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Sample records for pre pro t-cells

  1. A stromal cell free culture system generates mouse pro-T cells that can reconstitute T-cell compartments in vivo.

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    Gehre, Nadine; Nusser, Anja; von Muenchow, Lilly; Tussiwand, Roxane; Engdahl, Corinne; Capoferri, Giuseppina; Bosco, Nabil; Ceredig, Rhodri; Rolink, Antonius G

    2015-03-01

    T-cell lymphopenia following BM transplantation or diseases such as AIDS result in immunodeficiency. Novel approaches to ameliorate this situation are urgently required. Herein, we describe a novel stromal cell free culture system in which Lineage(-) Sca1(+)c-kit(+) BM hematopoietic progenitors very efficiently differentiate into pro-T cells. This culture system consists of plate-bound Delta-like 4 Notch ligand and the cytokines SCF and IL-7. The pro-T cells developing in these cultures express CD25, CD117, and partially CD44; express cytoplasmic CD3ε; and have their TCRβ locus partially D-J rearranged. They could be expanded for over 3 months and used to reconstitute the T-cell compartments of sublethally irradiated T-cell-deficient CD3ε(-/-) mice or lethally irradiated WT mice. Pro-T cells generated in this system could partially correct the T-cell lymphopenia of pre-Tα(-/-) mice. However, reconstituted CD3ε(-/-) mice suffered from a wasting disease that was prevented by co-injection of purified CD4(+) CD25(high) WT Treg cells. In a T-cell-sufficient or T-lymphopenic setting, the development of disease was not observed. Thus, this in vitro culture system represents a powerful tool to generate large numbers of pro-T cells for transplantation and possibly with clinical applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Suppression of pro-inflammatory T-cell responses by human mesothelial cells.

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    Lin, Chan-Yu; Kift-Morgan, Ann; Moser, Bernhard; Topley, Nicholas; Eberl, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    Human γδ T cells reactive to the microbial metabolite (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP) contribute to acute inflammatory responses. We have previously shown that peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated infections with HMB-PP producing bacteria are characterized by locally elevated γδ T-cell frequencies and poorer clinical outcome compared with HMB-PP negative infections, implying that γδ T cells may be of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic value in acute disease. The regulation by local tissue cells of these potentially detrimental γδ T-cell responses remains to be investigated. Freshly isolated γδ or αβ T cells were cultured with primary mesothelial cells derived from omental tissue, or with mesothelial cell-conditioned medium. Stimulation of cytokine production and proliferation by peripheral T cells in response to HMB-PP or CD3/CD28 beads was assessed by flow cytometry. Resting mesothelial cells were potent suppressors of pro-inflammatory γδ T cells as well as CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells. The suppression of γδ T-cell responses was mediated through soluble factors released by primary mesothelial cells and could be counteracted by SB-431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β and activin signalling. Recombinant TGF-β1 but not activin-A mimicked the mesothelial cell-mediated suppression of γδ T-cell responses to HMB-PP. The present findings indicate an important regulatory function of mesothelial cells in the peritoneal cavity by dampening pro-inflammatory T-cell responses, which may help preserve the tissue integrity of the peritoneal membrane in the steady state and possibly during the resolution of acute inflammation.

  3. Deletion of Notch1 converts pro-T cells to dendritic cells and promotes thymic B cells by cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic mechanisms.

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    Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Terszowski, Grzegorz; Tietz, Annette; Blum, Carmen; Luche, Hervé; Gossler, Achim; Gale, Nicholas W; Radtke, Freddy; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2009-01-16

    Notch1 signaling is required for T cell development and has been implicated in fate decisions in the thymus. We showed that Notch1 deletion in progenitor T cells (pro-T cells) revealed their latent developmental potential toward becoming conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In addition, Notch1 deletion in pro-T cells resulted in large numbers of thymic B cells, previously explained by T-to-B cell fate conversion. Single-cell genotyping showed, however, that the majority of these thymic B cells arose from Notch1-sufficient cells by a cell-extrinsic pathway. Fate switching nevertheless exists for a subset of thymic B cells originating from Notch1-deleted pro-T cells. Chimeric mice lacking the Notch ligand delta-like 4 (Dll4) in thymus epithelium revealed an essential role for Dll4 in T cell development. Thus, Notch1-Dll4 signaling fortifies T cell commitment by suppressing non-T cell lineage potential in pro-T cells, and normal Notch1-driven T cell development repels excessive B cells in the thymus.

  4. T cell activation inhibitors reduce CD8+ T cell and pro-inflammatory macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of obese mice.

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    Vince N Montes

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue inflammation and specifically, pro-inflammatory macrophages are believed to contribute to insulin resistance (IR in obesity in humans and animal models. Recent studies have invoked T cells in the recruitment of pro-inflammatory macrophages and the development of IR. To test the role of the T cell response in adipose tissue of mice fed an obesogenic diet, we used two agents (CTLA-4 Ig and anti-CD40L antibody that block co-stimulation, which is essential for full T cell activation. C57BL/6 mice were fed an obesogenic diet for 16 weeks, and concomitantly either treated with CTLA-4 Ig, anti-CD40L antibody or an IgG control (300 µg/week. The treatments altered the immune cell composition of adipose tissue in obese mice. Treated mice demonstrated a marked reduction in pro-inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages and activated CD8+ T cells. Mice treated with anti-CD40L exhibited reduced weight gain, which was accompanied by a trend toward improved IR. CTLA-4 Ig treatment, however, was not associated with improved IR. These data suggest that the presence of pro-inflammatory T cells and macrophages can be altered with co-stimulatory inhibitors, but may not be a significant contributor to the whole body IR phenotype.

  5. Identifying activated T cells in reconstituted RAG deficient mice using retrovirally transduced Pax5 deficient pro-B cells.

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    Nadesan Gajendran

    Full Text Available Various methods have been used to identify activated T cells such as binding of MHC tetramers and expression of cell surface markers in addition to cytokine-based assays. In contrast to these published methods, we here describe a strategy to identify T cells that respond to any antigen and track the fate of these activated T cells. We constructed a retroviral double-reporter construct with enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP and a far-red fluorescent protein from Heteractis crispa (HcRed. LTR-driven EGFP expression was used to enrich and identify transduced cells, while HcRed expression is driven by the CD40Ligand (CD40L promoter, which is inducible and enables the identification and cell fate tracing of T cells that have responded to infection/inflammation. Pax5 deficient pro-B cells that can give rise to different hematopoietic cells like T cells, were retrovirally transduced with this double-reporter cassette and were used to reconstitute the T cell pool in RAG1 deficient mice that lack T and B cells. By using flow cytometry and histology, we identified activated T cells that had developed from Pax5 deficient pro-B cells and responded to infection with the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Microscopic examination of organ sections allowed visual identification of HcRed-expressing cells. To further characterize the immune response to a given stimuli, this strategy can be easily adapted to identify other cells of the hematopoietic system that respond to infection/inflammation. This can be achieved by using an inducible reporter, choosing the appropriate promoter, and reconstituting mice lacking cells of interest by injecting gene-modified Pax5 deficient pro-B cells.

  6. DNA damage, metabolism and aging in pro-inflammatory T cells: Rheumatoid arthritis as a model system.

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    Li, Yinyin; Goronzy, Jörg J; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2018-05-01

    The aging process is the major driver of morbidity and mortality, steeply increasing the risk to succumb to cancer, cardiovascular disease, infection and neurodegeneration. Inflammation is a common denominator in age-related pathologies, identifying the immune system as a gatekeeper in aging overall. Among immune cells, T cells are long-lived and exposed to intense replication pressure, making them sensitive to aging-related abnormalities. In successful T cell aging, numbers of naïve cells, repertoire diversity and activation thresholds are preserved as long as possible; in maladaptive T cell aging, protective T cell functions decline and pro-inflammatory effector cells are enriched. Here, we review in the model system of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) how maladaptive T cell aging renders the host susceptible to chronic, tissue-damaging inflammation. In T cells from RA patients, known to be about 20years pre-aged, three interconnected functional domains are altered: DNA damage repair, metabolic activity generating energy and biosynthetic precursor molecules, and shaping of plasma membranes to promote T cell motility. In each of these domains, key molecules and pathways have now been identified, including the glycolytic enzymes PFKFB3 and G6PD; the DNA repair molecules ATM, DNA-PKcs and MRE11A; and the podosome marker protein TKS5. Some of these molecules may help in defining targetable pathways to slow the T cell aging process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. N-acetylcysteine increases the frequency of bone marrow pro-B/pre-B cells, but does not reverse cigarette smoking-induced loss of this subset.

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    Victoria L Palmer

    Full Text Available We previously showed that mice exposed to cigarette smoke for three weeks exhibit loss of bone marrow B cells at the Pro-B-to-pre-B cell transition, but the reason for this is unclear. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione precursor, has been used as a chemopreventive agent to reduce adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on lung function. Here we determined whether smoke exposure impairs B cell development by inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, and whether NAC treatment prevents smoking-induced loss of developing B cells.Groups of normal mice were either exposed to filtered room air or cigarette smoke with or without concomitant NAC treatment for 5 days/week for three weeks. Bone marrow B cell developmental subsets were enumerated, and sorted pro-B (B220(+CD43(+ and pre-B (B220(+CD43(- cell fractions were analyzed for cell cycle status and the percentage of apoptotic cells. We find that, compared to sham controls, smoke-exposed mice have ∼60% fewer pro-B/pre-B cells, regardless of NAC treatment. Interestingly, NAC-treated mice show a 21-38% increase in total bone marrow cellularity and lymphocyte frequency and about a 2-fold increase in the pro-B/pre-B cell subset, compared to sham-treated controls. No significant smoking- or NAC-dependent differences were detected in frequency of apoptotic cells or the percentage cells in the G1, S, or G2 phases of the cycle.The failure of NAC treatment to prevent smoking-induced loss of bone marrow pre-B cells suggests that oxidative stress is not directly responsible for this loss. The unexpected expansion of the pro-B/pre-B cell subset in response to NAC treatment suggests oxidative stress normally contributes to cell loss at this developmental stage, and also reveals a potential side effect of therapeutic administration of NAC to prevent smoking-induced loss of lung function.

  8. Pre-α-pro-GDNF and Pre-β-pro-GDNF Isoforms Are Neuroprotective in the 6-hydroxydopamine Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

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    Anna-Maija Penttinen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is one of the most studied neurotrophic factors. GDNF has two splice isoforms, full-length pre-α-pro-GDNF (α-GDNF and pre-β-pro-GDNF (β-GDNF, which has a 26 amino acid deletion in the pro-region. Thus far, studies have focused solely on the α-GDNF isoform, and nothing is known about the in vivo effects of the shorter β-GDNF variant. Here we compare for the first time the effects of overexpressed α-GDNF and β-GDNF in non-lesioned rat striatum and the partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model of Parkinson's disease. GDNF isoforms were overexpressed with their native pre-pro-sequences in the striatum using an adeno-associated virus (AAV vector, and the effects on motor performance and dopaminergic phenotype of the nigrostriatal pathway were assessed. In the non-lesioned striatum, both isoforms increased the density of dopamine transporter-positive fibers at 3 weeks after viral vector delivery. Although both isoforms increased the activity of the animals in cylinder assay, only α-GDNF enhanced the use of contralateral paw. Four weeks later, the striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-immunoreactivity was decreased in both α-GDNF and β-GDNF treated animals. In the neuroprotection assay, both GDNF splice isoforms increased the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the substantia nigra but did not promote behavioral recovery based on amphetamine-induced rotation or cylinder assays. Thus, the shorter GDNF isoform, β-GDNF, and the full-length α-isoform have comparable neuroprotective efficacy on dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal circuitry.

  9. ProSAAS-derived peptides are differentially processed and sorted in mouse brain and AtT-20 cells.

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    Jonathan H Wardman

    Full Text Available ProSAAS is the precursor for some of the most abundant peptides found in mouse brain and other tissues, including peptides named SAAS, PEN, and LEN. Both SAAS and LEN are found in big and little forms due to differential processing. Initial processing of proSAAS is mediated by furin (and/or furin-like enzymes and carboxypeptidase D, while the smaller forms are generated by secretory granule prohormone convertases and carboxypeptidase E. In mouse hypothalamus, PEN and big LEN colocalize with neuropeptide Y. In the present study, little LEN and SAAS were detected in mouse hypothalamus but not in cell bodies of neuropeptide Y-expressing neurons. PEN and big LEN show substantial colocalization in hypothalamus, but big LEN and little LEN do not. An antiserum to SAAS that detects both big and little forms of this peptide did not show substantial colocalization with PEN or big LEN. To further study this, the AtT-20 cells mouse pituitary corticotrophic cell line was transfected with rat proSAAS and the distribution of peptides examined. As found in mouse hypothalamus, only some of the proSAAS-derived peptides colocalized with each other in AtT-20 cells. The two sites within proSAAS that are known to be efficiently cleaved by furin were altered by site-directed mutagenesis to convert the P4 Arg into Lys; this change converts the sequences from furin consensus sites into prohormone convertase consensus sites. Upon expression of the mutated form of proSAAS in AtT-20 cells, there was significantly more colocalization of proSAAS-derived peptides PEN and SAAS. Taken together, these results indicate that proSAAS is initially cleaved in the Golgi or trans-Golgi network by furin and/or furin-like enzymes and the resulting fragments are sorted into distinct vesicles and further processed by additional enzymes into the mature peptides.

  10. Apoptotic effects of antilymphocyte globulins on human pro-inflammatory CD4+CD28- T-cells.

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    Christina Duftner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic CD4(+CD28(- T-cells with known defects in apoptosis have been investigated as markers of premature immuno-senescence in various immune-mediated diseases. In this study we evaluated the influence of polyclonal antilymphocyte globulins (ATG-Fresenius, ATG-F on CD4(+CD28(- T-cells in vivo and in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surface and intracellular three colour fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 consecutive transplant recipients and short-term cell lines were performed. In vivo, peripheral levels of CD3(+CD4(+CD28(- T-cells decreased from 3.7 ± 7.1% before to 0 ± 0% six hours after ATG-F application (P = 0.043 in 5 ATG-F treated but not in 11 control patients (2.9 ± 2.9% vs. 3.9 ± 3.0%. In vitro, ATG-F induced apoptosis even in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells, which was 4.3-times higher than in CD4(+CD28(+ T-cells. ATG-F evoked apoptosis was partially reversed by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk and prednisolon-21-hydrogensuccinate. ATG-F triggered CD25 expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and induced down-regulation of the type 1 chemokine receptors CXCR-3, CCR-5, CX3CR-1 and the central memory adhesion molecule CD62L predominately in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells. CONCLUSION: In summary, in vivo depletion of peripheral CD3(+CD4(+CD28(- T-cells by ATG-F in transplant recipients was paralleled in vitro by ATG-F induced apoptosis. CD25 expression and chemokine receptor down-regulation in CD4(+CD28(- T-cells only partly explain the underlying mechanism.

  11. Graft-versus-host reaction and immune function. III. Functional pre-T cells in the bone marrow of graft-versus-host-reactive mice displaying T cell immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.; Seemayer, T.A.; Lapp, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether pre-T cells develop normally in the bone marrow of mice displaying thymic dysplasia and T cell immunodeficiency as a consequence of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction. GVH reactions were induced in CBAxAF1 mice by the injection of A strain lymphoid cells. To test for the presence of pre-T cells in GVH-reactive mice, bone marrow from GVH-reactive mice (GVHBM) was injected into irradiated syngeneic F1 mice and 30-40 days later thymic morphology and function were studied. Morphology studies showed nearly normal thymic architectural restoration; moreover, such glands contained normal numbers of Thy-1-positive cells. Functional pre-T cells were evaluated by transferring thymocytes from the irradiated GVHBM-reconstituted mice into T-cell-deprived mice. These thymocytes reconstituted allograft reactivity, T helper cell function and Con A and PHA mitogen responses of T-cell-deprived mice. These results suggest that the pre-T cell population in the bone marrow is not affected by the GVH reaction. Therefore, the T cell immunodeficiency associated with the GVH reaction is not due to a deficiency of pre-T cells in the bone marrow but is more likely associated with GVH-induced thymic dysplasia

  12. The mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in T regulatory cells in children with type 1 diabetes.

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    Maria Górska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is caused by the autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. T regulatory cells (Tregs represent an active mechanism of suppressing autoreactive T cells that escape central tolerance. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that T regulatory cells express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, elements of cytotoxicity and OX40/4-1BB molecules. The examined group consisted of 50 children with T1DM. Fifty two healthy individuals (control group were enrolled into the study. A flow cytometric analysis of T-cell subpopulations was performed using the following markers: anti-CD3, anti-CD4, anti-CD25, anti-CD127, anti-CD134 and anti-CD137. Concurrently with the flow cytometric assessment of Tregs we separated CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- cells for further mRNA analysis. mRNA levels for transcription factor FoxP3, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon gamma, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor beta1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, activatory molecules (OX40, 4-1BB and elements of cytotoxicity (granzyme B, perforin 1 were determined by real-time PCR technique. We found no alterations in the frequency of CD4+CD25highCD127low cells between diabetic and control children. Treg cells expressed mRNA for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Lower OX40 and higher 4-1BB mRNA but not protein levels in Treg cells in diabetic patients compared to the healthy children were noted. Our observations confirm the presence of mRNA for pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- cells in the peripheral blood of children with T1DM. Further studies with the goal of developing new strategies to potentiate Treg function in autoimmune diseases are warranted.

  13. Identification of a novel pro-inflammatory human skin-homing Vγ9Vδ2 T cell subset with a potential role in psoriasis

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    LAGGNER, Ute; DI MEGLIO, Paola; PERERA, Gayathri K.; HUNDHAUSEN, Christian; LACY, Katie E.; ALI, Niwa; SMITH, Catherine H.; HAYDAY, Adrian C.; NICKOLOFF, Brian J.; NESTLE, Frank O.

    2011-01-01

    γδ T cells mediate rapid tissue responses in murine skin and participate in cutaneous immune regulation including protection against cancer. The role of human γδ cells in cutaneous homeostasis and pathology is poorly characterized. In this study we show in vivo evidence that human blood contains a distinct subset of pro-inflammatory cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) and C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 positive Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, which is rapidly recruited into perturbed human skin. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produced an array of pro-inflammatory mediators including IL-17A and activated keratinocytes in a TNF-α and IFN-γ dependent manner. Examination of the common inflammatory skin disease psoriasis revealed a striking reduction of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in psoriasis patients compared to healthy controls and atopic dermatitis patients. Decreased numbers of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T cells normalized after successful treatment with psoriasis-targeted therapy. Together with the increased presence of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in psoriatic skin, this data indicates redistribution of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from the blood to the skin compartment in psoriasis. In summary, we report a novel human pro-inflammatory γδ T cell involved in skin immune surveillance with immediate response characteristics and with potential clinical relevance in inflammatory skin disease. PMID:21813772

  14. Decreased Regulatory T Cells in Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Lesions: Imbalance between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cells in Atherosclerosis

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    Ilonka Rohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall in which presentation of autoantigens by dendritic cells (DCs leads to the activation of T cells. Anti-inflammatory cells like Tregs counterbalance inflammation in atherogenesis. In our study, human carotid plaque specimens were classified as stable (14 and unstable (15 according to established morphological criteria. Vessel specimens (n=12 without any signs of atherosclerosis were used as controls. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect different types of DCs (S100, fascin, CD83, CD209, CD304, and CD123, proinflammatory T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD161, and anti-inflammatory Tregs (FoxP3. The following results were observed: in unstable lesions, significantly higher numbers of proinflammatory cells like DCs, T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells were detected compared to stable plaques. Additionally, there was a significantly higher expression of HLA-DR and more T cell activation (CD25, CD69 in unstable lesions. On the contrary, unstable lesions contained significantly lower numbers of Tregs. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between myeloid DCs and Tregs was shown. These data suggest an increased inflammatory state in vulnerable plaques resulting from an imbalance of the frequency of local pro- and anti-inflammatory immune cells.

  15. [Merkel cell carcinoma: cutaneous manifestation of a highly malignant pre-/pro-B cell neoplasia? : Novel concept about the cellular origin of Merkel cell carcinoma].

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    Sauer, C M; Chteinberg, E; Rennspiess, D; Kurz, A K; Zur Hausen, A

    2017-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively rare but highly malignant non-melanoma skin cancer of the elderly and immunosuppressed patients. The discovery of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in 2008 significantly impacted the understanding of the etiopathogenesis of MCC. MCPyV is clonally integrated into the MCC genome and approximately 80% of MCC are MCPyV-positive. Recent results of clinical trials using blockade of the PD-1 immune modulatory pathway are promising for the future treatment of MCC. Despite this major progress of the past few years, the cellular origin of MCC still remains obscure. Based on histomorphology, gene expression profiling, and molecular analyses, we have recently hypothesized that MCC originates from pre‑/pro-B cells. Here we review putative cells of MCC, including Merkel cells, (epi‑)dermal stem cells, and pro‑/pre-B cells. In the present work, the focus is on the concept of pre‑/pro-B cells as the cellular origin of MCC, which might also impact the understanding of other human small cell malignancies of unknown cellular origin, such as small cell carcinomas of the lung and other anatomical locations. In addition, this concept might pave the way for novel treatment options, especially for advanced MCC.

  16. System-level modeling and simulation of the cell culture microfluidic biochip ProCell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory. There are two technologies for the microfluidic biochips: droplet-based and flow-based. In this paper we are interested in flow-based microfluidic biochips, where the liquid flows continuously through pre......-defined micro-channels using valves and pumps. We present an approach to the system-level modeling and simulation of a cell culture microfluidic biochip called ProCell, Programmable Cell Culture Chip. ProCell contains a cell culture chamber, which is envisioned to run 256 simultaneous experiments (viewed...

  17. Increased numbers of pre-existing memory CD8 T cells and decreased T-bet expression can restrain terminal differentiation of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cells1

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    Joshi, Nikhil S.; Cui, Weiguo; Dominguez, Claudia; Chen, Jonathan H.; Hand, Timothy W.; Kaech, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Memory CD8 T cells acquire TEM properties following reinfection, and may reach terminally differentiated, senescent states (“Hayflick limit”) after multiple infections. The signals controlling this process are not well understood, but we found that the degree of 2o effector and memory CD8 T cell differentiation was intimately linked to the amount of T-bet expressed upon reactivation and pre-existing memory CD8 T cell number (i.e., 1o memory CD8 T cell precursor frequency) present during secondary infection. Compared to naïve cells, memory CD8 T cells were predisposed towards terminal effector (TE) cell differentiation because they could immediately respond to IL-12 and induce T-bet, even in the absence of antigen. TE cell formation following 2o or 3o infections was dependent on increased T-bet expression because T-bet+/− cells were resistant to these phenotypic changes. Larger numbers of pre-existing memory CD8 T cells limited the duration of 2o infection and the amount of IL-12 produced, and consequently, this reduced T-bet expression and the proportion of 2o TE CD8 T cells that formed. Together, these data show that, over repeated infections, memory CD8 T cell quality and proliferative fitness is not strictly determined by the number of serial encounters with antigen or cell divisions, but is a function of the CD8 T cell differentiation state, which is genetically controlled in a T-bet-dependent manner. This differentiation state can be modulated by pre-existing memory CD8 T cell number and the intensity of inflammation during reinfection. These results have important implications for vaccinations involving prime-boost strategies. PMID:21930973

  18. HLA-B27-Homodimer-Specific Antibody Modulates the Expansion of Pro-Inflammatory T-Cells in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats.

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    Osiris Marroquin Belaunzaran

    Full Text Available HLA-B27 is a common genetic risk factor for the development of Spondyloarthritides (SpA. HLA-B27 can misfold to form cell-surface heavy chain homodimers (B272 and induce pro-inflammatory responses that may lead to SpA pathogenesis. The presence of B272 can be detected on leukocytes of HLA-B27+ Ankylosing spondylitis (AS patients and HLA-B27 transgenic rats. We characterized a novel B272-specific monoclonal antibody to study its therapeutic use in HLA-B27 associated disorders.The monoclonal HD5 antibody was selected from a phage library to target cell-surface B272 homodimers and characterized for affinity, specificity and ligand binding. The immune modulating effect of HD5 was tested in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Onset and progression of disease profiles were monitored during therapy. Cell-surface B272 and expansion of pro-inflammatory cells from blood, spleen and draining lymph nodes were assessed by flow cytometry.HD5 bound B272 with high specificity and affinity (Kd = 0.32 nM. HD5 blocked cell-surface interaction of B272 with immune regulatory receptors KIR3DL2, LILRB2 and Pirb. In addition, HD5 modulated the production of TNF from CD4+ T-cells by limiting B272 interactions in vitro. In an HLA-B27 transgenic rat model repetitive dosing of HD5 reduced the expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells, and decreased the levels of soluble TNF and number of cell-surface B272 molecules.HD5 predominantly inhibits early TNF production and expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Monoclonal antibodies targeting cell-surface B272 propose a new concept for the modulation of inflammatory responses in HLA-B27 related disorders.

  19. HLA-B27-Homodimer-Specific Antibody Modulates the Expansion of Pro-Inflammatory T-Cells in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats

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    Marroquin Belaunzaran, Osiris; Kleber, Sascha; Schauer, Stefan; Hausmann, Martin; Nicholls, Flora; Van den Broek, Maries; Payeli, Sravan; Ciurea, Adrian; Milling, Simon; Stenner, Frank; Shaw, Jackie; Kollnberger, Simon; Bowness, Paul; Petrausch, Ulf; Renner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objectives HLA-B27 is a common genetic risk factor for the development of Spondyloarthritides (SpA). HLA-B27 can misfold to form cell-surface heavy chain homodimers (B272) and induce pro-inflammatory responses that may lead to SpA pathogenesis. The presence of B272 can be detected on leukocytes of HLA-B27+ Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and HLA-B27 transgenic rats. We characterized a novel B272–specific monoclonal antibody to study its therapeutic use in HLA-B27 associated disorders. Methods The monoclonal HD5 antibody was selected from a phage library to target cell-surface B272 homodimers and characterized for affinity, specificity and ligand binding. The immune modulating effect of HD5 was tested in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Onset and progression of disease profiles were monitored during therapy. Cell-surface B272 and expansion of pro-inflammatory cells from blood, spleen and draining lymph nodes were assessed by flow cytometry. Results HD5 bound B272 with high specificity and affinity (Kd = 0.32 nM). HD5 blocked cell-surface interaction of B272 with immune regulatory receptors KIR3DL2, LILRB2 and Pirb. In addition, HD5 modulated the production of TNF from CD4+ T-cells by limiting B272 interactions in vitro. In an HLA-B27 transgenic rat model repetitive dosing of HD5 reduced the expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells, and decreased the levels of soluble TNF and number of cell-surface B272 molecules. Conclusion HD5 predominantly inhibits early TNF production and expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Monoclonal antibodies targeting cell-surface B272 propose a new concept for the modulation of inflammatory responses in HLA-B27 related disorders. PMID:26125554

  20. Pre-existing hypertension dominates γδT cell reduction in human ischemic stroke.

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    Mateusz G Adamski

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes may play an important role in the evolution of ischemic stroke. Depletion of γδT cells has been found to abrogate ischemia reperfusion injury in murine stroke. However, the role of γδT cells in human ischemic stroke is unknown. We aimed to determine γδT cell counts and γδT cell interleukin 17A (IL-17A production in the clinical setting of ischemic stroke. We also aimed to determine the associations of γδT cell counts with ischemic lesion volume, measures of clinical severity and with major stroke risk factors. Peripheral blood samples from 43 acute ischemic stroke patients and 26 control subjects matched on race and gender were used for flow cytometry and complete blood count analyses. Subsequently, cytokine levels and gene expression were measured in γδT cells. The number of circulating γδT cells was decreased by almost 50% (p = 0.005 in the stroke patients. γδT cell counts did not correlate with lesion volume on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging or with clinical severity in the stroke patients, but γδT cells showed elevated levels of IL-17A (p = 0.048. Decreased γδT cell counts were also associated with older age (p = 0.004, pre-existing hypertension (p = 0.0005 and prevalent coronary artery disease (p = 0.03, with pre-existing hypertension being the most significant predictor of γδT cell counts in a multivariable analysis. γδT cells in human ischemic stroke are reduced in number and show elevated levels of IL-17A. A major reduction in γδT lymphocytes also occurs in hypertension and may contribute to the development of hypertension-mediated stroke and vascular disease.

  1. Pre-TCRα supports CD3-dependent reactivation and expansion of TCRα-deficient primary human T-cells

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    Román Galetto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptor technology offers a highly effective means for increasing the anti-tumor effects of autologous adoptive T-cell immunotherapy, and could be made widely available if adapted to the use of allogeneic T-cells. Although gene-editing technology can be used to remove the alloreactive potential of third party T-cells through destruction of either the α or β T-cell receptor (TCR subunit genes, this approach results in the associated loss of surface expression of the CD3 complex. This is nonetheless problematic as it results in the lack of an important trophic signal normally mediated by the CD3 complex at the cell surface, potentially compromising T-cell survival in vivo, and eliminating the potential to expand TCR-knockout cells using stimulatory anti-CD3 antibodies. Here, we show that pre-TCRα, a TCRα surrogate that pairs with TCRβ chains to signal proper TCRβ folding during T-cell development, can be expressed in TCRα knockout mature T-cells to support CD3 expression at the cell surface. Cells expressing pre-TCR/CD3 complexes can be activated and expanded using standard CD3/CD28 T-cell activation protocols. Thus, heterologous expression of pre-TCRα represents a promising technology for use in the manufacturing of TCR-deficient T-cells for adoptive immunotherapy applications.

  2. Regulatory T Cells and Pro-inflammatory Responses Predominate in Children with Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Whittaker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFollowing infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, children are more susceptible to develop disease particularly extrapulmonary disease than adults. The exact mechanisms required for containment of M.tb are not known, but would be important to identify correlates of protection.ObjectiveTo comprehensively analyze key immune responses to mycobacteria between HIV-negative children with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB compared to children with pulmonary TB (PTB or healthy controls.MethodsWhole blood was stimulated in vitro with mycobacteria for 24 h or 6 days to induce effector and memory responses. CD4, CD8, γδ, regulatory T cells, and their related cytokines were measured. Samples of children with tuberculosis (TB disease were analyzed both at time of diagnosis and at the end of TB treatment to determine if any differences were due to TB disease or an underlying host phenotype.ResultsSeventy-six children with TB disease (48 with PTB and 28 with EPTB and 83 healthy controls were recruited to the study. The frequency of CD4+CD25+CD39+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and secreted IL10 were significantly higher in children with TB compared to healthy controls. IFNγ-, IL17-, and IL22-producing γδ T cells, IL22-producing CD4+ T cells and secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL1β, and TNFα were significantly lower in children with TB disease compared to healthy controls. IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells and Ki67+-proliferating CD4+ T cells, however, were present in equal numbers in both groups. Following treatment, these immune parameters recovered to “healthy” levels or greater in children with PTB, but not those with extrapulmonary TB.ConclusionIn children with TB disease, a predominantly immune regulatory state is present. These immune findings do not distinguish between children with PTB and EPTB at the time of diagnosis. Following treatment, these inflammatory responses recover in PTB, suggesting that the effect is disease

  3. Pre-T Cell Receptors (Pre-TCRs) Leverage Vβ Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs) and Hydrophobic Patch in Mechanosensing Thymic Self-ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dibyendu Kumar; Mallis, Robert J; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S; Hussey, Rebecca E; Tetteh, Paul W; Hilton, Mark; Wagner, Gerhard; Lang, Matthew J; Reinherz, Ellis L

    2016-12-02

    The pre-T cell receptor (pre-TCR) is a pTα-β heterodimer functioning in early αβ T cell development. Although once thought to be ligand-autonomous, recent studies show that pre-TCRs participate in thymic repertoire formation through recognition of peptides bound to major histocompatibility molecules (pMHC). Using optical tweezers, we probe pre-TCR bonding with pMHC at the single molecule level. Like the αβTCR, the pre-TCR is a mechanosensor undergoing force-based structural transitions that dynamically enhance bond lifetimes and exploiting allosteric control regulated via the Cβ FG loop region. The pre-TCR structural transitions exhibit greater reversibility than TCRαβ and ordered force-bond lifetime curves. Higher piconewton force requires binding through both complementarity determining region loops and hydrophobic Vβ patch apposition. This patch functions in the pre-TCR as a surrogate Vα domain, fostering ligand promiscuity to favor development of β chains with self-reactivity but is occluded by α subunit replacement of pTα upon αβTCR formation. At the double negative 3 thymocyte stage where the pre-TCR is first expressed, pre-TCR interaction with self-pMHC ligands imparts growth and survival advantages as revealed in thymic stromal cultures, imprinting fundamental self-reactivity in the T cell repertoire. Collectively, our data imply the existence of sequential mechanosensor αβTCR repertoire tuning via the pre-TCR. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Cell Volume Regulation and Signaling in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes and Adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Kathrine; Larsen, Susanne; Novak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Caveolae have been implicated in sensing of cell volume perturbations, yet evidence is still limited and findings contradictory. Here, we investigated the possible role of caveolae in cell volume regulation and volume sensitive signaling in an adipocyte system with high (3T3-L1 adipocytes......); intermediate (3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes); and low (cholesterol-depleted 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes) caveolae levels. Using large-angle light scattering, we show that compared to pre-adipocytes, differentiated adipocytes exhibit several-fold increased rates of volume restoration following osmotic cell swelling (RVD......) and osmotic cell shrinkage (RVI), accompanied by increased swelling-activated taurine efflux. However, caveolin-1 distribution was not detectably altered after osmotic swelling or shrinkage, and caveolae integrity, as studied by cholesterol depletion or expression of dominant negative Cav-1, was not required...

  5. Phenotypic T cell exhaustion in a murine model of bacterial infection in the setting of pre-existing malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Mittal

    Full Text Available While much of cancer immunology research has focused on anti-tumor immunity both systemically and within the tumor microenvironment, little is known about the impact of pre-existing malignancy on pathogen-specific immune responses. Here, we sought to characterize the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response following a bacterial infection in the setting of pre-existing pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Mice with established subcutaneous pancreatic adenocarcinomas were infected with Listeria monocytogenes, and antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were compared to those in control mice without cancer. While the kinetics and magnitude of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell expansion and accumulation was comparable between the cancer and non-cancer groups, bacterial antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in cancer mice exhibited increased expression of the coinhibitory receptors BTLA, PD-1, and 2B4. Furthermore, increased inhibitory receptor expression was associated with reduced IFN-γ and increased IL-2 production by bacterial antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the cancer group. Taken together, these data suggest that cancer's immune suppressive effects are not limited to the tumor microenvironment, but that pre-existing malignancy induces phenotypic exhaustion in T cells by increasing expression of coinhibitory receptors and may impair pathogen-specific CD8+ T cell functionality and differentiation.

  6. Developing a pro-regenerative biomaterial scaffold microenvironment requires T helper 2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadtler, Kaitlyn; Estrellas, Kenneth; Allen, Brian W; Wolf, Matthew T; Fan, Hongni; Tam, Ada J; Patel, Chirag H; Luber, Brandon S; Wang, Hao; Wagner, Kathryn R; Powell, Jonathan D; Housseau, Franck; Pardoll, Drew M; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2016-04-15

    Immune-mediated tissue regeneration driven by a biomaterial scaffold is emerging as an innovative regenerative strategy to repair damaged tissues. We investigated how biomaterial scaffolds shape the immune microenvironment in traumatic muscle wounds to improve tissue regeneration. The scaffolds induced a pro-regenerative response, characterized by an mTOR/Rictor-dependent T helper 2 pathway that guides interleukin-4-dependent macrophage polarization, which is critical for functional muscle recovery. Manipulating the adaptive immune system using biomaterials engineering may support the development of therapies that promote both systemic and local pro-regenerative immune responses, ultimately stimulating tissue repair. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Anti-regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells—termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)—that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune...... reactions as well as effector cells that counteract the effects of suppressor cells and support immune reactions. Self-reactive anti-Tregs have been described that specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen-restricted epitopes derived from proteins that are normally expressed by regulatory immune cells......Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host...

