particularly challenging bacteria with the potential to cause severe diarrhea and death. One mode of transmission for C. difficile, as well as other pathogens, which has received little attention is the potential air contamination by pathogen-bearing droplets emanating from toilets. In the fluid dynamics video submitted to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2013, we present flow visualizations via high-speed recordings showing the capture of the product of the fluid fragmentation generated by hospital toilet high-pressure flushes. Important quantities of both large and small droplets are observed. We illustrate how high-pressure flushes and cleaning products currently used in hospital toilets result in aggravating, rather than alleviating, the suspension and recirculation of tenacious airborne pathogen-bearing droplets.

  17. Fragmentation in Carbon Therapy Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Charara, Y M

    2010-01-01

    The state of the art Monte Carlo code HETC-HEDS was used to simulate spallation products, secondary neutron, and secondary proton production in A-150 Tissue Equivalent Plastic phantoms to investigate fragmentation of carbon therapy beams. For a 356 MeV/Nucleon carbon ion beam, production of charged particles heavier than protons was 0.24 spallation products per incident carbon ion with atomic numbers ranging from 1 through 5 (hydrogen to boron). In addition, there were 4.73 neutrons and 2.95 protons produced per incident carbon ion. Furthermore, as the incident energy increases, the neutron production rate increases at a rate of 20% per 10 MeV/nucleon. Secondary protons were created at a rate between 2.62-2.87 per carbon ion, while spallation products were created at a rate between 0.20-0.24 per carbon ion.

  18. Nonlinear Inflaton Fragmentation after Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G N; Felder, Gary N.; Kofman, Lev

    2007-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear dynamics of inflaton fragmentation during and after preheating in the simplest model of chaotic inflation. While the earlier regime of parametric resonant particle production and the later turbulent regime of interacting fields evolving towards equilibrium are well identified and understood, the short intermediate stage of violent nonlinear dynamics remains less explored. Lattice simulations of fully nonlinear preheating dynamics show specific features of this intermediate stage: occupation numbers of the scalar particles are peaked, scalar fields become significantly non-gaussian and the field dynamics become chaotic and irreversible. Visualization of the field dynamics in configuration space reveals that nonlinear interactions generate non-gaussian inflaton inhomogeneities with very fast growing amplitudes. The peaks of the inflaton inhomogeneities coincide with the peaks of the scalar field(s) produced by parametric resonance. When the inflaton peaks reach their maxima, they stop ...

  19. Endocytic down-regulation of ErbB2 is stimulated by cleavage of its C-terminus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerdrup, Mads; Bruun, Silas; Grandal, Michael Vibo

    2007-01-01

    inhibition of HSP90 with geldanamycin this cleavage is accompanied by proteasome-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2. However, it is unknown whether C-terminal cleavage is linked to endocytosis. To study ErbB2 cleavage and endocytic trafficking, we fused yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and cyan fluorescent...

  20. High yield DNA fragmentation using cyclical hydrodynamic shearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Spang, Peter; Roeser, Tina; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Corbera, Antoni Homs; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We report a new DNA fragmentation technique that significantly simplifies conventional hydrodynamic shearing fragmentation by eliminating the need for sample recirculation while maintaining high fragmentation yield and low fragment length variation, and therefore, reduces instrument complexity and c

  1. High yield DNA fragmentation using cyclical hydrodynamic shearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Spang, Peter; Roeser, Tina; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Corbera, Antoni Homs; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We report a new DNA fragmentation technique that significantly simplifies conventional hydrodynamic shearing fragmentation by eliminating the need for sample recirculation while maintaining high fragmentation yield and low fragment length variation, and therefore, reduces instrument complexity and

  2. Guest-host interactions in the cleavage of phenylphenyl acetates by -cyclodextrin in alkaline medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Raj; T Chandrakala; K Rajasekaran

    2008-05-01

    Kinetics of cleavage of phenylphenyl acetates (PPA) and several para-substituted PPAs in basic aqueous sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer containing -cyclodextrin (CD) have been studied. The reaction exhibits saturation type kinetics and CD accelerates the rate of cleavage by the formation of 1G : 1H inclusion complex. The kinetic results indicate that aryloxy moiety of PPA is included in the hydrophobic cavity of CD. The overall rate constants for the cleavage of the [CD-ester] complex correlate with the Hammett -constants and Hansch hydrophobicity parameters . At higher concentrations of CD, there is an additional catalysis due to the formation of weak 1G : 2H complex.

  3. In vitro proteolytic cleavage of Gazdar murine sarcoma virus p65gag.

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, S.; Arlinghaus, R B

    1981-01-01

    Moloney murine leukemia virus, disrupted in concentrations of 0.1 to 0.5% Nonidet P-40, catalyzed the cleavage of p65, the gag gene polyprotein of the Gazdar strain of murine sarcoma virus, into polypeptides with sizes and antigenic determinants of murine leukemia virus-specified p30, p15, pp12, and p10. Cleavage performed in the presence of 0.15% Nonidet P-40 in water yielded polypeptides of approximately 40,000 (P40) and 25,000 (P25) Mr. In vitro cleavage performed in a buffered solution co...

  4. Enzymology of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases: reaction mechanisms, inhibition and biochemical roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter J; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2014-02-15

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a large family of non-heme iron (II) dependent enzymes. CCDs catalyse the selective oxidative cleavage of carotenoids to produce apocarotenoids. Apocarotenoid derived molecules form important signalling molecules in plants in the form of abscisic acid and strigolactone and in mammals in the form of retinal. Very little is known biochemically about the CCDs and only a handful of CCDs have been biochemically characterised. Mechanistically, debate surrounds whether CCDs utilise a mono or dioxygenase mechanism. Here, we review the biochemical roles of CCDs, discuss the mechanisms by which CCD cleavage is proposed to occur, and discuss recent reports of selective CCD enzyme inhibitors.

  5. Generalized fragmentation functions for fractal jet observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Benjamin T.; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a broad class of fractal jet observables that recursively probe the collective properties of hadrons produced in jet fragmentation. To describe these collinear-unsafe observables, we generalize the formalism of fragmentation functions, which are important objects in QCD for calculating cross sections involving identified final-state hadrons. Fragmentation functions are fundamentally nonperturbative, but have a calculable renormalization group evolution. Unlike ordinary fragmentation functions, generalized fragmentation functions exhibit nonlinear evolution, since fractal observables involve correlated subsets of hadrons within a jet. Some special cases of generalized fragmentation functions are reviewed, including jet charge and track functions. We then consider fractal jet observables that are based on hierarchical clustering trees, where the nonlinear evolution equations also exhibit tree-like structure at leading order. We develop a numeric code for performing this evolution and study its phenomenological implications. As an application, we present examples of fractal jet observables that are useful in discriminating quark jets from gluon jets.

  6. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  7. Fragmentation processes during explosion welding (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Rybin, V. V.; Elkina, O. A.; Patselov, A. M.; Antonova, O. V.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Tolmachev, T. P.

    2013-10-01

    The fragmentation during explosion welding is briefly reviewed. Fragmentation of partitioning type (FPT), which consists in partitioning into particles that either fly away or join each other, is detected. FPT is an analog of the fragmentation during an explosion that was studied by Mott. In both cases, the flight of particles (fragments) takes place, and the integrity of the material is retained in FPT. FPT is a powerful channel for the dissipation of supplied energy, since the surface of flying particles has a large total area.

  8. Molecular energies from an incremental fragmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitei, Oinam Romesh; Heßelmann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The systematic molecular fragmentation method by Collins and Deev [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 104104 (2006)] has been used to calculate total energies and relative conformational energies for a number of small and extended molecular systems. In contrast to the original approach by Collins, we have tested the accuracy of the fragmentation method by utilising an incremental scheme in which the energies at the lowest level of the fragmentation are calculated on an accurate quantum chemistry level while lower-cost methods are used to correct the low-level energies through a high-level fragmentation. In this work, the fragment energies at the lowest level of fragmentation were calculated using the random-phase approximation (RPA) and two recently developed extensions to the RPA while the incremental corrections at higher levels of the fragmentation were calculated using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods. The complete incremental fragmentation method has been shown to reproduce the supermolecule results with a very good accuracy, almost independent on the molecular type, size, or type of decomposition. The fragmentation method has also been used in conjunction with the DFT-SAPT (symmetry-adapted perturbation theory) method which enables a breakdown of the total nonbonding energy contributions into individual interaction energy terms. Finally, the potential problems of the method connected with the use of capping hydrogen atoms are analysed and two possible solutions are supplied.

  9. A Note on Convex Renorming and Fragmentability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Mirmostafaee

    2005-05-01

    Using the game approach to fragmentability, we give new and simpler proofs of the following known results: (a) If the Banach space admits an equivalent Kadec norm, then its weak topology is fragmented by a metric which is stronger than the norm topology. (b) If the Banach space admits an equivalent rotund norm, then its weak topology is fragmented by a metric. (c) If the Banach space is weakly locally uniformly rotund, then its weak topology is fragmented by a metric which is stronger than the norm topology.

  10. Toward The Reconstitution of the Maturation of Okazaki Fragments Multiprotein Complex in Human At The Single Molecule Level

    KAUST Repository

    Joudeh, Luay

    2017-04-01

    The maturation of Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand in eukaryotes is mediated by a highly coordinated multistep process involving several proteins that ensure the accurate and efficient replication of genomic DNA. Human proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) that slides on double-stranded DNA is the key player that coordinates the access of various proteins to the different intermediary steps in this process. In this study, I am focusing on characterizing how PCNA recruits and stimulates the structure specific flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) to process the aberrant double flap (DF) structures that are produced during maturation of Okazaki fragments. FEN1 distorts the DF structures into a bent conformer to place the scissile phosphate into the active site for cleavage. The product is a nick substrate that can be sealed by DNA ligase I whose recruitment is also mediated by its interaction with PCNA. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements that simultaneously monitored bending and cleavage of various DF substrates by FEN1 alone or in the presence of PCNA, we found that FEN1 and PCNA bends cognate and non-cognate substrates but display remarkable selectivity to stabilize the bent conformer in cognate substrate while promoting the dissociation of non-cognate substrates. This mechanism provides efficiency and accuracy for FEN1 and PCNA to cleave the correct substrate while avoiding the deleterious cleavage of incorrect substrates. This work provides a true molecular level understanding of the key step during the maturation of Okazaki fragment and contributes towards the reconstitution of its entire activity at the single molecule level.

  11. Dinitrogen cleavage and functionalization by carbon monoxide promoted by a hafnium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Donald J; Lobkovsky, Emil; Chirik, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Molecular nitrogen (N(2)) and carbon monoxide (CO) have the two strongest bonds in chemistry and present significant challenges in developing new transformations that exploit these two abundant feedstocks. At the core of this objective is the discovery of transition-metal compounds that promote the six-electron reductive cleavage of N(2) at ambient temperature and pressure and also promote new nitrogen-element bond formation. Here we show that an organometallic hafnium compound induces N(2) cleavage on the addition of CO, with a simultaneous assembly of new nitrogen-carbon and carbon-carbon bonds. Subsequent addition of a weak acid liberates oxamide, which demonstrates that an important agrochemical can be synthesized directly from N(2) and CO. These studies introduce an alternative paradigm for N(2) cleavage and functionalization in which the six-electron reductive cleavage is promoted by both the transition metal and the incoming ligand, CO, used for the new bond formations.

  12. Facile P-C/C-H Bond-Cleavage Reactivity of Nickel Bis(diphosphine) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Li, Haixia; Appel, Aaron M; Hall, Michael B; Bullock, R Morris

    2016-07-04

    Unusual cleavage of P-C and C-H bonds of the P2 N2 ligand, in heteroleptic [Ni(P2 N2 )(diphosphine)](2+) complexes under mild conditions, results in the formation of an iminium formyl nickelate featuring a C,P,P-tridentate coordination mode. The structures of both the heteroleptic [Ni(P2 N2 )(diphosphine)](2+) complexes and the resulting iminium formyl nickelate have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the mechanism of the P-C/C-H bond cleavage, which involves C-H bond cleavage, hydride rotation, Ni-C/P-H bond formation, and P-C bond cleavage.

  13. Site-Specific Pyrolysis Induced Cleavage at Aspartic Acid Residue in Peptides and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaofeng; Basile, Franco

    2011-01-01

    A simple and site-specific non-enzymatic method based on pyrolysis has been developed to cleave peptides and proteins. Pyrolytic cleavage was found to be specific and rapid as it induced a cleavage at the C-terminal side of aspartic acid in the temperature range of 220–250 °C in 10 seconds. Electrospray Ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem-MS (MS/MS) were used to characterize and identify pyrolysis cleavage products, confirming that sequence information is conserved after the pyrolysis process in both peptides and protein tested. This suggests that pyrolysis-induced cleavage at aspartyl residues can be used as a rapid protein digestion procedure for the generation of sequence specific protein biomarkers. PMID:17388620

  14. Lanthanide-Mediated Dephosphorylation Used for Peptide Cleavage during Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghee Yoo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanide(III ions can accelerate the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters in neutral aqueous solution. In this paper, lanthanide-mediated dephosphorylation has been applied in aqueous media as an orthogonal cleavage condition that can be employed in conventional solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS. A phosphorylated polymeric support for SPPS was developed using Boc chemistry. The cleavage of resin-bound phosphates was investigated with the addition of Eu(III, Yb(III, acid or base, a mixture of solvents or different temperatures. To demonstrate the utility of this approach for SPPS, a peptide sequence was synthesized on a phosphorylated polymeric support and quantitatively cleaved with lanthanide ions in neutral aqueous media. The protecting groups for side chains were retained during peptide cleavage using lanthanide ions. This new methodology provides a mild orthogonal cleavage condition of phosphoester as a linker during SPPS.

  15. Photolytic Cleavage and Condensation Reactions of Cyclohexa-2,4-dienones with Diamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kee Chung

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-one sulfone derivate undergoes ring cleavage to afford bis-amides containing a diene moiety on irradiation with visible light in the presence of various diamines.

  16. A strategy for developing a hammerhead ribozyme for selective RNA cleavage depending on substitutional RNA editing

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Masatora; Kurihara, Kei; Tanaka, Yasuyoshi; Deshimaru, Masanobu

    2012-01-01

    Engineered site-specific RNA cleavage is widely used for gene regulation, RNA mapping, and synthetic RNA production. Here the authors extend the range of engineered recognition selectivity to include cleavage of sequence motifs containing naturally occurring base modifications. They describe and implement a designer hammerhead ribozyme that cleaves a target sequence 1 nt from a site of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) or cytosine to uracil (C-to-U) editing in synthetic or physiological mRNA cont...

  17. Control of extracellular cleavage of ProBDNF by high frequency neuronal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Nagappan, Guhan; Zaitsev, Eugene; Senatorov, Vladimir V.; Yang, Jianmin; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Lu, Bai

    2009-01-01

    Pro- and mature neurotrophins often elicit opposing biological effects. For example, mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) is critical for long-term potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation, whereas proBDNF facilitate long-term depression induced by low-frequency stimulation. Because mBDNF is derived from proBDNF by endoproteolytic cleavage, mechanisms regulating the cleavage of proBDNF may control the direction of BDNF regulation. Using methods that selectively detect pr...

  18. Features of Pro-σK Important for Cleavage by SpoIVFB, an Intramembrane Metalloprotease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kangming; Xiang, Xianling; Gu, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases regulate diverse processes by cleaving substrates within a transmembrane segment or near the membrane surface. Bacillus subtilis SpoIVFB is an intramembrane metalloprotease that cleaves Pro-σK during sporulation. To elucidate features of Pro-σK important for cleavage by SpoIVFB, coexpression of the two proteins in Escherichia coli was used along with cell fractionation. In the absence of SpoIVFB, a portion of the Pro-σK was peripherally membrane associated. This portion was not observed in the presence of SpoIVFB, suggesting that it serves as the substrate. Deletion of Pro-σK residues 2 to 8, addition of residues at its N terminus, or certain single-residue substitutions near the cleavage site impaired cleavage. Certain multiresidue substitutions near the cleavage site changed the position of cleavage, revealing preferences for a small residue preceding the cleavage site N-terminally (i.e., at the P1 position) and a hydrophobic residue at the second position following the cleavage site C-terminally (i.e., P2′). These features appear to be conserved among Pro-σK orthologs. SpoIVFB did not tolerate an aromatic residue at P1 or P2′ of Pro-σK. A Lys residue at P3′ of Pro-σK could not be replaced with Ala unless a Lys was provided farther C-terminally (e.g., at P9′). α-Helix-destabilizing residues near the cleavage site were not crucial for SpoIVFB to cleave Pro-σK. The preferences and tolerances of SpoIVFB are somewhat different from those of other intramembrane metalloproteases, perhaps reflecting differences in the interaction of the substrate with the membrane and the enzyme. PMID:23585539

  19. Photocatalytic C-C Bond Cleavage and Amination of Cycloalkanols by Cerium(III) Chloride Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Jing; Hu, Anhua; Chen, Yilin; Sun, Jianfeng; Tang, Haoming; Zuo, Zhiwei

    2016-12-05

    A general strategy for the cleavage and amination of C-C bonds of cycloalkanols has been achieved through visible-light-induced photoredox catalysis utilizing a cerium(III) chloride complex. This operationally simple methodology has been successfully applied to a wide array of unstrained cyclic alcohols, and represents the first example of catalytic C-C bond cleavage and functionalization of unstrained secondary cycloalkanols.

  20. Cleavage and protection of locked nucleic acid-modified DNA by restriction endonucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzier, Lucile; Dubois, Camille; Wengel, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is one of the most prominent nucleic acid analogues reported so far. We herein for the first time report cleavage by restriction endonuclease of LNA-modified DNA oligonucleotides. The experiments revealed that RsaI is an efficient enzyme capable of recognizing and cleaving...... LNA-modified DNA oligonucleotides. Furthermore, introduction of LNA nucleotides protects against cleavage by the restriction endonucleases PvuII, PstI, SacI, KpnI and EcoRI....

  1. N–O Cleavage reactions of heterobicycloalkene-fused 2-isoxazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaipal R. Nagireddy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal-mediated N–O bond cleavage reactions of heterobicycloalkene-fused 3-methyl-2-isoxazolines were investigated. Optimal cleavage conditions were found with Raney nickel/AlCl3 mediation in aqueous methanol. The reaction provided a diverse collection of novel heterobicycle-fused β-hydroxyketones with good to excellent yields (66–95% and without the need for chromatographic purification.

