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Sample records for pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination

  1. Assessment of pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in Babati District, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... As well as participating in a development program, Africa Research in ...

  2. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays L.) and affecting the crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus ...

  3. Identification of seed proteins associated with resistance to pre-harvested aflatoxin contamination in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-harvest infection of peanuts by Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination is one of the food safety factors that most severely impair peanut productivity and human and animal health, especially in arid and semi-arid tropical areas. Some peanut cultivars with natural pre-harvest resistance to aflatoxin contamination have been identified through field screening. However, little is known about the resistance mechanism, which has slowed the incorporation of resistance into cultivars with commercially acceptable genetic background. Therefore, it is necessary to identify resistance-associated proteins, and then to recognize candidate resistance genes potentially underlying the resistance mechanism. Results The objective of this study was to identify resistance-associated proteins in response to A. flavus infection under drought stress using two-dimensional electrophoresis with mass spectrometry. To identify proteins involved in the resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination, we compared the differential expression profiles of seed proteins between a resistant cultivar (YJ-1 and a susceptible cultivar (Yueyou 7 under well-watered condition, drought stress, and A. flavus infection with drought stress. A total of 29 spots showed differential expression between resistant and susceptible cultivars in response to A. flavus attack under drought stress. Among these spots, 12 protein spots that consistently exhibited an altered expression were screened by Image Master 5.0 software and successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Five protein spots, including Oso7g0179400, PII protein, CDK1, Oxalate oxidase, SAP domain-containing protein, were uniquely expressed in the resistant cultivar. Six protein spots including low molecular weight heat shock protein precursor, RIO kinase, L-ascorbate peroxidase, iso-Ara h3, 50 S ribosomal protein L22 and putative 30 S ribosomal S9 were significantly up-regulated in the resistant

  4. Atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from peanuts collected from northern Philippines as potential biocon agents against pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food products causes liver cancer and weakened immunity in humans, and stunted growth and reduced productivity in animals (CAST, 2003). Effective control of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn due to AflaGuard and Aflasafe in the United States and Africa...

  5. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays and affecting crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and fumonisin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, is a goal in breeding programs that screen for these important traits with the aim of developing resistant commercial hybrids. We conducted two years of field evaluations on 87 inbred lines originating primarily in China and Mexico and not previously screened for resistance. The objectives of our study were to identify resistant germplasm for breeding purposes and to examine possible relationships between resistances to the two mycotoxins. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were present in samples harvested from all lines in both years. Concentrations of total aflatoxin ranged from 52.00 ± 20.00 to 1524.00 ± 396.00 μg kg−1, while those of fumonisin ranged from 0.60 ± 0.06 to 124.00 ± 19.50 mg kg−1. The inbred lines TUN15, TUN61, TUN37, CY2, and TUN49 showed the lowest aflatoxin accumulation and CN1, GT601, TUN09, TUN61, and MP717 the lowest fumonisin accumulation. TUN61 showed the lowest accumulation of both mycotoxins. This study confirmed previous observations that high levels of aflatoxin can coexist with fumonisin, with 55 maize lines showing a positive correlation coefficient between the concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin and 32 lines showing a negative correlation coefficient. These selected lines, particularly TUN61, may provide sources of resistance to mycotoxin contamination in breeding programs. However, the mechanism of resistance in this germplasm remains to be identified. Future research should also address factors that influence the fungus–plant interaction, such as herbivory and environmental stress.

  6. RNA Sequencing of Contaminated Seeds Reveals the State of the Seed Permissive for Pre-Harvest Aflatoxin Contamination and Points to a Potential Susceptibility Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Clevenger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC is a major problem facing peanut production worldwide. Produced by the ubiquitous soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin is the most naturally occurring known carcinogen. The interaction between fungus and host resulting in PAC is complex, and breeding for PAC resistance has been slow. It has been shown that aflatoxin production can be induced by applying drought stress as peanut seeds mature. We have implemented an automated rainout shelter that controls temperature and moisture in the root and peg zone to induce aflatoxin production. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, seeds meeting the following conditions were selected: infected with Aspergillus flavus and contaminated with aflatoxin; and not contaminated with aflatoxin. RNA sequencing analysis revealed groups of genes that describe the transcriptional state of contaminated vs. uncontaminated seed. These data suggest that fatty acid biosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA signaling are altered in contaminated seeds and point to a potential susceptibility factor, ABR1, as a repressor of ABA signaling that may play a role in permitting PAC.

  7. RNA Sequencing of Contaminated Seeds Reveals the State of the Seed Permissive for Pre-Harvest Aflatoxin Contamination and Points to a Potential Susceptibility Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Josh; Marasigan, Kathleen; Liakos, Vasileios; Sobolev, Victor; Vellidis, George; Holbrook, Corley; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) is a major problem facing peanut production worldwide. Produced by the ubiquitous soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin is the most naturally occurring known carcinogen. The interaction between fungus and host resulting in PAC is complex, and breeding for PAC resistance has been slow. It has been shown that aflatoxin production can be induced by applying drought stress as peanut seeds mature. We have implemented an automated rainout shelter that controls temperature and moisture in the root and peg zone to induce aflatoxin production. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), seeds meeting the following conditions were selected: infected with Aspergillus flavus and contaminated with aflatoxin; and not contaminated with aflatoxin. RNA sequencing analysis revealed groups of genes that describe the transcriptional state of contaminated vs. uncontaminated seed. These data suggest that fatty acid biosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling are altered in contaminated seeds and point to a potential susceptibility factor, ABR1, as a repressor of ABA signaling that may play a role in permitting PAC. PMID:27827875

  8. On-Farm Demonstrations with a Set of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs Proved Cost-Effective in Reducing Pre-Harvest Aflatoxin Contamination in Groundnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraju Parimi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut is an important qualitative issue posing a threat to food safety. In our present study, we have demonstrated the efficacy of certain good agricultural practices (GAPs in groundnut, such as farmyard manure (5 t/ha, gypsum (500 kg/ha, a protective irrigation at 90 days after sowing (DAS, drying of pods on tarpaulins after harvest in farmers’ fields. During 2013–2015, 89 on-farm demonstrations were conducted advocating GAPs, and compared with farmers’ practices (FP plots. Farmers’ awareness of GAPs, and knowledge on important aspects of groundnut cultivation, were also assessed during our experimentation in the selected villages under study. Pre-harvest kernel infection by Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin contamination, and pod yields were compared in GAPs plots, vis-à-vis FP plots. The cost of cultivation in both the plots was calculated and compared, based on farmer’s opinion surveys. Results indicate kernel infections and aflatoxins were significantly lower, with 13–58% and 62–94% reduction, respectively, in GAPs plots over FP. Further, a net gain of around $23 per acre was realized through adoption of GAPs by farmers besides quality improvement of groundnuts. Based on our results, it can be concluded that on-farm demonstrations were the best educative tool to convince the farmers about the cost-effectiveness, and adoptability of aflatoxin management technologies.

  9. Evaluation of spatial and temporal patterns of insect damage and aflatoxin level in the pre-harvest corn fields to improve management tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Toews, Michael D; Buntin, G David; Lee, R Dewey; Li, Xin; Lei, Zhongren; He, Kanglai; Xu, Wenwei; Li, Xianchun; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of insect damage in relation to aflatoxin contamination in a corn field with plants of uniform genetic background are not well understood. After previous examination of spatial patterns of insect damage and aflatoxin in pre-harvest corn fields, we further examined both spatial and temporal patterns of cob- and kernel-feeding insect damage, and aflatoxin level with two samplings at pre-harvest in 2008 and 2009. The feeding damage by each of the ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs) and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. Sampling data showed a field edge effect in both insect damage and aflatoxin contamination in both years. Maize weevils tended toward an aggregated distribution more frequently than either corn earworm or stink bug damage in both years. The frequency of detecting aggregated distribution for aflatoxin level was less than any of the insect damage assessments. Stink bug damage and maize weevil number were more closely associated with aflatoxin level than was corn earworm damage. In addition, the indices of spatial-temporal association (χ) demonstrated that the number of maize weevils was associated between the first (4 weeks pre-harvest) and second (1 week pre-harvest) samplings in both years on all fields. In contrast, corn earworm damage between the first and second samplings from the field on the Belflower Farm, and aflatoxin level and corn earworm damage from the field on the Lang Farm were dissociated in 2009. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

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    Alisa Huffaker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs, and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also

  11. Spatial patterns of aflatoxin levels in relation to ear-feeding insect damage in pre-harvest corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Buntin, G David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Lee, R Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E; Scully, Brian T; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-07-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed.

  12. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P.; Buntin, G. David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D.; Lee, R. Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E.; Scully, Brian T.; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed. PMID

  13. Biotechnological advances for combating Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sunkara, Sowmini; Bhatnagar-Panwar, Madhurima; Waliyar, Farid; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive byproducts of Aspergillus spp. that contaminate a wide range of crops such as maize, peanut, and cotton. Aflatoxin not only affects crop production but renders the produce unfit for consumption and harmful to human and livestock health, with stringent threshold limits of acceptability. In many crops, breeding for resistance is not a reliable option because of the limited availability of genotypes with durable resistance to Aspergillus. Understanding the fungal/crop/environment interactions involved in aflatoxin contamination is therefore essential in designing measures for its prevention and control. For a sustainable solution to aflatoxin contamination, research must be focused on identifying and improving knowledge of host-plant resistance factors to aflatoxin accumulation. Current advances in genetic transformation, proteomics, RNAi technology, and marker-assisted selection offer great potential in minimizing pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination in cultivated crop species. Moreover, developing effective phenotyping strategies for transgenic as well as precision breeding of resistance genes into commercial varieties is critical. While appropriate storage practices can generally minimize post-harvest aflatoxin contamination in crops, the use of biotechnology to interrupt the probability of pre-harvest infection and contamination has the potential to provide sustainable solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aflatoxin contamination of developing corn kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M A

    2005-01-01

    Preharvest of corn and its contamination with aflatoxin is a serious problem. Some environmental and cultural factors responsible for infection and subsequent aflatoxin production were investigated in this study. Stage of growth and location of kernels on corn ears were found to be one of the important factors in the process of kernel infection with A. flavus & A. parasiticus. The results showed positive correlation between the stage of growth and kernel infection. Treatment of corn with aflatoxin reduced germination, protein and total nitrogen contents. Total and reducing soluble sugar was increase in corn kernels as response to infection. Sucrose and protein content were reduced in case of both pathogens. Shoot system length, seeding fresh weigh and seedling dry weigh was also affected. Both pathogens induced reduction of starch content. Healthy corn seedlings treated with aflatoxin solution were badly affected. Their leaves became yellow then, turned brown with further incubation. Moreover, their total chlorophyll and protein contents showed pronounced decrease. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds were increased. Histopathological studies indicated that A. flavus & A. parasiticus could colonize corn silks and invade developing kernels. Germination of A. flavus spores was occurred and hyphae spread rapidly across the silk, producing extensive growth and lateral branching. Conidiophores and conidia had formed in and on the corn silk. Temperature and relative humidity greatly influenced the growth of A. flavus & A. parasiticus and aflatoxin production.

  15. Occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in maize kernels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen. 660 pre- and post- harvest maize samples were collected from major maize growing areas in Tamil Nadu, India. Aflatoxin contamination was observed in ...

  16. Destruction of Aflatoxins in Contaminated Maize Samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alice

    prevailing temperatures are high and favored by warmth and high humidity [6]. According to estimates of Food and Agriculture Organization. (FAO) about 25% of the world's food crops are affected by aflatoxin contamination every year. [7]. Although aflatoxins are frequent contaminants of a wide variety of cereal grains and.

  17. Fungal Profile and Aflatoxin Contamination in Poultry Feeds Sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin contamination of animal feeds is common and widely spread, especially in the tropics, due to the ubiquity of the producing fungi. The detection of aflatoxin in five samples of animal feed was carried out; using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples were taken from five different areas in Abeokuta.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aflatoxicosis resulting from consumption of contaminated maize poses a significant public health problem in many countries including Kenya, and many people living in developing countries could be chronically exposed to aflatoxin through their diet. It is caused by Aflatoxins produced by fungus of species ...

  19. (CultiAF) Reducing maize-based aflatoxin contamination

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Zimbabwe, testing of harvested maize has revealed high levels of contamination by aflatoxins, ... and other private sector partners will increase the availability of improved grain storage containers. Researchers will work with the Ministry of ...

  20. Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize bran and maize used as animal feed in northern ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  1. Reducing maize-based aflatoxin contamination and exposure

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    super bags' in which to store their grain. The control households will continue using traditional storage techniques. Researchers will assess the extent of aflatoxin contamination in grain stored by both groups and levels of exposure in mothers ...

  2. Aflatoxin Contamination of Feed Materials in Qom Province, Iran

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    Mohammad Rezaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins which may be present in some foods and due to their negative health effects, represent a major concern for humans and food industries. In the present study, total aflatoxin contamination in products from eight feed materials production centers located in Qom City of Iran were evaluated by an ELISA technique in November 2012. Methods: A total of 40 feed samples were analyzed for total aflatoxin. The samples were collected randomly from eight feed materials production centers (C1-C8 located in Qom city. Samples were conditioned in sterile plastic container and kept at 4 ᵒC until analyses that were carried out in same day. Results: The total average of Aflatoxins concentration in samples were 1.83µg/kg. All samples demonstrated total aflatoxin levels lower than European Union standard and National Standard of Iran recommended limits. Conclusion: Considering the low values of aflatoxin contamination, maintaining vigilant preventive measures is recommended.These results do not preclude the need for continuing comprehensive studies for aflatoxin contamination.

  3. An integrated approach for the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Naik, M K; Ajithkumar, K

    2013-02-01

    An integrated approach for management of aflatoxin contamination in chilli was undertaken by evaluating the fungicides, bioagents and plant extracts against Aspergillus flavus under both in vitro and field condition. Maximum inhibition of radial growth (91.1%) was observed with 0.3% mancozeb followed by captan (85.2%). Carbendazim (73%) was effective and superior over other systemic fungicides. A complete inhibition (100%) of A. flavus was observed in neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), nimbicidin and pongamia oil at 5%. An indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens bioagent isolate inhibited (74.9%) the growth of A. flavus over Trichoderma harzianum (70.4%). The superior performing fungicides, plant extracts and bioagents identified under in vitro were used for challenge inoculation on chilli fruits and so also for field evaluation. The captan treated fruits recorded the least infection of A. flavus (1.6%) followed by P. fluorescens (2.0%), NSKE (2.2%) and nimbicidin treated fruits (7.8%) as against control (38.3%). As regards to field evaluation, the least incidence was recorded in NSKE sprayed chilli plot (1.6%) and was on par with captan (2.2%), P. fluorescens (2.4%) and T. harzianum (2.6%) compared to control (7.4%). Hence, a pre-harvest spray of NSKE (5%) or mancozeb (0.3%) or P. fluorescens (1 × 10(8) cfu/ml) 10 days before harvest of chilli is recommended for field level management of aflatoxin.

  4. Aflatoxin contamination of locallyprocessed cereal-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding children with cereal-based foods has potential to expose them to aflatoxins (AFs).This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in 64 commercial locally produced cereal-based complementary foods obtained from producers and popular markets in ...

  5. Aflatoxin contamination of maize from different storage locations in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrobortu, Dick Emmanuel

    2008-05-01

    The contamination of maize by aflatoxins in Ghana is of major concern because of the health hazards associated with it. This study focused on the role played by variations in climatic factors such as relative humidity and rainfall on aflatoxin contamination of maize in different maize storage locations. The study was carried out on samples collected over a period of 10 years (1990 to 1999) in three Districts (Ejura-Sekyedumase, Afram Plains/North-Kwahu and Nkoranza) well – known for maize production in Ghana. The aim was to study the influence of storage locations on levels of aflatoxin contamination and distribution in maize. The findings indicated that significant difference exists between the aflatoxin contamination levels of samples collected from Ejura-Sekyedumase and Nkoranza (p<0.05). Also there was a significant difference between the aflatoxin contamination levels of samples collected from Ejura-Sekyedumase and North-Kwahu (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the contamination levels of samples from North- Kwahu and Nkoranza (p>0.05). The total aflatoxin levels in samples from Ejura-Sekyedumase, North-Kwahu and Nkoranza over the period were 120.50 ppb, 153.20 ppb and 134.17 ppb respectively. For the period 1990 to 1999 the aflatoxin distributions in the storage locations showed that Nkoranza had the highest level in 1997 and 1999 while North-Kwahu had the highest in 1990, 1991, 1993 and 1998. Similarly, Nkoranza and North-Kwahu had equal levels of 10.50 ppb in 1995. The three locations had equal levels of 9.50 ppb in 1994. On the whole, Ejura-Sekyedumase had fair distribution levels since it was the only location with its highest level far below the acceptable level of 20 ppb for humans. I hereby recommend that further research must be conducted in other districts in the country in order to create awareness of the health hazards associated with the aflatoxin contamination. (au)

  6. Aflatoxin Contamination of the Milk Supply: A Pakistan Perspective

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    Naveed Aslam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving both quality and quantity of food available is a pressing need especially when one eighth of the world’s population consumes less energy than is required for maintenance and is exposed to contaminated food, both of which lead to greater susceptibility to diseases. The Pakistani population depends heavily on milk for nutritional needs and 10% of household income is spent on milk. This commodity requires continuous monitoring and care from its site of production by smallholder dairy producers through to urban consumers along tradition milk marketing chains. Feed ingredients used as concentrate feed to enhance milk production are often contaminated with mycotoxins, which, after ingestion, are transferred into milk. Aflatoxins can contribute to the causation of liver cancers, immune system disorders, and growth-related issues in children. Moreover, deaths in both humans and animals have also been reported after ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated food. Studies have shown contamination of food and feed ingredients with mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins. This review places the dairy industry into context, summarizes how milk and milk products are contaminated with aflatoxins, and discusses the present legislative regulation of milk quality implemented in Pakistan. There is a need to eliminate fungus-susceptible animal feed ingredients, which are the source of mycotoxins so prevalent in the milk marketed to the consumer in Pakistan.

  7. Aflatoxin contamination in corn sold for wildlife feed in texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Peper, Steven T; Downing, Carson D; Kendall, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Supplemental feeding with corn to attract and manage deer is a common practice throughout Texas. Other species, including northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), are commonly seen feeding around supplemental deer feeders. In many cases, supplemental feeding continues year-round so feed supply stores always have supplemental corn in stock. Fluctuating weather and improper storage of corn can lead to and/or amplify aflatoxin contamination. Due to the recent decline of bobwhites throughout the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, there has been interest in finding factors such as toxins that could be linked to their decline. In this study, we purchased and sampled supplemental corn from 19 locations throughout this ecoregion to determine if aflatoxin contamination was present in individual bags prior to being dispersed to wildlife. Of the 57 bags sampled, 33 bags (approximately 58%) contained aflatoxin with a bag range between 0.0-19.91 parts per billion (ppb). Additionally, three metal and three polypropylene supplemental feeders were each filled with 45.4 kg of triple cleaned corn and placed in an open field to study long-term aflatoxin buildup. Feeders were sampled every 3 months from November 2013-November 2014. Average concentration of aflatoxin over the year was 4.08 ± 2.53 ppb (±SE) in metal feeders, and 1.43 ± 0.89 ppb (±SE) in polypropylene feeders. The concentration of aflatoxins is not affected by the type of feeder (metal vs polypropylene), the season corn was sampled, and the location in the feeder (top, middle, bottom) where corn is sampled. It is unlikely that corn used in supplemental feeders is contributing to the bobwhite decline due to the low levels of aflatoxin found in purchased corn and long-term storage of corn used in supplemental feeders.

  8. Molecular detection of mycobiota and aflatoxin contamination of chili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherbawy Youssuf A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum grows in warm areas. Pepper production conditions require the drying of fruits by sunlight. During the drying processes, the crop is exposed to contamination by microorganisms, especially fungi. In this article, the isolation of mycobiota from retail markets and food restaurants of Taif city was studied. Crushed chili showed a high fungal load compared to chili sauce and chili powder, while chili powder showed a high occurrence of total aflatoxins (AFs. Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium were the most common genera isolated from chili samples. Thirty-four samples (out of 60 were naturally contaminated with AFs ranging from 20 to 200 ppb. The total aflatoxin potential of 35 isolates of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. tamarri were studied. Seventy percent of A. flavus isolates were aflatoxigenic. The frequencies of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes aflR, nor-1, ver-1 and omtA were studied in aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus species collected in this study. All aflatoxigenic isolates (21 and 1 non-aflatoxigenic isolate of A. flavus showed DNA fragments that correspond to the complete set of the targeted genes. In conclusion, the high co-occurrence of Aspergillus species capable of producing aflatoxins, particularly in chili samples, suggests the need for more efficient control during processing and storage to reduce fungal contamination.

  9. Evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in different parts of pistachio fruit and effects of processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dargahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio nut as the most important agricultural export products is facing challenges trough production and conception. Toxigenic Aspergillus species are able to grow and produce dangerous mycotoxins on pistachio nut. Distribution of aflatoxin in different pistachio samples collected pre- (early splitting and healthy pistachios in orchards and post-harvest (steps in processing plants was evaluated. Aflatoxin B1 content of samples was quantified using ELISA.  Overall, high content of aflatoxin B1 in pre-harvest was observed in early splitting pistachios which were 5 times higher than healthy ones. The mean value of aflatoxin B1 content in early splitting and healthy pistachio was 10.2 and 1.8 ng/g, respectively. In processing plant, the content of aflatoxin B1 in stained, small, floater and open shell pistachios was 21, 4, 15 and 2 times higher than unstained, large, sinker and closed shell pistachios, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in samples taken from orchards and processing plants indicates pre-harvest contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, which may exacerbate by inadequate post-harvest conditions. Physical properties of contaminated pistachios may be used to reduce aflatoxin levels in pistachio bulks during or after processing. ELISA, as practical, sensitive and cheap method, may apply to determine the aflatoxin content of pistachios.

  10. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  11. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  12. Total aflatoxin, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycotoxin contamination is a common problem in developing countries, particularly in cereals, and this poses a serious health risk to its consumers. Busaa is a Kenyan traditional brew whose cereal ingredients are prone to mycotoxin contamination. This study aimed at detecting the presence and subsequently quantifying ...

  13. Modelling approach to limit aflatoxin B1 contamination in dairy cattle compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding dairy cattle with safe compound feed helps farmers to ensure food safety. However, several ingredients often used in compound feed production can be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which may result into milk contaminated with aflatoxin M1. Given the number of ingredients and their

  14. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  15. Advances in molecular and genomic research to safeguard food and feed supply from aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide recognition that aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is a global problem which has significantly benefitted from global collaboration for understanding the contaminating fungus as well as for developing and implementing solutions against the...

  16. An outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in dogs associated with aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Casagrande, Renata Assis; Wouters, Flademir; Watanabe, Tatiane Terumi Negrão; Boabaid, Fabiana Marques; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias; Driemeier, David

    2013-03-01

    An aflatoxicosis outbreak affected 65 dogs from 9 different farms after they were fed diets with cooked corn meal as a common ingredient. Of the dogs, 60 died. Numerous dogs died on additional farms, but those dogs were not included in the study. The farmers acquired the contaminated maize products, in the form of whole corn grain or as corn meal, from the same supplier. The corn product was mixed with meat that was left over from home or commercial rations to form corn polenta, which was fed to the dogs. Necropsy was performed on 3 dogs. Two of the dogs died after a few days of refusing food, showing anorexia, polydipsia, icteric mucous membranes, hematemesis, hematochezia, or melena, and bleeding of the skin, eye, ear, and mouth. The primary necropsy findings included jaundice, hemorrhages in several organs, and yellowish enlarged liver with enhanced lobular pattern. The dog that experienced chronic ascites had a yellowish liver with reduced volume, irregular surface, and increased consistency. The main histological findings included hepatocyte fatty degeneration, biliary duct hyperplasia, cholestasis and, in the chronic case, hepatic fibrosis. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the corn meal from 2 affected farms revealed 1,640 ppb and 1,770 ppb of aflatoxin B1, respectively. The current study demonstrates an additional way that dogs can be exposed to, poisoned, and killed by aflatoxin.

  17. THE ROLE OF POSTHARVEST MACHINERIES AND PACKAGING IN MINIMIZING AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Paramawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a tropical country with relatively high humidity and temperature, Indonesia is struggling with aflatoxin which frequently contaminates peanut. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxic substance that could cause liver cancer. Due to the increasing concern on food safety, the Indonesian Drugs and Foods Agency specifies the maximum aflatoxin allowed in peanut as much as 20 ppb. However, researches showed that aflatoxin contamination in peanut in Indonesia is much higher than the threshold. The study was carried out to observe the effect of using postharvest machineries and packaging  treatments on aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Reduction of postharvest processes was conducted by using series of machineries, e.g. thresher, dryer, and sheller. Packaging treatments, e.g. vacuum plastic pack, hermetic glass chamber, and polyethylene (PE plastic wrap were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (25-27°C. The results showed that using machineries in postharvest handling produced peanut free from aflatoxin contamination. However, without effective packaging, the aflatoxin level would increase during storage. Hermetic packaging could protect peanut from the mold as indicated by low level of aflatoxin contamination.

  18. [Analysis on contamination of aflatoxins in food samples in Shaanxi Province from 2012-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiawei; Tian, Li; Wang, Caixia; Qiao, Haiou; Wang, Minjuan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the contamination of aflatoxins in food in Shaanxi Province, and provide the basic data of dietary intakes of aflatoxins for food safety assessment. In year 2012- 2015, 1007 food samples of eight kinds of food including grains, beans, vegetable oil, nuts and seeds, condiment, liquor, tea and infants' food were collected randomly from ten cities, and determined with UPLC. 1007 samples were detected aflatoxins and the total detection rate was 10. 7%. The detection range was 0. 070- 323 μg / kg, with the mean value of 2. 34 μg / kg. Among all food samples, only peanut products were more seriously polluted than other kinds of foods. The overall level of aflatoxins contamination in market food is low, but peanut products might be the contaminated foods with aflatoxins in Shaanxi Province, and should be given more attention.

  19. Improving the control of aflatoxin-contaminated foods in Haiti | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They are regularly found among staple food commodities such as peanuts, ... Factors influencing the adoption of control methods by farmers, harvesters, ... viable non-food/feed-related value chain for rejected aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts.

  20. Potential economic losses to the US corn industry from aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Bowers, Erin; Hurburgh, Charles; Wu, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonise food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the US corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the United States and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses the probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from US$52.1 million to US$1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years.

  1. Potential economic losses to the USA corn industry from aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N.J.; Bowers, E.; Hurburgh, C.; Wu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonize food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the United States corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the US and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from $52.1 million to $1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years. PMID:26807606

  2. Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and maize in Zambia: observed and potential concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapulula, P W; Akello, J; Bandyopadhyay, R; Cotty, P J

    2017-06-01

    The aims of the study were to quantify aflatoxins, the potent carcinogens associated with stunting and immune suppression, in maize and groundnut across Zambia's three agroecologies and to determine the vulnerability to aflatoxin increases after purchase. Aflatoxin concentrations were determined for 334 maize and groundnut samples from 27 districts using lateral-flow immunochromatography. Seventeen per cent of crops from markets contained aflatoxin concentrations above allowable levels in Zambia (10 μg kg -1 ). Proportions of crops unsafe for human consumption differed significantly (P agroecologies with more contamination (38%) in the warmest (Agroecology I) and the least (8%) in cool, wet Agroecology III. Aflatoxin in groundnut (39 μg kg -1 ) and maize (16 μg kg -1 ) differed (P = 0·032). Poor storage (31°C, 100% RH, 1 week) increased aflatoxin in safe crops by over 1000-fold in both maize and groundnut. The L morphotype of Aspergillus flavus was negatively correlated with postharvest increases in groundnut. Aflatoxins are common in Zambia's food staples with proportions of unsafe crops dependent on agroecology. Fungal community structure influences contamination suggesting Zambia would benefit from biocontrol with atoxigenic A. flavus. Aflatoxin contamination across the three agroecologies of Zambia is detailed and the case for aflatoxin management with atoxigenic biocontrol agents provided. The first method for evaluating the potential for aflatoxin increase after purchase is presented. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54 at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  4. Relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hirut; Abbas, Hamed K; Fisher, Daniel K; Bellaloui, Nacer

    2012-11-20

    Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54) at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  5. [Survey of aflatoxins contamination of foodstuffs and edible oil in Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Qiu, Fen; Yang, Mei; Liang, Zhaohai; Zhou, Haitao

    2013-07-01

    To identify the aflatoxins contamination of foodstuffs and edible oil sold in Shenzhen. As research subjects stratified random sampling of 238 foodstuffs and edible oil, and applied with immuno-affinity column clean-up plus UPLC to determine the content of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. Positive ratio of aflatoxin in rice, rice products, wheat flour, corn flour, edible oil were 35.3%, 33.8%, 13.9%, 46.7% and 24.5%,respectively. There were statistical differences between the positive ratio of aflatoxin in stereotypes packaged rice (26.5%) and bulk rice (56.3%) (chi2 = 11.6, P edible oil,respectively. The over standard rate of aflatoxin B1 was 5.66%, excessive samples were producted bulk and self-pressed peanut oil from unlicensed workshop. All the four kinds of aflatoxin were detected, while subtype B1 and B2 dominated aflatoxin contamination in the rice and edible oil samples. There are differences between in the northern and southern rice, and the same as in the stereotypes packaged and bulk rice sold at Shenzhen.

  6. Effects of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Feed on Immunological Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bitsayah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin contamination is a common natural phenomenon that is difficult to avoid or control and it can occur during pre and post-harvest periods under high humidity and temperature conditions, and are potentially dangerous to fish. In the present study, a feeding trial evaluated the effects of diets contaminated with aflatoxin on certain immunological parameters of common carp. Methods: The immunotoxicity assessment of juvenile common carp was performed on 180 fish divided into five groups with triplicate: Control group received normal feed (Group I; group II was fed diets contaminated with extraction solution (methanol, acetone and diluted water as a positive control. Group III-V was respectively fed diets contaminated with 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed for 3 wk. Results: Lysozyme activities, total immunoglobulin contents, complement C3 and C4 activities in plasma of common carp fed with different concentrations of aflatoxins significantly decreased when compared to that of the control fish. Although plasma ACH50 contents remained unchanged in 0.5 mg kg-1 aflatoxins, ACH50 contents decreased in 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 groups after 21 d of aflatoxin treatment. No significant changes were observed in immunological parameters between the control positive and control groups throughout the experimental periods. Conclusion: Oral exposure to aflatoxin (0.5 mg kg-1≤ could adversely affect immunological parameters of common carp.

  7. Socioeconomic Characteristics Influencing Level of Awareness of Aflatoxin Contamination of Feeds among Livestock Farmers in Meru District of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Ayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins occurrence in feeds challenges human and animal health. Farmers’ awareness status of these toxins has an effect on their level of exposure. The study assessed the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of farmers on their awareness of aflatoxin contamination of feeds. Data were collected from 258 households and analysed by SPSS program for descriptive statistics and association between socioeconomic characteristics and awareness of aflatoxin contamination of feeds. Over seventy percent of the farmers had never heard about aflatoxins. Education level, specialization, and period of keeping animals had significant influence on aflatoxin awareness. Hearing about aflatoxins was six times higher among farmers who studied life or social sciences than those without specialization and those who studied other fields. Awareness that aflatoxins may occur in feeds was twice higher among farmers with higher education than those with lower education. Perception that aflatoxins in feeds are detoxifiable was threefold higher among young people (with ≤10-year period of keeping animals than among older ones. Awareness of aflatoxins was particularly low among farmers with low education and those without exposure to life or social sciences and vice versa. Sensitization is recommended to raise farmers’ awareness on aflatoxin contamination of feeds and incorporating aflatoxin knowledge in school curricula.

  8. Innovative technologies to manage aflatoxins in foods and feeds and the profitability of application - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Wiredu, Alexander Nimo; Nagle, Marcus; Müller, Joachim; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2017-06-01

    Aflatoxins are mainly produced by certain strains of Aspergillus flavus , which are found in diverse agricultural crops. In many lower-income countries, aflatoxins pose serious public health issues since the occurrence of these toxins can be considerably common and even extreme. Aflatoxins can negatively affect health of livestock and poultry due to contaminated feeds. Additionally, they significantly limit the development of international trade as a result of strict regulation in high-value markets. Due to their high stability, aflatoxins are not only a problem during cropping, but also during storage, transport, processing, and handling steps. Consequently, innovative evidence-based technologies are urgently required to minimize aflatoxin exposure. Thus far, biological control has been developed as the most innovative potential technology of controlling aflatoxin contamination in crops, which uses competitive exclusion of toxigenic strains by non-toxigenic ones. This technology is commercially applied in groundnuts maize, cottonseed, and pistachios during pre-harvest stages. Some other effective technologies such as irradiation, ozone fumigation, chemical and biological control agents, and improved packaging materials can also minimize post-harvest aflatoxins contamination in agricultural products. However, integrated adoption of these pre- and post-harvest technologies is still required for sustainable solutions to reduce aflatoxins contamination, which enhances food security, alleviates malnutrition, and strengthens economic sustainability.

  9. Aspergillus section Flavi community structure in Zambia influences aflatoxin contamination of maize and groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapulula, Paul W; Akello, Juliet; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Cotty, Peter J

    2017-11-16

    Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil. However, relationships between Aspergillus populations on crops and those resident in non-cultivated soils have not been explored. Because characterization of similar fungal populations outside of Zambia have resulted in strategies to prevent aflatoxins, the current study sought to improve understanding of fungal communities in cultivated and non-cultivated soils and in crops. Crops (n=412) and soils from cultivated (n=160) and non-cultivated land (n=60) were assayed for Aspergillus section Flavi from 2012 to 2016. The L-strain morphotype of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were dominant on maize and groundnut (60% and 42% of Aspergillus section Flavi, respectively). Incidences of A. flavus L-morphotype were negatively correlated with aflatoxin in groundnut (log y=2.4990935-0.09966x, R 2 =0.79, P=0.001) but not in maize. Incidences of A. parasiticus partially explained groundnut aflatoxin concentrations in all agroecologies and maize aflatoxin in agroecology III (log y=0.1956034+0.510379x, R 2 =0.57, Pagroecologies across Zambia gives support for modifying fungal community structure to reduce the aflatoxin-producing potential. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  11. Prevalance of aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnut in Ghana: Population structure, distribution, and toxigenicity of the causal agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnut is perennial in Ghana with substantial health and economic burden on the population. The present study examined for the first time the prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in maize and groundnut in major producing regions across three agroecological zo...

  12. A review on aflatoxin contamination and its implications in the developing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Hell, K.; Adjovi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins contamination in some agricultural food commodities seriously impact human and animal health and reduce the commercial value of crops. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that contaminate agricultural commodities pre- or postharvest. Africa is one...... of the continents where environmental, agricultural and storage conditions of food commodities are conducive of Aspergillus fungi infection and aflatoxin biosynthesis. This paper reviews the commodity-wise aetiology and contamination process of aflatoxins and evaluates the potential risk of exposure from common...... African foods. Possible ways of reducing risk for fungal infection and aflatoxin development that are relevant to the African context. The presented database would be useful as benchmark information for development and prioritization of future research. There is need for more investigations on food...

  13. The rate of Aflatoxin contamination of bread losses in Lorestan provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nader Azadbakht

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Azadbakht N1, Khosravinegad K2, Tarrahi MJ3 1. MSc in plant pathology, Khorramabad, Iran 2. BSc in livestock sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 3. Instrustor, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences , Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Aflatoxins belong to a group of toxins called mycotoxins that infection with them can cause complications in humans such as immunity weakness, lung syndrome, liver cancer, esophagus cancer and hemagglutination, and are inhibitor of RNA and protein, as well as cause numorous complications in genital, respiratory and the digestive systems and because of their poisoning and carcinogenic and tumorigenic properties, cause numorous complications in livestock. This research was carried out to determine the rate of Aflatoxine contamination of bread losses in Lorestan province and its comparison with standard levels reported by WHO and FAO. Materials and methods: This study was done by field and laboratory method on 180 samples of losses dried bread in 2009 with randomized distribution in Lorestan provine and detection of samples contamination to aflatoxin was done by HPLC floresence apparatus. Data was analyzed by SPSS software (α=5%. Results: The median rate of types of aflatoxin: B1,B2,G1 and G2 total types of aflatoxin in bread losses (infected, semi-infected and safe in Lorestan were 22.5304,2.4369,0.1923,0.1022 and 25.2636 (µg/kg. Average of minimum and maximum infection to aflatoxin with all types of aflatoxin belonged to Khorramabad (42.9403 and 47.7153 µg/kg and Borujerd (1.8611 and 1.9833 respectively. Average rate of aflatoxin type B1 in infected, semi-infected and safe bread are 64.0536, 1.9167, 0.5629 (µg/kg and average rate of all types of aflatoxin in infected, and safe breads were: 72.0257,1.9990 and 05753 (µg/kg. Also rate of aflatoxin B1 in 29 out of 180 samples are more than standard level and total rate of different types of aflatoxin in 18 samples were

  14. Dip-strip method for monitoring environmental contamination of aflatoxin in food and feed: use of a portable aflatoxin detection kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhar, R B

    1993-10-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed have gained global significance due to its deleterious effect on human and animal health and its importance in the international trade. The potential of aflatoxin as a carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, and immunosuppressive agent is well documented. The problem of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed has led to the enactment of various legislation. However, meaningful strategies for implementation of this legislation is limited by nonavailability of simple, cost-effective method for screening and detection of aflatoxin under field conditions. Keeping in mind the analytical constraints in developing countries, a simple-to-operate, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective portable aflatoxin detection kit has been developed. The important components of the kit include a hand-held UV lamp (365 nm, 4 W output), a solvent blender (12,000 rpm) for toxin extraction, and adsorbent-coated dip-strips (polyester film) for detecting and quantifying aflatoxin. Analysis of variance indicates that there were no significant differences between various batches of dip-strips (p > 0.05). The minimum detection limit for aflatoxin B1 was 10 ppb per spot. The kit may find wide application as a research tool in public health laboratories, environmental monitoring agencies, and in the poultry industry.

  15. SVM-based feature extraction and classification of aflatoxin contaminated corn using fluorescence hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used in the Genetic Algorithms (GA) process to select and classify a subset of hyperspectral image bands. The method was applied to fluorescence hyperspectral data for the detection of aflatoxin contamination in Aspergillus flavus infected single corn kernels. In the...

  16. Period of susceptibility of almonds to aflatoxin contamination during development in the orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonds can be contaminated by aflatoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Infection by Aspergillus species can be facilitated by insect damage to the kernel during hull split, which occurs 4 to 6 weeks before harvest. Within this period of time, it is unknown which kernel ...

  17. Scaling-Up the Impact of Aflatoxin Research in Africa. The Role of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Stepman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At the interface between agriculture and nutrition, the aflatoxin contamination of food and feed touches on agriculture, health, and trade. For more than three decades now, the problem of aflatoxin has been researched in Africa. The interest of development cooperation for aflatoxin and the support to aflatoxin mitigation projects has its ups and downs. The academic world and the development world still seem to operate in different spheres and a collaboration is still challenging due to the complexity of the contamination sources at pre-harvest and post-harvest levels. There is a growing call by research funders and development actors for the impact of solutions at a scale. The solutions to mitigate aflatoxin contamination require new ways of working together. A more prominent role is to be played by social scientists. The role of social scientists in scaling-up the impact of aflatoxin research in Africa and the proposed mitigation solutions is to ensure that awareness, advantage, affordability, and access are systematically assessed. Aflatoxin-reduced staple foods and feed would be an agricultural result with a considerable health and food safety impact.

  18. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félicité M. Tchouanguep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%, cow raw milk (15.9%, breast milk (4.8%, urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%, and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%; HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  19. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure.

  20. Development of narrow-band fluorescence index for the detection of aflatoxin contaminated corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Ononye, Ambrose; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus when the fungus invades developing corn kernels. Because of its potent toxicity, the levels of aflatoxin are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food, and feed intended for interstate commerce. Currently, aflatoxin detection and quantification methods are based on analytical tests. These tests require the destruction of samples, can be costly and time consuming, and often rely on less than desirable sampling techniques. Thus, the ability to detect aflatoxin in a rapid, non-invasive way is crucial to the corn industry in particular. This paper described how narrow-band fluorescence indices were developed for aflatoxin contamination detection based on single corn kernel samples. The indices were based on two bands extracted from full wavelength fluorescence hyperspectral imagery. The two band results were later applied to two large sample experiments with 25 g and 1 kg of corn per sample. The detection accuracies were 85% and 95% when 100 ppb threshold was used. Since the data acquisition period is significantly lower for several image bands than for full wavelength hyperspectral data, this study would be helpful in the development of real-time detection instrumentation for the corn industry.

  1. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  2. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize, M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize, M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060. The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB1 (M0 exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB1 and AFM1 compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05, significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  3. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-12-22

    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB₁ (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB₁ and AFM₁ compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks ( p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  4. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw and pasteurized milk produced in Sanandaj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafakheri, Sh.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the levels of aflatoxin M1 in raw and pasteurized milk samples during different seasons by Enzyme- Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay in Sanandaj, Iran. In 257 (94.49% out of 272 milk samples the presence of aflatoxin M1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.007 and 115.930 ng/l. AFM1 level in 12 (4.4% of positive samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by Iran and European Union countries. Statistical evaluations showed that the differences between raw and pasteurized samples were not significant (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between spring and summer but the differences between other seasons were statistically significant. Winter samples with 22.35 ng/l and summer samples with 5.14 ng/l had the highest and lowest concentration, respectively (p<0.05. Since contamination of milk with aflatoxin is a potential risk for human health, milk and milk products should be controlled periodically for Aflatoxin contamination.

  5. Contamination levels of aflatoxin M1 in bulk raw milk of Chaloos and Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Barami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk as a direct result of the ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 by cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the contamination rate of raw milk whit aflatoxin M1 in Chaloos and Ramsar raw milk collection centers. Two hundred bulk raw milk samples were collected during winter (January and February and summer (June and July seasons. The milk samples were analyzed by ELISA method for the presence of AFM1. During the winter, AFM1 was detected in 100% and 59/79% of the bulk raw milk samples in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively; however, during summer 83/52% and 50/1 of the samples was found as positive in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively. Furthermore, 45% of Ramsar and 30% of Chaloos bulk milk samples showed higher contamination level of AFM1 than maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by National Standard as well as European Union. Although, the difference between the contamination rate in samples obtained during summer and winter seasons was not statistically significantly, (p

  6. Histopathological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio fed aflatoxin-contaminated diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shahafve

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aflatoxin-contaminated diet on histopathological alterations of the gill, liver, kidney and intestine tissues in common carp. Fish were randomly distributed into 15 tanks, i.e. in five experimental groups; (I control fed with normal diet without solvent and aflatoxin, (II positive control received feed with only solvent, and (III-V fed on diets containing 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 of aflatoxin, respectively. After 21-days, 12 fish per treatment were randomly caught, anesthetized and euthanized. Then, histological sections of the tissues were prepared. The main aflatoxicosis symptoms in the gills were fusion and disorganisation of the secondary gill lamellae, shortening of the secondary lamellae, inflammation of mucous membranes, and exfoliation of the gill epithelium. Liver of the infected fish indicated cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, cellular hypertrophy, formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm, and necrosis of liver parenchyma. Expansion of Bowman’s space, necrosis of urinary tract, exfoliation and degeneration of the urinary tract epithelium, expansion of the urinary lumen and dilation of the urinary space were observed symptoms in the kidney. Changes in the intestine of the aflatoxin-treated fish were; expansion of goblet cells, necrosis of mucous layers, exfoliation of the mucous epithelium, and bleeding in the intestinal wall. The results indicates that feeding common carp with diets contaminated with aflatoxin, even in low concentrations (≤ 1.4 mg kg-1 feed can cause histopathological damages and disturb their physiological balance.

  7. Adaptation and mitigation options to manage aflatoxin contamination in food with a climate change perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wambui, J. M.; Karuri, E. G.; Ojiambo, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of climate change remains vital for food safety and public health. Of particular importance is the influence of climatic conditions on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of their toxins. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual impact of climate change....... We used a systematic literature review of review and research articles, with limited searching but systematic screening to explore available qualitative and quantitative data. Projections from the data, showed that on average, a 58.9% increase of aflatoxin contamination in the Central and Western...... parts and a decrease of 44.6% in the Eastern and Southern parts is expected but with several possible scenarios. This makes the impact of climate change on aflatoxin contamination in Kenya complex. To protect the public and environment from the negative impact, a regulatory framework that allows...

  8. Aflatoxins and fumonisins contamination of home-made food (weanimix) from cereal-legume blends for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi, J; Mitchell, N J; Asare, G A; Dotse, E; Kwaa, F; Phillips, T D; Ankrah, N-A

    2014-09-01

    Weanimix is an important food for children in Ghana. Mothers are trained to prepare homemade weanimix from beans, groundnuts and maize for their infants. Groundnuts and maize are prone to aflatoxin contamination while fumonisin contaminates maize. Aflatoxin, is produced by the Asperguillus fungi while fumonisin, is produced by Fusarium fungi. These mycotoxins occur in tropical areas worldwide due to favorable climate for their growth. The objective of the study was to determine the levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin in homemade weanimix in the Ejura-Sekyedumase district in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Thirty six homemade weanimix samples (50g each) were collected from households. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were measured using a fluorometric procedure described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC official method 993.31, V1 series 4). Aflatoxin and fumonisin were detected in all 36 samples, range 7.9-500ppb. Fumonisin levels range: 0.74-11.0ppm). Thirty (83.3%) of the thirty six samples were over the action limit of 20ppb for aflatoxin with an overall mean of 145.2 ppb whiles 58.3% of the samples had fumonisins above the action limit of 4 ppm with an overall mean of 4.7 ppm. There were significant aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of homemade weanimix. Children fed on this nutritional food were being exposed to unacceptable levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin. Therefore there is a critical need to educate mothers on the dangers of mycotoxin exposure and to develop strategies to eliminate exposure of children fed homemade weanimix to aflatoxin and fumonisin.