  8. Pre-existing malignancy results in increased prevalence of distinct populations of CD4+ T cells during sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianfeng; Robertson, Jennifer M; Chen, Ching-Wen; Zhang, Wenxiao; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2018-01-01

    The presence of pre-existing malignancy in murine hosts results in increased immune dysregulation and risk of mortality following a septic insult. Based on the known systemic immunologic changes that occur in cancer hosts, we hypothesized that the presence of pre-existing malignancy would result in phenotypic and functional changes in CD4+ T cell responses following sepsis. In order to conduct a non-biased, unsupervised analysis of phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cell compartments, cohorts of mice were injected with LLC1 tumor cells and tumors were allowed to grow for 3 weeks. These cancer hosts and age-matched non-cancer controls were then subjected to CLP. Splenocytes were harvested at 24h post CLP and flow cytometry and SPADE (Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events) were used to analyze populations of CD4+ cells most different between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to non-cancer controls, cancer mice contained more resting memory CD4+ T cells, more activated CD4+ effectors, and fewer naïve CD4+ T cells during sepsis, suggesting that the CD4+ T cell compartment in cancer septic hosts is one of increased activation and differentiation. Moreover, cancer septic animals exhibited expansion of two distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells relative to previously healthy septic controls. Specifically, we identified increases in both a PD-1hi population and a distinct 2B4hi BTLAhi LAG-3hi population in cancer septic animals. By combining phenotypic analysis of exhaustion markers with functional analysis of cytokine production, we found that PD-1+ CD4+ cells in cancer hosts failed to make any cytokines following CLP, while the 2B4+ PD-1lo cells in cancer mice secreted increased TNF during sepsis. In sum, the immunophenotypic landscape of cancer septic animals is characterized by both increased CD4+ T cell activation and exhaustion, findings that may underlie the observed increased mortality in mice with pre-existing malignancy

  9. Pre-existing malignancy results in increased prevalence of distinct populations of CD4+ T cells during sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xie

    Full Text Available The presence of pre-existing malignancy in murine hosts results in increased immune dysregulation and risk of mortality following a septic insult. Based on the known systemic immunologic changes that occur in cancer hosts, we hypothesized that the presence of pre-existing malignancy would result in phenotypic and functional changes in CD4+ T cell responses following sepsis. In order to conduct a non-biased, unsupervised analysis of phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cell compartments, cohorts of mice were injected with LLC1 tumor cells and tumors were allowed to grow for 3 weeks. These cancer hosts and age-matched non-cancer controls were then subjected to CLP. Splenocytes were harvested at 24h post CLP and flow cytometry and SPADE (Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events were used to analyze populations of CD4+ cells most different between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to non-cancer controls, cancer mice contained more resting memory CD4+ T cells, more activated CD4+ effectors, and fewer naïve CD4+ T cells during sepsis, suggesting that the CD4+ T cell compartment in cancer septic hosts is one of increased activation and differentiation. Moreover, cancer septic animals exhibited expansion of two distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells relative to previously healthy septic controls. Specifically, we identified increases in both a PD-1hi population and a distinct 2B4hi BTLAhi LAG-3hi population in cancer septic animals. By combining phenotypic analysis of exhaustion markers with functional analysis of cytokine production, we found that PD-1+ CD4+ cells in cancer hosts failed to make any cytokines following CLP, while the 2B4+ PD-1lo cells in cancer mice secreted increased TNF during sepsis. In sum, the immunophenotypic landscape of cancer septic animals is characterized by both increased CD4+ T cell activation and exhaustion, findings that may underlie the observed increased mortality in mice with pre

  10. Pro- and anti-apoptotic CD95 signaling in T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Ottmar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The TNF receptor superfamily member CD95 (Fas, APO-1, TNFRSF6 is known as the prototypic death receptor in and outside the immune system. In fact, many mechanisms involved in apoptotic signaling cascades were solved by addressing consequences and pathways initiated by CD95 ligation in activated T cells or other "CD95-sensitive" cell populations. As an example, the binding of the inducible CD95 ligand (CD95L to CD95 on activated T lymphocytes results in apoptotic cell death. This activation-induced cell death was implicated in the control of immune cell homeostasis and immune response termination. Over the past years, however, it became evident that CD95 acts as a dual function receptor that also exerts anti-apoptotic effects depending on the cellular context. Early observations of a potential non-apoptotic role of CD95 in the growth control of resting T cells were recently reconsidered and revealed quite unexpected findings regarding the costimulatory capacity of CD95 for primary T cell activation. It turned out that CD95 engagement modulates TCR/CD3-driven signal initiation in a dose-dependent manner. High doses of immobilized CD95 agonists or cellular CD95L almost completely silence T cells by blocking early TCR-induced signaling events. In contrast, under otherwise unchanged conditions, lower amounts of the same agonists dramatically augment TCR/CD3-driven activation and proliferation. In the present overview, we summarize these recent findings with a focus on the costimulatory capacity of CD95 in primary T cells and discuss potential implications for the T cell compartment and the interplay between T cells and CD95L-expressing cells including antigen-presenting cells.

  11. Armored CAR T-cells: utilizing cytokines and pro-inflammatory ligands to enhance CAR T-cell anti-tumour efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yeku, Oladapo O.; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2016-01-01

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are T-cells that have been genetically modified to express an artificial construct consisting of a synthetic T-cell receptor (TCR) targeted to a predetermined antigen expressed on a tumour. Coupling the T-cell receptor to a CD3ζ signalling domain paved the way for first generation CAR T-cells that were efficacious against cluster of differentiation (CD)19-expressing B-cell malignancies. Optimization with additional signalling domains such as CD28 or 4-...

  12. Histone deacetylase 2 is decreased in peripheral blood pro-inflammatory CD8+ T and NKT-like lymphocytes following lung transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Greg; Hodge, Sandra; Holmes-Liew, Chien-Li; Reynolds, Paul N; Holmes, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Immunosuppression therapy following lung transplantation fails to prevent chronic rejection in many patients, which is associated with lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood T and natural killer T (NKT)-like cells. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) upregulate/downregulate pro-inflammatory gene expression, respectively; however, differences in the activity of these enzymes following lung transplant are unknown. We hypothesized decreased HDAC2 expression and increased HAT expression in pro-inflammatory lymphocytes following lung transplant. Blood was collected from 18 stable lung transplant patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokines and HAT/HDAC2 expression were determined in lymphocyte subsets following culture using flow cytometry. A loss of HDAC2 in cluster of differentiation (CD) 8+ T and NKT-like cells in transplant patients compared with controls was noted (CD8+ T: 28 ± 10 (45 ± 10), CD8+NKT-like: 30 ± 13 (54 ± 16) (mean ± SD transplant) (control)). Loss of HDAC2 was associated with an increased percentage of CD8+ T and NKT-like cells expressing perforin, granzyme b, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and TNF-α (no change in HAT expression in any lymphocyte subset). There was a negative correlation between loss of HDAC2 expression by CD8+ T cells with cumulative dose of prednisolone and time post-transplant. Treatment with 10 mg/L theophylline + 1 µmol/L prednisolone or 2.5 ng/mL cyclosporine A synergistically upregulated HDAC2 and inhibited IFN-γ and TNF-α production by CD8+ T and NKT-like lymphocytes. HDAC2 is decreased in CD8+ T and NKT-like pro-inflammatory lymphocytes following lung transplant. Treatment options that increase HDAC2 may improve graft survival. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. Clinical value of Pro-GRP and T lymphocyte subpopulation for the assessment of immune functions of lung cancer patients after DC-CIK biological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijie; Wang, Jing; Chang, Dandan; Lv, Dandan; Li, Haina; Zhang, Heping

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the aptness of assessing the levels of progastrin-releasing peptide (Pro-GRP) in addition to the T lymphocyte subpopulation in lung cancer patients prior to and after therapy for determining immune function. A total of 45 patients with lung cancer were recruited and stratified in to a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and an SCLC group. Prior to and after treatment by combined biological therapy comprising chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by three cycles of retransformation of autologous dendritic cells-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK), the peripheral blood was assessed for populations of CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + and regulatory T cells (Treg) by flow cytometry, and for the levels of pro-GRP, carcinoembryonic antigen, neuron-specific enolase and Cyfra 21-1. The results revealed that in NSCLC patients, CD8 + T lymphocytes and Treg populations were decreased, and that CD3 + and CD4 + T lymphocytes as well as the CD4 + /CD8 + ratio were increased after therapy; in SCLC patients, CD3 + , CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes were increased, while Treg cells were decreased after treatment compared with those at baseline. In each group, Pro-GRP was decreased compared with that prior to treatment, and in the SCLC group only, an obvious negative correlation was identified between Pro-GRP and the T lymphocyte subpopulation. Furthermore, a significant correlation between Pro-GRP and Tregs was identified in each group. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the immune function of the patients was improved after biological therapy. The results suggested a significant correlation between Pro-GRP and the T lymphocyte subpopulation in SCLC patients. Detection of Pro-GRP may assist the early clinical diagnosis of SCLC and may also be used to assess the immune regulatory function of patients along with the T lymphocyte subpopulation. Biological therapy with retransformed autologous DC-CIK was indicated to enhance the specific elimination

  14. Suppression of T cell-induced osteoclast formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karieb, Sahar; Fox, Simon W., E-mail: Simon.fox@plymouth.ac.uk

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Genistein and coumestrol prevent activated T cell induced osteoclast formation. •Anti-TNF neutralising antibodies prevent the pro-osteoclastic effect of activated T cells. •Phytoestrogens inhibit T cell derived TNF alpha and inflammatory cytokine production. •Phytoestrogens have a broader range of anti-osteoclastic actions than other anti-resorptives. -- Abstract: Inhibition of T cell derived cytokine production could help suppress osteoclast differentiation in inflammatory skeletal disorders. Bisphosphonates are typically prescribed to prevent inflammatory bone loss but are not tolerated by all patients and are associated with an increased risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. In light of this other anti-resorptives such as phytoestrogens are being considered. However the effect of phytoestrogens on T cell-induced osteoclast formation is unclear. The effect of genistein and coumestrol on activated T cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and cytokine production was therefore examined. Concentrations of genistein and coumestrol (10{sup −7} M) previously shown to directly inhibit osteoclast formation also suppressed the formation of TRAP positive osteoclast induced by con A activated T cells, which was dependent on inhibition of T cell derived TNF-α. While both reduced osteoclast formation their mechanism of action differed. The anti-osteoclastic effect of coumestrol was associated with a dual effect on con A induced T cell proliferation and activation; 10{sup −7} M coumestrol significantly reducing T cell number (0.36) and TNF-α (0.47), IL-1β (0.23) and IL-6 (0.35) expression, whereas genistein (10{sup −7} M) had no effect on T cell number but a more pronounced effect on T cell differentiation reducing expression of TNF-α (0.49), IL-1β (0.52), IL-6 (0.71) and RANKL (0.71). Phytoestrogens therefore prevent the pro-osteoclastic action of T cells suggesting they may have a role in the control of inflammatory bone loss.

  15. Variability in tuberculosis granuloma T cell responses exists, but a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is associated with sterilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung granulomas are the pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis (TB. T cells are a major cellular component of TB lung granulomas and are known to play an important role in containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. We used cynomolgus macaques, a non-human primate model that recapitulates human TB with clinically active disease, latent infection or early infection, to understand functional characteristics and dynamics of T cells in individual granulomas. We sought to correlate T cell cytokine response and bacterial burden of each granuloma, as well as granuloma and systemic responses in individual animals. Our results support that each granuloma within an individual host is independent with respect to total cell numbers, proportion of T cells, pattern of cytokine response, and bacterial burden. The spectrum of these components overlaps greatly amongst animals with different clinical status, indicating that a diversity of granulomas exists within an individual host. On average only about 8% of T cells from granulomas respond with cytokine production after stimulation with Mtb specific antigens, and few "multi-functional" T cells were observed. However, granulomas were found to be "multi-functional" with respect to the combinations of functional T cells that were identified among lesions from individual animals. Although the responses generally overlapped, sterile granulomas had modestly higher frequencies of T cells making IL-17, TNF and any of T-1 (IFN-γ, IL-2, or TNF and/or T-17 (IL-17 cytokines than non-sterile granulomas. An inverse correlation was observed between bacterial burden with TNF and T-1/T-17 responses in individual granulomas, and a combinatorial analysis of pair-wise cytokine responses indicated that granulomas with T cells producing both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-10 and IL-17 were associated with clearance of Mtb. Preliminary evaluation suggests that systemic responses in the blood do not

  16. Collagen-derived dipeptide prolyl-hydroxyproline promotes differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimira, Yoshifumi; Ogura, Kana; Taniuchi, Yuri; Kataoka, Aya; Inoue, Naoki; Sugihara, Fumihito; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro; Mano, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pro-Hyp did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and matrix mineralization. • Pro-Hyp significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity. • Pro-Hyp significantly upregulated gene expression of Runx2, Osterix, and Col1α1. - Abstract: Prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) is one of the major constituents of collagen-derived dipeptides. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Pro-Hyp on the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Addition of Pro-Hyp did not affect MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and matrix mineralization but alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased. Furthermore, cells treated with Pro-Hyp significantly upregulated gene expression of Runx2, Osterix, and Col1α1. These results indicate that Pro-Hyp promotes osteoblast differentiation. This study demonstrates for the first time that Pro-Hyp has a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation with upregulation of Runx2, Osterix, and Collα1 gene expression

  17. Adipose-derived stem cells were impaired in restricting CD4+T cell proliferation and polarization in type 2 diabetic ApoE-/- mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Hao; Li, Ya; Han, Lu; Zhang, Yao-Yuan; Wang, Di; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Zhou, Hui-Min; Song, Ming; Li, Yi-Hui; Tang, Meng-Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most common and serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is accelerated via chronic systemic inflammation rather than hyperglycemia. Adipose tissue is the major source of systemic inflammation in abnormal metabolic state. Pro-inflammatory CD4 + T cells play pivotal role in promoting adipose inflammation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for fat regeneration have potent ability of immunosuppression and restricting CD4 + T cells as well. Whether T2DM ADSCs are impaired in antagonizing CD4 + T cell proliferation and polarization remains unclear. We constructed type 2 diabetic ApoE -/- mouse models and tested infiltration and subgroups of CD4 + T cell in stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) in vivo. Normal/T2DM ADSCs and normal splenocytes with or without CD4 sorting were separated and co-cultured at different scales ex vivo. Immune phenotypes of pro- and anti-inflammation of ADSCs were also investigated. Flow cytometry (FCM) and ELISA were applied in the experiments above. CD4 + T cells performed a more pro-inflammatory phenotype in adipose tissue in T2DM ApoE -/- mice in vivo. Restriction to CD4 + T cell proliferation and polarization was manifested obviously weakened after co-cultured with T2DM ADSCs ex vivo. No obvious distinctions were found in morphology and growth type of both ADSCs. However, T2DM ADSCs acquired a pro-inflammatory immune phenotype, with secreting less PGE2 and expressing higher MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80). Normal ADSCs could also obtain the phenotypic change after cultured with T2DM SVF supernatant. CD4 + T cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory polarization exist in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic ApoE -/- mice. T2DM ADSCs had impaired function in restricting CD4 + T lymphocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory polarization due to immune phenotypic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development, implementation and evaluation of a peer review of teaching (PRoT) initiative in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Diana R; Kazer, Meredith W; Conelius, Jaclyn; Shea, Joyce; Lippman, Doris T; Torosyan, Roben; Nantz, Kathryn

    2014-06-03

    For many years, an area of research in higher education has been emerging around the development and implementation of fair and effective peer evaluation programs. Recently, a new body of knowledge has developed regarding the development and implementation of fair and effective peer evaluation programs resulting in formative and summative evaluations. The purpose of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a peer review of teaching (PRoT) program for nursing faculty, initiated at one small comprehensive university in the northeastern United States. Pairs of nursing faculty evaluated each other's teaching, syllabi, and course materials after collaborating in a pre-evaluation conference to discuss goals of the classroom visit. Qualitative data gathered in post project focus groups revealed that faculty found their modified PRoT process to be a mutually beneficial experience that was more useful, flexible and collegial, and less stressful than their previous evaluation process.

  19. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, downregulates the retroviral oncoprotein Tax and pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Di [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Yuan, Yunsheng [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Engineering Research Center of Cell and Therapeutic Antibody, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Li [Pharmacy College, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou (China); Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Liu, Xin; Belani, Chandra [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Cheng, Hua, E-mail: hcheng@ihv.umaryland.edu [Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive form of hematological malignancy and is caused by chronic infection of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral genome encodes an oncogenic protein, Tax, which plays a key role in transactivating viral gene transcription and in deregulating cellular oncogenic signaling to promote survival, proliferation and transformation of virally infected T cells. Hence, Tax is a desirable therapeutic target, particularly at early stage of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. We here show that niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, induced apoptosis of HTLV-1-transformed T cells. Niclosamide facilitated degradation of the Tax protein in proteasome. Consistent with niclosamide-mediated Tax degradation, this compound inhibited activities of MAPK/ERK1/2 and IκB kinases. In addition, niclosamide downregulated Stat3 and pro-survival Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1 and repressed the viral gene transcription of HTLV-1 through induction of Tax degradation. Since Tax, Stat3 and Mcl-1 are crucial molecules for promoting survival and growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of niclosamide in inducing Tax degradation and downregulating various cellular pro-survival molecules, thereby promoting apoptosis of HTLV-1-associated leukemia cells. - Highlights: • Niclosamide is a promising therapeutic candidate for adult T cell leukemia. • Niclosamide employs a novel mechanism through proteasomal degradation of Tax. • Niclosamide downregulates certain cellular pro-survival molecules.

  20. ONC201 selectively induces apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells via activating pro-apoptotic integrated stress response and inactivating JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Xiao; Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Cheng-Hui; Langridge, Timothy; Tarapore, Rohinton S.; Allen, Joshua E.; Oster, Wolfgang; Duvic, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are extremely symptomatic and still incurable, and more effective and less toxic therapies are urgently needed. ONC201, an imipridone compound, has shown efficacy in pre-clinical studies in multiple advanced cancers. This study was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of ONC201 on CTCL cells. The effect of ONC201 on the cell growth and apoptosis were evaluated in CTCL cell lines (n=8) and primary CD4+ malignant T cells isolated from CTCL patients (n=5). ONC20...

  1. Pro-angiogenic cell-based therapy for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    Pro-angiogenic cell therapy has emerged as a promising option to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or with critical limb ischemia. Exciting pre-clinical studies have prompted the initiation of numerous clinical trials based on administration of stem/progenitor cells with pro-angiogenic potential. Most of the clinical studies performed so far have used bone marrow-derived or peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells and showed, overall, a modest but significant benefit on tissue remodeling and function in patients with ischemic diseases. These mixed results pave the way for the development of strategies to overcome the limitation of autologous cell therapy and to propose more efficient approaches. Such strategies include pretreatment of cells with activators to augment cell recruitment and survival in the ischemic target area and/or the improvement of cell functions such as their paracrine ability to release proangiogenic factors and vasoactive molecules. In addition, efforts should be directed towards stimulation of both angiogenesis and vessel maturation, the development of a composite product consisting of stem/progenitor cells encapsulated in a biomaterial and the use of additional sources of regenerative cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chitosan drives anti-inflammatory macrophage polarisation and pro-inflammatory dendritic cell stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC share the same precursor and play key roles in immunity. Modulation of their behaviour to achieve an optimal host response towards an implanted device is still a challenge. Here we compare the differentiation process and polarisation of these related cell populations and show that they exhibit different responses to chitosan (Ch, with human monocyte-derived macrophages polarising towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype while their DC counterparts display pro-inflammatory features. Macrophages and DC, whose interactions with biomaterials are frequently analysed using fully differentiated cells, were cultured directly on Ch films, rather than exposed to the polymer after complete differentiation. Ch was the sole stimulating factor and activated both macrophages and DC, without leading to significant T cell proliferation. After 10 d on Ch, macrophages significantly down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory markers, CD86 and MHCII. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α, decreased with time for cells cultured on Ch, while anti-inflammatory IL-10 and TGF-β1, significantly increased. Altogether, these results suggest an M2c polarisation. Also, macrophage matrix metalloproteinase activity was augmented and cell motility was stimulated by Ch. Conversely, DC significantly enhanced CD86 expression, reduced IL-10 secretion and increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Our findings indicate that cells with a common precursor may display different responses, when challenged by the same biomaterial. Moreover, they help to further comprehend macrophage/DC interactions with Ch and the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals associated with implant biomaterials. We propose that an overall pro-inflammatory reaction may hide the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, likely relevant for tissue repair/regeneration.

  3. Apoptosis Signaling Is Altered in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T Regulatory Lymphocytes in Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oleszczuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to estimate the surface expressions of CD95 (APO-1/Fas antigen and the intracellular expressions of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs as well as the percentage of CD8+CD28+ T cytotoxic cells in peripheral blood of patients with pre-eclampsia in comparison with healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of physiological pregnancy. Twenty-four women with pre-eclampsia and 20 normal third trimester pregnant women were included in the study. The lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood samples and labeled with monoclonal antibodies. The expressions of surface antigens and intracellular proteins were estimated using flow cytometry. The population of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells was significantly lower in peripheral blood of patients with pre-eclampsia when compared to normal third trimester pregnant women. The percentages of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells that express Bcl-2 protein were significantly lower in peripheral blood of patients with pre-eclampsia when compared to healthy pregnant women, whereas the percentages of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells with the expressions of Bax protein did not differ in both groups. Moreover, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of Bcl-2 protein in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells was significantly lower and MFI of Bax protein significantly higher in pre-eclampsia when compared to the control group. The percentage of CD8+CD28+ T cells did not differ in both studied groups but MFI of CD28 antigen on T CD8+ cells was significantly higher in pre-eclampsia when compared to the control group. The obtained results suggest that the deficit of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg

  4. Selective targeting of pro-inflammatory Th1 cells by microRNA-148a-specific antagomirs in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmeyer, Patrick; Petkau, Georg; Siracusa, Francesco; Zimmermann, Jakob; Zügel, Franziska; Kühl, Anja Andrea; Lehmann, Katrin; Schimmelpfennig, Sarah; Weber, Melanie; Haftmann, Claudia; Riedel, René; Bardua, Markus; Heinz, Gitta Anne; Tran, Cam Loan; Hoyer, Bimba Franziska; Hiepe, Falk; Herzog, Sebastian; Wittmann, Jürgen; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Melchers, Fritz Georg; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Radbruch, Andreas; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin

    2018-05-01

    In T lymphocytes, expression of miR-148a is induced by T-bet and Twist1, and is specific for pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. In these cells, miR-148a inhibits the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim and promotes their survival. Here we use sequence-specific cholesterol-modified oligonucleotides against miR-148a (antagomir-148a) for the selective elimination of pro-inflammatory Th1 cells in vivo. In the murine model of transfer colitis, antagomir-148a treatment reduced the number of pro-inflammatory Th1 cells in the colon of colitic mice by 50% and inhibited miR-148a expression by 71% in the remaining Th1 cells. Expression of Bim protein in colonic Th1 cells was increased. Antagomir-148a-mediated reduction of Th1 cells resulted in a significant amelioration of colitis. The effect of antagomir-148a was selective for chronic inflammation. Antigen-specific memory Th cells that were generated by an acute immune reaction to nitrophenylacetyl-coupled chicken gamma globulin (NP-CGG) were not affected by treatment with antagomir-148a, both during the effector and the memory phase. In addition, antibody titers to NP-CGG were not altered. Thus, antagomir-148a might qualify as an effective drug to selectively deplete pro-inflammatory Th1 cells of chronic inflammation without affecting the protective immunological memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Early growth response gene-2 (Egr-2 regulates the development of B and T cells.

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    Suling Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of how transcription factors are involved in lymphocyte development still remains a challenge. It has been shown that Egr-2 deficiency results in impaired NKT cell development and defective positive selection of T cells. Here we investigated the development of T, B and NKT cells in Egr-2 transgenic mice and the roles in the regulation of distinct stages of B and T cell development.The expression of Egr1, 2 and 3 were analysed at different stages of T and B cell development by RT-PCT and results showed that the expression was strictly regulated at different stages. Forced expression of Egr-2 in CD2(+ lymphocytes resulted in a severe reduction of CD4(+CD8(+ (DP cells in thymus and pro-B cells in bone marrow, which was associated with reduced expression of Notch1 in ISP thymocytes and Pax5 in pro-B cells, suggesting that retraction of Egr-2 at the ISP and pro-B cell stages is important for the activation of lineage differentiation programs. In contrast to reduction of DP and pro-B cells, Egr-2 enhanced the maturation of DP cells into single positive (SP T and NKT cells in thymus, and immature B cells into mature B cells in bone marrow.Our results demonstrate that Egr-2 expressed in restricted stages of lymphocyte development plays a dynamic, but similar role for the development of T, NKT and B cells.

  6. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Mariana M.; Napier, T. Celeste; Graves, Steven M.; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the comorbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n = 18) or be given saline (control; n = 16) for 14 days. One day after the last self-administration session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γand TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4+, CD8+, CD200+ and CD11b/c+ lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administer methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4+ T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4+ T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8+ T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Or data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection. PMID:25678251

  7. Kefir-isolated bacteria and yeasts inhibit Shigella flexneri invasion and modulate pro-inflammatory response on intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, P A; Abraham, A G; Pérez, P F; de Los Angeles Serradell, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a kefir-isolated microbial mixture containing three bacterial and two yeast strains (MM) to protect intestinal epithelial cells against Shigella flexneri invasion, as well as to analyse the effect on pro-inflammatory response elicited by this pathogen. A significant decrease in S. flexneri strain 72 invasion was observed on both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells pre-incubated with MM. Pre-incubation with the individual strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae CIDCA 8112 or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CIDCA 8221 also reduced the internalisation of S. flexneri into HT-29 cells although in a lesser extent than MM. Interestingly, Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114 exerted a protective effect on the invasion of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells by S. flexneri. Regarding the pro-inflammatory response on HT-29 cells, S. flexneri infection induced a significant activation of the expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) encoding genes (P<0.05), whereas incubation of cells with MM did not induce the expression of any of the mediators assessed. Interestingly, pre-incubation of HT-29 monolayer with MM produced an inhibition of S. flexneri-induced IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α mRNA expression. In order to gain insight on the effect of MM (or the individual strains) on this pro-inflammatory response, a series of experiments using a HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP reporter system were performed. Pre-incubation of HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP cells with MM significantly dampened Shigella-induced activation. Our results showed that the contribution of yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus CIDCA 8154 seems to be crucial in the observed effect. In conclusion, results presented in this study demonstrate that pre-treatment with a microbial mixture containing bacteria and yeasts isolated from kefir, resulted in inhibition of S. flexneri internalisation into human intestinal epithelial cells, along with the

  8. The Role of γδ T Cells in Fibrotic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Ilan

    2016-10-31

    Inflammation induced by toxins, micro-organisms, or autoimmunity may result in pathogenic fibrosis, leading to long-term tissue dysfunction, morbidity, and mortality. Immune cells play a role in both induction and resolution of fibrosis. γδ T cells are an important group of unconventional T cells characterized by their expression of non-major histocompatibility complex restricted clonotypic T cell receptors for non-peptide antigens. Accumulating evidence suggests that subsets of γδ T cells in experimentally induced fibrosis following bleomycin treatment, or infection with Bacillus subtilis, play pro-inflammatory roles that instigate fibrosis, whereas the same cells may also play a role in resolving fibrosis. These processes appear to be linked at least in part to the cytokines produced by the cells at various stages, with interleukin (IL)-17 playing a central role in the inflammatory phase driving fibrosis, but later secretion of IL-22, interferon γ, and CXCL10 preventing pathologic fibrosis. Moreover, γδ T cells appear to be involved, in an antigen-driven manner, in the prototypic human fibrotic disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc). In this paper we review in brief the scientific publications that have implicated γδ T cells in fibrotic diseases and their pro- and anti-fibrotic effects.

  9. Unconventional Pro-inflammatory CD4+ T Cell Response in B Cell-Deficient Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gorosito Serrán

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America but has become a global public health concern by migration of infected people. It has been reported that parasite persistence as well as the intensity of the inflammatory immune response are determinants of the clinical manifestations of the disease. Even though inflammation is indispensable for host defense, when deregulated, it can contribute to tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Here, we report the importance of B cells in conditioning T cell response in T. cruzi infection. Mice deficient in mature B cells (muMT mice infected with T. cruzi exhibited an increase in plasma TNF concentration, TNF-producing CD4+ T cells, and mortality. The increase in TNF-producing CD4+ T cells was accompanied by a reduction in IFNγ+CD4+ T cells and a decrease of the frequency of regulatory Foxp3+, IL-10+, and IL17+CD4+ T cells populations. The CD4+ T cell population activated by T. cruzi infection, in absence of mature B cells, had a high frequency of Ly6C+ cells and showed a lower expression of inhibitory molecules such as CTLA-4, PD-1, and LAG3. CD4+ T cells from infected muMT mice presented a high frequency of CD62LhiCD44− cells, which is commonly associated with a naïve phenotype. Through transfer experiments we demonstrated that CD4+ T cells from infected muMT mice were able to condition the CD4+ T cells response from infected wild-type mice. Interestingly, using Blimp-flox/flox-CD23icre mice we observed that in absence of plasmablast/plasma cell T. cruzi-infected mice exhibited a higher number of TNF-producing CD4+ T cells. Our results showed that the absence of B cells during T. cruzi infection affected the T cell response at different levels and generated a favorable scenario for unconventional activation of CD4+ T cell leading to an uncontrolled effector response and inflammation. The product of B cell differentiation, the plasmablast/plasma cells, could be able

  10. Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells Suppress T Cell Activation in In Vivo Models of Homeostatic Proliferation in a Prostaglandin E2-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Corbett, Jennifer M.; Cunha, João Paulo M. C. M.; Reading, James L.; Tree, Timothy I. M.; Ting, Anthony E.; Stubblefield, Samantha R.; English, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Lymphodepletion strategies are used in the setting of transplantation (including bone marrow, hematopoietic cell, and solid organ) to create space or to prevent allograft rejection and graft versus host disease. Following lymphodepletion, there is an excess of IL-7 available, and T cells that escape depletion respond to this cytokine undergoing accelerated proliferation. Moreover, this environment promotes the skew of T cells to a Th1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Existing immunosuppressive regimens fail to control this homeostatic proliferative (HP) response, and thus the development of strategies to successfully control HP while sparing T cell reconstitution (providing a functioning immune system) represents a significant unmet need in patients requiring lymphodepletion. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC®) have the capacity to control T cell proliferation and Th1 cytokine production. Herein, this study shows that MAPC cells suppressed anti-thymocyte globulin-induced cytokine production but spared T cell reconstitution in a pre-clinical model of lymphodepletion. Importantly, MAPC cells administered intraperitoneally were efficacious in suppressing interferon-γ production and in promoting the expansion of regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes. MAPC cells administered intraperitoneally accumulated in the omentum but were not present in the spleen suggesting a role for soluble factors. MAPC cells suppressed lymphopenia-induced cytokine production in a prostaglandin E2-dependent manner. This study suggests that MAPC cell therapy may be useful as a novel strategy to target lymphopenia-induced pathogenic T cell responses in lymphodepleted patients. PMID:29740426

  11. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates T cell effector function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonnière, Lyne; Moore, Craig S

    2007-01-01

    To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice with exper......To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice...... dramatically reduced within the CNS. Flow cytometry showed an 88-93% reduction in T cells. The proportion of TUNEL(+) apoptotic CD4(+) T cells in the CNS was increased from Neurons...... and oligodendrocytes were not affected; neither did apoptosis increase in liver, where XIAP knockdown also occurred. ASO-XIAP increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis in vitro. Our results identify XIAP as a critical controller of apoptotic susceptibility of effector T cell function...

  12. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Mariana M; Napier, T Celeste; Graves, Steven M; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L

    2015-04-05

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the co-morbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n=18) or be given saline (control; n=16) for 14 days. One day after the last operant session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD200(+) and CD11b/c(+) lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administered methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4(+) T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4(+) T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8(+) T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Our data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Overexpression of pro-gastrin releasing peptide promotes the cell proliferation and progression in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Zhiyun; Lu, Renquan; Xie, Suhong; Jiang, Minglei; Liu, Kai; Xiao, Ran; Shen, Jiabin; Wang, Yanchun; Guo, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) plays the role of oncogene in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we aim to explore the biological function of ProGRP in SCLC cells and its potential mechanism. Expression of ProGRP in SCLC tissues and cell lines were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, respectively. The transduced cell lines with ProGRP down-regulation were established using RNA interference technology. Cell viability, cologenic, apoptosis-associated assay and the biomarker levels determination for cell supernatant were performed in the transduced cells to elucidate the biological functions and mechanisms of ProGRP in SCLC cells. Our data showed that ProGRP protein was demonstrated a higher level in SCLC tissues and cells compared with the control, and its diagnostic efficiency was better than NSE, further, the higher levels of ProGRP were detected in the patients with extensive disease stage (P < 0.05), were also the unfavorable factor to the prognosis of SCLC patients. Additionally, the concentration of serum ProGRP is a useful biomarker in disease-monitoring of the patients with SCLC. Down-regulation of ProGRP significantly reduced SCLC cell growth, repressed colony formation, but increased cancer cell apoptosis. Additionally, repression of ProGRP also induced change in the cell cycle and output of NSE. Our data indicated that ProGRP serve as the useful biomarker in the management of SCLC and might be a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • ProGRP is overexpressed in the tissues and sera of the patients with SCLC. • Down-regulation of ProGRP inhibited cell proliferation. • Inhibition of ProGRP altered cell cycle distribution and triggers the apoptosis of lung cancer cells.

  14. Increased Peripheral Blood Pro-Inflammatory/Cytotoxic Lymphocytes in Children with Bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Hodge

    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis (BE in children is common in some communities including Indigenous children in Australia. Relatively little is known about the nature of systemic inflammation in these children, especially the contribution of specific pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets: T-cells, natural killer (NK cells and NKT-like cells. We have shown that these cells produce increased cytotoxic (granzyme b and perforin and inflammatory (IFNγ and TNFα mediators in several adult chronic lung diseases and hypothesised that similar changes would be evident in children with BE.Intracellular cytotoxic mediators perforin and granzyme b and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in T cell subsets, NKT-like and NK cells from blood and bronchoalveolar samples from 12 children with BE and 10 aged-matched control children using flow cytometry.There was a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and T and NKT-like subsets expressing perforin/granzyme and IFNγ and TNFα in blood in BE compared with controls. There was a further increase in the percentage of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic T cells in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous children. There was no change in any of these mediators in BAL.Childhood bronchiectasis is associated with increased systemic pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Future studies need to examine the extent to which elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic cells predict future co-morbidities.

  15. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Devitt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by dysregulation of the immune system. Impaired function of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells is often seen, and T-cell malignancies represent most cases of lymphoma-associated HLH. HLH associated with B-cell lymphoma is rare. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man who presented with fever, splenomegaly, and hyperferritinemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma, a rare, aggressive B-cell malignancy. This case highlights the interplay between a pro-inflammatory cytokine microenvironment and tumor-mediated immune suppression, and addresses the importance of accurately diagnosing these entities for appropriate clinical management.

  16. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Katherine; Cerny, Jan; Switzer, Bradley; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Nath, Rajneesh; Yu, Hongbo; Woda, Bruce A; Chen, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by dysregulation of the immune system. Impaired function of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells is often seen, and T-cell malignancies represent most cases of lymphoma-associated HLH. HLH associated with B-cell lymphoma is rare. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man who presented with fever, splenomegaly, and hyperferritinemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma, a rare, aggressive B-cell malignancy. This case highlights the interplay between a pro-inflammatory cytokine microenvironment and tumor-mediated immune suppression, and addresses the importance of accurately diagnosing these entities for appropriate clinical management.

  17. Platelet adhesion and degranulation induce pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signalling in ovarian cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Egan

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.

  18. Circulating CXCR5+CD4+ T cells assist in the survival and growth of primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells through interleukin 10 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Zhanshan; Qian, Guangfang; Zang, Yan; Gu, Haihui; Huang, Yanyan; Zhu, Lishuang; Li, Jinqi; Liu, Yang; Tu, Xiaohua; Song, Haihan; Qian, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and aggressive cancer caused by the malignant transformation of B cells. Although it has been established that the follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play a central role in B cell development, little information is available on their involvement in DLBCL pathogenesis. We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh equivalent, the CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cells, in DLBCL. Data showed that compared to CXCR5"- CD4"+ T cells, CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cells were significantly more effective at promoting the proliferation as well as inhibiting the apoptosis of primary autologous DLBCL tumor cells. Surprisingly, we found that at equal cell numbers, CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cells in DLBCL patients secreted significantly less interleukin (IL)-21 than CXCR5"- CD4"+ T cells, while the level of IL-10 secretion was significant elevated in the CXCR5"+ compartment compared to the CXCR5"- compartment. Neutralization of IL-10 in the primary DLBCL-CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cell coculture compromised the CXCR5"+ CD4"+ T cell-mediated pro-tumor effects, in a manner that was dependent on the concentration of anti-IL-10 antibodies. The CXCR5"+ compartment also contained significantly lower frequencies of cytotoxic CD4"+ T cells than the CXCR5"- compartment. In conclusion, our investigations discovered a previously unknown pro-tumor role of CXCR5-expressing circulating CD4"+ T cells, which assisted the survival and proliferation of primary DLBCL cells through IL-10. - Highlights: • We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh in DLBCL. • Tfh were effective at promoting the proliferation of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • Tfh were effective at inhibiting the apoptosis of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • IL-10 secretion in Tfh was significant elevated in DLBCL. • Neutralization of IL-10 compromised Tfh-mediated pro-tumor effects.