  2. Political cleavages in Romania. A theoretical overview of the post-communist parties and party systems

    OpenAIRE

    Olimid, Anca Parmena

    2009-01-01

    The following article examines the emergence of parties in post-communist Romania concluding that the theoretical basis of cleavages (the Lipset-Rokkanian model) is almost impossible to apply in this country. Accordingly, the historical evolution of the post-communist society and the strategic moves of political actors during democratization were often perceived as an „expected moments lacking any theoretical model”. Contrary to this assumption, I argue that even an incipient cleavage suggest...

  3. Putting into perspective of the cleavage State-Church in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén TORRES-MARTÍNEZ

    2012-01-01

    Since the independence of Mexico (1821), two political groups have been competing for getting the control of the country. Throughout the twentieth century, the hegemonic party by using the entire state apparatus managed the system to make impossible to observe the cleavages in the country. We have studied and exploited the concept of cleavage as a tool. This concept allows us to observe where the lines are which divide the society. It has been studied the case of two political parties: the Na...

  4. From Bedding To Cleavage: The Evolution Of Clay Fabric Near A Thrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiron, T.; Aubourg, C.; Valier, P., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    In foothills, the propagation of faults within incompetent bed is potentially accompanied by the development of oblique cleavage. This is particularly demonstrated in the Southern Pyrenees where the out-of-sequence propagation of a flat thrust imposed the development of oblique cleavage within the flat-lying Pamplona marls. Over hundreds of meters, it is possible to trace step by step the cleavage development. The horizontal bedding is gradually superimposed by oblique cleavage (dip ~60°N). At the end of the studied outcrop, a pervasive ~mm spaced cleavage is observed. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is a classic tool for study the deformation in shales. In the Pamplona marls, AMS is essentially controlled by clays fabric. AMS shows that the degree of anisotropy Pj is not the best parameter to highlight the degree of deformation of marls. This parameter is positively correlated to the bulk magnetic susceptibility Km (~10-4 SI). On the contrary, the shape parameter T is more consistent with the degree of deformation: higher is the degree of deformation observed in outcrop (occurrence of pervasive cleavage), lower is the T parameter. As m-spaced cleavage starts to develop, the shape parameter T decreases linearly from ~0.8 to ~0.2, reflecting a gradual disorganization of clay particles. Despite the development of mm-spaced cleavage, the magnetic fabric remains oblate and is still dominated by the sedimentary fabric. This means that the bulk fabric of clay particles remains parallel to the bedding plane. Our study demonstrates that AMS is a powerful tool to trace the deformation of clay rocks and that the study of the shape parameter T is a robust and fast gauge of clays fabric. .

  5. Specific detection of the cleavage activity of mycobacterial enzymes using a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Morten Leth; Harmsen, Charlotte; Godbole, Adwait Anand; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Ho, Yi-Ping

    2015-12-01

    We present a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor specifically targeting the cleavage step in the reaction cycle of the essential DNA-modifying enzyme, mycobacterial topoisomerase I. The design takes advantages of the unique photophysical properties of quantum dots to generate visible fluorescence recovery upon specific cleavage by mycobacterial topoisomerase I. This report, for the first time, demonstrates the possibility to quantify the cleavage activity of the mycobacterial enzyme without the pre-processing sample purification or post-processing signal amplification. The cleavage induced signal response has also proven reliable in biological matrices, such as whole cell extracts prepared from Escherichia coli and human Caco-2 cells. It is expected that the assay may contribute to the clinical diagnostics of bacterial diseases, as well as the evaluation of treatment outcomes.We present a quantum dot based DNA nanosensor specifically targeting the cleavage step in the reaction cycle of the essential DNA-modifying enzyme, mycobacterial topoisomerase I. The design takes advantages of the unique photophysical properties of quantum dots to generate visible fluorescence recovery upon specific cleavage by mycobacterial topoisomerase I. This report, for the first time, demonstrates the possibility to quantify the cleavage activity of the mycobacterial enzyme without the pre-processing sample purification or post-processing signal amplification. The cleavage induced signal response has also proven reliable in biological matrices, such as whole cell extracts prepared from Escherichia coli and human Caco-2 cells. It is expected that the assay may contribute to the clinical diagnostics of bacterial diseases, as well as the evaluation of treatment outcomes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization of the QD-based DNA Nanosensor. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06326d

  6. Rates of intercalator-driven platination of DNA determined by a restriction enzyme cleavage inhibition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Jayati Roy; Rao, Lu; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    A restriction enzyme cleavage inhibition assay was designed to determine the rates of DNA platination by four non-cross-linking platinum-acridine agents represented by the formula [Pt(am(2))LCl](NO(3))(2), where am is a diamine nonleaving group and L is an acridine derived from the intercalator 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea (ACRAMTU). The formation of monofunctional adducts in the target sequence 5'-CGA was studied in a 40-base-pair probe containing the EcoRI restriction site GAATTC. The time dependence of endonuclease inhibition was quantitatively analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The formation of monoadducts is approximately 3 times faster with double-stranded DNA than with simple nucleic acid fragments. Compound 1 (am(2) is ethane-1,2-diamine, L is ACRAMTU) reacts with a first-order rate constant of k (obs) = 1.4 ± 0.37 × 10(-4) s(-1) (t (1/2) = 83 ± 22 min). Replacement of the thiourea group in ACRAMTU with an amidine group (compound 2) accelerates the rate by fourfold (k (obs) = 5.7 ± 0.58 × 10(-4) s(-1), t (1/2) = 21 ± 2 min), and introduction of a propane-1,3-diamine nonleaving group results in a 1.5-fold enhancement in reactivity (compound 3, k (obs) = 2.1 ± 0.40 × 10(-4) s(-1), t (1/2) = 55 ± 10 min) compared with the prototype. Derivative 4, containing a 4,9-disubstituted acridine threading intercalator, was the least reactive compound in the series (k (obs) = 1.1 ± 0.40 × 10(-4) s(-1), t (1/2) = 104 ± 38 min). The data suggest a correlation may exist between the binding rates and the biological activity of the compounds. Potential pharmacological advantages of rapid formation of cytotoxic monofunctional adducts over the common purine-purine cross-links are discussed.

  7. Governmental Fragmentation in Metropolitan Detroit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis, Kristal D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At its population peak in the 1950’s, Detroit, Michigan was inhabited by almost two million residents and served as the car capital of the country. Today, however, the population has dropped by more than fifty percent. With the loss of Detroit residents to surrounding cities and counties, the wedge between Detroit and the suburbs has grown wider. Detroit, once considered the crown jewel of the state of Michigan, is now treated as an immovable stain by its surrounding municipalities. What this means for the metro Detroit area is a high level of governmental fragmentation, preventing economic opportunities for both the city and its suburbs. This is especially unfortunate for the economy of the metro Detroit area because of the current economic crisis in the state of Michigan. With the state’s long tradition of home rule and pride in autonomous, municipal decision-making, municipalities in the metro Detroit area might better realize economic opportunities and the relief they can bring to their own local economies by not only collaborating with the city of Detroit, but with neighboring cities as well.

  8. Differential cleavage of the norovirus polyprotein precursor by two active forms of the viral protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Ulrike; Rudolph, Wolfram; Gebhardt, Julia; Rohayem, Jacques

    2007-07-01

    Protein translation in noroviruses requires translational processing of a polyprotein precursor by the viral protease. So far, the molecular mechanisms of catalytic cleavage by the viral protease are poorly understood. In this study, the catalytic activities and substrate specificities of the viral protease were examined in vitro by using synthetic peptides (11-15 residues) corresponding to the cleavage sites of the norovirus polyprotein. Both predicted forms of the viral protease, the 3C-like protease (3C(pro)) and the 3CD-like protease polymerase protein (3CD(propol)), displayed a specific trans cleavage activity of peptides bearing Gln-Gly at the scissile bond. In contrast, peptides bearing Glu-Gly at the scissile bond (p20/VPg and 3C(pro)/3D(pol) junctions) were resistant to trans-cleavage by 3C(pro) and 3CD(propol). Interestingly, the VPg/3C(pro) scissile bond (Glu-Ala) was cleaved only by 3CD(propol), and examination of relative cleavage efficiencies revealed significant differences in processing of peptides, indicating differential cleavage patterns for 3C(pro) and 3CD(propol).

  9. Glycoprotein B cleavage is important for murid herpesvirus 4 to infect myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauser, Daniel L; Milho, Ricardo; Frederico, Bruno; May, Janet S; Kratz, Anne-Sophie; Gillet, Laurent; Stevenson, Philip G

    2013-10-01

    Glycoprotein B (gB) is a conserved herpesvirus virion component implicated in membrane fusion. As with many-but not all-herpesviruses, the gB of murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) is cleaved into disulfide-linked subunits, apparently by furin. Preventing gB cleavage for some herpesviruses causes minor infection deficits in vitro, but what the cleavage contributes to host colonization has been unclear. To address this, we mutated the furin cleavage site (R-R-K-R) of the MuHV-4 gB. Abolishing gB cleavage did not affect its expression levels, glycosylation, or antigenic conformation. In vitro, mutant viruses entered fibroblasts and epithelial cells normally but had a significant entry deficit in myeloid cells such as macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The deficit in myeloid cells was not due to reduced virion binding or endocytosis, suggesting that gB cleavage promotes infection at a postendocytic entry step, presumably viral membrane fusion. In vivo, viruses lacking gB cleavage showed reduced lytic spread in the lungs. Alveolar epithelial cell infection was normal, but alveolar macrophage infection was significantly reduced. Normal long-term latency in lymphoid tissue was established nonetheless.

  10. Expression and in vitro cleavage activity of anti-caspase-7 hammerhead ribozymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Qing Xie; Xia-Qiu Zhou; Shan Jiang; You-Xin Jin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To prepare hammerhead ribozymes against mouse caspase-7 and identify their cleavage activityin vitro, in order to select a ribozyme with specific cleavage activity against mouse caspase-7 as a potential gene therapy for apoptosis-related diseases.METHODS: Anti-caspase-7 ribozymes targeting sites 333and 394 (named Rz333 and Rz394) were designed by computer software, and their DNA sequences encoding ribozymes were synthesized. Caspase-7 DNA sequence was acquired by RT-PCR. Ribozymes and caspase-7 DNA obtained byin vitro transcription were cloned into pBSKneo U6' and pGEM-T vectors, respectively. The cleavage activity of ribozymes against mouse caspase-7 was identified by cleavage experimentsin vitro.RESULTS: Rz333 and Rz394 were designed and their DNA sequences were synthesized respectively. The expression vector of caspase-7 and plasmids containing Rz333 and Rz394 were reconstructed successfully. Ribozymes and caspase-7 mRNA were expressed byin vitro transcription.In vitro cleavage experiment showed that 243-nt and 744-nt segments were produced after caspase-7 mRNA was mixed with Rz333 in equivalent, and the cleavage efficiency was 67.98%. No cleaved segment was observed when caspase-7 mRNA was mixed with Rz394.CONCLUSION: Rz333 can site-specific cleave mouse caspase-7 mRNA, and it shows a potential for gene therapy of apoptosis-related diseases by down-regulating gene expression of caspase-7.

  11. Recycling of protein subunits during DNA translocation and cleavage by Type I restriction-modification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Michelle; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    The Type I restriction-modification enzymes comprise three protein subunits; HsdS and HsdM that form a methyltransferase (MTase) and HsdR that associates with the MTase and catalyses Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent DNA translocation and cleavage. Here, we examine whether the MTase and HsdR components can 'turnover' in vitro, i.e. whether they can catalyse translocation and cleavage events on one DNA molecule, dissociate and then re-bind a second DNA molecule. Translocation termination by both EcoKI and EcoR124I leads to HsdR dissociation from linear DNA but not from circular DNA. Following DNA cleavage, the HsdR subunits appear unable to dissociate even though the DNA is linear, suggesting a tight interaction with the cleaved product. The MTases of EcoKI and EcoAI can dissociate from DNA following either translocation or cleavage and can initiate reactions on new DNA molecules as long as free HsdR molecules are available. In contrast, the MTase of EcoR124I does not turnover and additional cleavage of circular DNA is not observed by inclusion of RecBCD, a helicase-nuclease that degrades the linear DNA product resulting from Type I cleavage. Roles for Type I restriction endonuclease subunit dynamics in restriction alleviation in the cell are discussed.

  12. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in activation of the prodrug nabumetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N A; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Challinor, Victoria L; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their substrates, these reactions have been difficult to characterize. A CYP1A2-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction is required for conversion of the prodrug nabumetone to its active form, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA). Despite worldwide use of nabumetone as an anti-inflammatory agent, the mechanism of its carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction remains obscure. With the help of authentic synthetic standards, we report here that the reaction involves 3-hydroxylation, carbon-carbon cleavage to the aldehyde, and oxidation of the aldehyde to the acid, all catalyzed by CYP1A2 or, less effectively, by other P450 enzymes. The data indicate that the carbon-carbon bond cleavage is mediated by the ferric peroxo anion rather than the ferryl species in the P450 catalytic cycle. CYP1A2 also catalyzes O-demethylation and alcohol to ketone transformations of nabumetone and its analogs.

  13. The eIF4G–homolog p97 can activate translation independent of caspase cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousch, Marco; Reed, Victoria; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.; Currie, Peter D.; Preiss, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G family plays a central role during translation initiation, bridging between the 5′ and 3′ ends of the mRNA via its N-terminal third while recruiting other factors and ribosomes through its central and C-terminal third. The protein p97/NAT1/DAP5 is homologous to the central and C-terminal thirds of eIF4G. p97 has long been considered to be a translational repressor under normal cellular conditions. Further, caspase cleavage liberates a p86 fragment that is thought to mediate cap-independent translation in apoptotic cells. We report here that, surprisingly, human p97 is polysome associated in proliferating cells and moves to stress granules in stressed, nonapoptotic cells. Tethered-function studies in living cells show that human p97 and p86 both can activate translation; however, we were unable to detect polysome association of p86 in apoptotic cells. We further characterized the zebrafish orthologs of p97, and found both to be expressed throughout embryonic development. Their simultaneous knockdown by morpholino injection led to impaired mesoderm formation and early embryonic lethality, indicating conservation of embryonic p97 function from fish to mammals. These data indicate that full-length p97 is a translational activator with essential role(s) in unstressed cells, suggesting a reassessment of current models of p97 function. PMID:17237356

  14. The eIF4G-homolog p97 can activate translation independent of caspase cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousch, Marco; Reed, Victoria; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J; Currie, Peter D; Preiss, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    The eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G family plays a central role during translation initiation, bridging between the 5' and 3' ends of the mRNA via its N-terminal third while recruiting other factors and ribosomes through its central and C-terminal third. The protein p97/NAT1/DAP5 is homologous to the central and C-terminal thirds of eIF4G. p97 has long been considered to be a translational repressor under normal cellular conditions. Further, caspase cleavage liberates a p86 fragment that is thought to mediate cap-independent translation in apoptotic cells. We report here that, surprisingly, human p97 is polysome associated in proliferating cells and moves to stress granules in stressed, nonapoptotic cells. Tethered-function studies in living cells show that human p97 and p86 both can activate translation; however, we were unable to detect polysome association of p86 in apoptotic cells. We further characterized the zebrafish orthologs of p97, and found both to be expressed throughout embryonic development. Their simultaneous knockdown by morpholino injection led to impaired mesoderm formation and early embryonic lethality, indicating conservation of embryonic p97 function from fish to mammals. These data indicate that full-length p97 is a translational activator with essential role(s) in unstressed cells, suggesting a reassessment of current models of p97 function.

  15. Atypical cleavage of protonated N-fatty acyl amino acids derived from aspartic acid evidenced by sequential MS(3) experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerche, Toufik Taalibi; Alves, Sandra; Le Faouder, Pauline; Warnet, Anna; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bouchekara, Mohamed; Belbachir, Mohammed; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Lipidomics calls for information on detected lipids and conjugates whose structural elucidation by mass spectrometry requires to rationalization of their gas phase dissociations toward collision-induced dissociation (CID) processes. This study focused on activated dissociations of two lipoamino acid (LAA) systems composed of N-palmitoyl acyl coupled with aspartic and glutamic acid mono ethyl esters (as LAA(*D) and LAA(*E)). Although in MS/MS, their CID spectra show similar trends, e.g., release of water and ethanol, the [(LAA(*D/*E)+H)-C2H5OH](+) product ions dissociate via distinct pathways in sequential MS(3) experiments. The formation of all the product ions is rationalized by charge-promoted cleavages often involving stepwise processes with ion isomerization into ion-dipole prior to dissociation. The latter explains the maleic anhydride or ketene neutral losses from N-palmitoyl acyl aspartate and glutamate anhydride fragment ions, respectively. Consequently, protonated palmitoyl acid amide is generated from LAA(*D), whereas LAA(*E) leads to the [*E+H-H2O](+) anhydride. The former releases ammonia to provide acylium, which gives the C n H(2n-1) and C n H(2n-3) carbenium series. This should offer structural information, e.g., to locate either unsaturation(s) or alkyl group branching present on the various fatty acyl moieties of lipo-aspartic acid in further studies based on MS (n) experiments.

  16. The Relationship between Cell Number, Division Behavior and Developmental Potential of Cleavage Stage Human Embryos: A Time-Lapse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Yang, Shuting; Gong, Fei; Lu, Changfu; Zhang, Shuoping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Day 3 cleavage embryo transfer is routine in many assisted reproductive technology centers today. Embryos are usually selected according to cell number, cell symmetry and fragmentation for transfer. Many studies have showed the relationship between cell number and embryo developmental potential. However, there is limited understanding of embryo division behavior and their association with embryo cell number and developmental potential. A retrospective and observational study was conducted to investigate how different division behaviors affect cell number and developmental potential of day 3 embryos by time-lapse imaging. Based on cell number at day 3, the embryos (from 104 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles, n = 799) were classified as follows: less than 5 cells (10C; n = 42). Division behavior, morphokinetic parameters and blastocyst formation rate were analyzed in 5 groups of day 3 embryos with different cell numbers. In 10C embryos increased compared to 7-8C embryos (45.8%, 33.3% vs. 11.1%, respectively). In ≥5C embryos, FR and DC significantly reduced developmental potential, whereas division behaviors. In NB embryos, the blastocyst formation rate increased with cell number from 7.4% (10C). In NB embryos, the cell cycle elongation or shortening was the main cause for abnormally low or high cell number, respectively. After excluding embryos with abnormal division behaviors, the developmental potential, implantation rate and live birth rate of day 3 embryos increased with cell number.