  9. Effect of boiling, frying, and baking on recovery of aflatoxin from naturally contaminated corn grits or cornmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, L; Trucksess, M W

    1981-05-01

    Corn grits naturally contaminated with aflatoxins were used for making boiled grits, and portions of the boiled grits were used for making pan-fried grits; cornmeal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins was used for making corn muffins. Procedures and recipes were derived from cookbook and market package recommendations. From analyses of the products for aflatoxins before and after preparation of the table-ready products, it was determined that 72 +/- 9% (n = 15) of the aflatoxin found in the original grits could be recovered after the grits were boiled. The recovery of aflatoxin B1 after the grits were fried was either 66 +/- 10% (n = 6) or 47 +/- 8% (n = 9), depending on whether 3 cups of water or 4 cups of water per cup of grits, respectively, were used for preparing the boiled grits before frying. Similarly, it was determined that 87 +/- 4% (n = 9) of the aflatoxin B1 found in the original cornmeal could be recovered from the baked muffins. No detectable aflatoxin B2 a was present in the extracts from any of the table-ready products.

  10. Hepatoprotective Role of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum in Meat Type Chicken Fed Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Muhammad, Naila Chand, Sarzamin Khan*, Asad Sultan, Mohammad Mushtaq and Rafiullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle was added in aflatoxin B1 contaminated poultry feed to investigate and compare its hepatoprotective effects with a commercial toxin binder. Two hundred and forty, day-old broilers were randomly allocated into four major groups A, B, C and D. Group A was kept as control, having aflatoxin free feed, while group B was fed aflatoxin contaminated feed, group C was raised on aflatoxin contaminated feed with toxin binder “Mycoad” @ 3g/kg of feed, while group D was provided aflatoxin contaminated feed along with milk thistle @10g/kg of feed. Aflatoxin B1 was present at the level of 80 µg/kg feed during the first week and 520 µg/kg feed in the remaining experimental period. Serum total protein was significantly (P<0.05 higher in group D, followed by group A, C and B. Serum enzymes including, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were significantly (P<0.05 lower in group D, followed by C, A and B, which are indicative of hepatoprotective role of milk thistle. Body weight gain and feed intake was decreased by aflatoxin contaminated feed (group B in comparison with group A and group D. Milk thistle supplementation improved body weight gain and feed intake and was similar to toxin binder treated birds. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly (P<0.05 higher (poor in group B and were the same in all other groups. Present study demonstrated that milk thistle can potentially be used as mycotoxin binder and to minimize the adverse effects of toxin contaminated feed in broilers production.

  11. Mycological analysis and aflatoxin B 1 contaminant estimation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study explores the fungal contamination of important herbal drug raw materials (HDRM), which are widely used in the preparation of many herbal drugs. Understanding of the microbial contamination status of HDRM is one of the important steps to ensure the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs.

  12. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical

  13. Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, G; Ostuni, M; Calonico, C; Rossi, S; Capei, R; Lo Nostro, A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2).

  14. Mitigation of aflatoxin contamination in maize kernels is related to the metabolic alternation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental factors have been shown to be linked to exacerbated infection of maize kernels by Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Kernel resistance to aflatoxin contamination is associated with kernel water content and relative humidity during in vitro assays examining aflat...

  15. Contamination profile of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk supply chain of Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Jawaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen found in the milk when lactating animals consume feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. In the present study, the contamination of AFM1 was evaluated in the milk supply chain of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. For the broader profiling of targeted toxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for the determination of AFM1 in both branded and non-branded milk samples. The results showed that 96.43% of samples (81 out of 84 were contaminated with AFM1 in the range of 0.01–0.76 μg/L. The average contamination level was 0.38 μg/L. The determined values of AFM1 in the collected milk samples were above the standard limit of the European Commission while 70% of the samples exceeded levels established by United States regulations. According to these results, the estimated daily intake of AFM1 for adults was determined as 3.1 ng/kg of body weight per day.

  16. Fungal contamination and aflatoxins content of dry raisins fruits in Sanaa City, Republic of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghalibi, S.M.; Battah, M.G.; Al-Zubairy, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to study mycoflora and aflatoxin content of dry raisins in Yemen Republic. Thirty six raisins samples collected from different shops and markets in Sana'a city were analyzed mycologically for the presence of fungi. A total of forty eight species belonging to 20 genera were recovered from the analyzed raisins samples on three cultural media. Aspergillus was the most dominant genera on the three types of media, of which A. niger was the most common species. A. flavus was isolated in moderate, low and rare frequency on 1% and 20% sucrose Czapek's and Sabouraud dextrose agar media. Pencillium was isolated in moderate frequency on 1 and 20% sucrose Czapek's agar media, but in low frequency on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium. The raisin samples were analyzed for the presence of total aflatoxin using ELISA technique. The results revealed that 3 out of 7 samples of raisins analyzed were contaminated with total aflatoxin at levels raged from 2678.66 to 11556.88 ppt (ng Kg-1). (author)

  17. Isolation and identification of fungi from a meju contaminated with aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yu Jung; Chung, Soo Hyun; Lee, Hyo Ku; Chun, Hyang Sook; Hong, Seung Beom

    2012-12-01

    A home-made meju sample contaminated naturally with aflatoxins was used for isolation of fungal strains. Overall, 230 fungal isolates were obtained on dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) and dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar plates. Morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of a partial beta-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA were used for the identification of the isolates. The fungal isolates were divided into 7 genera: Aspergillus, Eurotium, Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Mucor, Lichtheimia, and Curvularia. Three strains from 56 isolates of the A. oryzae/flavus group were found to be aflatoxigenic A. flavus, by the presence of the aflatoxin biosynthesis genes and confirmatory aflatoxin production by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The predominant isolate from DRBC plates was A. oryzae (42 strains, 36.2%), whereas that from DG18 was A. candidus (61 strains, 53.5%). Out of the 230 isolates, the most common species was A. candidus (34.3%) followed by A. oryzae (22.2%), Mucor circinelloides (13.0%), P. polonicum (10.0%), A. tubingensis (4.8%), and L. ramosa (3.5%). A. flavus and E. chevalieri presented occurrence levels of 2.2%, respectively. The remaining isolates of A. unguis, P. oxalicum, Eupenicillium cinnamopurpureum, A. acidus, E. rubrum, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus, and C. inaequalis had lower occurrence levels of < 2.0%.

  18. A review on aflatoxin contamination and its implications in the developing world: a sub-Saharan African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnonlonfin, G J B; Hell, K; Adjovi, Y; Fandohan, P; Koudande, D O; Mensah, G A; Sanni, A; Brimer, L

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins contamination in some agricultural food commodities seriously impact human and animal health and reduce the commercial value of crops. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that contaminate agricultural commodities pre- or postharvest. Africa is one of the continents where environmental, agricultural and storage conditions of food commodities are conducive of Aspergillus fungi infection and aflatoxin biosynthesis. This paper reviews the commodity-wise aetiology and contamination process of aflatoxins and evaluates the potential risk of exposure from common African foods. Possible ways of reducing risk for fungal infection and aflatoxin development that are relevant to the African context. The presented database would be useful as benchmark information for development and prioritization of future research. There is need for more investigations on food quality and safety by making available advanced advanced equipments and analytical methods as well as surveillance and awareness creation in the region.

  19. detection of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk for Syrian market using ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the hydroxylated metabolite of a biotransformation process of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) which is produced in food and feed by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. paraciticus. AFM1 has been shown to be excreted in milk following exposure to AFB1 contaminated feed. Since milk is consumed in large quantities by human populations, particularly among infants and young children the occurrence of AFM1 in this product is constitutes and health hazard since it is carcinogenic and has been listed as Class 2B carcinogen. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk samples from the Syrian market was investigated by the competitive ELISA technique. A total of 126 samples consisting of fresh cow milk (74), locally processed pasteurized cow milk (10), sheep milk (23), goat milk (11) and powdered milk and infant formula (8) showed that the incidence of contamination, i.e. above the detection limit of the ELISA assay, was 80%. 18% of the tested samples contained higher than the acceptable level of AFM1 adopted in Syria, which is 200 ng/kg; whereas, 17% and 54% of all tested samples contained AFM1 higher than the acceptable level in the US, (500 ng/kg) and in the European Union (50 ng/kg), respectively. The range of contamination with AFM1 was higher in cow milk samples than in sheep milk and goat milk samples. 30% of the analyzed cow fresh milk samples contained levels of AFM1 exceeding that of the European Communities (Codex Alimentarius) recommended limits (50 ng/l); whereas, 13% of the analyzed sheep milk samples (23) exceeded the latter limit, and only 9% of the analyzed goat milk samples exceeded same limit. Pasteurized milk, which is collected from various locations, showed particularly high level of contamination, with 80% and 50% of tested samples showing levels of contamination higher than the European and US acceptable levels, respectively. Powdered milk and infant formula, which are imported and only dispensed locally, were free of contamination. The above result

  20. Biochemical attributes of Hens Fed Irradiated Aflatoxin B1 Contamination Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.E.H.; Abdul Azeem, A.M.; Abdalla, E.A.; Ahmed, N.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of feeding diet artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B 1(AFB1) at level 0.2 mg kg"-"1 AFB1, and gamma (γ) irradiated (10, 20, and 30 kGy) on reducing the deleterious effects of laying hens Golden Montaza (GM) biochemical attributes. These include liver weight, AFB1 liver residue content, AST, ALT, ALP, creatinine, total proteins, albumin and globulin, as well as, the levels of T3, T4, TSH, FSH, LH, progesterone hormone and hepatic histology. At 38 week of age, groups of laying hens were fed on a normal non-contaminated diet (G1), aflatoxin-contaminated diet (G2), and irradiated contaminated diets (G3, G4 and G5) for 3 weeks, as a duration period. When the hens reached 42 weeks of age, they were fed on normal diet for 3 weeks, as a recovery period. Results showed that AST, ALT, ALP, and creatinine significantly increased in AFs treated groups in comparison with those received AFs-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Layers fed contaminated diet of AFB1 suffered from a lower level of total proteins, albumin and globulin. Meanwhile, the results showed that the level of serum T4 was lower, but conversely the levels of FSH were higher for those fed on diets contaminated with AFB1 compared to those fed irradiated contaminated diets with AFB1, no significant change occurred in serum blood T3, TSH, LH and progesterone in all tested groups. Treated contaminated diets with γ-irradiation at 30 kGy reduced the incidence and severity of hepatic histology. The 30 kGy radiation dose was more effective, in this respect, in all biochemical indices. For recovery period diets non-contaminated with AFB1, the results showed improvements in all biochemical indices and recovered the hepatic structure with increasing the recovery period especially for those fed on irradiated diets through the experimental duration. In conclusion, feeding of diets contaminated with AFB1 altered the blood profiles, and damaged the liver

  1. Redox systems are a potential link between drought stress susceptibility and the exacerbation of aflatoxin contamination in crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought stress aggravates Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination in oilseed crops such as peanut and maize. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in plants in response to abiotic and biotic stresses as a means of defense. In the host plant-A. flavus interaction under drought c...

  2. Histological Lesions, Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and T Cell Subsets Changes of Spleen in Chicken Fed Aflatoxin-contaminated Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Peng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 on pathological lesions, apoptosis, cell cycle phases and T lymphocyte subsets of spleen, and to provide an experimental basis for understanding the mechanism of aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups with six replicates per group and 30 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of control, 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The histopathological spleen lesions from the contaminated corn groups was characterized as congestion of red pulp, increased necrotic cells and vacuoles in the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath. The contaminated corn intake significantly increased relative weight of spleen, percentages of apoptotic splenocytes, induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes, increased the percentages of CD3+CD8+ T cells and decreased the ratios of CD3+CD4+ to CD3+CD8+. The results suggest that AFB-induced immunosuppression maybe closely related to the lesions of spleen.

  3. Assessment of aflatoxin contamination of maize, peanut meal and poultry feed mixtures from different agroecological zones in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-04-29

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P poultry in Cameroon.

  4. The Knowledge, Attitude & Practice of Women Referred to Health Centers of Yazd on Moldy Food Contaminated with Aflatoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites produced by certain fungi in/on foods and feeds. The damage they do to DNA can be mutagenic, and also carcinogenic with liver cancer. The aim of this study was to The effect of education on knowledge, attitude & practice of women referred to health centers of Yazd on moldy food contaminated with aflatoxin. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross sectional-descriptive study that was done in 2014. One hundred and fifty - two women were selected among women who were referred to health centers of Yazd. The Sampling was conducted in multi stages. The data was collected by a researcher-developed questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire have been confirmed by content validity, face validity and equivalent reliability. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS20. Results: 107 (70% of the patients studied to the poor knowledge of aflatoxins and Only 6.2% of them were relatively good knowledge. The performance levels were a 38 (25%, good performance, 108 (1/71%, moderate performance and 6 (9/3% had poor performance. 0.25%, 74.3% and 0.7% Participant to the hazards food contaminated with aflatoxins were moldy and positive, average and negative attitude, respectively. Conclusions: Based on our findings, Poor knowledge of participants to aflatoxin, and the average of the attitudes and performance of most of the participants. Is necessary to provide strategies to increase public awareness in order to increase the level of attitude and function and reduce exposure to aflatoxin.

  5. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Ahmed Korani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP—expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer, an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  6. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korani, Walid Ahmed; Chu, Ye; Holbrook, Corley; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2017-07-12

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer), an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  7. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Raphaël Kana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1% was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%. Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%, broiler (93.3% and layer feeds (83.0% were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon.

  8. Application of commercial RIA kit in investigating milk contamination with M1 aflatoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Measured were samples of commercially sold milk produced by two Czech dairies and samples of unprocessed cow's milk from three farms. The determination of aflatoxin M 1 in liquid milk was carried out with a RIA-test-aflatoxin M 1 B 1 kit. The range of the calibration curve of the kit is 0.06 to 2.0 μg/l. In samples of commercially sold milk a higher share of aflatoxin M 1 free samples was found (93%) and 7% samples contained 0.050 to 0.1 μg aflatoxin/l. The dilution effect was manifest in commercially sold milk. On the other hand in 7% samples of raw milk aflatoxin concentration exceeded the limits set by hygiene inspection bodies for consumption by infants. The detected aflatoxin concentrations are compared with data from abroad. (E.S.). 2 tabs., 13 refs

  9. Pre-harvest calcium sulfate application improves postharvest quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of cut rose flowers at the postharvest stage is affected by pre-harvest conditions. The present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in regulation of rose flower senescence. Roses (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars 'Cool Water' and 'Pretty Blinda', were treated with either ...

  10. Variations between post- and pre-harvest seasons in stunting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in pre-harvest compared to post-harvest season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children age was predictor of child dietary diversity ...

  11. Pre-harvest calcium sulfate application improves postharvest quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Pre-harvest ... The length of vase life is one of the most important factors for .... flower and fresh weight of whole flowering stalk including stem, leaves and ... The electrical conductivity of the solution was measured ... This Ca effect may be due to its stabilizing effect on cell mem-.

  12. Effect of aflatoxin-B1 doses simulating natural food contamination reproductive steroid hormones in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal, M.H.; EL-Banna, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic metabolite synthesized by aspergillus flavus. The mycotoxins was found to be endemic contaminant in underdeveloped countries and in egypt was documented as a pollutant of a wide variety of products for human and animal nutrition. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of AFB1 has been investigated extensively, while very scare information is available about other possible endocrine effects of the toxin which might precedes carcinogenic effects. This study was performed to investigate the effects of in vivo administration of AFB1 via intraperitoneal injection (I.P) in adult male rats to show its effects on rat reproductive function and to illucidate the effects of acute, chronic and sub toxic (endimomemitic) AFB1 doses on male rat steroid function. Intraperitoneal injection (I.P) of AFB 1 doses in adult male rats revealed that AFB1 caused significant decrease in serum testosterone and cortisol (early), while a significant increase was observed in progesterone (P 4 ) and Estrodial (E 2 ) (late)

  13. Detection of Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus in Post-harvest Contaminated Vigna ungulculata Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with a specific objective to study postharvest spoilage of Lobhiya (Vigna unguiculata seeds contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. Infected seeds were collected and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA media, at 25±2 °C. Aspergillus flavus isolates were primarily characterized by its morphological and microscopic characteristics. Collected fungal isolates were also screened for their afaltoxigenic nature on preliminary basis and at molecular level. For preliminary screening, 5 mm disc of fungal culture was soaked with few drops of liquid ammonia. Color change from yellow pigment to plum-red with different intensities showed the mycotoxic nature of the fungus. DNA from fungal isolates was isolated and amplified using PCR with aflatoxin specific primers, apa-2, ver-1 and omt-1. Amplicons of 1032 bp, 895 bp and 596 bp were obtained in most of the isolates regardless of primer set used which was useful to differentiate between mycotoxic and nontoxic isolates of A. flavus. The isolation of aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus during post-harvest period of lobhiya seeds raise a serious concern over the quality of seeds and a threat to heath of consumers. It was concluded that Aspergillus flavus is responsible for postharvest spolilage of Lobhiya (Vigna unguiculata.

  14. Evaluation of aflatoxins and Aspergillus sp. contamination in raw peanuts and peanut-based products along the supply chain in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlia, Mahror; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Selamat, Jinap; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Radu, Son; Chin, Cheow Keat

    2018-06-18

    The peanut supply chain in Malaysia is dominated by three main stakeholders (importers, manufacturers, retailers). The present study, aimed to determine the levels and critical points of aflatoxins and fungal contamination in peanuts along the supply chain. Specifically, two types of raw peanuts and six types of peanut-based products were collected (N = 178). Samples were analysed for aflatoxins by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results revealed that the aflatoxins contamination was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in raw peanuts and peanut-based products from the retailers. However, there was no significant different (P≥0.05) in fungal contamination for both types of peanuts except for the total fungal count in raw peanuts from the retailers. Furthermore, raw peanut kernels from the retailers were the most contaminated ones ranged from contamination (0.3 - 3.6 log CFU/g) was relatively higher in raw peanuts compared to that of peanut-based products (0.6 - 2.7 log CFU/g). In conclusion, the manufacturers and retailers were the critical points for aflatoxins contamination in peanuts. However, fungal contamination was more critical in the raw peanuts compared to peanut-based products. The study was limited by a minimal number of samples from the importer. Therefore, further investigations on a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm the findings in this present study.

  15. Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Branà

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most harmful mycotoxin that occurs as natural contaminant of agricultural commodities, particularly maize. Practical solutions for detoxification of contaminated staples and reduction of agricultural wastes are scarce. We investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus Plerotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom to degrade AFB1 both in vitro and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrate similar to that routinely used in mushroom farms. In malt extract broth, degradation of AFB1 (500 ng/mL by nine isolates of P. eryngii ranged from 81 to 99% after 10 days growth, and reached 100% for all isolates after 30 days. The growth of P. eryngii on solid medium (malt extract-agar, MEA was significantly reduced at concentrations of AFB1 500 ng/mL or higher. However, the addition of 5% wheat straw to the culture medium increased the tolerance of P. eryngii to AFB1 and no inhibition was observed at a AFB1 content of 500 ng/mL; degradation of AFB1 in MEA supplemented with 5% wheat straw and 2.5% (w/v maize flour was 71-94% after 30 days of growth. Further, AFB1 degradation by P. eryngii strain ITEM 13681 was tested in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation. The mushroom growth medium contained 25% (w/w of maize spiked with AFB1 to the final content of 128 μg/kg. Pleurotus eryngii degraded up to 86% of the AFB1 in 28 days, with no significant reduction of either biological efficiency or mushroom yield. Neither the biomass produced on the mushroom substrate nor the mature basidiocarps contained detectable levels of AFB1 or its metabolite aflatoxicol, thus ruling out the translocation of these toxins through the fungal thallus. These findings make a contribution towards the development of a novel technology for remediation of AFB1- contaminated corn through the exploitation of the degradative capability of P. eryngii and its bioconversion into high nutritional value material intended for feed production.

  16. Détermination de la contamination par l'Aflatoxine B1 de la pâte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de déterminer par CCM si les niveaux de contamination naturelle par l'AFB1 des pâtes d'arachide vendues sur les marchés d'Abidjan étaient supérieurs aux limites maximales de résidus autorisées. ... l'Hépatite C, le risque de développer un cancer du foie est extrêmement élevé lorsqu'ils sont exposés aux Aflatoxines.

  17. Genotoxicity testing of extracts from aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal, following chemical decontamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Polman, Th.H.G.; Neal, G.E.; Verma, A.; Guyomard, C.; Tulliez, J.; Gautier, J.P.; Coker, R.D.; Nagler, M.J.; Heidenreich, E.; Delort-Laval, J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important concerns in the decontamination of aflatoxin-containing feed commodities is the safety of the products for food-producing animals and for human consumption of products derived from these animals. A new method, based on the use of florisil and C18 solid phase extraction

  18. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, Marco; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumpertis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in

  19. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 contamination of animal feeds and milk from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was initiated to assess the knowledge and practices of urban dairy farmers and feed millers about aflatoxin in feeds and milk, determine the prevalence and quantify the levels of AFB1 and AFM1 in animal feeds and milk respectively from urban environs in Kenya. Methods: This work was carried out in ...

  20. Expression Analysis of Stress-Related Genes in Kernels of Different Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines with Different Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tingbo; Zhou, Boru; Luo, Meng; Abbas, Hamed K.; Kemerait, Robert; Lee, Robert Dewey; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the expression patterns of 94 stress-related genes in seven maize inbred lines with differential expressions of resistance to aflatoxin contamination. The objective was to develop a set of genes/probes associated with resistance to A. flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination. Ninety four genes were selected from previous gene expression studies with abiotic stress to test the differential expression in maize lines, A638, B73, Lo964, Lo1016, Mo17, Mp313E, and Tex6, using real-time RT-PCR. Based on the relative-expression levels, the seven maize inbred lines clustered into two different groups. One group included B73, Lo1016 and Mo17, which had higher levels of aflatoxin contamination and lower levels of overall gene expression. The second group which included Tex6, Mp313E, Lo964 and A638 had lower levels of aflatoxin contamination and higher overall levels of gene expressions. A total of six “cross-talking” genes were identified between the two groups, which are highly expressed in the resistant Group 2 but down-regulated in susceptible Group 1. When further subjected to drought stress, Tex6 expressed more genes up-regulated and B73 has fewer genes up-regulated. The transcript patterns and interactions measured in these experiments indicate that the resistant mechanism is an interconnected process involving many gene products and transcriptional regulators, as well as various host interactions with environmental factors, particularly, drought and high temperature. PMID:22069724

  1. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in feed from Puglia and Basilicata regions (Italy): 5 years monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, V; Clausi, M T; Franchino, C; De Pace, R

    2016-11-01

    During a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014, n = 919 samples of feed and raw materials were analyzed for aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) contamination using accredited ELISA screening methods. Only 0.76 % of these samples were non-compliant with maximum levels set by the European Union Regulation 32/2002. Non-compliant samples were mainly from the province of Bari (n = 3 samples, mean AFB 1 value 7.03 μg/kg), although the highest AFB 1 levels were found in two samples from the provinces of Foggia and Brindisi, at 32.6 ± 3.6 μg/kg and 31.0 ± 4.0 μg/kg, respectively. Mean AFB 1 levels in samples contaminated but compliant with the limits ranged from 1.4 to 2.2 μg/kg. Considering the great importance of climate conditions in mycotoxins production, during crops production and during the critical phases of materials storage and/or transport, to better understand the variability in contamination levels, the analytical results were reviewed in term of temperature and relative environmental humidity in the sampling areas. Correlations between aflatoxin B 1 levels in feed and these climate factors might explain seasonal and annual variations in contamination levels. The data from the present study provide useful suggestions for the organization of targeted monitoring plans and the protection of consumers, as well as for improvement in the quality standards of zootechnological activities and feed industry.

  2. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  3. A preliminary survey of mycological and fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination of African traditional herbal medicines sold in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerere, D R; Stockenström, S; Thembo, K M; Rheeder, J P; Shephard, G S; Vismer, H F

    2008-11-01

    Traditional medicine is an important aspect of healthcare delivery in South Africa and is used by at least 70% of the country's population. The trade in medicinal plants is a multi-million rand business which is a major driver for rural economies. However, the conditions in which these plant products are transported and stored make them prone to fungal contamination which results in economic losses to the traders and pose potential health hazards to consumers. Of major concern is the possible presence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins. This study assessed fungal and mycotoxin contamination of African herbal products sold in Cape Town and Tshwane (formerly Pretoria) in South Africa. Of the 16 samples analyzed, 15 were contaminated with at least one of these three fungal genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. Fumonisin B(1) was present in 13 of the samples in quantities ranging from 14 to 139 microg/kg (detection limit 5 microg/kg). None of the samples was contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi or aflatoxin (detection limit 0.5 microg/kg). This is the first study to report on mycological and mycotoxin contamination of commercial traditional African medicines in South Africa. There is a need to expand the study to other urban centers to gain enough insight into this problem and then to intervene with measures that can protect the public from potential harm.

  4. Effect of antioxidants treatments to control hazard of radiation exposure and food aflatoxin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, N.A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective role of diadezin and/or lycopene (prolonged administration) against biochemical and histopathological changes in male rats exposed to gamma radiation and / or aflatoxin B1.Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to fractionated 8 Gy γradiations (4 x 2 Gy, every other day). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)exposed rats were received 10μg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days. Daidzein delivered to rats via stomach tube at a concentration of 63 mg/kg body weight/day. Whereas lycopene was ingested at a concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight/day. Animals were sacrificed on the 1 st day post the last irradiation dose. The results obtained showed that irradiation and/or AFB1 induced significant change in blood enzymes (alanine aminotransferase; ALT and aspartate aminotransferase; AST) activity as well as in the level of serum cholesterol. triglycerides, phospholipids, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total proteins and albumin. These changes were accompanied with a significant alteration in the antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase; SOD, catalase; CAT activity and glutathione concentration; GSH) and a significant increase in the peroxidation processes (TBARS). In addition , the histological investigation displayed remarkable changes in liver photomicrographs compared to the sections of liver in control rats.

  5. Role of relative humidity in controlling rate of aflatoxin contamination in certain medicinal herbs under prolonged storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbazza, Z.E.; Mahmoud, M.I.; Roushdy, H.M.; Farrag, H.A.; Tablawy, S.Y.E.I.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of water activity on growth of aspergillus flavus test strain and aflatoxin production was studied in sabouraoud's yeast broth regulated with glycerol. Aflatoxin production increased with increasing the a w . The minimal a w was 0.92 for fungal growth and aflatoxins production. Growth of A.flavus test strain and aflatoxin production at 26+- I o and two relative humidities of 85% and 92.9% along four months incubation period on caraway, khlla, shih balady and wild chamomile samples were investigated. At 92.9% Rh, growth of A.flavus on caraway and khella samples was noticed after 20 days of incubation and increased with time incubation and increased with time. Aflatoxin production was detected after 30 days and decreased with prolonged incubation. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were not observed on shih balady and wild chamomile samples at 92.9% Rh, and on the for studied herbs at 85%, Rh. 3 tabs

  6. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musundire

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS and coupled gas chromatography (GC-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1 at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  7. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  8. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  9. Schiff base: A high affinity chemical agent to decrease the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk contaminated artificially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Delaš

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study were conducted the effect of pH (5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 and concentration of new synthesized 3-/2-aminophenylimino-(p-toluoyl/-4-hydroxy-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (Schiff base on decrease the concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in raw milk contaminated with known concentration of this toxin. Experiments were carried out at temperature of 4 °C during 35 days. At pH 5.5 Schiff base concentration of 0.1 µmol/L was lessening the concentration of AFM1 after 35 days by 55 %. However, at pH 6.5 the most effective concentration for lessening of AFM1 was 0.5 µmol/L. Schiff base was not effective at pH value of 7 or higher. The ability of Schiff base to act as antimycotoxigenic agent provides new perspective for possibly using this compound to control AFM1 contamination in milk and to extent shelf lives of this food. Detection of toxicity of investigated Schiff base was performed by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator to determine their sensitivity to this chemical agent.

  10. Efficacy of chemically characterized Foeniculum vulgare Mill seed essential oil in protection of raw tobacco leaves during storage against fungal and aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, A; Dwivedy, A K; Pandey, A K; Kumar, R R; Regmi, P; Dubey, N K

    2015-10-01

    To report fungal and aflatoxin contamination in stored tobacco leaves and the potential of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant-based preservative in protection of tobacco during storage. Mycological analysis of tobacco samples was done by surface sterilization and serial dilution tests. The Aspergillus flavus isolates were screened for their toxigenicity. Both in vivo and in vitro tests were done to evaluate antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of chemically characterized EO. The mycoflora analysis revealed 108 fungal colonies belonging to five genera and nine species. All A. flavus isolates were found aflatoxigenic during screening. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of EO identified 19 components (99·66%); estragole being the major component (47·49%). The EO showed broad fungitoxicity at 1·25 μl ml(-1) and 100% inhibition to AFB1 production as well as ergosterol synthesis at 1·0 μl ml(-1) concentration. EO showed 100% protection of stored tobacco samples from aflatoxin B1 contamination. The fennel EO can thus be formulated as a plant-based preservative for food items. The present investigation comprises the first report on antiaflatoxin efficacy of fennel oil and its potency in the protection of tobacco leaves from fungal and aflatoxin contamination during storage. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Frizzarin; Thiago Pereira Motta; Thamires Martins; Livia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, preg...

  12. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Radiation Processed Aflatoxin-Contaminated Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.; Abdalla, E.A.; Abd El-Azeem, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination of foods and live-stock feeds is an ongoing problem. In this research, the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails was examined by the radiation processing of their contaminated-diets, as a physical detoxifying method. Diets contaminated with two different levels of AFB 1 (2 or 5 mg kg -1 diet) were subjected to 10, 20, or 30 kGy and fed to growing Japanese quails for 5 weeks. The physiological and biochemical responses were evaluated for irradiation ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2 and 5 mg AFB 1 kg -1 diet. A total of 270 seven-day-old Japanese quail chicks were assigned to 2 factorial arrangements of nine treatments (level of toxin and radiation dose) each consisted of three replicates with 10 quails per pen. The significant adverse effect of AFB 1 on the food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, mortality rate and internal organ weights, from the first week onwards, were determined. Radiation processing reduced concentration of AFB 1 in all experimental diets and significantly reduced the deleterious effects of AFB 1 on food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, and the relative weights of most observed organs, as a function of radiation dose. Muscles, liver, kidneys and heart tissues were analyzed for aflatoxin (AF) residues. The residual level of AFB 1 was significantly higher in liver than in kidneys, muscles or heart. The level in the observed organs and the muscles was lower in those received irradiated diet at high 30 kGy. Plasma samples were tested for glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine. They were significantly increased in AF treated groups in comparison with those received AF-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Birds ate contaminated diet with both level of toxin were suffered from the lower level of total proteins, albumin, globulin, phosphorus and

  13. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. van der Fels-Klerx

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1 in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1, and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk.

  14. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, PESTICIDE RESIDUE AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COLD PRESSED PUMPKIN SEED (Cucurbita pepo L. OILS FROM CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMA NUR ARSLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical characteristics, pesticide residues and aflatoxin contaminations of cold pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L. oils cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey, were investigated. Lab-scale screw press machine was used to produce cold pressed pumpkin seed oils and the oil contents were found between 42.8%−47.4% for naked seeds. The physicochemical characteristic (refractive index, viscosity, color value, triglyceride profile analysis, peroxide value, iodine value, free fatty acid, saponification number, unsaponified matter, specific extinction values at 232 and 270 nm of cold pressed oils were determined by using different analytical techniques. The results showed that there was a non-significant difference between cold pressed pumpkin seed oils from different regions, in terms of physicochemical characteristics. The contents of pesticide residue and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 contamination were determined by using validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The chlorpyrifos pesticide residue was detected under the limit value declared by official authorities for the quality assessment of edible oils. Aflatoxins weren’t detected in any of studied pumpkin seed oils. Therefore, in food industry the positive effect of screw-pressing application could be useful for preservation of bioactive compounds during edible oil production and also enhancing of their functional properties.

  15. AFLATOXIN LEVELS IN LOCALLy GROWN MAIZE FROM MAKUENI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-07

    Jul 7, 2008 ... information from government officials on good grain drying practices to prevent aflatoxin contamination. also, most of the maize (80%) was stored in plastic bags, which retain moisture and may promote aflatoxin contamination. Sisal bags, which minimise moisture and reduce aflatoxin, were used by only.

  16. A survey of pre-harvest ear rot diseases of maize and associated mycotoxins in south and central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukanga, Mweshi; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Laing, Mark D

    2010-07-15

    Maize ear rots reduce grain yield and quality with implication on food security and health. Some of the pathogenic fungi produce mycotoxins in maize grain posing a health risk to humans and livestock. Unfortunately, the levels of ear rot and mycotoxin infection in grain produced by subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan countries are not known. A survey was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of the ear rot problem and levels of mycotoxins in maize grain. A total of 114 farmsteads were randomly sampled from 11 districts in Lusaka and southern provinces in Zambia during 2006. Ten randomly picked cobs were examined per farmstead and the ear rot disease incidence and severity were estimated on site. This was followed by the standard seed health testing procedures for fungal isolation in the laboratory. Results indicated that the dominant ear rots were caused by Fusarium and Stenocarpella. Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides ranged from 2 to 21%, whereas that of Stenocarpella maydis reached 37% on ear rot diseased maize grain. In addition, 2-7% F. verticillioides, and 3-18% Aspergillus flavus, respectively, were recovered from seemingly healthy maize grain. The mean rank of fungal species, from highest to lowest, was F. verticillioides, S. maydis, A. flavus, Fusarium graminearum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Botrydiplodia spp., and Cladosporium spp. The direct competitive ELISA-test indicated higher levels of fumonisins than aflatoxins in pre-harvest maize grain samples. The concentration of fumonisins from six districts, and aflatoxin from two districts, was 10-fold higher than 2 ppm and far higher than 2 ppb maximum daily intake recommended by the FAO/WHO. The study therefore suggested that subsistence farmers and consumers in this part of Zambia, and maybe also in similar environments in sub-Saharan Africa, might be exposed to dangerous levels of mycotoxins due to the high levels of ear rot infections in maize grain. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Aflatoxin B1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... consumption of aflatoxin contaminated food and feed. (Reddy and ..... intervals by artificial inoculation of A. parasiticus on rice grains. ... additive for culture media for rapid identification of aflatoxin producing. Aspergillus strains ...

  18. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer's health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested for their aflatoxigenic ability. Almond samples were tested for aflatoxin contamination by HPLC-fluorescence. In total, 352 fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Portuguese almonds: 127 were identified as A. flavus (of which 28% produced aflatoxins B), 196 as typical or atypical A. parasiticus (all producing aflatoxins B and G), and 29 as A. tamarii (all nonaflatoxigenic). Aflatoxins were detected in only one sample at 4.97 μg/kg. PMID:22666128

  19. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer’s health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested for their aflatoxigenic ability. Almond samples were tested for aflatoxin contamination by HPLC-fluorescence. In total, 352 fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Portuguese almonds: 127 were identified as A. flavus (of which 28% produced aflatoxins B, 196 as typical or atypical A. parasiticus (all producing aflatoxins B and G, and 29 as A. tamarii (all nonaflatoxigenic. Aflatoxins were detected in only one sample at 4.97 μg/kg.

  20. Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Friedman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed.

  1. Assessment of aflatoxin exposure of laboratory worker during food contamination analyses. Assessment of the procedures adopted by an A.R.P.A.L. laboratory (Liguria Region Environmental Protection Agency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A; Bassoli, Viviana; Cioè, A; Anselmo, Silvia; Ferro, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins derived from foodstuffs colonized by fungal species of the genus Aspergillus; they are common food contaminants with immunosuppressive, mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. Aflatoxins are heat-resistant and are thus easily transmitted along the food chain. They are hepatotoxic and have the potential to induce hepatocellular carcinoma. Agri-food industry workers are thus at risk of ingestion as well as transmucosal absorption or inhalation of toxins released during product preparation or processing. To measure the levels of airborne mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, in a laboratory analysing imported foodstuffs for mycotoxin contamination. The protocol used to analyse a batch of shelled peanuts from Vietnam, especially the grinding phase, which is held to be at the highest risk ofgenerating airborne toxins, was assessed at the A.R.PA.L. laboratory (Liguria Region Environmental Protection Agency) of Genoa, Italy, which participates in a European aflatoxin monitoring project. Wet grinding was performed to avoid production of large amounts of dust. Comparison of airborne concentrations before and after grinding with legal thresholds disclosed that the analytical procedures involved negligible aflatoxin levels for operators (environmental burden 0.11 pg/ m3). Given the toxicity of aflatoxins, worker protection measures should be consistently adopted and enforced. Threshold limit values for working environments should be introduced besides the existing ones for public health.

  2. ASPERGILLUS FLA VUS INFECTION AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUTS AT VARIOUS STAGES OF THE DELIVERY CHAINS IN CIANJUR REGENCY, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey to obtain information on pre- and postharvest handling of peanuts at farmer, collector, wholesaler and retailer levels, including Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin BI contamination of peanuts collected in Cianjur regency, West Java, was conducted during the harvest period of the wet season of February 2004. The moisture contents and physical qualities of the peanuts were also determined. Thirteen and 40 dry pod samples were collected randomly from 12 farmers and 23 co llectors, respectively. Seven dry kernel samples were also collected from collectors. Five and 45 dry kernel samples were collected randomly from 2 wholesalers and 45 retailers in traditional markets, resp ectively. Thus, a total of 110 dry peanut pod and kernel samples were collected. The results of interviews with farmers, collectors, wholes alers and retailers, and also the moisture contents and physical qualities of the peanuts arc described in this article. The percentages of samples infected by A. flavus were highest at the wholesaler as well as at retailer levels (100%, respectively, followed by those sampled at the collectors (85.0 and 85.7%, respectively, and farmers (84.6%. The mean percentage of infected kernels in infect ed samples of peanuts collected from retailers was the highest (87.6%, followed by those collected from wholesalers (72.4%, collectors in the form of kernels (23.3% and pods (17.7%, and farmers (15.2%. The range of aflatoxin BI contents in peanut samples collected from farmers (dry pods, collectors (dry pods, wholesalers (dry pods and kernels and retailers (dry kernels were < 3.6 -114.2, < 3.6 -2999.5 and < 3,6 - 34.1, < 3.6 - 6065.9, and < 3.6 - 6073.0 ppb, respectively. The highest aflatoxin B, contents at the wholesaler and retailer levels were 6065.9 ppb (in one sample and 6073.0 ppb (in one sample, respectively. The percentage of samples contaminated with more than 15 ppb of aflatoxin BI was the highest in peanuts collected from

  3. Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Delaš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(ptolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 μg/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 μmol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 μmol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 μmol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

  4. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  5. Aflatoxin B1 and total fumonisin contamination and their producing fungi in fresh and stored sorghum grain in East Hararghe, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Wondimeneh; Ayalew, Amare; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla

    2016-12-01

    Natural contamination of sorghum grains by aflatoxin B 1 and total fumonisin and their producing toxigenic fungi has been studied. A total of 90 sorghum grain samples were collected from small-scale farmers' threshing floors and 5-6 months later from underground pits during 2013 harvest from three districts of East Hararghe, Ethiopia. Mycotoxin analysis was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The limits of detection were in the range 0.01-0.03 μg kg -1 . The results revealed that all sorghum grain samples were contaminated with both Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Aflatoxin B 1 was detected at levels ranging from fumonisin levels varied between 907 and 2041 µg kg -1 grain across the samples. Lowest total fumonisin was recorded in freshly harvested sorghum grain samples. Sorghum is a main staple cereal in the studied districts and its consumption per day per person is high. Daily intake of low doses of mycotoxin-contaminated food stuff over a period of time could lead to chronic mycotoxicosis.

  6. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 contamination in Pakistani wheat varieties by physical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Lutfullah, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the study of effect of physical treatments, such as washing and heating, on the AFB1 contaminated wheat varieties, it was observed that the reduction of AFB1 was directly proportional to washing time in all the varieties. The concentration of AFB1 was reduced more by heating than washing. The level of AFB1 in dried wheat decreased to more than 50% and 90% by heating in oven at 150 and 200 degree C, respectively. However, the reduction of AFB1 in wet wheat in which water (10%) was intentionally added was higher on heating at 100 degree C for 30 min than that in the dried wheat. (author)

  7. A study of the 2013 Western European issue of aflatoxin contamination of maize from the Balkan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, de T.C.; Egmond, van H.P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Herbes, R.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Samson, R.A.; Slate, A.B.; Spiegel, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    In March 2013 a large shipment of maize, intended for feed was subject of an alert in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Commission (EC) because the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) level in the load exceeded the EC regulated maximum level of 20 µg/kg. Since the shipment had passed import

  8. Use of sunlight to partially detoxify groundnut (peanut) cake flour and casein contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, T; Murthy, V S

    1981-03-01

    Sunlight destroyed 83 and 50% of the toxin added to casein and groundnut cake flour, respectively. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that both casein and groundnut protein bind aflatoxin but the toxin bound to casein appeared more photo-labile than that bound to groundnut protein.

  9. The pathogenesis-related maize seed (PRms) gene plays a role in resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic plant pathogen that colonizes and produces the toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites, aflatoxins, in oil-rich crops such as maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.). Pathogenesis-related proteins serve as a first line of defense against invading pathogens by confer...

  10. Efficacy of chemically characterized Piper betle L. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhanu; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-08-15

    The study investigates fungal contamination in some dry fruits, spices and areca nut and evaluation of the essential oil (EO) of Piper betle var. magahi for its antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant properties. A total of 1651 fungal isolates belonging to 14 species were isolated from the samples and Aspergillus was recorded as the dominant genus with 6 species. Eleven aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) producing strains of A. flavus were recorded from the samples. Eugenol (63.39%) and acetyleugenol (14.05%) were the major components of 32 constituents identified from the Piper betle EO through GC and GC-MS analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. betle EO was found 0.7 microl/ml against A.flavus. The EO reduced AFB(1) production in a dose dependent manner and completely inhibited at 0.6 microl/ml. This is the first report on efficacy of P. betle EO as aflatoxin suppressor. EO also exhibited strong antioxidant potential as its IC(50) value (3.6 microg/ml) was close to that of ascorbic acid (3.2 microg/ml) and lower than that of the synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytouene (BHT) (7.4 microg/ml) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (4.5 microg/ml). P. betle EO thus exhibited special merits possessing antifungal, aflatoxin suppressive and antioxidant characters which are desirable for an ideal preservative. Hence, its application as a plant based food additive in protection and enhancement of shelf life of edible commodities during storage and processing is strongly recommended in view of the toxicological implications by synthetic preservatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 63901 - Pre-Harvest Food Safety for Cattle; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... practices. 2. Creating an increased focus on pre-harvest food safety and the identification and development... service is available at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/News_&_Events/Email_Subscription/ . Options range from... / Friday, October 14, 2011 / Notices#0;#0; [[Page 63901

  12. Effects of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatment on post-harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... quality and bioactive compounds of three different Japanese plums under storage conditions. Materials and Methods: The effects of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA) on weight loss, color characteristics (L*, C* and h°), firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), total phenolics (TP) and total ...

  13. Pre-harvest fruit drop, bunch weight and fruit quality of 'Rothana' and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... Pre-harvest fruit drop is a serious problem of some date palm cultivars. During 2010 ... important subsistence crop in most of the hot arid regions. (Botes and .... diluted 10-fold with distilled water) and allowed to stand for 5 min before the ... made by F-test and the least significant differences (LSD) at P = 5%.

  14. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  15. Survey of Candidate Genes for Maize Resistance to Infection by Aspergillus flavus and/or Aflatoxin Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Leigh K.; Tang, Juliet D.; Tomashek, John; Alves Oliveira, Dafne; Ogunola, Oluwaseun F.; Smith, J. Spencer; Williams, W. Paul

    2018-01-01

    Many projects have identified candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection and growth in maize using genetic mapping, genomics, transcriptomics and/or proteomics studies. However, only a small percentage of these candidates have been validated in field conditions, and their relative contribution to resistance, if any, is unknown. This study presents a consolidated list of candidate genes identified in past studies or in-house studies, with descriptive data including genetic location, gene annotation, known protein identifiers, and associated pathway information, if known. A candidate gene pipeline to test the phenotypic effect of any maize DNA sequence on aflatoxin accumulation resistance was used in this study to determine any measurable effect on polymorphisms within or linked to the candidate gene sequences, and the results are published here. PMID:29385107

  16. Survey of Candidate Genes for Maize Resistance to Infection by Aspergillus flavus and/or Aflatoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh K. Hawkins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many projects have identified candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection and growth in maize using genetic mapping, genomics, transcriptomics and/or proteomics studies. However, only a small percentage of these candidates have been validated in field conditions, and their relative contribution to resistance, if any, is unknown. This study presents a consolidated list of candidate genes identified in past studies or in-house studies, with descriptive data including genetic location, gene annotation, known protein identifiers, and associated pathway information, if known. A candidate gene pipeline to test the phenotypic effect of any maize DNA sequence on aflatoxin accumulation resistance was used in this study to determine any measurable effect on polymorphisms within or linked to the candidate gene sequences, and the results are published here.

  17. Association between Urinary Aflatoxin (AFM1) and Dietary Intake among Adults in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Husna Sulaiman; Rosita Jamaluddin; Mohd Redzwan Sabran

    2018-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a biomarker of aflatoxin exposure, with the dietary intake among adults in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia. Certain food products ...

  18. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer’s health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested ...

  19. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.; Akoa, A.

    2009-01-01

    . The levels of aflatoxin ranged between 5.2 and 14.5 ppb. The distribution of aflatoxin in positive samples depended on 8 parameters including pH, moisture content, storage duration, types of chips, level of contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, processing practices and storage facilities. From analysis......), followed by A. nomius (58 isolates in 15 samples), whereas A. parasiticus was rarest. A direct competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method was implemented to quantify the content in aflatoxins. Eighteen of the samples contained some aflatoxins at detectable levels whereas 54 did not...... of variance results, only pH (p levels were...

  20. Aflatoxin levels in maize and maize products during the 2004 food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin levels in maize and maize products during the 2004 food poisoning ... district were received at the National Public Health Laboratory Services (NPHLS). On analysis, they were found to be highly contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

  1. Potential of lactic acid fermentation in reducing aflatoxin B1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Although maize is known to be highly susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, and a ... on reduction of aflatoxin B1 in Tanzania maize-based gruel (togwa) by four monocultures ...