  19. A pro-inflammatory role for Th22 cells in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Cheng, Ping; Liu, Xiao-fei; Peng, Liu-sheng; Li, Bo-sheng; Wang, Ting-ting; Chen, Na; Li, Wen-hua; Shi, Yun; Chen, Weisan; Pang, Ken C; Zeng, Ming; Mao, Xu-hu; Yang, Shi-ming; Guo, Hong; Guo, Gang; Liu, Tao; Zuo, Qian-fei; Yang, Hui-jie; Yang, Liu-yang; Mao, Fang-yuan; Lv, Yi-pin; Zou, Quan-ming

    2015-09-01

    Helper T (Th) cell responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Th22 cells represent a newly discovered Th cell subset, but their relevance to H. pylori-induced gastritis is unknown. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR and ELISA analyses were performed to examine cell, protein and transcript levels in gastric samples from patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Gastric tissues from interleukin (IL)-22-deficient and wild-type (control) mice were also examined. Tissue inflammation was determined for pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory protein production. Gastric epithelial cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were isolated, stimulated and/or cultured for Th22 cell function assays. Th22 cells accumulated in gastric mucosa of both patients and mice infected with H. pylori. Th22 cell polarisation was promoted via the production of IL-23 by dendritic cells (DC) during H. pylori infection, and resulted in increased inflammation within the gastric mucosa. This inflammation was characterised by the CXCR2-dependent influx of MDSCs, whose migration was induced via the IL-22-dependent production of CXCL2 by gastric epithelial cells. Under the influence of IL-22, MDSCs, in turn, produced pro-inflammatory proteins, such as S100A8 and S100A9, and suppressed Th1 cell responses, thereby contributing to the development of H. pylori-associated gastritis. This study, therefore, identifies a novel regulatory network involving H. pylori, DCs, Th22 cells, gastric epithelial cells and MDSCs, which collectively exert a pro-inflammatory effect within the gastric microenvironment. Efforts to inhibit this Th22-dependent pathway may therefore prove a valuable strategy in the therapy of H. pylori-associated gastritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Computational modeling of heterogeneity and function of CD4+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adria eCarbo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is composed of many different cell types and hundreds of intersecting molecular pathways and signals. This large biological complexity requires coordination between distinct pro-inflammatory and regulatory cell subsets to respond to infection while maintaining tissue homeostasis. CD4+ T cells play a central role in orchestrating immune responses and in maintaining a balance between pro- and anti- inflammatory responses. This tight balance between regulatory and effector reactions depends on the ability of CD4+ T cells to modulate distinct pathways within large molecular networks, since dysregulated CD4+ T cell responses may result in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The CD4+ T cell differentiation process comprises an intricate interplay between cytokines, their receptors, adaptor molecules, signaling cascades and transcription factors that help delineate cell fate and function. Computational modeling can help to describe, simulate, analyze, and predict some of the behaviors in this complicated differentiation network. This review provides a comprehensive overview of existing computational immunology methods as well as novel strategies used to model immune responses with a particular focus on CD4+ T cell differentiation.

  1. Acquired IFNγ resistance impairs anti-tumor immunity and gives rise to T-cell-resistant melanoma lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucker, Antje; Zhao, Fang; Pieper, Natalia; Heeke, Christina; Maltaner, Raffaela; Stadtler, Nadine; Real, Birgit; Bielefeld, Nicola; Howe, Sebastian; Weide, Benjamin; Gutzmer, Ralf; Utikal, Jochen; Loquai, Carmen; Gogas, Helen; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Zeschnigk, Michael; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Trilling, Mirko; Horn, Susanne; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Griewank, Klaus G.; Paschen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma treatment has been revolutionized by antibody-based immunotherapies. IFNγ secretion by CD8+ T cells is critical for therapy efficacy having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on tumour cells. Our study demonstrates a genetic evolution of IFNγ resistance in different melanoma patient models. Chromosomal alterations and subsequent inactivating mutations in genes of the IFNγ signalling cascade, most often JAK1 or JAK2, protect melanoma cells from anti-tumour IFNγ activity. JAK1/2 mutants further evolve into T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions with genes involved in antigen presentation silenced and no longer inducible by IFNγ. Allelic JAK1/2 losses predisposing to IFNγ resistance development are frequent in melanoma. Subclones harbouring inactivating mutations emerge under various immunotherapies but are also detectable in pre-treatment biopsies. Our data demonstrate that JAK1/2 deficiency protects melanoma from anti-tumour IFNγ activity and results in T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions. Screening for mechanisms of IFNγ resistance should be considered in therapeutic decision-making. PMID:28561041

  2. T cells in vascular inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L Lintermans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the human vasculature is a manifestation of many different diseases ranging from systemic autoimmune diseases to chronic inflammatory diseases, in which multiple types of immune cells are involved. For both autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases several observations support a key role for T lymphocytes in these disease pathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies in several autoimmune diseases have demonstrated a significant role for a specific subset of CD4+ T cells termed effector memory T cells. This expanded population of effector memory T cells may contribute to tissue injury and disease progression. These cells exert multiple pro-inflammatory functions through the release of effector cytokines. Many of these cytokines have been detected in the inflammatory lesions and participate in the vasculitic reaction, contributing to recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, NK cells, B cells and T cells. In addition, functional impairment of regulatory T cells paralyzes anti-inflammatory effects in vasculitic disorders. Interestingly, activation of effector memory T cells in uniquely dependent on the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel providing an anchor for specific drug targeting. In this review, we focus on the CD4+ T cells in the context of vascular inflammation and describe the evidence supporting the role of different T cell subsets in vascular inflammation. Selective targeting of pathogenic effector memory T cells might enable a more tailored therapeutic approach that avoids unwanted adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression by modulating the effector functions of T cell responses to inhibit the development of vascular inflammation.

  3. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated...... that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD......8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity....

  4. The effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on immunophenotype, differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory functions of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgholaminejad, Arash; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as cells with potential clinical utilities, have demonstrated preferential incorporation into inflammation sites. Immunophenotype and immunomodulatory functions of MSCs could alter by inflamed-microenvironments due to the local pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu. A major cellular mediator with specific function in promoting inflammation and pathogenicity of autoimmunity are IL-17-producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells that polarize in inflamed sites in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-23. Since MSCs are promising candidate for cell-based therapeutic strategies in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, Th17 cell polarizing factors may alter MSCs phenotype and function. In this study, human bone-marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) were cultured with or without IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 as pro-inflammatory cytokines. The surface markers and their differentiation capacity were measured in cytokine-untreated and cytokine-treated MSCs. MSCs-mediated immunomodulation was analyzed by their regulatory effects on mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and the level of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α production as immunomodulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines showed no effect on MSCs morphology, immunophenotype and co-stimulatory molecules except up-regulation of CD45. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity increased in CD45+ MSCs. Moreover, cytokine-treated MSCs preserved the suppressive ability of allogeneic T cell proliferation and produced higher level of TGF-β and lower level of IL-4. We concluded pro-inflammatory cytokines up-regulate the efficacy of MSCs in cell-based therapy of degenerative, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Patents and innovation in cancer therapeutics: lessons from CellPro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalom, Avital; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction between intellectual property and cancer treatment. CellPro developed a stem cell separation technology based on research at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center. A patent with broad claims to bone marrow stem cell antibodies had been awarded to Johns Hopkins University and licensed to Baxter Healthcare under the 1980 Bayh-Dole Act to promote commercial use of inventions from federally funded research. CellPro got FDA approval more than two years before Baxter but lost patent infringement litigation. NIH elected not to compel Hopkins to license its patents to CellPro. CellPro went out of business, selling its technology to its competitor. Decisions at both firms and university licensing offices, and policies at the Patent and Trademark Office, NIH, and the courts influenced the outcome.

  6. Co-ordinate expression of the pre-T-cell receptor complex and a novel immature thymocyte-specific antigen, IMT-1, during thymocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, J J; Kishi, H; Nagata, T; Muraguchi, A

    1999-01-01

    Previously we described a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that reacted with a cell-surface antigen, immature thymocyte antigen-1 (IMT-1), which is expressed on thymocytes of late CD4- CD8- (double negative) to early CD4+ CD8+ (double positive) differentiation stages. In this study, we investigated the expression of IMT-1 on various cell lineages in thymus as well as in peripheral lymphoid organs. We found that IMT-1 is expressed on T-cell receptor (TCR)-betalo and TCR-deltalo thymocytes, but not on TCR-betahi, TCR-deltahi or natural killer (NK)1.1+ thymocytes, or on peripheral alpha beta or gamma delta T cells. We also investigated the kinetics of expression of IMT-1 during fetal thymocyte development and compared it with the expression of the pre-TCR complex, comprising CD3, pre-TCR-alpha (pTalpha) and TCR-beta. We found that expression of both was similar, starting at day 14.5 of gestation, peaking on day 16.5 and gradually decreasing thereafter. Furthermore, the expression of both IMT-1 and pTalpha was drastically reduced when DN thymocytes in recombination activating gene (RAG)-2-/- mice were challenged in vivo with anti-CD3 mAb. These results indicate that IMT-1 is expressed on not only immature thymocytes of alpha beta T-cell lineage but also on those of gamma delta T-cell lineage, and that the expression of IMT-1 and the pre-TCR complex is co-ordinately regulated during the alpha beta lineage thymocyte development.

  7. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  8. Circulating CXCR5+CD4+ T cells assist in the survival and growth of primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells through interleukin 10 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Zhanshan [Department of Transfusion, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qian, Guangfang [Department of Endocrinology, Zhangqiu Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhangqiu, Shandong 250200 (China); Zang, Yan; Gu, Haihui; Huang, Yanyan; Zhu, Lishuang; Li, Jinqi; Liu, Yang; Tu, Xiaohua [Department of Transfusion, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Haihan [Emergency Center, East Hospital, Shanghai 200120 (China); Qian, Baohua, E-mail: qianbhl963@163.com [Department of Transfusion, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and aggressive cancer caused by the malignant transformation of B cells. Although it has been established that the follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play a central role in B cell development, little information is available on their involvement in DLBCL pathogenesis. We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh equivalent, the CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cells, in DLBCL. Data showed that compared to CXCR5{sup -} CD4{sup +} T cells, CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cells were significantly more effective at promoting the proliferation as well as inhibiting the apoptosis of primary autologous DLBCL tumor cells. Surprisingly, we found that at equal cell numbers, CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cells in DLBCL patients secreted significantly less interleukin (IL)-21 than CXCR5{sup -} CD4{sup +} T cells, while the level of IL-10 secretion was significant elevated in the CXCR5{sup +} compartment compared to the CXCR5{sup -} compartment. Neutralization of IL-10 in the primary DLBCL-CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cell coculture compromised the CXCR5{sup +} CD4{sup +} T cell-mediated pro-tumor effects, in a manner that was dependent on the concentration of anti-IL-10 antibodies. The CXCR5{sup +} compartment also contained significantly lower frequencies of cytotoxic CD4{sup +} T cells than the CXCR5{sup -} compartment. In conclusion, our investigations discovered a previously unknown pro-tumor role of CXCR5-expressing circulating CD4{sup +} T cells, which assisted the survival and proliferation of primary DLBCL cells through IL-10. - Highlights: • We studied the role of the peripheral Tfh in DLBCL. • Tfh were effective at promoting the proliferation of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • Tfh were effective at inhibiting the apoptosis of primary DLBCL tumor cells. • IL-10 secretion in Tfh was significant elevated in DLBCL. • Neutralization of IL-10 compromised Tfh-mediated pro-tumor effects.

  9. Cell-Intrinsic Roles for Autophagy in Modulating CD4 T Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Jacquin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The catabolic process of autophagy plays important functions in inflammatory and immune responses by modulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade, a cell-intrinsic role for autophagy in modulating CD4 T cell functions and differentiation was revealed. After the initial observation of autophagosomes in effector CD4 T cells, further work has shown that not only autophagy levels are modulated in CD4 T cells in response to environmental signals but also that autophagy critically affects the biology of these cells. Mouse models of autophagy deletion in CD4 T cells have indeed shown that autophagy is essential for CD4 T cell survival and homeostasis in peripheral lymphoid organs. Furthermore, autophagy is required for CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine production in response to T cell receptor activation. Recent developments have uncovered that autophagy controls CD4 T cell differentiation and functions. While autophagy is required for the maintenance of immunosuppressive functions of regulatory T cells, it restrains the differentiation of TH9 effector cells, thus limiting their antitumor and pro-inflammatory properties. We will here discuss these findings that collectively suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting autophagy could be exploited for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  10. IL-7 and CCL19 expression in CAR-T cells improves immune cell infiltration and CAR-T cell survival in the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Keishi; Kano, Yosuke; Nagai, Tomohiko; Okuyama, Namiko; Sakoda, Yukimi; Tamada, Koji

    2018-04-01

    Infiltration, accumulation, and survival of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells in solid tumors is crucial for tumor clearance. We engineered CAR-T cells to express interleukin (IL)-7 and CCL19 (7 × 19 CAR-T cells), as these factors are essential for the maintenance of T-cell zones in lymphoid organs. In mice, 7 × 19 CAR-T cells achieved complete regression of pre-established solid tumors and prolonged mouse survival, with superior anti-tumor activity compared to conventional CAR-T cells. Histopathological analyses showed increased infiltration of dendritic cells (DC) and T cells into tumor tissues following 7 × 19 CAR-T cell therapy. Depletion of recipient T cells before 7 × 19 CAR-T cell administration dampened the therapeutic effects of 7 × 19 CAR-T cell treatment, suggesting that CAR-T cells and recipient immune cells collaborated to exert anti-tumor activity. Following treatment of mice with 7 × 19 CAR-T cells, both recipient conventional T cells and administered CAR-T cells generated memory responses against tumors.

  11. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abildgaard Steffensen

    Full Text Available Adenoviral vectors have shown a great potential for vaccine development due to their inherent ability to induce potent and protective CD8 T-cell responses. However, a critical issue regarding the use of these vectors is the existence of inhibitory immunity against the most commonly used Ad5 vector in a large part of the human population. We have recently developed an improved adenoviral vaccine vector system in which the vector expresses the transgene tethered to the MHC class II associated invariant chain (Ii. To further evaluate the potential of this system, the concept of pre-existing inhibitory immunity to adenoviral vectors was revisited to investigate whether the inhibition previously seen with the Ad5 vector also applied to the optimized vector system. We found this to be the case, and antibodies dominated as the mechanism underlying inhibitory vector immunity. However, presence of CD8 T cells directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity.

  12. Cognate antigen stimulation generates potent CD8+ inflammatory effector T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Cheng eSung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory reactions are believed to be triggered by innate signals and have a major protective role by recruiting innate immunity cells, favoring lymphocyte activation and differentiation, and thus contributing to the sequestration and elimination of the injurious stimuli. Although certain lymphocyte types such as TH17 cells co-participate in inflammatory reactions, their generation from the naïve pool requires the pre-existence of an inflammatory milieu. In this context, inflammation is always regarded as beginning with an innate response that may be eventually perpetuated and amplified by certain lymphocyte types. In contrast, we here show that even in sterile immunizations or in MyD88 deficient mice, CD8 T cells produce a burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These functions follow opposite rules to the classic CD8 effector functions since they are generated prior to cell expansion and decline before antigen elimination. As few as 56 CD8+ inflammatory effector cells in a lymph node can mobilize 107 cells in 24h, including lymphocytes, natural killer cells and several accessory cell types involved in inflammatory reactions. Thus, although inflammation modulates cognate responses, CD8 cognate responses also initiate local inflammatory reactions.

  13. Troponin T and N-terminal pro B-Type natriuretic peptide and presence of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette R; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Carlsen, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the effects of exercise intensity, sampling intervals, degree of coronary artery stenosis, and demographic factors on circulating N-terminal pro B-Type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in subjects suspected of coronary artery disease (CAD). MATE...... = 0.4067 p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline cTnT and ΔcTnT were found to be independently associated with CAD and also with exercise intensity in stable chest pain subjects. These properties were not identified for NT-pro-BNP....

  14. ONC201 selectively induces apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells via activating pro-apoptotic integrated stress response and inactivating JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiao; Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Cheng-Hui; Langridge, Timothy; Tarapore, Rohinton S; Allen, Joshua E; Oster, Wolfgang; Duvic, Madeleine

    2017-09-22

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are extremely symptomatic and still incurable, and more effective and less toxic therapies are urgently needed. ONC201, an imipridone compound, has shown efficacy in pre-clinical studies in multiple advanced cancers. This study was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of ONC201 on CTCL cells. The effect of ONC201 on the cell growth and apoptosis were evaluated in CTCL cell lines (n=8) and primary CD4 + malignant T cells isolated from CTCL patients (n=5). ONC201 showed a time-dependent cell growth inhibition in all treated cell lines with a concentration range of 1.25-10.0 μM. ONC201 also induced apoptosis in tested cells with a narrow concentration range of 2.5-10.0 μM, evidenced by increased Annexin V + cells, accompanied by accumulated sub-G1 portions. ONC201 only induced apoptosis in CD4 + malignant T cells, not in normal CD4 + T cells. The activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a hallmark of integrated stress response, was upregulated in response to ONC201 whereas Akt was downregulated. In addition, molecules in JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways, as well as IL-32β, were downregulated following ONC201 treatment. Thus, ONC201 exerts a potent and selective anti-tumor effect on CTCL cells. Its efficacy may involve activating integrated stress response through ATF4 and inactivating JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways.

  15. Pre-treatment with α-tocopherol and Terminalia arjuna ameliorates, pro-inflammatory cytokines, cardiac and apoptotic markers in myocardial infracted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Santosh K; Sharma, Suman B; Singh, Usha R

    2015-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of combination of T. arjuna and α-tocopherol in isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. Wistar albino rats were pre-treated with hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (HETA) and α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg b. w) daily for 30 days. Isoproterenol (ISP, 85 mg/kg b.w) was administered on 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 hr. ISP treated rats showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA), cardiac markers (CK-MB, SGOT, Trop I and LDH), pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, CRP, TNF-α) levels and apoptotic markers (Bcl-2/Bax) as compared to healthy group. Pre-treatment with HETA 100 mg/kg b. w, reduced the elevated levels of these markers and significant effect (ppresent study concluded that the combination of α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg b. w) and hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (100 mg/kg b. w) augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from ISP-induced myocardial injury and it may have therapeutic and prophylactic value in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  16. Differential responses of human regulatory T cells (Treg and effector T cells to rapamycin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Strauss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressive drug rapamycin (RAPA promotes the expansion of CD4(+ CD25(highFoxp3(+ regulatory T cells via mechanisms that remain unknown. Here, we studied expansion, IL-2R-gamma chain signaling, survival pathways and resistance to apoptosis in human Treg responding to RAPA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CD4(+CD25(+ and CD4(+CD25(neg T cells were isolated from PBMC of normal controls (n = 21 using AutoMACS. These T cell subsets were cultured in the presence of anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies and 1000 IU/mL IL-2 for 3 to 6 weeks. RAPA (1-100 nM was added to half of the cultures. After harvest, the cell phenotype, signaling via the PI3K/mTOR and STAT pathways, expression of survival proteins and Annexin V binding were determined and compared to values obtained with freshly-separated CD4(+CD25(high and CD4(+CD25(neg T cells. Suppressor function was tested in co-cultures with autologous CFSE-labeled CD4(+CD25(neg or CD8(+CD25(neg T-cell responders. The frequency and suppressor activity of Treg were increased after culture of CD4(+CD25(+ T cells in the presence of 1-100 nM RAPA (p<0.001. RAPA-expanded Treg were largely CD4(+CD25(highFoxp3(+ cells and were resistant to apoptosis, while CD4(+CD25(neg T cells were sensitive. Only Treg upregulated anti-apoptotic and down-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins. Treg expressed higher levels of the PTEN protein than CD4(+CD25(neg cells. Activated Treg+/-RAPA preferentially phosphorylated STAT5 and STAT3 and did not utilize the PI3K/mTOR pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RAPA favors Treg expansion and survival by differentially regulating signaling, proliferation and sensitivity to apoptosis of human effector T cells and Treg after TCR/IL-2 activation.

  17. Antigen-specific tolerance inhibits autoimmune uveitis in pre-sensitized animals by deletion and CD4+CD25+ T-regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Bharati; Jha, Purushottam; Bora, Puran S; Bora, Nalini S

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to inhibit experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis (EAAU) by establishing antigen-specific immune tolerance in animals pre-sensitized with melanin-associated antigen (MAA). Intravenous administration of MAA on days 6, 7, 8 and 9 post-immunization induced tolerance and inhibited EAAU in all Lewis rats. The number of cells (total T cells, CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells) undergoing apoptosis dramatically increased in the popliteal lymph nodes (LNs) of the tolerized animals compared with non-tolerized animals. In addition, Fas ligand (FasL), TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and caspase-8 were upregulated in tolerized rats. Proliferation of total lymphocytes, CD4(+)T cells and CD8(+) T cells (harvested from the popliteal LNs) in response to antigenic stimulation was drastically reduced in the state of tolerance compared with the cells from non-tolerized animals. The level of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-2 decreased, whereas TGF-beta2 was elevated in the state of tolerance. Furthermore, the number of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) increased in the popliteal LNs of tolerized animals compared with non-tolerized animals. In conclusion, our results suggest that deletion of antigen-specific T cells by apoptosis and active suppression mediated by Tregs has an important role in the induction of antigen specific immune tolerance in animals with an established immune response against MAA.

  18. Antigen-specific T cell activation independently of the MHC: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-redirected T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrich eAbken

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T cell therapy has recently shown powerful in initiating a lasting anti-tumor response with spectacular therapeutic success in some cases. Specific T cell therapy, however, is limited since a number of cancer cells are not recognized by T cells due to various mechanisms including the limited availability of tumor-specific T cells and deficiencies in antigen processing or major histocompatibility complex (MHC expression of cancer cells. To make adoptive cell therapy applicable for the broad variety of cancer entities, patient's T cells are engineered ex vivo with pre-defined specificity by a recombinant chimeric antigen receptor (CAR which consists in the extracellular part of an antibody-derived domain for binding with a tumor-associated antigen and in the intracellular part of a TCR-derived signaling moiety for T cell activation. The specificity of CAR mediated T cell recognition is defined by the antibody domain, is independent of MHC presentation and can be extended to any target for which an antibody is available. We discuss the advantages and limitations of MHC-independent T cell targeting by an engineered CAR and review most significant progress recently made in early stage clinical trials to treat cancer.

  19. Proposing alerts for pre and pro-haptens (QSAR2016) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive testing to identify and characterise substances for their skin sensitisation potential has historically been based on animal tests such as the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). In recent years, regulations in the cosmetics and chemicals sectors has provided a strong impetus to develop and evaluate non-animal alternative methods. The 3 test methods that have undergone extensive development and validation are the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSensTM and the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). Whilst these methods have been shown to perform relatively well in predicting LLNA results (accuracy ~ 80%), a particular concern that has been raised is their ability to predict chemicals that need to be activated to act as sensitisers (either abiotically on the skin (pre-hapten) or metabolically in the skin (pro-hapten)). This study reviewed an EURL ECVAM dataset containing 271 substances for which information was available in the LLNA and for one or more of the three non-animal test methods. The chemical structures of the substances were inspected and each assigned to a reaction mechanistic domain. Fifty-three substances were expected to require activation. Plausible reaction pathways were considered for each of the substances from which three structural alerts were hypothesised: autoxidation to hydroperoxides, aromatic ortho and para-diamino or di phenol derivatives, and aromatic meta-diamino/hydroxy derivatives. For each alert, the av

  20. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 All antigens Blood Pro-B cells SRX1553109,SRX15531...3,SRX1143907 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  1. Pro-apoptotic protein Noxa regulates memory T cell population size and protects against lethal immunopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensveen, Felix M.; Klarenbeek, Paul L.; van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.; Pascutti, Maria F.; Derks, Ingrid A. M.; van Schaik, Barbera D. C.; ten Brinke, Anja; de Vries, Niek; Cekinovic, Durdica; Jonjic, Stipan; van Lier, René A. W.; Eldering, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Memory T cells form a highly specific defense layer against reinfection with previously encountered pathogens. In addition, memory T cells provide protection against pathogens that are similar, but not identical to the original infectious agent. This is because each T cell response harbors multiple

  2. Variable Extent of Lineage-Specificity and Developmental Stage-Specificity of Cohesin and CCCTC-Binding Factor Binding Within the Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Loguercio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF is largely responsible for the 3D architecture of the genome, in concert with the action of cohesin, through the creation of long-range chromatin loops. Cohesin is hypothesized to be the main driver of these long-range chromatin interactions by the process of loop extrusion. Here, we performed ChIP-seq for CTCF and cohesin in two stages each of T and B cell differentiation and examined the binding pattern in all six antigen receptor (AgR loci in these lymphocyte progenitors and in mature T and B cells, ES cells, and fibroblasts. The four large AgR loci have many bound CTCF sites, most of which are only occupied in lymphocytes, while only the CTCF sites at the end of each locus near the enhancers or J genes tend to be bound in non-lymphoid cells also. However, despite the generalized lymphocyte restriction of CTCF binding in AgR loci, the Igκ locus is the only locus that also shows significant lineage-specificity (T vs. B cells and developmental stage-specificity (pre-B vs. pro-B in CTCF binding. We show that cohesin binding shows greater lineage- and stage-specificity than CTCF at most AgR loci, providing more specificity to the loops. We also show that the culture of pro-B cells in IL7, a common practice to expand the number of cells before ChIP-seq, results in a CTCF-binding pattern resembling pre-B cells, as well as other epigenetic and transcriptional characteristics of pre-B cells. Analysis of the orientation of the CTCF sites show that all sites within the large V portions of the Igh and TCRβ loci have the same orientation. This suggests either a lack of requirement for convergent CTCF sites creating loops, or indicates an absence of any loops between CTCF sites within the V region portion of those loci but only loops to the convergent sites at the D-J-enhancer end of each locus. The V region portions of the Igκ and TCRα/δ loci, by contrast, have CTCF sites in both orientations, providing many options for

  3. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 Histone Blood Pro-B cells SRX668836,SRX1184113,SRX...09,SRX759800,SRX1143916,SRX1143902 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 Histone Blood Pro-B cells SRX668836,SRX1184113,SRX...9,SRX1143910,SRX1143916,SRX1143902 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  5. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipids induce hepatic NKT cells deficiency through activation-induced cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongfang Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD through alternation of liver innate immune response. AIMS: The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. METHODS: Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. RESULTS: High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. CONCLUSION: High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD.

  6. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipids induce hepatic NKT cells deficiency through activation-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tongfang; Sui, Yongheng; Lian, Min; Li, Zhiping; Hua, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through alternation of liver innate immune response. The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD.

  7. SENIEUR status of the originating cell donor negates certain 'anti-immunosenescence' effects of ebselen and N-acetyl cysteine in human T cell clone cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthandan, Shiva; Freeburn, Robin; Steinbrecht, Susanne; Pawelec, Graham; Barnett, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Damage to T cells of the immune system by reactive oxygen species may result in altered cell function or cell death and thereby potentially impact upon the efficacy of a subsequent immune response. Here, we assess the impact of the antioxidants Ebselen and N-acetyl cysteine on a range of biological markers in human T cells derived from a SENIEUR status donor. In addition, the impact of these antioxidants on different MAP kinase pathways in T cells from donors of different ages was also examined. T cell clones were derived from healthy 26, 45 and SENIEUR status 80 year old people and the impact of titrated concentrations of Ebselen or N-acetyl cysteine on their proliferation and in vitro lifespan, GSH:GSSG ratio as well as levels of oxidative DNA damage and on MAP kinase signaling pathways was examined. In this investigation neither Ebselen nor N-acetyl cysteine supplementation had any impact on the biological endpoints examined in the T cells derived from the SENIEUR status 80 year old donor. This is in contrast to the anti-immunosenescent effects of these antioxidants on T cells from donors of 26 or 45 years of age. The analysis of MAP kinases showed that pro-apoptotic pathways become activated in T cells with increasing in vitro age and that Ebselen or N-acetyl cysteine could decrease activation (phosphorylation) in T cells from 26 or 45 year old donors, but not from the SENIEUR status 80 year old donor. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the biological phenotype of SENIEUR status derived human T cells negates the anti-immunosenescence effects of Ebselen and also N-acetyl cysteine. The results highlight the importance of pre-antioxidant intervention evaluation to determine risk-benefit.

  8. Inhibition of IL-17A suppresses enhanced-tumor growth in low dose pre-irradiated tumor beds.

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    Eun-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation induces modification of the tumor microenvironment such as tumor surrounding region, which is relevant to treatment outcome after radiotherapy. In this study, the effects of pre-irradiated tumor beds on the growth of subsequently implanted tumors were investigated as well as underlying mechanism. The experimental model was set up by irradiating the right thighs of C3H/HeN mice with 5 Gy, followed by the implantation of HCa-I and MIH-2. Both implanted tumors in the pre-irradiated bed showed accelerated-growth compared to the control. Tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte (TIL levels were increased, as well as pro-tumor factors such as IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 in the pre-irradiated group. In particular, the role of pro-tumor cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A was investigated as a possible target mechanism because IL-6 and TGF-β are key factors in Th17 cells differentiation from naïve T cells. IL-17A expression was increased not only in tumors, but also in CD4+ T cells isolated from the tumor draining lymph nodes. The effect of IL-17A on tumor growth was confirmed by treating tumors with IL-17A antibody, which abolished the acceleration of tumor growth. These results indicate that the upregulation of IL-17A seems to be a key factor for enhancing tumor growth in pre-irradiated tumor beds.

  9. NT-proBNP and troponin T levels differ after haemodialysis with a low versus high flux membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Laveborn, Emilie; Lindmark, Krister; Skagerlind, Malin; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP), and high sensitive cardiac troponin T (TnT) are markers that are elevated in chronic kidney disease and correlate with increased risk of mortality. Data are conflicting on the effect of biomarker levels by hemodialysis (HD).Our aim was to clarify to what extent HD with low-flux (LF) versus high-flux (HF) membranes affects the plasma levels of BNP, NT-proBNP, and TnT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 31 HD patients were included...

  10. Cysteine Cathepsins as Regulators of the Cytotoxicity of NK and T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perišić Nanut, Milica; Sabotič, Jerica; Jewett, Anahid; Kos, Janko

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are lysosomal peptidases involved at different levels in the processes of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Some, such as cathepsins B, L, and H are expressed constitutively in most immune cells. In cells of innate immunity they play a role in cell adhesion and phagocytosis. Other cysteine cathepsins are expressed more specifically. Cathepsin X promotes dendritic cell maturation, adhesion of macrophages, and migration of T cells. Cathepsin S is implicated in major histocompatibility complex class II antigen presentation, whereas cathepsin C, expressed in cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, is involved in processing pro-granzymes into proteolytically active forms, which trigger cell death in their target cells. The activity of cysteine cathepsins is controlled by endogenous cystatins, cysteine protease inhibitors. Of these, cystatin F is the only cystatin that is localized in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles. After proteolytic removal of its N-terminal peptide, cystatin F becomes a potent inhibitor of cathepsin C with the potential to regulate pro-granzyme processing and cell cytotoxicity. This review is focused on the role of cysteine cathepsins and their inhibitors in the molecular mechanisms leading to the cytotoxic activity of T lymphocytes and NK cells in order to address new possibilities for regulation of their function in pathological processes. PMID:25520721

  11. Liver restores immune homeostasis after local inflammation despite the presence of autoreactive T cells.

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    Kathie Béland

    Full Text Available The liver must keep equilibrium between immune tolerance and immunity in order to protect itself from pathogens while maintaining tolerance to food antigens. An imbalance between these two states could result in an inflammatory liver disease. The aims of this study were to identify factors responsible for a break of tolerance and characterize the subsequent restoration of liver immune homeostasis. A pro-inflammatory environment was created in the liver by the co-administration of TLR ligands CpG and Poly(I:C in presence or absence of activated liver-specific autoreactive CD8(+ T cells. Regardless of autoreactive CD8(+ T cells, mice injected with CpG and Poly(I:C showed elevated serum ALT levels and a transient liver inflammation. Both CpG/Poly(I:C and autoreactive CD8(+T cells induced expression of TLR9 and INF-γ by the liver, and an up-regulation of homing and adhesion molecules CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL16, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Transferred CFSE-labeled autoreactive CD8(+ T cells, in presence of TLR3 and 9 ligands, were recruited by the liver and spleen and proliferated. This population then contracted by apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Up-regulation of FasL and PD-L1 in the liver was observed. In conclusion, TLR-mediated activation of the innate immune system results in a pro-inflammatory environment that promotes the recruitment of lymphocytes resulting in bystander hepatitis. Despite this pro-inflammatory environment, the presence of autoreactive CD8(+ T cells is not sufficient to sustain an autoimmune response against the liver and immune homeostasis is rapidly restored through the apoptosis of T cells.

  12. Liver restores immune homeostasis after local inflammation despite the presence of autoreactive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Kathie; Lapierre, Pascal; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Alvarez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The liver must keep equilibrium between immune tolerance and immunity in order to protect itself from pathogens while maintaining tolerance to food antigens. An imbalance between these two states could result in an inflammatory liver disease. The aims of this study were to identify factors responsible for a break of tolerance and characterize the subsequent restoration of liver immune homeostasis. A pro-inflammatory environment was created in the liver by the co-administration of TLR ligands CpG and Poly(I:C) in presence or absence of activated liver-specific autoreactive CD8(+) T cells. Regardless of autoreactive CD8(+) T cells, mice injected with CpG and Poly(I:C) showed elevated serum ALT levels and a transient liver inflammation. Both CpG/Poly(I:C) and autoreactive CD8(+)T cells induced expression of TLR9 and INF-γ by the liver, and an up-regulation of homing and adhesion molecules CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL16, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Transferred CFSE-labeled autoreactive CD8(+) T cells, in presence of TLR3 and 9 ligands, were recruited by the liver and spleen and proliferated. This population then contracted by apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Up-regulation of FasL and PD-L1 in the liver was observed. In conclusion, TLR-mediated activation of the innate immune system results in a pro-inflammatory environment that promotes the recruitment of lymphocytes resulting in bystander hepatitis. Despite this pro-inflammatory environment, the presence of autoreactive CD8(+) T cells is not sufficient to sustain an autoimmune response against the liver and immune homeostasis is rapidly restored through the apoptosis of T cells.

  13. RNase MRP cleaves pre-tRNASer-Met in the tRNA maturation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuichiro; Takeda, Jun; Adachi, Kousuke; Nobe, Yuko; Kobayashi, Junya; Hirota, Kouji; Oliveira, Douglas V; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP) is a multifunctional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that is involved in the maturation of various types of RNA including ribosomal RNA. RNase MRP consists of a potential catalytic RNA and several protein components, all of which are required for cell viability. We show here that the temperature-sensitive mutant of rmp1, the gene for a unique protein component of RNase MRP, accumulates the dimeric tRNA precursor, pre-tRNA(Ser-Met). To examine whether RNase MRP mediates tRNA maturation, we purified the RNase MRP holoenzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found that the enzyme directly and selectively cleaves pre-tRNA(Ser-Met), suggesting that RNase MRP participates in the maturation of specific tRNA in vivo. In addition, mass spectrometry-based ribonucleoproteomic analysis demonstrated that this RNase MRP consists of one RNA molecule and 11 protein components, including a previously unknown component Rpl701. Notably, limited nucleolysis of RNase MRP generated an active catalytic core consisting of partial mrp1 RNA fragments, which constitute "Domain 1" in the secondary structure of RNase MRP, and 8 proteins. Thus, the present study provides new insight into the structure and function of RNase MRP.