  17. Implications of caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of cyclin A1 in DNA damage-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang Hyeok; Seo, Sung-Keum [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Sungkwan; Choe, Tae-Boo [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seok-Il [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Han, E-mail: yhlee87@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Caspase-1 mediates doxorubicin-induced downregulation of cyclin A1. • Active caspase-1 effectively cleaved cyclin A1 at D165. • Cyclin A1 expression is involved in DNA damage-induced cell death. - Abstract: Cyclin A1 is an A-type cyclin that directly binds to CDK2 to regulate cell-cycle progression. In the present study, we found that doxorubicin decreased the expression of cyclin A1 at the protein level in A549 lung cancer cells, while markedly downregulating its mRNA levels. Interestingly, doxorubicin upregulated caspase-1 in a concentration-dependent manner, and z-YAVD-fmk, a specific inhibitor of caspase-1, reversed the doxorubicin-induced decrease in cyclin A1 in A549 lung cancer and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Active caspase-1 effectively cleaved cyclin A1 at D165 into two fragments, which in vitro cleavage assays showed were further cleaved by caspase-3. Finally, we found that overexpression of cyclin A1 significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, and knockdown of cyclin A1 by RNA interference enhanced the sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation. Our data suggest a new mechanism for the downregulation of cyclin A1 by DNA-damaging stimuli that could be intimately involved in the cell death induced by DNA damage-inducing stimuli, including doxorubicin and ionizing radiation.

  18. Hydrogen Rearrangement Rules: Computational MS/MS Fragmentation and Structure Elucidation Using MS-FINDER Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kind, Tobias; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yukihira, Daichi; Tanaka, Wataru; Cajka, Tomas; Saito, Kazuki; Fiehn, Oliver; Arita, Masanori

    2016-08-16

    Compound identification from accurate mass MS/MS spectra is a bottleneck for untargeted metabolomics. In this study, we propose nine rules of hydrogen rearrangement (HR) during bond cleavages in low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). These rules are based on the classic even-electron rule and cover heteroatoms and multistage fragmentation. We evaluated our HR rules by the statistics of MassBank MS/MS spectra in addition to enthalpy calculations, yielding three levels of computational MS/MS annotation: "resolved" (regular HR behavior following HR rules), "semiresolved" (irregular HR behavior), and "formula-assigned" (lacking structure assignment). With this nomenclature, 78.4% of a total of 18506 MS/MS fragment ions in the MassBank database and 84.8% of a total of 36370 MS/MS fragment ions in the GNPS database were (semi-) resolved by predicted bond cleavages. We also introduce the MS-FINDER software for structure elucidation. Molecular formulas of precursor ions are determined from accurate mass, isotope ratio, and product ion information. All isomer structures of the predicted formula are retrieved from metabolome databases, and MS/MS fragmentations are predicted in silico. The structures are ranked by a combined weighting score considering bond dissociation energies, mass accuracies, fragment linkages, and, most importantly, nine HR rules. The program was validated by its ability to correctly calculate molecular formulas with 98.0% accuracy for 5063 MassBank MS/MS records and to yield the correct structural isomer with 82.1% accuracy within the top-3 candidates. In a test with 936 manually identified spectra from an untargeted HILIC-QTOF MS data set of human plasma, formulas were correctly predicted in 90.4% of the cases, and the correct isomer structure was retrieved at 80.4% probability within the top-3 candidates, including for compounds that were absent in mass spectral libraries. The MS-FINDER software is freely available at http://prime.psc.riken.jp/ .

  19. Metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of PlexinD1 and its sequestration to actin rods in the motoneuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Sebastian; Verheijen, Bert M; Hensel, Niko; Peters, Miriam; Bora, Gamze; Brandes, Gudrun; Vieira de Sá, Renata; Heidrich, Natascha; Fischer, Silke; Brinkmann, Hella; van der Pol, W Ludo; Wirth, Brunhilde; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Claus, Peter

    2017-10-15

    Cytoskeletal rearrangement during axon growth is mediated by guidance receptors and their ligands which act either as repellent, attractant or both. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is disturbed in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), a devastating neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly motoneurons, but receptor-ligand interactions leading to the dysregulation causing SMA are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed the role of the guidance receptor PlexinD1 in SMA pathogenesis. We showed that PlexinD1 is cleaved by metalloproteases in SMA and that this cleavage switches its function from an attractant to repellent. Moreover, we found that the PlexinD1 cleavage product binds to actin rods, pathological aggregate-like structures which had so far been described for age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Our data suggest a novel disease mechanism for SMA involving formation of actin rods as a molecular sink for a cleaved PlexinD1 fragment leading to dysregulation of receptor signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Site-specific O-Glycosylation on the MUC2 Mucin Protein Inhibits Cleavage by the Porphyromonas gingivalis Secreted Cysteine Protease (RgpB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Sjoerd; Subramani, Durai B; Bäckström, Malin

    2013-01-01

    The colonic epithelial surface is protected by an inner mucus layer that the commensal microflora cannot penetrate. We previously demonstrated that Entamoeba histolytica secretes a protease capable of dissolving this layer that is required for parasite penetration. Here, we asked whether there ar......The colonic epithelial surface is protected by an inner mucus layer that the commensal microflora cannot penetrate. We previously demonstrated that Entamoeba histolytica secretes a protease capable of dissolving this layer that is required for parasite penetration. Here, we asked whether...... there are bacteria that can secrete similar proteases. We screened bacterial culture supernatants for such activity using recombinant fragments of the MUC2 mucin, the major structural component, and the only gel-forming mucin in the colonic mucus. MUC2 has two central heavily O-glycosylated mucin domains...... was isolated and identified as Arg-gingipain B (RgpB). Two cleavage sites were localized to IR↓TT and NR↓QA. IR↓TT cleavage will disrupt the MUC2 polymers. Because this site has two potential O-glycosylation sites, we tested whether recombinant GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) could glycosylate a synthetic...

  1. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1) C4408R Mutant Promotes Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) α-Cleavage in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huayan; Habib, Ahsan; Zi, Dan; Tian, Kathy; Tian, Jun; Giunta, Brian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2017-06-13

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) plays conflicting roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, clearing β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain while also enhancing APP endocytosis and resultant amyloidogenic processing. We have recently discovered that co-expression of mutant LRP1 C-terminal domain (LRP1-CT C4408R) with Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells decreases Aβ production, while also increasing sAPPα and APP α-C-terminal fragment (α-CTF), compared with CHO cells expressing APPswe alone. Surprisingly, the location of this mutation on LRP1 corresponded with the α-secretase cleavage site of APP. Further experimentation confirmed that in CHO cells expressing APPswe or wild-type APP (APPwt), co-expression of LRP1-CT C4408R decreases Aβ and increases sAPPα and α-CTF compared with co-expression of wild-type LRP1-CT. In addition, LRP1-CT C4408R enhanced the unglycosylated form of LRP1-CT and reduced APP endocytosis as determined by flow cytometry. This finding identifies a point mutation in LRP1 which slows LRP1-CT-mediated APP endocytosis and amyloidogenic processing, while enhancing APP α-secretase cleavage, thus demonstrating a potential novel target for slowing AD pathogenesis.

  2. On the fragmentation of biomolecules: fragmentation of alanine dipeptide along the polypeptide chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander; Solov'yov, Andrey

    2006-01-01

    . The fragmentation of dipeptide along the polypeptide chain, as well as the interaction between alanines, has been considered. The energy of the system has been analyzed as a function of the distance between fragments for all possible dipeptide fragmentation channels. Analysis of the energy barriers makes...... it possible to estimate the characteristic fragmentation times and to determine the degree of applicability of classical electrodynamics for describing the system energy....

  3. The role of the methyltransferase domain of bifunctional restriction enzyme RM.BpuSI in cleavage activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Sarrade-Loucheur

    Full Text Available Restriction enzyme (REase RM.BpuSI can be described as a Type IIS/C/G REase for its cleavage site outside of the recognition sequence (Type IIS, bifunctional polypeptide possessing both methyltransferase (MTase and endonuclease activities (Type IIC and endonuclease activity stimulated by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM (Type IIG. The stimulatory effect of SAM on cleavage activity presents a major paradox: a co-factor of the MTase activity that renders the substrate unsusceptible to cleavage enhances the cleavage activity. Here we show that the RM.BpuSI MTase activity modifies both cleavage substrate and product only when they are unmethylated. The MTase activity is, however, much lower than that of M1.BpuSI and is thought not to be the major MTase for host DNA protection. SAM and sinefungin (SIN increase the Vmax of the RM.BpuSI cleavage activity with a proportional change in Km, suggesting the presence of an energetically more favorable pathway is taken. We further showed that RM.BpuSI undergoes substantial conformational changes in the presence of Ca(2+, SIN, cleavage substrate and/or product. Distinct conformers are inferred as the pre-cleavage/cleavage state (in the presence of Ca(2+, substrate or both and MTase state (in the presence of SIN and substrate, SIN and product or product alone. Interestingly, RM.BpuSI adopts a unique conformation when only SIN is present. This SIN-bound state is inferred as a branch point for cleavage and MTase activity and an intermediate to an energetically favorable pathway for cleavage, probably through increasing the binding affinity of the substrate to the enzyme under cleavage conditions. Mutation of a SAM-binding residue resulted in altered conformational changes in the presence of substrate or Ca(2+ and eliminated cleavage activity. The present study underscores the role of the MTase domain as facilitator of efficient cleavage activity for RM.BpuSI.

  4. Social economy partnerships and the public/private cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Public/Private Partnerships can be seen as one particular topos where the divide between the public domain, all levels of the Public Administration and the private initiative and private property is turned into a joint venture rather than a confrontation or a cleavage. Some of the possible combinations of public and private and where public/private partnerships might fit are displayed analytically. The importance of political theory or ideology in conceiving the relationships between ‘public’ and ‘private’, and the conceptions of a market economy as opposed to a social market economy cannot be exaggerated enough, but equally important are the legal or regulatory framework and the underlying dominant legal culture and legal principles, and of course the economic and financial situation. Public/private partnerships thrive in some conditions, but seem to wane in others, and the current predicament is not favourable, taking into account that only the regulatory framework is supportive of these ventures. Los partenariados público-privados se pueden entender como un espacio particular, en el que el sector público, todos los niveles de la administración pública, y la iniciativa privada y la propiedad privada, abordan una empresa conjunta, en lugar mantener posturas contrapuestas. Se muestran algunas de las posibles combinaciones del sector público y privado, en las que tendrían cabida los partenariados público/privados. Es patente la importancia de la teoría o la ideología política para entender las relaciones entre lo público y lo privado, y las concepciones de una economía de mercado frente a una economía social, pero tampoco se puede negar la importancia del marco legal o reglamentario y la cultura jurídica dominante subyacente, y los principios jurídicos, sin olvidar la situación económica y financiera. Los partenariados público-privados prosperan en algunas condiciones, pero no lo hacen siempre, y la situación econ

  5. Modelling distribution functions and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, J; Mulders, P J

    1995-01-01

    We present examples for the calculation of the distribution and fragmentation functions using the representation in terms of non-local matrix elements of quark field operators. As specific examples, we use a simple spectator model to estimate the leading twist quark distribution functions and the fragmentation functions for a quark into a nucleon or a pion.

  6. The Family Circle: A Study in Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1976-01-01

    Presents data describing the fragmentation of the family, suggests causes for the fragmentation, and offers suggestions for reversing the trend. The suggestions focus on day care, part-time employment practices, enhancing the position of women, and work and responsibility. (IRT)

  7. The Stellar IMF from turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, P.; Nordlund, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper they conclude that turbulent fragmentation is unavoidable in super-sonically turbulent molecular clouds, and given the success of the present model to predict the observed shape of the Stellar IMF, they conclude that turbulent fragmentation is essential to the origin of the stellar IMF.

  8. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  9. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    1998-01-01

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and t

  10. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    1998-01-01

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and t

  11. INTERMITTENCY, A TEST FOR STRING FRAGMENTATION PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLTEN, O

    The Artru-Mennessier and the string fragmentation procedure as implemented in the code VENUS have been compared. The two fragmentation prescriptions predict a similar rapidity spectrum including its energy dependence and event multiplicities, but give rise to very different intermittency results.

  12. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  13. Long-term effects of fragmentation and fragment properties on bird species richness in Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Flaspohler; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory P. Asner; Patrick Hart; Jonathan Price; Cassie Ka’apu Lyons; Xeronimo. Castaneda

    2010-01-01

    Forest fragmentation is a common disturbance affecting biological diversity, yet the impacts of fragmentation on many forest processes remain poorly understood. Forest restoration is likely to be more successful when it proceeds with an understanding of how native and exotic vertebrates utilize forest patches of different size. We used a system of forest fragments...

  14. Quantitative characterization of cleavage and hydrogen-assisted quasi-cleavage fracture surfaces with the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, E. [Institute of Advanced Technologies, Togliatti State University, 445667 (Russian Federation); Kudrya, A.V.; Trachenko, V.A. [Department of Physical Metallurgy and the Physics of Strength, NUST MISiS, Moscow 119490 (Russian Federation); Merson, D. [Institute of Advanced Technologies, Togliatti State University, 445667 (Russian Federation); Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Kazan Federal University, Naberezhnye Chelny 423812, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Danilov, V. [Institute of Advanced Technologies, Togliatti State University, 445667 (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, A. [Institute of Advanced Technologies, Togliatti State University, 445667 (Russian Federation); Department of Engineering Design and Materials, Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NTNU, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-05-17

    “True” cleavage (TC) and quasi-cleavage (QC) fracture surfaces of low-carbon steel specimens tested in liquid nitrogen and after hydrogen charging respectively were investigated by quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Topological and crystallographic features of the TC fracture surface are found in good agreement with the generally accepted cleavage mechanism: TC facets diameters correspond to those of grains; the crack path strictly follows the crystallographic orientation of grains and the most of the cleavage cracks are parallel to {100} planes. On the 2D SEM images, the QC facets appeared resembling the TC ones in terms of river line patterns, shapes and sizes. However, the substantial differences between the topography of these two kinds of fracture surfaces were revealed by 3D CLSM: the average misorientation angle between QC facets and the roughness of the QC fracture surface were much lower than those measured for TC. It is demonstrated that all these features are attributed to the specific fracture mechanism operating during hydrogen-assisted cracking.

  15. Carbon-Oxygen Bond Cleavage by Bis(imino)pyridine Iron Compounds : Catalyst Deactivation Pathways and Observation of Acyl C-O Bond Cleavage in Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trovitch, Ryan J.; Lobkovsky, Emil; Bouwkamp, Marco W.; Chirik, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Investigations into the substrate scope of bis(imino)pyridine iron-catalyzed hydrogenation and [2 pi + 2 pi]. diene cyclization reactions identified C-O bond cleavage as a principal deactivation pathway. Addition of diallyl or allyl ethyl ether to the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complex, ((iP

  16. CLP-based protein fragment assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Palu', Alessandro Dal; Fogolari, Federico; Pontelli, Enrico; 10.1017/S1471068410000372

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates a novel approach, based on Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), to predict the 3D conformation of a protein via fragments assembly. The fragments are extracted by a preprocessor-also developed for this work- from a database of known protein structures that clusters and classifies the fragments according to similarity and frequency. The problem of assembling fragments into a complete conformation is mapped to a constraint solving problem and solved using CLP. The constraint-based model uses a medium discretization degree Ca-side chain centroid protein model that offers efficiency and a good approximation for space filling. The approach adapts existing energy models to the protein representation used and applies a large neighboring search strategy. The results shows the feasibility and efficiency of the method. The declarative nature of the solution allows to include future extensions, e.g., different size fragments for better accuracy.

  17. The politics of municipal fragmentation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Kuyini Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly debate over the rival merits of local government consolidation and fragmentation is an old but enduring one. However, in this debate very little attention has been focused on the political dimension of council amalgamation and fragmentation – yet political considerations play a central role in both the formulation and outcomes of de-concentration policy. The purpose of this article is to fill a gap in the literature by examining local government fragmentation in Ghana from 1988 to 2014. The article does this by identifying the key players and analysing their interests and gains, as well as the tensions arising from the fragmentation exercise. The implications from the Ghanaian case for more general theories of fragmentation are drawn out.

  18. First principles approach to ionicity of fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Valone, Steven M.

    2015-02-01

    We develop a first principles approach towards the ionicity of fragments. In contrast to the bond ionicity, the fragment ionicity refers to an electronic property of the constituents of a larger system, which may vary from a single atom to a functional group or a unit cell to a crystal. The fragment ionicity is quantitatively defined in terms of the coefficients of contributing charge states in a superposition of valence configurations of the system. Utilizing the constrained density functional theory-based computations, a practical method to compute the fragment ionicity from valence electron charge densities, suitably decomposed according to the Fragment Hamiltonian (FH) model prescription for those electron densities, is presented for the first time. The adopted approach is illustrated using BeO, MgO and CaO diatomic molecules as simple examples. The results are compared and discussed with respect to the bond ionicity scales of Phillips and Pauling.

  19. Cryptic chemotactic activity of fibronectin for human monocytes resides in the 120-kDa fibroblastic cell-binding fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R A; Wikner, N E; Doherty, D E; Norris, D A

    1988-08-25

    -binding fragment contains a cryptic site for monocyte chemotaxis which is expressed upon enzymatic cleavage of fibronectin.

  20. Small DNA pieces in C. elegans are intermediates of DNA fragmentation during apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Joseph Aruscavage

    Full Text Available While studying small noncoding RNA in C. elegans, we discovered that protocols used for isolation of RNA are contaminated with small DNA pieces. After electrophoresis on a denaturing gel, the DNA fragments appear as a ladder of bands, approximately 10 nucleotides apart, mimicking the pattern of nuclease digestion of DNA wrapped around a nucleosome. Here we show that the small DNA pieces are products of the DNA fragmentation that occurs during apoptosis, and correspondingly, are absent in mutant strains incapable of apoptosis. In contrast, the small DNA pieces are present in strains defective for the engulfment process of apoptosis, suggesting they are produced in the dying cell prior to engulfment. While the small DNA pieces are also present in a number of strains with mutations in predicted nucleases, they are undetectable in strains containing mutations in nuc-1, which encodes a DNase II endonuclease. We find that the small DNA pieces can be labeled with terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase only after phosphatase treatment, as expected if they are products of DNase II cleavage, which generates a 3' phosphate. Our studies reveal a previously unknown intermediate in the process of apoptotic DNA fragmentation and thus bring us closer to defining this important pathway.