  2. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Andrade Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess their environmental impact. Nevertheless, the official Brazilian emissions inventory does not presently include the contribution from pre-harvest sugarcane burning. In this context, this work aims to determine sugarcane straw burning emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm in the laboratory. Excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons, and PM2.5 were measured, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average estimated values for emission factors (g kg−1 of burned dry biomass were 1,303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.6 ± 1.6 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and therefore improve the results of air quality models.

  3. Aflatoxin B1-contaminated diet disrupts the blood-brain barrier and affects fish behavior: Involvement of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Zeppenfeld, Carla Cristina; Descovi, Sharine N; Moreira, Karen Luise S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2018-04-04

    It is known that the cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are associated with behavioral dysfunction. However, the effects of a diet contaminated with AFB 1 on the behavior of silver catfish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an AFB 1 -contaminated diet (1177 ppb kg feed -1 ) impaired silver catfish behavior, as well as whether disruption of the BBB and alteration of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes are involved. Fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 presented a behavioral impairment linked with hyperlocomotion on days 14 and 21 compared with the control group (basal diet). Neurotransmitter levels were also affected on days 14 and 21. The permeability of the BBB to Evans blue dye increased in the intoxicated animals compared with the control group, which suggests that the BBB was disrupted. Moreover, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain synaptosomes was increased in fish fed a diet contaminated with AFB 1 , while activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na + , K + -ATPase) was decreased. Based on this evidence, the present study shows that silver catfish fed a diet containing AFB 1 exhibit behavioral impairments related to hyperlocomotion. This diet caused a disruption of the BBB and brain lesions, which may contribute to the behavioral changes. Also, the alterations in the activities of AChE and Na + , K + -ATPase in brain synaptosomes may directly contribute to this behavior, since they may promote synapse dysfunction. In addition, the hyperlocomotion may be considered an important macroscopic marker indicating possible AFB 1 intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which frequently contaminate poultry feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased bird performance and reduced egg production....

  5. The Use of Radiation to Suppress the Impact of Aflatoxin B 1 Contaminated Diets on the Productive Performance and Immunological Response of Laying Hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.H.; AbdulAzeem, A.M.; Abdalla, E.A.; Ahmed, N.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    Detoxification of aflatoxin (AF) from contaminated food and feed stuffs remains a major problem and there is a great demand for an effective decontamination technology. A recent approach to the problem is irradiation of food to destroy AFB 1 .In this study, the reduction of aflatoxicosis in Golden Montazah (GM ) local laying hens that were fed contaminated diets, was treated using gamma (γ) irradiation. This research included two phases: The first one (experimental duration) in which laying hens were fed (3 week s) on artificially contaminated diets with 0.2 mg AFB 1 kg −1 and subjected to 0, 10, 20 and 30 k Gy gamma irradiation. The second phase (recovery duration), the hens were fed non-contaminated diets for another 3 weeks to study the withdrawal time required for bringing back the flock to its normal production. After six week s of feeding, the hens were slaughtered. The significant adverse effect of AFB 1 on the feed intake, egg mass, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg production, egg quality (shell weight, egg width, shell thickness and egg shape index), internal egg quality (albumin height, yolk height, yolk weight, albumin index, yolk index and haugh unit), relative organ weights (kidney, spleen and heart), and residues of AFB1 in eggs, breast muscle and organs (kidney, spleen and heart) were evaluated and hematological parameters ( Hemoglobin, total count of red and white blood cells as well as some differential counts of leucocytes (lymphocyte and heterophil percentages) and the immune response to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) were also evaluated. The result ts showed that γ-radiation significantly (P<0.05) reduced the deleterious effects of AFB 1 on feed intake, egg mass and FCR ratio and the reduction was proportional with irradiation dose. Asignificant increase was observed in the mean egg production of laying hens fed on diets contaminated with AFB 1 and irradiated with γ-rays at 10, 20 and 30 k Gy, compared

  6. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1-feed into aflatoxin M1-milk in dairy cows treated with natural sources of aflatoxin and bentonite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumantri, I.; Murti, T.W.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.

    2012-01-01

    High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian

  7. Support vector machines classification of fluorescence hyperspectral image for detection of aflatoxin in corn kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination is a real concern for all classes of livestock. They are produced by certain mold fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin in food is hazardous for humans and animals. In this work, we propose a non-invasive system for detecting aflatoxin and classifyi...

  8. Prevalence of aflatoxin in feeds and cow milk from five counties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may contribute to ill health effects in both humans and animals and, therefore, there is need for better understanding of the impacts of aflatoxins in the feed–dairy value chain and appropriate interventions to control aflatoxin contamination in animal feeds. Keywords: aflatoxins, feeds, dairy cattle, milk, Kenya, dairy value ...

  9. Inhibition of the Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Contamination on Pistachio Nut by Fengycin and Surfactin-Producing Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Farzaneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the treatment of pistachio nuts by Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1, a promising isolate to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, caused to reduce the growth of Aspergillus flavus R5 and AFB1 content on pistachio nuts. Fluorescence probes revealed that the cell free supernatant fluid from UTBSP1 affects spore viability considerably. Using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method, 10 fractions were separated and collected from methanol extract of cell free supernatant fluid. Two fractions showed inhibition zones against A. flavus. Mass spectrometric analysis of the both antifungal fractions revealed a high similarity between these anti-A. flavus compounds and cyclic-lipopeptides of surfactin, and fengycin families. Coproduction of surfactin and fengycin acted in a synergistic manner and consequently caused a strong antifungal activity against A. flavus R5. There was a positive significant correlation between the reduction of A. flavus growth and the reduction of AFB1 contamination on pistachio nut by UTBSP1. The results indicated that fengycin and surfactin-producing B. subtilis UTBSP1 can potentially reduce A. flavus growth and AFB1 content in pistachio nut.

  10. Differentiation between Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus from Pure Culture and Aflatoxin-Contaminated Grapes Using PCR-RFLP Analysis of aflR-aflJ Intergenic Spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khoury, A.; Atoui, A.; Lebrihi, A.; Rizk, T.; Lteif, R.; Kallassy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) represent the most important single mycotoxin-related food safety problem in developed and developing countries as they have adverse effects on human and animal health. They are produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Both species have different aflatoxinogenic profile. In order to distinguish between A. flavus and A. parasiticus, gene-specific primers were designed to target the intergenic spacer (IGS) for the AF biosynthesis genes, aflJ and aflR. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis using BglII to look for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Our result showed that both species displayed different PCR-based RFLP (PCR-RFLP) profile. PCR products from A. flavus cleaved into 3 fragments of 362, 210, and 102 bp. However, there is only one restriction site for this enzyme in the sequence of A. parasiticus that produced only 2 fragments of 363 and 311 bp. The method was successfully applied to contaminated grapes samples. This approach of differentiating these 2 species would be simpler, less costly, and quicker than conventional sequencing of PCR products and/or morphological identification. (author)

  11. The effect of nano-selenium particles and sodium selenite on humoral immunity indices of quails using foods contaminated with aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Talebi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of inhibition of aflatoxin B1 by various sources of selenium and to compare the effect of nano selenium and sodium selenite on humoral immunity of quails. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design (CRD using six treatments and four replicates of ten quail chicks per replicate. Two hundred forty quails were divided in six groups vis. control: without aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group2: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group3: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm nano selenium. Group4: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm sodium selenite. Group5: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm nano selenium. Group6: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm sodium selenite. To evaluate the humoral immunity response 0.2­ml of sheep red blood cell (SRBC solution was injected into breast muscle of quails at day 35 and blood sampling was conducted after a week. Newcastle vaccine was injected at day 28 and the antibody titer was determined after two weeks. The highest level of titer of antibody against the SRBC solution was related to the group which received 0.06 ppm nano selenium (p

  12. Reprogramming of Seed Metabolism Facilitates Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caixiang; Ding, Feng; Hao, Fuhua; Yu, Men; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhengxi; Guo, Hongxiang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a worldwide problem for wheat production and transgene antisense-thioredoxin-s (anti-trx-s) facilitates outstanding resistance. To understand the molecular details of PHS resistance, we analyzed the metabonomes of the transgenic and wild-type (control) wheat seeds at various stages using NMR and GC-FID/MS. 60 metabolites were dominant in these seeds including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, choline metabolites and fatty acids. At day-20 post-anthesis, only malate level in transgenic wheat differed significantly from that in controls whereas at day-30 post-anthesis, levels of amino acids and sucrose were significantly different between these two groups. For mature seeds, most metabolites in glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline metabolism, biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides and fatty acids had significantly lower levels in transgenic seeds than in controls. After 30-days post-harvest ripening, most metabolites in transgenic seeds had higher levels than in controls including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, choline metabolites and NAD+. These indicated that anti-trx-s lowered overall metabolic activities of mature seeds eliminating pre-harvest sprouting potential. Post-harvest ripening reactivated the metabolic activities of transgenic seeds to restore their germination vigor. These findings provided essential molecular phenomic information for PHS resistance of anti-trx-s and a credible strategy for future developing PHS resistant crops.

  13. Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin (Silybum marianum on Growth Rate, Carcass Variables and Liver Morphology of Broiler Chickens Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Makki O

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of Silybum marianum seeds (SMS on performance, carcass variables, and liver morphology of the broiler chickens contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. A total of 216 broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used. Birds were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups, with four replicates and six birds in each replicate. Chickens were reared on litter from 1 to 35 days of age. Treatments were (AFB1 in three levels (Zero, 250 and 500 ppb and SMS in three levels (Zero, 0.5 and 1.0 percent using factorial experiment based on completely randomized design. Feed intake at the end of the three weeks did not significantly change in comparison with the control group. With the increase in the level of (AFB1 in the diet, feed intake and body weight gain were decreased compared with the control group in week 4. Feed conversion ratio was not influenced by the treatments. In diets containing AFB1, breast muscle, carcass ratio, abdominal fat and bursal gland weight were significantly decreased (P1 alone did not affect thigh, back, neck, wings, heart, legs and spleen weights. Increasing the level of SMS in the diet alone or in combination with AFB1 resulted in significant changes in the weights of carcass and internal organs. Liver of birds fed diets containing AFB1 showed abnormal signs including enlargement, yellowish, friable and rounded shape. Liver of other treatments did not show any abnormal signs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that silymarin might be used in chickens to prevent the effects of AFB1 in contaminated feed.

  14. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B1 is generally found in feed and food stuff, such as cereal and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereals since it has been proven to be at least partly resistant to food processing methods. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the possibility of contamination of aflatoxin B1 in food ...

  15. A review of agricultural aflatoxin management strategies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxin contamination of food and animal feeds is, therefore, a major food security, food safety, trade, human and domestic animal health concern. Researchers worldwide have suggested various ...

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Aflatoxin Control Methods: Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sectors in U.S. crop industries – growers, elevators, handlers/shellers, processors, distributors, and consumers – are affected by aflatoxin contamination of commodities, and have the potential to control it. Aflatoxin control methods at both preharvest and postharvest levels have been dev...

  17. Studies on the control of fungal contamination and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus link in a cereal grain by the combination treatment of heat and irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odamtten, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional storage of maize in tropical countries such as Ghana results in the rapid development of numerous fungi, including potential mycotoxin producers such as Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), A. ochraceus (ochratoxins, penicillic acid),

  18. Completeness of reporting in abstracts from clinical trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Kate G; Canning, Paisley; Totton, Sarah C; Sargeant, Jan M

    2012-04-01

    Abstracts are the most commonly read part of a journal article, and play an important role as summaries of the articles, and search and screening tools. However, research on abstracts in human biomedicine has shown that abstracts often do not report key methodological features and results. Little research has been done to examine reporting of such features in abstracts from papers detailing pre-harvest food safety trials. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the quality of reporting of key factors in abstracts detailing trials of pre-harvest food safety interventions. A systematic search algorithm was used to identify all in vivo trials of pre-harvest interventions against foodborne pathogens in PubMed and CAB Direct published from 1999 to October 2009. References were screened for relevance, and 150 were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. A checklist based on the CONSORT abstract extension and the REFLECT Statement was used to assess the reporting of methodological features and results. All screening and assessment was performed by two independent reviewers with disagreements resolved by consensus. The systematic search returned 3554 unique citations; 356 were found to be relevant and 150 were randomly selected for inclusion. The abstracts were from 51 different journals, and 13 out of 150 were structured. Of the 124 abstracts that reported whether the trial design was deliberate disease challenge or natural exposure, 113 were deliberate challenge and 11 natural exposure. 103 abstracts detailed studies involving poultry, 20 cattle and 15 swine. Most abstracts reported the production stage of the animals (135/150), a hypothesis or objective (123/150), and results for all treatment groups (136/150). However, few abstracts reported on how animals were grouped in housing (25/150), the location of the study (5/150), the primary outcome (2/126), level of treatment allocation (15/150), sample size (63/150) or whether study units were lost to follow up

  19. Aflatoxin-exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a novel system for the generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani M Gummadidala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle- and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, LaeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio’s silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism.

  20. Real-time, in-situ detection of volatile profiles for the prevention of aflatoxin fungal contamination in pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tiziana C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division; Chang, Allan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division; Zhou, Jenny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division

    2017-10-18

    The objective in this project is to provide a proof of concept will demonstrate the feasibility of a Raman, in-situ warning system for detecting and removing developing fungal hot spots from pistachio stockpiles and transit containers, thus decreasing human health risks and product loss as a result of contamination. The proposed project has the following goals: to calibrate the Raman fingerprinting of biomarkers, standalone and in premixed samples, to build a database with the vibrational profiles distinctive to the signatures of the bouquet emitted by the contaminated pistachios; to test the improvement in the detection of the detectable markers with enhanced Raman on a small probe.

  1. Occurrence of B1 Aflatoxin in diet and M1 Aflatoxin in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Frizzarin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food quality is one of the principles of food safety. Food for dairy cattle may be contaminated by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which produce aflatoxins. The B1 aflatoxin, when ingested by animals, is biotransformed in liver in several other toxic metabolites, including M1 aflatoxin which is excreted in milk. M1 aflatoxin has a carcinogenic effect, which the presence in milk poses a serious risk to public health because milk and dairy products are consumed mainly by children, pregnant women and elderly. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of B1 aflatoxin in feed supplied to dairy cows and the presence of M1 aflatoxin in milk. Samples were collected from complete diet (corn silage and concentrate from a batch of 15 lactating cows from a dairy farm in the Campinas region. Two samples of diets were collected directly into the troughs in intervals of 24 hours at every 15 days, totalizing a period of 45 days. Milk samples of those cows were collected 24 hours after diet collection, directly from sample valves in the glass jars.. B1 and M1 aflatoxins were detected by the technique of High Performance Liquid Chromatography after extraction and purification on immunoaffinity columns. From the 40 samples of diets evaluated, 40% were contaminated with B1 aflatoxin, and the levels found ranged from 1.93 to 43.78μg/Kg. One sample showed result higher than the maximum recommended for grain and animal feed in Brazil (20μg/Kg. From the 75 milk samples analyzed, the presence of M1 aflatoxin was detected in 13.3% with levels ranging from 0.03 to 0.16μg/L, not exceeding the maximum permitted for marketing in the country of 0.5μg/L, however 80% of contaminated samples had values above the maximum permissible levels of 0.05μg/L, value found among countries with abundant milk production... The presence of aflatoxins highlights the importance of monitoring the production, the storage and the importance of handling food and

  2. Détermination de la contamination par l'Aflatoxine B1 de la pâte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first aim of our study was to assess the sensibility of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) for the detection of AFB1 in peanut butter. Then, the analytical method was applied to peanut butter samples collected on 3 markets in Abidjan in order to verify if the contamination by AFB1 was within permissible limits. To this end ...

  3. AFLATOXIN B1 IN CORN: DIRECT VERIFICATION OF CONTAMINATION THROUGH AN AUTOMATIC COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM BASED ON THE FLUORESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vallone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available “Aflaflesh” is a computer based instrument, designed combining a visual data acquisition system with a sophisticated software of acquisition and analysis of images. This system allows you to check on a representative sample (5/10 kg contamination of corn by AFB1, using fluorescence under UV light when the grain is contaminated. To optimize the use of this control equipment were analyzed in two phases, a total of 80 samples comparing the results obtained by chemical analysis (Hplc to those obtained using “Aflaflesh”. Initially the study was set to correlate the number of contaminated grains to the ppb read by the official method, Hplc; the second step was to correlate ppb values to the number of pixel of contaminated surface of the grains read by the “Aflaflesh” instrument. The apparatus was then calibrated through a statistical analysis of the results obtained, to allow a direct reading of the AFB1 concentrations in a short period of time (15 min without the assistance of specialized personnel.

  4. Antigenotoxic effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the damage produced in mice fed with aflatoxin B(1) contaminated corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Santillán, E; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Márquez-Márquez, R; Reyes, A

    2006-12-01

    The potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) was evaluated for reducing the micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNE) rate in mice fed AFB(1) contaminated corn. The study included two groups fed AFB(1) contaminated corn (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg), a control fed uncontaminated corn, another group fed uncontaminated corn and 0.3% of Sc (1 x 10(8) live cells/g), and two groups fed AFB(1) contaminated corn (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) plus 0.3% Sc. Weight and MNNE were determined weekly for six weeks. Subsequently, the same determinations were made for another three-week period, but in mice receiving only a normal diet, without AFB(1) and Sc. Results in the first period revealed the following: control and Sc fed mice had similar constant weight increase, and low MNNE rate; mice fed only AFB(1) showed weight decrease and significant MNNE increase; finally, Sc improved weight gain and reduced MNNE produced by AFB(1). In the second period, results exhibited a tendency similar to that of the previous phase in the control and Sc fed mice; the weight and MNNE values improved in the other groups. We also determined the capacity of Sc for adsorbing and modifying the mycotoxin structure. The mixture was filtered to obtain two phases, and AFB(1) content was measured. Sc revealed a potent adsorbent capacity; however, chromatographic determination suggested no structural modification.

  5. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  6. Evaluation of Maize Germplasm for Resistance to Aflatoxin Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Blanco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination of maize grain threatens human food and animal feed safety. Breeding for reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation is one of the best strategies presently available to lower grain aflatoxin accumulation. Previously identified sources of germplasm with reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation are excessively tall and late maturing. The objective of this research was to screen germplasm and identify potential sources of aflatoxin resistance. KO679Y and CUBA117:S15-101-001-B-B-B-B inbreds were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation alongside resistant and susceptible checks with both performing well. These two lines were also evaluated in various crosses. KO679Y performed especially well in crosses with Mp494 and Mp717, resulting in low ear rot and very low aflatoxin levels, but not well in other crosses. A breeding cross including CUBA117:S15-101-001-B-B-B-B as a parent accumulated low levels of aflatoxin both years it was evaluated. Lines resulting from these crosses are being advanced for further evaluation and improvement. KO679Y and CUBA117:S15-101-001-B-B-B-B may prove useful for breeders seeking germplasm sources for ear rot and mycotoxin reduction, especially KO679Y which matures a week earlier and is approximately 25% shorter than current lines resistant to grain aflatoxin accumulation.

  7. Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential aflatoxin decontaminating agent in pistachio nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahaie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the binding ability of Saccharomayces cerevisiae to aflatoxin in pistachio nuts. The obtained results indicate that S. cerevisiae has an aflatoxin surface binding ability of 40% and 70% (with initial aflatoxin concentrations of 10 and 20 ppb in the exponential phase. Acid treatments increase this ability to approximately 60% and 73% for the two concentrations of aflatoxin, respectively. Heat treatments also enhance surface binding to 55% and 75%, respectively. Binding appears to be a physical phenomenon that saturates within the first 2-3 hours of the process. The obtained results indicate that yeast immobilization for toxin reduction on aflatoxin-contaminated pistachios had no effect on qualitative characteristics, such as color, texture, and peroxide value. Yeast cells, viable or nonviable, are effective for aflatoxin binding, and this property could lead to a promising solution to aflatoxin contamination in high-risk foods.

  8. Aflatoxin variations in maize flour and grains collected from various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, maize remains an important staple food in every household. ... upper limit is 10ppb, indicating good manufacturing practices (GMP) by the millers. ... In summary, the study found aflatoxin contamination in maize grains especially in ...

  9. Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

  10. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M. S.; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W.; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits. PMID:27303407

  11. Investigation of aflatoxin M1 degradation in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 is a highly toxic 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxins B1 and B2. It is one of the most potent hepatocarcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and immunosuppressors. Feed is often contaminated with aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxins with a high possibility of contaminating milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1. Samples of artificially contaminated milk were exposed to the effects of physical conditions (temperature of -18oC and for microwaves in a microwave oven, time (during the period from 1 to 12 months and a combination of the above mentioned conditions. Following this, levels of aflatoxin M1 degradation were established by using the ELISA method. An insignificant decrease in concentration of toxin was observed which indicates that a temperature of -18°C does not significantly influence the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in the artificially contaminated milk. At the same time, treatment of milk with microwaves in a microwave oven showed an insignificant influence on the percentage of aflatoxin M1 absorbance.

  12. Protective Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Serum Biochemistry, Histopathological Changes and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Broilers Fed Moldy Peanut Meal Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308 were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet; C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet; M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal; M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively. The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05 serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05 serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05 malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related.

  13. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd.-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community

  14. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-11-13

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community.

  15. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Redzwan eSabran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global

  16. Genome-wide association study of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in Chinese wheat founder parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS is a major abiotic factor affecting grain weight and quality, and is caused by an early break in seed dormancy. Association mapping (AM is used to detect correlations between phenotypes and genotypes based on linkage disequilibrium (LD in wheat breeding programs. We evaluated seed dormancy in 80 Chinese wheat founder parents in five environments and performed a genome-wide association study using 6,057 markers, including 93 simple sequence repeat (SSR, 1,472 diversity array technology (DArT, and 4,492 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. The general linear model (GLM and the mixed linear model (MLM were used in this study, and two significant markers (tPt-7980 and wPt-6457 were identified. Both markers were located on Chromosome 1B, with wPt-6457 having been identified in a previously reported chromosomal position. The significantly associated loci contain essential information for cloning genes related to resistance to PHS and can be used in wheat breeding programs.

  17. High relative humidity pre-harvest reduces post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Giurcanu, Mihai C; Hochmuth, George J; Speybroeck, Niko; Havelaar, Arie H; Teplitski, Max

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of human illness caused by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella are increasingly linked to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Knowledge on the factors affecting Salmonella proliferation on fresh produce therefore becomes increasingly important to safeguard public health. Previous experiments showed a limited impact of pre-harvest production practices on Salmonella proliferation on tomatoes, but suggested a significant effect of harvest time. We explored the data from two previously published and one unpublished experiment using regression trees, which allowed overcoming the interpretational difficulties of classical statistical models with higher order interactions. We assessed the effect of harvest time by explicitly modeling the climatic conditions at harvest time and by performing confirmatory laboratory experiments. Across all datasets, regression trees confirmed the dominant effect of harvest time on Salmonella proliferation, with humidity-related factors emerging as the most important underlying climatic factors. High relative humidity the week prior to harvest was consistently associated with lower Salmonella proliferation. A controlled lab experiment confirmed that tomatoes containing their native epimicrobiota supported significantly lower Salmonella proliferation when incubated at higher humidity prior to inoculation. The complex interactions between environmental conditions and the native microbiota of the tomato crop remain to be fully understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tolerance and excretion of the mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A by alphitobius diaperinus and hermetia illucens from contaminated substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camenzuli, Louise; Dam, van Ruud; Rijk, de Theo; Andriessen, Rob; Schelt, van Jeroen; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.I.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins,

  19. Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Camenzuli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON, ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required.

  20. Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzuli, Louise; Van Dam, Ruud; de Rijk, Theo; Andriessen, Rob; Van Schelt, Jeroen; Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J. (Ine)

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B1, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P1, aflatoxin Q1, and aflatoxin M1, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and α- and β-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required. PMID:29495278

  1. Pre-harvest Sprouting and Grain Dormancy in Sorghum bicolor: What Have We Learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto L. Benech-Arnold

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining sorghum grains with quality to match the standards for a diversity of end-uses is frequently hampered by the susceptibility to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS displayed by many elite genotypes. For these reasons, obtaining resistance to PHS is considered in sorghum breeding programs, particularly when the crop is expected to approach harvest maturity under rainy or damp conditions prevalence. As in other cereals, the primary cause for sprouting susceptibility is a low dormancy prior to crop harvest; in consequence, most research has focused in understanding the mechanisms through which the duration of dormancy is differentially controlled in genotypes with contrasting sprouting behavior. With this aim two tannin-less, red-grained inbred lines were used as a model system: IS9530 (sprouting resistant and Redland B2 (sprouting susceptible. Redland B2 grains are able to germinate well before reaching physiological maturity (PM while IS9530 ones can start to germinate at 40–45 days after pollination, well after PM. Results show that the anticipated dormancy loss displayed by Redland B2 grains is related reduced embryo sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA and increased levels of GA upon imbibition. In turn, transcriptional data showed that ABA signal transduction is impaired in Redland B2, which appears to have an impact on GA catabolism, thus affecting the overall GA/ABA balance that regulates germination. QTL analyses were conducted to test whether previous candidate genes were located in a dormancy QTL, but also to identify new genes involved in dormancy. These analyses yielded several dormancy QTL and one of them located in chromosome 9 (qGI-9 was consistently detected even across environments. Fine mapping is already in progress to narrow down the number of candidate genes in qGI-9.

  2. Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mokter Hossain

    2018-04-01

    The investigation was carried out at Germplasm Centre (BAU-GPC, Bangladesh Agricultural University, during March to July 2016 in order to investigate the effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. Four different bagging materials viz. brown paper bag, white paper bag, white polythene bag, black polythene bag included for the study and uncovered fruits were used as control treatment. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit bagging treatments showed significant effects on different parameters studied. It was observed that fruit size, fruit weight, vitamin C concentration, and moisture content increased due to fruit bagging. Fruits were gained maximum in size (6.59 cm length, 5.86 cm diameter and weight (164.26 g under white paper bag followed by white polythene bag (131.3g. The skin color of fruits was very attractive in case of white paper bag than that of other treatments. Total soluble solid concentration of the fruit was found maximum (12.33% Brix under brown paper bag while maximum vitamin C concentration (162.14 mg 100 g-1 was recorded under white paper bag. Uncovered fruits showed maximum total sugar, non-reducing sugar, reducing sugar concentrations (10.13%, 6.05%, 4.08%, respectively.The results revealed that fruit bagging in general, improved the growth and quality of guava fruits as compared to control. Among the various fruit covering materials, white paper bag was found to be the best for overall improvement of physical and chemical quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(1.000: 363-371

  3. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 in poultry and fish feed by various chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study various poultry and fish feed samples were initially analyzed for presence of aflatoxin. All the samples were found contaminated with aflatoxin B I only. Contaminated samples were treated with different organic and inorganic chemicals to detoxify aflatoxin B 1 in poultry and fish feed samples. The maximum reduction in the aflatoxin Bl concentration was observed with 0.5% HCI as 14.20 ppb to 2.09 ppb (86.50%) in the poultry and 69.26 ppb to 10.46 ppb (84.89%) in fish feed samples.

  5. Measurement and assessment of aflatoxin B1 and its producing molds in Iranian sausages and burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Maktabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is one of the most well-known hepatocarcinogens in humans. Contamination of raw materials, used in the production of sausages and burgers, with aflatoxin producing molds can lead to increased level of aflatoxin in the final products and can impose hazards to human health. Unfortunately, aflatoxin is resistant to heating and freezing processes, etc. and can remain in these products untile consumption. Methods: During a six-month period, 45 sausage and 53 burger samples from valid brands across the country were randomly purchased from the stores. The samples were analyzed for AFB1 by ELISA technique. Meanwhile, the number of molds was calculated and aflatoxin producing molds were identified by direct and slide culture methods. Results: The findings showed that 2 susage samples (4.9% and 3 burger samples (6.3% were contaminated with >1 ng/g aflatoxin. Moreover, 4 burger samples (8.9% contaminated with mold included aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, mucor, and penicillium while, none of the susage samples showed mold contamination. Conclusion: The Iranian meat products had a relative aflatoxin B1 contamination during the study period, but the contamination rate was low and in allowable range. Standard hygienic preparation and packaging of meat products molds is recommended to reduce fungal contamination, especially aflatoxin-producing molds.

  6. Genealogical Analysis of the North-American Spring Wheat Varieties with Different Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Sergey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of genetic diversity of North American spring wheat varieties differing in resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was carried out. For identification of sources of resistance the genealogical profiles of 148 red-grained and 63 white-grained North-American spring wheat varieties with full pedigrees were calculated and estimates were made of pre-harvest sprouting. The cluster structure of the populations of red-grained and white-grained varieties was estimated. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the average contributions of landraces in the groups of resistant and susceptible varieties. Distribution of the putative sources of resistance in the clusters indicated that varieties having different genetic basis may have different sources of resistance. For red-grained varieties the genetic sources of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting are landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, and Iumillo, or Button, Kenya 9M-1A-3, and Kenya-U, or Red Egyptian and Kenya BF4-3B-10V1. Tracking of pedigrees showed these landraces contributed to the pedigrees, respectively, via Thatcher, Kenya-Farmer, and Kenya-58, which were likely donors of resistance for red-grained varieties. For white-grained varieties the sources of resistance were landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, Ostka Galicyjska, Iumillo, Akakomugi, Turco, Hybrid English, Rough Chaff White and Red King, and putative donors of resistance — Thatcher, RL2265, and Frontana. The genealogical profile of accession RL4137, the most important donor of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in North American spring wheat breeding programmes, contains almost all identified sources of resistance.

  7. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B₁-lysine albumin biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groopman, John D; Egner, Patricia A; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illustrates exposure over the first 1000 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.

  9. Achievements and Prospects in Electrochemical-Based Biosensing Platforms for Aflatoxin M1 Detection in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Gurban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, which are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus growing on plants and products stored under inappropriate conditions, represent the most studied group of mycotoxins. Contamination of human and animal milk with aflatoxin M1, the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1, is an important health risk factor due to its carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Due to the low concentration of this aflatoxin in milk and milk products, the analytical methods used for its quantification have to be highly sensitive, specific and simple. This paper presents an overview of the analytical methods, especially of the electrochemical immunosensors and aptasensors, used for determination of aflatoxin M1.

  10. Presence of moulds and aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk or dairy products as a direct result of the cattle's ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. This study comprises mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of 23 milk samples (raw, infant food, pasteurized, whey and yoghurt. The mycological testing showed dominant presence of genus Geotrichum. G. candidum was found in 9 samples, with the highest contamination in the raw milk samples. The contamination level of AM1 is defined by using direct competitive enzyme- -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. AFM1 was found in 9 samples. AFM1 levels were lower than the recommended limits. However, as AFM1 is considered a probable human carcinogen (2B type, it is necessary to achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk. Therefore, cows' feed samples from various cowsheds are supposed to be evaluated routinely for aflatoxin, and kept away from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  11. Regulating irrigation during pre-harvest to avoid the incidence of translucent flesh disorder and gamboge disorder of mangosteen fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Chiarawipa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In humid tropical areas, excess water during pre-harvest usually causes the occurrence of translucent flesh disorder (TFD and gamboge disorder (GD in mangosteen. To evaluate options for avoiding these incidences, an experiment was conducted with different water management regimes during pre-harvest. Twelve 14-year-old trees were grown under transparent plastic cover with three irrigation regimes: 1 Control (rainfed condition, 2 7-d interval watering, 3 4-d interval watering and 4 daily watering. A further four trees were arranged as the control (rainfed treatment, but these were grown without the plastic roof cover. The treatments were started at 9 weeks after bloom. The results showed that diurnal changes of leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were lowest in the control, because intermittent drying occurred during the study period. The highest fruit diameter, fruit weight, flesh firmness and flesh and rind water contents were found in the daily watering treatment. However, all of these values were lowest in the control trees. The amount of TFD was also lowest in the control (3.7%, and it was significantly different from the treatment where trees were watered at 4-d intervals (18.0% and where trees were watered daily (28.9%. There was no significant difference of TFD between the control and the 7-d interval watering treatments. In contrast, GD was not significantly different among the treatments. It is suggested that the risk of TFD and GD incidence could be avoided by maintaining mild soil water deficit around -70 kPa during pre-harvest.

  12. A quantitative method for determination of aflatoxin B in roasted corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, G M; Shotwell, O L

    1975-07-01

    Roasting aflatoxin-contaminated corn will reduce toxin levels. A quantitative analysis for aflatoxin in roasted corn has been developed by modifying a cleanup technique for green coffee extracts approved as official first action by the AOAC. A chloroform extract is partially purified on a Florisil column, and thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plates are developed with methylene chloride-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol-formic acid (81+15+3+1). Recoveries average 101% and the sensitivity limit is 5 ppb aflatoxin B1. A 2-dimensional TLC procedure can also be used to separate the aflatoxins from background interferences.

  13. Aflatoxin metabolism in humans: detection of metabolites and nucleic acid adducts in urine by affinity chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groopman, J.D.; Donahue, P.R.; Zhu, J.Q.; Chen, J.S.; Wogan, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    A high-affinity IgM monoclonal antibody specific for aflatoxins was covalently bound to Sepharose 4B and used as a preparative column to isolate aflatoxin derivatives from the urine of people and experimental animals who had been exposed to the carcinogen environmentally or under laboratory conditions. Aflatoxin levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography after elution from the affinity column. In studies on rats injected with [ 14 C]aflatoxin B1, the authors identified the major aflatoxin-DNA adduct, 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-N7-Gua), and the oxidative metabolites M1 and P1 as the major aflatoxin species present in the urine. When this methodology was applied to human urine samples obtained from people from the Guangxi Province of China exposed to aflatoxin B1 through dietary contamination, the aflatoxin metabolites detected were also AFB1-N7-Gua and aflatoxins M1 and P1. Therefore, affinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody represents a useful and rapid technique with which to isolate this carcinogen and its metabolites in biochemical epidemiology and for subsequent quantitative measurements, providing exposure information that can be used for risk assessment

  14. Characterization of the maize lipoxygenase gene family in relation to aflatoxin accumulation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwaseun F. Ogunola; Leigh K. Hawkins; Erik Mylroie; Michael V. Kolomiets; Eli Borrego; Juliet D. Tang; Paul W. Williams; Marilyn L. Warburton

    2017-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to reduce accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to colonization and toxin...

  15. Sexuality generates diversity in the aflatoxin gene cluster: evidence on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aflatoxins also account for considerable health risks, even in countries where food contamination is regulated. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of af...

  16. Effect of crude honey on stability of aflatoxins and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because aflatoxin contamination is unavoidable, numerous strategies for their detoxification have been proposed. sample of natural honey was studied for their detoxification on aflatoxin (B1, B2) and their antimicrobial activities on Aspergillus flavus compared with H2O2 .Dilutions of honey ranging from 12,14,16,18 and ...

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilyn L. Warburton; Juliet D. Tang; Gary L. Windham; Leigh K. Hawkins; Seth C. Murray; Wenwei Xu; Debbie Boykin; Andy Perkins; W. Paul Williams

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with significantly...

  18. [Appearance of aflatoxin M1 during the manufacture of Camembert cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémy, J M; Roiland, J C

    1979-01-01

    Several classic cheese making of camembert are made from raw milk spiked with Aflatoxin M1. Three Aflatoxin levels 7.5 microgram/l, 3 microgram/l are used. In respective curds 35.6, 47.1 and 57.7% of Aflatoxin M1 are recovered and 64.4, 52.9 and 42.3% in respective whey. During the first 15 days of storage the Aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decrease respectively 25, 55, 75%. A similar experience is made with a milk contamined in Aflatoxin M1 C14 labelled. Same results are recovered, except about behaviour of Aflatoxin M1 in cheese: a same C14 activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  19. Behavior of 14C aflatoxin M1 during camembert cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremy, J M; Roiland, J C; Gaymard, A

    1990-01-01

    Camembert cheeses are made from raw milk spiked with aflatoxin M1. Three aflatoxin M1 levels (7.5 micrograms/L, 3 micrograms/L, and 0.3 micrograms/L) are used. In curds 35.6, 47.1, and 57.7% of aflatoxin M1, respectively, are recovered, and in wheys 64.4, 52.9, and 42.3%, respectively, are recovered. During the first 15 days of storage, the aflatoxin M1 content of different cheeses decreases 25, 55, and 75%, respectively. A similar experiment is made with milk contaminated with 14C labeled aflatoxin M1. The same results are obtained, except for the behavior of aflatoxin M1 in cheese; the same 14C activity is recovered during storage for 30 days.

  20. Physiological changes in pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars ‘Thong Dee’ and ‘Khao Nam Phueng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation of physiological changes in pummelo pre-harvest dropped fruit, termed “yellow fruit calyx symptoms” in Thailand, aimed to examine in two particular cultivars Thong Dee and Khao Nam Phueng grown in the central regionof Thailand. The results show that the normal pummelo fruits of either variety had statistically more total non-structuralcarbohydrate (TNC in their peel and pulp than did those of the dropped fruits. On the other hand, the leaves of normal fruittrees of both cultivars show less TNC than those found in the leaves of pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. There were significantdifferences in some plant nutrients in the leaves, peel and pulp of the dropped and normal pummelo cultivars. IAA concentration in fruit was determined with the result that normal fruits had a statistically higher IAA concentration than did those inpre-harvest dropped fruits. The PCR technique used for the greening disease test identified infections in leaves taken fromthe pre-harvest dropped fruit trees but none in leaves from the normal fruit trees. There were no differences in soil chemicalproperties between soil samples taken from the normal and pre-harvest dropped fruit trees. It seems likely that greeningdisease is the cause of ‘yellow fruit calyx symptom’ in Thailand and is the resulting from low TNC concentrations, low plantnutrients and low IAA concentrations in the pre-harvest dropped fruits in the pummelo cultivars.

  1. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  2. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin in human male infertility in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeh, I N; Uraih, N; Ogonar, J I

    1994-01-01

    To discover the relationship between aflatoxin levels, if any, in serum of infertile men in comparison with random controls from the community. In a parallel experiment, adult male rats were given an aflatoxin-contaminated diet. 100 adult males, yielding 50 semen samples, from men attending Infertility Clinics at a university teaching hospital and 50 normal men in the same community. The staple foods of the men were assayed for aflatoxin content. The rats were given the aflatoxin-rich diet, and their spermatozoa were examined and their ability to reproduce assessed. A random sampling of semen from 100 adult males comprising 50 samples drawn from infertile men and 50 drawn from normal individuals within the same community revealed the presence of aflatoxins in 20 semen samples from the infertile group (40.0%) and four samples from the fertile group (8.0%). The mean aflatoxin concentrations were 1.660 +/- 0.04 micrograms/mL (infertile men) and 1.041 +/- 0.01 micrograms/mL (fertile men). Infertile men with aflatoxin in their semen showed a higher percentage of spermatozoal abnormality (50.0%) than the fertile men (10.0-15.0%). Dietary exposure of adult male Albino rats to aflatoxin (8.5 micrograms AF1/g of Guinea growers feed for 14 days) produced deleterious effects on the spermatozoa of the affected rats, producing features that resemble those seen in semen of infertile men exposed to aflatoxin.

  3. Survey of aflatoxins in retail samples of whole and ground black and white peppercorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzahan, N; Jalili, M; Jinap, S

    2009-01-01

    A total of 126 local and imported samples of commercial white and black pepper in Malaysia were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector (FD). An acetonitrile-methanol-water (17 : 29 : 54; v/v) mixture was used as a mobile phase and clean-up was using an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Seventy out of 126 (55.5%) samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins, although only low levels of aflatoxins were found ranging from 0.1 to 4.9 ng g(-1). Aflatoxin B1 showed the highest incidence of contamination and was found in all contaminated samples. There was a significant difference between type of samples and different brands (p < 0.05). The results showed black peppers were more contaminated than white peppers.

  4. Cross-sectional Survey of Urinary Aflatoxins and Diet Recall in Haiti

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Aflatoxins (AFs) are hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxins that can contaminate grains and oil seeds in tropical and sub-tropical areas and have been detected in maize and...

  5. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Zivoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  6. Pre-harvest UV-C irradiation triggers VOCs accumulation with alteration of antioxidant enzymes and phytohormones in strawberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Luo, Zisheng; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the biological and physiological effects of pre-harvest ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on growing plants. However, little is known about the involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their response to this treatment. In this study, strawberry plants were exposed to three different doses of UV-C radiation for seven weeks (a low dose: 9.6kJm -2 ; a medium dose: 15kJm -2 ; and a high-dose: 29.4kJm -2 ). Changes in VOC profiles were investigated and an attempt was made to identify factors that may be involved in the regulation of these alterations. Principle compounds analysis revealed that VOC profiles of UV-C treated samples were significantly altered with 26 VOCs being the major contributors to segregation. Among them, 18 fatty acid-derived VOCs accumulated in plants that received high and medium dose of UV-C treatments with higher lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. In treated samples, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase was inhibited, resulting in a reduced antioxidant capacity and higher lipid peroxidation. Simultaneously, jasmonic acid level was 74% higher in the high-dose group while abscisic acid content was more than 12% lower in both the medium and high-dose UV-C treated samples. These results indicated that pre-harvest UV-C treatment stimulated the biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived VOCs in strawberry leaf tissue by upregulating the activity of enzymes of the LOX biosynthetic pathway and downregulating antioxidant enzyme activities. It is further suggested that the mechanisms underlying fatty acid-derived VOCs biosynthesis in UV-C treated strawberry leaves are associated with UV-C-induced changes in phytohormone profiles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Climate change and the health impact of aflatoxins exposure in Portugal - an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Martins, Carla; Viegas, Susana

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has been indicated as a driver for food safety issues worldwide, mainly due to the impact on the occurrence of food safety hazards at various stages of food chain. Mycotoxins, natural contaminants produced by fungi, are among the most important of such hazards. Aflatoxins, which have...... the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins, assume particular importance. A recent study predicted aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops in Europe within the next 100 years and aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in Europe, especially in the most probable scenario...

  8. Studies on the control of fungal contamination and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus link in a cereal grain by the combination treatment of heat and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odamtten, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional storage of maize in tropical countries such as Ghana results in the rapid development of numerous fungi, including potential mycotoxin producers such as Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), A. ochraceus (ochratoxins, penicillic acid), Fusarium moniliforme (moniliformin), Paecilomyces varioti and Penicillium expansum (patulin). Treatment of maize with a combination of moist heat (30 min. at 60 0 C and relative humidity > 85%) and gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy) proved to be effective in inactivating the resident population of fungal spores. This result was confirmed by in vitro studies with spores of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 5906. In a comparative study of packaging materials it was found that food commodities stored in woven polypropylene bags for six months at 85% R.H. had mould and yeast counts which were 2-3 log cycles lower than those of products kept in jute bags. Also, the viability of the seeds was better preserved in polypropylene sacks. It is recommended that the combination treatment be carried out on good quality grains, and that woven polypropylene sacks are used in packaging prior to irradiation, for maximum extension of shelf-life. (Auth.)

  9. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... stuff, such as cereal and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereals since it has ... pasteurization and sterilization. (Abdulrazzaq et al., 2003; Sadeghi et al., 2009). Aflatoxins are generally found in feed and foodstuffs, such as beans, cereals fruits and seeds. ... Contamination of foods and.

  10. Using biotechnology to enhance host resistance to aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host resistance is the most widely explored strategy for eliminating aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus. Breeding strategies for developing resistant corn germplasm have been enhanced by the development of new screening tools for field inoculation and for laboratory screening. RFLP analysis of corn populations ...

  11. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  12. Recruitment of lianas into logging gaps and the effects of pre-harvest climber cutting in a lowland forest in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Parren, M.P.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of lianas (woody vines) and the detrimental impact that they have on tropical rain forest trees is widely recognized. Lianas are particularly abundant in disturbed areas of the forest, such as logging gaps, and pre-harvest liana cutting has been widely recommended throughout the

  13. Degradation kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in filter paper and rough rice by using pulsed light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough rice is susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins, which are highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. To develop aflatoxin degradation technology for rice with the use of pulsed light (PL) treatment, the objective of this study was to investigate the degradation characters of aflat...

  14. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B1 levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin (AF)-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during preharvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, AF accumulates in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. At least 20 different types of AFs have been identified, and of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most ubiqui...

  15. Magnitude of cyantraniliprole residues in tomato following open field application: pre-harvest interval determination and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhat, Farag; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Shalaby, Shehata

    2018-02-05

    Cyantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide insecticide, belonging to the ryanoid class, with a broad range of applications against several pests. In the presented work, a reliable analytical technique employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for analyzing cyantraniliprole residues in tomato was developed. The method was then applied to field-incurred tomato samples collected after applications under open field conditions. The latter aimed to ensure the safe application of cyantraniliprole to tomato and contribute the derived residue data to the risk assessment under field conditions. Sample preparation involved a single step extraction with acetonitrile and sodium chloride for partitioning. The extract was purified utilizing florisil as cleanup reagent. The developed method was further evaluated by comparing the analytical results with those obtained using the QuEChERS technique. The novel method outbalanced QuEChERS regarding matrix interferences in the analysis, while it met all guideline criteria. Hence, it showed excellent linearity over the assayed concentration and yielded satisfactory recovery rate in the range of 88.9 to 96.5%. The half-life of degradation of cyantraniliprole was determined at 2.6 days. Based on the Codex MRL, the pre-harvest interval (PHI) for cyantraniliprole on tomato was 3 days, after treatment at the recommended dose. To our knowledge, the present work provides the first record on PHI determination of cyantraniliprole in tomato under open field conditions in Egypt and the broad Mediterranean region.

  16. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from 'Zenkouji-komugi' (high PHS resistance) × 'Chinese Spring' (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance.