  14. Proline oxidase silencing induces proline-dependent pro-survival pathways in MCF-7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Ilona; Celinska-Janowicz, Katarzyna; Surazynski, Arkadiusz; Miltyk, Wojciech; Palka, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Proline degradation by proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) contributes to apoptosis or autophagy. The identification of specific pathway of apoptosis/survival regulation is the aim of this study. We generated knocked-down PRODH/POX MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7shPRODH/POX). PRODH/POX silencing did not affect cell viability. However, it contributed to decrease in DNA and collagen biosynthesis, increase in prolidase activity and intracellular proline concentration as well as increase in the expression of iNOS, NF-κB, mTOR, HIF-1α, COX-2, AMPK, Atg7 and Beclin-1 in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. In these cells, glycyl-proline (GlyPro, substrate for prolidase) further inhibited DNA and collagen biosynthesis, maintained high prolidase activity, intracellular concentration of proline and up-regulated HIF-1α, AMPK, Atg7 and Beclin-1, compared to GlyPro-treated MCF-7 cells. In MCF-7 cells, GlyPro increased collagen biosynthesis, concentration of proline and expression of caspase-3, cleaved caspases -3 and -9, iNOS, NF-κB, COX-2 and AMPKβ. PRODH/POX knock-down contributed to pro-survival autophagy pathways in MCF-7 cells and GlyPro-derived proline augmented this process. However, GlyPro induced apoptosis in PRODH/POX-expressing MCF-7 cells as detected by up-regulation of active caspases -3 and -9. The data suggest that PRODH/POX silencing induces autophagy in MCF-7 cells and GlyPro-derived proline supports this process. PMID:29568391

  15. T-Cadherin Expression in Melanoma Cells Stimulates Stromal Cell Recruitment and Invasion by Regulating the Expression of Chemokines, Integrins and Adhesion Molecules

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    Kseniya A. Rubina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available T-cadherin is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored member of the cadherin superfamily involved in the guidance of migrating cells. We have previously shown that in vivo T-cadherin overexpression leads to increased melanoma primary tumor growth due to the recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as the enhanced metastasis. Since tumor progression is highly dependent upon cell migration and invasion, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of T-cadherin participation in these processes. Herein we show that T-cadherin expression results in the increased invasive potential due to the upregulated expression of pro-oncogenic integrins, chemokines, adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components. The detected increase in chemokine expression could be responsible for the stromal cell recruitment. At the same time our previous data demonstrated that T-cadherin expression inhibited neoangiogenesis in the primary tumors. We demonstrate molecules and reduction in pro-angiogenic factors. Thus, T-cadherin plays a dual role in melanoma growth and progression: T-cadherin expression results in anti-angiogenic effects in melanoma, however, this also stimulates transcription of genes responsible for migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

  16. Distinctive in vitro effects of T-cell growth cytokines on cytomegalovirus-stimulated T-cell responses of HIV-infected HAART recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Julie; Jesser, Renee; Weinberg, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Functional immune reconstitution is limited after HAART, maintaining the interest in adjunctive immune-modulators. We compared in vitro the effects of the γ-chain T-cell growth cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-7 and IL-15 on cytomegalovirus-stimulated cell-mediated immunity. IL-2 and IL-15 increased cytomegalovirus-specific lymphocyte proliferation in HAART recipients, whereas IL-4 and IL-7 did not. The boosting effect of IL-2 and IL-15 on proliferation correlated with their ability to prevent late apoptosis. However, IL-2 increased the frequency of cells in early apoptosis, whereas IL-15 increased the frequency of fully viable cells. Both IL-2 and IL-15 increased cytomegalovirus-induced CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell proliferation and the synthesis of Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, only IL-2 increased the frequency of regulatory T cells and Th2 cytokine production, both of which have the potential to attenuate antiviral immune responses. Overall, compared to other γ-chain cytokines, IL-15 had the most favorable profile for boosting antiviral cell-mediated immunity

  17. Loss of a Single Mcl-1 Allele Inhibits MYC-Driven Lymphomagenesis by Sensitizing Pro-B Cells to Apoptosis

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    Stephanie Grabow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MCL-1 is critical for progenitor cell survival during emergency hematopoiesis, but its role in sustaining cells undergoing transformation and in lymphomagenesis is only poorly understood. We investigated the importance of MCL-1 in the survival of B lymphoid progenitors undergoing MYC-driven transformation and its functional interactions with pro-apoptotic BIM and PUMA and the tumor suppressor p53 in lymphoma development. Loss of one Mcl-1 allele almost abrogated MYC-driven-lymphoma development owing to a reduction in lymphoma initiating pre-B cells. Although loss of the p53 target PUMA had minor impact, loss of one p53 allele substantially accelerated lymphoma development when MCL-1 was limiting, most likely because p53 loss also causes defects in non-apoptotic tumor suppressive processes. Remarkably, loss of BIM restored the survival of lymphoma initiating cells and rate of tumor development. Thus, MCL-1 has a major role in lymphoma initiating pro-B cells to oppose BIM, which is upregulated in response to oncogenic stress.

  18. Cell death by pyroptosis drives CD4 T-cell depletion in HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doitsh, Gilad; Galloway, Nicole L. K.; Geng, Xin; Yang, Zhiyuan; Monroe, Kathryn M.; Zepeda, Orlando; Hunt, Peter W.; Hatano, Hiroyu; Sowinski, Stefanie; Muñoz-Arias, Isa; Greene, Warner C.

    2014-01-01

    The pathway causing CD4 T-cell death in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood although apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism. We now show that caspase-3-mediated apoptosis accounts for the death of only a small fraction of CD4 T cells corresponding to those that are both activated and productively infected. The remaining over 95% of quiescent lymphoid CD4 T cells die by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis triggered by abortive viral infection. Pyroptosis corresponds to an intensely inflammatory form of programmed cell death in which cytoplasmic contents and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, are released. This death pathway thus links the two signature events in HIV infection--CD4 T-cell depletion and chronic inflammation--and creates a pathogenic vicious cycle in which dying CD4 T cells release inflammatory signals that attract more cells to die. This cycle can be broken by caspase 1 inhibitors shown to be safe in humans, raising the possibility of a new class of `anti-AIDS' therapeutics targeting the host rather than the virus.

  19. Senescent T-Cells Promote Bone Loss in Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Johannes Fessler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveT-cells are critical players in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Premature senescence of lymphocytes including the accumulation of senescent CD4+ T-cells is a hallmark feature of RA. Whether T-cell senescence is associated with bone loss in RA patients is elusive so far.MethodsThis includes a prospective study of consecutive patients with RA (n = 107, patients with primary osteopenia/-porosis (n = 75, and healthy individuals (n = 38. Bone mineral density (BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Flow cytometry, magnetic-associated cell sorting, and cell culture experiments were performed to analyze the pro-osteoclastic phenotype and the function of senescent CD4+CD28− T-cells.ResultsPatients with osteopenia/-porosis yielded a higher prevalence of senescent CD4+CD28− T-cells than individuals with normal BMD, in the RA, as well as in the non-RA cohort. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL was expressed at higher levels on CD4+CD28− T-cells as compared to CD28+ T-cells. Stimulation with interleukin-15 led to an up-regulation of RANKL expression, particularly on CD28− T-cells. CD4+CD28− T-cells induced osteoclastogenesis more efficiently than CD28+ T-cells.ConclusionOur data indicate that senescent T-cells promote osteoclastogenesis more efficiently than conventional CD28+ T-cells, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic bone loss in RA and primary osteoporosis.

  20. Stimulation with Concanavalin-A Induces IL-17 Production by Canine Peripheral T Cells

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    Michelle G. Ritt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of canine IL-17-producing cells are incompletely understood. Expression of mRNA encoding orthologs of IL-17 and the IL-17 receptor has been documented in tissues from dogs with arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and lymphoma; however, no associations have been found between IL-17 gene expression and disease phenotype in these conditions. Robust assessment of the role of IL-17-producing cells in dogs will require measuring the frequency of these cells in health and disease in balance with other lymphocyte subsets. The aim of this study was to confirm that the T-cell IL-17 response in dogs is evolutionarily conserved. Canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with Concanavalin A with or without polarizing cytokines. We used a canine specific IL-17 ELISA and flow cytometry to identify IL-17-producing T cells. Accumulation of intracellular IL-17 was observed in stimulated CD4 and CD8 T cells. The addition of pro-inflammatory cytokines appeared to enhance polarization of canine CD4 T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Conversely, the addition of IL-2 in the presence of TGF-β resulted in expansion of Treg cells. We conclude that canine IL-17-producing cells behave similarly to those from humans and mice when stimulated with mitogens and polarized with pro-inflammatory or immune regulatory cytokines.

  1. Human Langerhans Cells with Pro-inflammatory Features Relocate within Psoriasis Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsmo, Liv; Martini, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease that presents with well-demarcated patches of inflammation. Recurrent disease in fixed areas of the skin indicates a localized disease memory that is preserved in resolved lesions. In line with such concept, the involvement of tissue-resident immune cells in psoriasis pathology is increasingly appreciated. Langerhans cells (LCs) are perfectly placed to steer resident T cells and local tissue responses in psoriasis. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge of LCs in human psoriasis, including findings that highlight pro-inflammatory features of LCs in psoriasis lesions. We also review the literature on conflicting data regarding LC localization and functionality in psoriasis. Our review highlights that further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that drive LCs functionality in inflammatory diseases. PMID:29520279

  2. Immunosuppression after Sepsis: Systemic Inflammation and Sepsis Induce a Loss of Naïve T-Cells but No Enduring Cell-Autonomous Defects in T-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwart, Robby; Condotta, Stephanie A.; Requardt, Robert P.; Borken, Farina; Schubert, Katja; Weigel, Cynthia; Bauer, Michael; Griffith, Thomas S.; Förster, Martin; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Rubio, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis describes the life-threatening systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) of an organism to an infection and is the leading cause of mortality on intensive care units (ICU) worldwide. An acute episode of sepsis is characterized by the extensive release of cytokines and other mediators resulting in a dysregulated immune response leading to organ damage and/or death. This initial pro-inflammatory burst often transits into a state of immune suppression characterised by loss of immune cells and T-cell dysfunction at later disease stages in sepsis survivors. However, despite these appreciations, the precise nature of the evoked defect in T-cell immunity in post-acute phases of SIRS remains unknown. Here we present an in-depth functional analysis of T-cell function in post-acute SIRS/sepsis. We document that T-cell function is not compromised on a per cell basis in experimental rodent models of infection-free SIRS (LPS or CpG) or septic peritonitis. Transgenic antigen-specific T-cells feature an unaltered cytokine response if challenged in vivo and ex vivo with cognate antigens. Isolated CD4+/CD8+ T-cells from post-acute septic animals do not exhibit defects in T-cell receptor-mediated activation at the the level of receptor-proximal signalling, activation marker upregulation or expansion. However, SIRS/sepsis induced transient lymphopenia and gave rise to an environment of immune attenuation at post acute disease stages. Thus, systemic inflammation has an acute impact on T-cell numbers and adaptive immunity, but does not cause major cell-autonomous enduring functional defects in T-cells. PMID:25541945

  3. Antigen presenting cells costimulatory signaling during pre-implantation pregnancy 

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    Anna Sławek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Success of pregnancy depends on many factors. Three phenomena inducing immune tolerance against semi-allogeneic conceptus may play a crucial role in the pre-implantation period of pregnancy: influence of sex hormones in sex cycle, presence of oocyte or embryo and the presence of semen in the female reproductive tract. On the other hand dendritic cells are the most effective antigen-presenting cells in regulation of immune phenomena and also are considered as potent participants in inducing immune tolerance in the pregnancy. They communicate with T cells in cell contact-dependent manner or via cytokines. During cell-cell contacts, costimulatory molecules play a key role and their expression is often dependent on cytokines milieu. Both costimulatory molecules and cytokines influence generation of T regulatory cells. Interactions of these molecules are closely related. In this paper we would like to pay attention to the importance of antigen presenting cells costimulatory potency in immune regulation during a pre-implantation period of pregnancy.

  4. File list: NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 No description Blood Pro-B cells SRX1553109,SRX155...3108,SRX1553107,SRX1553110 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 No description Blood Pro-B cells SRX1553109,SRX155...3108,SRX1553107,SRX1553110 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  6. Synovial CD4+ T-cell-derived GM-CSF supports the differentiation of an inflammatory dendritic cell population in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G; Gibbon, J R; Pratt, A G; Wood, M J; Coady, D; Raftery, G; Lorenzi, A R; Gray, A; Filer, A; Buckley, C D; Haniffa, M A; Isaacs, J D; Hilkens, C M U

    2016-01-01

    Objective A population of synovial inflammatory dendritic cells (infDCs) has recently been identified in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is thought to be monocyte-derived. Here, we investigated the role and source of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the differentiation of synovial infDC in RA. Methods Production of GM-CSF by peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) CD4+ T cells was assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry. In vitro CD4+ T-cell polarisation experiments were performed with T-cell activating CD2/CD3/CD28-coated beads in the absence or presence of pro-Th1 or pro-Th17 cytokines. CD1c+ DC and CD16+ macrophage subsets were flow-sorted and analysed morphologically and functionally (T-cell stimulatory/polarising capacity). Results RA-SF CD4+ T cells produced abundant GM-CSF upon stimulation and significantly more than RA-SF mononuclear cells depleted of CD4+ T cells. GM-CSF-producing T cells were significantly increased in RA-SF compared with non-RA inflammatory arthritis SF, active RA PB and healthy donor PB. GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells were expanded by Th1-promoting but not Th17-promoting conditions. Following coculture with RA-SF CD4+ T cells, but not healthy donor PB CD4+ T cells, a subpopulation of monocytes differentiated into CD1c+ infDC; a process dependent on GM-CSF. These infDC displayed potent alloproliferative capacity and enhanced GM-CSF, interleukin-17 and interferon-γ production by CD4+ T cells. InfDC with an identical phenotype to in vitro generated cells were significantly enriched in RA-SF compared with non-RA-SF/tissue/PB. Conclusions We demonstrate a therapeutically tractable feedback loop of GM-CSF secreted by RA synovial CD4+ T cells promoting the differentiation of infDC with potent capacity to induce GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells. PMID:25923217

  7. Conventional alpha beta (αβ) T cells do not contribute to acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Feng, Xiaoyan; Vieten, Gertrud; Dippel, Stephanie; Imvised, Tawan; Gueler, Faikah; Ure, Benno M; Kuebler, Jochen F; Klemann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with significant patient mortality and morbidity. The complex cascade of IRI is incompletely understood, but inflammation is known to be a key mediator. In addition to the predominant innate immune responses, previous research has also indicated that αβ T cells contribute to IRI in various organ models. The aim of this study was to clarify the role αβ T cells play in IRI to the gut. Adult wild-type (WT) and αβ T cell-deficient mice were subjected to acute intestinal IRI with 30min ischemia followed by 4h reperfusion. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by qPCR, and the influx of leukocyte subpopulations in the gut was assessed via flow cytometry and histology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured, and transaminases were assessed as an indicator of distant organ IRI. Intestinal IRI led to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut tissue and an influx of leukocytes that predominantly consisted of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, intestinal IRI increased serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ALT/AST levels. The αβ T cell-deficient mice did not exhibit a more significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut or serum following IR than the WT mice. There was also no difference between WT- and αβ T cell-deficient mice in terms of neutrophil infiltration or macrophage activation. Furthermore, the increase in transaminases was equal in both groups indicating that the level of distant organ injury was comparable. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that αβ T cells play a key role in IRI. In the gut, however, αβ T cells are not pivotal in the first hours following acute IRI as deficiency does not impact cytokine production, neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, or distant organ injury. Thus, αβ T cells may be considered innocent bystanders during the acute phase of intestinal IRI.

  8. Conventional alpha beta (αβ T cells do not contribute to acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI is associated with significant patient mortality and morbidity. The complex cascade of IRI is incompletely understood, but inflammation is known to be a key mediator. In addition to the predominant innate immune responses, previous research has also indicated that αβ T cells contribute to IRI in various organ models. The aim of this study was to clarify the role αβ T cells play in IRI to the gut.Adult wild-type (WT and αβ T cell-deficient mice were subjected to acute intestinal IRI with 30min ischemia followed by 4h reperfusion. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by qPCR, and the influx of leukocyte subpopulations in the gut was assessed via flow cytometry and histology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured, and transaminases were assessed as an indicator of distant organ IRI.Intestinal IRI led to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut tissue and an influx of leukocytes that predominantly consisted of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, intestinal IRI increased serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ALT/AST levels. The αβ T cell-deficient mice did not exhibit a more significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut or serum following IR than the WT mice. There was also no difference between WT- and αβ T cell-deficient mice in terms of neutrophil infiltration or macrophage activation. Furthermore, the increase in transaminases was equal in both groups indicating that the level of distant organ injury was comparable.An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that αβ T cells play a key role in IRI. In the gut, however, αβ T cells are not pivotal in the first hours following acute IRI as deficiency does not impact cytokine production, neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, or distant organ injury. Thus, αβ T cells may be considered innocent bystanders during the acute phase of intestinal IRI.

  9. T-Cadherin Expression in Melanoma Cells Stimulates Stromal Cell Recruitment and Invasion by Regulating the Expression of Chemokines, Integrins and Adhesion Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubina, Kseniya A.; Surkova, Ekaterina I.; Semina, Ekaterina V.; Sysoeva, Veronika Y.; Kalinina, Natalia I.; Poliakov, Alexei A.; Treshalina, Helena M.; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A.

    2015-01-01

    T-cadherin is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored member of the cadherin superfamily involved in the guidance of migrating cells. We have previously shown that in vivo T-cadherin overexpression leads to increased melanoma primary tumor growth due to the recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as the enhanced metastasis. Since tumor progression is highly dependent upon cell migration and invasion, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of T-cadherin participation in these processes. Herein we show that T-cadherin expression results in the increased invasive potential due to the upregulated expression of pro-oncogenic integrins, chemokines, adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components. The detected increase in chemokine expression could be responsible for the stromal cell recruitment. At the same time our previous data demonstrated that T-cadherin expression inhibited neoangiogenesis in the primary tumors. We demonstrate that T-cadherin overexpression leads to the increase in the expression of anti-angiogenic molecules and reduction in pro-angiogenic factors. Thus, T-cadherin plays a dual role in melanoma growth and progression: T-cadherin expression results in anti-angiogenic effects in melanoma, however, this also stimulates transcription of genes responsible for migration and invasion of melanoma cells

  10. T-Cadherin Expression in Melanoma Cells Stimulates Stromal Cell Recruitment and Invasion by Regulating the Expression of Chemokines, Integrins and Adhesion Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubina, Kseniya A., E-mail: rkseniya@mail.ru; Surkova, Ekaterina I.; Semina, Ekaterina V.; Sysoeva, Veronika Y.; Kalinina, Natalia I. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lomonosovsky av., 31/5, Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Poliakov, Alexei A. [Division of Developmental Neurobiology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Treshalina, Helena M. [Federal State Budgetary Scietific Institution «N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center» (FSBSI “N.N.Blokhin RCRC”), Kashirskoe Shosse 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Tkachuk, Vsevolod A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lomonosovsky av., 31/5, Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-21

    T-cadherin is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored member of the cadherin superfamily involved in the guidance of migrating cells. We have previously shown that in vivo T-cadherin overexpression leads to increased melanoma primary tumor growth due to the recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as the enhanced metastasis. Since tumor progression is highly dependent upon cell migration and invasion, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of T-cadherin participation in these processes. Herein we show that T-cadherin expression results in the increased invasive potential due to the upregulated expression of pro-oncogenic integrins, chemokines, adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components. The detected increase in chemokine expression could be responsible for the stromal cell recruitment. At the same time our previous data demonstrated that T-cadherin expression inhibited neoangiogenesis in the primary tumors. We demonstrate that T-cadherin overexpression leads to the increase in the expression of anti-angiogenic molecules and reduction in pro-angiogenic factors. Thus, T-cadherin plays a dual role in melanoma growth and progression: T-cadherin expression results in anti-angiogenic effects in melanoma, however, this also stimulates transcription of genes responsible for migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

  11. Cell model for the study of receptor and regulatory functions of human proHB-EGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Korotkevych

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing of new models and approaches, particularly with fluorescent techniques, for investigation of intracellular transport of proHB-EGF and its ligand-receptor complexes is strongly required. In order to create a model for studying proHB-EGF functions the genetic construction pEGFP-N1-proHB-EGF, encoding proHB-EGF-EGFP which is fluorescent-labeled form of proHB-EGF with enhanced green fluorescent protein EGFP in the cytoplasmic terminus of the molecule, was obtained. Eukaryotic cells expressing fusion protein proHB-EGF-EGFP on the cell surface were obtained by transfection with pEGFP-N1-proHB-EGF. Expressed in the Vero cells proHB-EGF-EGFP could bind fluorescent derivative of nontoxic receptor-binding subunit B of diphtheria toxin mCherry-SubB. After stimulation of transfected cells with TPA (12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, proHB-EGF-EGFP formed a fluorescentl-labeled C-terminal fragment of the molecule – CTF-EGFP. Thus, the obtained genetic construction pEGFP-N1-proHB-EGF could be helpful in visualization of molecules proHB-EGF and CTF in cells, may open new possibilities for the studying of their functions, such as receptor function of proHB-EGF for diphtheria toxin, intracellular translocation of CTF and provide possibilities for natural proHB-EGF ligands search.

  12. S100A4-neutralizing antibody suppresses spontaneous tumor progression, pre-metastatic niche formation and alters T-cell polarization balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Beck, Mette

    2015-01-01

    , decreased vessel density and inhibition of metastases. CONCLUSION: The S100A4 blocking antibody (6B12) reduces tumor growth and metastasis in a model of spontaneous breast cancer. The 6B12 antibody treatment inhibits T cell accumulation at the primary and pre-metastatic tumor sites. The 6B12 antibody acts...

  13. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by reovirus treated melanoma cells is PKR/NF-κB mediated and supports innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey Matt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As well as inducing direct oncolysis, reovirus treatment of melanoma is associated with activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses. Results Here we characterise the effects of conditioned media from reovirus-infected, dying human melanoma cells (reoTCM, in the absence of live virus, to address the immune bystander potential of reovirus therapy. In addition to RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1α and MIP-1β, reovirus-infected melanoma cells secreted eotaxin, IP-10 and the type 1 interferon IFN-β. To address the mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory composition of reoTCM, we show that IL-8 and IFN-β secretion by reovirus-infected melanoma cells was associated with activation of NF-κB and decreased by pre-treatment with small molecule inhibitors of NF-κB and PKR; specific siRNA-mediated knockdown further confirmed a role for PKR. This pro-inflammatory milieu induced a chemotactic response in isolated natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells (DC and anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells (CTL. Following culture in reoTCM, NK cells upregulated CD69 expression and acquired greater lytic potential against tumour targets. Furthermore, melanoma cell-loaded DC cultured in reoTCM were more effective at priming adaptive anti-tumour immunity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the PKR- and NF-κB-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory molecules that accompanies reovirus-mediated killing can recruit and activate innate and adaptive effector cells, thus potentially altering the tumour microenvironment to support bystander immune-mediated therapy as well as direct viral oncolysis.

  14. [gammadelta T cells stimulated by zoledronate kill osteosarcoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Chao; Cao, Zhen-Guo; Li, Zhao-Xu; Ye, Zhao-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of human γδT cells from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo and evaluate the relavent pathways. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)of healthy donors were stimulated by single dose zoledronate and cultured in the present of IL-2 for two weeks, analysising the percentage of γδT cells on a FACSCalibur cytometer.Study the cytotoxicity of γδT cells against the osteosarcoma line HOS using LDH release assay kit. Pre-treatment of γδT cells with anti-human γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A to bolck the relavent pathways for evaluating the mechenisms of its cytotoxicity. In vivo, BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously osteosarcoma cell HOS for developing hypodermal tumors. And they were randomized into two groups: unteated group, γδT cell therapy group. Tumor volume and weight of the two groups were compared. After two weeks of culture, γδT cells from zoledronate-stimulated PBMCs could reach (95±3)%. When the E:T as 6:1, 12:1, 25:1, 50:1, the percentage of osteosarcoma cell HOS killed by γδT cells was 26.8%, 31.5%, 37.8%, 40.9%, respectively.When anti-huma γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A blocked the relavent pathways, the percentage was 32.3%, 4.7%, 16.7% ( E:T as 25:1), respectively. In vivo, the tumor inhibition rate of the group of γδT cell therapy was 42.78%. γδT cells derived from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate can acquired pure γδT cells. And they show strong cytoxicity against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo.

  15. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells mm9 Input control Blood Pro-B cells SRX1143898,SRX6688...12,SRX759802,SRX759803,SRX1143899,SRX1143900,SRX1143913,SRX1143907 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Pro-B_cells.bed ...

  16. Pre-, Pro-, and Synbiotics: Do They Have a Role in Reducing Uremic Toxins? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper assessed the effectiveness of pre-, pro-, and synbiotics on reducing two protein-bound uremic toxins, p-cresyl sulphate (PCS and indoxyl sulphate (IS. Methods. English language studies reporting serum, urinary, or fecal PCS and/or IS (or their precursors following pre-, pro-, or synbiotic interventions (>1 day in human adults were included. Population estimates of differences in the outcomes between the pre- and the postintervention were estimated for subgroups of studies using four meta-analyses. Quality was determined using the GRADE approach. Results. 19 studies met the inclusion criteria, 14 in healthy adults and five in haemodialysis patients. Eight studies investigated prebiotics, six probiotics, one synbiotics, one both pre- and probiotics, and three studies trialled all three interventions. The quality of the studies ranged from moderate to very low. 12 studies were included in the meta-analyses with all four meta-analyses reporting statistically significant reductions in IS and PCS with pre- and probiotic therapy. Conclusion. There is a limited but supportive evidence for the effectiveness of pre- and probiotics on reducing PCS and IS in the chronic kidney disease population. Further studies are needed to provide more definitive findings before routine clinical use can be recommended.

  17. An innovative pre-targeting strategy for tumor cell specific imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yong; Peng, Meng-Yun; Rong, Lei; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Si; Cheng, Si-Xue; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-09-21

    A programmed pre-targeting system for tumor cell imaging and targeting therapy was established based on the "biotin-avidin" interaction. In this programmed functional system, transferrin-biotin can be actively captured by tumor cells with the overexpression of transferrin receptors, thus achieving the pre-targeting modality. Depending upon avidin-biotin recognition, the attachment of multivalent FITC-avidin to biotinylated tumor cells not only offered the rapid fluorescence labelling, but also endowed the pre-targeted cells with targeting sites for the specifically designed biotinylated peptide nano-drug. Owing to the successful pre-targeting, tumorous HepG2 and HeLa cells were effectively distinguished from the normal 3T3 cells via fluorescence imaging. In addition, the self-assembled peptide nano-drug resulted in enhanced cell apoptosis in the observed HepG2 cells. The tumor cell specific pre-targeting strategy is applicable for a variety of different imaging and therapeutic agents for tumor treatments.

  18. NF-κB in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Oncogenic Functions in Leukemic and in Microenvironmental Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Nuno R. dos; Ghezzo, Marinella N.; Silva, Ricardo C. da; Fernandes, Mónica T.

    2010-01-01

    Two main NF-κB signaling pathways, canonical and noncanonical, performing distinct functions in organisms have been characterized. Identification of mutations in genes encoding components of these NF-κB signaling pathways in lymphoid malignancies confirmed their key role in leukemogenesis. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes that despite significant therapeutic advances can still be fatal. Although mutations in NF-κB genes have not been reported in T-ALL, NF-κB constitutive activation in human T-ALL and in acute T-cell leukemia mouse models has been observed. Although these studies revealed activation of members of both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways in acute T-cell leukemia, only inhibition of canonical NF-κB signaling was shown to impair leukemic T cell growth. Besides playing an important pro-oncogenic role in leukemic T cells, NF-κB signaling also appears to modulate T-cell leukemogenesis through its action in microenvironmental stromal cells. This article reviews recent data on the role of these transcription factors in T-ALL and pinpoints further research crucial to determine the value of NF-κB inhibition as a means to treat T-ALL

  19. NF-κB in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Oncogenic Functions in Leukemic and in Microenvironmental Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Nuno R. dos, E-mail: nrsantos@ualg.pt; Ghezzo, Marinella N.; Silva, Ricardo C. da; Fernandes, Mónica T. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Molecular and Structural Biomedicine (CBME), University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-11-05

    Two main NF-κB signaling pathways, canonical and noncanonical, performing distinct functions in organisms have been characterized. Identification of mutations in genes encoding components of these NF-κB signaling pathways in lymphoid malignancies confirmed their key role in leukemogenesis. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes that despite significant therapeutic advances can still be fatal. Although mutations in NF-κB genes have not been reported in T-ALL, NF-κB constitutive activation in human T-ALL and in acute T-cell leukemia mouse models has been observed. Although these studies revealed activation of members of both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways in acute T-cell leukemia, only inhibition of canonical NF-κB signaling was shown to impair leukemic T cell growth. Besides playing an important pro-oncogenic role in leukemic T cells, NF-κB signaling also appears to modulate T-cell leukemogenesis through its action in microenvironmental stromal cells. This article reviews recent data on the role of these transcription factors in T-ALL and pinpoints further research crucial to determine the value of NF-κB inhibition as a means to treat T-ALL.

  20. Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment.

  1. Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment

  2. Mitochondrial respiration controls lysosomal function during inflammatory T cell responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli, Francesc; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Villarroya-Beltrí, Carolina; Mazzeo, Carla; Nuñez-Andrade, Norman; Gabandé-Rodriguez, Enrique; Dolores Ledesma, Maria; Blázquez, Alberto; Martin, Miguel Angel; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Summary The endolysosomal system is critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, how endolysosomal compartment is regulated by mitochondrial function is largely unknown. We have generated a mouse model with defective mitochondrial function in CD4+ T lymphocytes by genetic deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). Mitochondrial respiration-deficiency impairs lysosome function, promotes p62 and sphingomyelin accumulation and disrupts endolysosomal trafficking pathways and autophagy, thus linking a primary mitochondrial dysfunction to a lysosomal storage disorder. The impaired lysosome function in Tfam-deficient cells subverts T cell differentiation toward pro-inflammatory subsets and exacerbates the in vivo inflammatory response. Restoration of NAD+ levels improves lysosome function and corrects the inflammatory defects in Tfam-deficient T cells. Our results uncover a mechanism by which mitochondria regulate lysosome function to preserve T cell differentiation and effector functions, and identify novel strategies for intervention in mitochondrial-related diseases. PMID:26299452

  3. Functional heterogeneity of human effector CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Hiroshi; Naruto, Takuya; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2012-02-09

    Effector CD8(+) T cells are believed to be terminally differentiated cells having cytotoxic activity and the ability to produce effector cytokines such as INF-γ and TNF-α. We investigated the difference between CXCR1(+) and CXCR1(-) subsets of human effector CD27(-)CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells. The subsets expressed cytolytic molecules similarly and exerted substantial cytolytic activity, whereas only the CXCR1(-) subset had IL-2 productivity and self-proliferative activity and was more resistant to cell death than the CXCR1(+) subset. These differences were explained by the specific up-regulation of CAMK4, SPRY2, and IL-7R in the CXCR1(-) subset and that of pro-apoptotic death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in the CXCR1(+) subset. The IL-2 producers were more frequently found in the IL-7R(+) subset of the CXCR1(-) effector CD8(+) T cells than in the IL-7R(-) subset. IL-7/IL-7R signaling promoted cell survival only in the CXCR1(-) subset. The present study has highlighted a novel subset of effector CD8(+) T cells producing IL-2 and suggests the importance of this subset in the homeostasis of effector CD8(+) T cells.

  4. JAK inhibition induces silencing of T Helper cytokine secretion and a profound reduction in T regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Clodagh; Kordasti, Shahram; Seidl, Thomas; Perez Abellan, Pilar; Thomas, Nicholas S B; Harrison, Claire N; McLornan, Donal P; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2015-10-01

    CD4(+) T cells maintain cancer surveillance and immune tolerance. Chronic inflammation has been proposed as a driver of clonal evolution in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), suggesting that T cells play an important role in their pathogenesis. Treatment with JAK inhibitors (JAKi) results in improvements in MPN-associated constitutional symptoms as well as reductions in splenomegaly. However, effects of JAKi on T cells in MPN are not well established and the baseline immune signature remains unclear. We investigated the frequency and function of CD4(+) T cell subsets in 50 MPN patients at baseline as well as during treatment with either ruxolitinib or fedratinib in a subset. We show that CD4(+)  CD127(low)  CD25(high)  FOXP3(+) T regulatory cells are reduced in MPN patients compared to healthy controls and that this decrease is even more pronounced following JAKi therapy. Moreover, we show that after 6 months of treatment the number of T helper (Th)-17 cells increased. We also describe a functional 'silencing' of T helper cells both in vivo and in vitro and a blockade of pro-inflammatory cytokines from these cells. This profound effect of JAKi on T cell function may underlay augmented rates of atypical infections that have been reported with use of these drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Visualization of cytolytic T cell differentiation and granule exocytosis with T cells from mice expressing active fluorescent granzyme B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mouchacca

    Full Text Available To evaluate acquisition and activation of cytolytic functions during immune responses we generated knock in (KI mice expressing Granzyme B (GZMB as a fusion protein with red fluorescent tdTomato (GZMB-Tom. As for GZMB in wild type (WT lymphocytes, GZMB-Tom was absent from naïve CD8 and CD4 T cells in GZMB-Tom-KI mice. It was rapidly induced in most CD8 T cells and in a subpopulation of CD4 T cells in response to stimulation with antibodies to CD3/CD28. A fraction of splenic NK cells expressed GZMB-Tom ex vivo with most becoming positive upon culture in IL-2. GZMB-Tom was present in CTL granules and active as a protease when these degranulated into cognate target cells, as shown with target cells expressing a specific FRET reporter construct. Using T cells from mice expressing GZMB-Tom but lacking perforin, we show that the transfer of fluorescent GZMB-Tom into target cells was dependent on perforin, favoring a role for perforin in delivery of GZMB at the target cells' plasma membranes. Time-lapse video microscopy showed Ca++ signaling in CTL upon interaction with cognate targets, followed by relocalization of GZMB-Tom-containing granules to the synaptic contact zone. A perforin-dependent step was next visualized by the fluorescence signal from the non-permeant dye TO-PRO-3 at the synaptic cleft, minutes before the labeling of the target cell nucleus, characterizing a previously undescribed synaptic event in CTL cytolysis. Transferred OVA-specific GZMB-Tom-expressing CD8 T cells acquired GZMB-Tom expression in Listeria monocytogenes-OVA infected mice as soon as 48h after infection. These GZMB-Tom positive CD8 T cells localized in the splenic T-zone where they interacted with CD11c positive dendritic cells (DC, as shown by GZMB-Tom granule redistribution to the T/DC contact zone. GZMB-Tom-KI mice thus also provide tools to visualize acquisition and activation of cytolytic function in vivo.

  6. Regulatory T cells in radiotherapeutic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörthe eSchaue

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy (RT can extend its influence in cancer therapy beyond what can be attributed to in-field cytotoxicity by modulating the immune system. While complex, these systemic effects can help tip the therapeutic balance in favor of treatment success or failure. Engagement of the immune system is generally through recognition of damage-associated molecules expressed or released as a result of tumor and normal tissue radiation damage. This system has evolved to discriminate pathological from physiological forms of cell death by signaling danger. The multiple mechanisms that can be evoked include a shift towards a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant microenvironment that can promote maturation of dendritic cells and, in cancer treatment, the development of effector T cell responses to tumor-associated antigens. Control over these processes is exerted by regulatory T cells (Tregs, suppressor macrophages and immunosuppressive cytokines that act in consort to maintain tolerance to self, limit tissue damage, and re-establish tissue homeostasis. Unfortunately, by the time RT for cancer is initiated the tumor-host relationship has already been sculpted in favor of tumor growth and against immune-mediated mechanisms for tumor regression. Reversing this situation is a major challenge. However, recent data show that removal of Tregs can tip the balance in favor of the generation of radiation-induced anti-tumor immunity. The clinical challenge is to do so without excessive depletion that might precipitate serious autoimmune reactions and increase the likelihood of normal tissue complications. The selective modulation of Treg biology to maintain immune tolerance and control of normal tissue damage, while releasing the brakes on anti-tumor immune responses, is a worthy aim with promise for enhancing the therapeutic benefit of RT for cancer.

  7. Regulatory T Cells in Radiotherapeutic Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaue, Dörthe; Xie, Michael W.; Ratikan, Josephine A.; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) can extend its influence in cancer therapy beyond what can be attributed to in-field cytotoxicity by modulating the immune system. While complex, these systemic effects can help tip the therapeutic balance in favor of treatment success or failure. Engagement of the immune system is generally through recognition of damage-associated molecules expressed or released as a result of tumor and normal tissue radiation damage. This system has evolved to discriminate pathological from physiological forms of cell death by signaling “danger.” The multiple mechanisms that can be evoked include a shift toward a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant microenvironment that can promote maturation of dendritic cells and, in cancer treatment, the development of effector T cell responses to tumor-associated antigens. Control over these processes is exerted by regulatory T cells (Tregs), suppressor macrophages, and immunosuppressive cytokines that act in consort to maintain tolerance to self, limit tissue damage, and re-establish tissue homeostasis. Unfortunately, by the time RT for cancer is initiated the tumor-host relationship has already been sculpted in favor of tumor growth and against immune-mediated mechanisms for tumor regression. Reversing this situation is a major challenge. However, recent data show that removal of Tregs can tip the balance in favor of the generation of radiation-induced anti-tumor immunity. The clinical challenge is to do so without excessive depletion that might precipitate serious autoimmune reactions and increase the likelihood of normal tissue complications. The selective modulation of Treg biology to maintain immune tolerance and control of normal tissue damage, while releasing the “brakes” on anti-tumor immune responses, is a worthy aim with promise for enhancing the therapeutic benefit of RT for cancer.

  8. Regulatory T Cells in Post-stroke Immune Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesz, Arthur; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The secondary neuroinflammatory response has come into focus of experimental stroke research. Immunological mechanisms after acute stroke are being investigated in the hope to identify novel and druggable pathways that contribute to secondary infarct growth after stroke. Among a variety of neuroimmunological events after acute brain ischemia, including microglial activation, brain leukocyte invasion, and secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, lymphocytes have been identified as the key leukocyte subpopulation driving the neuroinflammatory response and contributing to stroke outcome. Several studies have shown that pro-inflammatory lymphocyte subpopulations worsen stroke outcome and that inhibiting their invasion to the injured brain is neuroprotective. In contrast to the effector functions of pro-inflammatory lymphocytes, regulatory T cells (Treg) are critically involved in maintaining immune homeostasis and have been characterized as disease-limiting protective cells in several inflammatory conditions, particularly in primary inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). However, due to the complex function of regulatory cells in immune homeostasis and disease, divergent findings have been described for the role of Treg in stroke models. Emerging evidence suggests that this discrepancy arises from potentially differing functions of Treg depending on the predominant site of action within the neurovascular unit and the surrounding inflammatory milieu. This article will provide a comprehensive review of current findings on Treg in brain ischemia models and discuss potential reasons for the observed discrepancies.