  1. Fenton fragmentation for faster electrophoretic on chip purification of amplifiable genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakenberg, S; Hügle, M; Meyer, P; Behrmann, O; Dame, G; Urban, G A

    2015-05-15

    With a rapid and simple actuation protocol electrophoretic nucleic acid extraction is easy automatable, requires no moving parts, is easy to miniaturize and furthermore possesses a size dependent cut-off filter adjustable by the pore size of the hydrogel. However electrophoretic nucleic acid extraction from bacteria has so far been applied mainly for short RNA targets. One of the reasons is that electrophoretic processing of unfragmented genomic DNA strands is time-consuming, because of the length. Here DNA fragmentation would accelerate extraction and isolation. We introduce on-chip lysis and non-enzymatic DNA cleavage directly followed by a purifying step for receiving amplifiable DNA fragments from bacteria in less than 25 min. In contrast to restriction enzymes the Fenton reaction is known to cleave DNA without nucleotide specificity. The reaction mix contains iron(II) EDTA, sodium ascorbate, hydrogen peroxide and lysozyme. The degree of fragmentation can be adjusted by the concentration of reagents. The results enable electrophoretic extraction methods to unspecifically process long genomic DNA in a short time frame, e.g. for pathogen detection in a lab-on-a-chip format. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. N-terminal galanin-(1-16) fragment is an agonist at the hippocampal galanin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisone, G.; Berthold, M.; Bedecs, K.; Unden, A.; Bartfai, T.; Bertorelli, R.; Consolo, S.; Crawley, J.; Martin, B.; Nilsson, S.; (Univ. of Stockholm (Sweden))

    1989-12-01

    The galanin N-terminal fragment (galanin-(1-16)) has been prepared by solid-phase synthesis and by enzymic cleavage of galanin by endoproteinase Asp-N. This peptide fragment displaced {sup 125}I-labeled galanin in receptor autoradiography experiments on rat forebrain and spinal cord and in equilibrium binding experiments from high-affinity binding sites in the ventral hippocampus with an IC50 of approximately 3 nM. In tissue slices of the same brain area, galanin-(1-16), similarly to galanin, inhibited the muscarinic agonist-stimulated breakdown of inositol phospholipids. Upon intracerebroventricular administration, galanin-(1-16) (10 micrograms/15 microliters) also inhibited the scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.)-evoked release of acetylcholine, as studied in vivo by microdialysis. Substitution of (L-Trp2) for (D-Trp2) resulted in a 500-fold loss in affinity as compared with galanin-(1-16). It is concluded that, in the ventral hippocampus, the N-terminal galanin fragment (galanin-(1-16)) is recognized by the galanin receptors controlling acetylcholine release and muscarinic agonist-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown as a high-affinity agonist and that amino acid residue (Trp2) plays an important role in the receptor-ligand interactions.

  3. Requirements for efficient proteolytic cleavage of prelamin A by ZMPSTE24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Barrowman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proteolytic maturation of the nuclear protein lamin A by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is critical for human health. The lamin A precursor, prelamin A, undergoes a multi-step maturation process that includes CAAX processing (farnesylation, proteolysis and carboxylmethylation of the C-terminal CAAX motif, followed by ZMPSTE24-mediated cleavage of the last 15 amino acids, including the modified C-terminus. Failure to cleave the prelamin A "tail", due to mutations in either prelamin A or ZMPSTE24, results in a permanently prenylated form of prelamin A that underlies the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS and related progeroid disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have investigated the features of the prelamin A substrate that are required for efficient cleavage by ZMPSTE24. We find that the C-terminal 41 amino acids of prelamin A contain sufficient context to allow cleavage of the tail by ZMPSTE24. We have identified several mutations in amino acids immediately surrounding the cleavage site (between Y646 and L647 that interfere with efficient cleavage of the prelamin A tail; these mutations include R644C, L648A and N650A, in addition to the previously reported L647R. Our data suggests that 9 of the 15 residues within the cleaved tail that lie immediately upstream of the CAAX motif are not critical for ZMPSTE24-mediated cleavage, as they can be replaced by the 9 amino acid HA epitope. However, duplication of the same 9 amino acids (to increase the distance between the prenyl group and the cleavage site impairs the ability of ZMPSTE24 to cleave prelamin A. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveals amino acid preferences flanking the ZMPSTE24 cleavage site of prelamin A and suggests that spacing from the farnesyl-cysteine to the cleavage site is important for optimal ZMPSTE24 cleavage. These studies begin to elucidate the substrate requirements of an enzyme activity critical to human

  4. Identification of BACE1 cleavage sites in human voltage-gated sodium channel beta 2 subunit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Dora M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The voltage-gated sodium channel β2 subunit (Navβ2 is a physiological substrate of BACE1 (β-site APP cleaving enzyme and γ-secretase, two proteolytic enzymes central to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Previously, we have found that the processing of Navβ2 by BACE1 and γ-secretase regulates sodium channel metabolism in neuronal cells. In the current study we identified the BACE1 cleavage sites in human Navβ2. Results We found a major (147-148 L↓M, where ↓ indicates the cleavage site and a minor (144145 L↓Q BACE1 cleavage site in the extracellular domain of human Navβ2 using a cell-free BACE1 cleavage assay followed by mass spectrometry. Next, we introduced two different double mutations into the identified major BACE1 cleavage site in human Navβ2: 147LM/VI and 147LM/AA. Both mutations dramatically decreased the cleavage of human Navβ2 by endogenous BACE1 in cell-free BACE1 cleavage assays. Neither of the two mutations affected subcellular localization of Navβ2 as confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation of cholesterol-rich domains. Finally, wildtype and mutated Navβ2 were expressed along BACE1 in B104 rat neuroblastoma cells. In spite of α-secretase still actively cleaving the mutant proteins, Navβ2 cleavage products decreased by ~50% in cells expressing Navβ2 (147LM/VI and ~75% in cells expressing Navβ2 (147LM/AA as compared to cells expressing wildtype Navβ2. Conclusion We identified a major (147-148 L↓M and a minor (144-145 L↓Q BACE1 cleavage site in human Navβ2. Our in vitro and cell-based results clearly show that the 147-148 L↓M is the major BACE1 cleavage site in human Navβ2. These findings expand our understanding of the role of BACE1 in voltage-gated sodium channel metabolism.

  5. Exact Solutions of Fragmentation Equations with General Fragmentation Rates and Separable Particles Distribution Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Oukouomi Noutchie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We make use of Laplace transform techniques and the method of characteristics to solve fragmentation equations explicitly. Our result is a breakthrough in the analysis of pure fragmentation equations as this is the first instance where an exact solution is provided for the fragmentation evolution equation with general fragmentation rates. This paper is the key for resolving most of the open problems in fragmentation theory including “shattering” and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems with initial finite particles number.

  6. Manganese-dependent cleavage of nonphenolic lignin structures by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora in the absence of lignin peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.A. Jr.; Bao, W.; Kawai, S. [USDA Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Many ligninolytic fungi appear to lack lignin peroxidase (LiP), the enzyme generally thought to cleave nonphenolic structures in lignin. However, the fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, is able to degrade these nonphenolic structures. Experiments showed wood block cultures and defined liquid medium cultures of C. subvermispora rapidly deploymerized and mineralized a {sup 14}C-labeled, polyethylene glycol-linked, high-molecular-weight {beta}-O-4 lignin model compound (model I) that represents the major nonphenolic structure of lignin. The fungus cleaved model I between C{sub {alpha}} and C{sub {beta}} to release benzylic fragments, which were shown in isotope trapping experiments to be major products of model I metabolism. The C{sub {alpha}}-C{sub {beta}} cleavage of {beta}-O-4 lignin structures to release benzylic fragments is characteristic of LiP catalysis, but no detectable LiP activity. Three results pointed, instead, to the participation of a different enzyme, manganese peroxidase (MnP), in the degradation of nonphenolic lignin structures by C. subvermispora. (1) The degradation of model I and of exhaustively methylated (nonphenolic), {sup 14}C-labeled, synthetic lignin by the fungus in liquid cultures was almost completely inhibited when the Mn concentration of the medium was decreased from 35 {mu}M to approximately 5 {mu}M. (2) The fungus degraded model I and methylated lignin significantly faster in the presence of Tween 80, a source of unsaturated fatty acids, than it did in the presence of Tween 20, which contains only saturated fatty acids. Previous work has shown that nonphenolic lignin structures are degraded during the MnP-mediated peroxidation of unsaturated lipids. (3) In experiments with MnP, Mn(II), and unsaturated lipid in vitro, this system mimicked intact C. subvermispora cultures in that it cleaved nonphenolic {beta}-O-4 lignin model compounds between C{sub {alpha}} and C{sub {beta}} to release a benzylic fragment. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Structural basis of cell wall cleavage by a staphylococcal autolysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Zoll

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The major autolysins (Atl of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus play an important role in cell separation, and their mutants are also attenuated in virulence. Therefore, autolysins represent a promising target for the development of new types of antibiotics. Here, we report the high-resolution structure of the catalytically active amidase domain AmiE (amidase S. epidermidis from the major autolysin of S. epidermidis. This is the first protein structure with an amidase-like fold from a bacterium with a gram-positive cell wall architecture. AmiE adopts a globular fold, with several alpha-helices surrounding a central beta-sheet. Sequence comparison reveals a cluster of conserved amino acids that define a putative binding site with a buried zinc ion. Mutations of key residues in the putative active site result in loss of activity, enabling us to propose a catalytic mechanism. We also identified and synthesized muramyltripeptide, the minimal peptidoglycan fragment that can be used as a substrate by the enzyme. Molecular docking and digestion assays with muramyltripeptide derivatives allow us to identify key determinants of ligand binding. This results in a plausible model of interaction of this ligand not only for AmiE, but also for other PGN-hydrolases that share the same fold. As AmiE active-site mutations also show a severe growth defect, our findings provide an excellent platform for the design of specific inhibitors that target staphylococcal cell separation and can thereby prevent growth of this pathogen.

  8. Construction of humanized carcinoembryonic antigen specific single chain variable fragment and mitomycin conjugate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To construct a new target-oriented conjugate of humanized carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) specific single chain variable fragment (scFv) and mitomycin (MMC) against colorectal cancer, and to investigate its influence on the growth and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells.METHODS: The primer was designed according to the gene sequence described in reference 16, which respectively contains restriction enzyme cleavage sites BamH Ⅰ and EcoR Ⅰ in its upstream and downstream.PCR was performed with the plasmid as template containing genes of humanized anti-CEA scFv. The product was digested by BamH Ⅰ and EcoR Ⅰ, and connected to an expression vector which also has the restriction enzyme cleavage sites BamH Ⅰ and EcoR.Expression of the reaction was induced by isopropy-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG). Then the expression product was covalently coupled with MMC by dextran T-40. The immunoreactivity of the conjugate against colorectal cancer cells as well as CEA was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The inhibiting ratio of conjugate on the growth of colorectal cancer cells was also measured by ELISA. The effect of conjugate on the apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells was determined by flow cytometry (FCM).RESULTS: Restriction endonuclease cleavage and gene sequencing confirmed that the expression vector was successfully constructed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-VAGE) confirmed that this vector correctly expressed the fusion protein.ELISA confirmed that the conjugate had quite a strong immunoreactivity against colorectal cancer cells and CEA. The conjugate had inhibitory effects on colorectal cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner and could induce apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner.CONCLUSION: The CEA-scFv-MMC conjugate can be successfully constructed and is able to inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells.

  9. Coronavirus 3CLpro proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blom Nikolaj

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-1, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses. It is made available for public use at our website: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCorona/.

  10. Topography and Atomic Structure Investigations Of (100 Cleavage Surface of In4Se3 Layered Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Galiy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The atomic microstructure and crystallography of (100 surfaces of In4Se3 layered crystals obtained by cleavage in situ were studied by the methods of scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopies (STM, AFM and low energy electron diffraction (LEED for reflection. The obtained results indicate the existence of periodic corrugated structures on the cleavage surface. It is shown that (100 In4Se3 cleavage surface is structurally stable and doesn't undergo reconstruction in a wide temperature range of 77-295 K. The anisotropy of thermal expansion along the main crystallography directions in the (100 In4Se3 cleavage plane has been shown. The evaluation of the two-dimensional lattice constant in the cleavage (100 surface plane of orthorhombic In4Se3 layered crystal was done. The calculated values of the lattice constants in consequence of LEED study, such as b  11,475 Å and c  3,734 Å, coincide well with those obtained by the AFM and STM (b  13-14 Å and c  4 Å, and correlate, within the errors limits, with the corresponding values obtained by X-ray diffraction (b  12,308(1 Å and c  4,0810(5 Å. Besides, the obtained results of cleavage surface structure studies show the correctness of filtering application concerning topography images and indicate the adequacy of the model used for calculations of the cleavage (100 surfaces lattice constants of In4Se3 in accordance with the LEED results. The influence of the LEED experimental module structure on the results has been considered.

  11. Virtual fragment screening: an exploration of various docking and scoring protocols for fragments using Glide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatkar, Sameer; Wang, Hongming; Czerminski, Ryszard; Joseph-McCarthy, Diane

    2009-08-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery approaches allow for a greater coverage of chemical space and generally produce high efficiency ligands. As such, virtual and experimental fragment screening are increasingly being coupled in an effort to identify new leads for specific therapeutic targets. Fragment docking is employed to create target-focussed subset of compounds for testing along side generic fragment libraries. The utility of the program Glide with various scoring schemes for fragment docking is discussed. Fragment docking results for two test cases, prostaglandin D2 synthase and DNA ligase, are presented and compared to experimental screening data. Self-docking, cross-docking, and enrichment studies are performed. For the enrichment runs, experimental data exists indicating that the docking decoys in fact do not inhibit the corresponding enzyme being examined. Results indicate that even for difficult test cases fragment docking can yield enrichments significantly better than random.

  12. Improved chemical shift based fragment selection for CS-Rosetta using Rosetta3 fragment picker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Robert [Hospital for Sick Children, Program in Molecular Structure and Function (Canada); Shen, Yang [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Baker, David [University of Washington, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Lange, Oliver F., E-mail: oliver.lange@tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department Chemie, Biomolecular NMR and Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    A new fragment picker has been developed for CS-Rosetta that combines beneficial features of the original fragment picker, MFR, used with CS-Rosetta, and the fragment picker, NNMake, that was used for purely sequence based fragment selection in the context of ROSETTA de-novo structure prediction. Additionally, the new fragment picker has reduced sensitivity to outliers and other difficult to match data points rendering the protocol more robust and less likely to introduce bias towards wrong conformations in cases where data is bad, missing or inconclusive. The fragment picker protocol gives significant improvements on 6 of 23 CS-Rosetta targets. An independent benchmark on 39 protein targets, whose NMR data sets were published only after protocol optimization had been finished, also show significantly improved performance for the new fragment picker (van der Schot et al. in J Biomol NMR, 2013)

  13. Decomposition and fragmentation principles in computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-12-01

    A common approach to the mathematical modeling of various objects and processes is the subdivision of the problem into smaller, (and, as hoped), more easily understandable entities. By modeling these smaller entities, which are often fragments of the whole, and eventually re-combining these smaller fragment models into a model of the whole, one may expect that a reasonably reliable modeling approach for the complete problem may be obtained. One crucial aspect of such an approach is the level of complexity of the interrelations between the fragments. If the interrelations are weak and relatively simple, than the fragmentation approach may succeed and provide satisfactory results. However, as often happens, the interrelations are complex and not well understood, and then the fragmentation approach may face difficulties and even fail. One field where the interrelations between potential fragments is strong, yet the fragment-based approach has proven to be successful, is the modelling of both small and large molecules, providing valuable lessons for some fields not directly linked to chemistry.

  14. On Disciplinary Fragmentation and Scientific Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called “schools of thought”. We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model’s implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science. PMID:25790025

  15. The role of the position of the basic residue in the generation and fragmentation of peptide radical cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sheena; O'Hair, Richard A. J.; McFadyen, W. David

    2006-03-01

    Using simple di- and tripeptides GX, GGX, GXG, XG and XGG, the influence of the position of the basic residue, X (X = R, K and H), on the formation of peptide radical cations (M+) from [CuII(tpy)M]2+ complexes (where tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) was probed. It was found that M+ is formed with greatest abundance when the basic residue is at the C-terminus. For arginine containing peptides, this may be due to further fragmentation of GRG+, RG+ and RGG+ at the MS2 stage. For lysine and histidine containing peptides, when the basic residue is not located at the C-terminus, competing fragmentation pathways that lead to peptide backbone cleavage are more facile than M+ formation. In order to gain some insights into the binding modes of these peptides to [CuII(tpy)]2+, the formation and fragmentation of copper(II) complexes of tripeptides protected as their carboxy methyl/ethyl esters (M-OR', R' = Me/Et) were also probed. The products of the competing fragmentation pathways of [CuII(tpy)M]2+, as well as the formation and fragmentation of [CuII(tpy)(M-OR')]2+, suggest that the unprotected peptides, M, mainly bind as zwitterions to [CuII(tpy)]2+. The fragmentation reactions of the radical cations (M+) were also studied. Radical driven side chain fragmentation reactions of M+ are dependent on both the position of the residue as well as the identity of other residues present in the peptide radical cations. GR and RG, which undergo rearrangement to form a mixed anhydride in their protonated forms, do not undergo the same rearrangement in their radical cation forms.

  16. Intrinsic Tau Acetylation Is Coupled to Auto-Proteolytic Tau Fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J Cohen

    Full Text Available Tau proteins are abnormally aggregated in a range of neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recently, tau has emerged as an extensively post-translationally modified protein, among which lysine acetylation is critical for normal tau function and its pathological aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that tau isoforms have different propensities to undergo lysine acetylation, with auto-acetylation occurring more prominently within the lysine-rich microtubule-binding repeats. Unexpectedly, we identified a unique intrinsic property of tau in which auto-acetylation induces proteolytic tau cleavage, thereby generating distinct N- and C-terminal tau fragments. Supporting a catalytic reaction-based mechanism, mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that tau cysteines, which are required for acetyl group transfer, are also essential for auto-proteolytic tau processing. Further mass spectrometry analysis identified the C-terminal 2nd and 4th microtubule binding repeats as potential sites of auto-cleavage. The identification of acetylation-mediated auto-proteolysis provides a new biochemical mechanism for tau self-regulation and warrants further investigation into whether auto-catalytic functions of tau are implicated in AD and other tauopathies.