  17. Aflatoxin B1 use in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yinkun; Zhang Xiaying; Chen Ruiqun; Gu Tianjue

    1987-01-01

    Antibodies against Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) were obtained after multiple-site injections of bovine serum albumin-AFB 1 conjugate into rabbits. The greatest specific binding effciency of antibody for AFB 1 is 70∼80%. The sensitivity of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for AFB 1 is between 0.46∼2.3 ng. The retrievel rate of AFB 1 by RIA from intentionally contaminated serum and rice is between 70∼80%. Detailed methods for the preparation of conjugate, immune serum, and methods for antibody titer determination are described

  18. Presence of aflatoxins in cereals from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Jovana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins (AFs, one of the most toxic and the strongest natural carcinogens can be found in a variety of food commodities, including cereals. For that purpose, the aim of this study was to investigate occurrence of AFs (AFB1, AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 in 130 cereal samples. AFs content was determined by direct competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Samples with AFs content higher than 1 μg/kg were analyzed again with confirmatory High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD. Analyses showed that none of the analyzed wheat (30, barley (20, oats (20 and rye (20 samples was contaminated with AFs. On the other hand, among 40 analyzed maize samples 24 of them (60% were contaminated in the following way: 6 (25% samples had AFs concentration between 1 and 10 μg/kg, 14 (58% samples between 10 and 50 μg/kg and 4 (17% between 50 and 70.3 μg/kg. The most predominant aflatoxin was AFB1 which was detected in all contaminated maize samples. AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 were found in 12, 5 and 1 sample, respectively. This study represents the first investigation of the occurrence of AFs in five different cereals from Serbia.

  19. Hepatitis infections, aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hainaut

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC show large geographic variations, globally reflecting the prevalence of two main aetiologic factors, hepatitis B (HBV and/or C (HCV virus infection and exposure to high levels of aflatoxin in the diet (Chen et al. 1997. The highest incidence rates are observed in regions where most of the population is exposed to both factors, such as in parts of eastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Africa (Parkin et al. 2001. These high incidences are consistent with the fact that HBV chronicity and exposure to aflatoxin have a multiplicative effect of risk for HCC. Depending on aetiology and geographic area, mutations in TP53 show striking differences in prevalence and pattern. In Europe and the US, where alcohol is a major risk factor in addition to viral infections, mutations occur in about 25% of HCC and show as much diversity in their type and codon position as in most other epithelial cancers. However, in high incidence areas such as Mozambique, Senegal, The Gambia (Africa and Qidong county (China, TP53 is mutated in over 50% of the cases and the vast majority of these mutations are a single missense, hotspot mutation at codon 249, AGG to AGT, resulting in the substitution of arginine into serine (249ser. This mutation is uncommon in regions where aflatoxin is not present at significant levels in the diet. In areas of intermediate exposure to aflatoxin, as for example in Thailand, the prevalence of the 249ser mutation is intermediate between high- and low-incidence areas. Thus, there is a dose-dependent relationship between exposure to aflatoxin, incidence of HCC and prevalence of 249ser mutation. Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by several varieties of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticum. These molds contaminate a wide range of traditional agricultural products in countries

  20. Mycobiota and identification of aflatoxin gene cluster in marketed spices in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, G. J. B.; Adjovi, Y. C.; Tokpo, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination were evaluated on 114 samples of dried and milled spices such as ginger, garlic and black pepper from southern Benin and Togo collected in November 2008 -January 2009. These products are dried to preserve them for lean periods available throughout...... of Aspergillus were dominant on all marketed dried and milled spices irrespective of country. Gene characterization and amplification analysis showed that most of the Aspergillus flavus isolates possess the cluster genes for aflatoxin production. Aflatoxin B1 assessment by Thin Layer Chromatography showed...... further for other products such as dried and milled spices. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  2. Determination of total aflatoxines in dryed and nuted fruits present in macedinian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajrulai-Musliu Zehra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals are exposed to aflatoxins by consuming foods contaminated with products of fungal growth. Such exposure is difficult to avoid because fungal growth in foods is not easy to prevent. Even though heavily contaminated food supplies are not distributed at market in developed countries, concern still remains for the possible adverse effects as a consequence of long-term exposure to low levels of aflatoxins in the food supply. Thence the aim of this study was determination of total aflatoxins in dry fruits and nuts. Only products in the open market places such as peanuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, pumpkin seeds and raisins, were analysed. Nineteen of 30 analysed samples (63.33% were over the detection limit, whereas 11 of analysed samples (36,6% were the same limit.The highr then allowed value of aflatoxins concentration was determined only in one sample of walnut (21 µg/kg.

  3. A study on the possibility of production of aflatoxin B1 in saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mohammadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most important medicinal plants in the Khorasan Razavi and South Khorasan provinces, Iran. Aspergillus species can infect saffron tissues during harvesting, storage and transportation. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the important carcinogenic mycotoxin which is produced by Aspergillus species in saffron tissues. This study was carried out in order to investigate the production of aflatoxin B1 in saffron tissues from farm to food by TLC chromatography during the year 2015. Wet and dry saffron tissues and rice grains (with and without saffron extract were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus spore suspensions. Production of Aflatoxin B1 in inoculated tissues was investigated by the TLC chromatography method. The results showed that the wet leaves and rice grains were infected with Aspergillus species very quickly. However, this process was very slow in dry tissues. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in all of the tested samples. The amounts of Aflatoxin B1 in the wet saffron tissues and rice grains were more than those found in dry tissues and saffron rice, respectively. The amount of Aflatoxin B1 had a direct correlation with moisture in the environment and the tissues. The contamination of the tissues and production of AflatoxinB1 were increased with increasing the amount of moisture. The results showed that the packaging of saffron before complete drying of its tissue or storing it in conditions with high humidity can increase the risk of infection with the Aspergillus species and production of Aflatoxin B1 in them. Based on our data, saffron can reduce Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin B1 production but not inhibit it. Saffron extract reduces Aspergillus infection and Aflatoxin B1 production in food and grains.

  4. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  5. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fowler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4. After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.

  6. Antifungal Activity and Aflatoxin Degradation of Bifidobacterium Bifidum and Lactobacillus Fermentum Against Toxigenic Aspergillus Parasiticus

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazvini, Roshanak Daie; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Amini, Abolfazl; Niknejad, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Food and feedstuff contamination with aflatoxins (AFTs) is a serious health problem for humans and animals, especially in developing countries. The present study evaluated antifungal activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against growth and aflatoxin production of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus. The mycelial growth inhibition rate of A. parasiticus PTCC 5286 was investigated in the presence of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC 1644 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1744 by the pour plate m...

  7. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distributi...

  8. Molecular Detection of Aflatoxin Producing Strains of Aspergillus Flavus from Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeela Hussain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are the potential carcinogens produced as secondary metabolites by Aspergillus flavus. They have the ability to contaminate large number of food which ultimately affect the human population. Malt extract agar was selected for the growth of control stains of fungus. The aim of the study was to develop a reliable and quick method for the detection of aflatoxin producing strains in peanuts by using molecular approaches. Total 80 samples of infected peanuts were collected from four different cities of Punjab and checked for their aflatoxin contamination. For aflatoxin detection, three target genes nor1, ver1 and aflR were selected which was involved in the aflatoxin biosynthesis. In all examined cases, 24 out of 80 (30% samples successfully amplified all three genes indicating aflatoxigenic activity. Discrimination between aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains were also determined on the basis of amplification of these three target DNA fragments. In this study, it was also demonstrated that only specific strains were able to produce the aflatoxin contamination in peanuts.

  9. Association between Urinary Aflatoxin (AFM₁) and Dietary Intake among Adults in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Siti Husna; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Sabran, Mohd Redzwan

    2018-04-07

    Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between urinary aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁), a biomarker of aflatoxin exposure, with the dietary intake among adults in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia. Certain food products have higher potential for aflatoxin contamination and these were listed in a Food Frequency Questionnaire, which was given to all study participants. This allowed us to record consumption rates for each food product listed. Concomitantly, urine samples were collected, from adults in selected areas in Hulu Langat district, for the measurement of AFM₁ levels using an ELISA kit. Of the 444 urine samples collected and tested, 199 were positive for AFM₁, with 37 of them exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.64 ng/mL. Cereal products showed the highest consumption level among all food groups, with an average intake of 512.54 g per day. Chi-square analysis showed that consumption of eggs ( X ² = 4.77, p = 0.03) and dairy products ( X ² = 19.36, p food groups were having a phi and Cramer's V value that less than 0.3, which indicated that the association between these food groups' consumption and AFM₁ level in urine was weak.

  10. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Assessment of pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in Babati District, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE ...

  11. Fungos e fumonisinas no período pré-colheita do milho Fungi and fumonisins at maize's pre-harvest period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Hermanns

    2006-03-01

    and associated with pulmonary edema syndrome in swine and esophageal cancer in humans. The objective of this work was to identify critical points of fungal contamination and fumonisins production during pre-harvest growth stage. Results showed fungal growth since the dough stage, with no significant difference at both following stages: dent and physiological maturity. Non sporulated fungi were predominant at the silking stage (100% and at the dough stage (95%. Saprophytes species were identified at the dent stage (23.25%. Fusarium spp. was evident since the dough stage (5% increasing considerably through the dent stage (62.5% to the physiological maturity (90%. All Fusarium spp. strains tested showed toxigenic potential. Fumonisins were evident at the latest development stages increasing considerably from the dent stage (0.2 ppm to the physiological maturity (2.5 ppm. Authors suggest special attention and adopting preventive measures in relation to the dough stage, from which Fusarium spp. begin to be evident.

  12. Aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, E.; Rahmianna, A. A.; Yusnawan, E.

    2018-01-01

    Peanut is succeptable to aflatoxin contamination and the sources of peanut as well as processing methods considerably affect aflatoxin content of the products. Therefore, the study on aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods were performed. Good kernels of peanut were prepared into fried peanut, pressed-fried peanut, peanut sauce, peanut press cake, fermented peanut press cake (tempe) and fried tempe, while blended kernels (good and poor kernels) were processed into peanut sauce and tempe and poor kernels were only processed into tempe. The results showed that good and blended kernels which had high number of sound/intact kernels (82,46% and 62,09%), contained 9.8-9.9 ppb of aflatoxin B1, while slightly higher level was seen in poor kernels (12.1 ppb). However, the moisture, ash, protein, and fat contents of the kernels were similar as well as the products. Peanut tempe and fried tempe showed the highest increase in protein content, while decreased fat contents were seen in all products. The increase in aflatoxin B1 of peanut tempe prepared from poor kernels > blended kernels > good kernels. However, it averagely decreased by 61.2% after deep-fried. Excluding peanut tempe and fried tempe, aflatoxin B1 levels in all products derived from good kernels were below the permitted level (15 ppb). This suggests that sorting peanut kernels as ingredients and followed by heat processing would decrease the aflatoxin content in the products.

  13. Inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by phenolic compounds extracted of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Darab; Mior Ahmad, Zainal Abidin; Yee How, Tan; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Shahnazi, Sahar

    2013-12-01

    Food contamination by aflatoxins is an important food safety concern for agricultural products. In order to identify and develop novel antifungal agents, several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been evaluated for their bioactivities. Anti-infectious activity of Piper betle used in traditional medicine of Malaysia has been reported previously. Crude methanol extract from P. betel powdered leaves was partitioned between chloroform and water. The fractions were tested against A. flavus UPMC 89, a strong aflatoxin producing strain. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis were tested by disk diffusion and macrodillution techniques, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques using AFB1 standard. The chloroform soluble compounds were identified using HPLC-Tandem mass spectrometry technique. The results, evaluated by measuring the mycelial growth and quantification of aflatoxin B1(AFLB1) production in broth medium revealed that chloroform soluble compounds extract from P. betle dried leaves was able to block the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway at concentration of 500μg/ml without a significant effect on mycelium growth. In analyzing of this effective fractions using HPLC-MS(2) with ESI ionization technique, 11 phenolic compounds were identified. The results showed that the certain phenolic compounds are able to decline the aflatoxin production in A. flavus with no significant effect on the fungus mycelia growth. The result also suggested P. betle could be used as potential antitoxin product.

  14. The Potent of Aspergillus parasiticus to Produce Aflatoxin B1 on the Maize Flour During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Selamat Duniaji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 contamination caused by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergiluus Aspergillus flavus is a great concern in maize production worldwide. A. parasiticus infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination are usually found in maize and their processed during storage, distribution and processing. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in food and feed can cause the cancer diseases in animal and human. This research was aimed to determinate the potency of A. parasiticus to produce aflatoxin B1 in maize during storage 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. The research methods was using Completed Random Design (CRD with three replicated. The research was investigation of a number of colony A. parasiticus in Petato Dextro Agar (PDA and Aflatoxin B1 content by using Enzym Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA. Result of research showed that A.parasiticus were susceptible to grow in maize flour and produce aflatoxin B1 during storage. The population of A. parasiticus in maize flour were  9.5 x 105 d in primary storage (0 days that was the total colony were increasing  .7 x 106 (storage 5 days, 2.5 x 107 (storage 10 days and 1.5 x 108 cfu/g with storage 15 days A. parasiticus was a potent to produce aflatoxin B1 in myzena flour with total of aflatoxin B1 is  66.50 ppb of mayzena flour during storage 5 days , 46.40 ppb with 10 days storage, 57.00 ppb during storage 15 days and was not found in 0 days.

  15. Fungi, aflatoxins, and cyclopiazonic acid associated with peanut retailing in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphande, Fingani A; Siame, Bupe A; Taylor, Joanne E

    2004-01-01

    Peanuts are important food commodities, but they are susceptible to fungal infestation and mycotoxin contamination. Raw peanuts were purchased from retail outlets in Botswana and examined for fungi and mycotoxin (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) contamination. Zygomycetes were the most common fungi isolated; they accounted for 41% of all the isolates and were found on 98% of the peanut samples. Among the Zygomycetes, Absidia corymbifera and Rhizopus stolonifer were the most common. Aspergillus spp. accounted for 35% of all the isolates, with Aspergillus niger being the most prevalent (20.4%). Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus were also present and accounted for 8.5% of all the isolates, with A. flavus accounting for the majority of the A. flavus/parasiticus identified. Of the 32 isolates of A. flavus screened for mycotoxin production, 11 did not produce detectable aflatoxins, 8 produced only aflatoxins B1 and B2, and 13 produced all four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in varying amounts. Only 6 of the A. flavus isolates produced cyclopiazonic acid at concentrations ranging from 1 to 55 microg/kg. The one A. parasiticus isolate screened also produced all the four aflatoxins (1,200 microg/kg) but did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. When the raw peanut samples (n = 120) were analyzed for total aflatoxins, 78% contained aflatoxins at concentrations ranging from 12 to 329 microg/kg. Many of the samples (49%) contained total aflatoxins at concentrations above the 20 microg/kg limit set by the World Health Organization. Only 21% (n = 83) of the samples contained cyclopiazonic acid with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 microg/kg. The results show that mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi are common contaminants of peanuts sold at retail in Botswana.

  16. Novel Aflatoxin Derivatives and Protein Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Niessner

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, a group of structurally related mycotoxins, are well known for their toxic and carcinogenic effects in humans and animals. Aflatoxin derivatives and protein conjugates are needed for diverse analytical applications. This work describes a reliable and fast synthesis of novel aflatoxin derivatives, purification by preparative HPLC and characterisation by ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR. Novel aflatoxin bovine serum albumin conjugates were prepared and characterised by UV absorption and MALDI-MS. These aflatoxin protein conjugates are potentially interesting as immunogens for the generation of aflatoxin selective antibodies with novel specificities.

  17. Aflatoxin effect on erythrocyte profile and histopathology of broilers given different additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, M. F.; Sutrisno, B.; Agus, A.; Suryani, A. E.; Istiqomah, L.; Damayanti, E.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate erythrocyte profile and microscopic changes effect of AF induces by low level (57.18 ppb) and chronic exposure (34 days) with administration of additive (Lactobacillus plantarum G7 and methionine). Aflatoxin-contaminated corn was prepared by inoculate Aspergillus flavus FNCC 6002 on corn. Total number of 576 broiler Lohman strain (MB202) unsexed DOC were allocated completely randomized into four treatments and 12 replicates, with 12 broiler chicks each. The treatments as follows: T1 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet, T2 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB (w/w), T3 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 0.8% of methionine (w/w), and T4 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB + 0.8% of methionine (w/w). The effect of treatments was evaluated using ANOVA and the difference among mean treatments were analyzed using DMRT. The result showed that administration of additives had no significant effect (P>0.05) on erythrocyte profile, liver, and bursa of Fabricius. The dose of additive in each treatment (T2, T3, T4) were insufficient to reduce adverse effect of chronic aflatoxicosis. It was concluded that the LAB dose for binding AF (57.18%) should be evaluated and the dose for methionine should be reduced for chronic treatment of aflatoxicosis.

  18. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06. Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48 and feed ingredients (49 samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits.

  19. Genotypic regulation of aflatoxin accumulation but not Aspergillus fungal growth upon post-harvest infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, Ten genotypes were infected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) - expression Aspergillus flavus strain. Per...

  20. Control of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production in transgenic maize kernels expressing a tachyplesin-derived synthetic peptide, AGM182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) is an opportunistic, saprophytic fungus that infects maize and other fatty acid-rich food and feed crops and produces toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites known as aflatoxins. Contamination of maize with aflatoxin poses a serious threat to human health in addit...

  1. Natural postharvest aflatoxin occurrence in food legumes in the smallholder farming sector of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, David Tinayeshe; Chidewe, Cathrine; Benhura, Mudadi Albert; Mvumi, Brighton Marimanzi; Murashiki, Tatenda Clive; Dembedza, Mavis Precious; Siziba, Lucia; Nyanga, Loveness Kuziwa

    2017-03-01

    Aflatoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are highly toxic and may lead to health problems such as liver cancer. Exposure to aflatoxins may result from ingestion of contaminated foods. Levels of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 and AFG 2 in samples of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and bambara nuts (Vigna subterranean) grown by smallholder farmers in Shamva and Makoni districts, Zimbabwe, were determined at harvesting, using high performance liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity clean-up. Aflatoxins were detected in 12.5% of groundnut samples with concentrations ranging up to 175.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were present in 4.3% of the cowpea samples with concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 103.4 µg/kg. Due to alarming levels of aflatoxins detected in legumes versus maximum permissible levels, there is a need to assist smallholder farmers to develop harvest control strategies to reduce contamination of aflatoxins in legumes.

  2. REVIEW ON AFLATOXIN IN INDONESIAN FOOD- AND FEEDSTUFFS AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a human carcinogen that could contaminate food- and feedstuffs, and hence is a major food qua lity problem throughout the world. Afiatoxi n is produced by certain strains of AspergillusJlavus and //. parasiticus. A number of studies have been carried out in Indonesia on atlatoxin contamination in Indonesian food- and feedstuffs and their products from 1990 up to present. They were maize, maize product, peanuts, soybean and soybean meal, black and white pepper, feed ingredients; chicken and duck feeds. Samples were collected from farmers, traders (middlemen, retailers (markets, supermarkets, exporters; poultry and duck community-based farms; and feed mi ll industries. High levels of aflatoxins were often found in maize, peanuts, chicken feed derived from markets, and duck feed. Low levels of aflatoxins were found in soybean meal and chicken feedstuff. Aflatoxins were not detected in soybean, black and white pepper. Other studies have also been carried out on the effect of carbondioxide (CO2, phosphine, black pepper extract and antagonistic fungi on aflatoxin production of A. flavus in vitro and the effect of airtight storage, phosphine, ammonium hydroxide, fermentation process, bag types, and phosphine in combination with different bag types on atlatoxin contents of maize, peanuts and soybean meal. Some of these methods reduced aflatoxin contents significantly

  3. Aspergillus and aflatoxin in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and groundnut cake in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdi; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla; Fininsa, Chemeda; Hoisington, David A; Sobolev, Victor S; Arias, Renee S

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess major Aspergillus species and aflatoxins associated with groundnut seeds and cake in Eastern Ethiopia and evaluate growers' management practices. A total of 160 groundnut seed samples from farmers' stores and 50 groundnut cake samples from cafe and restaurants were collected. Fungal isolation was done from groundnut seed samples. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant species followed by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin analyses of groundnut seed samples were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography; 22.5% and 41.3% of samples were positive, with total aflatoxin concentrations of 786 and 3135 ng g -1 from 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 samples, respectively. The level of specific aflatoxin concentration varied between 0.1 and 2526 ng g -1 for B 2 and B 1 , respectively. Among contaminated samples of groundnut cake, 68% exhibited aflatoxin concentration below 20 ng g -1 , while as high as 158 ng g -1 aflatoxin B 1 was recorded. The study confirms high contamination of groundnut products in East Ethiopia.

  4. Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Kefir Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Kamyar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycotoxins naturally occur in foods. Aflatoxins can cause serious health problems in consumers. Nowadays, biological detoxification method is considered to decrease the aflatoxins level in foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kefir starter microorganisms to decrease the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in milk. Methods: The study was carried out at Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University in 2016. AFM1 at three levels 150, 200 and 250 ng/L was added to milk samples. Then a pool of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and full kefir starter culture was added to milk samples. After cool storage of samples in 4 °C for 7 d, all samples were collected and the level of AFM1 determined by HPLC method. All samples were prepared in triplicate. Results: The highest reduction percentage of AFM1 was observed in yeast (65.33%-68.89% and LAB pool (65%. Samples with full kefir starter showed the reduction percent range of 11.67-34.66% that was lower in compare with other treatment groups. Conclusion: These findings support the ability of LAB and yeasts to bind to aflatoxins in foods. Kefir drink in countries with high contamination by AFM1 in milk can be a safe dairy product choice for consumers.

  5. Use of electron beam on aflatoxins degradation in coconut agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Aquino, Simone; Goncalez, Edlayne; Correa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The fungi Aspergillus flavus are capable of producing toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin, that is one of the most important human carcinogens, according to the 'International Agency for Research on Cancer'. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of electron beam irradiation on degradation of aflatoxin B1 present in laboratorial residues with a dose of 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. The fungi were cultivated in potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days and transferred to a coconut agar medium, incubated at a temperature of 25 deg C for 14 days to produce the laboratorial wastes (coconut agar) containing aflatoxins. The samples were conditioned in petri dish for radiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Electron Accelerator with 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. Aflatoxin B 1 was extracted with chloroform and separated on a thin layer chromatography plate (TLC) with chloroform: acetone (9:1). All the control and irradiated samples were analyzed in a Shimadzu Densitometer. The detection limit of this methodology is 0.1μg kg -1 . The results indicate that the irradiated samples had a reduction of 75.49 % in the analyzed dose. (author)

  6. Potential aflatoxin and ochratoxin a production by Aspergillus species in poultry feed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, M E; Curvello, F; Gatti, M J; Cavaglieri, L R; Dalcero, A M; da Rocha Rosa, C A

    2007-04-01

    Poultry feeds are prone to fungal growth and mycotoxin production during processing. The identification of biota with the ability to produce mycotoxins is essential. The aims of this study were (1) to monitor the mycobiota counts at different stages of poultry feed processing; (2) to determine the occurrence of Aspergillus species; (3) to evaluate the natural incidence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The ability of Aspergillus spp. and its teleomorphs isolated here to produce these toxins was also investigated. Samples (144) were collected at random from a factory in Brazil. The occurrence of Aspergillus and Eurotium species was demonstrated on DRBC and DG18 media and the production of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A and their natural incidence were determined by TLC and HPLC methods. A. flavus and E. chevalieri were the most prevalent species isolated. Fungal contamination was not found after the pelleting process, though Aspergillus and Eurotium species were recovered from trough samples. High levels of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A producers were found at all stages of poultry feed processing. Also, high natural contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A was found in the samples. Contact of feed with remainder poultry feed could lead to fungal contamination, so the risk of aflatoxin and/or ochratoxin A contamination of feed must be taken into account.

  7. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Milani; Seyed Saman Seyed Nazari; Elmira Bamyar; Gisou Maleki

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs) contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough...

  8. A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxins are decaketide-derived secondary metabolites which are produced by a complex biosynthetic pathway. Aflatoxins are among the economically most important mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 exhibits hepatocarcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties, and is frequently referred to as the most potent natu...

  9. Association of Aflatoxin and Gallbladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshiol, Jill; Gao, Yu-Tang; Dean, Michael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aflatoxin, which causes hepatocellular carcinoma, may also cause gallbladder cancer. We investigated whether patients with gallbladder cancer have higher exposure to aflatoxin than patients with gallstones. METHODS: We measured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-lysine adducts in plasma sampl...

  10. Application of plant growth regulators at pre-harvest for fruit development of 'PÊRA' oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolina Maria Leite de Almeida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of auxins and gibberellins when applied at pre-harvest to the fruit development, and to the ripening and natural fall of the fruit, in 'Pêra' oranges. Trees of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Pêra, 5 years old, were utilized. The treatments applied were: GA3 + 2,4-D 12.5mg L-1 of each; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1 ; GA3 + 2,4-D 37.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 37.5mg L-1; and water (control. The treatments were applied 3 times, at intervals of 45 days. The variables evaluated were: rate of natural fall (%, fruit length and diameter (mm, and fresh fruit weight (g. None of the treatments promoved alterations in the development of the fruits, but they did reduce the natural fall rate, when compared to control, up to 78.05%, inhibiting the fruits' abscision as much as 3 months.O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos de auxinas e giberelinas, combinados e aplicados em pré-colheita no desenvolvimento e na taxa de queda natural de frutos de laranjeira 'Pêra'. Foram utilizadas árvores de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivar Pêra com 5 anos de idade. Os tratamentos foram: GA3 + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1 de cada; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1 e testemunha (água. Durante todo o período experimental foram realizadas três aplicações a intervalos de 45 dias. As variáveis avaliadas foram: Taxa de queda natural dos frutos (%, comprimento (mm, diâmetro (mm e massa fresca dos frutos (g. Nenhum dos tratamentos proporcionaram alterações no desenvolvimento final dos frutos, mas reduziram a taxa de queda natural em comparação com a testemunha em até 78,05%, inibindo a abscisão dos frutos em até três meses.

  11. Foliar application of molybdenum reduces yield loss and pre-harvest sprouting in japonica rice seed subjected to simulated flooding during seed development and maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Tejakhod, Sujittra; Hammond, John P.; Ellis, Richard H.

    2018-01-01

    Flooding damages rice crops and its incidence is increasing. Foliar spray applications of molybdenum (100, 600 or 3000 mg Mo L-1), abscisic acid (ABA, 50 μM), or deionised water (control) were made to pot-grown plants of the Japonica rice cv. Gleva at flag leaf appearance to determine their effects on seed yield and pre-harvest sprouting after flooding. Plants were submerged , to simulate flooding, for four days from 20 or 30 days after anthesis (DAA). Seed yield per plant, seed weight, and p...

  12. Haplotype Analysis of the Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance Locus Phs-A1 Reveals a Causal Role of TaMKK3-A in Global Germplasm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shorinola, O.; Balcárková, Barbora; Hyles, J.; Tibbits, J. F. G.; Hayden, M. J.; Holušová, Kateřina; Valárik, Miroslav; Distelfeld, A.; Torada, A.; Barrero, R. A.; Uauy, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, SEP 13 (2017), č. článku 1555. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : triticum-aestivum l. * controlling seed dormancy * white-grained wheat * pcr-based markers * chromosome 4a * winter-wheat * major qtl * abscisic-acid * bread wheat * genes * dormancy * seed * pm19 * TaMKK3-A * pre-harvest sprouting * Triticum aestivum * haplotype Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  13. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feedstuffs in Cuba (1990 through 1996) using an immunoenzymatic reagent kit (Aflacen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Arturo; Regueiro, Olga Sanchez

    2002-01-01

    The presence of aflatoxin B1 was analyzed in imported food and feedstuffs of national production in the period of 1990 through 1996, destined to animal and human consumption using an immunoenzymatic reagent kit (Aflacen, Ckure, la Habana, Cuba) with a detection limit of 0.3 microg/kg. It was found that the 17.04% of a total of 4,594 analyzed samples presented aflatoxin B1, and the biggest percentages were in sorghum and peanut with an 83.3 and 40.4%, respectively. The corn, oat, wheat, and soy are fundamental raw ingredients in the elaboration of concentrates. Percentages of contamination with aflatoxin B1 of 23.3, 10.7, 25, and 4.6 were found in corn, oat, wheat, and soy, respectively. Other analyzed foods like rice, beans, and peas presented percentages of contamination with aflatoxin B1 inferior to 5% of the analyzed samples. It was found that more than 455 samples surpassed the value of 10 microg/kg. Corn and peanut products present a high demand in population showing levels of contamination superior to 50 microg/kg. The 11.3% of the samples contaminated with aflatoxin B1 have values between 1 and 20 microg/kg, where peanut and concentrates show the highest percentages (21.9 and 18.7), respectively. These results show levels of aflatoxin B1 in the population that constitute a great risk for human and animal health.

  14. Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Selected Processed Foods from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashrafuzzaman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 125 (ready to eat processed food samples (70 intended for infant and 55 for adult intake belonging to 20 different food categories were analyzed for aflatoxins contamination using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC with fluorescent detection. A solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water was used for the extraction followed by immunoaffinity clean-up to enhance sensitivity of the method. The limit of detection (LOD (0.01–0.02 ng·g−1 and limit of quantification (LOQ (0.02 ng·g−1 was established for aflatoxins based on signal to noise ratio of 3:1 and 10:1, respectively. Of the processed food samples tested, 38% were contaminated with four types of aflatoxins, i.e., AFB1 (0.02–1.24 μg·kg−1, AFB2 (0.02–0.37 μg·kg−1, AFG1 (0.25–2.7 μg·kg−1 and AFG2 (0.21–1.3 μg·kg−1. In addition, the results showed that 21% of the processed foods intended for infants contained AFB1 levels higher than the European Union permissible limits (0.1 μg·kg−1, while all of those intended for adult consumption had aflatoxin contamination levels within the permitted limits.

  15. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siahi Shadbad Mohammad Reza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aflatoxins (AFs are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. Methods: A total of 142 samples including 35 almond , 26 walnut, 4 seeds of apricot, 6 sunflower seeds kernel, 6 sesame seed, 6 peanuts , 32 pistachio,13 hazelnuts and 14 cashews samples were collected from Tabriz confectionaries. The ELISA method was employed for the screening of total aflatoxins. Results: In 13 cases (28.1% of pistachios, 5.1% of walnuts and 7.1% of cashews contamination rate of higher than 15 ppb were observed. The HPLC method was applied for the confirmation of ELISA results. Aflatoxin B1 was the highest detected AFs. Conclusion: The overall results of the tested samples indicated that the rate of contamination of pistachios is higher than the other tested samples.

  16. Distribution of aflatoxins in corn fractions visually segregated for defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedade Fabiana Segatti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aflatoxin distribution in corn fractions obtained after visual segregation for defects in 30 samples, known to be contaminated, was studied. Each sample was passed through a 5.0 mm round holes sieve, graded for defects and then segregated in sound kernels (regular kernels and non-sound kernels (injured, germinated, fermented, moldy, heated, insect damaged, immature, broken, hollow, fermented up to ¼, discolored, extraneous materials, and injured by other causes, as defined by the Brazilian Official Grading rules for corn. The non-sound kernels showed the highest contamination levels in all samples. The contamination levels of non-sound kernels (20% of total weight ranged from 23 to 1,365 µg/kg of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and were higher than sound kernels (p<1% ranging from not detected (ND to 126 µg/kg and in 87% of these the aflatoxin contents were lower than 20 µg/kg. Statistically significant correlation indexes were found among the percentage of defective groups like fermented, heated and sprouted kernels or the total injured kernels, and the estimated contamination levels for the sound and non sound fractions. It was concluded that the non-sound kernels fraction, even being small in weight, has contributed with 84% of the estimated contamination of the samples. The segregation of the non-sound kernels would favor a reduction in the contamination of corn lots. The poorer quality corn types (types 3 and Bellow Standart have predominated among samples of the experiment.

  17. Application of Statistics to Evaluate Iranian Analytical Laboratories Proficiency: Case of Aflatoxins in Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fotouhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a proficiency testing program among limited number of local laboratories as an alternative to the IUPAC/CITAC guide on proficiency testing with a limited number of participants, specially where international schemes are not accessible. As a sample scheme we planned to determine aflatoxins (B1, G1, B2, G2, total in Iranian pistachio matrix. A part of naturally contaminated pistachio sample was tested for sufficient homogeneity by a competent laboratory and then homogenized sub-samples were distributed among participants all across the country. The median of participants’ results was selected as assigned value. Student t-test was applied to show there is no significant difference between assigned and mean values of homogeneity test results obtained by the competent laboratory. Calculated z-scores showed that 6 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin B2, 5 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G1, 7 out of 8 results in aflatoxin G2 and 6 out of 9 results in aflatoxin total were in satisfactory range. Together our studies indicate that the approach described here is highly cost efficient and applicable for quality assurance of test results when there is no access to international proficiency testing providers.

  18. Antifungal Activity and Aflatoxin Degradation of Bifidobacterium Bifidum and Lactobacillus Fermentum Against Toxigenic Aspergillus Parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazvini, Roshanak Daie; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Amini, Abolfazl; Niknejad, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Food and feedstuff contamination with aflatoxins (AFTs) is a serious health problem for humans and animals, especially in developing countries. The present study evaluated antifungal activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB ) against growth and aflatoxin production of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus . The mycelial growth inhibition rate of A. parasiticus PTCC 5286 was investigated in the presence of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC 1644 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1744 by the pour plate method. After seven days incubation in yeast extract sucrose broth at 30°C, the mycelial mass was weighed after drying. The inhibitory activity of LAB metabolites against aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was evaluated using HPLC method. B. bifidum and L. fermentum significantly reduced aflatoxin production and growth rate of A. parasiticus in comparison with the controls (p≤0.05). LAB reduced total aflatoxins and B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 fractions by more than 99%. Moreover, LAB metabolites reduced the level of standard AFB 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 from 88.8% to 99.8% (p≤0.05). Based on these findings, B. bifidum and L. fermentum are recommended as suitable biocontrol agents against the growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species.

  19. Ethylene pre-harvest application in ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ produced in the region of “Dom Pedrito” – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Jansen Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thus this work was to evaluate the use of ethylene application in pre-harvest grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar. Applying ethylene by spraying with ethylene solution in different periods with the following treatments; (T1 without application of ethylene; (T2 10 ppm of ethylene in the fruit only on the day of collection; (T3 two applications of 10 ppm ethylene (one day before harvest and once on the day of harvest and; (T4 three applications of 10 ppm ethylene (two days prior to harvest, one day prior to harvest and the other on the day of harvest. For each treatment were made four replications in the field, with 07 plants each. The physicochemical analyses in must and wine as pH, total soluble solids (TSS, expressed acidity malic acid, expressed as acid into lactic acid, total acid and ethanol were made by infrared spectrometry Fourier transform (FTIR. There were significant differences between treatments in physical and chemical composition of must and wine. These preliminary results suggest that ethylene pre-harvest application modify somehow the malic acid content, modifying the total acidity and pH of the must and wine in Cabernet Sauvignon, promoting a slight modification in the TSS and thus in ethanol.

  20. Pre-harvest application of calcium chloride and chitosan on fruit quality and storability of ‘Early Swelling’ peach during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel Nabi Abdel Gayed

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies related with the storage of peach fruits have received great relevance in Egypt. In this study, the effect of pre-harvest sprays of calcium chloride and chitosan, separately and in combination, on quality attributes and storability of peach fruits stored at 0±1 °C was studied. ‘Early Swelling’ peach trees were sprayed twice with 1% or 2% calcium chloride. The first spraying was at pea stage, while the second one was performed at 10 days before harvesting. Chitosan sprays were performed at 0.5 or 1%, alone or in combination with 1 and 2% calcium chloride, at 10 days before harvesting. Untreated trees served as control. Fruits were harvested at maturity stage, then packaged and stored at 0±1 °C and 85-90% of relative humidity. Fruit physical and chemical properties were evaluated at 7-day intervals. Results showed that pre-harvest application with 2% CaCl2+1% chitosan was most effective in minimizing weight loss (% and decay (%, as well as in maintaining maximum firmness and lengthening shelf life. Fruit color was not affected by any of the treatments, while untreated fruits and calcium chloride treatment alone, at both applied concentrations, maintained higher total soluble solids (TSS, %, total phenolic content, and lower titratable acidity percentage.

  1. Pre-Harvest Application of a New Biocontrol Formulation Induces Resistance to Post-Harvest Anthracnose and Enhances Fruit Yield in Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vivekananthan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest application of biocontrol formulations consisting of 1. the two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains FP7 and Pf1 of Pseudomonas fluorescens; 2. a strain of Bacillus subtilis Bs-1; and 3. a strain (Sc-1 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, given at fortnightly or monthly intervals and with or without a chitin amendment, were evaluated in two trials for their ability to reduce anthracnose in mango caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Growth of C. gloeosporioides in vitro was significantly reduced by strain FP7 and in both field trials the bacterial strain in combination with chitin significantly reduced infection. Pre-harvest application of these formulations at fortnightly intervals also significantly improved flower initiation, yield parameters (mean number of fruits and fruit yield and fruit quality (total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, free acidity, total, reducing and non- reducing sugar content. The delay in latent symptom expression increased by 15 days under stored conditions. The highest levels of phenolic content, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase on mango leaves, flowers and fruits were achieved with FP7 +chitin.

  2. The effects of necrotic enteritis, aflatoxin B1, and virginiamycin on growth performance, necrotic enteritis lesion scores, and mortality in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, R L; Goss, G R; Chi, F; De Boer, E D; Davis, S W; Hendrix, S M; Richardson, J A; Johnston, S L

    2013-08-01

    The effects of increasing aflatoxin B1 concentration (0, 0.75, 1.5 mg/kg) on broilers with or without necrotic enteritis or virginiamycin were determined. In the 23-d study, 22 male Cobb 500 chicks per pen were allotted to 12 treatments (3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) with 8 replications. Intestines of 5 birds per pen were examined for lesions on d 21. Birds were allowed to consume feed and water ad libitum. Aflatoxin was included in the diets from d 0. All birds received a 10× dose of coccidiosis vaccine on d 10. Pens of birds where necrotic enteritis was being induced were on Clostridium perfringens pathogen (CPP) contaminated litter from d 0. Aflatoxin decreased gain and feed intake and resulted in poorer feed:gain, increased mortality, and higher lesion scores. Inducing necrotic enteritis increased lesion scores and decreased feed intake and gain. Adding virginiamycin to the diets improved gain, feed intake, feed conversion, and decreased mortality. There was a 3-way interaction (aflatoxin × virginiamycin × CPP) on gain; increasing aflatoxin decreased gain and the effects of CPP and virginiamycin were dependent on aflatoxin concentration. In the absence of aflatoxin virginiamycin increased gain but was unable to prevent the growth suppression caused by CPP. At 0.75 mg/kg of aflatoxin virginiamycin no longer increased growth in non-CPP challenged birds but was able to increase growth in CPP-challenged birds. At the 1.5 mg/kg of aflatoxin concentration, virginiamycin increased gain in non-CPP-challenged birds but challenging birds with CPP had no effect on gain. Virginiamycin improved overall feed conversion with the greatest improvement at 1.5 mg/kg (aflatoxin × virginiamycin, P broiler performance and interact to decrease weight gain, virginiamycin helps improve gain in challenged birds at 0.75 mg/kg of aflatoxin, but not at 1.5 mg/kg of aflatoxin.

  3. Radiation degradation of biological residues (Aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Aquino, Simone; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Zorzete, Patricia; Correa, Benedito

    2007-01-01

    Some molds have the capacity to produce substances that are toxic and generally cancer-causing agents, such as aflatoxins, that stand between the most important carcinogenic substances (class one of the agents which are certainly carcinogenous for human people according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer). Aspergillus spp. is present in world-wide distribution, with predominance in tropical and subtropical regions growing in any substratum. The aim of this work is establish a minimum dose of radiation that degrades aflatoxins produced by fungi Aspergillus spp. The Aspergillus spp. colonies will be cultivated in coconut agar medium and the samples will be conditioned in appropriate bags for irradiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Gammacell 220 with dose of 20 kGy. (author)

  4. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Milani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough preparation. AFs levels in flour, dough, and bread were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results showed that maximum reduction in aflatoxin levels observed during first proof while the least decline was seen for the baking stage. The order of AFs reduction in bread making process was AFB1>AFB2>AFG1. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most effective yeast for AFs reduction was instant dry yeast.

  5. Radiation degradation of biological residues (Aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Aquino, Simone; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (brazil)]. E-mails: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br; villavic@ipen.br; Zorzete, Patricia; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Some molds have the capacity to produce substances that are toxic and generally cancer-causing agents, such as aflatoxins, that stand between the most important carcinogenic substances (class one of the agents which are certainly carcinogenous for human people according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer). Aspergillus spp. is present in world-wide distribution, with predominance in tropical and subtropical regions growing in any substratum. The aim of this work is establish a minimum dose of radiation that degrades aflatoxins produced by fungi Aspergillus spp. The Aspergillus spp. colonies will be cultivated in coconut agar medium and the samples will be conditioned in appropriate bags for irradiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Gammacell 220 with dose of 20 kGy. (author)

  6. Association between Urinary Aflatoxin (AFM1) and Dietary Intake among Adults in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Siti Husna

    2018-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a biomarker of aflatoxin exposure, with the dietary intake among adults in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia. Certain food products have higher potential for aflatoxin contamination and these were listed in a Food Frequency Questionnaire, which was given to all study participants. This allowed us to record consumption rates for each food product listed. Concomitantly, urine samples were collected, from adults in selected areas in Hulu Langat district, for the measurement of AFM1 levels using an ELISA kit. Of the 444 urine samples collected and tested, 199 were positive for AFM1, with 37 of them exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.64 ng/mL. Cereal products showed the highest consumption level among all food groups, with an average intake of 512.54 g per day. Chi-square analysis showed that consumption of eggs (X2 = 4.77, p = 0.03) and dairy products (X2 = 19.36, p food groups were having a phi and Cramer’s V value that less than 0.3, which indicated that the association between these food groups’ consumption and AFM1 level in urine was weak. PMID:29642443

  7. Climate change and the health impact of aflatoxins exposure in Portugal - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Martins, Carla; Viegas, Susana; Viegas, Carla; Jakobsen, Lea S; Pires, Sara; Alvito, Paula

    2018-03-08

    Climate change has been indicated as a driver for food safety issues worldwide, mainly due to the impact on the occurrence of food safety hazards at various stages of food chain. Mycotoxins, natural contaminants produced by fungi, are among the most important of such hazards. Aflatoxins, which have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins, assume particular importance. A recent study predicted aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops in Europe within the next 100 years and aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in Europe, especially in the most probable scenario of climate change (+2°C). This review discusses the potential influence of climate change on the health risk associated to aflatoxins dietary exposure of Portuguese population. We estimated the burden of disease associated to the current aflatoxin exposure for Portuguese population in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). It is expected that in the future the number of DALYs and the associated cases of hepatocellular carcinoma due to aflatoxins exposure will increase due to climate change. The topics highlighted through this review, including the potential impact on health of the Portuguese population through the dietary exposure to aflatoxins, should represent an alert for the potential consequences of an incompletely explored perspective of climate change. Politics and decision-makers should be involved and committed to implement effective measures to deal with climate change issues and to reduce its possible consequences. This review constitutes a contribution for the prioritisation of strategies to face the unequal burden of effects of weather-related hazards in Portugal and across Europe.

  8. Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Sarah E; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB 1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a common source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the process of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while common cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and processing time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of processing conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB 1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure.

  9. An assessment of dispersing pollutants from the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane in rural areas in the northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria Gabriela L.; Henríquez, Jorge R.; Costa, José A. P.; de Lira Junior, José C.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the Brazilian government has been applying several restrictions with regard to preventing environmental pollution. Although Brazilian legislation is becoming stricter as to the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane, this practice is frequently used in order to assist manual harvesting. In the northeast region of Brazil, sugarcane is an important crop, which accounts for about 15% of the national production in a total area of 1,060,660 ha, the average production being 51,119 kg per hectare. The pre-harvest burning of sugarcane generates smoke, which has a high concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (P.M. 2.5 and 10), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This article estimates the volume of CO, P.M. 2.5 and NOX generated and how they are dispersed in the atmosphere when this arises from the burning of sugarcane biomass in rural areas of Northeast Brazil, and does so by using AERMOD VIEW® simulation software. Using the characteristics of the emissions and environmental (meteorological and topographical) data, quality air profiles based on pollutant dispersion were obtained. Three studies were taken into account in order to determine the relationship between pollutant dispersion and some parameters of the burning process, such as those for the spatial distribution of resources, the duration of pre-harvest burning and the influence of undertaking burning in different months. As to spatial distribution, to divide an area into small lots contributes to decreasing the maximum concentration of pollutants by 53% compared to burning a single area of equivalent size. The study of the burning duration indicated that doing so gradually (using a lengthier procedure) could decrease the maximum concentration of the pollutants by an inverse relation. The harvesting period in this region is between November and April. The pollutants

  10. Absorption, distribution and excretion of aflatoxin-derived ammoniation products in lactating cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Tulliez, J.; Gautier, J.P.; Coker, R.D.; Melcion, J.P.; Nagler, M.J.; Polman, Th.H.G.; Delort-Laval, J.

    2001-01-01

    Peanut meal naturally contaminated with 3.5mg/kg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was spiked with radiolabelled AFB1 (meal14C-I0) and decontaminated by a smallscale copy of an industrial ammoniation process (meal 14C-I1). During the process 15␘f the radioactivity was lost, whereas 90␘f the remaining radiolabel

  11. Study the Effect of Processing of Commercial Kashk Making on Aflatoxin M1 Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a highly toxic compound which is stable during milk processing, and Storage. Hence, it may be found as contaminant in milk and dairy products with hazardous effects for human beings. In this regard, several studies have demonstrated the potential of process to remove Aflatoxin M1 from dairy product. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess the ability commercial kashk making to reduce Aflatoxin M1 artificially contaminated milk using a natural process of kashk making. Methods: In this study the commercial cheese from cow's milk (skim milk which was contaminated artificially at a level of 0.25 micrograms per liter of aflatoxin M1 was produced at three replications, and the effects of kashk making process on the AFM1 contents were investigated. The HPLC method was used to determine the presence and levels of AFM1. Results: In the commercial kashk production in same concentration between initial milk and commercial kashk caused losses of AFM1 about 91%. These losses were found to be statistically significant (P <0.052 in same concentration between initial milk and commercial kashk. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate that the processing of commercial kashk could help to reduce harmful effects of AFM1 humans through consumption of contaminated milk or dairy products.