  9. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Okada, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. - Highlights: • We established highly efficient gene transduction protocols for murine T cells. • CD8"+ CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity. • CD4"+ CAR-T cells secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. • This finding can contribute to the development of T-cell biology and immunotherapy.

  10. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku, E-mail: nakagawa@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp; Okada, Naoki, E-mail: okada@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2016-04-22

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. - Highlights: • We established highly efficient gene transduction protocols for murine T cells. • CD8{sup +} CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity. • CD4{sup +} CAR-T cells secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. • This finding can contribute to the development of T-cell biology and immunotherapy.

  11. Polyphenols of virgin coconut oil prevent pro-oxidant mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illam, Soorya Parathodi; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2017-07-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO), extracted from the fresh coconut kernel, is a food supplement enriched with medium chain saturated fatty acids and polyphenolic antioxidants. It is reported to have several health benefits including lipid lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The pharmacological benefits of VCO have been attributed to its polyphenol content (VCOP), the mechanistic basis of which is less explored. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) analysis of VCOP documented the presence of gallic acid, ferulic acid (FA), quercetin, methyl catechin, dihydrokaempferol and myricetin glycoside. Pre-treatment of VCOP at different concentrations (25-100 μg/mL) significantly reduced the H 2 O 2 and 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced cell death in HCT-15 cells. Giving further insight to its mechanistic basis, oxidative stress induced alterations in glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of GR (Glutathione-Reductase), GPx (Glutathione-Peroxidase), GST (Glutathione-S-Transferase) and catalase (CAT) were restored to near-normal by VCOP, concomitantly reducing lipid peroxidation. The efficacy of VCOP was similar to that of Trolox and FA added in culture. The study thus suggests that VCOP protects cells from pro-oxidant insults by modulating cellular antioxidant status.

  12. Vaccination Expands Antigen-Specific CD4+ Memory T Cells and Mobilizes Bystander Central Memory T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Causi, Eleonora; Parikh, Suraj C.; Chudley, Lindsey; Layfield, David M.; Ottensmeier, Christian H.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Di Genova, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T helper memory (Thmem) cells influence both natural and vaccine-boosted immunity, but mechanisms for their maintenance remain unclear. Pro-survival signals from the common gamma-chain cytokines, in particular IL-7, appear important. Previously we showed in healthy volunteers that a booster vaccination with tetanus toxoid (TT) expanded peripheral blood TT-specific Thmem cells as expected, but was accompanied by parallel increase of Thmem cells specific for two unrelated and non cross-reactive common recall antigens. Here, in a new cohort of healthy human subjects, we compare blood vaccine-specific and bystander Thmem cells in terms of differentiation stage, function, activation and proliferative status. Both responses peaked 1 week post-vaccination. Vaccine-specific cytokine-producing Thmem cells were predominantly effector memory, whereas bystander cells were mainly of central memory phenotype. Importantly, TT-specific Thmem cells were activated (CD38High HLA-DR+), cycling or recently divided (Ki-67+), and apparently vulnerable to death (IL-7RαLow and Bcl-2 Low). In contrast, bystander Thmem cells were resting (CD38Low HLA-DR- Ki-67-) with high expression of IL-7Rα and Bcl-2. These findings allow a clear distinction between vaccine-specific and bystander Thmem cells, suggesting the latter do not derive from recent proliferation but from cells mobilized from as yet undefined reservoirs. Furthermore, they reveal the interdependent dynamics of specific and bystander T-cell responses which will inform assessments of responses to vaccines. PMID:26332995

  13. Basic fibroblast growth factor is pro-adipogenic in rat skeletal muscle progenitor clone, 2G11 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Teramoto, Naomi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) formation is a hallmark of marbling in cattle. IMAT is considered to originate from skeletal muscle progenitor cells with adipogenic potential. However, the mechanism involved in IMAT formation from these progenitor cells in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, among the growth factors tested, which were known to be expressed in skeletal muscle, we found only basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has a pro-adipogenic effect on skeletal muscle derived adipogenic progenitor clone, 2G11 cells. Pre-exposure of 2G11 cells to bFGF did not affect initial gene expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)β and C/EBPδ, while resulting in an enhancement of subsequent expressions of C/EBPα and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) during adipogenesis, indicating that bFGF is acting on the transcriptional regulation of C/EBPα and PPARγ. In addition, the effect of bFGF is mediated via two types of FGF receptor (FGFR) isoforms: FGFR1 and FGFR2 IIIc, and both receptors are prerequisite for bFGF to express its pro-adipogenic effect. These results suggest that bFGF plays an important role as a key trigger of IMAT formation in vivo. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Evaluation of the Alexon-Trend ProSpecT Campylobacter Microplate Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcin, Rita; LaSalvia, Margaret M.; Kirkley, Barbara A.; Vetter, Emily A.; Cockerill, Franklin R.; Procop, Gary W.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated stool specimens known to contain or be free of Campylobacter by traditional culture, using the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate assay (Alexon-Trend, Ramsey, Minn.). This rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Campylobacter-specific antigens demonstrated 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity and is an acceptable alternative method of Campylobacter detection. PMID:11015419

  15. The relation between electrocardiographic ST-T changes and NT-proBNP in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper K; Korsholm, Lars; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion (ST-T changes) in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and raised levels of natriuretic peptide have been observed in acute ischemic stroke patients. It is unknown whether any relation between ST-T changes and raised levels of natriuretic peptides...... in patients with an acute ischemic stroke exists. METHODS: Serial measurements of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and 12-lead ECGs were obtained in 192 consecutive patients with an acute ischemic stroke without ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart- or renal failure...

  16. Susceptibility of Hep3B cells in different phases of cell cycle to tBid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-Hong; Chen, George G; Ye, Caiguo; Leung, Billy C S; Ho, Rocky L K; Lai, Paul B S

    2011-01-01

    tBid is a pro-apoptotic molecule. Apoptosis inducers usually act in a cell cycle-specific fashion. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether effect of tBid on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells was cell cycle phase specific. We synchronized Hep3B cells at G0/G1, S or G2/M phases by chemicals or flow sorting and tested the susceptibility of the cells to recombinant tBid. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by TUNEL. The results revealed that tBid primarily targeted the cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, and it also increased the cells at the G2/M phase. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), on the other hand, arrested Hep3B cells at the G0/G1 phase, but significantly reduced cells at G2/M phase. The levels of cell cycle-related proteins and caspases were altered in line with the change in the cell cycle. The combination of tBid with 5-FU caused more cells to be apoptotic than either agent alone. Therefore, the complementary effect of tBid and 5-FU on different phases of the cell cycle may explain their synergistric effect on Hep3B cells. The elucidation of the phase-specific effect of tBid points to a possible therapeutic option that combines different phase specific agents to overcome resistance of HCC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CSN1S2 protein of goat milk inhibits the decrease of viability and increases the proliferation of MC3T3E1 pre-osteoblast cell in methyl glyoxal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirunil Chotimah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether the CNS1S2 protein of goat milk is able to inhibit the toxicity of methyl glyoxal (MG towards MC3T3E1 pre-osteoblast cells. Methods: At confluency, pre-osteoblast cells were divided into five groups which included control (untreated, pre-osteoblast cells exposed to 5 µmol/L MG, pre-osteoblast cells exposed to MG in the presence of CSN1S2 protein at doses of 0.025, 0.050, and 0.100 mg/L, respectively. Analysis of reactive oxygen species was done with 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorochrome. The proliferation and viability of MC3T3E1 cells were measured by trypan blue staining. Malondialdehyde analysis was done colorimetrically. Results: Cell's viabilities were significantly lower in MG+0.050 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk compared to MG group (P<0.05. MG+0.100 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk significantly increased the cells viability compared to MG group (P<0.05. The levels of proliferation were significantly higher in MG+0.100 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk compared to control group and all treatment groups, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions: High dose of CSN1S2 protein of goat milk (0.100 mg/L in high MG environment inhibits the decrease of viability due to the increases of the proliferation of MC3T3E1 preosteoblast cell.

  18. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M; Bezbradica, Jelena S; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective.

  19. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrendra; Suryadevara, Naveenchandra; Hill, Timothy M.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo) perspective. PMID:29312339

  20. Natural Killer T Cells: An Ecological Evolutionary Developmental Biology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrendra Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type I natural killer T (NKT cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-like protein CD1d. Agonistic activation of NKT cells leads to rapid pro-inflammatory and immune modulatory cytokine and chemokine responses. This property of NKT cells, in conjunction with their interactions with antigen-presenting cells, controls downstream innate and adaptive immune responses against cancers and infectious diseases, as well as in several inflammatory disorders. NKT cell properties are acquired during development in the thymus and by interactions with the host microbial consortium in the gut, the nature of which can be influenced by NKT cells. This latter property, together with the role of the host microbiota in cancer therapy, necessitates a new perspective. Hence, this review provides an initial approach to understanding NKT cells from an ecological evolutionary developmental biology (eco-evo-devo perspective.

  1. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T exhibit additive prognostic value for the outcome of critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Max; Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Goliasch, Georg; Distelmaier, Klaus; Wojta, Johann; Heinz, Gottfried; Speidl, Walter S

    2018-04-01

    Patients treated at medical intensive care units suffer from various pathologies and often present with elevated troponin T (TnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Both markers may reflect different forms of cardiac involvement in critical illness. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the synergistic prognostic potential of NT-proBNP and high-sensitivity TnT (hs)TnT in unselected critically ill patients. We included all consecutive patients admitted to our intensive care unit within one year, excluding those suffering from acute myocardial infarction or undergoing cardiac surgery and measured NT-proBNP and TnT plasma levels on the day of admission and 72 hours thereafter. Of the included 148 patients, 52% were male, mean age was of 64.2 ± 16.8 years and 30-day mortality was 33.2%. Non-survivors showed significantly higher NT-proBNP and TnT plasma levels as compared with survivors ( pvalue. This might be attributed to a difference in underlying pathomechanisms and an assessment of synergistic risk factors.

  2. Methotrexate induces poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-dependent, caspase 3-independent apoptosis in subsets of proliferating CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Albertsen, L; Bendtzen, K

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of action of methotrexate (MTX) in autoimmune diseases (AID) is unclear. A pro-apoptotic effect has been demonstrated in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), but studies employing conventional antigens have disputed a pro-apoptotic effect. CD4+ T helper (Th....... Exposure of CA-stimulated PBMC to MTX significantly increased their level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and a similar tendency was observed in TT-stimulated cells. Unlike CA and TT, the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) induced proliferation of both CD4- and CD4+ T cells, and induced......) cells play a significant role in most AID. We therefore examined directly, by flow cytometry, the uptake of MTX by the T helper (Th) cells stimulated for 6 days with Candida albicans (CA) or tetanus toxoid (TT), and its consequences with respect to induction of apoptosis. While none of the resting Th...

  3. Expression of inhibitory receptors on intratumoral T cells modulates the activity of a T cell-bispecific antibody targeting folate receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Jens; Thommen, Daniela S.; Herzig, Petra; Bacac, Marina; Klein, Christian; Roller, Andreas; Belousov, Anton; Levitsky, Victor; Savic, Spasenija; Moersig, Wolfgang; Uhlenbrock, Franziska; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A.; Umana, Pablo; Pisa, Pavel; von Bergwelt-Baildon, M.; Lardinois, Didier; Müller, Philipp; Karanikas, Vaios; Zippelius, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT T-cell bispecific antibodies (TCBs) are a novel therapeutic tool designed to selectively recruit T-cells to tumor cells and simultaneously activate them. However, it is currently unknown whether the dysfunctional state of T-cells, embedded into the tumor microenvironment, imprints on the therapeutic activity of TCBs. We performed a comprehensive analysis of activation and effector functions of tumor-infiltrating T-cells (TILs) in different tumor types, upon stimulation by a TCB targeting folate receptor 1 and CD3 (FolR1-TCB). We observed a considerable heterogeneity in T-cell activation, cytokine production and tumor cell killing upon exposure to FolR1-TCB among different FolR1-expressing tumors. Of note, tumors presenting with a high frequency of PD-1hi TILs displayed significantly impaired tumor cell killing and T-cell function. Further characterization of additional T-cell inhibitory receptors revealed that PD-1hi TILs defined a T-cell subset with particularly high levels of multiple inhibitory receptors compared with PD-1int and PD-1neg T-cells. PD-1 blockade could restore cytokine secretion but not cytotoxicity of TILs in a subset of patients with scarce PD-1hi expressing cells; in contrast, patients with abundance of PD-1hi expressing T-cells did not benefit from PD-1 blockade. Our data highlight that FolR1-TCB is a promising novel immunotherapeutic treatment option which is capable of activating intratumoral T-cells in different carcinomas. However, its therapeutic efficacy may be substantially hampered by a pre-existing dysfunctional state of T-cells, reflected by abundance of intratumoral PD-1hi T-cells. These findings present a rationale for combinatorial approaches of TCBs with other therapeutic strategies targeting T-cell dysfunction. PMID:27057429

  4. Methotrexate induces poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-dependent, caspase 3-independent apoptosis in subsets of proliferating CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Albertsen, L; Bendtzen, K

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of action of methotrexate (MTX) in autoimmune diseases (AID) is unclear. A pro-apoptotic effect has been demonstrated in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), but studies employing conventional antigens have disputed a pro-apoptotic effect. CD4+ T helper (Th)...

  5. Differentiation of B and T lymphocytes from precursor cells resident in the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, C; Press, O W

    1978-01-01

    A series of experiments in guinea pigs and mice established that proliferating progenitor cells for B and T lymphocytes are a resident population in the bone marrow. It was shown by the combined use of /sup 3/H-TdR radioautography and fluorescent-antibody staining of B and T cells that the majority of bone marrow (BM) lymphocytes are rapidly renewed (RR) B cells and null cells, whereas the thymus (THY) consists overwhelming of RR T lymphocytes; in spleen (SPL) and lymph node (LN) slowly renewed (SR) T and B cells predominate. The rate of B cell turnover in guinea pig bone marrow exceeds that in the SPL or LN, and the appearance of newly generated B cells in the SPL lags behind that in the BM. When systematically administered /sup 3/H-TdR was excluded by tourniquets from tibial and femoral BM no labeled B cells appeared in tibial or femoral marrow over 72 h. When tibial and femoral BM was labeled selectively with /sup 3/H-TdR, labeled B cells appeared in the SPL and LN over 72 h. (It was found in CBA mice that BM cell fractions enriched in lymphocytes (BML) responded to the T cell mitogen PHA in a manner qualitatively different from the response of SPL and LN cells. Experiments with athymic nude mice and with complement-mediated lysis of T and B cells established that PHA responsive cells in SPL and LN were T cells but in BML they were null lymphocytes. Target cells of PHA in BML responded to the mitogen by the generation of T-cell surface markers and blastogenesis; therefore they were identified as pre-T cells. BM pre-T cells are rapidly renewed and, in contrast to PHA responsive cells of SPL and LN, do not recirculate from blood to lymph. Both B and pre-T cells in the BM are division products of transitional cells. Among transitional cells of the marrow are included the progenitors of B and T lmyphhocytes and of all other types of hemopoietic cells.

  6. Pre-Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Process-oriented Information Systems in Healthcare (ProHealth'07)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichert, M.U.; Peleg, M.; Lenz, R.

    These pre-proceedings contain the presentations given at the 1st Int'l Workshop on Process-oriented Information Systems in Healthcare (ProHealth'07). Formal proceedings will be published in Springer's LNCS series. Process-oriented information systems have been demanded for more than 20 years and

  7. Porphyromonas gingivalis Differentially Modulates Cell Death Profile in Ox-LDL and TNF-α Pre-Treated Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Maximiliano Bugueno

    Full Text Available Clinical studies demonstrated a potential link between atherosclerosis and periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, one of the main periodontal pathogen, has been associated to atheromatous plaque worsening. However, synergism between infection and other endothelial stressors such as oxidized-LDL or TNF-α especially on endothelial cell (EC death has not been investigated. This study aims to assess the role of Pg on EC death in an inflammatory context and to determine potential molecular pathways involved.Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs were infected with Pg (MOI 100 or stimulated by its lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS (1μg/ml for 24 to 48 hours. Cell viability was measured with AlamarBlue test, type of cell death induced was assessed using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. mRNA expression regarding caspase-1, -3, -9, Bcl-2, Bax-1 and Apaf-1 has been evaluated with RT-qPCR. Caspases enzymatic activity and concentration of APAF-1 protein were evaluated to confirm mRNA results.Pg infection and Pg-LPS stimulation induced EC death. A cumulative effect has been observed in Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs infected or stimulated. This effect was not observed in TNF-α pre-treated cells. Pg infection promotes EC necrosis, however, in infected Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs, apoptosis was promoted. This effect was not observed in TNF-α pre-treated cells highlighting specificity of molecular pathways activated. Regarding mRNA expression, Pg increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes including caspases-1,-3,-9, Bax-1 and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. In Ox-LDL pre-treated ECs, Pg increased significantly the expression of Apaf-1. These results were confirmed at the protein level.This study contributes to demonstrate that Pg and its Pg-LPS could exacerbate Ox-LDL and TNF-α induced endothelial injury through increase of EC death. Interestingly, molecular pathways are differentially modulated by the infection in function of the pre-stimulation.

  8. Meat, milk, saturated fatty acids, the Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms of the PPARgamma gene and colorectal cancer risk in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Kiyonori; Hirose, Kaoru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wakai, Kenji; Ito, Hidemi; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Hirai, Takashi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takezaki, Toshiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Saito, Toshiko; Tanaka, Rie; Tajima, Kazuo

    2006-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) gene plays important roles in energy homeostasis. To examine interactions between consumption of foods and fatty acids and the Pro12Ala and C161T (His447His) polymorphisms for colorectal cancer, we performed two case-control studies in Japanese. In study 1, there were 128 colorectal cancer cases and 238 non-cancer controls, and in study 2 there were 257 cases and 771 (age- and sex-matched) non-cancer controls. Assessment of food and nutrients consumption in study 1 was via a nine-item questionnaire, while in study 2 assessment of consumption was according to a more detailed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of foods and fatty acids was divided into low, moderate and high groups. The overall frequency of the Ala allele was frequencies of the Pro/Pro + C/C and Pro/Pro + (C/T + T/T) genotypes were 70-73% and 20-26%, respectively. Compared with subjects with low meat intake and the Pro/Pro + C/C genotype, those with high meat consumption and the same genotype had a stronger increased risk in study 1 [OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.14-7.30; P for trend = 0.02], but a positive association with processed meat consumption was greatest in those with the Pro/Pro + (C/T + T/T) genotype (P for trend = 0.05) in study 2. Likewise, high consumption of saturated fatty acids and milk appeared to confer marginal increased risk and stronger decreased risk, respectively, in those with the Pro/Pro and Pro/Pro + C/C genotypes (OR, 1.35 and 0.65; 95% CI, 0.93-1.96 and 0.43-1.00; P for trend = 0.10 and 0.06). Further large-scale studies are needed to determine colorectal cancer risk according to relationships between the PPARgamma gene polymorphisms and dietary intakes of meat, processed meat, milk and saturated fatty acids in Japanese with very low frequency of the Ala allele.

  9. A sub-population of circulating porcine gammadelta T cells can act as professional antigen presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, H-H; Denyer, M S; Wileman, T E

    2002-09-10

    A sub-population of circulating porcine gammadelta T cells express cell surface antigens associated with antigen presenting cells (APCs), and are able to take up soluble antigen very effectively. Functional antigen presentation by gammadelta T cells to memory helper T cells was studied by inbred pig lymphocytes immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). After removing all conventional APCs from the peripheral blood of immunised pigs, the remaining lymphocytes still proliferated when stimulated with OVA. When gammadelta T cells were further depleted, OVA specific proliferation was abolished, but reconstitution with gammadelta T cells restored proliferation. The proliferation was blocked by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against MHC class II or CD4, and by pre-treatment of gammadelta T cells with chloroquine. These results indicate that a sub-population of circulating porcine gammadelta T cells act as APCs and present antigen via MHC class II.

  10. Monoclonal antibody studies in B(non-T)-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, M; Minato, K; Tobinai, K; Nagai, M; Hirose, M

    1983-09-01

    Tumor cells suspensions prepared from 129 B- or non-T cell malignancies were investigated with a panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies and conventional surface marker techniques. Surface immunoglobulin (sIg) and B1 antigen proved to be the most useful markers for B-cell lineage. Six major subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of non-T cell nature are now recognized by these immunological techniques, including null-ALL, Ia-ALL, lymphoid stem cell ALL, pre-pre-B ALL, pre-B ALL and B-ALL. In cases of chronic leukemias and lymphomas of non-T cell nature, 80% of the tumor was defined by sIg and 88% by B1 antigen as definitely of B-cell lineage. The clonal character was also defined in 68% of the tumor on the basis of the detection of predominant single light chain in sIg. Ia-like antigen was detected in almost all cases (96%). Leukemic cells from all cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic lymphosarcoma cell leukemia (CLsCL) and hairy cell leukemia (HCL) reacted with OKIa1 and anti-B1, and leukemic cells from most of them with anti-pan T monoclonal antibody (10.2). In more than half of CLL and CLsCL, leukemic cells were reactive with J5, OKM1, 9.6 and OKT8, but not with OKT3, OKT4 and OKT6. HCL cells had almost the same reactivity with these monoclonal antibodies as CLL and CLsCL cells except that J5 remained unreactive. These results indicated that Japanese CLL, CLsCL and HCL were different from Western ones at least with respect to surface marker characteristics. In cases of lymphomas, heavy chains of sIg were expressed in polyclonal fashion, especially in follicular lymphoma and diffuse lymphomas of medium sized cell type and large cell type, indicating that lymphomas of these types may originate from follicular center cells of the heavy chain switching stage. Anti-T monoclonals were also reactive with lymphoma cells. In about half of follicular lymphomas and diffuse lymphomas of the medium sized cell type, lymphoma cells reacted with 10.2, and less

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse EL4 T cells upon T cell activation and in response to protein synthesis inhibition via cycloheximide treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek Siew Lim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available T cell activation involves the recognition of a foreign antigen complexed to the major histocompatibility complex on the antigen presenting T cell to the T cell receptor. This leads to activation of signaling pathways, which ultimately leads to induction of key cytokine genes responsible for eradication of foreign antigens. We used the mouse EL4 T cell as a model system to study genes that are induced as a result of T cell activation using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA and calcium ionomycin (I as stimuli. We were also interested to examine the importance of new protein synthesis in regulating the expression of genes involved in T cell activation. Thus we have pre-treated mouse EL4 T cells with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, and left the cells unstimulated or stimulated with PMA/I for 4 h. We performed microarray expression profiling of these cells to correlate the gene expression with chromatin state of T cells upon T cell activation [1]. Here, we detail further information and analysis of the microarray data, which shows that T cell activation leads to differential expression of genes and inducible genes can be further classified as primary and secondary response genes based on their protein synthesis dependency. The data is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE13278. Keywords: EL4 T cell, Microarray, T cell activation, Inducible genes

  12. SB225002 Induces Cell Death and Cell Cycle Arrest in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells through the Activation of GLIPR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Paulo C.; Bhasin, Manoj K.; Zenatti, Priscila Pini; Nunes, Ricardo J.; Yunes, Rosendo A.; Nowill, Alexandre E.; Libermann, Towia A.; Zerbini, Luiz Fernando; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent childhood malignancy. In the effort to find new anti-leukemic agents, we evaluated the small drug SB225002 (N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitrophenyl)-N’-(2-bromophenyl)urea). Although initially described as a selective antagonist of CXCR2, later studies have identified other cellular targets for SB225002, with potential medicinal use in cancer. We found that SB225002 has a significant pro-apoptotic effect against both B- and T-ALL cell lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that treatment with SB225002 induces G2-M cell cycle arrest. Transcriptional profiling revealed that SB225002-mediated apoptosis triggered a transcriptional program typical of tubulin binding agents. Network analysis revealed the activation of genes linked to the JUN and p53 pathways and inhibition of genes linked to the TNF pathway. Early cellular effects activated by SB225002 included the up-regulation of GLIPR1, a p53-target gene shown to have pro-apoptotic activities in prostate and bladder cancer. Silencing of GLIPR1 in B- and T-ALL cell lines resulted in increased resistance to SB225002. Although SB225002 promoted ROS increase in ALL cells, antioxidant N-Acetyl Cysteine pre-treatment only modestly attenuated cell death, implying that the pro-apoptotic effects of SB225002 are not exclusively mediated by ROS. Moreover, GLIPR1 silencing resulted in increased ROS levels both in untreated and SB225002-treated cells. In conclusion, SB225002 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in different B- and T-ALL cell lines. Inhibition of tubulin function with concurrent activation of the p53 pathway, in particular, its downstream target GLIPR1, seems to underlie the anti-leukemic effect of SB225002. PMID:26302043

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse EL4 T cells upon T cell activation and in response to protein synthesis inhibition via cycloheximide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Pek Siew; Hardy, Kristine; Peng, Kaiman; Shannon, Frances M

    2016-03-01

    T cell activation involves the recognition of a foreign antigen complexed to the major histocompatibility complex on the antigen presenting T cell to the T cell receptor. This leads to activation of signaling pathways, which ultimately leads to induction of key cytokine genes responsible for eradication of foreign antigens. We used the mouse EL4 T cell as a model system to study genes that are induced as a result of T cell activation using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and calcium ionomycin (I) as stimuli. We were also interested to examine the importance of new protein synthesis in regulating the expression of genes involved in T cell activation. Thus we have pre-treated mouse EL4 T cells with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, and left the cells unstimulated or stimulated with PMA/I for 4 h. We performed microarray expression profiling of these cells to correlate the gene expression with chromatin state of T cells upon T cell activation [1]. Here, we detail further information and analysis of the microarray data, which shows that T cell activation leads to differential expression of genes and inducible genes can be further classified as primary and secondary response genes based on their protein synthesis dependency. The data is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE13278.

  14. Apically-extruded debris using the ProTaper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi; Ebrahimi, Gholamreza

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the quantity of debris and irrigant extruded apically using the ProTaper system compared to ProFiles and K-Flexofiles. Thirty-six mesio-buccal root canals of human mandibular molars were selected and divided into three groups of twelve canals. Two groups were instrumented with ProFiles and ProTapers according to the manufacturer's instructions. The other group was instrumented with K-Flexofiles using the step-back technique. A standard amount of irrigant was used for each canal. Apically-extruded debris and irrigant was collected in pre-weighed vials. The mean weight of extruded debris and irrigant for each group was statistically analysed using Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. All instrumentation techniques produced extruded debris and irrigant. Although the mean amount of extrusion with the step-back technique was higher than the two rotary systems, there was no significant difference between the three groups (p > 0.05). NiTi rotary systems were associated with less apical extrusion, but were not significantly better than hand file instrumentation. All techniques extruded debris.

  15. Anti-ATLA (antibody to adult T-cell leukemia virus-associated antigen), highly positive in OKT4-positive mature T-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobinai, K; Nagai, M; Setoya, T; Shibata, T; Minato, K; Shimoyama, M

    1983-01-01

    Serum or plasma specimens from 252 patients with lymphoid malignancies were screened for reactivity with adult T-cell leukemia virus-associated antigen (ATLA), and the relationship between the immunologic phenotype of the tumor cells and ATLA reactivity was determined. Anti-ATLA antibodies were found in 24 (29.3%) of 82 patients with T-cell malignancy. In contrast, the antibodies were found in none of the 106 patients with B-cell malignancy and only rarely in patients with other lymphoid malignancies without blood transfusions. Among the patients with T-cell malignancy, anti-ATLA antibodies were found in 23 (45.1%) of the 51 patients with OKT4-positive mature T-cell (inducer/helper T-cell) malignancy, but in none of the patients with T-cell malignancy of pre-T, thymic T-cell or OKT8-positive mature T-cell (suppressor/cytotoxic T-cell) phenotype. Furthermore, among the OKT4-positive mature T-cell malignancies, the antibodies were found in 16 (84.2%) of 19 patients with ATL and in 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients with mature (peripheral) T-cell lymphoma, in none of four with typical T-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, in one of nine with mycosis fungoides and in the one patient with small-cell variant of Sézary's syndrome. These results suggest that anti-ATLA positive T-cell malignancies with OKT4-positive mature T-cell phenotype must be the same disease, because it is highly possible that they have the same etiology and the same cellular origin. In the atypical cases, it seems necessary to demonstrate monoclonal integration of proviral DNA of ATLV or HTLV into the tumor cells in order to establish the final diagnosis of ATL.

  16. Role of interleukin (IL)-17 and T-helper (Th)17 cells in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Yang, Jian Ming

    2017-11-04

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine, is reported to be significantly generated by a distinct subset of CD4 + T-cells, upgrading cancer-elicited inflammation and preventing cancer cells from immune surveillance. T-helper (Th)17 cells produced from naive CD4 + T cells have recently been renowned and generally accepted, gaining eminence in cancer studies and playing the effective role in context of cancer. Th17 cells are the main source of IL-17-secreting cells, It was found that other cell types produced this cytokine as well, including Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), δγT cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, lymphoid-tissue inducer (LTi)-like cells and Natural killer (NK) cells. Th17-associated cytokines give impetus to tumor progression, or inducing angiogenesis and metastasis. This review demonstrates an understanding on how the pro- or antitumor function of Th17 cells and IL-17 may change cancer progression, leading to the appearance of complex and pivotal biologic activities in tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pre-transplant donor-specific T-cell alloreactivity is strongly associated with early acute cellular rejection in kidney transplant recipients not receiving T-cell depleting induction therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Crespo

    Full Text Available Preformed T-cell immune-sensitization should most likely impact allograft outcome during the initial period after kidney transplantation, since donor-specific memory T-cells may rapidly recognize alloantigens and activate the effector immune response, which leads to allograft rejection. However, the precise time-frame in which acute rejection is fundamentally triggered by preformed donor-specific memory T cells rather than by de novo activated naïve T cells is still to be established. Here, preformed donor-specific alloreactive T-cell responses were evaluated using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay in a large consecutive cohort of kidney transplant patients (n = 90, to assess the main clinical variables associated with cellular sensitization and its predominant time-frame impact on allograft outcome, and was further validated in an independent new set of kidney transplant recipients (n = 67. We found that most highly T-cell sensitized patients were elderly patients with particularly poor HLA class-I matching, without any clinically recognizable sensitizing events. While one-year incidence of all types of biopsy-proven acute rejection did not differ between T-cell alloreactive and non-alloreactive patients, Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis indicated the first two months after transplantation as the highest risk time period for acute cellular rejection associated with baseline T-cell sensitization. This effect was particularly evident in young and highly alloreactive individuals that did not receive T-cell depletion immunosuppression. Multivariate analysis confirmed preformed T-cell sensitization as an independent predictor of early acute cellular rejection. In summary, monitoring anti-donor T-cell sensitization before transplantation may help to identify patients at increased risk of acute cellular rejection, particularly in the early phases after kidney transplantation, and thus guide decision-making regarding the use of induction

  18. Evaluation of pre transplant T-cell activation status by soluble CD 30 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Khawar; Muzaffar, Rana; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Mubarak, Muhammad; Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hassan

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the utility of serum CD30 (sCD30) levels as predictor of early acute graft rejection in live related renal transplant programme. This prospective study included 50 consecutive renal transplant recipients who received their first live related renal allograft at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) between October 2006 and March 2007. Blood samples were obtained one day before transplantation and on the third and fourteenth posttransplant days. Blood samples were also obtained from 50, age and sex matched healthy control individuals. Levels of serum sCD30 were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Donor-recipient blood group matching was identical in all patients. Pre-transplant lymphocyte crossmatch for T and B cells was negative, and panel reactive antibodies (PRA) were 0% for all recipients. The mean age of recipients was 31.6 +/- 10.23 years (range 5 to 55 years), while mean donor age was 32.74 +/- 8.48 years (range 21-50 years). Eleven (22%) recipients and donors were HLA identical while remaining (78%) were one haplotype match. Average serum sCD30 pre-transplant levels (37.8 +/- 4.97U/ml) were significantly higher than those of healthy individual's mean value of 8.48 +/- 4.97 U/ml, (P = 0.001). Eight (16%) patients developed acute rejection episode during this follow up period. Rejections were described and classified according to BANFF 97 classification. In this small single center study the serum levels of sCD30 did not show any significant difference between rejection and non rejection group in our transplant population.

  19. Childhood pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with translocation t(1;19)(q21.1;p13.3) and two additional chromosomal aberrations involving chromosomes 1, 6, and 13: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Abdulsamad; As'sad, Manar; Liehr, Thomas; Aljapawe, Abdulmunim; Al Achkar, Walid

    2017-04-07

    The translocation t(1;19)(q23;p13), which results in the TCF3-PBX1 chimeric gene, is one of the most frequent rearrangements observed in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It appears in both adult and pediatric patients with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia at an overall frequency of 3 to 5%. Most cases of pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia carrying the translocation t(1;19) have a typical immunophenotype with homogeneous expression of CD19, CD10, CD9, complete absence of CD34, and at least diminished CD20. Moreover, the translocation t(1;19) correlates with known clinical high risk factors, such as elevated white blood cell count, high serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and central nervous system involvement; early reports indicated that patients with translocation t(1;19) had a poor outcome under standard treatment. We report the case of a 15-year-old Syrian boy with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with abnormal karyotype with a der(19)t(1;19)(q21.1;p13.3) and two yet unreported chromosomal aberrations: an interstitial deletion 6q12 to 6q26 and a der(13)t(1;13)(q21.1;p13). According to the literature, cases who are translocation t(1;19)-positive have a significantly higher incidence of central nervous system relapse than patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia without the translocation. Of interest, central nervous system involvement was also seen in our patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of childhood pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an unbalanced translocation t(1;19) with two additional chromosomal aberrations, del(6)(q12q26) and t(1;13)(q21.3;p13), which seem to be recurrent and could influence clinical outcome. Also the present case confirms the impact of the translocation t(1;19) on central nervous system relapse, which should be studied for underlying mechanisms in future.

  20. Troponin T and NT ProBNP Levels in Gestational, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Mothers and Macrosomic Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Mustafa Kurthan; Satar, Mehmet; Özbarlas, Nazan; Yaman, Akgün; Özgünen, Fatma Tuncay; Asker, Hüseyin Selim; Çekinmez, Eren Kale; Tetiker, Tamer

    2016-01-01

    This study compares NT proBNP and troponin T levels in umbilical cord arterial blood and postnatal echocardiographic findings for infants of gestational and pregestational diabetic mothers and macrosomic infants. Twenty-seven infants of pregestational diabetic mothers, 61 infants of gestational diabetic mothers and 37 macrosomic infants of nondiabetic mothers were prospectively enrolled in this study along with a control group of 58 healthy infants of mothers without any pregestational or gestational disorders as the control group. All enrollees were born after 34 weeks of gestation. For this study, umbilical cord blood was drawn during delivery to determine NT proBNP and troponin T levels. Echocardiography was performed 24-72 h after the delivery. Umbilical cord troponin T and NT proBNP levels were found to be higher in the diabetic and macrosomic groups than in the control group (all of them p gestational infants of diabetic mothers groups (r = 0.564 and r = 0.560, respectively, p gestational diabetic mothers were divided into two groups according to HbA1c levels in the third trimester as good (6.1 %) metabolic control. In the good and suboptimal metabolic control diabetic groups, NT proBNP levels were also positively correlated with interventricular septum thickness (r = 0.536 and r = 0.576, respectively, p mothers and the control group, the myocardial performance index of macrosomic infants was lower than that of the control group (p = 0.017). Cardiac biomarkers (NT proBNP and troponin T) were elevated in infants of diabetic mothers and macrosomic infants. While there was a positive correlation between NT proBNP levels and cardiac structure in infants of pregestational and gestational diabetic mothers, there was no relationship between NT proBNP levels and cardiac function.

  1. Changes in proHB-EGF expression after functional activation of the immune system cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Chudina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of proHB-EGF expression on J774, Raji, KG-1 cells derived from different types of human and mouse immune system cells under the standard in vitro culture conditions and during functional activation of these cells was investigated. Changes in the proHB-EGF expression on the cell surface were found to depend on the density of cell population, the content of fetal bovine serum in the culture medium, the effect of mitogenic factors – bacterial lipopolysaccharide, an inactive full-size form of diphtheria toxin (CRM197 and recombinant soluble HB-EGF – rsHB-EGF. The results obtained are important for the understanding of the functional role of proHB-EGF receptor on the surface of macrophage-like cells and B lymphocytes and indicate the involvement of this receptor in immune response regulation in an organism.