  17. New information on photon fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, M

    2014-01-01

    Thermal photons radiated in heavy-ion collisions represent an important signal for a recently discovered new state of matter, the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. However, a clean identification of this signal requires precise knowledge of the prompt photons produced simultaneously in hard collisions of quarks and gluons, mostly through their fragmentation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that PHENIX data on photons produced in proton-proton collisions with low transverse momenta allow to extract new information on this fragmentation process. In particular, these data favor one parameterization (BFG II) over the two other frequently used photon fragmentation functions (BFG I and GRV NLO).

  18. HETC-3STEP included fragmentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. For the cascade process, nucleon-nucleon cross sections are used for collision computation; effective in-medium-corrected cross sections are adopted instead of the original free-nucleon collision. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into the original HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)

  19. Composite Overwrap Fragmentation Observations, Concerns, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Mike; Hovater, Mary

    2017-01-01

    A series of test activities has raised some concerns about the generation of orbital debris caused by failures of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). These tests have indicated that a large number of composite fragments can be produced by either pressure burst failures or by high-speed impacts. A review of prior high-speed tests with COPV indicates that other tests have produced large numbers of composite fragments. As was the case with the test referenced here, the tests tended to produce a large number of small composite fragments with relatively low velocities induced by the impact and or gas expansion.

  20. Structure of the N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals a new family of topoisomerases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, Bhupesh; Patel, Asmita; Slesarev, Alexei; Mondragon, Alfonso (NWU); (FSI)

    2010-09-02

    Topoisomerases are involved in controlling and maintaining the topology of DNA and are present in all kingdoms of life. Unlike all other types of topoisomerases, similar type IB enzymes have only been identified in bacteria and eukarya. The only putative type IB topoisomerase in archaea is represented by Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V. Despite several common functional characteristics, topoisomerase V shows no sequence similarity to other members of the same type. The structure of the 61 kDa N-terminal fragment of topoisomerase V reveals no structural similarity to other topoisomerases. Furthermore, the structure of the active site region is different, suggesting no conservation in the cleavage and religation mechanism. Additionally, the active site is buried, indicating the need of a conformational change for activity. The presence of a topoisomerase in archaea with a unique structure suggests the evolution of a separate mechanism to alter DNA.

  1. Mass Spectrometry Based Ultrasensitive DNA Methylation Profiling Using Target Fragmentation Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang-Cheng; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tang, Hao; Yu, Ru-Qin; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2016-01-19

    Efficient tools for profiling DNA methylation in specific genes are essential for epigenetics and clinical diagnostics. Current DNA methylation profiling techniques have been limited by inconvenient implementation, requirements of specific reagents, and inferior accuracy in quantifying methylation degree. We develop a novel mass spectrometry method, target fragmentation assay (TFA), which enable to profile methylation in specific sequences. This method combines selective capture of DNA target from restricted cleavage of genomic DNA using magnetic separation with MS detection of the nonenzymatic hydrolysates of target DNA. This method is shown to be highly sensitive with a detection limit as low as 0.056 amol, allowing direct profiling of methylation using genome DNA without preamplification. Moreover, this method offers a unique advantage in accurately determining DNA methylation level. The clinical applicability was demonstrated by DNA methylation analysis using prostate tissue samples, implying the potential of this method as a useful tool for DNA methylation profiling in early detection of related diseases.

  2. Genetic Predisposition To Acquire a Polybasic Cleavage Site for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nao, Naganori; Yamagishi, Junya; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Igarashi, Manabu; Manzoor, Rashid; Ohnuma, Aiko; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Furuyama, Wakako; Shigeno, Asako; Kajihara, Masahiro; Kishida, Noriko; Yoshida, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region. A reporter assay to detect nontemplated nucleotide insertions and deep-sequencing analysis of viral RNAs revealed that an increased number of adenine residues and enlarged stem-loop structure in the RNA region accelerated the multiple adenine and/or guanine insertions required to create codons for basic amino acids. Interestingly, nucleotide insertions associated with the HA cleavage site motif were not observed principally in the viral RNA of other subtypes tested (H1, H2, H3, and H4). Our findings suggest that the RNA editing-like activity is the key mechanism for nucleotide insertions, providing a clue as to why the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site is restricted to the particular HA subtypes. PMID:28196963

  3. Global identification of target recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor in human ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Youngmo; Lim, Do-Hwan; Kim, Augustine; Seo, Jae Hong; Lee, Young Sik; Song, Hoseok; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2014-11-10

    The Microprocessor plays an essential role in canonical miRNA biogenesis by facilitating cleavage of stem-loop structures in primary transcripts to yield pre-miRNAs. Although miRNA biogenesis has been extensively studied through biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, it has yet to be addressed to what extent the current miRNA biogenesis models hold true in intact cells. To address the issues of in vivo recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor, we investigate RNAs that are associated with DGCR8 and Drosha by using immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing. Here, we present global protein-RNA interactions with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. Our data indicate that precursors of canonical miRNAs and miRNA-like hairpins are the major substrates of the Microprocessor. As a result of specific enrichment of nascent cleavage products, we are able to pinpoint the Microprocessor-mediated cleavage sites per se at single-nucleotide resolution. Unexpectedly, a 2-nt 3' overhang invariably exists at the ends of cleaved bases instead of nascent pre-miRNAs. Besides canonical miRNA precursors, we find that two novel miRNA-like structures embedded in mRNAs are cleaved to yield pre-miRNA-like hairpins, uncoupled from miRNA maturation. Our data provide a framework for in vivo Microprocessor-mediated cleavage and a foundation for experimental and computational studies on miRNA biogenesis in living cells.

  4. Mapping of macrophage elastase cleavage sites in insoluble human skin elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddese, Samuel; Weiss, Anthony S; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Schmelzer, Christian E H

    2008-06-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP-12) is a member of the family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and is active against multiple extracellular protein substrates such as elastin. Its effect on elastin is central to emphysema in the lung and photoaging of skin. Its expression in the skin increases on photodamaged skin and upon aging. Detecting and characterizing peptides cleaved in elastin, therefore, helps to understand such degradative disease processes in the skin and is also needed to assist in the rational design of agents that specifically inhibit the degradation. In this study, cleavage sites of MMP-12 in human skin elastin were extensively investigated. The peptides formed as a result of cleavages by this enzyme in the human skin elastin were characterized using mass spectrometry. A total of 41 peptides ranging from 4 to 41 amino acids were identified and 36 cleavage sites were determined. Amino acids encoded by exons 5, 6, 26, 28-31 were particularly susceptible to cleavages by MMP-12 and none or very few cleavages were detected from domains encoded by the remaining exons. The amino acid preferences of the different subsites on the catalytic domain of MMP-12 were analyzed.

  5. Characteristics of the fast electron emission produced during the cleavage of crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Chandra; N L Patel; S S Rahangdale; R P Patel; V K Patle

    2003-01-01

    The present paper reports the fast electron emission produced during the cleavage of alkali halide crystals and models the dynamics of the process. The mechano-emission arises as a result of the ionization of surface traps at the expense of the energy which is released in the annihilation of the defects which are formed during cleavage. The slow electrons which appear upon the ionization of surface traps are subsequently accelerated in the field of negatively charged segment of the freshly cleaved surface. Considering the basic mechanism of fast electron emission, expressions are derived which are able to explain satisfactorily the temporal, thermal, charge, surface, coloration, water adsorption and other characteristics of the fast electron emission produced during the cleavage of crystals. The decay time of the charges on the newly created surfaces, and the velocity of cracks can be determined from the measurements of fast electron emission produced during the cleavage of crystals. It is shown that two types of diffusing centres are responsible for the charge relaxation and thereby for the emission of fast electrons produced during the cleavage of alkali halide crystals.

  6. Caspase cleavage sites in the human proteome: CaspDB, a database of predicted substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Kumar

    Full Text Available Caspases are enzymes belonging to a conserved family of cysteine-dependent aspartic-specific proteases that are involved in vital cellular processes and play a prominent role in apoptosis and inflammation. Determining all relevant protein substrates of caspases remains a challenging task. Over 1500 caspase substrates have been discovered in the human proteome according to published data and new substrates are discovered on a daily basis. To aid the discovery process we developed a caspase cleavage prediction method using the recently published curated MerCASBA database of experimentally determined caspase substrates and a Random Forest classification method. On both internal and external test sets, the ranking of predicted cleavage positions is superior to all previously developed prediction methods. The in silico predicted caspase cleavage positions in human proteins are available from a relational database: CaspDB. Our database provides information about potential cleavage sites in a verified set of all human proteins collected in Uniprot and their orthologs, allowing for tracing of cleavage motif conservation. It also provides information about the positions of disease-annotated single nucleotide polymorphisms, and posttranslational modifications that may modulate the caspase cleaving efficiency.

  7. Two-step cleavage of hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs by human DICER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Harukazu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DICER is an RNase III family endoribonuclease that processes precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs and long double-stranded RNAs, generating microRNA (miRNA duplexes and short interfering RNA duplexes with 20~23 nucleotides (nts in length. The typical form of pre-miRNA processed by the Drosha protein is a hairpin RNA with 2-nt 3' overhangs. On the other hand, production of mature miRNA from an endogenous hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs has also been reported, although the mechanism for this process is unknown. Results In this study, we show that human recombinant DICER protein (rDICER processes a hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs in vitro and generates an intermediate duplex with a 29 nt-5' strand and a 23 nt-3' strand, which was eventually cleaved into a canonical miRNA duplex via a two-step cleavage. The previously identified endogenous pre-miRNA with 5' overhangs, pre-mmu-mir-1982 RNA, is also determined to be a substrate of rDICER through the same two-step cleavage. Conclusions The two-step cleavage of a hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs shows that DICER releases double-stranded RNAs after the first cleavage and binds them again in the inverse direction for a second cleavage. These findings have implications for how DICER may be able to interact with or process differing precursor structures.

  8. Distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by myoglobin with a designed heme active center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Du, Ke-Jie; Gao, Shu-Qin; He, Bo; Wen, Ge-Bo; Tan, Xiangshi; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Heme proteins perform diverse biological functions, of which myoglobin (Mb) is a representative protein. In this study, the O2 carrier Mb was shown to cleave double stranded DNA upon aerobic dithiothreitol-induced reduction, which is fine-tuned by an additional distal histidine, His29 or His43, engineered in the heme active center. Spectroscopic (UV-vis and EPR) and inhibition studies suggested that free radicals including singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are responsible for efficient DNA cleavage via an oxidative cleavage mechanism. On the other hand, L29E Mb, with a distinct heme active center involving three water molecules in the met form, was found to exhibit an excellent DNA cleavage activity that was not depending on O2. Inhibition and ligation studies demonstrated for the first time that L29E Mb cleaves double stranded DNA into both the nicked circular and linear forms via a hydrolytic cleavage mechanism, which resembles native endonucleases. This study provides valuable insights into the distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by heme proteins, and lays down a base for creating artificial DNA endonucleases by rational design of heme proteins. Moreover, this study suggests that the diverse functions of heme proteins can be fine-tuned by rational design of the heme active center with a hydrogen-bonding network.

  9. Working mechanism of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease: cleavage of IgA1 antibody to Neisseria meningitidis PorA requires de novo synthesis of IgA1 Protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidarsson, G; Overbeeke, N; Stemerding, AM

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis secretes a protease that specifically cleaves the hinge region of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), releasing the effector (Fc) domain of IgA1 from the antigen binding (Fab) determinants. Theoretically, the remaining Fab fragments can block pathogen receptors or toxins and still...... provide protection. Here, we describe binding of V-gene-matched human IgA1 and IgA2 to PorA of strain H44/76. On live meningococci, efficient cleavage of IgA1, but not cleavage of IgA2, was observed, and up to approximately 80% of the IgA1 Fc tails were lost from the meningococcal surface within 30 min....... No cleavage of IgA1 was found on an isogenic H44/76 strain lacking IgA1 protease. Furthermore, our data indicate that PorA-bound IgA1 is masked by the serogroup B polysaccharide capsule, rendering the IgA1 less accessible to degradation by secreted IgA1 protease present in the bacterial surroundings...

  10. Proteolytic fragmentation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors: a novel mechanism regulating channel activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Alzayady, Kamil J; Yule, David I

    2016-06-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 Rs) are a family of ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca(2+) release channels. Regulation of channel activity by Ca(2+) , nucleotides, phosphorylation, protein binding partners and other cellular factors is thought to play a major role in defining the specific spatiotemporal characteristics of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. These properties are, in turn, believed pivotal for the selective and specific physiological activation of Ca(2+) -dependent effectors. IP3 Rs are also substrates for the intracellular cysteine proteases, calpain and caspase. Cleavage of the IP3 R has been proposed to play a role in apoptotic cell death by uncoupling regions important for IP3 binding from the channel domain, leaving an unregulated leaky Ca(2+) pore. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate following proteolysis that N- and C-termini of IP3 R1 remain associated, presumably through non-covalent interactions. Further, we show that complementary fragments of IP3 R1 assemble into tetrameric structures and retain their ability to be regulated robustly by IP3 . While peptide continuity is clearly not necessary for IP3 -gating of the channel, we propose that cleavage of the IP3 R peptide chain may alter other important regulatory events to modulate channel activity. In this scenario, stimulation of the cleaved IP3 R may support distinct spatiotemporal Ca(2+) signals and activation of specific effectors. Notably, in many adaptive physiological events, the non-apoptotic activities of caspase and calpain are demonstrated to be important, but the substrates of the proteases are poorly defined. We speculate that proteolytic fragmentation may represent a novel form of IP3 R regulation, which plays a role in varied adaptive physiological processes.

  11. Oscillating Filaments: I - Oscillation and Geometrical Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Burkert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid based AMR-code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, e.g. with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process `geometrical fragmentation'. In our realization the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristical scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. ...

  12. Gravitational fragmentation of the Carina Flare supershell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, Richard

    2015-03-01

    We study the gravitational fragmentation of a thick shell comparing the analytical theory to 3D hydrodynamic simulations and to observations of the Carina Flare supershell. We use both grid-based (AMR) and particle-based (SPH) codes to follow the idealised model of the fragmenting shell and found an excellent agreement between the two codes. Growth rates of fragments at different wavelength are well described by the pressure assisted gravitational instability (PAGI) - a new theory of the thick shell fragmentation. Using the APEX telescope we observe a part of the surface of the Carina Flare supershell (GSH287+04-17) in the 13CO(2-1) line. We apply a new clump-finding algorithm DENDROFIND to identify 50 clumps. We determine the clump mass function and we construct the minimum spanning tree connecting clumps positions to estimate the typical distance among clumps. We conclude that the observed masses and distances correspond well to the prediction of PAGI.

  13. Habitat fragmentation causes rapid genetic differentiation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... differentiation and homogenization in natural plant populations – A ... The effects of habitat fragmentations on the forage grass Leymus thinness (Trin.) Tzvel, which ... selection etc, combined together with ecological factors.

  14. FOREST FRAGMENTATION AS AN ECONOMIC INDICATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite concern over the ecological consequences of conversion of land from natural cover to anthropogenic uses, there are few studies that show a quantitative relationship between fragmentation and economic factors. For the southside economic region of Virginia, we generated a ...

  15. Energy efficiency of consecutive fragmentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Fontbona, Joaquin; Martinez, Servet

    2010-01-01

    We present a ?rst study on the energy required to reduce a unit mass fragment by consecutively using several devices, as it happens in the mining industry. Two devices are considered, which we represent as different stochastic fragmentation processes. Following the self-similar energy model introduced by Bertoin and Martinez, we compute the average energy required to attain a size x with this two-device procedure. We then asymptotically compare, as x goes to 0 or 1, its energy requirement with that of individual fragmentation processes. In particular, we show that for certain range of parameters of the fragmentation processes and of their energy cost-functions, the consecutive use of two devices can be asymptotically more efficient than using each of them separately, or conversely.

  16. The NJL Model for Quark Fragmentation Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Ito, W. Bentz, I. Cloet, A W Thomas, K. Yazaki

    2009-10-01

    A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective quark theory. Concentrating on the pion fragmentation function, we first explain the reason why the elementary (lowest order) fragmentation process q → qπ is completely inadequate to describe the empirical data, although the “crossed” process π → qq describes the quark distribution functions in the pion reasonably well. Then, taking into account cascade-like processes in a modified jet-model approach, we show that the momentum and isospin sum rules can be satisfied naturally without introducing any ad-hoc parameters. We present numerical results for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the invariant mass regularization scheme, and compare the results with the empirical parametrizations. We argue that this NJL-jet model provides a very useful framework to calculate the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory.

  17. The NJL Model for Quark Fragmentation Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Ito, W. Bentz, I. Cloet, A W Thomas, K. Yazaki

    2009-10-01

    A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective quark theory. Concentrating on the pion fragmentation function, we first explain the reason why the elementary (lowest order) fragmentation process q → qπ is completely inadequate to describe the empirical data, although the “crossed” process π → qq describes the quark distribution functions in the pion reasonably well. Then, taking into account cascade-like processes in a modified jet-model approach, we show that the momentum and isospin sum rules can be satisfied naturally without introducing any ad-hoc parameters. We present numerical results for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the invariant mass regularization scheme, and compare the results with the empirical parametrizations. We argue that this NJL-jet model provides a very useful framework to calculate the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory.

  18. An improved algorithm for MFR fragment assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontaxis, Georg, E-mail: georg.kontaxis@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Centre for Molecular Biology (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    A method for generating protein backbone models from backbone only NMR data is presented, which is based on molecular fragment replacement (MFR). In a first step, the PDB database is mined for homologous peptide fragments using experimental backbone-only data i.e. backbone chemical shifts (CS) and residual dipolar couplings (RDC). Second, this fragment library is refined against the experimental restraints. Finally, the fragments are assembled into a protein backbone fold using a rigid body docking algorithm using the RDCs as restraints. For improved performance, backbone nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) may be included at that stage. Compared to previous implementations of MFR-derived structure determination protocols this model-building algorithm offers improved stability and reliability. Furthermore, relative to CS-ROSETTA based methods, it provides faster performance and straightforward implementation with the option to easily include further types of restraints and additional energy terms.