  12. Peanuts, Aflatoxins and Undernutrition in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Mupunga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the point of weaning infants from mother’s milk. It is at this critical point that childhood undernutrition occurs and the condition manifests as stunting, wasting and growth restriction and accounts for nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age in SSA. Undernutrition is multi-factorial but weaning foods contaminated with microbiological agents (bacteria and fungi and natural toxins have been shown to play a big part. While peanuts may provide good nutrition, they are also highly prone to contamination with mycotoxigenic fungi. The high nutritive value of peanuts makes them a perfect substrate for fungal growth and potential aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxins. This article reviews the nutritional value and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts, the role they play in the development of childhood malnutrition (including the different theories of aetiology and immunological problems in children. We also discuss the control strategies that have been explored and advocacy work currently taking shape in Africa to create more awareness of aflatoxins and thus combat their occurrence with the goal of reducing exposure and enhancing trade and food safety.

  13. Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Fels, van der Ine; Rijk, de T.C.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated

  14. Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinaputi, A.

    2001-10-01

    scanning electron microscope.Using the ELISA technique, all medicinal plants sampled showed aflatoxin B1. , with the highest contamination being found in Cassia garrettiana at 1,101.8 ppb, Caesalpinia sappan 655.9 ppb, Cassia siamea 583.0 ppb and Smilax ferox 572.5 ppb. Only 16 kinds ofmedicinal plant had levels of aflatoxin B1. lower than WHO guidelines (20 ppb specifically Smilax japonica, Derris scandens, Myristica fragrans, Piper spp., Curcuma zedoaria, Zingiber purpureum, Piper retrofractum, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, Imperata cyhindrica, Rhinacathus nasutus, Kaempferia pulchra, Foeniculum vulgare, Diospyros decandra, Boesenbergia pandurata and Alyxia reinwardtiiplease contact auther via e-mail: ssiripor@ratree.psu.ac.th or rdo-sjst@group.psu.ac.th

  15. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin among Tanzanian children as determined using biomarkers of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Candida P.; Kimanya, Martin E.; Kinabo, Joyce L.; Routledge, Michael N.; Srey, Chou; Wild, Christopher P.; Gong, Yun Yun

    2014-01-01

    Scope The study aims to evaluate the status of dietary exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin in young Tanzanian children, using previously validated biomarkers of exposure. Methods and results A total of 148 children aged 12 to 22 months, were recruited from three geographically distant villages in Tanzania; Nyabula, Kigwa and Kikelelwa. Plasma aflatoxin-albumin adducts (AF-alb) and urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1) were measured by ELISA and LC-MS, respectively. AF-alb was detectable in 84% of children, was highest in fully weaned children (pfumonisin through contaminated diet, although the level of exposure varies markedly between the three villages studied. PMID:23776058

  16. Radiation degradation of biological waste (aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2009-01-01

    Many filamentous fungi can produce secondary metabolites, called mycotoxins, which can be found in food and agricultural products. One of the main genera of myco toxigenic fungi related to the food chain is the Aspergillus spp. There are over 400 mycotoxins described in the literature, the most common the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The mycotoxins are commonly found in foods and are considered one of the most dangerous contaminants. The aflatoxin B1 is classified in group one by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. Aflatoxins resisting for more than one hour in autoclave making it necessary to other means of degradation of these toxins. This work aimed to observe the effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co and electron beams in the degradation of aflatoxins and compare the damage caused on the morphology of the Aspergillus flavus. The fungus was grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 10 days and was subsequently transferred to coconut agar medium, and maintained for 14 days at 25 degree C. After this step the coconut agar was ground to become a homogeneous pasty and was irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy. The samples used in scanning electron microscopy were irradiated with doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy with sources of 60 Co and electron beams. Irradiation with electron accelerator showed a slightly higher degradation to gamma radiation, reducing 29.93 %, 34.50 %, 52.63 % and 72.30 % for doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy, respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that doses of 2.5 to 10 kGy did not cause damage to the fungus, but with a dose of 20 kGy it can be observed fungal damage to structures. (author)

  17. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the control of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production on pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahmoshteh, Fatemeh; Siciliano, Ilenia; Banani, Houda; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2017-08-02

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important nut for its economic, nutritional and health aspects but it can be contaminated by aflatoxigenic fungi in the field and during storage. Biological control could be considered as an alternative to chemical treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic capability of two Bacillus spp. both in vitro and on pistachio kernels. In in vitro conditions, both strains were able to reduce the mycelial growth and they were able to degrade the four aflatoxins during the first three days after inoculation. AFG 1 and AFG 2 were rapidly degraded within two days of incubation with the bacterial strains. No aflatoxin was found in the bacterial cell walls, permitting exclusion of mycotoxin adsorption and hypothesis of an in vitro biodegradation as a mode of action. The cultivar of pistachio most susceptible to fungal colonization was 'Ahmad-Aghaei', selected among four main Iranian cultivars. A. parasiticus was able to grow and produce aflatoxins on pistachios, but at longer inoculation periods, a natural decrease of aflatoxins was registered. Both strains were able to reduce the fungal incidence and number of spores on pistachio with a stronger effect during the first 5dpi. The effect on aflatoxin content in vivo was less pronounced than in vitro, with a maximum effect at 8dpi. At longer times, there was a contrasting effect due to the lower activity of Bacillus spp. in stationary phase and higher growth of Aspergillus species. This consideration could explain the lack of aflatoxin reduction at 12dpi. Both bacterial strains showed good antifungal activity and aflatoxin reduction in in vitro conditions and on pistachio kernels. Altogether, these results indicate that Bacillus species could be considered as potential biocontrol agents to combat toxigenic fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin contamination of nuts and agricultural crops in practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  19. Investigation of Non-Covalent Interactions of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 with Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are widely spread mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus species. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and drinks causes serious health risks for people worldwide. It is well-known that the reactive epoxide metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 forms covalent adducts with serum albumin. However, non-covalent interactions of aflatoxins with human serum albumin (HSA are poorly characterized. Thus, in this study the complex formation of aflatoxins was examined with HSA applying spectroscopic and molecular modelling studies. Our results demonstrate that aflatoxins form stable complexes with HSA as reflected by binding constants between 2.1 × 104 and 4.5 × 104 dm3/mol. A binding free energy value of −26.90 kJ mol−1 suggests a spontaneous binding process between AFB1 and HSA at room-temperature, while the positive entropy change of 55.1 JK−1 mol−1 indicates a partial decomposition of the solvation shells of the interacting molecules. Modeling studies and investigations with site markers suggest that Sudlow’s Site I of subdomain IIA is the high affinity binding site of aflatoxins on HSA. Interaction of AFB1 with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumins was also investigated. Similar stabilities of the examined AFB1-albumin complexes were observed suggesting the low species differences of the albumin-binding of aflatoxins.

  20. Effect of low level of dietary aflatoxins on baladi rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, A M; el-Shawaf, I; el-Ayoty, S A; Ali, M M; Gamil, T

    1990-01-01

    Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2 were administered in a low concentration (100 ppb of each aflatoxin (AN] in a mash offered to Baladi rabbits. An other group of rabbits were fed on the same contaminated mash in addition to 0.25% charcoal (CC). The two groups were compared to control animals fed on AN-free mash. Inclusion of AN in the diet decreased feed and water consumption, body weight and survival rate. Charcoal improved somewhat feed and water consumption and growth rate than AN-group. However, CC-group affected digestibility of organic matter more than AN-group. Relative weights of liver, kidneys, heart and adrenal glands were significantly higher in AN and CC groups than the control group. Blood haemoglobin content, packed cell volume percentage and sedimentation rate were lower in AN group. Although there were an increase in each of serum, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, cholesterol, phospholipids and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase in AN group, yet the serum nitrogen and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase were reduced. Charcoal had alleviated AN-effects concerning N, GPT and phospholipids. Chemical analysis revealed elevation of water, ash and silica contents of liver and water content of muscles from AN-animals. On the other hand, fat content, GOT and vitamin A in the liver as well as muscles ash were reduced. Addition of CC to the diet reduced AN-effects on liver fat, ash and silica but resulted in a rise of the water content of liver and muscles and liver GPT activity. Charcoal also resulted in a sharp decrease in vitamin A content of the liver. Aflatoxin treatments (in AN and CC groups) reduced bone ash, silica and magnesium as well as bone volume. Charcoal administration increased Ca-content of bones. Aflatoxin feeding (in AN group) resulted in a high residual percentage of AN in muscles, serum, liver, heart and kidneys with relationships of 51 :24 : 3 :2 : 1, respectively. Only 1.42% of the fed AN was excreted in the faeces. Charcoal usage had a good effect as

  1. Monitoring of Aflatoxins in Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    UÇKUN, Okşan; VAR, Işıl

    2014-01-01

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are one of the most important oilseed crops and snack foods in the world Agro-food trade market. The major producers/exporters of peanuts are the United States, China, Argentina, Sudan, Senegal, and Brazil. Peanuts are a perishable commodity, easily spoiled by fungi. Aflatoxins are a group of natural compounds mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. They have been found to be carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic to humans and animal...

  2. Total aflatoxins in complementary foods produced at community levels using locally available ingredients in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelign, Abebe; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Adish, Abdulaziz; De Saeger, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of total aflatoxins in complementary foods (CFs) and their ingredients. A total of 126 samples collected from 20 Districts from Amhara, Tigray, Oromia, and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) regions were analysed for levels of total aflatoxins using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aflatoxins were detected in 62 out of 66 pre-milling samples with mean range of 0.3-9.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were also detected in 19 out of 20 post-production CFs and in all of the one-month stored CFs at households and grain banks, with a mean range of 0.5-8.0, 3.6-11.3, and 0.2-12.4 µg/kg, respectively. Overall, 3 out of 126 samples exceeded the maximum limit (10 µg/kg). Although most aflatoxin levels were below the maximum limit and thus considered to be safe for consumption, more effort should be implemented to reduce contamination, as these CFs are intended for consumption by young children.

  3. Integrated Control Sytems of Mycotoxin Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Name Romsyah

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp . and Penicillium s pp . i n agricultural products has been a concern regarding their effect to health and economic impact. Integrated control system should be based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach involving Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) . Prevention should be carried out through pre harvest, harvest, post harvest, as well as control quality at all s...

  4. Aflatoxins: A silent threat in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elias

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... susceptibility and growth stage, insect and bird damage and presence of other fungi or ... regulation, exports of agricultural products particularly groundnuts from ... economic losses and estimation of the effects of aflatoxin on health will .... determination of aflatoxins [Thesis] Athens: University of Georgia.

  5. Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Zuzana; Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Darlington, Dawn; Brown, Robert L; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2013-08-01

    In an effort to address the problem of rapid detection of aflatoxin in grain, particularly oilseeds, the current study assessed the spectral differences of aflatoxin production in kernels from a cornfield inoculated with spores from 2 different strains of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin production in corn from the same field due to natural infestation was also assessed. A small corn plot in Baton Rouge, La., U.S.A., was used during the 2008-growing season. Two groups of 400 plants were inoculated with 2 different inocula and 1 group of 400 plants was designated as controls. Any contamination detected in the controls was attributed to natural infestation. A subset of each group was imaged with a visible near infra red (VNIR) hyperspectral system under ultra violet (UV) excitation and subsequently analyzed for aflatoxin using affinity column fluorometry. Group differences were statistically analyzed. Results indicate that when all the spectral data across all groups were averaged, any potential differences between groups (treated and untreated) were obscured. However, spectral analysis based on contaminated "hot" pixel classification showed a distinct spectral shift/separation between contaminated and clean ears with fluorescence peaks at 501 and 478 nm, respectively. All inoculated and naturally infected control ears had fluorescence peaks at 501 nm that differed from uninfected corn ears. Results from this study may be useful in evaluating rapid, noninvasive instrumentation and/or methodology for aflatoxin detection in grain. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Collision-induced dissociation of aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Katalin; Nagy, Lajos; Mándi, Attila; Kuki, Ákos; Mézes, Miklós; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2013-02-28

    The aflatoxin mycotoxins are particularly hazardous to health when present in food. Therefore, from an analytical point of view, knowledge of their mass spectrometric properties is essential. The aim of the present study was to describe the collision-induced dissociation behavior of the four most common aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1 and G2. Protonated aflatoxins were produced using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments nitrogen was used as the collision gas and the collision energies were varied in the range of 9-44 eV (in the laboratory frame). The major APCI-MS/MS fragmentations of protonated aflatoxins occurred at 30 eV collision energy. The main fragmentation channels were found to be the losses of a series of carbon monoxide molecules and loss of a methyl radical, leading to the formation of radical-type product ions. In addition, if the aflatoxin molecule contained an ether- or lactone-oxygen atom linked to a saturated carbon atom, loss of a water molecule was observed from the [M + H](+) ion, especially in the case of aflatoxins G1 and G2. A relatively small modification in the structure of aflatoxins dramatically altered the fragmentation pathways and this was particularly true for aflatoxins B1 and B2. Due to the presence of a C = C double bond connected to the ether group in aflatoxin B1 no elimination of water was observed but, instead, formation of radical-type product ions occurred. Fragmentation of protonated aflatoxin B1 yielded the most abundant radical-type cations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are severe toxic secondary metabolites found in most plant products. When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the toxin is metabolized by liver and is excreted as Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 via milk. Aflatoxins are acute toxic compounds, immunosuppressive, mutagen, tratogen and carcinogen."nMethods: During the winter of 2006, pasteurized and sterilized (ultra high temperature (UHT milk packages were collected from supermarkets in Babol city. 78 pasteurized and 33 sterilized milk, totally 111 samples were tested for AFM1 by competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Solid phase in plastic micro wells coated whit anti-Aflatoxin M1 antibodies. We added 100 microliter skimmed milk and Aflatoxin M1 standard solutions in each well. In each plate, we appointed seven wells for standards. Plates were incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 45 min. Each well was washed four times by washing buffer 20X concentration. Then 100 micro liter conjugated solution (100X was added to each well, and the plate was incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 15 min. After that, the wells were washed. After adding the substrates to wells, we incubated the plate at 20-25 centigrade in a dark place for 15 min. The reaction was stopped by stop solution. After one hour, light absorption was read at 450 nm by ELISA reader."nResults: AFM1 were detected in 100% of all samples. 100% of samples were above of European community regulations (50ng/l. AFM1 contamination mean levels pasteurized and sterilized milk were 230.5 and 221.66 respectively. Therefore more than four fold levels European community. There is not a significant relationship between AFM1 contamina-tion level and different months of winter applying statistical test."nConclusion: The results showed the need for introducing safety limits for AFM1 levels in child milk under Food Legislative liable of Iran. Aflatoxin M1 contamination is a serious problem for public health

  8. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and assessment of pre-harvest interval (PHI) and processing factor for kresoxim methyl residues in grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabale, Rupali; Shabeer, T P Ahammed; Utture, Sagar C; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Adsule, Pandurang G; Deshmukh, Madhukar B

    2014-04-01

    A field dissipation study was conducted to evaluate the pre-harvest interval (PHI) and processing factor (PF) for kresoxim methyl (Ergon 44.3 SC) residues in grapes and during raisin making process at recommended dose (RD) and double the recommended dose (DRD). Kresoxim methyl residues dissipated following 1st-order kinetics with a half-life of 10 and 18 days at RD and DRD, respectively. The PHIs with respect to the European Union maximum residue limit (EU-MRL) of 1 mg kg(-1) for grapes were 13 and 30 days at RD and DRD, respectively. The degradation data during grape to raisin making process were best fitted to nonlinear 1st + 1st-order kinetics with a half-life ranging between 4 and 8 days for both shade drying and with raisin dryer at different doses. The PFs were 1.19 and 1.24 with shade drying and 1.09 and 1.10 with raisin dryer, respectively, which indicates concentration of the residues during raisin making process. The dietary exposure of kresoxim methyl on each sampling day was less than the respective maximum permissible intake both at RD and DRD. The residues of kresoxim methyl in market samples of grapes and raisins were well below the EU-MRL and were also devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure.

  9. The effects of pre-harvest napthalene acetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on storage performance of ‘ Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar grown in Erzincan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan OZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, 150, 225 ve 300 mg/L and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 20 mg/L treatments in different doses on storage performance of ‘Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. in 2012. The changes on some fruit quality parameters were measured at 2±1 oC temperature and with 90±5 % relative humidity at 45 days interval during storage. The lowest weight loss was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. In the all analysis date, the highest L* value was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits, and the lowest hue angle value was reported from the fruits of control treatment. The flesh firmness was determined that the best kept in the 225 and 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. The flesh firmness significantly reduced with NAA treatment at the end of storage. The highest soluble solids concentration (SSC was obtain from control fruit during the storage, whereas the lowest SSC was observed in fruit treated with 300 mg/L AVG. In the all analysis date, the highest titratable acidity was obtained in fruits treated with 225 and 300 mg/L AVG. The starch degradation was delayed with AVG treatments.

  10. Cloning and expression of a sorghum gene with homology to maize vp1. Its potential involvement in pre-harvest sprouting resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrari, F; Perez-Flore, L; Lijavetzky, D; Enciso, S; Sanchez, R; Benech-Arnold, R; Iusem, N

    2001-04-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in sorghum is related to the lack of a normal dormancy level during seed development and maturation. Based on previous evidence that seed dormancy in maize is controlled by the vp1 gene, we used a PCR-based approach to isolate two Sorghum bicolor genomic and cDNA clones from two genotypes exhibiting different PHS behaviour and sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). The two 699 amino acid predicted protein sequences differ in two residues at positions 341 (Gly or Cys within the repression domain) and 448 (Pro or Ser) and show over 80, 70 and 60% homology to maize, rice and oat VP1 proteins respectively. Expression analysis of the sorghum vp1 gene in the two lines shows a slightly higher level of vp1 mRNA in the embryos susceptible to PHS than in those resistant to PHS during embryogenesis. However, timing of expression was different between these genotypes during this developmental process. Whereas for the former the main peak of expression was observed at 20 days after pollination (DAP), the peak in the latter was found at later developmental stages when seed maturation was almost complete. Under favourable germination conditions and in the presence of fluridone (an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis), sorghum vp1 mRNA showed to be consistently correlated with sensitivity to ABA but not with ABA content and dormancy.

  11. Dissipation rate study and pre-harvest intervals calculation of imidacloprid and oxamyl in exported Egyptian green beans and chili peppers after pestigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Ahmad; Dasenaki, Marilena; Bletsou, Anna; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2018-02-01

    Two QuEChERS-based methods were developed and validated, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection, in order to accurately determine residues of imidacloprid and oxamyl in green beans and chili peppers after treatment via irrigation system under field conditions in Egyptian farms. The validation included experiments for specificity, linearity, trueness, precision, matrix effect and limits of detection and quantification according to European Commission standards. The dissipation rates of both pesticides in green beans and chili peppers were studied and the pre-harvest intervals (PHIs) were calculated. The LOQ values of imidacloprid were 0.47 and 2.6μg/kg in green beans and chili peppers, respectively, while for oxamyl the LOQs were 2.9 and 0.67μg/kg, respectively. No PHI of imidacloprid is required, while for oxamyl it was found that still after 21days, its residues' concentration on both crops was significantly higher than the maximum residue limit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Tamyb10 allelic variants and development of STS marker for pre-harvest sprouting resistance in Chinese bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, X L; Meng, J Y; Zhang, Y J; He, Z H; Yang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain color does not only affect the brightness of flour but also seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) tolerance. The transcription factor Tamyb10 is an important candidate for R-1 gene, and the expression of its homologs determines wheat seed coat color. In the present study, the allelic variations of Tamyb10 were explored in a set of Chinese bread wheat varieties and advanced lines with different PHS tolerance, and a sequenced-tagged site (STS) marker for Tamyb10-D1 gene was developed, designated as Tamyb10D , which could be used as an efficient and reliable marker to evaluate the depth dormancy of wheat seeds. Using the marker Tamyb10D , 1629- and 1178-bp PCR fragments were amplified from the tolerant varieties, whereas a 1178-bp fragment was from the susceptible ones. Of the Chinese bread wheat varieties and advanced lines, 103 were used to validate the relationship between the polymorphic fragments of Tamyb10D and PHS tolerance. Statistical analysis indicated that Tamyb10D was significantly ( P  varieties, 8 Tamyb10 genotypes ( Tamybl0-A1 , Tamybl0-B1 , and Tamyb10-D1 loci) were detected, namely, aaa, aab, aba, abb, baa, bab, bba, and bbb, and these were significantly associated with GI value.

  13. Pre-harvest application of salicylic acid maintain the rind textural properties and reduce fruit rot and chilling injury of sweet orange during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.D.; Iqbal, Z.; Singh, Z.; Iqbal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Trees of citrus cvs Lane Late and Valencia Late oranges were sprayed ten days before anticipated harvest with salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 mM). Fruits were harvested and stored at 5 degree C for 93 days to investigate the effects of SA on fruit rot, chilling injury and quality relating parameters such as rind and fruit firmness as well as sugar and organic acid contents. Fruits were analyzed before storage and after 31, 62 and 93 days of storage and found that SA at 8 mM and 9 mM reduced fruit rot from 16.93% to 6.06% and 12.78% to 5.12% in Lane Late and Valencia Late, respectively. Chilling injury was significantly reduced at 8 mM and 9 mM treatments. Textural properties relating to rind puncture, rind tensile and fruit firmness forces showed that treated fruits were significantly firmer than those of control. Maintained contents of SSC, TA, individual sugars and organic acids in treated fruit with higher doses after 93 confirmed preliminary findings such as SA has anti-senescent effect. Our research suggests that pre-harvest spray of SA can be used effectively to minimize the post-harvest/storage losses of sweet oranges cultivars. (author)

  14. Potential producers of aflatoxin in working environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesenska, Z.; Polakova, O.; Polster, M.; Koskova, L.; Vaszilkova, A.

    1981-01-01

    It has been investigated the amount of the viable germs of A. flavus in the environment of the food-stuff establishment, where peanuts and hazel nuts, almonds, crushed coconuts, tea and other food-stuffs, imported from tropical and subtropical countries, were processed and packed. In the air of the store-hall have occurred the most 3.73 x 10(2) and in the air of the working-halls, where they were manipulating with food-stuffs - the most 6.2 x 10(3) germs of A. flavus/m3. From the samples of the sedimented dust were isolated at least 0.4 x 10(1), the most 1.3 x 10(4) colonies of A. flavus/g. From 57 investigated strains produced aflatoxin B1 64.9%. The authors are discussing about a professional risk for the workers of some establishments during the manipulation with food-stuffs or feeds, which are contaminated with germs of toxinogenic moulds and with mycotoxins.

  15. The frequency of occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk on the territory of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovinski-Horvatović Miroslava S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is one of the most common mycotoxins which can be found in milk. It represents a natural metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that occurs as a result of animal metabolism and the body's attempt to detoxificate it. It is excreted in milk, feces and urine of animals that consumed contaminated feed with aflatoxin B1. The carry-over from feed to milk depends on many factors, ranging from 0.3 to 6.2%. Aflatoxin M1 is in the first group of carcinogens according to the IRAC classification from 2002, but it is considered to have only 10% of carcinogenicity from its precursor aflatoxin B1. Legislation in member countries of European Union for this mycotoxin in milk intended for people is 0.05 μg/l, while the rest of the countries that also have legislation for this mycotoxin allow the concentration that is ten times higher, and that is 0.5 μg/l. In this paper, we have tried to provide on insight into the quality of milk, food often consumed by children, from the standpoint of mycotoxicology, and to compare the obtained data with data available from literature, from countries in the region that have similar climatic and agricultural conditions. From a total of 65 samples of processed milk, aflatoxin M1 was found in 18 samples and none of the samples exceeded the level of 0.05 μg/l, which is allowed by the legislation of the European Union.

  16. Aflatoxin B1: Mechanism of mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Aflatoxins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites that frequently contaminate corn, peanuts and other products. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the most potent of these, is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system into a number of hydroxylated metabolites and glutathione conjugates in the process of conversion to more hydrophilic forms for urinary excretion. Unfortunately, one of these metabolites is the aflatoxin-8,9-epoxide that is produced in two forms, endo and exo. Glutathione S-transferases (GST are able to conjugate and detoxify this reactive intermediate. Species differences in susceptibility to the effects of AFB1 are partially related to differences in expression of specific GSTs that are able to conjugate the epoxide to glutathione. The exo epoxide is able to intercalate into DNA and this is followed by reaction of the C8 position of the epoxide with the N7 position of guanine.

    NMR studies of oligonucleotide duplexes containing the adduct have demonstrated that the adduct exists with the aromatic portion intercalated on the 5' face of the guanine residue with Watson-Crick base pairing maintained.

    However, this covalent adduct is chemically unstable due to the charge on the ribose ring. As a result, the guanine can be released from the DNA leaving an apurinic site. This released guanine adduct can be detected in the urine and serves as a biomarker of exposure to AFB1. Alternatively, the ribose ring opens forming a stable formamidopyrimidine (FAPY adduct. This adduct somewhat stabilizes the DNA duplex. Time course studies in animals have demonstrated that the N7 adduct is rapidly removed, probably because it causes more distortion in the helix, while the FAPY adduct is more

  17. Antibodies 'green' against aflatoxins for consumer protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capodicasa, Cristina; Catellani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Among the natural toxins that can contaminate products food or feed intended for animal, a particular concern is aroused by mycotoxins. They are toxic substances produced as secondary metabolites, in appropriate conditions micro climate, mainly by members of fungi the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The attention paid to these contaminants is justified from the serious effects (teratogenic, carcinogenic, estrogen, neurotoxic and immunosuppression) on health of humans and animals resulting from their intake through food. The Laboratory of Biotechnology Biotechnology Division and agro-industry, at the Research Center Casaccia, has been engaged for years in antibody production in alternative systems to animal cells, such as plants for various applications, the biomedical field to the food industry. Me.Di.T.A. the project under (Methodologies Diagnostic and Advanced Technologies for the quality and the safety of food of the South of Italy), in particular, they have been isolated antibody to develop a diagnostic assay for quantification of aflatoxins in food matrices. [it

  18. Detection of Pistachio Aflatoxin Using Raman Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mohammadigol

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio contamination to aflatoxin has been known as a serious problem for pistachio exportation. With regards to the increasing demand for Raman spectroscopy to detect and classify different materials and also the current experimental and technical problems for measuring toxin (such as being expensive and time-consuming, the main objective of this study was to detect aflatoxin contamination in pistachio by using Raman spectroscopy technique and artificial neural networks. Three sets of samples were prepared: non-contaminated (healthy and contaminated samples with 20 and 100 ppb of the total aflatoxins (B1+B2+G1+G2. After spectral acquisition, considering to the results, spectral data were normalized and then principal components (PCs were extracted to reduce the data dimensions. For classification of the samples spectra, an artificial neural network was used with a feed forward back propagation algorithm for 4 inputs and 3 neurons in hidden layer. Mean overall accuracy was achieved to be 98 percent; therefore, non-liner Raman spectra data modeling by ANN for samples classification was successful.

  19. Abscisic acid content and the expression of genes related to its metabolism during maturation of triticale grains of cultivars differing in pre-harvest sprouting susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Justyna; Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Prabucka, Beata; Bielawski, Wiesław

    2016-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a predominant role in the onset and maintenance of primary dormancy. Peak ABA accumulation in embryos of triticale grains was observed before any significant loss of water and was higher in Fredro, a cultivar less susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), than in Leontino, a cultivar more sensitive to PHS. At full maturity, embryonic ABA content in Fredro was twice as high as in Leontino. Two full-length cDNAs of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (TsNCED1, TsNCED2), an enzyme involved in ABA biosynthesis, and two full-length cDNAs of ABA 8'-hydroxylase (TsABA8'OH1 and TsABA8'OH2), an enzyme involved in ABA catabolism, were identified in triticale grains and characterized. The maximum transcript level of both TsNCED1 and TsNCED2 preceded the peak of ABA accumulation, suggesting that both TsNCEDs contribute to reach this peak, although the expression of TsNCED1 was significantly higher in Fredro than in Leontino. High expression of TsABA8'OH2 and TsABA8'OH1 was observed long before and at the end of the ABA accumulation peak, respectively, but no differences were observed between cultivars. The obtained results suggest that mainly TsNCED1 might be related to the higher ABA content and higher resistance of Fredro to PHS. However, Fredro embryos not only have higher ABA content, but also exhibit greater sensitivity to ABA, which may also have a significant effect on grain dormancy and lower susceptibility to PHS for grains of this cultivar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Model of pre-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruits (Acca sellowiana (O. berg burret as a function of weather conditions of the crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Weather conditions influence the quality parameters of pineapple guava fruit during growth and development. The aim of this study was to propose a model of pre-harvest fruit quality as a function of weather conditions in the cultivation area. Twenty trees were flagged per farm in 2 localities of the Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia: Tenjo (2,580 m.a.s.l.; 12.5 °C; relative humidity between 74 and 86%; mean annual precipitation 765 mm and San Francisco de Sales (1,800 m.a.s.l.; 20.6 °C; relative humidity between 63 and 97%; mean annual precipitation 1,493 mm. Measurements were performed every 7 days during 2 harvest periods starting on days 96 (Tenjo and 99 (San Francisco de Sales after anthesis and until harvest. The models were obtained using Excel® Solver, and a set of data was obtained for the 2 different cultivar periods and each study site. The results showed that altitude, growing degree days, and accumulated precipitation are the weather variables with the highest influence on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit during growth. The models of fresh weight, total titratable acidity, and skin firmness better predict the development of fruit quality during growth and development. Equations were obtained for increases of length and diameter as a function of fruit weight and for days from anthesis as a function of growing degree days and altitude. The regression analysis parameters showed that the models adequately predicted the fruit characteristics during growth for both localities, and a cross-validation analysis showed a good statistical fit between the estimated and observed values.

  1. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  2. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in rice and maize staple cereals in Northern Vietnam and dietary exposure in different ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Tuyen, Le Dahn; Do, Tran Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins in food are increasingly a food safety hazard concern in particular in developing countries. This study was performed to determine the occurrence and determinants of aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in rice and maize and to assess health risks through dietary intake exposure among...

  3. Association between Urinary Aflatoxin (AFM1 and Dietary Intake among Adults in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Husna Sulaiman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a biomarker of aflatoxin exposure, with the dietary intake among adults in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia. Certain food products have higher potential for aflatoxin contamination and these were listed in a Food Frequency Questionnaire, which was given to all study participants. This allowed us to record consumption rates for each food product listed. Concomitantly, urine samples were collected, from adults in selected areas in Hulu Langat district, for the measurement of AFM1 levels using an ELISA kit. Of the 444 urine samples collected and tested, 199 were positive for AFM1, with 37 of them exceeding the limit of detection (LOD of 0.64 ng/mL. Cereal products showed the highest consumption level among all food groups, with an average intake of 512.54 g per day. Chi-square analysis showed that consumption of eggs (X2 = 4.77, p = 0.03 and dairy products (X2 = 19.36, p < 0.01 had significant associations with urinary AFM1 but both food groups were having a phi and Cramer’s V value that less than 0.3, which indicated that the association between these food groups’ consumption and AFM1 level in urine was weak.

  4. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoxia; Wu, Linxia; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Bai, Yizhen; Chen, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2) of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d) for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year) respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year). In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade. PMID:26501322

  5. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine...

  6. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: a three year study in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Jaime, Ramon; Cotty, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. In the state of Sonora, Mexico, maize is cultivated from 0 to 2100 masl with diverse cultivation practices. This is typical of the nation. In order to design better sampling strategies across Mexico, aflatoxin-producing fungal communities associated with maize production during 2006, 2007, and 2008 in Sonora were investigated in four agro-ecological zones (AEZ) at varying elevation. Fungal communities were dominated by the Aspergillus flavus L strain morphotype (46%), but variation occurred between years and among AEZ. Several atoxigenic isolates with potential to be used as biocontrol agents for aflatoxin mitigation were detected in all AEZ. The characteristics of each AEZ had minimal influences on fungal community structure and should not be a major consideration for future sampling designs for Mexico. Insights into the dynamics and stability of aflatoxin-producing fungal communities across AEZ are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on growth and enzymatic activity of a native strain of Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sáez Vega

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different aflatoxin B1 (AFAB1 concentrations on alkaline protease growth and enzymatic activity was evaluated; a native strain of alkalophilic Bacillus sp cultivated in CSL (Corn Steep Liquor was used. It was found that the effect of AFAB1 on the strain inhibited its growth and enzymatic activity to 1 ppm, showing that the strain is highly sensible to AFAB1, meaning that medium obtained f rom Colombian corn contaminated with this mycotoxin cannot be easily used. Concentrations less than 0.1 ppm did not affect growth and enzymatic activity. Key words: Bacillus, aflatoxin, alkaline proteases.

  8. The frequency of presence of aflatoxin B1 in foodstuffs of vegetable origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojković Vesna S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, nuts and spices are foods that are used in the daily human diet. According to FAO the average consumption of foods of vegetable origin in people’s diet is increasing. Due to inadequate conditions during storage of foods of vegetable origin, there is possibility of contamination by mold that produces mycotoxins. Since the intake of these products in organism has been increased, there is a risk of exposure to mycotoxins and their harmful effect on the consumers’ health. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of aflatoxin B1 in products of vegetable origin (cereals, nuts and spices. Aflatoxin B1 was determined by enzyme-imunochemical method (ELISA, using commercial kit. 38 samples were tested. In 25 analyzed samples, the content of aflatoxin B1 was higher than 1 μg/kg (1 μg/kg is limit of detection. Out of the total number of tested samples, in 18 samples the content of aflatoxin B1 was determined higher than the allowed amount for this product group by the current regulations (2 μg/kg for cereals, 2 μg/kg for nuts and 5 μg/kg for spices.

  9. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Identifies Candidate Gene Signatures in Response to Aflatoxin Producing Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renesh Bedre

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are toxic and potent carcinogenic metabolites produced from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. United States federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20 ppb for animal feed. Several strategies have been proposed for controlling aflatoxin contamination, and much success has been achieved by the application of an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus in cotton, peanut and maize fields. Development of cultivars resistant to aflatoxin through overexpression of resistance associated genes and/or knocking down aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus will be an effective strategy for controlling aflatoxin contamination in cotton. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in response to infection with both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. pericarp and seed. The genes involved in antifungal response, oxidative burst, transcription factors, defense signaling pathways and stress response were highly differentially expressed in pericarp and seed tissues in response to A. flavus infection. The cell-wall modifying genes and genes involved in the production of antimicrobial substances were more active in pericarp as compared to seed. The genes involved in auxin and cytokinin signaling were also induced. Most of the genes involved in defense response in cotton were highly induced in pericarp than in seed. The global gene expression analysis in response to fungal invasion in cotton will serve as a source for identifying biomarkers for breeding, potential candidate genes for transgenic manipulation, and will help in understanding complex plant-fungal interaction for future downstream research.

  10. Aflatoxin Levels in Locally Grown Maize from Makueni District, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Investigations were carried out to determine aflatoxin levels in household maize in Makueni District and to correlate aflatoxin levels to maize drying and storage practices. Also, aflatoxin exposure in villages that reported aflatoxicosis cases in 2005 was compared with that in villages that did not report cases to ...

  11. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that have...

  12. Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are toxic to humans, fish and many other animals, even in low concentrations. Susceptibility to aflatoxins varies by age, health status, species and other factors. Most research has focused on aflatoxins in maize or groundnuts and their impacts on human health. However, aflatoxins are found in other foods and can also ...

  13. Metabolites Identified during Varied Doses of Aspergillus Species in Zea mays Grains, and Their Correlation with Aflatoxin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilayo D. O. Falade

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination is associated with the development of aflatoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on food grains. This study was aimed at investigating metabolites produced during fungal development on maize and their correlation with aflatoxin levels. Maize cobs were harvested at R3 (milk, R4 (dough, and R5 (dent stages of maturity. Individual kernels were inoculated in petri dishes with four doses of fungal spores. Fungal colonisation, metabolite profile, and aflatoxin levels were examined. Grain colonisation decreased with kernel maturity: milk-, dough-, and dent-stage kernels by approximately 100%, 60%, and 30% respectively. Aflatoxin levels increased with dose at dough and dent stages. Polar metabolites including alanine, proline, serine, valine, inositol, iso-leucine, sucrose, fructose, trehalose, turanose, mannitol, glycerol, arabitol, inositol, myo-inositol, and some intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA—also known as citric acid or Krebs cycle were important for dose classification. Important non-polar metabolites included arachidic, palmitic, stearic, 3,4-xylylic, and margaric acids. Aflatoxin levels correlated with levels of several polar metabolites. The strongest positive and negative correlations were with arabitol (R = 0.48 and turanose and (R = −0.53, respectively. Several metabolites were interconnected with the TCA; interconnections of the metabolites with the TCA cycle varied depending upon the grain maturity.

  14. A method for the measurement of in line pistachio aflatoxin concentration based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paghaleh, Soodeh Jamali; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Bahrampour, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of pistachio nuts with aflatoxin is one of the most significant issues related to pistachio health and expert. A fast pistachio aflatoxin concentration measurement method based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is proposed. The proposed method from theoretical and experimental points of view is analyzed. In our experiments XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an Ultra Violet (UV) source (λ=308 nm) and a UV–visible (UV–vis) spectrometer is used for fluorescent emission detection. Our setup is employed to measure the concentration of different type of Aflatoxins in pistachio nuts. Measurements results obtained by the LIFS method are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. Aflatoxins concentrations are in good agreement with those are obtained by the HPLC method. The proposed laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as an in line aflatoxins concentrations measurement instrument for industrial applications. - Highlights: • XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an UV source for measurement of AFs in pistachio nuts. • Results are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. • LIFS is an online AFs concentration measurement method for industrial applications

  15. Haplotype Analysis of the Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance Locus Phs-A1 Reveals a Causal Role of TaMKK3-A in Global Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorinola, Oluwaseyi; Balcárková, Barbara; Hyles, Jessica; Tibbits, Josquin F G; Hayden, Matthew J; Holušova, Katarina; Valárik, Miroslav; Distelfeld, Assaf; Torada, Atsushi; Barrero, Jose M; Uauy, Cristobal

    2017-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is an important cause of quality loss in many cereal crops and is particularly prevalent and damaging in wheat. Resistance to PHS is therefore a valuable target trait in many breeding programs. The Phs-A1 locus on wheat chromosome arm 4AL has been consistently shown to account for a significant proportion of natural variation to PHS in diverse mapping populations. However, the deployment of sprouting resistance is confounded by the fact that different candidate genes, including the tandem duplicated Plasma Membrane 19 ( PM19 ) genes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 ( TaMKK3-A) gene, have been proposed to underlie Phs-A1 . To further define the Phs-A1 locus, we constructed a physical map across this interval in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We established close proximity of the proposed candidate genes which are located within a 1.2 Mb interval. Genetic characterization of diverse germplasm used in previous genetic mapping studies suggests that TaMKK3-A , and not PM19 , is the major gene underlying the Phs-A1 effect in European, North American, Australian and Asian germplasm. We identified the non-dormant TaMKK3-A allele at low frequencies within the A-genome diploid progenitor Triticum urartu genepool, and show an increase in the allele frequency in modern varieties. In United Kingdom varieties, the frequency of the dormant TaMKK3-A allele was significantly higher in bread-making quality varieties compared to feed and biscuit-making cultivars. Analysis of exome capture data from 58 diverse hexaploid wheat accessions identified fourteen haplotypes across the extended Phs-A1 locus and four haplotypes for TaMKK3-A . Analysis of these haplotypes in a collection of United Kingdom and Australian cultivars revealed distinct major dormant and non-dormant Phs-A1 haplotypes in each country, which were either rare or absent in the opposing germplasm set. The diagnostic markers and haplotype information reported in the study will

  16. Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Satta, D; De Pau, L; Schirra, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of

  17. Haplotype Analysis of the Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance Locus Phs-A1 Reveals a Causal Role of TaMKK3-A in Global Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Shorinola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS is an important cause of quality loss in many cereal crops and is particularly prevalent and damaging in wheat. Resistance to PHS is therefore a valuable target trait in many breeding programs. The Phs-A1 locus on wheat chromosome arm 4AL has been consistently shown to account for a significant proportion of natural variation to PHS in diverse mapping populations. However, the deployment of sprouting resistance is confounded by the fact that different candidate genes, including the tandem duplicated Plasma Membrane 19 (PM19 genes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (TaMKK3-A gene, have been proposed to underlie Phs-A1. To further define the Phs-A1 locus, we constructed a physical map across this interval in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We established close proximity of the proposed candidate genes which are located within a 1.2 Mb interval. Genetic characterization of diverse germplasm used in previous genetic mapping studies suggests that TaMKK3-A, and not PM19, is the major gene underlying the Phs-A1 effect in European, North American, Australian and Asian germplasm. We identified the non-dormant TaMKK3-A allele at low frequencies within the A-genome diploid progenitor Triticum urartu genepool, and show an increase in the allele frequency in modern varieties. In United Kingdom varieties, the frequency of the dormant TaMKK3-A allele was significantly higher in bread-making quality varieties compared to feed and biscuit-making cultivars. Analysis of exome capture data from 58 diverse hexaploid wheat accessions identified fourteen haplotypes across the extended Phs-A1 locus and four haplotypes for TaMKK3-A. Analysis of these haplotypes in a collection of United Kingdom and Australian cultivars revealed distinct major dormant and non-dormant Phs-A1 haplotypes in each country, which were either rare or absent in the opposing germplasm set. The diagnostic markers and haplotype information reported in the

  18. Aflatoxin Toxicity Reduction in Feed by Enhanced Binding to Surface-Modified Clay Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, William F.; Zartman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that clay additives, such as bentonites, can bind aflatoxins in ingested feed and reduce or eliminate the toxicity. Bentonite deposits are found throughout the world and mostly consist of expandable smectite minerals, such as montmorillonite. The surfaces of smectite minerals can be treated with organic compounds to create surface-modified clays that more readily bind some contaminants than the untreated clay. Montmorillonites treated with organic cations, such as hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), more effectively remove organic contaminants, such as benzene and toluene, from water than untreated clay. Similarly, montmorillonite treated with PTMA (Kd = 24,100) retained more aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) from aqueous corn flour than untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 944). Feed additives that reduced aflatoxin toxicity in animal feeding studies adsorbed more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than feed additives that were less effective. The organic cations HDTMA and PTMA are considered toxic and would not be suitable for clay additives used in feed or food, but other non-toxic or nutrient compounds can be used to prepare surface-modified clays. Montmorillonite (SWy) treated with choline (Kd = 13,800) and carnitine (Kd = 3960) adsorbed much more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than the untreated clay (Kd = 944). A choline-treated clay prepared from a reduced-charge, high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 20,100) adsorbed more AfB1 than the choline-treated high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 1340) or the untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 293). Surface-modified clay additives prepared using low-charge smectites and nutrient or non-toxic organic compounds might be used to more effectively bind aflatoxins in contaminated feed or food and prevent toxicity. PMID:22069725

  19. Determination of aflatoxins in medicinal plants by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Nadeem A; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Sayeed; Panda, Bibhu P; Makhmoor, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the proposed work is to study the presence of the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in medicinal plants, namely Mucuna pruriens, Delphinium denudatum and Portulaca oleraceae. The aflatoxins were extracted, purified by immunoaffinity column chromatography and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-MS/MS). Fungal count was carried out in PDA media. A good linear relationship was found for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at 1-10 ppb (r>0.9995). The analyte accuracy under three different spiking levels was 86.7-108.1 %, with low per cent relative standard deviations in each case. The aflatoxins can be separated within 5 to7 min using an Agilent XDB C18-column. We found that AFB1 and AFB2 were in trace amounts below the detection limit in M. pruriens whilst they were not detected in D. denudatum. P. oleraceae was found to be contaminated with AFB1 and AFB2. AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected in M. pruriens, P. oleraceae and were below the detection limit in D. denudatum. This was consistent with very low numbers of fungal colonies observed after 6 hr of incubation. The analytical method developed is simple, precise, accurate, economical and can be effectively used to determine the aflatoxins in medicinal plants and therefore to control the quality of products. The aflatoxin levels in the plant extracts examined were related to the minimal fungal load in the medicinal plants examined.

  20. Transformation of adsorbed aflatoxin B1 on smectite at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins cause liver damage and suppress immunity. Smectites can be used to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins through adsorption. To further reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins and to eliminate the treatments of aflatoxin-loaded smectites, degrading the adsorbed aflatoxin to nontoxic or less ...

  1. Interaction of Wild Strains of Aspergilla with Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC15517 and Aflatoxin Production †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, H. Marina; Almeida, Inês; Marques, Marta; Bernardo, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some competent mould strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. These compounds have been extensively studied with regards to their toxicity for animals and humans; they are able to induce liver cancer and may cause a wide range of adverse effects in living organisms. Aflatoxins are found as natural contaminants of food and feed; the main line of the strategy to control them is based on the prevention of the mould growth in raw vegetable or during its storage and monitoring of each crop batch. Mould growth is conditioned by many ecological factors, including biotic ones. Hazard characterization models for aflatoxins in crops must take into consideration biotic interactions between moulds and their potential effects on growth development. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the biotic interaction of 14 different wild strains of Aspergilla (different species), with a competent strain (Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517) using an in vitro production model. The laboratory model used was a natural matrix (humidified cracked corn), on which each wild strain challenged the aflatoxin production of a producer strain. Cultures were incubated at 28°C for 12 days and sampled at the 8th and 12th. Aflatoxin detection and quantification was performed by HPLC using a procedure with a MRPL = 1 μg/kg. Results of those interactive cultures revealed both synergic and antagonistic effects on aflatoxin biosynthesis. Productivity increases were particularly evident on the 8th day of incubation with wild strains of A. flavipes (+ 70.4 %), A. versicolor (+ 54.9 %) and A. flavus 3 (+ 62.6 %). Antagonistic effects were found with A. niger (− 69.5%), A. fumigatus (− 47.6 %) and A. terreus (− 47.6 %) on the 12th day. The increased effects were more evident on the 8th of incubation and the decreases were more patent on the 12th day. Results show that the development of Aspergilla strains concomitantly with

  2. Revising the role of pH and thermal treatments in aflatoxin content reduction during the tortilla and deep frying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P; Guzmán-Ortiz, M; Ramírez-Wong, B

    2001-06-01

    Naturally aflatoxin-contaminated corn (Zea mays L.) was made into tortillas, tortilla chips, and corn chips by the traditional and commercial alkaline cooking processes. The traditional nixtamalization (alkaline-cooking) process involved cooking and steeping the corn, whereas the commercial nixtamalization process only steeps the corn in a hot alkaline solution (initially boiling). A pilot plant that includes the cooker, stone grinder, celorio cutter, and oven was used for the experiments. The traditional process eliminated 51.7, 84.5, and 78.8% of the aflatoxins content in tortilla, tortilla chips, and corn chips, respectively. The commercial process was less effective: it removed 29.5, 71.2, and 71.2 of the aflatoxin in the same products. Intermediate and final products did not reach a high enough pH to allow permanent aflatoxin reduction during thermal processing. The cooking or steeping liquor (nejayote) is the only component of the system with a sufficiently high pH (10.2-10.7) to allow modification and detoxification of aflatoxins present in the corn grain. The importance of removal of tip, pericarp, and germ during nixtamalization for aflatoxin reduction in tortilla is evident.