  2. Plasticity of gamma delta T cells: impact on the anti-tumor response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eLafont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tumor immune microenvironment contributes to tumor initiation, progression and response to therapy. Among the immune cell subsets that play a role in the tumor microenvironment, innate-like T cells that express T cell receptors composed of gamma and delta chains (gamma delta T cells are of particular interest. gamma delta T cells can contribute to the immune response against many tumor types (lymphoma, myeloma, melanoma, breast, colon, lung, ovary and prostate cancer directly through their cytotoxic activity and indirectly by stimulating or regulating the biological functions of other cell types required for the initiation and establishment of the anti-tumor immune response, such as dendritic cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, the notion that tumor-infiltrating gamma delta T cells are a good prognostic marker in cancer was recently challenged by studies showing that the presence of these cells in the tumor microenvironment was associated with poor prognosis in both breast and colon cancer. These findings suggest that gamma delta T cells may also display pro-tumor activities. Indeed, breast tumor-infiltrating gamma deltaT cells could exert an immunosuppressive activity by negatively regulating DC maturation. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrated that signals from the microenvironment, particularly cytokines, can confer some plasticity to gamma delta T cells and promote their differentiation into gamma delta T cells with regulatory functions. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the functional plasticity of gamma delta T cells and its effect on their anti-tumor activities. It also discusses the putative mechanisms underlying gamma delta T cell expansion, differentiation and recruitment in the tumor microenvironment.

  3. Methylenetetrahydrofolate C677T polymorphism and pre-eclamptic Egyptian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Mahdy Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene was found to be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia. Mutant T allele and TT genotypes of C677T may be considered genetic risk factors for the development of pre-eclampsia among Egyptian pregnant women.

  4. Regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danikowski, K M; Jayaraman, S; Prabhakar, B S

    2017-06-09

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating disease of the central nervous system primarily mediated by T lymphocytes with specificity to neuronal antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, myasthenia gravis (MG) primarily involves destruction of the neuromuscular junction by antibodies specific to the acetylcholine receptor. Both autoimmune diseases are thought to result from loss of self-tolerance, which allows for the development and function of autoreactive lymphocytes. Although the mechanisms underlying compromised self-tolerance in these and other autoimmune diseases have not been fully elucidated, one possibility is numerical, functional, and/or migratory deficits in T regulatory cells (Tregs). Tregs are thought to play a critical role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. It is believed that Tregs function by suppressing the effector CD4+ T cell subsets that mediate autoimmune responses. Dysregulation of suppressive and migratory markers on Tregs have been linked to the pathogenesis of both MS and MG. For example, genetic abnormalities have been found in Treg suppressive markers CTLA-4 and CD25, while others have shown a decreased expression of FoxP3 and IL-10. Furthermore, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ secreted by T effectors have been noted in MS and MG patients. This review provides several strategies of treatment which have been shown to be effective or are proposed as potential therapies to restore the function of various Treg subsets including Tr1, iTr35, nTregs, and iTregs. Strategies focusing on enhancing the Treg function find importance in cytokines TGF-β, IDO, interleukins 10, 27, and 35, and ligands Jagged-1 and OX40L. Likewise, strategies which affect Treg migration involve chemokines CCL17 and CXCL11. In pre-clinical animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), several strategies

  5. Acute Malaria Induces PD1+CTLA4+ Effector T Cells with Cell-Extrinsic Suppressor Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sophia Mackroth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In acute Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum malaria, the pro- and anti-inflammatory immune pathways must be delicately balanced so that the parasitemia is controlled without inducing immunopathology. An important mechanism to fine-tune T cell responses in the periphery is the induction of coinhibitory receptors such as CTLA4 and PD1. However, their role in acute infections such as P. falciparum malaria remains poorly understood. To test whether coinhibitory receptors modulate CD4+ T cell functions in malaria, blood samples were obtained from patients with acute P. falciparum malaria treated in Germany. Flow cytometric analysis showed a more frequent expression of CTLA4 and PD1 on CD4+ T cells of malaria patients than of healthy control subjects. In vitro stimulation with P. falciparum-infected red blood cells revealed a distinct population of PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ T cells that simultaneously produced IFNγ and IL10. This antigen-specific cytokine production was enhanced by blocking PD1/PDL1 and CTLA4. PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ T cells were further isolated based on surface expression of PD1 and their inhibitory function investigated in-vitro. Isolated PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ T cells suppressed the proliferation of the total CD4+ population in response to anti-CD3/28 and plasmodial antigens in a cell-extrinsic manner. The response to other specific antigens was not suppressed. Thus, acute P. falciparum malaria induces P. falciparum-specific PD1+CTLA4+CD4+ Teffector cells that coproduce IFNγ and IL10, and inhibit other CD4+ T cells. Transient induction of regulatory Teffector cells may be an important mechanism that controls T cell responses and might prevent severe inflammation in patients with malaria and potentially other acute infections.

  6. T cell receptor-engineered T cells to treat solid tumors: T cell processing toward optimal T cell fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Lamers (Cor); S. van Steenbergen-Langeveld (Sabine); M. van Brakel (Mandy); C.M. Groot-van Ruijven (Corrien); P.M.M.L. van Elzakker (Pascal); B.A. van Krimpen (Brigitte); S. Sleijfer (Stefan); J.E.M.A. Debets (Reno)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTherapy with autologous T cells that have been gene-engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) or T cell receptors (TCR) provides a feasible and broadly applicable treatment for cancer patients. In a clinical study in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with CAR T

  7. PRE-DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Pre-diabetes is a condition where the body's cells begin to show resistance to insulin. Glucose circulates in the blood instead of being used by the cells for energy. Blood sugar levels become elevated. Increased weight, unhealthy diet and a sedentary lifestyle can lead to pre-diabetes. WHAT IS PRE-DIABETES A diagnosis of pre-diabetes means that the cells in your body are becoming resistant to insulin and your blood glucose levels are higher than they should be. Since the levels aren't as hig...

  8. Critical role for BIM in T cell receptor restimulation-induced death

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    Fleisher Thomas A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon repeated or chronic antigen stimulation, activated T cells undergo a T cell receptor (TCR-triggered propriocidal cell death important for governing the intensity of immune responses. This is thought to be chiefly mediated by an extrinsic signal through the Fas-FasL pathway. However, we observed that TCR restimulation still potently induced apoptosis when this interaction was blocked, or genetically impaired in T cells derived from autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS patients, prompting us to examine Fas-independent, intrinsic signals. Results Upon TCR restimulation, we specifically noted a marked increase in the expression of BIM, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein known to mediate lymphocyte apoptosis induced by cytokine withdrawal. In fact, T cells from an ALPS type IV patient in which BIM expression is suppressed were more resistant to restimulation-induced death. Strikingly, knockdown of BIM expression rescued normal T cells from TCR-induced death to as great an extent as Fas disruption. Conclusion Our data implicates BIM as a critical mediator of apoptosis induced by restimulation as well as growth cytokine withdrawal. These findings suggest an important role for BIM in eliminating activated T cells even when IL-2 is abundant, working in conjunction with Fas to eliminate chronically stimulated T cells and maintain immune homeostasis. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Wendy Davidson (nominated by Dr. David Scott, Dr. Mark Williams (nominated by Dr. Neil Greenspan, and Dr. Laurence C. Eisenlohr.

  9. Accumulation of pro-cancer cytokines in the plasma fraction of stored packed red cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Douglas D; Beck, Adam W; Burdine, Marie S; Brekken, Rolf; Silliman, Christopher C; Barnett, Carlton C

    2012-03-01

    Perioperative blood transfusion has been linked to decreased survival in pancreatic cancer; however, the exact causal mechanism has not been elucidated. Allogeneic transfusions are known to expose patients to foreign cells and lipid mediators. We hypothesize that stored packed red cells (pRBCs) contain pro-cancer cytokines that augment tumor progression. We analyzed the plasma fraction of stored pRBCs for pro-cancer cytokines and evaluated the affect of both storage time and leukocyte reduction on these mediators. Chemiarray™ analysis for pro-cancer cytokines was performed on the acellular plasma fraction of stored leukocyte-reduced (LR) and non-leukocyte-reduced (NLR) pRBCs at day 1 (D.1-fresh) and day 42 (D.42-outdate) of storage. Elevated expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), angiogenin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was found. Specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for each of these factors in LR and NLR blood at D.1, day 28, and D.42. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. A p value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant; N ≥ 4 per group. Migration assays were performed using inhibitors of EGF (gefitinib) and PDGF (imatinib) on murine pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (Pan02) exposed to D.1 and D.42 LR and NLR plasma. Proliferation assays were performed on Pan02 cells to test the inhibition of PDGF. MCP-1 levels increased with storage time in LR blood, 86.3 ± 6.3 pg/ml at D.1 vs. 121.2 ± 6.1 pg/ml at D.42 (p = 0.007), and NLR blood, 78.2 ± 7.3 pg/ml at D.1 vs. 647.8 ± 220.7 pg/ml at D.42 (p = 0.02). RANTES levels are lower in LR compared to NLR stored blood, 3.0 ± 1.9 vs. 15.8 ± 0.7 pg/ml at D.42 (p Pro-cancer cytokines that can augment tumor progression were identified in pRBCs. Some of these factors are present in fresh blood. The soluble factors identified herein may represent

  10. Role of T cell receptor affinity in the efficacy and specificity of adoptive T cell therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Stone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, there has been considerable progress in the treatment of cancer using gene modified adoptive T cell therapies. Two approaches have been used, one involving the introduction of a conventional alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR against a pepMHC cancer antigen, and the second involving introduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR consisting of a single-chain antibody as an Fv fragment (scFv linked to transmembrane and signaling domains. In this review, we focus on one aspect of TCR-mediated adoptive T cell therapies, the impact of the affinity of the alpha-beta TCR for the pepMHC cancer antigen on both efficacy and specificity. We discuss the advantages of higher affinity TCRs in mediating potent activity of CD4 T cells. This is balanced with the potential disadvantage of higher affinity TCRs in mediating greater self-reactivity against a wider range of structurally similar antigenic peptides, especially in synergy with the CD8 co-receptor. Both TCR affinity and target selection will influence potential safety issues. We suggest pre-clinical strategies that might be used to examine each TCR for possible on-target and off-target side effects due to self-reactivities, and to adjust TCR affinities accordingly.

  11. Endothelial cells provide a notch-dependent pro-tumoral niche for enhancing breast cancer survival, stemness and pro-metastatic properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Ghiabi

    Full Text Available Treating metastasis has been challenging due to tumors complexity and heterogeneity. This complexity is partly related to the crosstalk between tumor and its microenvironment. Endothelial cells -the building blocks of tumor vasculature- have been shown to have additional roles in cancer progression than angiogenesis and supplying oxygen and nutrients. Here, we show an alternative role for endothelial cells in supporting breast cancer growth and spreading independent of their vascular functions. Using endothelial cells and breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231 and MCF-7, we developed co-culture systems to study the influence of tumor endothelium on breast tumor development by both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Our results demonstrated that endothelial cells conferred survival advantage to tumor cells under complete starvation and enriched the CD44HighCD24Low/- stem cell population in tumor cells. Moreover, endothelial cells enhanced the pro-metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. The in vitro and in vivo results concordantly confirmed a role for endothelial Jagged1 to promote breast tumor through notch activation. Here, we propose a role for endothelial cells in enhancing breast cancer progression, stemness, and pro-metastatic traits through a perfusion-independent manner. Our findings may be beneficial in developing novel therapeutic approaches.

  12. RACK1 downregulates levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Fem1b in apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subauste, M Cecilia; Ventura-Holman, Tereza; Du, Liqin; Subauste, Jose S; Chan, Shing-Leng; Yu, Victor C; Maher, Joseph F

    2009-12-01

    Evasion of apoptosis plays an important role in colon cancer progression. Following loss of the Apc tumor suppressor gene in mice, the gene encoding Fem1b is upregulated early in neoplastic intestinal epithelium. Fem1b is a pro-apoptotic protein that interacts with Fas, TNFR1 and Apaf-1, and increased expression of Fem1b induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Fem1b is a homolog of FEM-1, a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. To study Fem1b regulation in colon cancer progression, we used apoptotis-sensitive SW480 cells, derived from a primary colon cancer, and their isogenic, apoptosis-resistant counterparts SW620 cells, derived from a subsequent metastatic lesion in the same patient. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor increased Fem1b protein levels in SW620 cells, but not in SW480 cells. In SW620 cells we found that endogenous Fem1b co-immunoprecipitates in complexes with RACK1, a protein known to mediate ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of other pro-apoptotic proteins and to be upregulated in colon cancer. Full-length Fem1b, or the N-terminal region of Fem1b, associated with RACK1 when co-expressed in HEK293T cells, and RACK1 stimulated ubiquitination of Fem1b. RACK1 overexpression in SW620 cells led to downregulation of Fem1b protein levels. Conversely, downregulation of RACK1 led to upregulation of Fem1b protein levels, associated with induction of apoptosis, and this apoptosis was inhibited by blocking Fem1b protein upregulation. In conclusion, RACK1 downregulates levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Fem1b in metastatic, apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells, which may promote apoptosis-resistance during progression of colon cancer.

  13. TB-IRIS and remodelling of the T cell compartment in highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB: the CAPRI T (ANRS-12614) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, V.; Pean, P.; Jasenosky, L.D.; Madec, Y.; Laureillard, D.; Sok, T.; Sath, S.; Borand, L.; Marcy, O.; Chan, S.; Tsitsikov, E.; Delfraissy, J.-F.; Blanc, F.-X.; Goldfeld, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) upon immunological recovery and the T cell compartment after initiation of TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design and methods We prospectively evaluated T cell immunophenotypes by flow cytometry and cytokines by Luminex assays in a subset (n=154) of highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB from the CAMELIA randomized clinical trial. We compared findings from patients who developed TB-IRIS to findings from patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Data were evaluated with mixed effect linear regression, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and q-values were calculated to control for multiple comparisons. Results Development of TB-IRIS was associated with significantly greater pre-ART frequencies of HLA-DR+CD45RO+CD4+, CCR5+CD4+, OX40+CD4+, and Fas+ effector memory (EM) CD8+ T cells, and significantly elevated levels of plasma IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10 and viral load. Post-ART initiation, EM CD4+ and Fas+ EM CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly expanded, and central memory (CM) CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly contracted in patients who experienced TB-IRIS. By week 34 post-TB treatment initiation, EM/CM CD4+ T cell ratios were markedly higher in TB-IRIS versus non-TB-IRIS patients. Conclusions A distinct pattern of pre-ART T cell and cytokine markers appear to poise the immune response to develop TB-IRIS. Experience of TB-IRIS is then associated with long-term remodeling of the CD4+ T cell memory compartment towards an EM-dominated phenotype. We speculate that these pre- and post-ART TB-IRIS-associated immune parameters may contribute to superior immune control of TB/HIV co-infection and better clinical outcome. PMID:25486415

  14. Selective Expansion of Memory CD4+ T cells By Mitogenic Human CD28 Generates Inflammatory Cytokines and Regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manisha; Basu, Sreemanti; Camell, Christina; Couturier, Jacob; Nudelman, Rodolfo J.; Medina, Miguel A.; Rodgers, John R.; Lewis, Dorothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Co-stimulatory signals are important for development of effector and regulatory T cells. In this case, CD28 signaling is usually considered inert in the absence of signaling through the TCR. By contrast, mitogenic rat CD28 mAbs reportedly expand regulatory T cells without TCR stimulation. We found that a commercially available human CD28 mAb (ANC28) stimulated PBMCs without TCR co-ligation or cross-linking; ANC28 selectively expanded CD4+CD25+FoxP3−(T effector) and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ (Treg) cells. ANC28 stimulated the CD45RO+ CD4+ (memory) population whereas CD45RA+CD4+ (naïve) cells did not respond. ANC28 also induced inflammatory cytokines. Treg induced by ANC28 retain the Treg phenotype longer than did co-stimulated Treg. Treg induced by ANC28 suppressed CD25− T cells through a contact-dependent mechanism. Purity influenced the response of CD4+CD25+ cells because bead-purified CD4+CD25+ cells (85–90% pure) responded strongly to ANC28, whereas 98% pure FACS-sorted CD4+CD25 bright (T-reg) did not respond. Purified CD4+CD25int cells responded similarly to the bead-purified CD4+CD25+ cells. Thus, pre-activated CD4+ T cells (CD25int) respond to ANC28 rather than Treg (CD25bright). The ability of ANC28 to expand both effectors producing inflammatory cytokines as well as suppressive regulatory T cells might be useful for ex vivo expansion of therapeutic T cells. PMID:18446791

  15. Increased expression of TLR9 associated with pro-inflammatory S100A8 and IL-8 in diabetic wounds could lead to unresolved inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases with impaired wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanhaiya; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Sinha, Pratima; Singh, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia which causes a chain of abrupt biochemical and physiological changes. Immune dys-regulation is the hallmark of T2DM that could contribute to prolonged inflammation causing transformation of wounds into non-healing chronic ulcers. Toll like receptor -9 (TLR9) is a major receptor involved in innate immune regulation. TLR9 activation induces release of pro-inflammatory molecules like S100A8 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by myeloid cells causing migration of myeloid cells to the site of inflammation. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory S100A8 and IL-8 proteins could cause persistent inflammation in chronic wounds like diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) and may contribute to impaired wound healing in T2DM patients. Expression of TLR9 and its downstream effector molecules S100A8, and IL-8 were analyzed in chronic diabetic wound and non-diabetic control wound tissue samples by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. CD11b(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. TLR9 message and protein were higher in diabetic wounds compared to control wounds (p=0.03, t=2.21 for TLR9 mRNA; p=diabetic wounds (p=0.003, t=3.1 for S100A8 mRNA; p=0.04, t=2.04 for IL-8). CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells were decreased in T2DM as compared to non-diabetic controls (p=0.001, t=3.6). DFU subjects had higher levels of CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells as compared to non-DFU T2DM control (p=0.003, t=2.8). Infection in the wound microenvironment could be the cause of increase in CD11b(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells in DFU (p=0.03, t=2.5). The up-regulation of myeloid cell-derived pro-inflammatory molecules S100A8 and IL-8 in combination with lower levels of CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells may cause the impairment of wound healing in T2DM subjects leading to chronic ulcers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The implication of follicular lymphoma patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation from donors carrying t(14;18)-positive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D K; Keever-Taylor, C A; Bredeson, C; Schur, B; Vesole, D H; Logan, B; Chang, C-C

    2005-06-01

    We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) in peripheral blood (PB) and/or bone marrow (BM) samples collected pre- and post transplant from 23 recipient-donor pairs receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for follicular lymphoma (FL). Of 23 donors, 11 had a PB and/or BM sample positive for t(14;18) (BCL2/IGH fusion) at low levels (donors with (n=11) and those without (n=12) detectable t(14:18) cells were similar in age, sex, and disease status pretransplant. No differences in the incidence of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), delayed engraftment, relapse rate, disease-free survival and overall survival were identified between the groups. Two recipients without detectable t(14;18) cells pre-transplant showed detectable t(14;18) cells at 2 and 11 years after receiving grafts from donors with t(14:18) cells. Neither patient developed FL 1.5 and 2 years after the emergence of t(14;18) cells. Although the sample size is relatively small, our findings suggest that individuals carrying t(14;18) cells may not be excluded as donors given the lack of an association of t(14;18) detected in donors with adverse clinical outcome. It may be necessary to screen for the donor's t(14;18) status before using t(14;18) for monitoring minimal residual disease by RQ-PCR to exclude the possibility of confounding donor's t(14;18) clone.

  17. T cell differentiation stages identified by molecular and immunologic analysis of the T cell receptor complex in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirro, J; Kitchingman, G; Behm, F G; Murphy, S B; Goorha, R M

    1987-03-01

    T cell differentiation was investigated by determining the relationship of T cell receptor (Ti) gene rearrangement and transcription to the expression of surface and cytoplasmic T3 antigen using blast cells from five children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia of thymic origin. Patterns of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) reactivity indicated that these cases were representative of the three recognized stages (I, II, III) of human thymocyte development. The T3 antigen, which becomes linked to the Ti to form a functional T cell receptor complex on mature thymocytes, was expressed on the cell surface in two cases (stage III). However, in the remaining three cases that were surface T3 negative (stages I and II), large amounts of T3 were identified in the cytoplasm by immunoperoxidase staining and flow cytometry. Leukemic blasts from all five patients showed rearranged genes encoding the beta-chain portion of the Ti heterodimer. RNA transcripts of Ti beta-chain genes were also evident in lymphoblasts from all five cases, but transcripts coding for the alpha-chain portion of Ti were found only in cases that expressed T3 on the cell surface. Thus the absence of surface T3 (and presumably Ti) coincides with the absence of Ti alpha-chain RNA, suggesting that transcription of alpha-chain genes is a critical regulatory event in the surface expression of the Ti-T3 complex. Leukemic T cells that rearrange and express Ti beta-chain genes but lack Ti alpha-chain messenger RNA (mRNA) may represent a stage of differentiation analogous to pre-B cells, where heavy-chain immunoglobulin (Ig) genes are rearranged and expressed but light-chain Ig genes are not expressed.

  18. Crosstalk between type II NKT cells and T cells leads to spontaneous chronic inflammatory liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; He, Ying; Visvabharathy, Lavanya; Liao, Chia-Min; Tan, Xiaosheng; Balakumar, Arjun; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2017-10-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are CD1d-restricted innate-like T cells that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike the well-characterized invariant/type I NKT cells, type II NKT cells with a diverse T cell receptor repertoire are poorly understood. This study defines the pathogenic role of type II NKT cells in the etiology of chronic liver inflammation. Transgenic mice with the Lck promoter directing CD1d overexpression on T cells in Jα18 wild-type (Lck-CD1dTgJα18 + ; type I NKT cell sufficient) and Jα18-deficient (Lck-CD1dTgJα18 o , type I NKT cell deficient) mice were analyzed for liver pathology and crosstalk between type II NKT cells and conventional T cells. CD1d expression on T cells in peripheral blood samples and liver sections from autoimmune hepatitis patients and healthy individuals were also examined. Lck-CD1dTgJα18 o and Lck-CD1dTgJα18 + mice developed similar degrees of liver pathology resembling chronic autoimmune hepatitis in humans. Increased CD1d expression on T cells promoted the activation of type II NKT cells and other T cells. This resulted in T h 1-skewing and impaired T h 2 cytokine production in type II NKT cells. Dysfunction of type II NKT cells was accompanied by conventional T cell activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to a hepatic T/B lymphocyte infiltration, elevated autoantibodies and hepatic injury in Lck-CD1dTg mice. A similar mechanism could be extended to humans as CD1d expression is upregulated on activated human T cells and increased presence of CD1d-expressing T cells was observed in autoimmune hepatitis patients. Our data reveals enhanced crosstalk between type II NKT cells and conventional T cells, leading to a T h 1-skewed inflammatory milieu, and consequently, to the development of chronic autoimmune liver disease. Lay summary: CD1d overexpression on T cells enhances crosstalk between type II NKT cells and T cells, resulting in their aberrant activation and leading to the

  19. Romidepsin targets multiple survival signaling pathways in malignant T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, B C; Brammer, J E; Li, Y; Murray, D; Liu, Y; Hosing, C; Nieto, Y; Champlin, R E; Andersson, B S

    2015-01-01

    Romidepsin is a cyclic molecule that inhibits histone deacetylases. It is Food and Drug Administration-approved for treatment of cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, but its precise mechanism of action against malignant T cells is unknown. To better understand the biological effects of romidepsin in these cells, we exposed PEER and SUPT1 T-cell lines, and a primary sample from T-cell lymphoma patient (Patient J) to romidepsin. We then examined the consequences in some key oncogenic signaling pathways. Romidepsin displayed IC 50 values of 10.8, 7.9 and 7.0 nm in PEER, SUPT1 and Patient J cells, respectively. Strong inhibition of histone deacetylases and demethylases, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, which may contribute to the observed DNA-damage response and apoptosis. The stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum were activated, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) and β-catenin pro-survival pathways were inhibited. The decreased level of β-catenin correlated with the upregulation of its inhibitor SFRP1 through romidepsin-mediated hypomethylation of its gene promoter. Our results provide new insights into how romidepsin invokes malignant T-cell killing, show evidence of its associated DNA hypomethylating activity and offer a rationale for the development of romidepsin-containing combination therapies

  20. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor marks and regulates a fetal myeloid-primed B-cell progenitor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zriwil, Alya; Böiers, Charlotta; Wittmann, Lilian; Green, Joanna C A; Woll, Petter S; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W; Sitnicka, Ewa

    2016-07-14

    Although it is well established that unique B-cell lineages develop through distinct regulatory mechanisms during embryonic development, much less is understood about the differences between embryonic and adult B-cell progenitor cells, likely to underpin the genetics and biology of infant and childhood PreB acute lymphoblastic leukemia (PreB-ALL), initiated by distinct leukemia-initiating translocations during embryonic development. Herein, we establish that a distinct subset of the earliest CD19(+) B-cell progenitors emerging in the E13.5 mouse fetal liver express the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R), previously thought to be expressed, and play a lineage-restricted role in development of myeloid lineages, and macrophages in particular. These early embryonic CSF1R(+)CD19(+) ProB cells also express multiple other myeloid genes and, in line with this, possess residual myeloid as well as B-cell, but not T-cell lineage potential. Notably, these CSF1R(+) myeloid-primed ProB cells are uniquely present in a narrow window of embryonic fetal liver hematopoiesis and do not persist in adult bone marrow. Moreover, analysis of CSF1R-deficient mice establishes a distinct role of CSF1R in fetal B-lymphopoiesis. CSF1R(+) myeloid-primed embryonic ProB cells are relevant for infant and childhood PreB-ALLs, which frequently have a bi-phenotypic B-myeloid phenotype, and in which CSF1R-rearrangements have recently been reported. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Immunoregulatory effects of human dental pulp-derived stem cells on T cells: comparison of transwell co-culture and mixed lymphocyte reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Pinar Cetinalp; Sariboyaci, Ayla Eker; Unal, Zehra Seda; Gacar, Gulcin; Subasi, Cansu; Karaoz, Erdal

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS. Studies performed using human and animal models have indicated the immunoregulatory capability of mesenchymal stromal cells in several lineages. We investigated whether human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDP-SC) have regulatory effects on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated CD3(+) T cells. We aimed to define the regulatory mechanisms associated with hDP-SC that occur in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and transwell systems with PHA-CD3(+) T cells and hDP-SC at a ratio of 1:1. METHODS. Proliferation, apoptosis and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of PHA-CD3(+)T cells, the expression of Regulatory T cells (Treg) markers and some regulatory factors related to hDP-SC, were studied in Both transwell and MLR are co-cultures systems. RESULTS. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of hDP-SC were determined in co-culture systems. Elevated expression levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-β1, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by hDP-SC were detected in the co-culture systems. We observed decreased expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, IL-6 receptor (R), IL-12, Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and increased expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine [inducible protein (IP)-10] from PHA-CD3(+) T cells in the transwell system. Expression of Treg (CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+)) markers was significantly induced by hDP-SC in both co-culture systems. We observed apoptosis of PHA-CD3(+) T cells with 24 h using time-lapse camera photographs and active caspase labeling; it is likely that paracrine soluble factors and molecular signals secreted by hDP-SC led this apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS. We suggest that hDP-SC have potent immunoregulatory functions because of their soluble factors and cytokines via paracrine

  2. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D.; Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael; Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25 hi Foxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients

  3. Substantially Modified Ratios of Effector to Regulatory T Cells During Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Patients Return to Pre-Treatment Levels at Completion: Implications for Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Anthony; Govindaraj, Chindu; Xiang, Sue D., E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia); Halo, Julene; Quinn, Michael [Department of Oncology, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Plebanski, Magdalena, E-mail: Sue.Xiang@monash.edu [Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004 (Australia)

    2012-06-18

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. Despite improved detection and treatment options, relapse rates remain high. Combining immunotherapy with the current standard treatments may provide an improved prognosis, however, little is known about how standard chemotherapy affects immune potential (particularly T cells) over time, and hence, when to optimally combine it with immunotherapy (e.g., vaccines). Herein, we assess the frequency and ratio of CD8+ central memory and effector T cells as well as CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during the first 18 weeks of standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients. In this pilot study, we observed increased levels of recently activated Tregs with tumor migrating ability (CD4+CD25{sup hi}Foxp3+CD127−CCR4+CD38+ cells) in patients when compared to controls. Although frequency changes of Tregs as well as the ratio of effector T cells to Tregs were observed during treatment, the Tregs consistently returned to pre-chemotherapy levels at the end of treatment. These results indicate T cell subset distributions associated with recurrence may be largely resistant to being “re-set” to healthy control homeostatic levels following standard treatments. However, it may be possible to enhance T effector to Treg ratios transiently during chemotherapy. These results suggest personalized immune monitoring maybe beneficial when combining novel immuno-therapeutics with standard treatment for ovarian cancer patients.

  4. Co-stimulation by anti-immunoglobulin is required for B cell activation by CD40Llow T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    cell Ag specificity by using anti-CD3/T cell receptor (TcR) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to activate T cells. To study the role of sIg engagement in the responsiveness of B cells to T help, we pre-treated small resting B cells with soluble anti-kappa mAb prior to contact with an activated Th1 clone...... strongly. Low buoyant density B cells also responded to CD40Llow Th cells. There was no B cell response to resting Th cells. mAb against CD54/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II completely inhibited B cell responses to CD40Llow Th1 cells, equivalent...

  5. Anti-adipogenic effects of KD025 (SLx-2119), a ROCK2-specific inhibitor, in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Duy Trong Vien; Hong, Kyungki; Khun, Triyeng; Zheng, Mei; Ul-Haq, Asad; Jun, Hee-Sook; Kim, Young-Bum; Chun, Kwang-Hoon

    2018-02-06

    Adipose tissue is a specialized organ that synthesizes and stores fat. During adipogenesis, Rho and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) 2 are inactivated, which enhances the expression of pro-adipogenic genes and induces the loss of actin stress fibers. Furthermore, pan ROCK inhibitors enhance adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Here, we show that KD025 (formerly known as SLx-2119), a ROCK2-specific inhibitor, suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells partially through a ROCK2-independent mechanism. KD025 downregulated the expression of key adipogenic transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα during adipogenesis in addition to lipogenic factors FABP4 and Glut4. Interestingly, adipogenesis was blocked by KD025 during days 1~3 of differentiation; after differentiation terminated, lipid accumulation was unaffected. Clonal expansion occurred normally in KD025-treated cells. These results suggest that KD025 could function during the intermediate stage after clonal expansion. Data from depletion of ROCKs showed that KD025 suppressed cell differentiation partially independent of ROCK's activity. Furthermore, no further loss of actin stress fibers emerged in KD025-treated cells during and after differentiation compared to control cells. These results indicate that in contrast to the pro-adipogenic effect of pan-inhibitors, KD025 suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by regulating key pro-adipogenic factors. This outcome further implies that KD025 could be a potential anti-adipogenic/obesity agent.

  6. Plumbagin exerts an immunosuppressive effect on human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Yura [Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Daejeon 34824 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soon Ae [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Daejeon 34824 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiyeon, E-mail: yeon@eulji.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Daejeon 34824 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-22

    Of the hematological disorders typified by poor prognoses and survival rates, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is one of the most commonly diagnosed. Despite the development of new therapeutic agents, the treatment options for this cancer remain limited. In this manuscript, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of plumbagin, mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling; the human T-ALL MOLT-4 cell line was used as our experimental system. Plumbagin is a natural, plant derived compound, which exerts an anti-proliferative activity against many types of human cancer. Our experiments confirm that plumbagin induces a caspase-dependent apoptosis of MOLT-4 cells, with no significant cytotoxicity seen for normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Plumbagin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65, and the transcription of NF-κB target genes. Our results now show that plumbagin is a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and suppressor of T-ALL cell proliferation. - Highlights: • Plumbagin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in T-ALL MOLT-4 cells. • Plumbagin activates phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) JNK and p38. • Plumbagin inhibits LPS-mediated NF-κB signaling cascade. • Plumbagin inhibits LPS-mediated transcriptional activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  7. Human mesenchymal stromal cells transiently increase cytokine production by activated T cells before suppressing T-cell proliferation: effect of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerquis, Jessica; Romieu-Mourez, Raphaëlle; François, Moïra; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Young, Yoon Kow; Zhao, Jing; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppress T-cell proliferation, especially after activation with inflammatory cytokines. We compared the dynamic action of unprimed and interferon (IFN)-γ plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-pretreated human bone marrow-derived MSCs on resting or activated T cells. MSCs were co-cultured with allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at high MSC-to-PBMC ratios in the absence or presence of concomitant CD3/CD28-induced T-cell activation. The kinetic effects of MSCs on cytokine production and T-cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed. Unprimed MSCs increased the early production of IFN-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 by CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs before suppressing T-cell proliferation. In non-activated PBMC co-cultures, low levels of IL-2 and IL-10 synthesis were observed with MSCs in addition to low levels of CD69 expression by T cells and no T-cell proliferation. MSCs also decreased apoptosis in resting and activated T cells and inhibited the transition of these cells into the sub-G0/G1 and the S phases. With inhibition of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, MSCs increased CD3/CD28-induced T-cell proliferation. After priming with IFN-γ plus TNF-α, MSCs were less potent at increasing cytokine production by CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs and more effective at inhibiting T-cell proliferation but had preserved anti-apoptotic functions. Unprimed MSCs induce a transient increase in IFN-γ and IL-2 synthesis by activated T cells. Pre-treatment of MSCs with IFN-γ plus TNF-α may increase their effectiveness and safety in vivo. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ASSOCIATION OF ANGIOTENSINOGEN GENE M235T VARIANT IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAREI, E.S.; SAUDI, A.KH.; ANEES, L.M.; MOHAMMED, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is multisystem and multifactorial complication of pregnancy. The precise cause of pre-eclampsia has not been determined but mal adoption of the rennin and angiotensinogen (AGT) system may play a role. The products of genes involving the components of this system may be potential candidates for pre-eclampsia and hypertension related to pregnancy. This study was designed to determine whether the M235T variants of AGT gene were associated with the prevalence of pre-eclampsia and also to evaluate the role of plasma AGT in the development of the disease. Hence, developed, rapid and reliable PCR based assay was used to screen individuals for the M235T alleles. This assay was also used to genotype prospectively both recruited pregnant women with pre-eclampsia (n=24) and controls (n=11). Plasma AGT was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results of the PCR based assay revealed a significant association of 235T allele with the prevalence of all pre-eclamptic patients, Chi-square (x2) = 3.714, P 0.05). Also, pre-eclamptic women exhibited significant higher levels of plasma AGT (52.15 ± 1.63) versus controls (44.76 ± 4.6) with P value < 0.001. This gave clear evidence that T235T allele and plasma AGT contributed to the development of pre-eclampsia with pregnancy and correlated with severity of the disease

  9. Myeloid Conditioning with c-kit-Targeted CAR-T Cells Enables Donor Stem Cell Engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasuyuki; Choi, Uimook; Corsino, Cristina I; Koontz, Sherry M; Tajima, Masaki; Sweeney, Colin L; Black, Mary A; Feldman, Steven A; Dinauer, Mary C; Malech, Harry L

    2018-05-02

    We report a novel approach to bone marrow (BM) conditioning using c-kit-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (c-kit CAR-T) cells in mice. Previous reports using anti-c-kit or anti-CD45 antibody linked to a toxin such as saporin have been promising. We developed a distinctly different approach using c-kit CAR-T cells. Initial studies demonstrated in vitro killing of hematopoietic stem cells by c-kit CAR-T cells but poor expansion in vivo and poor migration of CAR-T cells into BM. Pre-treatment of recipient mice with low-dose cyclophosphamide (125 mg/kg) together with CXCR4 transduction in the CAR-T cells enhanced trafficking to and expansion in BM (c-kit + population (9.0%-0.1%). Because congenic Thy1.1 CAR-T cells were used in the Thy1.2-recipient mice, anti-Thy1.1 antibody could be used to deplete CAR-T cells in vivo before donor BM transplant. This achieved 20%-40% multilineage engraftment. We applied this conditioning to achieve an average of 28% correction of chronic granulomatous disease mice by wild-type BM transplant. Our findings provide a proof of concept that c-kit CAR-T cells can achieve effective BM conditioning without chemo-/radiotherapy. Our work also demonstrates that co-expression of a trafficking receptor can enhance targeting of CAR-T cells to a designated tissue. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell lines derived after boosting BCG-vaccinated cattle with Ad5-85A possess both mycobacterial growth inhibition and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Hannah J; Biffar, Lucia; Steinbach, Sabine; Guzman, Efrain; Connelley, Tim; Morrison, Ivan; Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo

    2018-05-11

    There is a need to improve the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against human and bovine tuberculosis. Previous data showed that boosting bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle with a recombinant attenuated human type 5 adenovirally vectored subunit vaccine (Ad5-85A) increased BCG protection and was associated with increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells post-boosting. Here, the capacity of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines - derived before and after viral boosting - to interact with BCG-infected macrophages was evaluated. No difference before and after boosting was found in the capacity of these Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines to restrict mycobacterial growth, but the secretion of IL-10 in vitro post-boost increased significantly. Furthermore, cell lines derived post-boost had no statistically significant difference in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, IFNγ or TNFα) compared to pre-boost lines. In conclusion, the protection associated with the increased number of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells restricting mycobacterial growth may be associated with anti-inflammatory properties to limit immune-pathology. Copyright © 2018 Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Deficient regulatory T cell activity and low frequency of IL-17-producing T cells correlate with the extent of cardiomyopathy in human Chagas' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Matta Guedes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardium damage during Chagas' disease results from the immunological imbalance between pro- and production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and has been explained based on the Th1-Th2 dichotomy and regulatory T cell activity. Recently, we demonstrated that IL-17 produced during experimental T. cruzi infection regulates Th1 cells differentiation and parasite induced myocarditis. Here, we investigated the role of IL-17 and regulatory T cell during human Chagas' disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we observed CD4(+IL-17(+ T cells in culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from Chagas' disease patients and we evaluated Th1, Th2, Th17 cytokine profile production in the PBMC cells from Chagas' disease patients (cardiomyopathy-free, and with mild, moderate or severe cardiomyopathy cultured with T. cruzi antigen. Cultures of PBMC from patients with moderate and severe cardiomyopathy produced high levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and low levels of IL-10, when compared to mild cardiomyopathy or cardiomyopathy-free patients. Flow cytometry analysis showed higher CD4(+IL-17(+ cells in PBMC cultured from patients without or with mild cardiomyopathy, in comparison to patients with moderate or severe cardiomyopathy. We then analyzed the presence and function of regulatory T cells in all patients. All groups of Chagas' disease patients presented the same frequency of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells. However, CD4(+CD25(+ T cells from patients with mild cardiomyopathy or cardiomyopathy-free showed higher suppressive activity than those with moderate and severe cardiomyopathy. IFN-γ levels during chronic Chagas' disease are inversely correlated to the LVEF (P = 0.007, r = -0.614, while regulatory T cell activity is directly correlated with LVEF (P = 0.022, r = 0.500. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that reduced production of the cytokines IL-10 and IL-17 in association with high levels of IFN-γ and TNF

  12. Conventional CD11chigh Dendritic Cells Are Important for T Cell Priming during the Initial Phase of Plasmodium yoelii Infection, but Are Dispensable at Later Time Points.