  19. Successfully introduce maize DNA fragments into rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKaizhi

    1994-01-01

    The maize DNA fragments was successfully incorporated into rice by Associate Prof WAN Wenju's research team at Hunan Agricultural College, Changsha, China. The new gene transferring rice is named Genetic Engineered Rice (GER) line.

  20. The Fragmentation of the College Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper examines to what extent and asking reason the fragmentation of college mathematics have attained the present development in the course of looking at the history of mathematics education. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  2. Emission of intermediate mass fragments during fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. L.; de Souza, R. T.; Cornell, E.; Davin, B.; Hamilton, T. M.; Hulbert, D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lou, Y.; Viola, V. E.; Korteling, R. G.; Wile, J. L.

    1996-11-01

    Ternary fission in the reaction 4He + 232Th at Elab=200 MeV has been observed. Intermediate mass fragments (IMF: 3fission. The widths of the energy spectra are relatively constant for neck fragments with Z>=4, suggesting little variability in the scission configurations. A linear dependence of on Z is observed for the neck IMFs. The observed trend is compared with a Coulomb trajectory model.

  3. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter R Underhill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively. Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively. Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  4. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  5. Fragmentation of Care in Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Debra B; Dahlquist, Irma; Jarosch, Christina; Lindau, Stacy T

    2016-05-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women who experience fragmented care may undergo unnecessary delays to diagnosis and treatment. Based on ectopic pregnancy cases observed in clinical practice that raised our concern about fragmentation of care, we designed an exploratory study to describe the number, characteristics, and outcomes of fragmented care among patients with ectopic pregnancy at one urban academic hospital. Chart review with descriptive statistics. Fragmented care was defined as a patient being evaluated at an outside facility for possible ectopic pregnancy and transferred, referred, or discharged before receiving care at the study institution. Of 191 women seen for possible or definite ectopic pregnancy during the study period, 42 (22 %) met the study definition of fragmented care. The study was under-powered to observe statistically significant differences across groups, but we found concerning, non-significant trends: patients with fragmented care were more likely to be Medicaid recipients (65.9 vs. 58.8 %) and to experience a complication (23.8 vs. 18.1 %) compared to those with non-fragmented care. Most patients (n = 37) received no identifiable treatment prior to transfer and arrived to the study hospital with no communication to the receiving hospital from the outside provider (n = 34). Nine patients (21 %) presented with ruptured ectopic pregnancies. The fragmentation we observed in our study may contribute to previously identified socio-economic disparities in ectopic pregnancy outcomes. If future research confirms these findings, health information exchanges and regional coordination of care may be important strategies for reducing maternal mortality.

  6. Modified Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2000-01-01

    New experimental data obtained mainly at the GSI/FRS facility allow to modify the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX. It will be shown that minor modifications of the parameters lead to a much better reproduction of measured cross sections. The most significant changes refer to the description of fragmentation yields close to the projectile and of the memory effect of neutron-deficient projectiles.

  7. Fragment-based approaches to enzyme inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Ciulli, Alessio; Abell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Fragment-based approaches have provided a new paradigm for small-molecule drug discovery. The methodology is complementary to high-throughput screening approaches, starting from fragments of low molecular complexity and high ligand efficiency, and building up to more potent inhibitors. The approach, which depends heavily on a number of biophysical techniques, is now being taken up by more groups in both industry and academia. This article describes key aspects of the process and highlights re...

  8. Observations of Titan IIIC Transtage Fragmentation Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, Heather; Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Buckalew, B.; Cardona, T.; Krisko, P.; Lederer, S.

    2013-01-01

    The fragmentation of a Titan IIIC Transtage (1968-081) on 21 February 1992 is one of only two known break-ups in or near geosynchronous orbit. The original rocket body and 24 pieces of debris are currently being tracked by the U. S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The rocket body (SSN# 3432) and several of the original fragments (SSN# 25000, 25001, 30000, and 33511) were observed in survey mode during 2004-2010 using the 0.6-m Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile using a broad R filter. This paper presents a size distribution for all calibrated magnitude data acquired on MODEST. Size distribution plots are also shown using historical models for small fragmentation debris (down to 10 cm) thought to be associated with the Titan Transtage break-up. In November 2010, visible broadband photometry (Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI) was acquired with the 0.9-m Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile on several Titan fragments (SSN 25001, 33509, and 33510) and the parent rocket body (SSN 3432). Color index data are used to determine the fragment brightness distribution and how the data compares to spacecraft materials measured in the laboratory using similar photometric measurement techniques. In order to better characterize the break-up fragments, spectral measurements were acquired on three Titan fragments (one fragment observed over two different time periods) using the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The telescopic spectra of SSN 25000 (May 2012 and January 2013), SSN 38690, and SSN 38699 are compared with laboratory acquired spectra of materials (e.g., aluminum and various paints) to determine the surface material.

  9. First principles approach to ionicity of fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam, E-mail: gpilania@lanl.gov; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Valone, Steven M.

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • A novel first principles approach towards the fragment ionicity. • Constrained DFT and valance charge density decomposition were employed. • Correct dissociation limit achieved for diatomics. • Ionicity is an input parameter for a new class of atomistic potentials. - Abstract: We develop a first principles approach towards the ionicity of fragments. In contrast to the bond ionicity, the fragment ionicity refers to an electronic property of the constituents of a larger system, which may vary from a single atom to a functional group or a unit cell to a crystal. The fragment ionicity is quantitatively defined in terms of the coefficients of contributing charge states in a superposition of valence configurations of the system. Utilizing the constrained density functional theory-based computations, a practical method to compute the fragment ionicity from valence electron charge densities, suitably decomposed according to the Fragment Hamiltonian (FH) model prescription for those electron densities, is presented for the first time. The adopted approach is illustrated using BeO, MgO and CaO diatomic molecules as simple examples. The results are compared and discussed with respect to the bond ionicity scales of Phillips and Pauling.

  10. Correlation measurements of fission-fragment properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstedt, S.; Belgya, T.; Billnert, R.; Borcea, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Göök, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Karlsson, J.; Kis, Z.; Martinez, T.; Oberstedt, A.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Takác, K.

    2010-10-01

    For the development of future nuclear fission applications and for a responsible handling of nuclear waste the a-priori assessment of the fission-fragments' heat production and toxicity is a fundamental necessity. The success of an indispensable modelling of the fission process strongly depends on a good understanding of the particular mechanism of scission, the mass fragmentation and partition of excitation energy. Experimental observables are fission-fragment properties like mass- and energy-distributions, and the prompt neutron as well as γ-ray multiplicities and emission spectra. The latter quantities should preferably be known as a function of fragment mass and excitation energy. Those data are highly demanded as published by the OECD-NEA in its high priority data request list. With the construction of the double (v, E) spectrometer VERDI we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously to avoid prompt neutron corrections. From the simultaneous measurement of pre- and post-neutron fission-fragment data the prompt neutron multiplicity may then be inferred fully correlated with fragment mass yield and total kinetic energy. Using an ultra-fast fission event trigger spectral prompt fission γ-ray measurements may be performed. For that purpose recently developed lanthanum-halide detectors, with excellent timing characteristics, were coupled to the VERDI spectrometer allowing for a very good discrimination of fission γ-rays and prompt neutrons due to their different time-of-flight.

  11. DNA fragmentation status in patients with necrozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahem, Sonia; Jellad, Sonia; Ibala, Samira; Saad, Ali; Mehdi, Meriem

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and necrospermia in infertile men. Semen samples obtained from 70 men consulting for infertility evaluation were analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to the percentage of necrotic spermatozoa: normozoospermia (80%; n = 20). DNA fragmentation was detected by the terminal desoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was 9.28 ± 2.98% in patients with a normal level of necrotic spermatozoa, 20.25 ± 3.21% in patients with moderate necrozoospermia, and 35.31 ± 5.25% in patients with severe necrozoospermia. There was a statistically significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the necrozoospermic group (P DNA fragmentation. We concluded that patients with necrozoospermia showed a high level of DNA fragmentation compared to normozoospermic men. Severe necrozoospermia (>80%) is a predictive factor for increased sperm DNA damage.

  12. Scandium(iii) triflate-promoted serine/threonine-selective peptide bond cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jizhi; Sohma, Youhei; Kanai, Motomu

    2017-02-01

    The site-selective cleavage of peptide bonds is an important chemical modification that is useful not only for the structural determination of peptides, but also as an artificial modulator of peptide/protein function and properties. Here we report site-selective hydrolysis of peptide bonds at the Ser and Thr positions with a high conversion yield. This chemical cleavage relies on Sc(iii)-promoted N,O-acyl rearrangement and subsequent hydrolysis. The method is applicable to a broad scope of polypeptides with various functional groups, including a post-translationally modified peptide that is unsuitable for enzymatic hydrolysis. The system was further extended to site-selective cleavage of a native protein, Aβ1-42, which is closely related to the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Indirect DNA Sequence Recognition and Its Impact on Nuclease Cleavage Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Abigail R; Hallinan, Jazmine P; Shen, Betty W; Chik, Jennifer K; Bolduc, Jill M; Kulshina, Nadia; Robins, Lori I; Kaiser, Brett K; Jarjour, Jordan; Havens, Kyle; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Stoddard, Barry L

    2016-06-07

    LAGLIDADG meganucleases are DNA cleaving enzymes used for genome engineering. While their cleavage specificity can be altered using several protein engineering and selection strategies, their overall targetability is limited by highly specific indirect recognition of the central four base pairs within their recognition sites. In order to examine the physical basis of indirect sequence recognition and to expand the number of such nucleases available for genome engineering, we have determined the target sites, DNA-bound structures, and central four cleavage fidelities of nine related enzymes. Subsequent crystallographic analyses of a meganuclease bound to two noncleavable target sites, each containing a single inactivating base pair substitution at its center, indicates that a localized slip of the mutated base pair causes a small change in the DNA backbone conformation that results in a loss of metal occupancy at one binding site, eliminating cleavage activity.

  14. Multiple-turnover cleavage of double-stranded DNA by sandwiched zinc-finger nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineta, Yusuke; Okamoto, Tomoyuki; Takenaka, Kosuke; Doi, Norio; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    To refine zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology, we constructed a sandwiched ZFN, in which a DNA cleavage enzyme was sandwiched with two artificial zinc-finger proteins (AZPs). Because the sandwiched ZFN is designed to cleave the DNA between the two AZP-binding sites, the sandwiched ZFN is expected to bind preferentially to a DNA substrate rather than to cleavage products and thereby cleave it with multiple turnovers. To prove the concept, we sandwiched a staphylococcal nuclease (SNase), which cleaves DNA as a monomer, between two 3-finger AZPs. The AZP-sandwiched SNase cleaved large amounts of dsDNA site-specifically. Such multiple-turnover cleavage was not observed with control nucleases that possess a single AZP.

  15. Alkene cleavage catalysed by heme and nonheme enzymes: reaction mechanisms and biocatalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Francesco G

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of alkenes is classically performed by chemical methods, although they display several drawbacks. Ozonolysis requires harsh conditions (-78°C, for a safe process) and reducing reagents in a molar amount, whereas the use of poisonous heavy metals such as Cr, Os, or Ru as catalysts is additionally plagued by low yield and selectivity. Conversely, heme and nonheme enzymes can catalyse the oxidative alkene cleavage at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in an aqueous buffer, showing excellent chemo- and regioselectivities in certain cases. This paper focuses on the alkene cleavage catalysed by iron cofactor-dependent enzymes encompassing the reaction mechanisms (in case where it is known) and the application of these enzymes in biocatalysis.

  16. IRE1α nucleotide sequence cleavage specificity in the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poothong, Juthakorn; Sopha, Pattarawut; Kaufman, Randal J; Tirasophon, Witoon

    2017-01-01

    Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is a conserved sensor of the unfolded protein response that has protein kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase) enzymatic activities and thereby initiates HAC1/XBP1 splicing. Previous studies demonstrated that human IRE1α (hIRE1α) does not cleave Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAC1 mRNA. Using an in vitro cleavage assay, we show that adenine to cytosine nucleotide substitution at the +1 position in the 3' splice site of HAC1 RNA is required for specific cleavage by hIRE1α. A similar restricted nucleotide specificity in the RNA substrate was observed for XBP1 splicing in vivo. Together these findings underscore the essential role of cytosine nucleotide at +1 in the 3' splice site for determining cleavage specificity of hIRE1α.

  17. MAGNETIC STRIPS TO SIMULATE LAYERED BRITTLE SOLIDS IN CLEAVAGE AND FRACTURE EXPERIMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco G.Emmerich; Alfredo G.Cunha; Carlos M.A.Girelli; Arnobio I.Vassem

    2008-01-01

    A characteristic of the fracture and cleavage experiments is that they are usually intrinsically destructive.Cracks do not completely heal in an unstressed system,even in crystals such as mica.Here,we used magnetic solids composed of magnetic strips for the non-destructive cleavage and brittle fracture experiments.Between the magnetic strips materials with different mechanical characteristics can be inserted,such as Teflon or foam strips,to change the mechanical properties of the solid.For the cleavage experiments,we developed an apparatus where parameters such as the main involved force can be measured easily.By inserting flaws,the magnetic solid can be used in dynamic fracture experiments,with the advantages of simulating macroscopically a non-destructive experiment in an easier way,that happen in real materials with much higher velocities.The apparatus and the used magnetic solid may be useful for demonstrations of fractures in classes.

  18. Putting into perspective of the cleavage State-Church in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén TORRES-MARTÍNEZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the independence of Mexico (1821, two political groups have been competing for getting the control of the country. Throughout the twentieth century, the hegemonic party by using the entire state apparatus managed the system to make impossible to observe the cleavages in the country. We have studied and exploited the concept of cleavage as a tool. This concept allows us to observe where the lines are which divide the society. It has been studied the case of two political parties: the National Action Party (PAN and the Party of Democratic Revolution (PRD. The constitutional amendments that occurred during Salinas’s administration have faced again the State and the Catholic Church. Indeed, this conflict has become the center of national debate. We can see that the conflict has been institutionalized and has continued until today. Also the conflict reveals a history cleavage back to the time of independence.

  19. Cleavage-induced termination in U2 snRNA gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavi, Sadeq [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Nazar, Ross N., E-mail: rnnazar@uoguelph.ca [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2010-03-12

    The maturation of many small nuclear RNAs is dependent on RNase III-like endonuclease mediated cleavage, which generates a loading site for the exosome complex that trims the precursor at its 3' end. Using a temperature sensitive Pac1 nuclease, here we show that the endonuclease cleavage is equally important in terminating the transcription of the U2 snRNA in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Using a temperature sensitive Dhp1p 5' {yields} 3' exonuclease, we demonstrate that it also is an essential component of the termination pathway. Taken together the results support a 'reversed torpedoes' model for the termination and maturation of the U2 snRNA; the Pac1 endonuclease cleavage provides entry sites for the 3' and 5' exonuclease activities, leading to RNA maturation in one direction and transcript termination in the other.

  20. An improved quantitative approach for the assessment of mitochondrial fragmentation in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Farrand

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial fission is a process that involves cleavage of mitochondria into smaller fragments and is regulated by the GTPase Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1. Higher levels of mitochondrial fission are associated with the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. However, current methods to accurately quantify mitochondrial fission in order to compare therapeutics that target this process are often ambiguous or rely on subjective assessment. Mitochondria are also prone to aggregation, making accurate analysis difficult. Here we describe an improved approach for the quantification of mitochondrial fragmentation involving several differences from currently existing methods. Cells are first subjected to cytological centrifugation, which reduces cellular z-axis height and disperses individual mitochondria for easier observation. Three commercially available fluorescence analysis tools are then applied to disambiguate remaining mitochondrial clusters that require further inspection. Finally, cut-off scoring is applied, which can be tailored to individual cell type. The resultant approach allows for the efficient and objective assessment of mitochondrial fragmentation in response to treatment. We applied this technique to an experimental question involving chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer (OVCA cells. Cisplatin and the phytochemical piperlongumine were found to induce both mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in chemosensitive cells, while only piperlongumine was able to elicit these cellular responses in chemoresistant cells. Piperlongumine-induced apoptosis appeared to be mediated by Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission since the apoptotic response was attenuated by the presence of the Drp1 inhibitor mDivi-1. Our study provides groundwork for a more objective approach to the quantification of mitochondrial fragmentation, and sheds further light on a potential mechanism of action for piperlongumine in the treatment of chemoresistant

  1. Implications of promiscuous Pim-1 kinase fragment inhibitor hydrophobic interactions for fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Andrew C; Liu, Jinyu; Hirth, Bradford; Asmussen, Gary; Xiang, Yibin; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Bishop, Kimberly A; Fremgen, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Maria; Gladysheva, Tatiana; Jain, Annuradha; Jancsics, Katherine; Metz, Markus; Papoulis, Andrew; Skerlj, Renato; Stepp, J David; Wei, Ronnie R

    2012-03-22

    We have studied the subtleties of fragment docking and binding using data generated in a Pim-1 kinase inhibitor program. Crystallographic and docking data analyses have been undertaken using inhibitor complexes derived from an in-house surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fragment screen, a virtual needle screen, and a de novo designed fragment inhibitor hybrid. These investigations highlight that fragments that do not fill their binding pocket can exhibit promiscuous hydrophobic interactions due to the lack of steric constraints imposed on them by the boundaries of said pocket. As a result, docking modes that disagree with an observed crystal structure but maintain key crystallographically observed hydrogen bonds still have potential value in ligand design and optimization. This observation runs counter to the lore in fragment-based drug design that all fragment elaboration must be based on the parent crystal structure alone.

  2. Fragment library design: using cheminformatics and expert chemists to fill gaps in existing fragment libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchukian, Peter S; So, Sung-Sau; Fischer, Christian; Waller, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment based screening (FBS) has emerged as a mainstream lead discovery strategy in academia, biotechnology start-ups, and large pharma. As a prerequisite of FBS, a structurally diverse library of fragments is desirable in order to identify chemical matter that will interact with the range of diverse target classes that are prosecuted in contemporary screening campaigns. In addition, it is also desirable to offer synthetically amenable starting points to increase the probability of a successful fragment evolution through medicinal chemistry. Herein we describe a method to identify biologically relevant chemical substructures that are missing from an existing fragment library (chemical gaps), and organize these chemical gaps hierarchically so that medicinal chemists can efficiently navigate the prioritized chemical space and subsequently select purchasable fragments for inclusion in an enhanced fragment library.