  3. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in Brazilian rice: From field to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurayama, Aline M; Martins, Ligia M; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Silva, Josué J; Frisvad, Jens C; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2018-02-02

    The guarantee of the high quality of rice is of utmost importance because any toxic contaminant may affect consumer health, especially in countries such as Brazil where rice is part of the daily diet. A total of 187 rice samples, from field, processing and market from two different production systems, wetland from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, dryland, from the state of Maranhão and market samples from the state of São Paulo, were analyzed for fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi and the presence of aflatoxins. Twenty-three soil samples from wetland and dryland were also analyzed. A total of 383 Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from rice and soil samples. Using a polyphasic approach, with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular data (beta-tubulin gene sequences), five species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. novoparasiticus, A. arachidicola and A. pseudocaelatus. This is the first report of these last three species from rice and rice plantation soil. Only seven (17%) of the A. flavus isolates produced type B aflatoxins, but 95% produced kojic acid and 69% cyclopiazonic acid. Less than 14% of the rice samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, but two of the market samples were well above the maximum tolerable limit (5μg/kg), established by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mycological Survey and Total Aflatoxin Analyze in Silage from Qaemshahr City (Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 42 samples of silage were collected in Qaemshahr city in Iran during fall 2011. Samples were tested by competitive ELISA for total aflatoxins. Seven samples (16.7% (Mean±se:1.24 from 42 silage samples were positive with total aflatoxin (1.1-27.3 ppb in Nov., Dec. and Oct. The highest contamination was observed in Oct., three samples (21.4% from 14 samples were contaminated with total aflatoxin by 22.2 ppb, 25.6 and 27.3 ppb. The culture results of samples showed that the most toxinigenic fungi among 57 colonies were Aspergillus sp. with fifteen (% 31.5, Fusarium sp. With thirteen (% 22.8, Alternaria spp. With twelve (21.05%, Penicillium spp. with nine (%15.78 and Acremonium sp. with five (8.77% and also the most nontoxigenic fungi were cladosporium spp. with fifteen (% 37.5, Rhizopus spp. with nine (% 22.5, Mucor spp. with six (15%, yeast with six (15% and Scopulariopsis spp. with four (10% colonies isolated in culture medium among 40 colonies of nontoxigenic fungi.

  5. Evaluation of certain contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various contaminants or groups of contaminants in food. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for six contaminants or groups of contaminants (aflatoxins, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisins, glycidyl esters, 3-MCPD esters and 3-MCPD, sterigmatocystin) as well as an evaluation of co-exposure of fumonisins with aflatoxins. Annexed to the report is a summary of the toxicological and dietary exposure information as well as the Committee’s recommendations on the contaminants and groups of contaminants considered at this meeting.

  6. Measurement of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Cow Milk Samples by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afshin Nazari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazari A1, Noroozi H2, Movahedi M3, Khaksarian M1 1. Instructor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Aflatoxin M1 is a hydroxylated form of aflatoxin B1 which is produced by Aspergillus flavus. This toxin is produced when cows or other ruminants eat foods contaminated with these mycotoxins and then excrete them in the milk. The toxin is a potent liver and kidney carcinogenetic agent. Materials and methods: Forty two raw cows milk samples from local sources of milk collection and forty samples of commercial pasteurized market milk from Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran were collected in summer and winter season of 2005. Twenty-one cow milk samples and 20 pasteurized milk samples in each season were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 by HPLC immunoaffinity columns. Results: Four of 21 raw milk samples in summer showed AFM1 levels between 0.017-0.046 ng/ml and all samples (100% in winter showed the presence of AFM1 levels between 0.003-0.041ng/ ml. AFM1 was detected in 55% of market pasteurized cow milk samples ranging from 0.017 to 0.533 ng/ml in summer and 100% ranging from 0.005-0.0054 ng/ml in winter.,Only one of all milk samples of pasteurized milk in summer had toxin level (0.533 ng/ml more than the maximum permissive limit (0.5 ng/ml. No significant difference was observed among mean contamination level of raw and pasteurized cow milk in two seasons. Key words: Aflatoxin M1, raw milk, pasteurized milk, Khoramabad, HPLC

  7. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection requirements applicable to pistachios to be shipped for domestic human consumption as will contribute to orderly marketing or be in the public interest. No handler shall ship, for human consumption, pistachios that exceed an...

  8. Hygienic assessment of ionizing radiation effect on wheat contaminated with Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uralova, M.; Patzeltova, N.; Havlik, F.

    1985-01-01

    Wheat contaminated with Aspergillus flavus fungus was irradited with doses of gamma radiation of up to 6000 Gy. It was found that while fungus growth is limited with increased doses of radiation, aflatoxin production increases. Aflatoxin production heavily depends on the moisture of the wheat. Toxicological and genetic tests of dominant lethal mutations were negative. Contaminated wheat irradiated with a dose of 6000 Gy may be used as feed for livestock. (M.D.)

  9. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  10. Influência da calagem, da época de colheita e da secagem na incidência de fungos e aflatoxinas em grãos de amendoim armazenados Storage peanut kernels fungal contamination and aflatoxin as affected by liming, harvest time and drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Antonia Vieira Rossetto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação e o potencial para síntese de aflatoxinas pelos isolados do grupo Aspergillus flavus em grãos armazenados de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L., que foram produzidos com distintos procedimentos de calagem, de colheita e de secagem. Para isto, foram avaliadas doze amostras de grãos de amendoim, cv. Botutatu, provenientes de plantas cultivadas em área que recebeu ou não a aplicação de calcário, colhidas aos 104, 114 e 124 dias após a semeadura e secas em condições ambientais e em estufa. Aos 12 e 18 meses de armazenamento, os grãos foram tratados com hipoclorito de sódio e incubados em BDA, a 20°C, por cinco dias. As espécies do grupo Aspergillus flavus foram identificadas após incubação em meio ADM. Posteriormente, o potencial toxígeno foi avaliado pelo método da cromatografia de camada delgada. A análise da freqüência de fungos revelou que os grãos de amendoim armazenados estavam contaminados por Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. e Fusarium spp. Os grãos de amendoim, provenientes da colheita antecipada, apresentaram maior contaminação pelo grupo Aspergillus flavus, sendo menor a proporção destes com potencial toxígeno.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the storage on the potential of aflatoxin production by isolates from Aspergillus flavus group in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.. These kernels were obtained from a field experiment with two areas (with or without lime, three times of harvest (104, 114 and 124 days after planting and two types of dryer conditions (ambient and chamber with forced air. After 12 and 18 months of storage, the kernels were treated with sodium hypochloride and incubated in a PDA at 20°C during five days. The isolates from Aspergillus flavus group were identified after incubation in ADM culture medium. The toxigenic potential was analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The genera detected were Aspergillus, Penicillium and

  11. Aflatoxin-producing fungi in maize field soils from sea level to over 2000 masl: A three year study in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by several members of Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate crops in temperate zones. Maize is cultivated from 0 to 2,100 masl under diverse growing regimes in the state of Sonora, Mexico. This is typical of the nation. In order to design sampling strat...

  12. Biological control of aflatoxin production in corn using non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus administered as a bioplastic-based seed coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since its first introduction in the early 1990s, tremendous progress has been made in the application of biocontrol techniques for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. In almost three decades, the basic concept has remained centered on massive application of propagules of non-aflatoxigenic A. f...

  13. Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized Milk in Babol city, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidgar, Saa; Mirzae, M; Assmar, M; Naddaf, Sr

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is the metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB(1)) and is found in milk when lactating animals are fed with contaminated feedstuff. The presence of AFM(1) in milk, pose a major risk for humans especially kids as it can have immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. The present study is aimed to investigate the occurrence of AFM(1) in subsidized pasteurized milk in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Some 72 pasteurized milk packages were collected from supermarkets in various districts of city during January to March 2006. Milk samples were centrifuged and amounts of 100 μl of skimmed milk were tested for AFM(1) contamination by competitive ELISA. All the samples (100%) exhibited contamination with AFM(1). The contamination levels means in January, February, and March were 227.85, 229.64, and 233.1ng/l, respectively. The amount of AFM(1) in all the samples were above 50ng/l, the threshold set by the European community regulations. Monitoring of AFM(1) level should be part of quality control procedures in dairy factories, particularly the ones providing infant's milk. Production of safer and healthier milk and other dairy products with minimum AFM(1) level can be achieved by adopting prophylactic measures including control of humidity and water content of feedstuff, which favors mould production.

  14. Effect of temperature on aflatoxin production in Mucuna pruriens seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A K; Chourasia, H K

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of temperature on the level of aflatoxin production in Mucuna pruriens seeds. The highest level of aflatoxin B1 (1.75 micrograms/g) was detected in the samples incubated at 25 degrees C for three weeks. At 20, 30, and 35 degrees C, aflatoxin levels were 0.30 to 0.56, 0.37 to 1.20, and 0.26 to 0.65 micrograms/g, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin B1 (0.10 to 0.29 microgram/g) was produced at 15 degrees C. PMID:2719482

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Sakuda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936

  17. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of borax against aflatoxin B1-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Dirican, Ebubekir; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2012-12-01

    A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity.

  18. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manuel d´Almeida Bernardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2% in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%, ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9% with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%. Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%, ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative.

  19. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in raw and commercial pasteurized milk in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Hossein; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Moradi, Mehran

    2007-11-15

    During the years 2005 and 2006, samples of raw and of pasteurized milk (72 samples each) were collected randomly from various parts of Urmia city in Iran for the detection of aflatoxin M1. Aflatoxin M1 levels were assessed by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). There was a high incidence of AFM1 (100%), in both raw and pasteurized milk samples. The AFM1 levels in 6.25% of samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (50 ng L(-1)), while the observed mean ofAFM1 was lower than those proposed for European diets. Maximum level ofAFM1 in raw and pasteurized samples were 91.8 and 28.5 ng L(-1), while minimum levels were 4.3 and 5.1 ng L(-1), respectively. The levels ofAFM1 in total samples indicated that feeds for cows in this region were contaminated with AFB1 in such a level that appears to be a serious public health problem at the moment. Therefore, there is a need to limit exposure to aflatoxins by imposing regulatory limits.

  20. Prevention of Aflatoxin B1-Induced DNA Breaks by β-D-Glucan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are a group of naturally-occurring carcinogens that are known to contaminate different human and animal foodstuffs. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most genotoxic hepatocarcinogenic compound of all of the aflatoxins. In this report, we explore the capacity of β-D-glucan (Glu to reduce the DNA damage induced by AFB1 in mouse hepatocytes. For this purpose, we applied the comet assay to groups of animals that were first administered Glu in three doses (100, 400 and 700 mg/kg bw, respectively and, 20 min later, 1.0 mg/kg of AFB1. Liver cells were obtained at 4, 10 and 16 h after the chemical administration and examined. The results showed no protection of the damage induced by AFB1 with the low dose of the polysaccharide, but they did reveal antigenotoxic activity exerted by the two high doses. In addition, we induced a co-crystallization between both compounds, determined their fusion points and analyzed the molecules by UV spectroscopy. The data suggested the formation of a supramolecular complex between AFB1 and β-D-glucan.

  1. Integrated Control Sytems of Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Name\tRomsyah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp . and Penicillium s pp . i n agricultural products has been a concern regarding their effect to health and economic impact. Integrated control system should be based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP approach involving Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP . Prevention should be carried out through pre harvest, harvest, post harvest, as well as control quality at all stages of production. Pre harvest control is conducted through the selection of resistant varieties, insect control and weeds management mechanically or applying fungicides and herbicides, plant rotation, irrigation and soil management, as well as biological control . Harvesting at the right time using clean equipments from fungal contamination and insect infestation avoids the contamination of mycotoxins . Post harvest control by physical selection, washing and dilution, drying, storage, application of chemicals and binding agents, natural products, nutrients and vitamins, microbiological control, heating and radiation could also minimize mycotoxin in food and feed . Although chemicals can effectively reduce mycotoxin, the use of those on food/feed should be considered the safety . The addition of natural products, nutrition supplements and vitamins suppress the negative effect of mycotoxin on animals . The use of non-toxigenic fungi and other microbes as biological control is the effective and safe methods for food/feed . The implementation of integrated mycotoxin control system by utilizing the HACCP concept would meet the qualified and safe food/feed products .

  2. Impacts of climate change on the microbial safety of pre-harvest leafy green vegetables as indicated by Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Hofstra, N.; Franz, E.

    2013-01-01

    The likelihood of leafy green vegetable (LGV) contamination and the associated pathogen growth and survival are strongly related to climatic conditions. Particularly temperature increase and precipitation pattern changes have a close relationship not only with the fate and transport of enteric

  3. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil of Curcuma longa L. and curcumin on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Kemmelmeier, Carlos; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Janeiro, Vanderly; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Silva, Expedito Leite; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-15

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic mycotoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food and commodities poses serious hazards to the health of humans and animals. Turmeric, Curcuma longa L., is a native plant of Southeast Asia and has antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal properties. This paper reports the antiaflatoxigenic activities of the essential oil of C. longa and curcumin. The medium tests were prepared with the oil of C. longa, and the curcumin standard at concentrations varied from 0.01% to 5.0%. All doses of the essential oil of the plant and the curcumin standard interfered with mycotoxin production. Both the essential oil and curcumin significantly inhibited the production of aflatoxins; the 0.5% level had a greater than 96% inhibitory effect. The levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production were 1.0 and 42.7 μg/mL, respectively, for the samples treated with the essential oil of C. longa L. and curcumin at a concentration of 0.5%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB 1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB 1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB 1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ∼29% reduction of AFB 1 . According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB 1 kg −1 bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB 1 from the irradiated raisins. - Highlights: • Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. • AFB 1 is produced in raisins. • Irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy affects AFB 1 production. • 10 kGy reduced (∼65%) AFB 1 production by A.parasiticus in raisins. • 10 kGy reduced (∼29%) AFB 1 spiked directly in raisins

  5. Mycobiota in poultry feeds and natural occurrence of aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Glenda R; Ribeiro, Jessika M; Fraga, Marcelo E; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Direito, Gloria M; Keller, Kelly M; Dalcero, Ana M; Rosa, Carlos A

    2006-11-01

    The intake of mycotoxin-contaminated feeds can lead to nutrient losses and may have adverse effects on animal health and on productivity. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the mycobiota present in poultry feed samples, and (2) to evaluate the natural occurrence of aflatoxin B(1), fumonisin B(1) and zearalenone. Fungal counts were similar between all culture media tested (10(3 )CFU g(-1)). The most frequent genus isolated was Penicillium spp. (41.26%) followed by Aspergillus spp. (33.33%) and Fusarium spp. (20.63%). High precision liquid chromatography was applied to quantify aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1). Thin layer chromatography was used to determine zearalenone levels. Aflatoxin B(1 )values ranged between 1.2 and 17.5 microg kg(-1). Fumonisin B(1) levels ranged between 1.5 and 5.5 microg g(-1). Zearalenone levels ranged between 0.1 and 7 microg g(-1). The present study shows the simultaneous occurrence of two carcinogenic mycotoxins, aflatoxin B(1) and fumonisin B(1), together with another Fusarium mycotoxin (zearalenone) in feed intended for poultry consumption. Many samples contained AFB(1 )levels near the permissible maximum and it could affect young animals. A synergistic toxic response is possible in animals under simultaneous exposure.

  6. Aflatoxin B(1) in affecting broiler's performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: a review of history and contemporary issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha W; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Bohm, Josef

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) is a common contaminant of poultry feeds in tropical and subtropical climates. Research during the last five decades has well established the negative effects of the mycotoxin on health of poultry. However, the last ten years of relevant data have accentuated the potential of low levels of aflatoxin B(1) to deteriorate broiler performance. In this regard, any attempt to establish a dose-effect relationship between aflatoxin B(1) level and broiler performance is also complicated due to differences in types of broilers and length of exposure to the mycotoxin in different studies. Contrary to the prevalent notion regarding literature saturation with respect to aflatoxicosis of chicken, many areas of aflatoxicosis still need to be explored. Literature regarding effects of the mycotoxin on the gastrointestinal tract in this regard is particular scanty and non-conclusive. In addition to these issues, the metabolism of aflatoxin B(1) and recently proposed hypotheses regarding biphasic effects of the mycotoxin in broilers are briefly discussed.

  7. Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ferri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs. This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2 and aflatoxicol (AFOH A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7% revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432; the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs. 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437. Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations.

  8. A Public Platform for the Verification of the Phenotypic Effect of Candidate Genes for Resistance to Aflatoxin Accumulation and Aspergillus flavus Infection in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Shan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A public candidate gene testing pipeline for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection in maize is presented here. The pipeline consists of steps for identifying, testing, and verifying the association of selected maize gene sequences with resistance under field conditions. Resources include a database of genetic and protein sequences associated with the reduction in aflatoxin contamination from previous studies; eight diverse inbred maize lines for polymorphism identification within any maize gene sequence; four Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL mapping populations and one association mapping panel, all phenotyped for aflatoxin accumulation resistance and associated phenotypes; and capacity for Insertion/Deletion (InDel and SNP genotyping in the population(s for mapping. To date, ten genes have been identified as possible candidate genes and put through the candidate gene testing pipeline, and results are presented here to demonstrate the utility of the pipeline.

  9. Optimization of chromatographic conditions for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 by using liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani Putri; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-11-01

    The optimization of instrument condition and chromatographic separation for analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 using liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometer detector was conducted in the aim to provide more accurate and reliable analysis results. The aflatoxin known to be serious threat for human health as it is classified as the carcinogenic compounds. The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were selected due to its extensive contamination in various agricultural commodities. The best chromatographic separation was obtained using C-18 column with gradient elution of solvent 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in methanol at 7 minutes runtime analysis. The linearity of the detector showed satisfied results as the coefficient determination found to be 0.9994, 0.9996, 0.9998 and 0.9987 for aflatoxin B1, G1, B2, and G2 respectively in the range concentration from 1 to 20 ng/g. The quantifier ion selected for the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 was m/z 285.1, 259, 243 and 313 respectively. The instrument precision at these quantifier ions also showed satisfied result with %RSD was around 3.4 to 6.8%. The optimized method present in this study can be used for further sample analysis.

  10. The role of biomarkers in evaluating human health concerns from fungal contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul C; Flannery, Brenna; Isitt, Catherine; Ali, Mariyam; Pestka, James

    2012-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites that globally contaminate an estimated 25 % of cereal crops and thus exposure is frequent in many populations. Aflatoxins, fumonisins and deoxynivalenol are amongst those mycotoxins of particular concern from a human health perspective. A number of risks to health are suggested including cancer, growth faltering, immune suppression and neural tube defects; though only the demonstrated role for aflatoxin in the aetiology of liver cancer is widely recognised. The heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in food restricts the usefulness of food sampling and intake estimates; instead biomarkers provide better tools for informing epidemiological investigations. Validated exposure biomarkers for aflatoxin (urinary aflatoxin M(1), aflatoxin-N7-guaunine, serum aflatoxin-albumin) were established almost 20 years ago and were critical in confirming aflatoxins as potent liver carcinogens. Validation has included demonstration of assay robustness, intake v. biomarker level, and stability of stored samples. More recently, aflatoxin exposure biomarkers are revealing concerns of growth faltering and immune suppression; importantly, they are being used to assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies. For fumonisins and deoxynivalenol these steps of development and validation have significantly advanced in recent years. Such biomarkers should better inform epidemiological studies and thus improve our understanding of their potential risk to human health.

  11. Aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin survey in beer sold in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yarong; Huang, Jianxiang; Ma, Liyan; Liu, Shuai; Wang, Fuhua

    2017-03-01

    A total of 101 samples of beer from the Chinese market were analysed for the presence of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and sterigmatocystin (STC), using methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification and the limit of detection in beer were 0.1 and 0.03 µg/kg, respectively. Recoveries of AFB 1 and STC from spiked beer samples were 97.8-103.6% and 92.7-102.1%, respectively. None of the beer purchased samples were contaminated with AFB 1 or STC.

  12. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  13. assessing aflatoxin m1 levels among lactating mothers' in damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    1Department of Microbiology Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State. ... Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a biomarker of aflatoxin B1 exposure in breast milk, a possible risk factor for infant early ..... Mycotoxins in food and feed: present status and ...

  14. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisa, A. U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N. [Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Food and Biotechnology

    2013-07-15

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  15. Aflatoxin exposure among young children in urban low-income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations in tropical and subtropical developing countries are exposed to largely uncontrolled levels of aflatoxins through food. These countries (especially in Africa and Asia) also present a high prevalence of stunting. Studies have reported an association between aflatoxin exposure and growth impairment in children ...

  16. Inhibitory effect of essential oil on aflatoxin activities | Alpsoy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxins, which are well-known to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive, also inhibit several metabolic systems. Aflatoxins are biologically active secondary metabolites produced by certain strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nominus and Aspergillus flavus. Many different ...

  17. Reversal of aflatoxin induced liver damage by turmeric and curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, K B; Rajan, A; Kuttan, R

    1992-09-30

    The effect of certain food additives on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus has been studied in vitro. Extracts of turmeric (Curcuma longa), garlic (Allium sativum) and asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida) inhibited the aflatoxin production considerably (more than 90%) at concentrations of 5-10 mg/ml. Similar results were also seen using butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole and ellagic acid at concentration 0.1 mM. Curcumin, the antioxidant principle from Curcuma longa did not have any effect on aflatoxin production. Turmeric and curcumin were also found to reverse the aflatoxin induced liver damage produced by feeding aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (5 micrograms/day per 14 days) to ducklings. Fatty changes, necrosis and biliary hyperplasia produced by AFB1 were considerably reversed by these food additives.

  18. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and -susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse dro...

  19. Reducing maize-based aflatoxin contamination and exposure in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They cause sickness or death in animals and humans. The research will be conducted in the Makoni and Shamva districts of Zimbabwe, through a ... Le CRDI renouvelle son partenariat avec ACIAR en matière de sécurité alimentaire. Le CRDI et le Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, ont conclu un ...

  20. Aflatoxins fate during the nixtamalization of contaminated maize by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABRAHAM

    2012-10-23

    Oct 23, 2012 ... The pH was determined according to the 943.02 AOAC method ... tube, quantifying the extent of breaking using a scale of 1 to 3, ... µl), were injected into a HPLC and eluted with a mobile phase of 30 ..... flavonoids, and pH.

  1. Effect of Aflatoxin B1 - contaminated feed on goat erythrocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... action was concentration-dependent, typical of a saturation kinetic effect. The degree of stimulation varied from 20% to more than 90% between the lowest (0.1 M) and highest (1000 M) contentrations. AFB1 induced changes in the apparent kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, of the erythrocyte membrane-bound enzyme.

  2. Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Fels-Klerx, H J van der; Rijk, Theo C de; Oonincx, Dennis G A B

    2017-06-02

    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae ( Hermetia illucens , BSF) and yellow mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor , YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, and up to 0.5 mg/kg dry feed. Poultry feed without any additions and feed with only the solvent added served as controls. The AFB1 in the feed did not affect survival and body weight in the BSF and YMW larvae ( p > 0.10), indicating a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 in both species. Furthermore, AFB1 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were below the detection limit (0.10 µg/kg) in BSF larvae, whereas the YMW had AFB1 levels that were approximately 10% of the European Union's legal limit for feed materials and excreted AFM1. It is concluded that both BSF larvae and YMW have a high AFB1 tolerance and do not accumulate AFB1.

  3. Mycobiota and Natural Incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, and Citrinin in Indian Spices Confirmed by LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswal, Punam; Kumar, Dhiraj

    2015-01-01

    Nine different Indian spices (red chilli, black pepper, turmeric, coriander, cumin, fennel, caraway, fenugreek, and dry ginger) commonly cultivated and highly used in India were analysed for natural occurrence of toxigenic mycoflora and aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), and citrinin (CTN) contamination. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the most dominant species isolated from all types of spices. Red chilli samples were highly contaminated with aflatoxins (85.4%) followed by dry ginger (77.7%). 56% Aspergillus flavus from red chilli and 45% Aspergillus ochraceus from black pepper were toxigenic and produced aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Qualitative detection and quantitative detection of mycotoxins in spices were analyzed by ELISA and further confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Penicillium citrinum produced citrinin in red chilli, black pepper, coriander, cumin, fenugreek, and dry ginger samples. The highest amount of AFs was found in red chilli (219.6 ng/g), OTA was in black pepper (154.1 ng/g), and CTN was in dry ginger samples (85.1 ng/g). The results of this study suggest that the spices are susceptible substrate for growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and further mycotoxin production. This is the first report of natural occurrence of citrinin in black pepper and dry ginger from India. PMID:26229535

  4. Citrate coated silver nanoparticles with modulatory effects on aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Chandrani

    The manufacture and usage of silver nanoparticles has drastically increased in recent years (Fabrega et al. 2011a). Hence, the levels of nanoparticles released into the environment through various routes have measurably increased and therefore are concern to the environment and to public health (Panyala, Pena-Mendez and Havel 2008). Previous studies have shown that silver nanoparticles are toxic to various organisms such as bacteria (Kim et al. 2007), fungi (Kim et al. 2008), aquatic plants (He, Dorantes-Aranda and Waite 2012a), arthropods (Khan et al. 2015), and mammalian cells (Asharani, Hande and Valiyaveettil 2009) etc. Most of the toxicity studies are carried out using higher concentrations or lethal doses of silver nanoparticles. However, there is no information available on how the fungal community reacts to the silver nanoparticles at nontoxic concentrations. In this study, we have investigated the effect of citrate coated silver nanoparticles (AgNp-cit) at a size of 20nm on Aspergillus parasiticus, a popular plant pathogen and well-studied model for secondary metabolism (natural product synthesis). A. parasiticus produces 4 major types of aflatoxins. Among other aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 is considered to be one of most potent naturally occurring liver carcinogen, and is associated with an estimated 155,000 liver cancer cases globally (Liu and Wu 2010); therefore, contaminated food and feed are a significant risk factor for liver cancer in humans and animals (CAST 2003; Liu and Wu 2010). In this study, we have demonstrated the uptake of AgNp-cit (20nm) by A. parasiticus cells from the growth medium using a time course ICP-OES experiment. It was observed that the uptake of AgNp-cit had no effect on fungal growth and significantly decreased intracellular oxidative stress. It also down-regulated aflatoxin biosynthesis at the level of gene expression of aflatoxin pathway genes and the global regulatory genes of secondary metabolism. We also observed that the

  5. Identification of New Aflatoxin B1-Degrading Bacteria from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Sangi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a mutagenic and carcinogenic compound mainly produced by the Aspergillus parasiticus, A. flavus, A. nomius, A. tamari, and A. pseudotamarii. AFB1 biodegradation is the most important strategy for reducing AFB1 in plant tissues. Bacteria can deactivate and biodegrade AFB1 for effective detoxification of contaminated products. The present study investigated the efficiency of AFB1 degradation by soil bacteria from the Southern Khorasan Province in Eastern Iran by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography during 2014–2015. Methods: DNA was extracted from AFB1-degrading isolates by the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the 27f and 1492r general bacterial primers and the sequences were used to identify the isolates based on their similarity to Gene Bank sequences of known bacterial species. Results: We isolated five strains from four species of AFB1-degrading bacteria from Birjand plain, including Bacillus pumilus, two isolates of Ochrobactrum pseudogrigonens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloace, which had AFB1-degrading activities of 88%, 78%, 61%, 58%, and 51%, respectively. Conclusion: We provide the first demonstration of AFB1 degradation by B. pumilus in from Iran and the first report identifying O. pseudogrigonens and E. cloace species as having AFB1-degrading activity.

  6. An experimental case study to estimate Pre-harvest Wheat Acreage/Production in Hilly and Plain region of Uttarakhand state: Challenges and solutions of problems by using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, D.; Kimothi, M. M.; Bhagya, N.; Ram, R. D.; Patel, N. K.; Dhaundiya, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Wheat is an economically important Rabi crop for the state, which is grown on around 26 % of total available agriculture area in the state. There is a variation in productivity of wheat crop in hilly and tarai region. The agricultural productivity is less in hilly region in comparison of tarai region due to terrace cultivation, traditional system of agriculture, small land holdings, variation in physiography, top soil erosion, lack of proper irrigation system etc. Pre-harvest acreage/yield/production estimation of major crops is being done with the help of conventional crop cutting method, which is biased, inaccurate and time consuming. Remote Sensing data with multi-temporal and multi-spectral capabilities has shown new dimension in crop discrimination analysis and acreage/yield/production estimation in recent years. In view of this, Uttarakhand Space Applications Centre (USAC), Dehradun with the collaboration of Space Applications Centre (SAC), ISRO, Ahmedabad and Uttarakhand State Agriculture Department, have developed different techniques for the discrimination of crops and estimation of pre-harvest wheat acreage/yield/production. In the 1st phase, five districts (Dehradun, Almora, Udham Singh Nagar, Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar) with distinct physiography i.e. hilly and plain regions, have been selected for testing and verification of techniques using IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellites), LISS-III, LISS-IV satellite data of Rabi season for the year 2008-09 and whole 13 districts of the Uttarakhand state from 2009-14 along with ground data were used for detailed analysis. Five methods have been developed i.e. NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index), Supervised classification, Spatial modeling, Masking out method and Programming on visual basics methods using multitemporal satellite data of Rabi season along with the collateral and ground data. These methods were used for wheat discriminations and preharvest acreage estimations and subsequently results

  7. A preliminary study on the physiological effects of aflatoxin B-1 lactating water buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, A.E.; Naguib, K.M.; Naguib, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Aflatoxin B-1 is one of the biologically active mycotoxins, produced as contaminants in human and animal food by a variety of spoilage molds. The effects of administering aflatoxin B-1 on plasma proteins, total thyroxine, cholesterol, zinc and iron were studied in eight lactating buffaloes (3rd and 8th season of lactation). The toxin was first tested in one animal which received single doses of 400, 1000 and 1500 ug each, mixed with 1 Kg ration, given one week apart. Blood, milk and urine samples were collected over the next 120 hrs. The toxin was not detected in either milk or urine. One week later, the latter dose was offered daily, but the animal lost its appetite and did not consume any of the ration offered on the second day. On the third day through the sixth, the toxin (1500 ug in 5 ml chloroform) was injected into the rumen through the flank region using a long needle and a syringe. However, the toxin could not be detected in either milk or urine. After another week, the dose was increased to 5000 ug intraruminally given for 2 days. The toxin appeared in milk and urine. The other seven animals were then included in the experiment and blood samples were collected 10 and 34 hours after dosing. The results obtained (from the pilot test) showed a transient decrease in serum albumin which lasted for 10-24 hours after oral administration of 400, 1000 and 1500 ug in food. This phenomenon was also confirmed in all animals at 34 hrs. after the intraruminal administration of 5000 ug (p>0.01). On the other hand, serum cholesterol was increased (P>0.01). Serum zinc was also increased though insignificantly. However, no appreciable changes were noted in either serum iron or total thyroxine. This experiment has shown that physiological responses may occur before the detection of the toxin in body fluids. It is suggested that measurement of plasma proteins and cholesterol can be used as a test for the toxic effect of aflatoxin, especially at low doses; a case similar to

  8. Occurrence of aflatoxins in feedstuff, sheep milk and dairy products in Western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Finoli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of feedstuffs (15, milk (40, and cheese (30 coming from sheep and dairy farms (23 or market in WesternSicily were analyzed for their respective content of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and M1 (AFM1 to evidence any possible indirectmycotoxin contamination risk to the consumer. Analyses using HPLC and fluorescence detection were performed afterimmunoaffinity column sample extraction and cleanup; AFM1 was detected in 30% of the milk samples at levels rangingfrom 4 to 23 ng/l and in 13% of the cheeses from 21 to 101 ng/kg; in the feed the AFB1 ranged from None of the contaminated samples exceeded the legal limits set down by the European Union for milk (50 ng/l and feed(5 μg/kg , or that in force in the Netherlands for cheese (200 ng/kg.

  9. The influence of drought on the occurrence of aflatoxins in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Jovana J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of 78 maize samples harvested during September and October 2012 in Vojvodina were analyzed. Presence of aflatoxins (AFs was deter­mined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Among the 78 analyzed maize samples, even 44 (56.4% samples were contaminated with AFs. Concentration interval between 1-10 μg/kg, 10-50 μg/kg and 50-80 μg/kg were found in 23.1%, 17.9% and 15.4% of analyzed maize samples, respectively. It was supposed that prolonged drought during spring and summer of 2012 had a great influence on high contamination frequency and concentration of AFs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46001

  10. Inhibitory effect of essential oil on aflatoxin activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... Key words: Aflatoxins, essential oils, antioxidant, oxidative stress. INTRODUCTION .... of ROS mutagenesis in human cancer. It is of interest that the ..... black pepper, cumin and coriander were tested for their ability to suppress ...

  11. Aflatoxins Associated with Storage Fungi in Fish Feed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    This study investigates storage fungi and aflatoxin in fish feed stored under three different ... secondary metabolites of fungi which are formed ... Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of ... antibiotic is to inhibit the growth of any bacterial.

  12. Examining environmental drivers of spatial variability in aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining environmental drivers of spatial variability in aflatoxin accumulation in Kenyan maize: potential utility in risk prediction models. ... however, because of high sampling cost and lack of affordable and accurate analytical methods.

  13. Determination of aflatoxins in food using LC/MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahl, Martin; Jørgensen, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric method is described for the determination of aflatoxins B-1, B-2, G(1) and G(2) in food with the use of aflatoxin M-1 as an internal standard. The method works well with matrices such as those of figs and p...... and peanuts, but there are problems with spices, due to limitations of the clean-up method used....

  14. Surveys of rice sold in Canada for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, J.; Pantazopoulos, P.; Tam, J.; Cavlovic, P.; Kwong, K.; Turcotte, A.-M.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 200 samples of rice (including white, brown, red, black, basmati and jasmine, as well as wild rice) from several different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid Chromatographic methods in two different years. The mean concentrations for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 0.19 and 0.17 ng g−1 with respective positive incidences of 56% and 43% (≥ the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.002 ng g−1). Twenty-three samples analysed in the second year also contained aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) at levels ≥LOD of 0.002 ng g−1 The five most contaminated samples in each year contained 1.44–7.14 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 1) and 1.45–3.48 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 2); they were mostly basmati rice from India and Pakistan and black and red rice from Thailand. The average concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) were 0.05 and 0.005 ng g−1 in year 1 and year 2, respectively; incidences of samples containing ≥LOD of 0.05 ng g−1 were 43% and 1%, respectively, in the 2 years. All positive OTA results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. For fumonisins, concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB1) averaged 4.5 ng g−1 in 15 positive samples (≥0.7 ng g−1) from year 1 (n = 99); fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) were also present (≥1 ng g−1). In the second year there was only one positive sample (14 ng g−1 FB1) out of 100 analysed. All positive FB1 results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. PMID:21623501

  15. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B-1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Le Danh Tuyen; Do Huu Tuan

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao Cai province...... higher than recommended provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values mainly due to contaminated cereals and meat. The exposure to total fumonisins (1400 ng/kg bw/day) was typically lower than the PTDI value (2000 ng/kg bw/day). The estimated risk of liver cancer associated with exposure to aflatoxin...... B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical...

  16. Aflatoxin B1 residues in imported and local broiler, s breast and thigh muscle in Kurdistan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Candlan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Residues of Aflatoxins and their metabolites might be present in meat and other products of animals receiving Aflatoxin contaminated feeds which could subsequently create health problems in man. Eighty nine imported (Iran/Khosh pokht; (Turkey/Yam-tapilic, Lades, Senplic, Kapidac, Kozoa, Oznesilpilic and (Brazil, hilal, Sadia, and 90 locally produced (Hoshiar poultry farm, Nihad poultry farm, Hokar poultry farm, Mansoor poultry farm, AL-Shimal poultry house, Mardin poultry house and AL-Eetimad poultry slaughterhouse broiler breast and thigh muscle samples were examined for residual Aflatoxin B1 using ELIZA test. Results revealed that out of 89 imported samples only 21 (23.59% were positive, but only 2 (2.24% were rejected, while the remaining 87 samples (97.75% were acceptable. Concerning the local samples, results showed that 19 samples (21.11% were positive, but 10 (11.11% were rejected, while the remaining 80 samples (88.88% were accepted. The public health importance of residual AFB1 in broiler meat samples was discussed.

  17. An Assessment of Willingness To Pay by Maize and Groundnut Farmers for Aflatoxin Biocontrol Product in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayedun, Bamikole; Okpachu, Godwin; Manyong, Victor; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Akinola, Adebayo; Abu, G A; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Abdoulaye, Tahirou

    2017-09-01

    In Nigeria, Aflasafe is a registered biological product for reducing aflatoxin infestation of crops from the field to storage, making the crops safer for consumption. The important questions are whether farmers will purchase and apply this product to reduce aflatoxin contamination of crops, and if so under what conditions. A study was carried out to address these questions and assess determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) for the product among maize and groundnut farmers in Kano and Kaduna states in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect primary data from 492 farmers. The majority of farmers who had direct experience with Aflasafe (experienced farmers) in Kano (80.7%) and Kaduna (84.3%) had a WTP bid value equal to or greater than the threshold price ($10) at which Aflasafe was to be sold. The mean WTP estimates for Aflasafe for experienced farmers in Kano and Kaduna were statistically the same. However, values of $3.56 and $7.46 were offered in Kano and Kaduna states, respectively, by farmers who had never applied Aflasafe (inexperienced farmers), and the difference here was significant (P credit (P market strategy promoting a premium price for aflatoxin-safe produce and creating awareness and explaining the availability of Aflasafe to potential users should increase Aflasafe usage.

  18. Screening of aflatoxin B1 and mycobiota related to raw materials and finished feed destined for fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvina María Carvalho Gonçalves-Nunes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine fungal genera, Aspergillus, Pénicillium and Fusarium species and aflatoxin B1 contamination from raw materials and finished feed intended for fish farm localized in Piaui, Brazil. Aspergillusflavus and P. citrinum were isolated with a high relative density from all samples. In general, a high percent of samples exceeded the levels proposed as feed hygienic quality limits (CFU g-1 according to Good Manufacture Practice. Aflatoxin B1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All raw materials and finished feed showed aflatoxin B1 levels. Although in this study AFB1 levels below recommended limits (20 μg kg-1 were found, it is important to emphasize the feed intake with toxin in low concentrations along time, since it produce chronic deleterious effects in animal production. This fact requires periodic monitoring to prevent the occurrence of chronic aflatoxicosis in aquaculture, to reduce the economic losses and to minimize hazards to animal health.

  19. The effect of humidity after gamma-irradiation on aflatoxin B-1 production of A. Flavus in ground nutmeg and peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmy, N.; Chosdu, R.; Matsuyama, A.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of humidity of 75 up to 97% after irradiation on radiosensitivity and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus isolated from Indonesian nutmeg were examined. Irradiation doses used were 0;0.5;1 and 3 kGy. Mould free ground nutmeg and peanut were used as the growth media, and about 10 8 of spores were used to contaminate each of the media. Aflatoxin productions were measured after having incubated 3 days up to 5 months under humidity of 91 and 97%. Prior to HPLC analysis, aflatoxin was cleaned-up using an immunoaffinity column. The results were: (1) A. flavus indicated no or almost no growth under RH of 85% or less. (2) Under 91-97% RH, growth of mycelium and toxin production were inhibited more or less by irradiation up to 1 kGy, although the effectiveness of irradiation varied with different RH and media during postirradiation incubation. (3) By 3 kGy or more, both mycelium growth and toxin production of the mould were found to be completely inhibited. (4) The production of aflatoxin in nutmeg began after having incubated for 25 and 45 days and in peanut for 3 and 6 days under 97 and 91% RH, respectively.

  20. Hyphenation of supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for fast determination of four aflatoxins in edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fang; Li, Chenglong; Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-08-01

    Aflatoxins (AFTs) are of great concern all over the world. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has the advantage of fast, high resolution and excellent compatibility with a broad range of organic solvents and samples, thus hyphenating SFC with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used for the easy and fast determination of AFTs in edible oils. Edible oil was spiked with isotope-labeled aflatoxin standards, diluted with hexane and extracted with acetonitrile. The extraction was directly loaded to an SFC apparatus and separated on a UPC(2) 2-EP column with CO2 -methanol gradient elution. A post-column make-up flow was introduced to facilitate mass spectrometry performance, and the mixture was analyzed by MS/MS with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The SFC conditions including separation column, modifier and sample solvent were optimized, and the four target aflatoxins were baseline separated. The ESI interface parameters were also investigated, implicating the make-up flow as a critical factor for sensitive determination by SFC-MS/MS. The LOQs for the AFTs were 0.05-0.12 μg L(-1) , while the RSDs were lower than 8.5%. Supercritical fluid chromatography was successfully coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to establish a simple, fast and sensitive method for the analysis of four aflatoxins in edible oil. This shows the combination of SFC-MS/MS has great potential in determination of trace contaminants in food. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Degradation of Aflatoxins by Means of Laccases from Trametes versicolor: An In Silico Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Dellafiora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials. The present work dealt with the degradation of aflatoxin B1 and M1 by laccase enzymes from Trametes versicolor. The enzymes–substrate interaction for various enzyme isoforms was investigated through 3D molecular modeling techniques. Structural differences among the isoforms have been pinpointed, which may cause different patterns of interaction between aflatoxin B1 and M1. The possible formation of different products of degradation can be argued accordingly. Moreover, the laccase gamma isoform was identified as the most suitable for protein engineering aimed at ameliorating the substrate specificity. Overall, 3D modeling proved to be an effective analytical tool to assess the enzyme–substrate interaction and provided a solid foothold for supporting the search of degrading enzyme at the early stage.

  2. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B₁ by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-20

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii , and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB₁ through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB₁ in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB₁. Additionally, m / s statistics demonstrated that AFB₁ may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB₁, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB₁.

  3. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1. PMID:28117705

  4. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1.

  5. Variation in the Microbiome, Trichothecenes, and Aflatoxins in Stored Wheat Grains in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Song Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by fungal and bacterial species and their metabolites can affect grain quality and health of wheat consumers. In this study, sequence analyses of conserved DNA regions of fungi and bacteria combined with determination of trichothecenes and aflatoxins revealed the microbiome and mycotoxins of wheat from different silo positions (top, middle, and bottom and storage times (3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The fungal community in wheat on the first day of storage (T0 included 105 classified species (81 genera and 41 unclassified species. Four species had over 10% of the relative abundance: Alternaria alternata (12%, Filobasidium floriforme (27%, Fusarium graminearum (12%, and Wallemia sebi (12%. Fungal diversity and relative abundance of Fusarium in wheat from top silo positions were significantly lower than at other silo positions during storage. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in wheat were 13–34% higher in all positions at 3 months compared to T0, and mycotoxins in wheat from middle and bottom positions at 6 to 12 months were 24–57% higher than at T0. The relative abundance of toxigenic Aspergillus and aflatoxins were low at T0 and during storage. This study provides information on implementation and design of fungus and mycotoxin management strategies as well as prediction models.

  6. Monitoring of aflatoxin M1 in raw cow milk in Croatia during winter 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 548 raw milk samples were collected in the western, central and eastern regions of Croatia during February and March 2015. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 concentrations were quantified by the enzyme immunoassay method. The method limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were 22.2 and 34.2 ng/kg, respectively. The mean AFM1 levels measured in the three regions were (ng/kg as follows: western 3.69, central 3.11 and eastern 4.14. In total, the 548 samples analysed concentrations were below the LOD value and accordingly below the European Union maximum residue level (EU MRL of 50 ng/kg. The results suggest an absence of use of contaminated with aflatoxin B1 supplementary feedstuff for lactating cows in winter 2015. Such results might be related to the improved storage conditions for feed as well as to the enhanced and more stringent feed control system for mycotoxins in Croatia.

  7. Aflatoxins in composite spices collected from local markets of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Zahir, Erum; Rantilal, Summan; Ahmed, Aftab; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-06-01

    This survey was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of total aflatoxins (AFs; B1+B2+G1+G2) in unpacked composite spices. A total of 75 samples of composite spices such as biryani, karhai, tikka, nihari and korma masalas were collected from local markets of Karachi, Pakistan, and analysed using HPLC technique. The results indicated that AFs were detected in 77% (n = 58) samples ranging from 0.68 to 25.74 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 4.63 ± 0.95 µg kg(-1). In 88% (n = 66) samples, AFs level was below the maximum limits (ML = 10 µg kg(-1)) as imposed by EU. Furthermore, 61% (n = 46) tested samples contained AFs level between 1 and 10 µg kg(-1), 9% (n = 7) exhibited AFs contamination ranged 10-20 µg kg(-1) and only 3% (n = 2) of the investigated samples contained AFs levels higher than the ML of 20 µg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins as set by the USA. It was concluded that there is need to establish a strict and continuous national monitoring plan to improve safety and quality of spices in Pakistan.