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    Ueffing, Kristina; Abberger, Hanna; Westendorf, Astrid M; Matuschewski, Kai; Buer, Jan; Hansen, Wiebke

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate adaptive immune responses to pathogens. During malaria infection pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell responses have to be tightly balanced to ensure parasite clearance without induction of severe immune pathologies. However, the precise role of CD11c high DCs in this process is still discussed controversially. Here, we demonstrate that long-term depletion of conventional CD11c high DCs in Plasmodium yoelii ( P. yoelii )-infected diphtheria toxin (DT)-treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre mice interferes with the activation of CD8 + and CD4 + T cells as well as CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells at early time points during infection. Moreover, systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were decreased in P. yoelii -infected mice deficient for CD11c high DCs compared to infected RosaiDTR controls. To further elucidate the importance of CD11c high DCs during the later phase of infection, we treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre and control mice with DT only from day 4 of P. yoelii infection onward. Strikingly, this approach had no impact on the activation and IFN-γ production of CD4 + and CD8 + effector T cells. These results indicate that CD11c high DCs play a crucial role in eliciting effector T cell responses during the initial phase, but are dispensable during ongoing infection with P. yoelii .

  13. Conventional CD11chigh Dendritic Cells Are Important for T Cell Priming during the Initial Phase of Plasmodium yoelii Infection, but Are Dispensable at Later Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ueffing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate adaptive immune responses to pathogens. During malaria infection pro- and anti-inflammatory T cell responses have to be tightly balanced to ensure parasite clearance without induction of severe immune pathologies. However, the precise role of CD11chigh DCs in this process is still discussed controversially. Here, we demonstrate that long-term depletion of conventional CD11chigh DCs in Plasmodium yoelii (P. yoelii-infected diphtheria toxin (DT-treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre mice interferes with the activation of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells at early time points during infection. Moreover, systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were decreased in P. yoelii-infected mice deficient for CD11chigh DCs compared to infected RosaiDTR controls. To further elucidate the importance of CD11chigh DCs during the later phase of infection, we treated RosaiDTR/CD11c-cre and control mice with DT only from day 4 of P. yoelii infection onward. Strikingly, this approach had no impact on the activation and IFN-γ production of CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells. These results indicate that CD11chigh DCs play a crucial role in eliciting effector T cell responses during the initial phase, but are dispensable during ongoing infection with P. yoelii.

  14. Interleukin-7 induces HIV replication in primary naive T cells through a nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT)-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managlia, Elizabeth Z.; Landay, Alan; Al-Harthi, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-7 plays several roles critical to T cell maturation, survival, and homeostasis. Because of these functions, IL-7 is under investigation as an immune-modulator for therapeutic use in lymphopenic clinical conditions, including HIV. We reported that naive T cells, typically not permissive to HIV, can be productively infected when pre-treated with IL-7. We evaluated the mechanism by which IL-7-mediates this effect. IL-7 potently up-regulated the transcriptional factor NFAT, but had no effect on NFκB. Blocking NFAT activity using a number of reagents, such as Cyclosporin A, FK-506, or the NFAT-specific inhibitor known as VIVIT peptide, all markedly reduced IL-7-mediated induction of HIV replication in naive T cells. Additional neutralization of cytokines present in IL-7-treated cultures and/or those that have NFAT-binding sequences within their promotors indicated that IL-10, IL-4, and most significantly IFNγ, all contribute to IL-7-induction of HIV productive replication in naive T cells. These data clarify the mechanism by which IL-7 can overcome the block to HIV productive infection in naive T cells, despite their quiescent cell status. These findings are relevant to the treatment of HIV disease and understanding HIV pathogenesis in the naive CD4+ T cell compartment, especially in light of the vigorous pursuit of IL-7 as an in vivo immune modulator

  15. Lipopolysaccharides with acylation defects potentiate TLR4 signaling and shape T cell responses.

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    Anna Martirosyan

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins are components of Gram-negative enterobacteria that cause septic shock in mammals. However, a LPS carrying hexa-acyl lipid A moieties is highly endotoxic compared to a tetra-acyl LPS and the latter has been considered as an antagonist of hexa-acyl LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling. We investigated the relationship between the structure and the function of bacterial LPS in the context of human and mouse dendritic cell activation. Strikingly, LPS with acylation defects were capable of triggering a strong and early TLR4-dependent DC activation, which in turn led to the activation of the proteasome machinery dampening the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Upon activation with tetra-acyl LPS both mouse and human dendritic cells triggered CD4(+ T and CD8(+ T cell responses and, importantly, human myeloid dendritic cells favored the induction of regulatory T cells. Altogether, our data suggest that LPS acylation controlled by pathogenic bacteria might be an important strategy to subvert adaptive immunity.

  16. Adoptive transfer of murine T cells expressing a chimeric-PD1-Dap10 receptor as an immunotherapy for lymphoma.

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    Lynch, Adam; Hawk, William; Nylen, Emily; Ober, Sean; Autin, Pierre; Barber, Amorette

    2017-11-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells is a promising cancer therapy and expression of chimeric antigen receptors can enhance tumour recognition and T-cell effector functions. The programmed death protein 1 (PD1) receptor is a prospective target for a chimeric antigen receptor because PD1 ligands are expressed on many cancer types, including lymphoma. Therefore, we developed a murine chimeric PD1 receptor (chPD1) consisting of the PD1 extracellular domain fused to the cytoplasmic domain of CD3ζ. Additionally, chimeric antigen receptor therapies use various co-stimulatory domains to enhance efficacy. Hence, the inclusion of a Dap10 or CD28 co-stimulatory domain in the chPD1 receptor was compared to determine which domain induced optimal anti-tumour immunity in a mouse model of lymphoma. The chPD1 T cells secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines and lysed RMA lymphoma cells. Adoptive transfer of chPD1 T cells significantly reduced established tumours and led to tumour-free survival in lymphoma-bearing mice. When comparing chPD1 receptors containing a Dap10 or CD28 domain, both receptors induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, chPD1-CD28 T cells also secreted anti-inflammatory cytokines whereas chPD1-Dap10 T cells did not. Additionally, chPD1-Dap10 induced a central memory T-cell phenotype compared with chPD1-CD28, which induced an effector memory phenotype. The chPD1-Dap10 T cells also had enhanced in vivo persistence and anti-tumour efficacy compared with chPD1-CD28 T cells. Therefore, adoptive transfer of chPD1 T cells could be a novel therapy for lymphoma and inclusion of the Dap10 co-stimulatory domain in chimeric antigen receptors may induce a preferential cytokine profile and T-cell differentiation phenotype for anti-tumour therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. CD4+ T Cell-derived IL-10 Promotes Brucella abortus Persistence via Modulation of Macrophage Function

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    Xavier, Mariana N.; Winter, Maria G.; Spees, Alanna M.; Nguyen, Kim; Atluri, Vidya L.; Silva, Teane M. A.; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Müller, Werner; Santos, Renato L.; Tsolis, Renée M.

    2013-01-01

    Evasion of host immune responses is a prerequisite for chronic bacterial diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that the persistent intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus prevents immune activation of macrophages by inducing CD4+CD25+ T cells to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) early during infection. IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) blockage in macrophages resulted in significantly higher NF-kB activation as well as decreased bacterial intracellular survival associated with an inability of B. abortus to escape the late endosome compartment in vitro. Moreover, either a lack of IL-10 production by T cells or a lack of macrophage responsiveness to this cytokine resulted in an increased ability of mice to control B. abortus infection, while inducing elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which led to severe pathology in liver and spleen of infected mice. Collectively, our results suggest that early IL-10 production by CD25+CD4+ T cells modulates macrophage function and contributes to an initial balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that is beneficial to the pathogen, thereby promoting enhanced bacterial survival and persistent infection. PMID:23818855

  18. Single-cell multiplexed cytokine profiling of CD19 CAR-T cells reveals a diverse landscape of polyfunctional antigen-specific response.

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    Xue, Qiong; Bettini, Emily; Paczkowski, Patrick; Ng, Colin; Kaiser, Alaina; McConnell, Timothy; Kodrasi, Olja; Quigley, Máire F; Heath, James; Fan, Rong; Mackay, Sean; Dudley, Mark E; Kassim, Sadik H; Zhou, Jing

    2017-11-21

    It remains challenging to characterize the functional attributes of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cell product targeting CD19 related to potency and immunotoxicity ex vivo, despite promising in vivo efficacy in patients with B cell malignancies. We employed a single-cell, 16-plex cytokine microfluidics device and new analysis techniques to evaluate the functional profile of CD19 CAR-T cells upon antigen-specific stimulation. CAR-T cells were manufactured from human PBMCs transfected with the lentivirus encoding the CD19-BB-z transgene and expanded with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 coated beads. The enriched CAR-T cells were stimulated with anti-CAR or control IgG beads, stained with anti-CD4 RPE and anti-CD8 Alexa Fluor 647 antibodies, and incubated for 16 h in a single-cell barcode chip (SCBC). Each SCBC contains ~12,000 microchambers, covered with a glass slide that was pre-patterned with a complete copy of a 16-plex antibody array. Protein secretions from single CAR-T cells were captured and subsequently analyzed using proprietary software and new visualization methods. We demonstrate a new method for single-cell profiling of CD19 CAR-T pre-infusion products prepared from 4 healthy donors. CAR-T single cells exhibited a marked heterogeneity of cytokine secretions and polyfunctional (2+ cytokine) subsets specific to anti-CAR bead stimulation. The breadth of responses includes anti-tumor effector (Granzyme B, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, TNF-α), stimulatory (GM-CSF, IL-2, IL-8), regulatory (IL-4, IL-13, IL-22), and inflammatory (IL-6, IL-17A) functions. Furthermore, we developed two new bioinformatics tools for more effective polyfunctional subset visualization and comparison between donors. Single-cell, multiplexed, proteomic profiling of CD19 CAR-T product reveals a diverse landscape of immune effector response of CD19 CAR-T cells to antigen-specific challenge, providing a new platform for capturing CAR-T product data for correlative analysis. Additionally, such high

  19. Superior Cervical Ganglia Neurons Induce Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells via Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide.

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    Szklany, Kirsten; Ruiter, Evelyn; Mian, Firoz; Kunze, Wolfgang; Bienenstock, John; Forsythe, Paul; Karimi, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems communicate bidirectionally, utilizing diverse molecular signals including cytokines and neurotransmitters to provide an integrated response to changes in the body's internal and external environment. Although, neuro-immune interactions are becoming better understood under inflammatory circumstances and it has been evidenced that interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to T regulatory cells, relatively little is known about the communication between neurons and naïve T cells. Here, we demonstrate that following co-culture of naïve CD4+ T cells with superior cervical ganglion neurons, the percentage of Foxp3 expressing CD4+CD25+ cells significantly increased. This was mediated in part by immune-regulatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10, as well as the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide while vasoactive intestinal peptide was shown to play no role in generation of T regulatory cells. Additionally, T cells co-cultured with neurons showed a decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ released upon in vitro stimulation. These findings suggest that the generation of Tregs may be promoted by naïve CD4+ T cell: neuron interaction through the release of neuropeptide CGRP.

  20. Activation of p38 MAPK by feline infectious peritonitis virus regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Andrew D; Cohen, Rebecca D; Whittaker, Gary R

    2009-02-05

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an invariably fatal disease of cats caused by systemic infection with a feline coronavirus (FCoV) termed feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). The lethal pathology associated with FIP (granulomatous inflammation and T-cell lymphopenia) is thought to be mediated by aberrant modulation of the immune system due to infection of cells such as monocytes and macrophages. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines occurs in cats with FIP, and has been suggested to play a significant role in the disease process. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. Here we show that infection of primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells by FIPV WSU 79-1146 and FIPV-DF2 leads to rapid activation of the p38 MAPK pathway and that this activation regulates production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production was inhibited by the pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors SB 203580 and SC 409 in a dose-dependent manner. FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation was observed in primary feline blood-derived mononuclear cells individually purified from multiple SPF cats, as was the inhibition of TNF-alpha production by pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors.

  1. Allograft cytotoxicity co-operation between alloimmune T cells and macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Jones, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    T cells from the spleens of C57BL 10 (H-2sup(b)) mice 7 to 12 days after immunization with P815Y (H-2sup(d)) mastocytoma cells have been shown to co-operate synergistically with an adherent component of non-immune starch induced peritoneal cells in the cytostasis of target cells. Although significant values for synergy could be obtained using the ( 125 I) UdR incorporation assay to measure cytostasis, normal peritoneal cells were incapable of co-operating with T cells in cytolysis as measured by 51 Cr release from pre-labelled target cells. Initially, the synergistic interaction was immunologically specific, but non-specific activity could be induced by challenge with specific antigen. (author)

  2. Rapamycin sensitizes T-ALL cells to dexamethasone-induced apoptosis

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    Mu Dezhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoid (GC resistance is frequently seen in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T-cell lineage (T-ALL. In this study we investigate the potential and mechanism of using rapamycin to restore the sensitivity of GC-resistant T-ALL cells to dexamethasone (Dex treatment. Methods Cell proliferation was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis was used to analyze apoptosis and cell cycles. Western blot analysis was performed to test the expression of the downstream effector proteins of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, the cell cycle regulatory proteins, and apoptosis associated proteins. Results 10 nM rapamycin markedly increased GC sensitivity in GC-resistant T-ALL cells and this effect was mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway. Cell cycle arrest was associated with modulation of G1-S phase regulators. Both rapamycin and Dex can induce up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors of p21 and p27 and co-treatment of rapamycin with Dex resulted in a synergistic induction of their expressions. Rapamycin did not obviously affect the expression of cyclin A, whereas Dex induced cyclin A expression. Rapamycin prevented Dex-induced expression of cyclin A. Rapamycin had a stronger inhibition of cyclin D1 expression than Dex. Rapamycin enhanced GC-induced apoptosis and this was not achieved by modulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR expression, but synergistically up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins like caspase-3, Bax, and Bim, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein of Mcl-1. Conclusion Our data suggests that rapamycin can effectively reverse GC resistance in T-ALL and this effect is achieved by inducing cell cycles arrested at G0/G1 phase and activating the intrinsic apoptotic program. Therefore, combination of mTOR inhibitor rapamycin with GC containing protocol might be an attracting

  3. Biology and clinical application of CAR T cells for B cell malignancies.

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    Davila, Marco L; Sadelain, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have generated broad interest in oncology following a series of dramatic clinical successes in patients with chemorefractory B cell malignancies. CAR therapy now appears to be on the cusp of regulatory approval as a cell-based immunotherapy. We review here the T cell biology and cell engineering research that led to the development of second generation CARs, the selection of CD19 as a CAR target, and the preclinical studies in animal models that laid the foundation for clinical trials targeting CD19+ malignancies. We further summarize the status of CD19 CAR clinical therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, including their efficacy, toxicities (cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity and B cell aplasia) and current management in humans. We conclude with an overview of recent pre-clinical advances in CAR design that argues favorably for the advancement of CAR therapy to tackle other hematological malignancies as well as solid tumors.

  4. Genetically-modified pig mesenchymal stromal cells: xenoantigenicity and effect on human T-cell xenoresponses.

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    Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Ezzelarab, Corin; Wilhite, Tyler; Kumar, Goutham; Hara, Hidetaka; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K C

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are being investigated as immunomodulatory therapy in the field of transplantation, particularly islet transplantation. While MSC can regenerate across species barriers, the immunoregulatory influence of genetically modified pig MSC (pMSC) on the human and non-human primate T-cell responses has not been studied. Mesenchymal stromal cells from wild-type (WT), α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) and GTKO pigs transgenic for the human complement-regulatory protein CD46 (GTKO/CD46) were isolated and tested for differentiation. Antibody binding and T-cell responses to WT and GTKO pMSC in comparison with GTKO pig aortic endothelial cells (pAEC) were investigated. The expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II (SLA II) was tested. Costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 mRNA levels were measured. Human T-cell proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to GTKO and GTKO/CD46 pMSC in comparison with human MSC (hMSC) were evaluated. α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout and GTKO/CD46 pMSC isolation and differentiation were achieved in vitro. Binding of human antibodies and T-cell responses were lower to GTKO than those to WT pMSC. Human and baboon (naïve and sensitized) antibody binding were significantly lower to GTKO pMSC than to GTKO pAEC. Before activation, human CD4(+) T-cell response to GTKO pMSC was significantly weaker than that to GTKO pAEC, even after pIFN-γ activation. More than 99% of GTKO/CD46 pMSC expressed hCD46. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4(+) T-cell responses to GTKO and GTKO/CD46 pMSC were comparable with those to hMSC, and all were significantly lower than to GTKO pAEC. GTKO/CD46 pMSC downregulated human T-cell proliferation as efficiently as hMSC. The level of proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and sCD40L correlated with the downregulation of T-cell proliferation by all types of MSC. Genetically modified pMSC is significantly less

  5. Geology of pre-Dakota uranium geochemical cell, sec. 13, T. 16 N., R. 17 W., Church Rock area, McKinley County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration drilling on sec. 13, T. 16 N., R. 17 W., McKinley County, New Mexico, has defined uranium deposits within the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). Elongate, tabular, redistributed deposits were formed peripherally along the zones of highest transmissivity of the northeast-trending Westwater Canyon fluvial system by a Jurassic-Cretaceous geochemical cell. Strongly reducing conditions, which existed locally in the channel-margin areas owing to the presence of organic materials, were the primary ore control. Evidence that this major redistribution process took place in pre-Dakota time is the bleaching of the Westwater Canyon Sandstone by Dakota swamps is superimposed on older oxidation, and the primary mineralization above the Jurassic-Cretaceous water table was not affected by the geochemical-cell redistribution process

  6. Acquired transcriptional programming in functional and exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells.

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    Youngblood, Ben; Wherry, E John; Ahmed, Rafi

    2012-01-01

    Failure to control viral infections such as HIV results in T-cell receptor (TCR) and inhibitory receptor driven exhaustion of antigen-specific T cells. Persistent signaling by these receptors during chronic viral infection sculpts the transcriptional regulatory programs of virus-specific T cells. The resulting gene expression profile is tailored to temper the potentially damaging effector functions of cytotoxic T cells and adapt them to an antigen-rich and inflammation-rich environment. Here we review recent studies investigating mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of effector, functional memory, and exhausted T-cell functions during acute versus chronic infections. Patterns of gene expression in virus-specific CD8 T cells are a result of a combination of pro and inhibitory signals from antigen presentation (TCR-mediated) and co-inhibitory receptor ligation (PD-1, 2B4). Further, memory-specific transcriptional regulation of 2B4 expression and signaling impose a self-limiting secondary effector response to a prolonged viral infection. Additionally, differentiation of functional memory CD8 T cells is coupled with acquisition of a repressive epigenetic program for PD-1 expression. However, chronic infection provides a signal that blocks the acquisition of these epigenetic modifications reinforcing the suppression of cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) functions in exhausted cells. Current findings suggest that the mechanism(s) that delineate functional memory versus exhaustion are coupled with acquisition of transcriptional programs at the effector stage of differentiation, reinforced by cessation or persistence of TCR signaling.

  7. HIV-1 Tat affects the programming and functionality of human CD8⁺ T cells by modulating the expression of T-box transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Fabio; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Finessi, Valentina; Reali, Eva; Cafaro, Aurelio; Caputo, Antonella; Ensoli, Barbara; Gavioli, Riccardo

    2014-07-31

    HIV infection is characterized by several immune dysfunctions of both CD8⁺ and CD4⁺ T cells as hyperactivation, impairment of functionality and expansion of memory T cells. CD8⁺ T-cell dysfunctions have been associated with increased expression of T-bet, Eomesdermin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and with down-regulation of CD127. The HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein, which is released by infected cells and detected in tissues of HIV-positive individuals, is known to contribute to the dysregulation of CD4⁺ T cells; however, its effects on CD8⁺ T cells have not been investigated. Thus, in this study, we sought to address whether Tat may affect CD8⁺ T-cell functionality and programming. CD8⁺ T cells were activated by T-cell receptor engagement in the presence or absence of Tat. Cytokine production, killing capacity, surface phenotype and expression of transcription factors important for T-cell programming were evaluated. Tat favors the secretion of interleukin-2, interferon-γ and granzyme B in CD8⁺ T cells. Behind this functional modulation we observed that Tat increases the expression of T-bet, Eomesdermin, Blimp-1, Bcl-6 and Bcl-2 in activated but not in unstimulated CD8⁺ T lymphocytes. This effect is associated with the down-regulation of CD127 and the up-regulation of CD27. Tat deeply alters the programming and functionality of CD8⁺ T lymphocytes.

  8. Deletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in genetically targeted mice supports development of intestinal inflammation

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    Boehm Franziska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice lacking Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg cells develop severe tissue inflammation in lung, skin, and liver with premature death, whereas the intestine remains uninflamed. This study aims to demonstrate the importance of Foxp3+ Treg for the activation of T cells and the development of intestinal inflammation. Methods Foxp3-GFP-DTR (human diphtheria toxin receptor C57BL/6 mice allow elimination of Foxp3+ Treg by treatment with Dx (diphtheria toxin. The influence of Foxp3+ Treg on intestinal inflammation was tested using the CD4+ T-cell transfer colitis model in Rag−/− C57BL/6 mice and the acute DSS-colitis model. Results Continuous depletion of Foxp3+ Treg in Foxp3-GFP-DTR mice led to dramatic weight loss and death of mice by day 28. After 10 days of depletion of Foxp3+ Treg, isolated CD4+ T-cells were activated and produced extensive amounts of IFN-γ, IL-13, and IL-17A. Transfer of total CD4+ T-cells isolated from Foxp3-GFP-DTR mice did not result in any changes of intestinal homeostasis in Rag−/− C57BL/6 mice. However, administration of DTx between days 14 and 18 after T-cell reconstitution, lead to elimination of Foxp3+ Treg and to immediate weight loss due to intestinal inflammation. This pro-inflammatory effect of Foxp3+ Treg depletion consecutively increased inflammatory cytokine production. Further, the depletion of Foxp3+ Treg from Foxp3-GFP-DTR mice increased the severity of acute dSS-colitis accompanied by 80% lethality of Treg-depleted mice. CD4+ effector T-cells from Foxp3+ Treg-depleted mice produced significantly more pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Intermittent depletion of Foxp3+ Treg aggravates intestinal inflammatory responses demonstrating the importance of Foxp3+ Treg for the balance at the mucosal surface of the intestine.

  9. Exacerbation of spontaneous autoimmune nephritis following regulatory T cell depletion in B cell lymphoma 2-interacting mediator knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y M; Zhang, G Y; Wang, Y; Hu, M; Zhou, J J; Sawyer, A; Cao, Q; Wang, Y; Zheng, G; Lee, V W S; Harris, D C H; Alexander, S I

    2017-05-01

    Regulatory T cells (T regs ) have been recognized as central mediators for maintaining peripheral tolerance and limiting autoimmune diseases. The loss of T regs or their function has been associated with exacerbation of autoimmune disease. However, the temporary loss of T regs in the chronic spontaneous disease model has not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the role of T regs in a novel chronic spontaneous glomerulonephritis model of B cell lymphoma 2-interacting mediator (Bim) knock-out mice by transient depleting T regs . Bim is a pro-apoptotic member of the B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family. Bim knock-out (Bim -/- ) mice fail to delete autoreactive T cells in thymus, leading to chronic spontaneous autoimmune kidney disease. We found that T reg depletion in Bim -/- mice exacerbated the kidney injury with increased proteinuria, impaired kidney function, weight loss and greater histological injury compared with wild-type mice. There was a significant increase in interstitial infiltrate of inflammatory cells, antibody deposition and tubular damage. Furthermore, the serum levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17α, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased significantly after T reg depletion in Bim -/- mice. This study demonstrates that transient depletion of T regs leads to enhanced self-reactive T effector cell function followed by exacerbation of kidney disease in the chronic spontaneous kidney disease model of Bim-deficient mice. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  10. CD73 Expressed on γδ T Cells Shapes Their Regulatory Effect in Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis.

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    Dongchun Liang

    Full Text Available γδ T cells can either enhance or inhibit an adaptive immune response, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Given that CD73 is the main enzyme responsible for conversion of AMP into the immunosuppressive molecule adenosine, we investigated its role in the regulatory function of γδ T cells in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU. We found that γδ T cells expressed different amounts of CD73 during the different stages of EAU and that low CD73 expression on γδ T cells correlated with enhanced Th17 response-promoting activity. Functional comparison of CD73-deficient and wild-type B6 (CD73+/+ mice showed that failure to express CD73 decreased both the enhancing and suppressive effects of γδ T cells on EAU. We also demonstrated that γδ T cells expressed different amounts of CD73 when activated by different pathways, which enabled them to either enhance or inhibit an adaptive immune response. Our results demonstrate that targeting CD73 expression on γδ T cells may allow us to manipulate their pro- or anti-inflammatory effect on Th17 responses.

  11. Severe Malaria Infections Impair Germinal Center Responses by Inhibiting T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation

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    Victoria Ryg-Cornejo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops only after years of repeated exposure to Plasmodium parasites. Despite the key role antibodies play in protection, the cellular processes underlying the slow acquisition of immunity remain unknown. Using mouse models, we show that severe malaria infection inhibits the establishment of germinal centers (GCs in the spleen. We demonstrate that infection induces high frequencies of T follicular helper (Tfh cell precursors but results in impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Despite high expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21, precursor Tfh cells induced during infection displayed low levels of PD-1 and CXCR5 and co-expressed Th1-associated molecules such as T-bet and CXCR3. Blockade of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IFN-γ or T-bet deletion restored Tfh cell differentiation and GC responses to infection. Thus, this study demonstrates that the same pro-inflammatory mediators that drive severe malaria pathology have detrimental effects on the induction of protective B cell responses.

  12. Preparation of pre-confluent retinal cells increases graft viability in vitro and in vivo: a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Kennelly

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Graft failure remains an obstacle to experimental subretinal cell transplantation. A key step is preparing a viable graft, as high levels of necrosis and apoptosis increase the risk of graft failure. Retinal grafts are commonly harvested from cell cultures. We termed the graft preparation procedure "transplant conditions" (TC. We hypothesized that culture conditions influenced graft viability, and investigated whether viability decreased following TC using a mouse retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell line, DH01. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Levels of apoptosis and necrosis in vitro were determined by flow cytometry for annexin V and propidium iodide and Western blot analysis for the pro- and cleaved forms of caspases 3 and 7. Graft viability in vivo was established by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL and cleaved caspase 3 immunolabeling of subretinal allografts. RESULTS: Pre-confluent cultures had significantly less nonviable cells than post-confluent cultures (6.6%±0.8% vs. 13.1%±0.9%, p<0.01. Cell viability in either group was not altered significantly following TC. Caspases 3 and 7 were not altered by levels of confluence or following TC. Pre-confluent cultures had low levels of apoptosis/necrosis (5.6%±1.1% that did not increase following TC (4.8%±0.5%. However, culturing beyond confluence led to progressively increasing levels of apoptosis and necrosis (up to 16.5%±0.9%. Allografts prepared from post-confluent cultures had significantly more TUNEL-positive cells 3 hours post-operatively than grafts of pre-confluent cells (12.7%±3.1% vs. 4.5%±1.4%, p<0.001. Subretinal grafts of post-confluent cells also had significantly higher rates of cleaved caspase 3 than pre-confluent grafts (20.2%±4.3% vs. 7.8%±1.8%, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Pre-confluent cells should be used to maximize graft cell viability.

  13. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field Treatment of 4T1 Breast Tumors Induces T-cell Dependent Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jared M; Flores-Arredondo, Jose H; Suki, Sarah; Ware, Matthew J; Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Agha, Mahdi; Law, Justin J; Sikora, Andrew G; Curley, Steven A; Corr, Stuart J

    2018-02-22

    Previous work using non-invasive radiofrequency field treatment (RFT) in cancer has demonstrated its therapeutic potential as it can increase intratumoral blood perfusion, localization of intravenously delivered drugs, and promote a hyperthermic intratumoral state. Despite the well-known immunologic benefits that febrile hyperthermia can induce, an investigation of how RFT could modulate the intra-tumoral immune microenvironment had not been studied. Thus, using an established 4T1 breast cancer model in immune competent mice, we demonstrate that RFT induces a transient, localized, and T-cell dependent intratumoral inflammatory response. More specifically we show that multi- and singlet-dose RFT promote an increase in tumor volume in immune competent Balb/c mice, which does not occur in athymic nude models. Further leukocyte subset analysis at 24, 48, and 120 hours after a single RFT show a rapid increase in tumoral trafficking of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells 24 hours post-treatment. Additional serum cytokine analysis reveals an increase in numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with enhanced T-cell trafficking. Overall, these data demonstrate that non-invasive RFT could be an effective immunomodulatory strategy in solid tumors, especially for enhancing the tumoral trafficking of lymphocytes, which is currently a major hindrance of numerous cancer immunotherapeutic strategies.

  14. Midregional-proAtrial Natriuretic Peptide and High Sensitive Troponin T Strongly Predict Adverse Outcome in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Repair of Mitral Valve Regurgitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wöhrle

    Full Text Available It is not known whether biomarkers of hemodynamic stress, myocardial necrosis, and renal function might predict adverse outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous repair of severe mitral valve insufficiency. Thus, we aimed to assess the predictive value of various established and emerging biomarkers for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE in these patients.Thirty-four patients with symptomatic severe mitral valve insufficiency with a mean STS-Score for mortality of 12.6% and a mean logistic EuroSCORE of 19.7% undergoing MitraClip therapy were prospectively included in this study. Plasma concentrations of mid regional-proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP, Cystatin C, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT, N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, galectin-3, and soluble ST-2 (interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 were measured directly before procedure. MACE was defined as cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure (HF.During a median follow-up of 211 days (interquartile range 133 to 333 days, 9 patients (26.5% experienced MACE (death: 7 patients, rehospitalization for HF: 2 patients. Thirty day MACE-rate was 5.9% (death: 2 patients, no rehospitalization for HF. Baseline concentrations of hsTnT (Median 92.6 vs 25.2 ng/L, NT-proBNP (Median 11251 vs 1974 pg/mL and MR-proANP (Median 755.6 vs 318.3 pmol/L, all p<0.001 were clearly higher in those experiencing an event vs event-free patients, while other clinical variables including STS-Score and logistic EuroSCORE did not differ significantly. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, NT-proBNP and in particular hsTnT and MR-proANP above the median discriminated between those experiencing an event vs event-free patients. This was further corroborated by C-statistics where areas under the ROC curve for prediction of MACE using the respective median values were 0.960 for MR-proANP, 0.907 for NT-proBNP, and 0.822 for hsTnT.MR-proANP and hsTnT strongly

  15. Enhanced gastric cancer growth potential of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gastric cancer tissues educated by CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongman; Zhao, Xiangdong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Chen, Bin; Sun, Li; Xu, Changgen; Shen, Bo; Wang, Mei; Xu, Wenrong; Zhu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) can promote the development of tumour growth. The tumour-promoting role of tumour-associated MSCs and T cells has been demonstrated. T cells as the major immune cells may influence and induce a pro-tumour phenotype in MSCs. This study focused on whether CD4 + T cells can affect GC-MSCs to promote gastric cancer growth. CD4 + T cells upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in GC-MSCs through the phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT3) signalling pathway was confirmed by immunofluorescence, western blotting and RT-PCR. Migration of GC cells was detected by Transwell migration assay, and apoptosis of GC cells was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide double staining. CD4 + T cell-primed GC-MSCs promoted GC growth in a subcutaneously transplanted tumour model in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Gastric cancer mesenchymal stem cells stimulated by activated CD4 + T cells promoted migration of GC cells and enhanced GC growth potential in BALB/c nu/nu xenografts. PD-L1 upregulation of GC-MSCs stimulated by CD4 + T cells was mediated through the p-STAT3 signalling pathway. CD4 + T cells-primed GC-MSCs have greater GC volume and growth rate-promoting role than GC-MSCs, with cancer cell-intrinsic PD-1/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling activation. This study showed that GC-MSCs are plastic. The immunophenotype of GC-MSCs stimulated by CD4 + T cells has major changes that may influence tumour cell growth. This research was based on the interaction between tumour cells, MSCs and immune cells, providing a new understanding of the development and immunotherapy of GC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Immortalization of T-Cells Is Accompanied by Gradual Changes in CpG Methylation Resulting in a Profile Resembling a Subset of T-Cell Leukemias

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    Sofie Degerman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously described gene expression changes during spontaneous immortalization of T-cells, thereby identifying cellular processes important for cell growth crisis escape and unlimited proliferation. Here, we analyze the same model to investigate the role of genome-wide methylation in the immortalization process at different time points pre-crisis and post-crisis using high-resolution arrays. We show that over time in culture there is an overall accumulation of methylation alterations, with preferential increased methylation close to transcription start sites (TSSs, islands, and shore regions. Methylation and gene expression alterations did not correlate for the majority of genes, but for the fraction that correlated, gain of methylation close to TSS was associated with decreased gene expression. Interestingly, the pattern of CpG site methylation observed in immortal T-cell cultures was similar to clinical T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL samples classified as CpG island methylator phenotype positive. These sites were highly overrepresented by polycomb target genes and involved in developmental, cell adhesion, and cell signaling processes. The presence of non-random methylation events in in vitro immortalized T-cell cultures and diagnostic T-ALL samples indicates altered methylation of CpG sites with a possible role in malignant hematopoiesis.

  17. C.T. scanning in the pre-operative assessment of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstraw, P.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of T.N.M. staging is now widely adopted, providing an international shorthand to describe tumour extent. Throughout this article the system referred to is that of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging and End Results Reporting. It is generally now accepted that Stage I and II patients with N.S.C.L.C. benefit from pulmonary resection, whilst those with Stage III tumours by virtue of T3 status, N2 disease or M stage other than zero, do not. There are exceptions to this rule and they are discussed in the relevant section. The authors therefore consider the role of C.T. scanning in pre-operative staging under the following headings. Tumour characteristics: 1) indicators of malignancy, 2) extra-pulmonary extension; Nodal metastases: 1) hilar, 2) mediastinal; Metastases to distant sites

  18. Selected microRNAs define cell fate determination of murine central memory CD8 T cells.

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    Gonzalo Almanza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During an immune response T cells enter memory fate determination, a program that divides them into two main populations: effector memory and central memory T cells. Since in many systems protection appears to be preferentially mediated by T cells of the central memory it is important to understand when and how fate determination takes place. To date, cell intrinsic molecular events that determine their differentiation remains unclear. MicroRNAs are a class of small, evolutionarily conserved RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression, causing translational repression and/or messenger RNA degradation. Here, using an in vitro system where activated CD8 T cells driven by IL-2 or IL-15 become either effector memory or central memory cells, we assessed the role of microRNAs in memory T cell fate determination. We found that fate determination to central memory T cells is under the balancing effects of a discrete number of microRNAs including miR-150, miR-155 and the let-7 family. Based on miR-150 a new target, KChIP.1 (K (+ channel interacting protein 1, was uncovered, which is specifically upregulated in developing central memory CD8 T cells. Our studies indicate that cell fate determination such as surface phenotype and self-renewal may be decided at the pre-effector stage on the basis of the balancing effects of a discrete number of microRNAs. These results may have implications for the development of T cell vaccines and T cell-based adoptive therapies.