  3. Computational prediction of cleavage using proteasomal in vitro digestion and MHC I ligand data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng LU; Hao SHENG; Yi ZHANG; Zhi-yang LI

    2013-01-01

    Proteasomes are responsible for the production of the majority of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes.Hence,it is important to identify correctly which peptides will be generated by proteasomes from an unknown protein.However,the pool of proteasome cleavage data used in the prediction algorithms,whether from major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I ligand or in vitro digestion data,is not identical to in vivo proteasomal digestion products.Therefore,the accuracy and reliability of these models still need to be improved.In this paper,three types of proteasomal cleavage data,constitutive proteasome (cCP),immunoproteasome (iCP) in vitro cleavage,and MHC I ligandv data,were used for training cleave-site predictive methods based on the kernel-function stabilized matrix method (KSMM).The predictive accuracies of the KSMM+pair coefficients were 75.0%,72.3%,and 83.1% for cCP,iCP,and MHC I ligand data,respectively,which were comparable to the results from support vector machine (SVM).The three proteasomal cleavage methods were combined in turn with MHC I-peptide binding predictions to model MHC I-peptide processing and the presentation pathway.These integrations markedly improved MHC I peptide identification,increasing area under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) values from 0.82 to 0.91.The results suggested that both MHC I ligand and proteasomal in vitro degradation data can give an exact simulation of in vivo processed digestion.The information extracted from cCP and iCP in vitro cleavage data demonstrated that both cCP and iCP are selective in their usage of peptide bonds for cleavage.

  4. Overexpression of HTRA1 leads to ultrastructural changes in the elastic layer of Bruch's membrane via cleavage of extracellular matrix components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vierkotten

    Full Text Available Variants in the chromosomal region 10q26 are strongly associated with an increased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Two potential AMD genes are located in this region: ARMS2 and HTRA1 (high-temperature requirement A1. Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in the promotor region of HTRA1 result in overexpression of HTRA1 protein. This study investigated the role of HTRA1 overexpression in the pathogenesis of AMD. Transgenic Htra1 mice overexpressing the murine protein in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer of the retina were generated and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and Western Blot analysis. The elastic layer of Bruch's membrane (BM in the Htra1 transgenic mice was fragmented and less continuous than in wild type (WT controls. Recombinant HTRA1 lacking the N-terminal domain cleaved various extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. Subsequent Western Blot analysis revealed an overexpression of fibronectin fragments and a reduction of fibulin 5 and tropoelastin in the RPE/choroid layer in transgenic mice compared to WT. Fibulin 5 is essential for elastogenesis by promoting elastic fiber assembly and maturation. Taken together, our data implicate that HTRA1 overexpression leads to an altered elastogenesis in BM through fibulin 5 cleavage. It highlights the importance of ECM related proteins in the development of AMD and links HTRA1 to other AMD risk genes such as fibulin 5, fibulin 6, ARMS2 and TIMP3.

  5. The potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 catalyzes a single cleavage of β-ionone ring-containing carotenes and non-epoxidated xanthophylls

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Down-regulation of the potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (StCCD4) transcript level led to tubers with altered morphology and sprouting activity, which also accumulated higher levels of violaxanthin and lutein leading to elevated carotenoid amounts. This phenotype indicates a role of this enzyme in tuber development, which may be exerted by a cleavage product. In this work, we investigated the enzymatic activity of StCCD4, by expressing the corresponding cDNA in carotenoid accumulating Escherichia coli strains and by performing in vitro assays with heterologously expressed enzyme. StCCD4 catalyzed the cleavage of all-. trans-β-carotene at the C9\\'-C10\\' double bond, leading to β-ionone and all-. trans-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal, both in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme also cleaved β,β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein either at the C9\\'-C10\\' or the C9-C10 double bond in vitro. In contrast, we did not observe any conversion of violaxanthin and only traces of activity with 9-. cis-β-carotene, which led to 9-. cis-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal. Our data indicate that all-. trans-β-carotene is the likely substrate of StCCD4 in planta, and that this carotene may be precursor of an unknown compound involved in tuber development.

  6. Mass spectrometry quantification revealed accumulation of C-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein E in the Alzheimer's frontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyao Wang

    Full Text Available Polymorphic variation in the apolipoprotein E (apoE gene is the major genetic susceptibility factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD and likely contributes to neuropathology through various pathways. It is also recognized that apoE undergoes proteolytic cleavage in the brain and the resultant apoE fragments likely have a variety of bioactive properties that regulate neuronal signaling and may promote neurodegeneration. ApoE fragmentation in the human brain has been intensively studied using different immunochemical methods, but has never been analyzed in a quantitative manner to establish preferably accumulated fragments. Here we report quantification using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM MS with (15N-labeled full-length apoE4 as an internal standard. Measurements were performed on frontal cortex from control and severe AD donors. Our data point to a preferable accumulation of C-terminal apoE fragment in the insoluble fraction of tissue homogenate in the severe AD group versus the control group. Further insight into the biological consequences of this accumulation may lead to a better understanding of the basic mechanism of AD pathology.

  7. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer and on blastocyst formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuhua Ni

    Full Text Available During the last decades, many studies have shown the possible influence of sperm DNA fragmentation on assisted reproductive technique outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET from cycles of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. In the present study, the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF and FET clinical outcomes in IVF and ICSI cycles was analyzed. A total of 1082 FET cycles with cleavage stage embryos (C-FET (855 from IVF and 227 from ICSI and 653 frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles (B-FET (525 from IVF and 128 from ICSI were included. There was no significant change in clinical pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy and miscarriage rates in the group with a SDF >30% compared with the group with a SDF ≤30% in IVF and ICSI cycles with C-FET or B-FET. Also, there was no significant impact on the FET clinic outcome in IVF and ICSI when different values of SDF (such as 10%, 20%, 25%, 35%, and 40% were taken as proposed threshold levels. However, the blastulation rates were significantly higher in the SDF ≤30% group in ICSI cycle. Taken together, our data show that sperm DNA fragmentation measured by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD test is not associated with clinical outcome of FET in IVF and ICSI. Nonetheless, SDF is related to the blastocyst formation in ICSI cycles.

  8. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer and on blastocyst formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wuhua; Xiao, Shiquan; Qiu, Xiufang; Jin, Jianyuan; Pan, Chengshuang; Li, Yan; Fei, Qianjin; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Liya; Huang, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, many studies have shown the possible influence of sperm DNA fragmentation on assisted reproductive technique outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) from cycles of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In the present study, the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and FET clinical outcomes in IVF and ICSI cycles was analyzed. A total of 1082 FET cycles with cleavage stage embryos (C-FET) (855 from IVF and 227 from ICSI) and 653 frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles (B-FET) (525 from IVF and 128 from ICSI) were included. There was no significant change in clinical pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy and miscarriage rates in the group with a SDF >30% compared with the group with a SDF ≤30% in IVF and ICSI cycles with C-FET or B-FET. Also, there was no significant impact on the FET clinic outcome in IVF and ICSI when different values of SDF (such as 10%, 20%, 25%, 35%, and 40%) were taken as proposed threshold levels. However, the blastulation rates were significantly higher in the SDF ≤30% group in ICSI cycle. Taken together, our data show that sperm DNA fragmentation measured by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test is not associated with clinical outcome of FET in IVF and ICSI. Nonetheless, SDF is related to the blastocyst formation in ICSI cycles.

  9. Autophagic degradation of dBruce controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells during late Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shravage, Bhupendra V.; Sagona, Antonia P.; Lamark, Trond; Bjørkøy, Geir; Johansen, Terje; Rusten, Tor Erik; Brech, Andreas; Baehrecke, Eric H.

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway responsible for degradation of cytoplasmic material via the lysosome. Although autophagy has been reported to contribute to cell death, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that autophagy controls DNA fragmentation during late oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Inhibition of autophagy by genetically removing the function of the autophagy genes atg1, atg13, and vps34 resulted in late stage egg chambers that contained persisting nurse cell nuclei without fragmented DNA and attenuation of caspase-3 cleavage. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) dBruce was found to colocalize with the autophagic marker GFP-Atg8a and accumulated in autophagy mutants. Nurse cells lacking Atg1 or Vps34 in addition to dBruce contained persisting nurse cell nuclei with fragmented DNA. This indicates that autophagic degradation of dBruce controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells. Our results reveal autophagic degradation of an IAP as a novel mechanism of triggering cell death and thereby provide a mechanistic link between autophagy and cell death. PMID:20713604

  10. Near-IR Light-Mediated Cleavage of Antibody-Drug Conjugates Using Cyanine Photocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Roger R; Gorka, Alexander P; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Schnermann, Martin J

    2015-11-09

    Despite significant progress in the clinical application of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), novel cleavage strategies that provide improved selectivity are still needed. Herein is reported the first approach that uses near-IR light to cleave a small molecule from a biomacromolecule, and its application to the problem of ADC linkage. The preparation of cyanine antibody conjugates, drug cleavage mediated by 690 nm light, and initial in vitro and in vivo evaluation is described. These studies provide the critical chemical underpinning from which to develop this near-IR light cleavable linker strategy.

  11. Reductive cleavage of nitrite to form terminal uranium mono-oxo complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-01-09

    Uranium terminal mono-oxo complexes are prepared with a unique activation of nitrite following reductive cleavage of an N-O bond with loss of nitric oxide. The thermodynamic driving force of U═O bond formation differentiates this reactivity from known mechanisms of nitrite reduction, which are typically mediated by proton transfer. Mechanistic details are explored by DFT supporting a simple homolytic cleavage pathway from a κ(1)-ONO bound intermediate. Complexes of the formula U(VI)OX[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3) are formed providing a trigonal bipyramidal framework into which ligands trans to the U═O bond may be installed.

  12. DNA Cleavage of the Copper(Ⅱ) Complexes with a Polyamine Ditopic Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Bin WEI; Pin YANG

    2005-01-01

    A new binuclear complex [Cu2L(OH)](ClO4)3·2H2O has been synthesized and characterized, where L=2,6-bis{[bis-(2-aminoethyl)amino]methyl}-benzene. In the presence of0.5 mmol/L complex at pH 8.10 and 37℃, the complex can efficiently cleavage pBR322 DNA with a rate constant kobs of 1.35 × 10-4 s-1. The cleavage occurred by a non-oxidative mechanism showing activity to be dependent on pH.

  13. Probing Electron-Induced Bond Cleavage at the Single-Molecule Level Using DNA Origami Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Adrian Clemens; Bald, Ilko; Rotaru, Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in nanolithography, atmospheric chemistry, and DNA radiation damage. Previously, the cleavage of specific chemical bonds triggered by LEEs has been demonstrated in a variety of small organic molecules such as halogenated benzenes and DNA nucleoba......Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in nanolithography, atmospheric chemistry, and DNA radiation damage. Previously, the cleavage of specific chemical bonds triggered by LEEs has been demonstrated in a variety of small organic molecules such as halogenated benzenes and DNA...

  14. Effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on clinical outcomes for Chinese couples undergoing in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lin-Tao; Wang, Rui-Xue; He, Bing; Mo, Wei-Ying; Huang, Li; Wang, Shi-Kai; Mao, Xian-Bao; Cheng, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yue-Yue; Liu, RuiZhi

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on the fertilization rate, embryo development and pregnancy outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in a cohort of Chinese couples. Methods Infertile couples that had undergone assisted reproductive technology at our centre between January 2011 and December 2013 were included in this retrospective study. Fractions of prepared sperm samples were evaluated for sperm DNA fragmentation on the day of oocyte recovery. Results Of the 550 couples selected, 415 had undergone IVF and 135 ICSI. Sperm DNA fragmentation rate was significantly negatively correlated with the fertilization rate in the ICSI cycles but not the IVF cycles. No association was found between sperm DNA fragmentation and cleavage rate or good quality embryo formation rates in IVF or ICSI cycles. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the sperm DNA fragmentation rate was a statistically significant prognostic indicator of the clinical fertilization rate in ICSI cycles; a rate > 22.3% was associated with a lower fertilization rate following ICSI compared with a rate ≤ 22.3%. Conclusions High values of sperm DNA fragmentation were associated with a low fertilization rate following ICSI but were not associated with alterations in pregnancy or live birth rates in either ICSI or IVF in this cohort of Chinese couples.

  15. Okazaki fragment maturation: nucleases take centre stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Binghui Shen

    2011-01-01

    Completion of lagging strand DNA synthesis requires processing of up to 50 million Okazaki fragments per cell cycle in mammalian cells. Even in yeast, the Okazaki fragment maturation happens approximately a million times during a singte round of DNA replication. Therefore, efficient processing of Okazaki fragments is vital for DNA replication and cell proliferation. During this process,primase-synthesized RNA/DNA primers are removed, and Okazaki fragments are joined into an intact lagging strand DNA. The processing of RNA/DNA primers requires a group of structure-specific nucleases typified by flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1). Here, we summarize the distinct roles of these nucleases in different pathways for removal of RNA/DNA primers. Recent findings reveal that Okazaki fragment maturation is highly coordinated. The dynamic interactions of polymerase δ, FEN1 and DNA ligase I with proliferating cell nuclear antigen allow these enzymes to act sequentially during Okazaki fragment maturation. Such protein-protein interactions may be regulated by post-translational modifications. We also discuss studies using mutant mouse models that suggest two distinct cancer etiological mechanisms arising from defects in different steps of Okazaki fragment maturation.Mutations that affect the efficiency of RNA primer removal may result in accumulation of unligated nicks and DNA double-strand breaks. These DNA strand breaks can cause varying forms of chromosome aberrations, contributing to development of cancer that associates with aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangement. On the other hand, mutations that impair editing out of polymerase o incorporation errors result in cancer displaying a strong mutator phenotype.

  16. Invariant Object Recognition Based on Extended Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy eBart

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual appearance of natural objects is profoundly affected by viewing conditions such as viewpoint and illumination. Human subjects can nevertheless compensate well for variations in these viewing conditions. The strategies that the visual system uses to accomplish this are largely unclear. Previous computational studies have suggested that in principle, certain types of object fragments (rather than whole objects can be used for invariant recognition. However, whether the human visual system is actually capable of using this strategy remains unknown. Here, we show that human observers can achieve illumination invariance by using object fragments that carry the relevant information. To determine this, we have used novel, but naturalistic, 3-D visual objects called ‘digital embryos’. Using novel instances of whole embryos, not fragments, we trained subjects to recognize individual embryos across illuminations. We then tested the illumination-invariant object recognition performance of subjects using fragments. We found that the performance was strongly correlated with the mutual information (MI of the fragments, provided that MI value took variations in illumination into consideration. This correlation was not attributable to any systematic differences in task difficulty between different fragments. These results reveal two important principles of invariant object recognition. First, the subjects can achieve invariance at least in part by compensating for the changes in the appearance of small local features, rather than of whole objects. Second, the subjects do not always rely on generic or pre-existing invariance of features (i.e., features whose appearance remains largely unchanged by variations in illumination, and are capable of using learning to compensate for appearance changes when necessary. These psychophysical results closely fit the predictions of earlier computational studies of fragment-based invariant object recognition.

  17. Invariant object recognition based on extended fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Evgeniy; Hegdé, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Visual appearance of natural objects is profoundly affected by viewing conditions such as viewpoint and illumination. Human subjects can nevertheless compensate well for variations in these viewing conditions. The strategies that the visual system uses to accomplish this are largely unclear. Previous computational studies have suggested that in principle, certain types of object fragments (rather than whole objects) can be used for invariant recognition. However, whether the human visual system is actually capable of using this strategy remains unknown. Here, we show that human observers can achieve illumination invariance by using object fragments that carry the relevant information. To determine this, we have used novel, but naturalistic, 3-D visual objects called "digital embryos." Using novel instances of whole embryos, not fragments, we trained subjects to recognize individual embryos across illuminations. We then tested the illumination-invariant object recognition performance of subjects using fragments. We found that the performance was strongly correlated with the mutual information (MI) of the fragments, provided that MI value took variations in illumination into consideration. This correlation was not attributable to any systematic differences in task difficulty between different fragments. These results reveal two important principles of invariant object recognition. First, the subjects can achieve invariance at least in part by compensating for the changes in the appearance of small local features, rather than of whole objects. Second, the subjects do not always rely on generic or pre-existing invariance of features (i.e., features whose appearance remains largely unchanged by variations in illumination), and are capable of using learning to compensate for appearance changes when necessary. These psychophysical results closely fit the predictions of earlier computational studies of fragment-based invariant object recognition.

  18. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J; Fedder, J

    2017-07-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated. In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage. The present decade continues within this research area. Some of the more novel methods recently submerging are sorting of cells with increased DNA fragmentation and hyaluronic acid (HA) binding techniques. The clinical value of these tests remains to be elucidated. In spite of half a century of research within the area, this analysis is not routinely implemented into the fertility clinics. The underlying causes are multiple. The abundance of methods has impeded the need for a clinical significant threshold. One of the most promising methods was commercialized in 2005 and has been reserved for larger licensed laboratories. Myriads of reviews and meta-analyses on studies using different assays for analysis of DNA fragmentation, different clinical Artificial Reproductive Treatments (ART), different definitions of successful ART outcome and small patient cohorts have been published. Although the area of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa is highly relevant in the fertility clinics, the need for further studies focusing on standardization of the methods and clinical

  19. Active site specificity profiling of the matrix metalloproteinase family: Proteomic identification of 4300 cleavage sites by nine MMPs explored with structural and synthetic peptide cleavage analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhard, Ulrich; Huesgen, Pitter F; Schilling, Oliver; Bellac, Caroline L; Butler, Georgina S; Cox, Jennifer H; Dufour, Antoine; Goebeler, Verena; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Keller, Ulrich Auf dem; Klein, Theo; Lange, Philipp F; Marino, Giada; Morrison, Charlotte J; Prudova, Anna; Rodriguez, David; Starr, Amanda E; Wang, Yili; Overall, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Secreted and membrane tethered matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key homeostatic proteases regulating the extracellular signaling and structural matrix environment of cells and tissues. For drug targeting of proteases, selectivity for individual molecules is highly desired and can be met by high yield active site specificity profiling. Using the high throughput Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites (PICS) method to simultaneously profile both the prime and non-prime sides of the cleavage sites of nine human MMPs, we identified more than 4300 cleavages from P6 to P6' in biologically diverse human peptide libraries. MMP specificity and kinetic efficiency were mainly guided by aliphatic and aromatic residues in P1' (with a ~32-93% preference for leucine depending on the MMP), and basic and small residues in P2' and P3', respectively. A wide differential preference for the hallmark P3 proline was found between MMPs ranging from 15 to 46%, yet when combined in the same peptide with the universally preferred P1' leucine, an unexpected negative cooperativity emerged. This was not observed in previous studies, probably due to the paucity of approaches that profile both the prime and non-prime sides together, and the masking of subsite cooperativity effects by global heat maps and iceLogos. These caveats make it critical to check for these biologically highly important effects by fixing all 20 amino acids one-by-one in the respective subsites and thorough assessing of the inferred specificity logo changes. Indeed an analysis of bona fide MEROPS physiological substrate cleavage data revealed that of the 37 natural substrates with either a P3-Pro or a P1'-Leu only 5 shared both features, confirming the PICS data. Upon probing with several new quenched-fluorescent peptides, rationally designed on our specificity data, the negative cooperativity was explained by reduced non-prime side flexibility constraining accommodation of the rigidifying P3 proline with

  20. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  1. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-30

    The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30 - 50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3 - 4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large.