  8. Natural incidence of aflatoxins, mycological profile and molecular characterization of aflatoxigenic strains in chickpea flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Akram, A.; Qureshi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The mycological profile of retail chickpea flour (locall called Baisan), sold in the markets in the Rawalpindi district was studied. All the samples were tested for the contamination with aflatoxins. A total of 13 fungal species isolated from the flour and out of which, Aspergillus flavus was recorded the most common species (100%), followed by Rhizopus oryzea (50%), Aspergillus niger (40%), Penicilium digitatum (30%), Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium oxysporium, Mucor recemosus, M. petrinsularis and Rhizopus arrhizus (20% each), Aspergillus oryzea, Botritus cinerea, Mucor circineloides and Penicillium sp. (10% each). Aflatoxin B1 was found in only 20% of the samples ranging from 3.03-4.24ppb. The molecular characterization was carried out by using PCR using simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers. The SSR amplification pattern clearly showed the genetic variability among the 10 strains of A. flavus. A dendrogram was generated through MVSP software program. Genotype AF04 was most diverse among all genotypes. The similarity value was ranged between 0.538 (53.8%)-0.938 (93.8%). (author)

  9. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Tuyen, Le Danh; Tuan, Do Huu; Brimer, Leon; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-12-01

    Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao Cai province, Vietnam. A total of 42 composite food samples representing 1134 individual food samples were prepared according to normal household practices and analysed for the three mycotoxins. Results showed that the dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (39.4 ng/kg bw/day) and ochratoxin A (18.7 ng/kg bw/day) were much higher than recommended provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values mainly due to contaminated cereals and meat. The exposure to total fumonisins (1400 ng/kg bw/day) was typically lower than the PTDI value (2000 ng/kg bw/day). The estimated risk of liver cancer associated with exposure to aflatoxin B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical solutions which could reduce mycotoxin contamination as well as to determine the health effects of the co-exposure to different types of mycotoxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurised milk and infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf S. Omar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg. Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg, the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg.

  11. Effect of the calcium, boron and sulphur in pre harvest applications over the severity of anthracnose(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and the fruit's quality of two papaya's varieties in Perez Zeledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montealegre Perez, Eduardo Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This research established the effect of the calcium, boron and sulphur in pre harvest applications over the severity of anthracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and the fruit's quality of two papaya's varieties, one creole and a hibrido in Perez Zeledon. The treatments were the folloguings: oxide of calcium plus dolomite, oxide of calcium plus boric acid plus dolomite, boric acid plus sulphate of potassium and dolomite, boric acid less dolomite and witness. The utilized sources were nitrate of calcium, boric acid and sulphate of potassium. The evaluations were realized both in the rainy season like in the dry season. There were evaluated: severity of anthracnosis, weight of the fruits, total soluble solids, shell's hardness, and stability of the flesh. The experimental design utilized was a complete block at random. There were got that the applications of oxide of calcium and boric acid less dolomite decreased the severity of the disease in the papaya's fruits, while that the boric acid plus sulphate tend to increase the disease. The treatment of boric acid plus sulphate decreased the weight of the fruits both in the rainy and dry season. Besides this treatment decreased the hardness of the shell, while that the treatments with boron increased that. Also the treatments with boric acid plus dolomite and boric acid less dolomite, increased the levels of total soluble solids in the papaya's fruits in the two varieties. Finally; the treatments: oxide of calcium plus boric acid and boric acid plus sulphate decreased the stability of the flesh in both varieties and both evaluated seasons, while the treatment with oxide of calcium increased the stability of the flesh in the hibrido during the dry season. (Author) [es

  12. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity and oxidative damage induced by ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1: protective role of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In animal nutrition, mycotoxins are important feed contaminants. Among them, ochratoxins (OTA and aflatoxins (AF have several biological activities, including acute toxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity (Creepy, 2002. Obviously, toxicity of mycotoxins is a risk factor not only for animals but for humans, too (Hussein et al., 2001. Deficiencies of certain nutritional factors e.g. micronutrients may predispose or enhance individuals to the toxic effects of mycotoxins (Atroshi et al., 2002. It is well known that antioxidants like vitamin E, protect cellular membranes from oxidative damage.........

  13. Application of Probabilistic Modeling to Quantify the Reduction Levels of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Attributable to Chronic Aflatoxins Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambui, Joseph M; Karuri, Edward G; Ojiambo, Julia A; Njage, Patrick M K

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show a definite connection between areas of high aflatoxin content and a high occurrence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B virus in individuals further increases the risk of HCC. The two risk factors are prevalent in rural Kenya and continuously predispose the rural populations to HCC. A quantitative cancer risk assessment therefore quantified the levels at which potential pre- and postharvest interventions reduce the HCC risk attributable to consumption of contaminated maize and groundnuts. The assessment applied a probabilistic model to derive probability distributions of HCC cases and percentage reductions levels of the risk from secondary data. Contaminated maize and groundnuts contributed to 1,847 ± 514 and 158 ± 52 HCC cases per annum, respectively. The total contribution of both foods to the risk was additive as it resulted in 2,000 ± 518 cases per annum. Consumption and contamination levels contributed significantly to the risk whereby lower age groups were most affected. Nonetheless, pre- and postharvest interventions might reduce the risk by 23.0-83.4% and 4.8-95.1%, respectively. Therefore, chronic exposure to aflatoxins increases the HCC risk in rural Kenya, but a significant reduction of the risk can be achieved by applying specific pre- and postharvest interventions.

  14. Survey of aflatoxins in tomato products Aflatoxinas em produtos de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are highly susceptible to fungi contamination in the field, during transportation, processing, and storage. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus have been isolated from tomatoes and tomato products, and both fungi species can produce aflatoxin, mycotoxin with hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects on all animal species tested so far. In order to verify a possible aflatoxin contamination of tomato products commercialized in Brazil, 63 samples of tomato products (pulp, paste, purée, ketchup, dehydrated tomatoes, and dried tomatoes preserved in oil produced in 5 Brazilian states and 1 imported sample (ketchup, totalizing 29 brands, were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The analytical method showed an average recovery of 86% for all aflatoxins at two spiking levels. The limits of detection for the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 varied with the type of the product ranging from 2 to 7 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were not detected in any evaluated sample indicating that they did not pose a risk to human health since there was no invasion of raw materials by toxigenic fungi or no conditions for toxin production.Os tomates são frutos altamente susceptíveis à contaminação fúngica tanto no campo como durante o transporte, processamento e armazenamento. Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus têm sido isolados em tomate e em produtos de tomate e ambas as espécies são produtoras de aflatoxinas, potentes micotoxinas que apresentam efeitos hepatotóxicos, carcinogênicos, teratogênicos e mutagênicos para todas as espécies animais testadas até o momento. Para verificar a possível contaminação por estas micotoxinas em produtos de tomate comercializados no Brasil, amostras de 63 produtos de tomate (polpa, pasta, purê, catchup, tomate desidratado e tomate seco conservado em óleo provenientes de 5 Estados brasileiros e uma do exterior (catchup, compreendendo a 29 marcas, foram analisadas por

  15. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany); Tang, Dianping [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, MOE & Fujian Province, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Knopp, Dietmar, E-mail: dietmar.knopp@ch.tum.de [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany)

    2016-03-17

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • Novel concepts and promising applications of nanoparticle-based immunological methods for the determination of aflatoxins. • Inclusion of most important nanomaterials and hybrid nanostructures. • Inclusion of electrochemical, optical and mass-sensitive biosensors as well as optical and immunochromatographic assays.

  16. Jewelry boxes contaminated by Aspergillus oryzae: an occupational health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Roussel, Anaïs; Millon, Laurence; Delaforge, Marcel; Reboux, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, 100,000 jewelry boxes, manufactured in China, were delivered to a jewelry manufacturer in Besançon, France. All the boxes were contaminated by mold. Because the workers refused to handle these jewelry boxes, the company contacted our laboratory to determine how to deal with the problem. Three choices were available: (1) decontaminate the boxes, (2) return the boxes to the Chinese manufacturer, or (3) destroy the entire shipment. Based on microscopic identification, the culture analysis was positive for A. oryzae. This could not be confirmed by molecular techniques because of the genetic proximity of A. oryzae and A. flavus. Because A. flavus can produce aflatoxins, we tested for them using mass spectrometry. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 were not detected; however, given the specifics of this situation, we could not discard the possibility of the presence of other aflatoxins, such as P1, B3, GM2, and ethoxyaflatoxin B2. We concluded that the contamination by A. oryzae was probably due to food products. However, because of the possible presence of aflatoxins, occupational health risks could not be entirely ruled out. The decision was therefore taken to destroy all the jewelry boxes by incineration. To avoid a similar situation we propose: (1) to maintain conditions limiting mold contamination during production (not eating on the work site, efficient ventilation systems); (2) to desiccate the products before sending them; and (3) to closely control the levels of dampness during storage and transport.

  17. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species...... of Emericella only one species produced aflatoxin. Strains originating from the same geographical source material had different patterns of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin production on different media, indicating that epigenetic factors may be involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production. However, two...

  18. Techniques used detection and quantification of aflatoxin M1 in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Frizzarin; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a group of toxic substances produced by fungi, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It can be developed in agriculture products such as grains or processed food, when environment conditions of humidity and air humidity are favorable. Aflatoxins can be presented as several forms. In Milk, are called M1 and M2, resulting from aflatoxins B1 and B2 metabolism. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is classified as a possible carcinogen to humans, so the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in ...

  19. Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Flavus on irradiated and non-irradiated stored egyptian bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbazza, Z.E.; Mahmoud, M.I.; Fahd, M.E.; Abu Seif, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Aflatoxins production by Aspergillus Flavus isolate on several types of egyptian bread samples through a period of 45 days at different temperatures reveled that there was detectable fungal growth but no aflatoxins were produced at 5±1 degree or 37 degree. At 25 degree or 30 degree aflatoxin were produced after 5-6 days on the different bread types. Gamma irradiation of kaiser bread, previously inoculated with Aspergillus Flavus, reduced the amount of aflatoxins produced on subsequent storage for 8 weeks at 26±1 degree. The 5 KGy dose eliminated fungal growth and aflatoxin production. 4 tab

  20. Characterization of metabolites from a strain of Aspergillus flavus accumulating aflatoxin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A number of aflatoxins and anthraquinone pigments were isolated from a strain of Aspergillus flavus, several of which were fully characterized. The major metabolites isolated were aflatoxin B 2 and versicolorin C, which are normally only found as minor products from species of the genus Aspergillus. The identification of these products supports the proposal that aflatoxin B 2 can arise independently of aflatoxin B 1 and that, in this case, the branch in the pathway occurs at the versicolorins. Other metabolites charaterized were aflatoxin M 2 , norsolorinic acid, and averufin

  1. Impact of casing damaging on aflatoxin B1 concentration during the ripening of dry-fermented meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Kovačević, Dragan; Perković, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of casing damaging on the formation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) during the ripening of dry-fermented meat sausages. The level of AFB1 contamination was determined in 24 samples using the ELISA immunoassay throughout a six-month production period. While with intact casing samples no contamination was observed throughout the whole production process, in damaged casing samples AFB1 was detected in the ripening end-stages in the range of 1.62-4.49 μg/kg. The results showed that casing damaging occurring during long-term ripening of dry-fermented sausages can cause AFB1 contamination, possibly arising on the grounds of diffusion of this mycotoxin from the product surface to its interior.

  2. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  3. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  4. Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: an assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Vandana; Bahman, Sanjivan; Thakur, Lalit K; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Dua, Ajit; Ganguly, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    The major contaminants usually encountered in milk and milk products include pesticide residues, heavy metals, and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Primarily, milk get contaminated before milching, from the cattle feed, from sources/materials used during the processing of milk as well as improper handling of the milk during the pre- and postprocessing period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of household practices on milk contaminants. Samples of pasteurized as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor's milk) were analyzed for AFM1, pesticide residues, and heavy metals. Simulating the household practices, the impact of boiling on these contaminants was assessed. The contaminant Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was detected at a concentration ranging from 0.071-0.075 ppb in unpasteurized as well as pasteurized milk samples analyzed during the course of study. Moreover, boiling had no impact on the quantity of AFM1 present in the milk. Pesticides and heavy metal contents were found to be within acceptable limits in all the milk samples tested. Mycotoxins especially aflatoxins in cattle feed and their consequential presence in milk and milk products is a serious concern world over as they are reported carcinogens. These fungal toxins are resistant to high temperatures and may lead to various health hazards. Preventive steps must be taken at each stage to ensure good quality of milk and milk products free from these contaminants. Awareness programs and education for the dairy farmers and milk processors may be helpful in this regard.

  5. Effect of methionine and lactic acid bacteria as aflatoxin binder on broiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, Lusty; Damayanti, Ema; Julendra, Hardi; Suryani, Ade Erma; Sakti, Awistaros Angger; Anggraeni, Ayu Septi

    2017-06-01

    The use of aflatoxin binder product based amino acids, lacic acid bacteria, and natural product gived the opportunity to be an alternative biological decontamination of aflatoxins. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of aflatoxin binder administration (amino acid methionine and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum G7)) as feed additive on broiler performance. In this study, 75 Lohmann unsexed day old chicks were distributed randomly into 5 units of cages, each filled with 15 broilers. Five cages were assigned into 5 treatments groups and fed with feed contained aflatoxin. The treatments as follow: P1 (aflatoxin feed without aflatoxin binder), P3 (aflatoxin feed + 0.8% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P4 (aflatoxin feed + 1.2% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P5 (aflatoxin feed + 1% of LAB), and K0 (commercial feed). The measurement of aflatoxin content in feed was performed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method using AgraQuant® Total Aflatoxin Assay Romer Labs procedure. The experimental period was 35 days with feeding and drinking ad libitum. LAB was administered into drinking water, while methionine into feed. Vaccination program of Newcastle Disease (ND) was using active vaccine at 4 and 18 day old, while Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) was given at 8 day old. Parameter of body weight was observed weekly, while feed consumption noted daily. The result showed that aflatoxin in feed for 35 days period did not significantly affect the body weight gain and feed conversion. The lowest percentage of organ damage at 21 day old was found in P5 treatment (55%), while at 35day old was found in P4 treatment (64%). It could be concluded that technological process of detoxifying aflatoxin could be applied in an attempt to reduce the effect on the toxicity of aflatoxin in poultry feed.

  6. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome and aflatoxin in stored in-shell peanuts at four different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eDing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of peanuts with Aspergillus sp. and subsequently aflatoxins is considered to be one of the most serious safety problems in the world. Mycobiome in peanuts is critical for aflatoxin production and food safety. To evaluate the biodiversity and ecological characteristics of whole communities in stored peanuts, the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing (BIPES of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of rDNA was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome monthly over a period of one year at four main peanut grown areas i.e Liaoning (LN, North East, Shandong (SD, East, Hubei (HB, Central and Guangdong (GD, South provinces. The fungal diversity of peanuts stored in SD was the highest with 98 OTUs and 43 genera, followed by LN, HB and GD. In peanuts stored in SD, Rhizopus, Emericella and Clonostachys were predominant. In peanuts from LN, Penicillium, Eurotium and Clonostachys were abundant. In peanuts from HB, Penicillium, Eurotium and Aspergillus were higher. In GD peanuts, Eurotium, Aspergillus and Emericella were mainly seen. The abundances of Aspergillus in LN, SD, HB and GD were 0.53%, 6.29%, 10.86% and 25.75%, respectively. From the North of China to the South, that increased over the latitude, suggesting that the higher temperature and relative humidity might increase the risk of peanuts contaminated with Aspergillus and aflatoxins. During the storage, Aspergillus levels were higher at 7-12 months than in 0-6 months, suggesting that the risk increases over storage time. At 7-10 months, AFB1 was higher in four areas, while declined further. The reduction of AFB1 might be attributed to the inhibition and degradation of AFB1 by A. niger or to the combination with the compounds of peanuts. This is the first study that identified the mycobiome and its variation in stored peanuts using ITS2 sequencing technology, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of whole mycobiome in peanuts.

  7. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in different cocoa clones (Theobroma cacao L.) developed in the southern region of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Leonardo Fonseca; Felício, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira; Miranda, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues; Pires, Tassia Cavalcante; Bispo, Eliete da Silva; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko

    2018-01-01

    Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes 'witch's broom disease', research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease; however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, such as Aspergillus, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the presence of aflatoxin (AF) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa clones developed in Brazil. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A contamination were determined in 130 samples from 13 cocoa clones grown in the south of Bahia by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The method was evaluated for limit of detection (LOD) (0.05-0.90 μg kg -1 ), limit of quantification (0.10-2.50 μg kg -1 ) and recovery (RSD) (89.40-95.80%) for AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , AFG 2 and OTA. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in 38% of the samples in the range of

  8. RIA determination of aflatoxin B1 in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludovsky, R.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility was tested of the application of a commercial RIA kit in determining aflatoxin B 1 in foodstuffs. Stability, sensitivity, specificity and the effect of interfering materials were studied. Alternative methods were tested of sample preparation and a technique was proposed usable for food analysis. The kit was found to be mainly suitable for screening and for the determination of aflatoxin B 1 in concentrations exceedings 1 μg/kg. Lipids were found to cause a systematic positive error and should thus be removed by extraction prior to analysis. (author). 10 tabs., 15 refs

  9. Anti-aflatoxin B1 effects of Shirazi thyme (Zataria multiflora in broilers: evaluation of performance and liver histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Fani Makki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Zataria multifora (ZM on the performance and liver histopathology of broiler chickens contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. One hundred and sixty Ross 308 male broilers (one-day-old were divided into four treatment groups with four replicates with 10 birds in each replicate. The chickens were reared on the floor for 35 days. The groups were contaminated with AFB1 at two different concentrations, i.e., 0 and 1000 ppb, and fed ZM in their feed at the concentrations of 0 and 20 gr Kg 1. The evaluated performance parameters were subjected to a completely randomized design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of the treatments using SAS software (version 9/1. AFB1 had a statistical lowering effects on the feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and average weight of the carcass, thigh, chest, bursa of fabricius, back and neck. Also, the weights of liver, gizzard, pancreas, proventriculus, abdominal fat, full intestine, and heart were increased with AFB1 (P<0.05. In histopathological evaluations, the liver of chickens that received feed containing AFB1 showed multifocal and varied cytoplasmic vacuolization, severe fatty change, degenerating foci, fibrosis of the portal regions, and bile duct hyperplasia. The variables that were evaluated in this study showed that ZM had significant efficacy in diminishing the aflatoxins negative effects on the chickens.

  10. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  11. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Gold Nanoparticle Nanoframework as a Highly Selective Separation Material for Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbo; Wu, Lidong; Fan, Kai; Nie, Dongxia; He, Weijing; Yang, Junhua; Zhao, Zhihui; Han, Zheng

    2017-11-03

    Graphene-based materials have been studied in many applications, owing to the excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of graphene. In the current study, an environmentally friendly approach to the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nanocomposite was developed by using L-cysteine and vitamin C as reductants under mild reaction conditions. The rGO-AuNP material showed a highly selective separation ability for 6 naturally occurring aflatoxins, which are easily adsorbed onto traditional graphene materials but are difficult to be desorbed. The specificity of the nanocomposite was evaluated in the separation of 6 aflatoxin congeners (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin M2) from 23 other biotoxins (including, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and deoxynivalenol). The results indicated that this material was specific for separating aflatoxin congeners. The synthesized material was further validated by determining the recovery (77.6-105.0%), sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.05-0.21 μg kg -1 ), and precision (1.5-11.8%), and was then successfully applied to the separation of aflatoxins from real-world maize, wheat and rice samples.

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Aflatoxin (AFM1) in Milk Collected from Dairy Farms in Faisalabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M.W.; Randhawa, M.A.; Zahoor, T.; Sultan, J.I.

    2015-01-01

    Milk contamination with aflatoxin (AFM1) is an issue of great concern in developing countries like Pakistan which demands a great attention. Milk constitutes an important part of human diet, particularly for the youngs. So, it is our utmost need to assess the presence of AFM1 in milk. In the present study assessment of AFM1 in milk collected from different dairy farms of Faisalabad was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with Fluorescence detector. The results were compared with pre-established maximum residual limit (MRL) in order to evaluate the safety of milk for human consumption. The study revealed that all the 50 tested samples were found positive for AFM1 contamination at various levels. Among buffalo dairy farms concentration of AFM1 ranged between 0.0513 λg L-1 and 0.1006 μg L-1. From the cow dairy farms, the AFM1 contamination level was found lowest with a mean of 0.0397 μg L-1 and the highest AFM1 contamination level was with a mean of 0.1143 μg L-1. Overall percentage of AFM1 contamination and concentration levels were found higher in the milk collected from buffalo dairy farms as compared to cow dairy farms. 21 out of 25 (84 percentage) buffalo and 18 out of 25 (72 percentage) cow milk samples were exceeded the European Commission MRL of 0.050 mu g L-1. The results of the present study will be helpful for regulations implementation in order to minimize or avoid the AFM1 contamination in milk from the farms in the study area. (author)

  13. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1% followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.. All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains.

  14. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in bread in Nigeria | Efuntoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Nigeria on samples of brown bread for growth of moulds and natural occurrence of aflatoxins. Mycological analysis showed the presence of six genera of filamentous fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor, Penicillium, Alternaria and Geotrichum. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of bread ...

  15. Aflatoxins associated with storage fungi in fish feed | Samuel | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cereals and legumes are a very important part of feed used in culturing fishes. Feed, when not properly stored, enhances the growth of storage fungi which is a source of mycotoxins, secondary metabolites produced by storage fungi. This study investigates storage fungi and aflatoxin in fish feed stored under three different ...

  16. Complex agricultural livelihoods and aflatoxin exposure in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processed foods are easily accessible by many households, from the numerous trading centres established within villages. This paper gives background information on heterogeneity of household diets and seasonal trends in food consumption in rural Uganda and by so doing, identifies potential risk factors for aflatoxin ...

  17. Solvent-dependent transformation of aflatoxin B1 in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, James M; Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-08-01

    To date, all studies of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) transformation in soil or in purified mineral systems have identified aflatoxins B 2 (AFB 2 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) as the primary transformation products. However, identification in these studies was made using thin layer chromatography which has relatively low resolution, and these studies did not identify a viable mechanism by which such transformations would occur. Further, the use of methanol as the solvent delivery vehicle in these studies may have contributed to formation of artifactual transformation products. In this study, we investigated the role of the solvent vehicle in the transformation of AFB 1 in soil. To do this, we spiked soils with AFB 1 dissolved in water (93:7, water/methanol) or methanol and used HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS to identify the transformation products. Contrasting previous published reports, we did not detect AFB 2 or AFG 2 . In an aqueous-soil environment, we identified aflatoxin B 2a (AFB 2a ) as the single major transformation product. We propose that AFB 2a is formed from hydrolysis of AFB 1 with the soil acting as an acid catalyst. Alternatively, when methanol was used, we identified methoxy aflatoxin species likely formed via acid-catalyzed addition of methanol to AFB 1 . These results suggest that where soil moisture is adequate, AFB 1 is hydrolyzed to AFB 2a and that reactive organic solvents should be avoided when replicating natural conditions to study the fate of AFB 1 in soil.

  18. Effect of supplementing lactating goats fed on aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The fungal spores are found worldwide, in air and soil, and infest both living and dead plants and animals. An experiment was conducted to investigate the concentration, total excretion and .... nutritionally inert adsorbents (calcium bentonite or activated charcoal) reduced the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk. (Table 1).

  19. Inhibition of aflatoxin-producing aspergilli by lactic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were selected from five indigenously fermented cereal gruels and identified as Lactobacillus fermentum OYB, Lb. fermentum RS2, Lb. plantarum MW, Lb. plantarum YO, Lb. brevis WS3, and Lactococcus spp. RS3. Six aflatoxin-producing aspergilli were also selected from the ...

  20. The Inhibition of aflatoxin production from Aspergillus parasiticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition of Aflatoxin production from Aspergillus parasiticus strain NRRL 2999 was investigated using ethanol extracts of Aframommon danielli flower at concentrations of 250ìg/g, 500ìg/g, 750ìg/g and 1000ìg/g with whole wheat bread as a substrate. Aspergillus parasiticus grew abundantly on whole wheat bread; ...

  1. Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolites: more than just aflatoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is best known for producing the family of potent carcinogenic secondary metabolites known as aflatoxins. However, this opportunistic plant and animal pathogen also produces numerous other secondary metabolites, many of which have also been shown to be toxic. While about forty of t...

  2. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Mochizuki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration.

  3. Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

    2013-08-01

    Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa.

  4. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and identification of the major aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts formed in cultured human bronchus and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.

    1979-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene were activated by both cultured human bronchus and human colon as measured by binding to cellular DNA and protein. The binding of aflatoxin B1 to DNA was dose dependent, and the level of binding was higher in cultured human bronchus than it was in the colon. When c...

  5. Application of Probabilistic Modeling to Quantify the Reduction Levels of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Attributable to Chronic Aflatoxins Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wambui, Joseph M.; Karuri, Edward G.; Ojiambo, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    the rural populations to HCC. A quantitative cancer risk assessment therefore quantified the levels at which potential pre- and postharvest interventions reduce the HCC risk attributable to consumption of contaminated maize and groundnuts. The assessment applied a probabilistic model to derive probability......Epidemiological studies show a definite connection between areas of high aflatoxin content and a high occurrence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B virus in individuals further increases the risk of HCC. The two risk factors are prevalent in rural Kenya and continuously predispose...... distributions of HCC cases and percentage reductions levels of the risk from secondary data. Contaminated maize and groundnuts contributed to 1,847 +/- 514 and 158 +/- 52 HCC cases per annum, respectively. The total contribution of both foods to the risk was additive as it resulted in 2,000 +/- 518 cases per...

  6. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data...... and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from...... insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B-1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including...

  7. Techniques used detection and quantification of aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Frizzarin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a group of toxic substances produced by fungi, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It can be developed in agriculture products such as grains or processed food, when environment conditions of humidity and air humidity are favorable. Aflatoxins can be presented as several forms. In Milk, are called M1 and M2, resulting from aflatoxins B1 and B2 metabolism. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is classified as a possible carcinogen to humans, so the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk of lactating cows is a public health issue, and because of its importance several techniques are used for its detection and quantification. These techniques include the physical-chemical as thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and the biological techniques including immunoassays such as RIA and ELISA. This review aimed to present the techniques used to quantify aflatoxins M1 and M2 in milk and dairy products.

  8. Fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered 14C-aflatoxin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Hsieh, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered 14 C-aflatoxin B1 at low doses was performed. The milk collected in the first 24 h following dosing contained radioactivity equivalent to 0.45-1.1% of the dose given. The radioactivity in each sample was partitioned into 4 fractions: ether, protein, dichloromethane, and water-alcohol. Over 80% of the radioactivity was detected in the dichloromethane fraction, of which over 95% was attributable to aflatoxin M1. No aflatoxin B1 or other known aflatoxin metabolites were detected in any fraction. The results indicate that the major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in goat milk is aflatoxin M1 and that other metabolites, including conjugates, are of minor significance

  9. Bioregulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis by unirradiated and irradiated conidia of Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Abu-Shady, M.R.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Moussa, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    A sequential technique involving the transfer of mycelia from peptone-based, aflatoxin-non-supporting medium to glucose based, aflatoxin-supporting medium was used to study the effect of γ-irradiation on the regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus. Analysis indicated that irradiation at a dose of 1.00 kGy produced enhancement of aflatoxin biosynthesis in peptone-glucose mineral salt cultures with an increase of adenine nucleotide levels and fatty acid patterns of microsomes and mitochondria. The results suggest that aflatoxin synthesis is not regulated by the overall energy status of the fungal cell but that lipoperoxidation by γ-irradiation plays a role in aflatoxin biosynthesis

  10. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in processed spices marketed in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Norhayati; Hashim, Noor Hasani; Shuib, Nor Shifa

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was performed in processed spices marketed in Penang, Malaysia, using immunoaffinity columns and HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FD). The processed powdered spices analysed include dried chilli, fennel, cumin, turmeric, black and white pepper, poppy seed, coriander, 'garam masala', and mixed spices for fish, meat and chicken curry. Two different studies were carried out. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 ng g(-1) for each aflatoxin (AF) and 0.10 ng g(-1) for OTA (signal-to-noise ratio = 3:1). In the first study, 34 commercial processed spices analysed with a mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for total AF were 1.61 ng g(-1), 0.01-9.34 ng g(-1) and 85%, respectively, and for AFB1 were 1.38 ng g(-1), 0.01-7.68 ng g(-1) and 85%, respectively. The mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for OTA were 2.21 ng g(-1), 0.14-20.40 ng g(-1) and 79%, respectively. Natural co-occurrence of AF and OTA was found in 25 (74%) samples. In the second study of 24 commercial processed spices, the mean level, range and incidence of positive samples for total AF were 8.38 ng g(-1), 0.32-31.17 ng g(-1) and 88%, respectively, and for AFB1 were 7.31 ng g(-1), 0.32-28.43 ng g(-1) and 83%, respectively. Fifteen positive samples for total AF and two positive samples for OTA exceeded the permissible Malaysian limit of 5 ng g(-1). Contamination of both mycotoxins in spices may represent another route of exposure to consumers due to their frequent and prolonged consumption, as spices are common ingredients in popular dishes among Asian countries.

  11. Identification and quantification of aflatoxins and aflatoxicol from poultry feed and their recovery in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, G; Carvajal, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Avila-González, E; Chilpa-Galván, N; Castillo-Urueta, P; Flores, C M

    2010-05-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites and are known mycotoxins pathological to animals and humans. Poultry litter is frequently used as a food supplement for ruminants, and when poultry feed contains AF, the litter becomes contaminated as well, thus having an effect on livestock health. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) from poultry feed and their recovery, together with their metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and aflatoxicol) in litter. An experiment with 25 Hy-Line W-36 hens, in their second production stage, 121 wk old, was carried out. Hens were distributed in 3 groups placed in individual cages and 1 ration of 250 g of feed was given to each hen daily. Nine hens of the control group were fed with clean feed, without AFB(1); the other 2 experimental groups, with 8 hens each, were fed with 2 AFB(1) concentrations: 30 and 500 microg.kg(-1). The feed was replaced and weighed daily throughout a 7-d period to register the amount of feed consumed by the hens. Litter from each hen was collected, weighed, and dried individually. The chemical analysis of 40 g of each one of the 200 feed and 200 litter samples was chemically extracted and concentrated with immunoaffinity columns for total AF. To quantify AF, calibration curves for each AF were done by HPLC. Feed samples of the 3 groups presented significant difference with AFB(2) and AFG(2), whereas in litter samples, there were significant differences for AFG(2) in the 500 microg.kg(-1) group. Poultry litter had traces of AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and AFL with no significant differences among treatments. Aflatoxin B(1) prevalence in litter samples can cause damages in livestock because this mycotoxin reduces the digestibility of ruminant feed up to 67%.

  12. Modelling of aflatoxin G1 reduction by kefir grain using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Farzaneh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Rahmani, Anosheh

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the main toxic contaminants in pistachio nuts and causes potential health hazards. Hence, AFG1 reduction is one of the main concerns in food safety. Kefir-grains contain symbiotic association of microorganisms well known for their aflatoxin decontamination effects. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop a model in order to predict AFG1 reduction in pistachio nuts by kefir-grain (already heated at 70 and 110°C). The independent variables were: toxin concentration (X1: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ng/g), kefir-grain level (X2: 5, 10, 20, 10 and 25%), contact time (X3: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h), and incubation temperature (X4: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C). There was a significant reduction in AFG1 (p kefir-grain used. The variables including X1, X3 and the interactions between X2-X4 as well as X3-X4 have significant effects on AFG1 reduction. The model provided a good prediction of AFG1 reduction under the assay conditions. Optimization was used to enhance the efficiency of kefir-grain on AFG1 reduction. The optimum conditions for the highest AFG1 reduction (96.8%) were predicted by the model as follows: toxin concentration = 20 ng/g, kefir-grain level = 10%, contact time = 6 h, and incubation temperature = 30°C which validated practically in six replications.

  13. Genetic control of seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in wheat Controle genético da dormência e da germinação precoce em trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Andreoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS damage leads to occasional massive losses in all wheat producing areas, causing downgrading of grain quality, that severely limits end-use applications and results in substantial financial losses to farmers and food processors. Red grain color is a traditional marker for resistance to sprouting in wheat breeding programs, however red-grained genotype alone does not always guarantee effective resistance. The objective of this work was to find genes for resistance to PHS and investigate its inheritance in Brazilian wheat cultivars. Genetic variation for dormancy was investigated in the parents, F1 and 300 F2 lines derived from the cross Frontana × OR1 and its reciprocal. The germination/dormancy sprouted grains was evaluated on fifty seeds per replication, germinated in paper towel rolls at 20ºC for 5 days. A bimodal distribution for dormancy occurred in the Frontana/OR1 and OR1/Frontana derived F2 populations. The mean ratio of dormant and non-dormant seeds of the cross and its reciprocal was 85:1115, fitting a digenic model of 1:15 (P Germinação precoce na espiga (PHS ocasiona perdas significativas nas regiões produtoras de trigo, causando depreciação na qualidade do produto final, o que resulta em prejuízos para os produtores e os moageiros. A cor vermelha do grão é um marcador tradicional para resistência à germinação nos programas de melhoramento de trigo, todavia, o genótipo de grão vermelho sózinho não garante resistência efetiva. O objetivo desse trabalho foi encontrar gene(s para resistência à PHS e estudar a herança do caráter dormência de semente nos cultivares de trigo brasileiro. A variação genética para dormência foi investigada nos parentais, no F1 e em 300 linhas F2 derivadas do cruzamento de Frontana × OR1, e o cruzamento recíproco. Os grãos brotados (sprouted e os dormentes foram avaliados pelo teste de germinação, em rolo de papel, a 20º C por 5 dias. Observou-se uma

  14. Genome Wide Association Study for Drought, Aflatoxin Resistance, and Important Agronomic Traits of Maize Hybrids in the Sub-Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370

  15. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  16. Highly sensitive FRET-based fluorescence immunoassay for aflatoxin B1 using cadmium telluride quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekavati, Roya; Bayat, Mansour; Safi, Shahabeddin; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Rahmani-Cherati, Tavoos; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mohsenifar, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    We report on a competitive immunoassay for the determination of aflatoxin B1 using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody (immobilized on the shell of CdTe quantum dots) to Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123-labeled aflatoxin B1 bound to albumin). The highly specific immuno reaction between the antibody against aflatoxin B1 on the QDs and the labeled-aflatoxin B1 brings the Rho 123 fluorophore (acting as the acceptor) and the QDs (acting as the donor) in close spatial proximity and causes FRET to occur upon photoexcitation of the QDs. In the absence of unlabeled aflatoxin B1, the antigen-antibody complex is stable, and strong emission resulting from the FRET from QDs to labeled aflatoxin B1 is observed. In the presence of aflatoxin B1, it will compete with the labeled aflatoxin B1-albumin complex for binding to the antibody-QDs conjugate so that FRET will be increasingly suppressed. The reduction in the fluorescence intensity of the acceptor correlates well with the concentration of aflatoxin B1. The feasibility of the method was established by the detection of aflatoxin B1 in spiked human serum. There is a linear relationship between the increased fluorescence intensity of Rho 123 with increasing concentration of aflatoxin B1 in spike human serum, over the range of 0.1–0.6 μmol·mL −1 . The limit of detection is 2 × 10 −11 M. This homogeneous competitive detection scheme is simple, rapid and efficient, and does not require excessive washing and separation steps. (author)

  17. Aflatoxin production in a meat mix model system in the presence of Pediococcus and Lactobacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchese, R.H.; Martins, J.F.P.; Harrigan, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The effect on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus of eight individual strains of Pediococcus and Lactobacillus was determined. The study was conducted in an axenic cultural system in which irradiated meat was employed in the formulation of a meat medium. The medium composition and incubation temperatures were simulations of Brazilian salami processing conditions. All single cultures of A. parasiticus supported aflatoxin production. More aflatoxin was produced in samples treated by the addition of lactic acid than in nontreated ones. Aflatoxin was not detected when A. parasiticus was grown with lactic acid bacteria, although visible mold growth was observed in all such cultures

  18. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd.-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving o...

  19. Translational step inhibited in vivo by aflatoxin B1 in rat-liver polysomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasin, A.; Moule, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 strongly inhibits protein synthesis in rat liver cells. This paper confirms the foregoing results and represents an attempt to localize the translational step inhibited in vivo by aflatoxin B 1 . We used the simulation study developed by Li, Kisilevsky, Wasan and Hammond, 1972 (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 272, 451-462) to determine precisely the site inhibited in vivo after drug intoxication. This analysis is based on two parameters: the kinetics of polysome labeling to follow the nascent peptide synthesis, and the kinetics of supernatant labeling to follow the completed protein synthesis. Up to 5 h after dosing, aflatoxin specifically inhibits the elongation and/or termination steps during protein synthesis; after longer periods of time inhibition occurs essentially at the initiation step. When the intracellular concentration of aflatoxin is too high, particularly 2 h after dosing, each step of protein synthesis is blocked. Polypeptide synthesis by the postmitochondrial supernatants isolated from aflatoxin-treated animals is impaired in the same proportion as protein synthesis in vivo. The damage caused by aflatoxin is mostly observed on microsomes. However, purified polysomes isolated from aflatoxin-treated rats synthesize proteins in vitro to the same extent as those from controls. These results suggest that aflatoxin metabolite(s) are bound to polysomes with noncovalent bonds. These active metabolites are probably lost during polysome isolation procedures. Finally, relationships between protein metabolism and aflatoxin carcinogenesis are discussed. (orig./BSC) [de

  20. Effects of temperature, water activity and incubation time on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production by toxinogenic Aspergillus flavus isolates on sorghum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouar, Amani; Marin, Sonia; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Saïd, Salem; Sanchis, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum, which is consumed in Tunisia as human food, suffers from severe colonization by several toxigenic fungi and contamination by mycotoxins. The Tunisian climate is characterized by high temperature and humidity that stimulates mold proliferation and mycotoxin accumulation in foodstuffs. This study investigated the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 37°C), water activity (aw, between 0.85 and 0.99) and incubation time (7, 14, 21 and 28 d) on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by three Aspergillus flavus isolates (8, 10 and 14) inoculated on sorghum grains. The Baranyi model was applied to identify the limits of growth and mycotoxin production. Maximum diameter growth rates were observed at 0.99 a(w) at 37°C for two of the isolates. The minimum aw needed for mycelial growth was 0.91 at 25 and 37°C. At 15°C, only isolate 8 grew at 0.99 a(w). Aflatoxin B1 accumulation could be avoided by storing sorghum at low water activity levels (≤0.91 a(w)). Aflatoxin production was not observed at 15°C. This is the first work on the effects of water activity and temperature on A. flavus growth and AFB1 production by A. flavus isolates on sorghum grains. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of different levels of date pits in broilers' feed contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .com

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... contaminated with aflatoxin B1 on broilers' performance and carcass ... reduce mycotoxin in animal diets, different physical, chemical and ..... observed in the present study has been reported also by. Kubena et al. (1997). ... Chemical composition of date pits and reproductive hormonal status of rats fed date ...

  2. Survey of Expression of Aflatoxin Production Regulator Gene (aflR in Aspergillus Parasiticus by Alpinia Galanga L and Dorema Aucheri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Arab-Mazar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are one of the highly toxic secondary metabolites, which are mainly produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. This species frequently cause of food and agricultural products contamination including cereals, peanuts, and crops in the field. During recent years, researchers have considered research on elimination of aflatoxin and antifungal effects of medicinal herbals, such as Alpinia galanga L and Dorema aucheri. In this study, the effect of A.galanga L and D.aucheri a natural compound was examined on Aspergillus parasiticus growth, aflatoxins production and the aflR gene expression.Materials and Methods: Antifungal susceptibility A.galanga L and D.aucheri was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2. Quantitative changes in aflR gene level of expression were analyzed by Real-time PCR method.Results: Our result obtained that the MIC of extracts on A. parasiticus growth 250 mg/mL for D.aucheri and 800 mg/mL for A.galanga L. D.aucheri has antitoxic properties as well as its effective ability to decrease aflatoxin production. The level of aflR gene expression was decreased significantly after the exposure of fungal cell to D.aucheri extract, but A.galanga L didn’t have significant effect.Conclusion: This research indicated that D.aucheri has antifungal effects more than A.galanga L. Due to our obtained result we can suggest that D.aucheri herbal extract may have antifungal potential in medicine or agriculture.

  3. Radiation degradation of biological waste (aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory; Degradacao por radiacao de residuos biologicos (aflatoxinas) produzidos em laboratorio de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2009-07-01

    Many filamentous fungi can produce secondary metabolites, called mycotoxins, which can be found in food and agricultural products. One of the main genera of myco toxigenic fungi related to the food chain is the Aspergillus spp. There are over 400 mycotoxins described in the literature, the most common the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The mycotoxins are commonly found in foods and are considered one of the most dangerous contaminants. The aflatoxin B1 is classified in group one by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. Aflatoxins resisting for more than one hour in autoclave making it necessary to other means of degradation of these toxins. This work aimed to observe the effects of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co and electron beams in the degradation of aflatoxins and compare the damage caused on the morphology of the Aspergillus flavus. The fungus was grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 10 days and was subsequently transferred to coconut agar medium, and maintained for 14 days at 25 degree C. After this step the coconut agar was ground to become a homogeneous pasty and was irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy. The samples used in scanning electron microscopy were irradiated with doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy with sources of {sup 60}Co and electron beams. Irradiation with electron accelerator showed a slightly higher degradation to gamma radiation, reducing 29.93 %, 34.50 %, 52.63 % and 72.30 % for doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 kGy, respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that doses of 2.5 to 10 kGy did not cause damage to the fungus, but with a dose of 20 kGy it can be observed fungal damage to structures. (author)

  4. Efficacy of Silybum Marianum Seeds in Ameliorating the Toxic Effects of Aflatoxin B1 in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Fani Makki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of silybum marianum seeds (SMSs on blood biochemical profile of broiler chickens contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. Methods: Combinations of three levels of AFB1 (0, 250 and 500 ppb with three levels of SMSs (0, 0.5, and 1.0 % were incorporated into the basal diet (corn and soybean meal. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 One-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a complete randomized design based on factorial design with 4 replicates of six birds. The individual effects of dietary AFB1 and SMSs on serum biochemistry factors and liver enzymes were evaluated at 35 days of age. Statistical package SAS (9.1 was used to perform the analysis. Results: The main effects of uric acid, glucose, total bilirubin and liver enzymes (such as; aspartate amino-transferase (AST, alanine amino-transaminase (ALT and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT in groups received different levels of AFB1 significantly increased (P<0.01. In contrast, albumin, direct bilirubin, calcium, and phosphorus significantly decreased (P<0.05. However, the SMSs supplemented diets significantly decreased uric acid, glucose, AST and GGT enzymes compare to control group (P<0.01. Conclusion: SMSs might prevent the adverse effects of AFB1 in contaminated food and improve safety and quality of poultry products for human use.

  5. Sex-Related Differences in Hematological Parameters and Organosomatic Indices of Oreochromis niloticus Exposed to Aflatoxin B1 Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Marijani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-week feeding experiment was conducted to assess whether males and females of Oreochromis niloticus exhibit differences in their hematological responses and organosomatic indices to dietary AFB1 contamination. Triplicate groups of O. niloticus (initial body weight: 24.1 ± 0.6 g were fed with four diets (Diets 1 to 4 containing 0, 20, 200, and 2,000 μg AFB1 kg−1. A significant decrease (P<0.05 in hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cells (RBC, and hematocrit (Hct was observed in AFB1 exposure groups, with the lowest levels recorded in the 2000 μg AFB1 kg−1 treatment. A significant increase in mean white blood cells (WBC, neutrophils, and lymphocytes was observed in AFB1 exposure groups. No sex-related differences in RBC, WBC, lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils levels were observed. However, hemoglobin and hematocrit values for female O. niloticus were significantly lower than those for male O. niloticus. Organosomatic indices showed that the relative liver, kidney, and spleen weights were significantly higher (P<0.05 in the AFB1 supplemented group than in the control group. However, the effect of aflatoxin on organosomatic indices does not depend on sex but rather depends on the dose of aflatoxin in the diet. These results provide useful information for monitoring changes in the health status of male and female O. niloticus.

  6. Effects of salicylic acid on Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B₁ accumulation in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahirad, Sima; Zaare-Nahandi, Fariborz; Mohammadi, Nilufar; Alizadeh-Salteh, Saeedeh; Safaie, Naser

    2014-07-01

    One of the most important saprophytic infections in fresh pistachio fruits after harvesting is Aspergillus flavus colonization, which significantly reduces fruit quality. Salicylic acid plays a crucial role in plant tissues and has a suppression effect on some fungi. The inhibitory effect of salicylic acid on the growth of A. flavus was assessed in vitro and in vivo. For this purpose, seven concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 mmol L(-1)) of salicylic acid were used in both experiments. Also, aflatoxin B1 contents of the samples were analysed using immunoaffinity chromatography. The results obtained from in vitro experiments showed that salicylic acid significantly reduced Aspergillus growth at all concentrations, and at 9 mmol L(-1) growth was completely suppressed. In vivo evaluation showed relatively high levels of inhibition, though the intact treated fruits as compared with the injured treated fruits demonstrated higher inhibitory effects. Regarding the inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on the control of A. flavus contamination, its application on pistachio fruits after harvesting could be a promising approach to control the fungus infection and reduce aflatoxin production in treated fruits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in some samples of UHT, raw & pasteurized milk from Indian states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Vinutha; Nanjegowda, Divyashree Kallenahalli; Viswanath, Prema

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is a toxic metabolite found in the milk of lactating animals which have consumed feedstuffs contaminated with aflatoxin B(1). Ultra high temperature treated (UHT) milk is a product which is becoming popular in developing countries like India as there is a lack of proper cold storage or refrigeration facilities. In this study, 45 samples of UHT milk of popular brands prevalent in the market were analyzed for the presence of AFM(1) by reversed phase HPLC using fluorescent detector after cleanup of sample with immunoaffinity columns. All samples of plain UHT milk were positive for AFM(1) and 38% of these contained levels more than 0.5 μg/kg, the maximum permitted limit prescribed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and by the mandatory regulations of the country, the FSSAI Regulations, 2011. In 62.5% of flavored UHT milk, AFM(1) was below detectable levels (0.02 μgL(-1)). However, 12.5% of these samples also contained levels exceeding the maximum permitted limits. AFM(1) was present in 61.6% of the 52 raw milk samples analyzed from the two states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu with a range of 0.1-3.8 μgL(-1). 17.3% of these samples also exceeded the regulatory limits of the country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aflatoxin biosynthesis control produced by Aspergillus flavus in layer hens feed during storage period of six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S M; Sultana, B; Iqbal, M

    2017-06-01

    Aflatoxins (AFTs) are a group of closely related toxins that are produced by different fungus species. Food and feed contamination with AFT is a worldwide health-related problem. As a result of fungal attack, the food and feed resulted in a principal socioeconomic loss and toxins produced in feed and food items harm the humans and animals in different ways. The anti-aflatoxigenic effect Psidium guajava, Ficus benghalensis, Gardenia radicans, Punica granatum and Ziziphus jujuba leaves were evaluated against aflatoxins (AFTs), produced by Aspergillus flavus in layer feed during storage. Among the investigated medicinal plant leaves, P. granatum showed highly promising anti-aflatoxigenic activity and completely inhibited the AFTs (B1 and B2) production over storage period without compromising the nutritive quality of feed (ash, protein, fat, fiber, Fe, Ca, P and K contents). Leaves of F. benghalensis and Z. jujuba were also effective however, higher concentration (15%) inhibited the AFTs production up to 99% and also maintained nutritive quality of feed. G. radicans was found least effective in controlling the AFTs production. Results revealed that all plant leaves were effective in controlling AFTs production in layer feed over the storage period of six months and these plants are potential candidate to replace the fungicides used to protect feed and other agricultural commodities from AFTs production during storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Ability of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain cultured in milk whey based medium to bind aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bovo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare Lactobacillus rhamnosus growth in MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth and a culture medium containing milk whey (MMW and to evaluate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 adsorption capacity by bacterial cells produced in both culture media. L. rhamnosus cells were cultivated in MRS broth and MMW (37 °C, 24 hours, and bacterial cell concentration was determined spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. AFB1 (1 µg/ml adsorption assays were conducted using 1 x 10(10 non-viable L. rhamnosus cells (121 °C, 15 minutes at pHs 3.0 and 6.0 and contact time of 60 minutes. AFB1 quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Bacterial cell concentration in MMW was higher (9.84 log CFU/ml than that in MRS broth (9.63 log CFU/ml. There were no significant differences between AFB1 binding results at the same pH value (3.0 or 6.0 for the cells cultivated in MRS broth (46.0% and 35.8%, respectively and in MMW (43.7% and 25.8%, respectively, showing that MMW can adequately replace the MRS broth. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of L. rhamnosus cells cultivated in MMW offers advantages such as reduction in large scale production costs, improvement of environmental sustainability, and being a practicable alternative for decontamination of food products susceptible to aflatoxin contamination.

  10. Dietary modulation of the biotransformation and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Steinmeyer, Kerstin; Eaton, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Diet and its various components are consistently identified as among the most important ‘risk factors’ for cancer worldwide, yet great uncertainty remains regarding the relative contribution of nutritive (e.g., vitamins, calories) vs. non-nutritive (e.g., phytochemicals, fiber, contaminants) factors in both cancer induction and cancer prevention. Among the most potent known human dietary carcinogens is the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B 1 (AFB). AFB and related aflatoxins are produced as secondary metabolites by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that commonly infect poorly stored foods including peanuts, pistachios, corn, and rice. AFB is a potent hepatocarcinogenic agent in numerous animal species, and has been implicated in the etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent research has shown that many diet-derived factors have great potential to influence AFB biotransformation, and some efficiently protect from AFB-induced genotoxicity. One key mode of action for reducing AFB-induced carcinogenesis in experimental animals was shown to be the induction of detoxification enzymes such as certain glutathione-S-transferases that are regulated through the Keap1–Nrf2–ARE signaling pathway. Although initial studies utilized the dithiolthione drug, oltipraz, as a prototypical inducer of antioxidant response, dietary components such as suforaphane (SFN) are also effective inducers of this pathway in rodent models. However, human GSTs in general do not appear to be extensively induced by SFN, and GSTM1 – the only human GST with measurable catalytic activity toward aflatoxin B 1 -8,9-epoxide (AFBO; the genotoxic metabolite of AFB), does not appear to be induced by SFN, at least in human hepatocytes, even though its expression in human liver cells does appear to offer considerable protection against AFB–DNA damage. Although induction of detoxification pathways has served as the primary mechanistic focus of chemoprevention studies, protective

  11. Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to address the aflatoxin problem in grain, the current study assessed the spectral differences of aflatoxin production in kernels from a cornfield inoculated with spores from two different strains of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin production in corn from the same field due to n...

  12. Biological control products for aflatoxin prevention in Italy: Commercial field evaluation of atoxigenic A.flavus active ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2003, non-compliant aflatoxin concentrations have been detected in maize produced in Italy. The most successful worldwide experiments in aflatoxin prevention resulted from distribution of atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus to displace aflatoxin-producers during crop development. The disp...

  13. Challenging Role of Dietary Aflatoxin B1 Exposure and Hepatitis B Infection on Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Kucukcakan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins (AFT are poisonous substances which are classified in Group 1 carcinogenic agents to humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC. AFT can occur naturally in food commodities (maize, corn, rice as a result of fungal contamination in hot and humid environments. In the food, toxin contamination can remain during manufacturing and long after fungi have stopped being biologically active. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most dominant and potent agent from all AFT. In developing countries, high exposure to AFB1 can cause chronic toxicity and usually increases the incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC. However, in these regions hepatitis B is the most common risk factor for HCC cases. Many researches were aimed to enlighten the mechanism and the role of two etiological agents on risk of HCC, but the obtained data was conflicting with each other. It was uncertain that the indicators/biomarkers might be the contribution of the carcinogenic status of the patient; and, the biomarker samples from the subject may only reflect the recent effects of the toxin exposure after consumption of AFB1 contaminated commodities. The studies were facing with the errors of methods which were un-fit to enlighten the possible interaction between Hepatitis B and AFB1 on contribution to HCC. It was pivotal to understand the effect of each risk factor in order to prevent and improve public health in poor and undeveloped regions. Although some of the studies evaluate AFB1 alone as a considerable factor on HCC risk, according to this review it was concluded vice versa. This study was aimed to clarify the main etiological agent of HCC where AFB1 and HBV are endangering public health. In additionally, the purpose was to enlighten the possible synergistic effect between these two factors among HCC pathogenesis. Hence forth, appropriate and right applications could be conducted in undeveloped countries in order to protect public health.

  14. Production of aflatoxins during storage of gamma-irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, A.G.; Sharma, A.; Padwaldesai, S.R.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    A correlation between relative humidity (RH) during storage and moisture content was obtained in wheat subjected to gamma irradiation at 20 krad. The samples were assessed for storage up to 6 months with and without artificial loading of grains with conidia of Aspergillus flavus. The mycotoxin production seemed to be determined by a critical level of moisture in the grain (13%) at RH over 80% at 28 0 +- 2 0 C. The total aflatoxin produced in the irradiated grains was observed to be lower than in the unirradiated controls. The amount of toxin contained in grains, artificially infected with A. flavus before or after irradiation, did not show appreciable differences. The results, while defining the storage conditions with reference to humidity, did not indicate any alterations in wheat relating to aflatoxin producing potential

  15. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from different Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for monitory of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and deoxynivalenol (DON contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds were collected from different Province in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 443 feed ingredients, including 220 corn, 24 wheat, 24 domestic distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS, 55 bran, 20 wheat shorts and red dog, 37 imported DDGS, 34 corn germ meal and 29 soybean meal as well as 127 complete feeds including 25 pig complete feed (powder, 90 pig complete feed (pellet, six duck complete feed and six cattle complete feed were randomly collected from different Province in China, respectively, by high-performance chromatography in combined with UV or fluorescence analysis. Results The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 80.8, 92.3 and 93.9 %, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for DON ranged from 66.7 to 100 %. Domestic DDGS and imported DDGS presented the most serious contamination AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 61.5 to 100 %, indicated that serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. Conclusion The current data provide clear evidence that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds in different Province in China is serious and differs over past 3-year. The use of corn, domestic DDGS, imported DDGS and corn germ meal, which may be contaminated with these three mycotoxins, as animal feed may triggered a health risk for animal. Feeds are most contaminated with DON followed by ZEN and AFB1. Mycotoxins contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds should be monitored routinely in China.

  16. Analysis of Aflatoxin M1 in Breast Milk and Its Association with Nutritional and Socioeconomic Status of Lactating Mothers in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaridi, Jomana; Bassil, Maya; Kharma, Joelle Abi; Daou, Farah; Hassan, Hussein F

    2017-10-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) is the most potent of the dietary aflatoxins, and its major metabolite, aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ), is frequently found in the breast milk of lactating mothers. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and factors associated with AFM 1 contamination of breast milk collected from lactating mothers in Lebanon. A total of 111 breast milk samples were collected according to the guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Samples were analyzed with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between December 2015 and November 2016. A survey was used to determine the demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participating lactating mothers. Dietary habits were assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Mean (±standard deviation) concentration of AFM 1 in the breast milk samples was 4.31 ± 1.8 ng/L, and 93.8% of samples contained AFM 1 at 0.2 to 7.9 ng/L. The mean concentration of AFM 1 was significantly lower (P 0.05) was observed between AFM 1 concentrations in breast milk and anthropometric sociodemographic factors (age and level of education) or the governorate of residence of the nursing mothers. The mean AFM 1 estimated daily intake was found to be 0.69 ng/day/kg of body weight. Although the incidence of AFM 1 contamination was low, our first-of-its-kind study highlights the importance of conducting investigations on mycotoxin contamination in breast milk and of developing protection strategies to tackle the exposure of infants to this potent chemical hazard.

  17. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann

    2010-01-01

    with methanol-water (80 + 20, v/v) by shaking for 10 or 30 min. An immunoaffinity column was used for cleanup. HPLC with postcolumn derivatization, for enhancement of aflatoxin fluorescence, and fluorescence determination were used for quantitation of the toxin concentration. The method was validated...... was obtained when 1 g salt was used and the shaking time was 10 min. The good linearity and precision of the method allowed baseline separation from interferences, e.g., coumarins....

  18. Effect of irradiation on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Jintana Bunnak; Guzman, Z.M. de; Ishigaki, Isao

    1991-01-01

    The effects of repeated exposure to gamma irradiation on Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris S46 was studied in terms of the development of increased radioresistance and mutations. Original D 10 value was obtained as 0.22 kGy and increased a little after 6 times exposure at a dose of 0.8 kGy. Mutation ratios such as morphological changes and aflatoxin production were not remarkably changed even after 6 times exposure. A little stimulation of production of aflatoxin B 1 occurred by irradiation of spores of strains S46, E11 and E14 at 0.4 and 0.6 kGy in Synthetic Low Salts broth after incubation for 10 days at 25degC. The levels of aflatoxin B 1 was also increased 13 to 40% by incubation of irradiated spores of S46 strain at 1 kGy on autoclaved polished rice, black pepper and red pepper. However, these stimulation effects were not Observed after infection of these cultivates of irradiated sores to fresh media. (author)

  19. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

  20. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-11-13

    Aflatoxin B₁, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B₁ after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B₁ after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B₁ degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B₁ was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B₁ degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B₁ degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B₁ degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  1. 10522 ASSESSMENT OF AFLATOXINS B1, B2, G1 AND G2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-04-13

    Apr 13, 2013 ... occurs when high concentrations of aflatoxins are consumed. Symptoms of acute aflatoxicosis include vomiting, weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice, liver damage and ..... Pitt JI Application of the food safety objective concept to the problem of aflatoxins in peanuts. Mitt. Lebensm. Hyg, 2004; 95: 52-58. 19.

  2. 75 FR 68681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... FIR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio marketing order (order). The interim rule streamlined the aflatoxin sampling and testing procedures under the order's rules and regulations for pistachios to be shipped for...

  3. Effect of UV irradiation on aflatoxin reduction: a cytotoxicity evaluation study using human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Ankit; Julakanti, Sharath; Yannam, Sudheer; Bansode, Rishipal R; Burns, Mallory; Vergne, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, the efficacy of a medium-pressure UV (MPUV) lamp source to reduce the concentrations of aflatoxin B 1 , aflatoxin B 2 , and aflatoxin G 1 (AFB 1, AFB 2 , and AFG 1 ) in pure water is investigated. Irradiation experiments were conducted using a collimated beam system operating between 200 to 360 nm. The optical absorbance of the solution and the irradiance of the lamp are considered in calculating the average fluence rate. Based on these factors, the UV dose was quantified as a product of average fluence rate and treatment time. Known concentrations of aflatoxins were spiked in water and irradiated at UV doses ranging from 0, 1.22, 2.44, 3.66, and 4.88 J cm -2 . The concentration of aflatoxins was determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. LC-MS/MS product ion scans were used to identify and semi-quantify degraded products of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , and AFG 1 . It was observed that UV irradiation significantly reduced aflatoxins in pure water (p UV light may have caused photolysis of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , and AFG 1 molecules. In cell culture studies, our results demonstrated that the increase of UV dosage decreased the aflatoxin-induced cytotoxicity in HepG 2 cells. Therefore, our research finding suggests that UV irradiation can be used as an effective technique for the reduction of aflatoxins.

  4. Oral administration of piperine for the control of aflatoxin intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagini, Thalita B; Silva, Robson E; Castro, Isabela S; Soares, Breno A; Lima, Marco E F; Brito, Marilene F; Mazur, Carlos; Direito, Glória M; Danelli, Maria das Graças M

    2010-04-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that have important toxic effects on human and animal health, even if consumed at low doses. The oral administration of piperine (1.12 mg/kg) during 23 days in rats seemingly interfered with the toxicity of aflatoxins, decreasing hepatic injuries and the leukocyte depletion in experimentally intoxicated animals.

  5. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in the Brazilian peanut production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Ligia Manoel; de Souza Sant'Ana, Anderson; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    , the potential for aflatoxin production by the isolates was tested using the agar plug technique and the presence of aflatoxins in peanuts was assessed using an immunoaffinity column followed by quantification using HPLC with reverse phase column and fluorescence detection. The limit of detection...

  6. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rajput, Shahid; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Mohamed Khalil, Mahmoud; Gao, Xin; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-11-15

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB₁ contaminated corn (AFB₁); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB₁ + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB₁ + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB₁ alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB₁ significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB₁ contaminated diet reduced AFB₁ residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB₁ negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB₁ in broiler chickens.

  7. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB1 in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB1 contaminated corn (AFB1); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB1 (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB1 + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB1 (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB1 + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB1 alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB1 significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB1 contaminated diet reduced AFB1 residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB1 negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB1 in broiler chickens. PMID:29140290

  8. LAMP-based group specific detection of aflatoxin producers within Aspergillus section Flavi in food raw materials, spices, and dried fruit using neutral red for visible-light signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Ludwig; Bechtner, Julia; Fodil, Sihem; Taniwaki, Marta H; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-02

    Aflatoxins can be produced by 21 species within sections Flavi (16 species), Ochraceorosei (2), and Nidulantes (3) of the fungal genus Aspergillus. They pose risks to human and animal health due to high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Detecting aflatoxin producers can help to assess toxicological risks associated with contaminated commodities. Species specific molecular assays (PCR and LAMP) are available for detection of major producers, but fail to detect species of minor importance. To enable rapid and sensitive detection of several aflatoxin producing species in a single analysis, a nor1 gene-specific LAMP assay was developed. Specificity testing showed that among 128 fungal species from 28 genera, 15 aflatoxigenic species in section Flavi were detected, including synonyms of A. flavus and A. parasiticus. No cross reactions were found with other tested species. The detection limit of the assay was 9.03pg of A. parasiticus genomic DNA per reaction. Visual detection of positive LAMP reactions under daylight conditions was facilitated using neutral red to allow unambiguous distinction between positive and negative assay results. Application of the assay to the detection of A. parasiticus conidia revealed a detection limit of 211 conidia per reaction after minimal sample preparation. The usefulness of the assay was demonstrated in the analysis of aflatoxinogenic species in samples of rice, nuts, raisins, dried figs, as well as powdered spices. Comparison of LAMP results with presence/absence of aflatoxins and aflatoxin producing fungi in 50 rice samples showed good correlation between these parameters. Our study suggests that the developed LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive and user-friendly tool for surveillance and quality control in our food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunotoxicity of ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 in combination is associated with the nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway in 3D4/21 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lili; Gan, Fang; Zhou, Xuan; Zhou, Yajiao; Qian, Gang; Liu, Zixuan; Huang, Kehe

    2018-05-01

    The co-contamination of cereals, grains, crops, and animal feeds by mycotoxins is a universal problem. Humans and animals are exposed to several mycotoxins simultaneously as evidenced by extensive studies on this topic. Yet, most studies have addressed the effects of mycotoxins individually. Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A can induce immunotoxicity. However, it remains unclear whether a combination of these mycotoxins aggravates immunotoxicity and the potential mechanism underlying this effect. In this study, we used the cell line 3D4/21, swine alveolus macrophages and innate immune cell. The results showed that the percentage of cell inhibition, annexin V/PI-positive rates, and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6) significantly increased and the release of lactate dehydrogenase and phagocytotic index were significantly decreased at different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A combination when compared with control. The combination of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A significantly decreased the production of GSH and increased reactive oxygen species level. However, N-acetylcysteine suppressed the oxidative stress and alleviated the immunotoxicity induced by the combination. The combination of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A markedly enhanced the degradation of IκBa, the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (p65), and the translocation of activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) into the nuclei as demonstrated by western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. These effects could be reversed by BAY 11-7082, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB. Taken together, a combination of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A could aggravate immunotoxicity by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of an esterified glucomannan on laying hens exposed to combined mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaghini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin toxicity depends on species, exposure time, age, sex, health and possible synergistic effects of other mycotoxins present in feed. In poultry, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are associated with poor growth performance, lowered feed utilization efficiency, liver damage and immunosuppression; metabolites may persist in tissues and eggs. Exposure of mature hens to zearalenone (ZEN apparently does not cause adverse effects, but ZEN residues and α and β zearalenol persist in liver and muscle (Kuiper-Goodman et al., 1987 and may be transmitted to egg yolk (Dailey et al., 1990. Various treatments and dietary strategies have been tried to reduce mycotoxin levels in contaminated commodities...

  11. A review of the current situation of aflatoxin M1 in cow's milk in Serbia: risk assessment and regulatory aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Dragan R; Spirić, Danka; Radičević, Tatjana; Velebit, Branko; Stefanović, Srdjan; Milojević, Lazar; Janković, Saša

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to provide information regarding the incidence and levels of aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) in raw and heat processed cow's milk in Serbia during 2015-16 and to compare these with collected data on the occurrence of AFM 1 in raw milk and dairy products during the last decade in our region. Estimation of dietary exposure (EDI) and hazard index (HI) calculations for different age groups of the population were also carried out, based on the AFM 1 content of milk samples and on available food consumption data in Serbia. AFM 1 was detected in 69.9% (984/1408) of raw milk samples in 2015 versus 84.9% (3094/3646) in 2016, while in heat-processed milk, AFM 1 was detected in 77.8% (364/468) in 2015 versus 98.5% (753/765) in 2016. On the basis of the obtained results, 450 (9%) of raw and 14 (1.1%) of heat-processed milk samples were contaminated with AFM 1 levels above the maximum permitted level in Serbia (0.25 μg kg -1 ). However, a large percentage of raw and heat processed milk in Serbia (30.1% and 17.3%, respectively) was contaminated with AFM 1 levels above the maximum permitted level regulated in the European Union (0.05 μg kg -1 ). Therefore, in order to protect consumer health, it is extremely important to further control the level of aflatoxins in milk, and this should be considered as a high priority for risk management actions.

  12. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: Impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissonnier, Guylaine M.; Pinton, Philippe; Laffitte, Joelle; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Gong, Yun Yun; Wild, Christopher P.; Bertin, Gerard; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus, is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. This toxin is hepatotoxic and immunotoxic. The present study analyzed in pigs the influence of AFB1 on humoral and cellular responses, and investigated whether the immunomodulation observed is produced through interference with cytokine expression. For 28 days, pigs were fed a control diet or a diet contaminated with 385, 867 or 1807 μg pure AFB1/kg feed. At days 4 and 15, pigs were vaccinated with ovalbumin. AFB1 exposure, confirmed by an observed dose-response in blood aflatoxin-albumin adduct, had no major effect on humoral immunity as measured by plasma concentrations of total IgA, IgG and IgM and of anti-ovalbumin IgG. Toxin exposure did not impair the mitogenic response of lymphocytes but delayed and decreased their specific proliferation in response to the vaccine antigen, suggesting impaired lymphocyte activation in pigs exposed to AFB1. The expression level of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR in spleen. A significant up-regulation of all 5 cytokines was observed in spleen from pigs exposed to the highest dose of AFB1. In pigs exposed to the medium dose, IL-6 expression was increased and a trend towards increased IFN-γ and IL-10 was observed. In addition we demonstrate that IL-6 impaired in vitro the antigenic- but not the mitogenic-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from control pigs vaccinated with ovalbumin. These results indicate that AFB1 dietary exposure decreases cell-mediated immunity while inducing an inflammatory response. These impairments in the immune response could participate in failure of vaccination protocols and increased susceptibility to infections described in pigs exposed to AFB1

  13. The Aspergillus flavus Spermidine Synthase (spds Gene, Is Required for Normal Development, Aflatoxin Production, and Pathogenesis During Infection of Maize Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajtilak Majumdar

    2018-03-01

    host plant, are insufficient to restore WT levels of pathogenesis and aflatoxin production during seed infection. The data presented here suggest that future studies targeting spermidine biosynthesis in A. flavus, using RNA interference-based host-induced gene silencing approaches, may be an effective strategy to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize and possibly in other susceptible crops.

  14. PENURUNAN KADAR AFLATOKSIN B1 PADA SARI KEDELAI OLEH SEL HIDUP DAN SEL MATI Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 [Reduction of Aflatoxin B1 in Soymilk by Viable and Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Utami1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins that commonly contaminate foods and feed. There are many different forms of aflatoxin and its metabolites. Of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most prevalent and toxic. Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 has previously been shown to remove AFB1 from liquid solution of phosphate saline buffer. However, the ability of lactic acid bacteria to reduce AFB1 content in soymilk has not been studied yet. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of viable and heat-killed cells of L. acidophilus SNP-2 to reduce AFB1 in soymilk and fermented soymilk. Soymilk contaminated with Aspergillus flavus was inoculated with culture of L. acidophilus SNP-2, and incubated at 37C for 12 hours. Fermented soymilk, then, was heat sterilized and stored at cool room (4°C. Heat-killed cells were introduced to soy milk and then kept at cool room for 3 days. During soymilk fermentation, there was reduction of AFB1 content in soymilk related to the growth of lactic acid bacteria and the reduction of pH. The initial concentration of AFB1 in the soymilk was 4.9 ppb. Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 reduced 67.58% of AFB1 in the soymilk after 12 hoursof fermentation. In cool environment, the binding of AFB1 to heat-killed cell after soymilk fermentation was relatively more stable than that of soymilk without fermentation.

  15. Aspergillus korhogoensis, a Novel Aflatoxin Producing Species from the Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaranta Carvajal-Campos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several strains of a new aflatoxigenic species of Aspergillus, A. korhogoensis, were isolated in the course of a screening study involving species from section Flavi found contaminating peanuts (Arachis hypogaea and peanut paste in the Côte d’Ivoire. Based on examination of four isolates, this new species is described using a polyphasic approach. A concatenated alignment comprised of nine genes (ITS, benA, cmdA, mcm7, amdS, rpb1, preB, ppgA, and preA was subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and resulted in all four strains being inferred as a distinct clade. Characterization of mating type for each strain revealed A. korhogoensis as a heterothallic species, since three isolates exhibited a singular MAT1-1 locus and one isolate exhibited a singular MAT1-2 locus. Morphological and physiological characterizations were also performed based on their growth on various types of media. Their respective extrolite profiles were characterized using LC/HRMS, and showed that this new species is capable of producing B- and G-aflatoxins, aspergillic acid, cyclopiazonic acid, aflavarins, and asparasones, as well as other metabolites. Altogether, our results confirm the monophyly of A. korhogoensis, and strengthen its position in the A. flavus clade, as the sister taxon of A. parvisclerotigenus.

  16. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin a reduction in black and white pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, M.; Jinap, S.; Noranizan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is an important means of decontamination of food commodities, especially spices. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) for decontaminating ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ), B 2 (AFB 2 ), G 1 (AFG 1 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) residues in artificially contaminated black and white pepper samples. The moisture content of the pepper samples was set at 12% or 18%, and the applied gamma dose ranged from 5 to 30 kGy. Mycotoxin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column (IAC) chromatography. Both the gamma irradiation dose and moisture content showed significant effects (P<0.05) on mycotoxin reduction. The maximum toxin reductions, found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy, were 55.2%, 50.6%, 39.2%, 47.7% and 42.9% for OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. - Highlights: ► The effect of gamma ray on the reduction of AFs and OTA in pepper was investigated. ► The gamma dose and moisture showed significant effects on mycotoxin reduction. ► The maximum reduction was found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy gamma ray. ► The method, even at 30 kGy and 18% moisture, failed to destroy total of mycotoxins.

  17. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53 μg/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5 μg/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5 μg/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719

  18. Aflatoxin M1 in milk by immunoaffinity column cleanup with TLC/HPLC determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shundo Luzia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002 and 2003, a total of 107 samples of raw, pasteurized and ultrahigh treated temperature (UHT milk commercialized in the cities of São Paulo and Marília (SP were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. AFM1 was detected in 79 (73.8% of milk samples, ranging from <0.02 to 0.26 mug/L.The samples were analyzed using an immunoaffinity column for cleanup and a thin layer chromatography for determining AFM1. The parameters, such as recovery, repeatibility, detection and quantification limit were evaluated to optimize this method (in-house. Based on spiked samples, the recovery values ranged from 85.83 to 73.86% at levels of 0.010-0.50 mug/L, respectively, and the relative standard deviation for repeatibility ranged from 7.73 to 2.08%. The quantification limit was 0.02 mug/L. The results of some samples analyzed by this method demonstrated a satisfatory correlation when compared with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In conclusion, immunoaffinity column cleanup gave excellent results for recovery, sensibility and sample through put. Despite the high rate of occurrence of AFM1 in samples in both cities, the contamination level could not be considered a serious public health hazard, according to Brazilian legislation.

  19. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB1 in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB1 to form AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB1 by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB1. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB1 binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB1. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB1 in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB1.

  20. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq. Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24 and wild turkey (n = 15 produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance.

  1. Development of an Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marty

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of ultratrace amounts of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in food products. The sensor was based on a competitive immunoassay using horseradish peroxidase (HRP as a tag. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with antibody (anti-AFM1 were used to separate the bound and unbound fractions. The samples containing AFM1 were incubated with a fixed amount of antibody and tracer [AFM1 linked to HRP (conjugate] until the system reached equilibrium. Competition occurs between the antigen (AFM1 and the conjugate for the antibody. Then, the mixture was deposited on the surface of screen-printed carbon electrodes, and the mediator [5-methylphenazinium methyl sulphate (MPMS] was added. The enzymatic response was measured amperometrically. A standard range (0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 ppb of AFM1-contaminated milk from the ELISA kit was used to obtain a standard curve for AFM1. To test the detection sensitivity of our sensor, samples of commercial milk were supplemented at 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 ppb with AFM1. Our immunosensor has a low detection limit (0.01 ppb, which is under the recommended level of AFM1 [0.05 µg L-1 (ppb], and has good reproducibility.

  2. Distribution and stability of Aflatoxin M1 during processing and ripening of traditional white pickled cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Cibik, R; Yilmaz, E; Kalkanli, O

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) has been studied between curd, whey, cheese and pickle samples of Turkish white pickled cheese produced according to traditional techniques and its stability studied during the ripening period. Cheeses were produced in three cheese-making trials using raw milk that was artificially contaminated with AFM(1) at the levels of 50, 250 and 750 ng/l and allowed to ripen for three months. AFM(1) determinations were carried out at intervals by LC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. During the syneresis of the cheese a proportionately high concentration of AFM(1) remained in curd and for each trial the level was 3.6, 3.8 and 4.0 times higher than levels in milk. At the end of the ripening, the distribution of AFM(1) for cheese/whey + brine samples was 0.9, 1.0 and 1.3 for first, second and third spiking respectively indicating that nearly half of the AFM(1) remained in cheese. It has been found that only 2-4% of the initial spiking of AFM(1) transferred into the brine solution. During the ripening period AFM(1) levels remained constant suggesting that AFM(1) was quite stable during manufacturing and ripening.

  3. Competitive horseradish peroxidase-linked aptamer assay for sensitive detection of Aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linlin; Zhao, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of highly toxic mycotoxins and a known human carcinogen. The frequent contamination of AFB1 in food products and large health risk of AFB1 have raised global concerns. Sensitive detection of AFB1 is of vital importance and highly demanded. Herein, we reported a competitive horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-linked aptamer assay for AFB1, combining the advantages of aptamer for affinity binding and enzyme label for signal amplification. In this assay, free AFB1 in solution competed with a covalent conjugate of bovine serum albumin-AFB1 (BSA-AFB1) coated on the wells of microplate in binding to the HRP-labeled aptamer probe. HRP attached on BSA-AFB1 in the wells catalyzed the conversion of substrates into products, allowing the final detection of AFB1 through measurement of the generated products. When TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride) was used as substrate, absorbance analysis of the product of enzyme reaction enabled the detection of AFB1 at 0.2nM. We further lowered the detection limit of AFB1 to 0.01nM through chemiluminescence analysis by using chemiluminescence substrate of HRP. This assay enabled the detection of AFB1 in complex sample matrix, such as diluted white wine and maize flour. This assay provides a simple, sensitive and rapid method for AFB1 determination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Uptake of Zn++ and aflatoxin from perlite and liquid culture by Zea mays seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Reynolds, J.D.; Hurst, L.; Vance, R.A.; Dashek, W.V.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper reports our attempts to determine whether in inclusion of 0.0014 mM Zn ++ within a hydroponic culture medium affects the ability of 12-day-old Zea mays, cv. 'SS-522' to take-up [ 3 H]-aflatoxin B 1 . Data from the corollary experiment., i.e., whether inclusion of aflatoxin affects the ability of Zea mays, cvs. 'Truckers White', 'X-Sweet' and 'Merit' to take-up 65 ZnCl 2 are presented also. This report is a preliminary to one regarding an in-progress analysis of whether pollutant levels of Zn ++ affect aflatoxin uptake and distribution. In the absence of irrigating seedlings, which were grown in Perlite containing 65 ZnCl 2 , with a solution containing mixed aflatoxins, the stem contained the greatest amount of label with root plus seed the next highest and the leaf the least for each of the cvs. In contrast, when the seedlings were irrigated with a solution containing mixed aflatoxins, the root plus seed contained either an amount nearly identical to (cv. 'Truckers White') or in excess of that within the stem (cvs. 'X-Sweet' and 'Merit'). Calculation of the percentages of aflatoxin-induced diminutions in leaf, stem and root label suggested that the aflatoxins interfered with the translocation of 65 ZnCl 2 from the root to the stem and leaf, at least for cvs 'X-Sweet' and 'Merit'. (orig./AJ)

  5. The global geographical overlap of aflatoxin and hepatitis C: Controlling risk factors for liver cancer worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyaguru, Dushani L.; Wu, Felicia

    2012-01-01

    About 85% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, liver cancer) cases occur in low-income countries, where the risk factors of dietary aflatoxin exposure and chronic hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) viral infection are common. While studies have shown synergism between aflatoxin and HBV in causing HCC, much less is known about whether aflatoxin and HCV synergize similarly. From an exposure perspective, we examine whether there is a geographical overlap in populations worldwide exposed to high dietary aflatoxin levels and with high HCV prevalence. While HCV is one of the most important risk factors for HCC in high-income nations (where aflatoxin exposure is low), we find that HCV prevalence is much higher in Africa and Asia, where aflatoxin exposure is also high. However, within a given world region, there are some inconsistencies regarding exposure and cancer risk. Therefore, there is a need to control risk factors such as aflatoxin and hepatitis viruses in a cost-effective manner to prevent global HCC, while continuing to evaluate biological mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase HCC risk. PMID:23281740

  6. The case for aflatoxins in the causal chain of gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Claudia; Koshiol, Jill; Guerrero, Ariel R; Kogan, Marcelo J; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic aflatoxin exposure has long been related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, its association with gallbladder cancer (GBC) was postulated. Here we present the data supporting this hypothesis in Chile, the country with the highest GBC mortality worldwide with age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) of 10.3 in women and 5.04 in men. The highest GBC rates occur in Southern Chile (ASMR=18), characterized by: high Amerindian ancestry, associated with high bile acid synthesis and gallstones; high poverty and high cereal agriculture, both associated with aflatoxin exposure. Aflatoxins have been detected in imported and locally grown foods items. We estimated population dietary exposure ranging from 0.25 to 35.0 ng/kg-body weight/day. The only report on human exposure in Chile found significantly more aflatoxin biomarkers in GBC than in controls (Odds Ratio=13.0). The hypothesis of aflatoxin-GBC causal link in the Chilean population is supported by: genetically-determined rapid cholesterol excretion and high gallstones prevalence (49.4%); low prevalence of HCC (ASMR=4.9) and low HBV infection (0.15%) the main co-factor of aflatoxins in HCC risk. If the association between aflatoxins and GBC were confirmed, public health interventions based on food regulation could have a substantial public health impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupational exposure to Aspergillus and aflatoxins among food-grain workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abida; Ali, Sana; Shahid, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a metabolite of Aspergillus molds and are widespread in the natural environment. Workers who handle food grains are at increased risk of exposure to aflatoxins and subsequently certain respiratory conditions. In India, more than half of the employed population is engaged in some type of agricultural work, yet little known about the respiratory problems as a result of exposure to aflatoxins among workers who handle food grains in India. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers compared to workers who are not occupationally exposed to food grains. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples from 46 food-grain workers and 44 non-food-grain workers were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins. Microscopy and culture of BAL samples were performed to detect Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins were detected in 32·6% of the food-grain workers and 9·1% of non food grain workers (Pworkers and 11·4% of non-food-grain workers had chronic respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers was found to be associated with the increased presence of respiratory symptoms.

  8. An evaluation of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid production in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Yeun; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Inhyung; Ji, Geun Eog

    2014-06-01

    To date, edible fungi such as Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae (A. oryzae) has been considered as safe. However, some strains can produce mycotoxins. Thus, the biosynthetic ability to produce mycotoxins should be reevaluated to determine the safety of edible fungi. We analyzed the production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) from edible fungi such as A. oryzae isolated from various Korean foods using multiplex PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the multiplex PCR analysis of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes omtB, aflR, ver-1, and omtA, 5 of 19 Aspergillus strains produced all PCR products. Among them, aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 were detected from only A. flavus KACC 41403 by HPLC. Aflatoxins were not detected from the other four strains that produced all positive PCR bands. Aflatoxin also was not detected from 12 strains that had PCR patterns without aflR or ver-1 and from 2 strains that did not produce any of the expected PCR products. Only the seven A. oryzae strains that produced all of the positive PCR bands including the CPA biosynthetic genes maoA, dmaT, and pks-nrps produced CPA. CPA and aflatoxin production must be evaluated before A. oryzae strains are used for the development of fermented foods.

  9. Occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut products determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovska-Dimzoska Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using immunoaffinity column clean-up was a method described for determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in peanuts and peanut based products. The validation of the procedure was performed. Good coefficient of correlation was found for all aflatoxins in the range of 0.9993-0.9999. Limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ ranged from 0.003-0.005 mg/kg and 0.009-0.023 mg/kg, respectively, which was acceptable. The mean recovery for total aflatoxins was 88.21%. The method also showed acceptable precision values in the range of 0.171-2.626% at proposed concentration levels for all four aflatoxins. RSDR values (within laboratory reproducibility calculated from the results showed good correlation between two analysts for all aflatoxins and they ranged from 4.93-11.87%. The developed method was applied for the determination of aflatoxins in 27 samples of peanuts and peanut based products. The results showed that 21 peanut samples (77.7% were below LOD of the method. Three samples had positive results over the MRL. There was one extreme value recorded for the total aflatoxins in peanut (289.2 mg/kg and two peanut based products, peanut snack and peanut, with total content of aflatoxins being 16.3 mg/kg and 8.0 mg/kg, respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that the procedure was suitable for the de­termination of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut based products and it could be implemented for the routine analysis.

  10. Aflatoxin B1 adsorption by the natural aluminosilicates - concentrate of montmorillonite and zeolite

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    Marković Marija A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 adsorption by the concentrate of bentonite clay - montmorillonite and the natural zeolite - clinoptilolite and was investigated at the initial toxin concentration 4 ppm, with different amonunts of solid phase in suspension (10, 5, 2 and 1 mg/10 mL and different pH values - 3, 7 and 9. Results indicated that for both minerals, decreasing the amount of solid phase in suspension, decrease the amount of active sites relevant for adsorption of aflatoxin B1. Thus, for concentrate of montnorillonite, at the lowest level of solid phase in suspension (1 mg/10 mL, aflatoxin B1 adsorption indexes were 97% at pH 3, 88% at pH 7 and 82% at pH 9, while for the natural zeolite, adsorption of toxin was 9% at pH 3 and 7% at pH 7 and 9. Since inorganic cations in minerals are mainly responsible for aflatoxin B1 adsorption, even the natural zeolite - clinoptilite has much higher cation exchange capacity (the content of inorganic exchangeable cations compared to the concentrate of montmorillonite, adsorption of aflatoxin B1 by this mineral is much lower. Comparing the molecular dimensions of aflatoxin B1 molecule with the dimension of channels of clinoptilolite and interlamellar space of montmorillonite it is obvious that this toxin is adsorbed only at the external surface of clinoptilolite while in the montmorillonite all active sites are equally available for its adsorption. Thus, the concentrate of montmorillonite posess by higher adsorption capacity for aflatoxin B1. Results presented in this paper confirmed the fact the differences in the structure of minerals led to their different efficiency for adsorption of aflatoxin B1. Mineralogical and chemical composition, determination of cation exchange capacity, etc., are very important parameters influencing the effectiveness of minerals as aflatoxin B1 adsorbents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 451-03-2802-IP Tip1/142, br. 172018 i br. 34013

  11. Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. on Biochemical Parameters and Immunity of Broiler Chicks Fed Aflatoxin B1 after Three Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Amiri Dumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of milk thistle seeds (MTSs in counteracting the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in a contaminated diet fed to broilers. Methods: Two dietary inclusion rates of AFB1 (0, 0.250 and 500 ppb and MTS (0, 0.5 and 1% were tested in a 3×3 factorial manner. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with 4 replicates of 6 birds each from one to 21 days of age. The effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors, antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND and influenza disease (ID in broilers were evaluated at the end of this period. Results: Statistical analysis of the main effects of diets indicated no significant changes in uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, ID, and phosphorus compared to the control (P>0.01. Also, addition of 500 ppb of dietary AFB1 into the diet was associated with significant decreases in serum glucose, calcium, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and ND compared to the control group (P<0.01. The contaminated diet significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Milk thistle showed protective effects and resulted in some serum enzyme activities and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the maize rachis: potential roles of constitutive and induced proteins in resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechanova, Olga; Pechan, Tibor; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S

    2011-01-01

    Infection of the maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus and consequent contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxin is a persistent and serious agricultural problem causing disease and significant crop losses worldwide. The rachis (cob) is an important structure of maize ear that delivers essential nutrients to the developing kernels and A. flavus spreads through the rachis to infect kernels within the ear. Therefore, rachis plays an important role in fungal proliferation and subsequent kernel contamination. We used proteomic approaches and investigated the rachis tissue from aflatoxin accumulation resistant (Mp313E and Mp420) and susceptible (B73 and SC212m) maize inbred lines. First, we compared rachis proteins from resistant and susceptible inbred lines, which revealed that the young resistant rachis contains higher levels of abiotic stress-related proteins and proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism, whereas susceptible young rachis contains pathogenesis-related proteins, which are generally inducible upon biotic stress. Second, we identified A. flavus-responsive proteins in rachis of both resistant and susceptible genotypes after 10- and 35-day infection. Differential expression of many stress/defense proteins during rachis juvenility, maturation and after A. flavus challenge demonstrates that resistant rachis relies on constitutive defenses, while susceptible rachis is more dependent on inducible defenses. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin B1 in Palm Kernel Cake and Feed Samples

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    Farah Asilah Azri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins in feed samples affects the animal’s health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals. Methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS are common in the determination of mycotoxins. However, these methods usually require sample pre-treatment, extensive cleanup and skilled operator. Therefore, in the present work, a rapid method of electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFB1 was developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT and chitosan (CS were used as the electrode modifier for signal enhancement. N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS activated the carboxyl groups at the surface of nanocomposite for the attachment of AFB1-BSA antigen by covalent bonding. An indirect competitive reaction occurred between AFB1-BSA and free AFB1 for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB1 antibody. A catalytic signal based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB mediator was observed as a result of attachment of the secondary antibody to the immunoassay system. As a result, the reduction peak of TMB(Ox was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV analysis. Based on the results, the electrochemical surface area was increased from 0.396 cm2 to 1.298 cm2 due to the electrode

  14. Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin B₁ in Palm Kernel Cake and Feed Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azri, Farah Asilah; Selamat, Jinap; Sukor, Rashidah

    2017-11-30

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins) in feed samples affects the animal's health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals. Methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are common in the determination of mycotoxins. However, these methods usually require sample pre-treatment, extensive cleanup and skilled operator. Therefore, in the present work, a rapid method of electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFB₁ was developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and chitosan (CS) were used as the electrode modifier for signal enhancement. N -ethyl- N '-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N -hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) activated the carboxyl groups at the surface of nanocomposite for the attachment of AFB₁-BSA antigen by covalent bonding. An indirect competitive reaction occurred between AFB₁-BSA and free AFB₁ for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB₁ antibody. A catalytic signal based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) mediator was observed as a result of attachment of the secondary antibody to the immunoassay system. As a result, the reduction peak of TMB (Ox) was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. Based on the results, the electrochemical surface area was increased from 0.396 cm² to 1.298 cm² due to the

  15. Morphological Characterization and Determination of Aflatoxin-Production Potentials of Aspergillus flavus Isolated from Maize and Soil in Kenya

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    Matome Gabriel Thathana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at morphologically identifying Aspergillus flavus in soil and maize and at determining their aflatoxin-producing potentials. Five hundred and fourteen isolates obtained from maize and soil in Kenya were cultivated on Czapeck Dox Agar, Malt Extract Agar, Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, Potato Dextrose Agar, and Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar. Isolates were identified using macro-morphological characteristics. Micromorphological characteristics were determined using slide cultures. Aflatoxin production was determined by direct visual determination of the UV fluorescence of colonies on Coconut Agar Medium, Yeast Extract Sucrose agar, and Yeast Extract Cyclodextrin Sodium Deoxycholate agar and by Thin Layer Chromatography. Forty-three presumptive A. flavus isolates were identified; aflatoxin was detected in 23% of the isolates by UV fluorescence screening and in 30% by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC. The aflatoxins produced were: aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2, and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1; some isolates produced only AFB1, whereas others produced either AFB1 and AFB2 or AFB1 and AFG1. The highest incidence of A. flavus (63% and aflatoxin production (28% was recorded in samples from Makueni District. Isolates from Uasin Gishu (21% and Nyeri (5% were non-aflatoxigenic. Bungoma District recorded 11% positive isolates of which 2% were aflatoxin producers. The occurrence of aflatoxin-producing A. flavus emphasises the need for measures to eliminate their presence in food crops.

  16. DISTRIBUTION Of AFLATOXIN B1 FROM POULTRY FEED TO DIFFERENT BODY TISSUES OF BROILERS

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    Farida Begum, A. Rehman1, G. Maliha and J. Nuzhat

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to know the distribution of aflatoxin B1 In various edible tissues of broilers from poultry feed at the stage of marketing. For this purpose liver, kidney, dressed meat and poultry feed of the representative flocks were collected and oven dried. The aflatoxin B1 contents of the samples were .e; determined through thin layer chromatography, The data thus collected were statistically analyzed and the results showed that the aflatoxin B1 level was higher (P<0.01 in liver as compared to kidneys and meat.

  17. Method of preparing radioligand (2,3-3H)aflatoxin-B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, K.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium gas is used to act on non-radioactive aflatoxin-B 1 . Synthesis takes place in the presence of a Pt ar Pd catalyst in organic solvent at neutral pH and a temperature of 20 to 30 degC. The obtained product is cleaned chromatographically. Using 50% tritium gas it is possible to obtain a preparation of high specific activity of at least 103.6x10 10 s -1 .mmol -1 which is used for the radioimmunoassay of aflatoxins. An example is given of the preparation of (2,3- 3 H) aflatoxin-B 2 . (E.S.)

  18. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013

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    Salvatore Virdis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6% were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6% showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  19. A Survey on Aflatoxin M1 Content in Sheep and Goat Milk Produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdis, Salvatore; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Murittu, Gavino; Spanu, Carlo; Ibba, Ignazio; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-12-09

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005-2012 showed AFM 1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6%) were contaminated by AFM 1 with a concentration (mean±SD) of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM 1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM 1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6%) showed an AFM 1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM 1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM 1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM 1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM 1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  20. Aflatoxin B1 in betel nuts (Areca catechu L.) imported to Pakistan from different regions of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Iqbal, Javed; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Shamsuddin, Zuzzer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) levels were evaluated in betel nuts (Areca catechu L.) being imported to Pakistan during 2010-2011. In total, 278 betel nut samples (India = 21, Indonesia = 51, Sri-Lanka = 34 and Thailand = 172) were received from the Department of Customs and were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). All Indian origin betel nuts showed AFB1 contamination ranging from 11.7-262.0 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 92.5 µg kg(-1). Among Indonesian and Sri Lankan shipments, 80.4% and 73.5% betel nuts were contaminated with AFB1 ranging between 3.3-39.2 and 6.5-103.4 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 11.6 and 35.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. However, only 30.2% of Thailand origin samples showed AFB1 contamination ranging 3.3-77.0 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 6.6 µg kg(-1). The widespread occurrence of AFB1 increases the hazard associated with betel nuts. Thus, strict control is a pre-requisite for the production and import/export of psychoactive substances as betel nuts.