  2. Formation of wide binaries by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seokho; Dunham, Michael M.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Choi, Minho; Bergin, Edwin A.; Evans, Neal J.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the formation of wide-binary systems of very low-mass stars (M ≤ 0.1 solar masses, M⊙) is challenging 1,2,3 . The most obvious route is through widely separated low-mass collapsing fragments produced by turbulent fragmentation of a molecular core4,5. However, close binaries or multiples from disk fragmentation can also evolve to wide binaries over a few initial crossing times of the stellar cluster through tidal evolution6. Finding an isolated low-mass wide-binary system in the earliest stage of formation, before tidal evolution could occur, would prove that turbulent fragmentation is a viable mechanism for (very) low-mass wide binaries. Here we report high-resolution ALMA observations of a known wide-separation protostellar binary, showing that each component has a circumstellar disk. The system is too young7 to have evolved from a close binary, and the disk axes are misaligned, providing strong support for the turbulent fragmentation model. Masses of both stars are derived from the Keplerian rotation of the disks; both are very low-mass stars.

  3. Supramolecular gel electrophoresis of large DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Shohei; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Oyoshi, Takanori; Yamanaka, Masamichi

    2017-07-06

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a frequent technique used to separate exceptionally large DNA fragments. In a typical continuous field electrophoresis, it is challenging to separate DNA fragments larger than 20 kbp because they migrate at a comparable rate. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to develop a novel matrix for the electrophoresis. Here, we describe the electrophoresis of large DNA fragments up to 166 kbp using a supramolecular gel matrix and a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. C3 -symmetric tris-urea self-assembled into a supramolecular hydrogel in tris-boric acid-EDTA buffer, a typical buffer for DNA electrophoresis, and the supramolecular hydrogel was used as a matrix for electrophoresis to separate large DNA fragments. Three types of DNA marker, the λ-Hind III digest (2 to 23 kbp), Lambda DNA-Mono Cut Mix (10 to 49 kbp), and Marker 7 GT (10 to 165 kbp), were analyzed in this study. Large DNA fragments of greater than 100 kbp showed distinct mobility using a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Global-Scale Patterns of Forest Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Riitters

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 x 9 pixels, "small" scale to 59,049 km 2 (243 x 243 pixels, "large" scale were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe-Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types and Europe-Asia (four types, in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland. The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf.

  5. Correlation measurements of fission-fragment properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberstedt A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available For the development of future nuclear fission applications and for a responsible handling of nuclear waste the a-priori assessment of the fission-fragments’ heat production and toxicity is a fundamental necessity. The success of an indispensable modelling of the fission process strongly depends on a good understanding of the particular mechanism of scission, the mass fragmentation and partition of excitation energy. Experimental observables are fission-fragment properties like mass- and energy-distributions, and the prompt neutron as well as γ-ray multiplicities and emission spectra. The latter quantities should preferably be known as a function of fragment mass and excitation energy. Those data are highly demanded as published by the OECD-NEA in its high priority data request list. With the construction of the double (v, E spectrometer VERDI we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously to avoid prompt neutron corrections. From the simultaneous measurement of pre- and post-neutron fission-fragment data the prompt neutron multiplicity may then be inferred fully correlated with fragment mass yield and total kinetic energy. Using an ultra-fast fission event trigger spectral prompt fission γ-ray measurements may be performed. For that purpose recently developed lanthanum-halide detectors, with excellent timing characteristics, were coupled to the VERDI spectrometer allowing for a very good discrimination of fission γ-rays and prompt neutrons due to their different time-of-flight.

  6. Stream hydrological fragmentation drives bacterioplankton community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fazi

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean intermittent streams, the hydrological fragmentation in summer and the successive water flow re-convergence in autumn allow exploring how local processes shape the microbial community within the same habitat. The objectives of this study were to determine how bacterial community composition responded to hydrological fragmentation in summer, and to evaluate whether the seasonal shifts in community composition predominate over the effects of episodic habitat fragmentation. The bacterial community was assessed along the intermittent stream Fuirosos (Spain, at different levels of phylogenetic resolution by in situ hybridization, fingerprinting, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The hydrological fragmentation of the stream network strongly altered the biogeochemical conditions with the depletion of oxidized solutes and caused changes in dissolved organic carbon characteristics. In the isolated ponds, beta-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria increased their abundance with a gradual reduction of the alpha-diversity as pond isolation time increased. Moreover, fingerprinting analysis clearly showed a shift in community composition between summer and autumn. In the context of a seasonal shift, the temporary stream fragmentation simultaneously reduced the microbial dispersion and affected local environmental conditions (shift in redox regime and quality of the dissolved organic matter tightly shaping the bacterioplankton community composition.

  7. Ternary fission fragmentation of 252Cf for all possible third fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, K.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2010-09-01

    The ternary fragmentation of 252Cf for all possible third fragments has been investigated using the recently proposed three-cluster model within a spherical approximation and satisfying the condition A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 . The most probable ternary configurations in the fission of 252Cf accompanied with all possible third fragment mass numbers from A 3 = 1 to 84 are predicted and their independent and overall relative yields are calculated. The calculations of the properly charge minimized potential energy surface (PES) and yield reveal that even-mass third fragments are more favored than odd ones. In the most probable configuration having the minimum in the potential energy and the maximum in yield, among the three fragments, at least one (or two) of the fragment(s) associates itself with the neutron (or proton) closed shell and in some cases even with the doubly closed shell. The calculated relative yields imply that next to 14C (the heaviest third fragment observed in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252Cf , 34, 36, 38Si , 46, 48Ar , and 48, 50Ca are presenting themselves as the most favoured cases to be observed as the third particle in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252Cf.

  8. Site-specifically Hydrolytic Cleavage of Oxidized Insulin B Chain With Cu(II) Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electrospray mass spectrometry investigation shows that denatured oxidized insulin B chain can be selectively cleaved by simple Cu(II) ion and the site of cleavage is at Gly8-Ser9 bond which is second amide bond left from His 10 in the sequence of oxidized insulin B chain.

  9. The N-terminal domain allosterically regulates cleavage and activation of the epithelial sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Pradeep; Buchner, Ginka; Chakraborty, Hirak; Dang, Yan L; He, Hong; Garcia, Guilherme J M; Kubelka, Jan; Gentzsch, Martina; Stutts, M Jackson; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2014-08-15

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is activated upon endoproteolytic cleavage of specific segments in the extracellular domains of the α- and γ-subunits. Cleavage is accomplished by intracellular proteases prior to membrane insertion and by surface-expressed or extracellular soluble proteases once ENaC resides at the cell surface. These cleavage events are partially regulated by intracellular signaling through an unknown allosteric mechanism. Here, using a combination of computational and experimental techniques, we show that the intracellular N terminus of γ-ENaC undergoes secondary structural transitions upon interaction with phosphoinositides. From ab initio folding simulations of the N termini in the presence and absence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), we found that PIP2 increases α-helical propensity in the N terminus of γ-ENaC. Electrophysiology and mutation experiments revealed that a highly conserved cluster of lysines in the γ-ENaC N terminus regulates accessibility of extracellular cleavage sites in γ-ENaC. We also show that conditions that decrease PIP2 or enhance ubiquitination sharply limit access of the γ-ENaC extracellular domain to proteases. Further, the efficiency of allosteric control of ENaC proteolysis is dependent on Tyr(370) in γ-ENaC. Our findings provide an allosteric mechanism for ENaC activation regulated by the N termini and sheds light on a potential general mechanism of channel and receptor activation.

  10. The N-terminal Domain Allosterically Regulates Cleavage and Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Pradeep; Buchner, Ginka; Chakraborty, Hirak; Dang, Yan L.; He, Hong; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Kubelka, Jan; Gentzsch, Martina; Stutts, M. Jackson; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is activated upon endoproteolytic cleavage of specific segments in the extracellular domains of the α- and γ-subunits. Cleavage is accomplished by intracellular proteases prior to membrane insertion and by surface-expressed or extracellular soluble proteases once ENaC resides at the cell surface. These cleavage events are partially regulated by intracellular signaling through an unknown allosteric mechanism. Here, using a combination of computational and experimental techniques, we show that the intracellular N terminus of γ-ENaC undergoes secondary structural transitions upon interaction with phosphoinositides. From ab initio folding simulations of the N termini in the presence and absence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), we found that PIP2 increases α-helical propensity in the N terminus of γ-ENaC. Electrophysiology and mutation experiments revealed that a highly conserved cluster of lysines in the γ-ENaC N terminus regulates accessibility of extracellular cleavage sites in γ-ENaC. We also show that conditions that decrease PIP2 or enhance ubiquitination sharply limit access of the γ-ENaC extracellular domain to proteases. Further, the efficiency of allosteric control of ENaC proteolysis is dependent on Tyr370 in γ-ENaC. Our findings provide an allosteric mechanism for ENaC activation regulated by the N termini and sheds light on a potential general mechanism of channel and receptor activation. PMID:24973914

  11. Metal-organic framework catalysts for selective cleavage of aryl-ether bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie

    2017-08-01

    The present invention relates to methods of employing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a catalyst for cleaving chemical bonds. In particular instances, the MOF results in selective bond cleavage that results in hydrogenolyzis. Furthermore, the MOF catalyst can be reused in multiple cycles. Such MOF-based catalysts can be useful, e.g., to convert biomass components.

  12. A novel purification method for histidine-tagged proteins containing a thrombin cleavage site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hefti, M.H.; Vugt-Toorn, van der C.J.; Dixon, R.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    A general procedure for the purification of histidine-tagged proteins has been developed using immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. This two-step purification method can be used for proteins containing a hexahistidine tag and a thrombin cleavage site, yielding high amounts of purified prot

  13. Cleavage mediated by the catalytic domain of bacterial RNase P RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiying; Kikovska, Ema; Lindell, Magnus; Kirsebom, Leif A

    2012-09-14

    Like other RNA molecules, RNase P RNA (RPR) is composed of domains, and these have different functions. Here, we provide data demonstrating that the catalytic (C) domain of Escherichia coli (Eco) RPR when separated from the specificity (S) domain mediates cleavage using various model RNA hairpin loop substrates. Compared to full-length Eco RPR, the rate constant, k(obs), of cleavage for the truncated RPR (CP RPR) was reduced 30- to 13,000-fold depending on substrate. Specifically, the structural architecture of the -1/+73 played a significant role where a C(-1)/G(+73) pair had the most dramatic effect on k(obs). Substitution of A(248) (E. coli numbering), positioned near the cleavage site in the RNase P-substrate complex, with G in the CP RPR resulted in 30-fold improvement in rate. In contrast, strengthening the interaction between the RPR and the 3' end of the substrate only had a modest effect. Interestingly, although deleting the S-domain gave a reduction in the rate, it resulted in a less erroneous RPR with respect to cleavage site selection. These data support and extend our understanding of the coupling between the distal interaction between the S-domain and events at the active site. Our findings will also be discussed with respect to the structure of RPR derived from different organisms.

  14. NBS mediated nitriles synthesis through C=C double bond cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xiaolin; Zheng, Qing-Zhong; Jiao, Ning

    2014-02-28

    An NBS mediated nitriles synthesis through C=C double bond cleavage has been developed. TMSN3 was employed as the nitrogen source for this Cu(OAc)2 promoted nitrogenation reaction. This transformation has a relatively high regio-selectivity to form aromatic nitriles.

  15. Cleavage of resveratrol in fungi: characterization of the enzyme Rco1 from Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brefort, Thomas; Scherzinger, Daniel; Limón, M Carmen; Estrada, Alejandro F; Trautmann, Danika; Mengel, Carina; Avalos, Javier; Al-Babili, Salim

    2011-02-01

    Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, contains two genes encoding members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family, a group of enzymes that cleave double bonds in different substrates. One of them, Cco1, was formerly identified as a β-carotene cleaving enzyme. Here we elucidate the function of the protein encoded by the second gene, termed here as Ustilago maydis Resveratrol cleavage oxygenase 1 (Um Rco1). In vitro incubations of heterologously expressed and purified UM Rco1 with different carotenoid and stilbene substrates demonstrate that it cleaves the interphenyl Cα-Cβ double bond of the phytoalexin resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. Um Rco1 exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity, as suggested by the lack of activity on carotenoids and the other resveratrol-related compounds tested. The activity of Um Rco1 was confirmed by incubation of U. maydis rco1 deletion and over-expression strains with resveratrol. Furthermore, treatment with resveratrol resulted in striking alterations of cell morphology. However, pathogenicity assays indicated that Um rco1 is largely dispensable for biotrophic development. Our work reveals Um Rco1 as the first eukaryotic resveratrol cleavage enzyme identified so far. Moreover, Um Rco1 represents a subfamily of fungal enzymes likely involved in the degradation of stilbene compounds, as suggested by the cleavage of resveratrol by homologs from Aspergillus fumigatus, Chaetomium globosum and Botryotinia fuckeliana.

  16. Use of the phaco tip technique for lens cleavage and removal during cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yoichiro; Oki, Kotaro; Iwaki, Hisaharu; Okamoto, Toshinori; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Use of the phaco tip technique for lens cleavage and removal does not require manual hydrodissection using a syringe and cannula, or cortical removal using an irrigation/aspiration tip. The phaco tip is the only surgical instrument required for this technique. Its advantages include maintaining a stable intraocular pressure during cortical cleaving hydrodissection and lens removal, which includes the cortex.

  17. Proximity-activated nanoparticles: in vitro performance of specific structural modification by enzymatic cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Adam Smith

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available R Adam Smith, Sarah L Sewell, Todd D GiorgioDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: The development and in vitro performance of a modular nanoscale system capable of specific structural modification by enzymatic activity is described in this work. Due to its small physical size and adaptable characteristics, this system has the potential for utilization in targeted delivery systems and biosensing. Nanoparticle probes were synthesized containing two distinct fluorescent species including a quantum dot base particle and fluorescently labeled cleavable peptide substrate. Activity of these probes was monitored by gel electrophoresis with quantitative cleavage measurements made by fluorometric analysis. The model proximity-activated nanoparticles studied here exhibit significant susceptibility to cleavage by matrix metalloprotease-7 (MMP-7 at physiologically relevant concentrations, with nearly complete cleavage of available substrate molecules after 24 hours. This response is specific to MMP-7 enzyme activity, as cleavage is completely inhibited with the addition of EDTA. Utilization of enzyme-specific modification is a sensitive approach with broad applications for targeted therapeutics and biosensing. The versatility of this nanoparticle system is highlighted in its modular design, as it has the capability to integrate characteristics for detection, biosensing, targeting, and payload delivery into a single, multifunctional nanoparticle structure.Keywords: quantum dot, MMP-7, protease, proximity activated nanoparticle

  18. DNA cleavage enzymes for treatment of persistent viral infections: Recent advances and the pathway forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Nicholas D., E-mail: nweber@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Aubert, Martine, E-mail: maubert@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Dang, Chung H., E-mail: cdang@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Stone, Daniel, E-mail: dstone2@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Jerome, Keith R., E-mail: kjerome@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Treatment for most persistent viral infections consists of palliative drug options rather than curative approaches. This is often because long-lasting viral DNA in infected cells is not affected by current antivirals, providing a source for viral persistence and reactivation. Targeting latent viral DNA itself could therefore provide a basis for novel curative strategies. DNA cleavage enzymes can be used to induce targeted mutagenesis of specific genes, including those of exogenous viruses. Although initial in vitro and even in vivo studies have been carried out using DNA cleavage enzymes targeting various viruses, many questions still remain concerning the feasibility of these strategies as they transition into preclinical research. Here, we review the most recent findings on DNA cleavage enzymes for human viral infections, consider the most relevant animal models for several human viral infections, and address issues regarding safety and enzyme delivery. Results from well-designed in vivo studies will ideally provide answers to the most urgent remaining questions, and allow continued progress toward clinical application. - Highlights: • Recent in vitro and in vivo results for DNA cleavage enzymes targeting persistent viral infections. • Analysis of the best animal models for testing enzymes for HBV, HSV, HIV and HPV. • Challenges facing in vivo delivery of therapeutic enzymes for persistent viral infections. • Safety issues to be addressed with proper animal studies.

  19. Facile P-C/C-H Bond-Cleavage Reactivity of Nickel Bis(diphosphine) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaoguang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Haixia [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Appel, Aaron M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Michael B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Bullock, R. Morris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Unusual cleavage of P-C and C-H bonds of the P2N2 ligand in heteroleptic [Ni(P2N2)(diphosphine)]2+ complexes results in the formation of an iminium formyl nickelate featuring a C,P,P-tridentate coordination mode.

  20. Quercetin-Iron Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, DNA Cleavage, and Antibacterial Activity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aun; Xu, Xiuquan; Xia, Li; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Quercetin-iron (II) complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron micrography and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal:ligand) of the complex. Antioxidant study of the quercetin and its metal complex against 2, 2-di-phenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical showed that the complex has much more radical scavenging activity than free quercetin. The interaction of quercetin-iron (II) complex with DNA was determined using ultraviolet visible spectra, fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that quercetin-iron (II) complex can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form to nicked circular form and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was an oxidative cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of complex to cleave DNA. In addition, antibacterial activity of complex on E.coli and S. aureus was also investigated. The results showed that complex has higher antibacterial activity than ligand.