  19. Emerging paradigms and questions on pro-angiogenic bone marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Julien; Touvrey, Cédric; Botta, Francesca; Kuonen, François; Ruegg, Curzio

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-related inflammation has emerged in recent years as a major event contributing to tumor angiogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis formation. Bone marrow-derived and inflammatory cells promote tumor angiogenesis by providing endothelial progenitor cells that differentiate into mature endothelial cells, and by secreting pro-angiogenic factors and remodeling the extracellular matrix to stimulate angiogenesis though paracrine mechanisms. Several bone marrow-derived myelonomocytic cells, including monocytes and macrophages, have been identified and characterized by several laboratories in recent years. While the central role of these cells in promoting tumor angiogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis is nowadays well established, many questions remain open and new ones are emerging. These include the relationship between their phenotype and function, the mechanisms of pro-angiogenic programming, their contribution to resistance to anti-angiogenic treatments and to metastasis and their potential clinical use as biomarkers of angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapies. Here, we will review phenotypical and functional aspects of bone marrow-derived myelonomocytic cells and discuss some of the current outstanding questions.

  20. Expression of PD-L1 and presence of CD8-positive T cells in pre-treatment specimens of locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwere, Emeka K; Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Dean, Michelle; Koulis, Theodora A; Phan, Tien; Kalantarian, Maria; Köbel, Martin; Ghatage, Prafull; Magliocco, Anthony M; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Doll, Corinne M

    2017-04-01

    Several of the cancer immunotherapies under investigation or in clinical use target the programmed death-ligand 1/programmed death-1 (PD-L1/PD-1) signaling axis. PD-L1 expression in tumor samples has been used as a predictive marker for response to these therapeutics, and may also have independent prognostic utility when assessed along with immune cell markers. Our objectives were to assess the expression of PD-L1 in tumor specimens from a uniformly treated patient cohort with locally advanced cervical cancer, and to determine its prognostic significance along with the density of tumor-infiltrating T cells. We identified 120 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical chemoradiotherapy, and built tissue microarrays from their formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pre-treatment biopsies. We used conventional brightfield and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to detect PD-L1, and quantified protein expression using both manual pathologist scoring and automated software analysis. We also evaluated the effect of PD-L1 expression in tumors, along with the presence and density of intra-tumoral CD8 + T cells, on patient survival outcomes. Approximately 96% of the tumor samples expressed PD-L1, as determined using quantitative software analysis. Neither expression of PD-L1 nor density of CD8 + T cells was associated with progression-free or overall survival. However, there was a trend towards worse progression-free survival in patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1 but lacked CD8 + T cells (hazard ratio=0.43 (0.18-1.01), P=0.053). Nevertheless, the high percentage of cervical cancer tumor samples expressing PD-L1 suggests that anti-PD-L1 or anti-PD-1 therapies are potential treatment options for this patient population.

  1. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Klegeris, Andis; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes

  2. Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Klegeris, Andis [Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Little, Jonathan P., E-mail: jonathan.little@ubc.ca [School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Adiponectin receptors are expressed in human astrocytes. • Globular adiponectin induces secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 from cultured astrocytes. • Adiponectin may play a pro-inflammatory role in astrocytes. - Abstract: Neuroinflammation, mediated in part by activated brain astrocytes, plays a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine secreted from adipose tissue and has been reported to exert both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues; however, the effects of adiponectin on astrocytes remain unknown. Shifts in peripheral concentrations of adipokines, including adiponectin, could contribute to the observed link between midlife adiposity and increased AD risk. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of globular adiponectin (gAd) on pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and secretion in human U373 MG astrocytic cells and to explore the potential involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3 K) signaling pathways in these processes. We demonstrated expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) and adipoR2 in U373 MG cells and primary human astrocytes. gAd induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and gene expression of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and IL-8 in U373 MG cells. Using specific inhibitors, we found that NF-κB, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways are involved in gAd-induced induction of cytokines with ERK1/2 contributing the most. These findings provide evidence that gAd may induce a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human astrocytes.

  3. Cytotoxic Vibrio T3SS1 Rewires Host Gene Expression to Subvert Cell Death Signaling and Activate Cell Survival Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Nicole J.; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Li, Peng; Fernandez, Jessie; Xing, Chao; Orth, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial effectors are potent manipulators of host signaling pathways. The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. para), delivers effectors into host cells through two type three secretion systems (T3SS). The ubiquitous T3SS1 is vital for V. para survival in the environment, whereas T3SS2 causes acute gastroenteritis in human hosts. Although the natural host is undefined, T3SS1 effectors attack highly conserved cellular processes and pathways to orchestrate non-apoptotic cell death. Much is known about how T3SS1 effectors function in isolation, but we wanted to understand how their concerted action globally affects host cell signaling. To assess the host response to T3SS1, we compared gene expression changes over time in primary fibroblasts infected with V. para that have a functional T3SS1 (T3SS1+) to those in cells infected with V. para lacking T3SS1 (T3SS1−). Overall, the host transcriptional response to both T3SS1+ and T3SS1− V. para was rapid, robust, and temporally dynamic. T3SS1 re-wired host gene expression by specifically altering the expression of 398 genes. Although T3SS1 effectors target host cells at the posttranslational level to cause cytotoxicity, network analysis indicated that V. para T3SS1 also precipitates a host transcriptional response that initially activates cell survival and represses cell death networks. The increased expression of several key pro-survival transcripts mediated by T3SS1 was dependent on a host signaling pathway that is silenced later in infection by the posttranslational action of T3SS1. Taken together, our analysis reveals a complex interplay between roles of T3SS1 as both a transcriptional and posttranslational manipulator of host cell signaling. PMID:28512145

  4. Overexpression of PTPN2 in Visceral Adipose Tissue Ameliorated Atherosclerosis via T Cells Polarization Shift in Diabetic Apoe-/- Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dysregulated inflammation in adipose tissue, marked by increased pro-inflammatory T-cell accumulation and reduced regulatory T cells (Treg, contributes to diabetes-associated insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell-mediated inflammation in adipose tissue remain largely unknown. Methods: Sixty apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/- mice were randomly divided into chow and diabetes groups. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin. Then we transferred a recombinant adenovirus carrying the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2 gene into epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT of ApoE-/- mice. After transfection, all mice were euthanized to evaluate the effects of PTPN2 on T cells polarization and atherosclerosis. Results: PTPN2 was downregulated in EWAT of diabetic ApoE-/- mice. PTPN2 overexpression in EWAT reversed the high Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios in EWAT of diabetic mice. In addition, PTPN2 overexpression in EWAT could significantly reduce macrophages infiltration, the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in EWAT, improving insulin resistance. In aortic root lesions, the vulnerability index were significantly decreased by overexpression of PTPN2 in EWAT. Conclusion: These data suggested that PTPN2 overexpression in EWAT would inhibit systemic inflammation and increase the plaque stability via T cells polarization shift in diabetic mice.

  5. Targeting multiple pro-apoptotic signaling pathways with curcumin in prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rivera

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa, is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells. The effect of curcumin was evaluated using for the first time in prostate cancer, a gel-free shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis coupled with Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling-based-signaling networks. Results were confirmed at the gene expression level by qRT-PCR and at the protein expression level by western blot and flow cytometry. Our findings revealed that curcumin induced an Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in PC3. The mechanisms by which curcumin promoted cell death in these cells were associated with cell cycle arrest, increased reactive oxygen species, autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response. Furthermore, the upregulation of ER stress was measured using key indicators of ER stress: Glucose-Regulated Protein 78, Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha, Protein Disulfide isomerase and Calreticulin. Chronic ER stress induction was concomitant with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3,9,12 and Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. The downregulated proteins include anti-apoptotic and anti-tumor markers, supporting their curcumin-induced pro-apoptotic role in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin may serve as a promising anticancer agent by inducing a chronic ER stress mediated cell death and activation of cell cycle arrest, UPR, autophagy and oxidative stress responses.

  6. Targeting multiple pro-apoptotic signaling pathways with curcumin in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Mariela; Ramos, Yanilda; Rodríguez-Valentín, Madeline; López-Acevedo, Sheila; Cubano, Luis A.; Zou, Jin; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangdi

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa), is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells. The effect of curcumin was evaluated using for the first time in prostate cancer, a gel-free shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis coupled with Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling-based-signaling networks. Results were confirmed at the gene expression level by qRT-PCR and at the protein expression level by western blot and flow cytometry. Our findings revealed that curcumin induced an Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in PC3. The mechanisms by which curcumin promoted cell death in these cells were associated with cell cycle arrest, increased reactive oxygen species, autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response. Furthermore, the upregulation of ER stress was measured using key indicators of ER stress: Glucose-Regulated Protein 78, Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha, Protein Disulfide isomerase and Calreticulin. Chronic ER stress induction was concomitant with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3,9,12) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The downregulated proteins include anti-apoptotic and anti-tumor markers, supporting their curcumin-induced pro-apoptotic role in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin may serve as a promising anticancer agent by inducing a chronic ER stress mediated cell death and activation of cell cycle arrest, UPR, autophagy and oxidative stress responses. PMID:28628644

  7. Meningeal mast cell-T cell crosstalk regulates T cell encephalitogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russi, Abigail E; Walker-Caulfield, Margaret E; Guo, Yong; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Brown, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    GM-CSF is a cytokine produced by T helper (Th) cells that plays an essential role in orchestrating neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. Yet where and how Th cells acquire GM-CSF expression is unknown. In this study we identify mast cells in the meninges, tripartite tissues surrounding the brain and spinal cord, as important contributors to antigen-specific Th cell accumulation and GM-CSF expression. In the absence of mast cells, Th cells do not accumulate in the meninges nor produce GM-CSF. Mast cell-T cell co-culture experiments and selective mast cell reconstitution of the meninges of mast cell-deficient mice reveal that resident meningeal mast cells are an early source of caspase-1-dependent IL-1β that licenses Th cells to produce GM-CSF and become encephalitogenic. We also provide evidence of mast cell-T cell co-localization in the meninges and CNS of recently diagnosed acute MS patients indicating similar interactions may occur in human demyelinating disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells as a promising innovative tool for immunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Meraviglia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The potent anti-tumor activities of γδ T cells, their ability to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, and their strong cytolytic activity have prompted the development of protocols in which γδ agonists or ex vivo-expanded γδ cells are administered to tumor patients. γδ T cells can be selectively activated by either synthetic phosphoantigens or by drugs that enhance their accumulation into stressed cells as aminobisphosphonates, thus offering new avenues for the development of γδ T cell-based immunotherapies. The recent development of small drugs selectively activating Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes, which upregulate the endogenous phosphoantigens, has enabled the investigators to design the experimental approaches of cancer immunotherapies; several ongoing phase I and II clinical trials are focused on the role of the direct bioactivity of drugs and of adoptive cell therapies involving phosphoantigen- or aminobisphosphonate-activated Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes in humans. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the activation/expansion of γδ T cells in vitro and in vivo that may represent a promising target for the design of novel and highly innovative immunotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies.

  9. Interleukin-3 greatly expands non-adherent endothelial forming cells with pro-angiogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan M. Moldenhauer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs provide revascularisation for cardiovascular disease and the expansion of these cells opens up the possibility of their use as a cell therapy. Herein we show that interleukin-3 (IL3 strongly expands a population of human non-adherent endothelial forming cells (EXnaEFCs with low immunogenicity as well as pro-angiogenic capabilities in vivo, making their therapeutic utilisation a realistic option. Non-adherent CD133+ EFCs isolated from human umbilical cord blood and cultured under different conditions were maximally expanded by day 12 in the presence of IL3 at which time a 350-fold increase in cell number was obtained. Cell surface marker phenotyping confirmed expression of the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers CD133, CD117 and CD34, vascular cell markers VEGFR2 and CD31, dim expression of CD45 and absence of myeloid markers CD14 and CD11b. Functional experiments revealed that EXnaEFCs exhibited classical properties of endothelial cells (ECs, namely binding of Ulex europaeus lectin, up-take of acetylated-low density lipoprotein and contribution to EC tube formation in vitro. These EXnaEFCs demonstrated a pro-angiogenic phenotype within two independent in vivo rodent models. Firstly, a Matrigel plug assay showed increased vascularisation in mice. Secondly, a rat model of acute myocardial infarction demonstrated reduced heart damage as determined by lower levels of serum creatinine and a modest increase in heart functionality. Taken together, these studies show IL3 as a potent growth factor for human CD133+ cell expansion with clear pro-angiogenic properties (in vitro and in vivo and thus may provide clinical utility for humans in the future.

  10. Highly-Immunogenic Virally-Vectored T-cell Vaccines Cannot Overcome Subversion of the T-cell Response by HCV during Chronic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Swadling

    2016-08-01

    were only induced by vaccination when there was a sequence mismatch between the autologous virus and the vaccine immunogen. However, these T-cells were not cross-reactive with the endogenous viral variant epitopes. Conversely, when there was complete homology between the immunogen and circulating virus at a given epitope T-cells were not induced. T-cell induction following vaccination had no significant impact on HCV viral load. In vitro T-cell culture experiments identified the presence of T-cells at baseline that could be expanded by vaccination; thus, HCV-specific T-cells may have been expanded from pre-existing low-level memory T-cell populations that had been exposed to HCV antigens during natural infection, explaining the partial T-cell dysfunction. In conclusion, vaccination with ChAd3-NSmut and MVA-NSmut prime/boost, a potent vaccine regimen previously optimized in healthy volunteers was unable to reconstitute HCV-specific T-cell immunity in HCV infected patients. This highlights the major challenge of overcoming T-cell exhaustion in the context of persistent antigen exposure.

  11. SAP is required for the development of innate phenotype in H2-M3-restricted CD8+ T cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediako, Yaw; Bian, Yao; Zhang, Hong; Cho, Hoonsik; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2012-01-01

    H2-M3-restricted T cells have a pre-activated surface phenotype, rapidly expand and produce cytokines upon stimulation and as such, are classified as innate T cells. Unlike most innate T cells, M3-restricted T cells also express CD8αβ co-receptors and a diverse TCR repertoire: hallmarks of conventional MHC Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells. Although iNKT cells are also innate lymphocytes, they are selected exclusively on hematopoietic cells (HC), while M3-restricted T cells can be selected on either hematopoietic or thymic epithelial cells (TEC). Moreover, their phenotypes differ depending on what cells mediate their selection. Though there is a clear correlation between selection on HC and development of innate phenotype, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. SAP is required for the development of iNKT cells and mediates signals from SLAM receptors that are exclusively expressed on HC. Based on their dual selection pathway, M3-restricted T cells present a unique model for studying the development of innate T cell phenotype. Using both polyclonal and transgenic mouse models we demonstrate that while M3-restricted T cells are capable of developing in the absence of SAP, SAP is required for HC-mediated selection, development of pre-activated phenotype and heightened effector functions of M3-restricted T cells. These findings are significant because they directly demonstrate the need for SAP in HC-mediated acquisition of innate T cell phenotype and suggest that due to their SAP-dependent HC-mediated selection, M3-restricted T cells develop a pre-activated phenotype and an intrinsic ability to proliferate faster upon stimulation, allowing for an important role in the early response to infection. PMID:23041566

  12. Changing T cell specificity by retroviral T cell receptor display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, H. W.; van den Boom, M. D.; Spits, H.; Hooijberg, E.; Schumacher, T. N.

    2000-01-01

    The diversity of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is limited, because of the processes of positive and negative T cell selection. To obtain T cells with specificities beyond the immune system's capacity, we have developed a strategy for retroviral TCR display. In this approach, a library of T

  13. A PKA survival pathway inhibited by DPT-PKI, a new specific cell permeable PKA inhibitor, is induced by T. annulata in parasitized B-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergnon, Julien; Dessauge, Frederic; Traincard, François; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita; Bost, Pierre Etienne; Langsley, Gordon; Garcia, Alphonse

    2006-08-01

    T. annulata, an intracellular pathogenic parasite of the Aplicomplexa protozoan family infects bovine B-lymphocytes and macrophages. Parasitized cells that become transformed survive and proliferate independently of exogenous growth factors. In the present study, we used the isogenic non parasitized BL3 and parasitized TBL3 B cell lines, as a model to evaluate the contribution of two-major PI3-K- and PKA-dependent anti-apoptotic pathways in the survival of T. annulata parasitized B lymphocytes. We found that T. annulata increases PKA activity, induces over-expression of the catalytic subunit and down-regulates the pro-survival phosphorylation state of Akt/PKB. Consistent with a role of PKA activation in survival, two pharmacological inhibitors H89 and KT5720 ablate PKA-dependent survival of parasitized cells. To specifically inhibit PKA pro-survival pathways we linked the DPTsh1 peptide shuttle sequence to PKI(5-24) and we generated DPT-PKI, a cell permeable PKI. DPT-PKI specifically inhibited PKA activity in bovine cell extracts and, as expected, also inhibited the PKA-dependent survival of T. annulata parasitized TBL3 cells. Thus, parasite-dependent constitutive activation of PKA in TBL3 cells generates an anti-apoptotic pathway that can protect T. annulata-infected B cells from apoptosis. These results also indicate that DPT-PKI could be a powerful tool to inhibit PKA pathways in other cell types.

  14. Human T cell aging and the impact of persistent viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas eFulop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune response, loosely termed immunosenescence. Each part of the immune system is influenced to some extent by the aging process. However, adaptive immunity seems more extensively affected and among all participating cells it is the T cells that are most altered. There is a large body of experimental work devoted to the investigation of age-associated differences in T cell phenotypes and functions in young and old individuals, but few longitudinal studies in humans actually delineating changes at the level of the individual. In most studies, the number and proportion of late-differentiated T cells, especially CD8+ T cells, is reported to be higher in the elderly than in the young. Limited longitudinal studies suggest that accumulation of these cells is a dynamic process and does indeed represent an age-associated change. Accumulations of such late-stage cells may contribute to the enhanced systemic pro-inflammatory milieu commonly seen in older people. We do not know exactly what causes these observed changes, but an understanding of the possible causes is now beginning to emerge. A favored hypothesis is that these events are at least partly due to the effects of the maintenance of essential immune surveillance against persistent viral infections, notably Cytomegalovirus (CMV, which may exhaust the immune system over time. It is still a matter of debate as to whether these changes are compensatory and beneficial or pathological and detrimental to the proper functioning of the immune system and whether they impact longevity. Here, we will review present knowledge of T cell changes with aging and their relation to chronic viral and possibly other persistent infections.

  15. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells for acute lymphoid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, Stephan A; Kalos, Michael; Barrett, David; Aplenc, Richard; Porter, David L; Rheingold, Susan R; Teachey, David T; Chew, Anne; Hauck, Bernd; Wright, J Fraser; Milone, Michael C; Levine, Bruce L; June, Carl H

    2013-04-18

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells with specificity for CD19 have shown promise in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It remains to be established whether chimeric antigen receptor T cells have clinical activity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Two children with relapsed and refractory pre-B-cell ALL received infusions of T cells transduced with anti-CD19 antibody and a T-cell signaling molecule (CTL019 chimeric antigen receptor T cells), at a dose of 1.4×10(6) to 1.2×10(7) CTL019 cells per kilogram of body weight. In both patients, CTL019 T cells expanded to a level that was more than 1000 times as high as the initial engraftment level, and the cells were identified in bone marrow. In addition, the chimeric antigen receptor T cells were observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they persisted at high levels for at least 6 months. Eight grade 3 or 4 adverse events were noted. The cytokine-release syndrome and B-cell aplasia developed in both patients. In one child, the cytokine-release syndrome was severe; cytokine blockade with etanercept and tocilizumab was effective in reversing the syndrome and did not prevent expansion of chimeric antigen receptor T cells or reduce antileukemic efficacy. Complete remission was observed in both patients and is ongoing in one patient at 11 months after treatment. The other patient had a relapse, with blast cells that no longer expressed CD19, approximately 2 months after treatment. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells are capable of killing even aggressive, treatment-refractory acute leukemia cells in vivo. The emergence of tumor cells that no longer express the target indicates a need to target other molecules in addition to CD19 in some patients with ALL.

  16. Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplantation Increase p16INK4a Expression, a Biomarker of T-cell Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The expression of markers of cellular senescence increases exponentially in multiple tissues with aging. Age-related physiological changes may contribute to adverse outcomes in cancer survivors. To investigate the impact of high dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation on senescence markers in vivo, we collected blood and clinical data from a cohort of 63 patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. The expression of p16INK4a, a well-established senescence marker, was determined in T-cells before and 6 months after transplant. RNA sequencing was performed on paired samples from 8 patients pre- and post-cancer therapy. In patients undergoing allogeneic transplant, higher pre-transplant p16INK4a expression was associated with a greater number of prior cycles of chemotherapy received (p = 0.003, prior autologous transplantation (p = 0.01 and prior exposure to alkylating agents (p = 0.01. Transplantation was associated with a marked increase in p16INK4a expression 6 months following transplantation. Patients receiving autologous transplant experienced a larger increase in p16INK4a expression (3.1-fold increase, p = 0.002 than allogeneic transplant recipients (1.9-fold increase, p = 0.0004. RNA sequencing of T-cells pre- and post- autologous transplant or cytotoxic chemotherapy demonstrated increased expression of transcripts associated with cellular senescence and physiological aging. Cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially alkylating agents, and stem cell transplantation strongly accelerate expression of a biomarker of molecular aging in T-cells.

  17. Immortalization of T-cells is accompanied by gradual changes in CpG methylation resulting in a profile resembling a subset of T-cell leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerman, Sofie; Landfors, Mattias; Siwicki, Jan Konrad; Revie, John; Borssén, Magnus; Evelönn, Emma; Forestier, Erik; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H; Rydén, Patrik; Keith, W Nicol; Roos, Göran

    2014-07-01

    We have previously described gene expression changes during spontaneous immortalization of T-cells, thereby identifying cellular processes important for cell growth crisis escape and unlimited proliferation. Here, we analyze the same model to investigate the role of genome-wide methylation in the immortalization process at different time points pre-crisis and post-crisis using high-resolution arrays. We show that over time in culture there is an overall accumulation of methylation alterations, with preferential increased methylation close to transcription start sites (TSSs), islands, and shore regions. Methylation and gene expression alterations did not correlate for the majority of genes, but for the fraction that correlated, gain of methylation close to TSS was associated with decreased gene expression. Interestingly, the pattern of CpG site methylation observed in immortal T-cell cultures was similar to clinical T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) samples classified as CpG island methylator phenotype positive. These sites were highly overrepresented by polycomb target genes and involved in developmental, cell adhesion, and cell signaling processes. The presence of non-random methylation events in in vitro immortalized T-cell cultures and diagnostic T-ALL samples indicates altered methylation of CpG sites with a possible role in malignant hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous environmental manipulations in semi-perfusion cultures of CHO cells producing rh-tPA

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara,Mauricio; Becerra,Silvana; Díaz-Barrera,Alvaro; Berrios,Julio; Altamirano,Claudia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the combined effect of decreasing the temperature to a mild hypothermia range (34 and 31ºC) and switching to a slowly metabolizable carbon source (glucose substituted by galactose) on the growth and production of a recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rh-tPA) by Chinese hamster ovary cells in batch and semi-perfusion cultures. In batch cultures using glucose as a carbon source, decreasing the temperature caused a reduction in cell growth and an increase in specific pro...

  19. T-cell help permits memory CD8(+) T-cell inflation during cytomegalovirus latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Senta M; Torti, Nicole; Mandaric, Sanja; Oxenius, Annette

    2011-08-01

    CD4(+) T cells are implied to sustain CD8(+) T-cell responses during persistent infections. As CD4(+) T cells are often themselves antiviral effectors, they might shape CD8(+) T-cell responses via help or via controlling antigen load. We used persistent murine CMV (MCMV) infection to dissect the impact of CD4(+) T cells on virus-specific CD8(+) T cells, distinguishing between increased viral load in the absence of CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+) T-cell-mediated helper mechanisms. Absence of T-helper cells was associated with sustained lytic MCMV replication and led to a slow and gradual reduction of the size and function of the MCMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell pool. However, when virus replication was controlled in the absence of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T-cell function was comparably impaired, but in addition CD8(+) T-cell inflation, a hallmark of CMV infection, was completely abolished. Thus, CD8(+) T-cell inflation during latent CMV infection is strongly dependent on CD4(+) T-cell helper functions, which can partially be compensated by ongoing lytic viral replication in the absence of CD4(+) T cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. TGFβ induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebi, Masahide; Kataoka, Hiromi; Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TGFβ induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. → TGFβ induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. → TGFβ enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. → Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGFβ. → ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGFβ-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGFβ inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGFβ and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGFβ. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGFβ was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGFβ was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGFβ-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGFβ induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to translocate to the nucleus. ADAM inhibitors blocked this nuclear translocation. TGF

  1. In vitro response of pre-osteoblastic cells to laser microgrooved PEEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, D; López-Álvarez, M; Rodríguez-Valencia, C; Serra, J; Chiussi, S; González, P

    2013-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is currently being used in implants as an alternative to titanium, due to its mechanical properties, cytocompatibility and inertness. Several studies have demonstrated that certain patterning on the implants promotes the oriented cell growth of osteoblasts, favouring the formation of bone tissue. This patterning improves the implant's osteointegration in the bone and its mechanical stability. Therefore, the objective of this work is to micro-structure PEEK by laser radiation and to carry out an exhaustive study of the orientation of pre-osteoblast cells that grow on this material. Parallel microgrooves were obtained using an ArF excimer laser coupled with a mask projection unit with distances of 25, 50, 75 and 100 µm between grooves. The cell growth on these PEEK surfaces was studied, in order to compare the effect of different distances between grooves on the biological response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells. Preferential cell orientation was observed for all studied distances, which was more pronounced in the 25 and 50 µm ones. (paper)

  2. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  3. Transporters for Antiretroviral Drugs in Colorectal CD4+ T Cells and Circulating α4β7 Integrin CD4+ T Cells: Implications for HIV Microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Murray, Graeme I; Duncan, Linda; Yuecel, Raif; Shattock, Robin; Kelly, Charles; Iannelli, Francesco; Pozzi, Gianni; El-Omar, Emad M; Hold, Georgina L; Hijazi, Karolin

    2016-09-06

    CD4+ T lymphocytes in the colorectal mucosa are key in HIV-1 transmission and dissemination. As such they are also the primary target for antiretroviral (ARV)-based rectal microbicides for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Drug transporters expressed in mucosal CD4+ T cells determine ARV distribution across the cell membrane and, most likely, efficacy of microbicides. We describe transporters for antiretroviral drugs in colorectal mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes and compare gene expression with circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells, which traffic to the intestine and have been shown to be preferentially infected by HIV-1. Purified total CD4+ T cells were obtained from colorectal tissue and blood samples by magnetic separation. CD4+ T cells expressing α4β7 integrin were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers. Expressions of 15 efflux and uptake drug transporter genes were quantified using Taqman qPCR assays. Expression of efflux transporters MRP3, MRP5, and BCRP and uptake transporter CNT2 were significantly higher in colorectal CD4+ T cells compared to circulating CD4+ T cells (p = 0.01-0.03). Conversely, circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells demonstrated significantly higher expression of OATPD compared to colorectal CD4+ T cells (p = 0.001). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of drug transporter gene expression in colorectal CD4+ and peripheral α4β7+CD4+ T cells. The qualitative and quantitative differences in drug transporter gene expression profiles between α4β7+CD4+ T cells and total mucosal CD4+ T cells may have significant implications for the efficacy of rectally delivered ARV-microbicides. Most notably, we have identified efflux drug transporters that could be targeted by selective inhibitors or beneficial drug-drug interactions to enhance intracellular accumulation of antiretroviral drugs.

  4. Combined measurement of copeptin, high-sensitivity troponin T, and N-terminal proBNP improves the identification of patients at risk of cardiovascular death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Carstensen, John

    2012-01-01

    and all mortality was registered. Cardiovascular mortality was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier plots and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results: Copeptin, HS-TnT, and NT-proBNP measurements provided independent prognostic information in a multivariate setting over 5 years (hazard......Objectives: A multimarker strategy for the handling of patients with heart failure has been suggested in the literature. Therefore, the potential prognostic relevance of combined copeptin, high-sensitivity troponin T (HS-TnT), and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) measurement in plasma from elderly...... patients with symptoms of heart failure was evaluated. Methods: This study included 470 elderly patients (mean age 73 years) from a rural municipality with symptoms of heart failure. Clinical examination, echocardiography, and biomarker measurements were performed. All patients were followed for 13 years...

  5. Pre-clinical evaluation of CD38 chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells for the treatment of multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drent, Esther; Groen, Richard W. J.; Noort, Willy A. Noort

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells is a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. The CD38 molecule, with its high expression on multiple myeloma cells, appears a suitable target for antibody therapy. Prompted by this, we used three different CD38 antibody...... sequences to generate second-generation retroviral CD38- chimeric antigen receptor constructs with which we transduced T cells from healthy donors and multiple myeloma patients. We then evaluated the preclinical efficacy and safety of the transduced T cells. Irrespective of the donor and antibody sequence......, CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells proliferated, produced inflammatory cytokines and effectively lysed malignant cell lines and primary malignant cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and multi-drug resistant multiple myeloma in a cell-dose, and CD38-dependent manner, despite...

  6. Vitamin D Actions on CD4+ T cells in Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Elizabeth Hayes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes and integrates research on vitamin D and CD4+ T lymphocyte biology to develop new mechanistic insights into the molecular etiology of autoimmune disease. A deep understanding of molecular mechanisms relevant to gene-environment interactions is needed to deliver etiology-based autoimmune disease prevention and treatment strategies. Evidence linking sunlight, vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes is summarized to develop the thesis that vitamin D is the environmental factor that most strongly influences autoimmune disease development. Evidence for CD4+ T cell involvement in autoimmune disease pathogenesis and for paracrine calcitriol signaling to CD4+ T lymphocytes is summarized to support the thesis that calcitriol is sunlight’s main protective signal transducer in autoimmune disease risk. Animal modeling and human mechanistic data to support the view that vitamin D probably influences thymic negative selection, effector Th1 and Th17 pathogenesis and responsiveness to extrinsic cell death signals, FoxP3+CD4+ Treg cell and CD4+ Tr1 cell functions, and a Th1-Tr1 switch. The proposed Th1-Tr1 switch appears to bridge two stable, self-reinforcing immune states, pro- and anti-inflammatory, each with a characteristic gene regulatory network. The bi-stable switch would enable T cells to integrate signals from pathogens, hormones, cell-cell interactions, and soluble mediators and respond in a biologically appropriate manner. Finally, we highlight unanswered questions that potentially informative future research directions that may speed delivery of etiology-based strategies to reduce autoimmune disease.

  7. Cellular Mechanics of Primary Human Cervical Fibroblasts: Influence of Progesterone and a Pro-inflammatory Cytokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vasudha; Barnhouse, Victoria; Ackerman, William E; Summerfield, Taryn L; Powell, Heather M; Leight, Jennifer L; Kniss, Douglas A; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2018-01-01

    The leading cause of neonatal mortality, pre-term birth, is often caused by pre-mature ripening/opening of the uterine cervix. Although cervical fibroblasts play an important role in modulating the cervix's extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical properties, it is not known how hormones, i.e., progesterone, and pro-inflammatory insults alter fibroblast mechanics, fibroblast-ECM interactions and the resulting changes in tissue mechanics. Here we investigate how progesterone and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, alter the biomechanical properties of human cervical fibroblasts and the fibroblast-ECM interactions that govern tissue-scale mechanics. Primary human fibroblasts were isolated from non-pregnant cervix and treated with estrogen/progesterone, IL-1β or both. The resulting changes in ECM gene expression, matrix remodeling, traction force generation, cell-ECM adhesion and tissue contractility were monitored. Results indicate that IL-1β induces a significant reduction in traction force and ECM adhesion independent of pre-treatment with progesterone. These cell level effects altered tissue-scale mechanics where IL-1β inhibited the contraction of a collagen gel over 6 days. Interestingly, progesterone treatment alone did not modulate traction forces or gel contraction but did result in a dramatic increase in cell-ECM adhesion. Therefore, the protective effect of progesterone may be due to altered adhesion dynamics as opposed to altered ECM remodeling.

  8. Peripheral blood T cell activation after radioiodine treatment for graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Weiping; Weetman, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis produces a rise in thyroid autoantibodies in the first three months after treatment, but little is known of its effects on T cells. We have therefore followed the changes in T cells subsets in sequential samples from 23 patients with Graves' disease treated with radioiodine, using dual-colour flow cytometry. In the first month after treatment there was a significant rise in activated T cells, identified by the markers HLA-DR (Ia) and CDW 26/Ta 1 (P<0.025 in both case). CD45RO-positive T cells, which are the prime population containing memory cells, also increased (P<0.025), but there was no change in CD45R-positive, resting cells or in the CD4/CD8 (helper to cytotoxic/suppressor) ratio. Vicia villosa-binding T cells, containing the contra-suppressor population, showed a more variable response, but the trend was to an overall increase from pre-treatment values (P<0.025). The change did not appear to be related to antithyroid drugs treatment, since they were seen irrespective of whether patients convinced such therapy. These results suggest that T cell activation and enhanced contra-suppressor activity may in part be responsible for the rise in autoantibodies after radioiodine therapy

  9. Identification of p53 unbound to T-antigen in human cells transformed by simian virus 40 T-antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F J; Hu, Y; Chen, T; Carney, H

    1997-02-27

    In several clones of SV40-transformed human cells, we investigated the relative amounts of large T-Antigen (T-Ag) and p53 proteins, both unbound and associated within complexes, with the goal of identifying changes associated with transformation and immortalization. Cells were transformed by wild type (wt) T-Ag, a functionally temperature sensitive T-Ag (tsA58) and other T-Ag variants. Western analysis showed that while most of the T-Ag was ultimately bound by p53, most of the p53 remained unbound to T-Ag. Unbound p53 remained in the supernatant after a T-Ag immunoprecipitation and p53 was present in two to fourfold excess of T-Ag. In one transformant there was five to tenfold more p53 than T-Ag. p53 was present in transformants in amounts at least 200-fold greater than in untransformed human cells. In wt and variant T-Ag transformants, including those generated with tsA58 T-Ag, large amounts of unbound p53 were present in both pre-crisis and immortal cells and when the cells were grown at permissive or non-permissive temperatures. We also found that in transformants produced by tsA58, an SV40/JCV chimeric T-Ag and other variants, T-Ag appeared to form a complex with p53 slowly perhaps because one or both proteins matured slowly. The presence in transformed human cells of large amounts of unbound p53 and in excess of T-Ag suggests that sequestration of p53 by T-Ag, resulting from complex formation, is required neither for morphological transformation nor immortalization of human cells. Rather, these results support the proposal that high levels of p53, the T-Ag/p53 complexes, or other biochemical event(s), lead to transformation and immortalization of human cells by T-Ag.

  10. Leukemia-associated activating mutation of Flt3 expands dendritic cells and alters T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen M; Nish, Simone A; Yogev, Nir; Waisman, Ari; Reiner, Steven L; Reizis, Boris

    2016-03-07

    A common genetic alteration in acute myeloid leukemia is the internal tandem duplication (ITD) in FLT3, the receptor for cytokine FLT3 ligand (FLT3L). Constitutively active FLT3-ITD promotes the expansion of transformed progenitors, but also has pleiotropic effects on hematopoiesis. We analyzed the effect of FLT3-ITD on dendritic cells (DCs), which express FLT3 and can be expanded by FLT3L administration. Pre-leukemic mice with the Flt3(ITD) knock-in allele manifested an expansion of classical DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs. The expansion originated in DC progenitors, was cell intrinsic, and was further enhanced in Flt3(ITD/ITD) mice. The mutation caused the down-regulation of Flt3 on the surface of DCs and reduced their responsiveness to Flt3L. Both canonical Batf3-dependent CD8(+) cDCs and noncanonical CD8(+) cDCs were expanded and showed specific alterations in their expression profiles. Flt3(ITD) mice showed enhanced capacity to support T cell proliferation, including a cell-extrinsic expansion of regulatory T (T reg) cells. Accordingly, these mice restricted alloreactive T cell responses during graft-versus-host reaction, but failed to control autoimmunity without T reg cells. Thus, the FLT3-ITD mutation directly affects DC development, indirectly modulating T cell homeostasis and supporting T reg cell expansion. We hypothesize that this effect of FLT3-ITD might subvert immunosurveillance and promote leukemogenesis in a cell-extrinsic manner. © 2016 Lau et al.

  11. Regulatory T cells as suppressors of anti-tumor immunity: Role of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Veronica; Di Rella, Francesca; Di Giacomo, Antonio; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Novel concepts in immunometabolism support the hypothesis that glucose consumption is also used to modulate anti-tumor immune responses, favoring growth and expansion of specific cellular subsets defined in the past as suppressor T cells and currently reborn as regulatory T (Treg) cells. During the 1920s, Otto Warburg and colleagues observed that tumors consumed high amounts of glucose compared to normal tissues, even in the presence of oxygen and completely functioning mitochondria. However, the role of the Warburg Effect is still not completely understood, particularly in the context of an ongoing anti-tumor immune response. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-derived metabolic restrictions can drive T cell hyporesponsiveness and immune tolerance. For example, several glycolytic enzymes, deregulated in cancer, contribute to tumor progression independently from their canonical metabolic activity. Indeed, they can control apoptosis, gene expression and activation of specific intracellular pathways, thus suggesting a direct link between metabolic switches and pro-tumorigenic transcriptional programs. Focus of this review is to define the specific metabolic pathways controlling Treg cell immunobiology in the context of anti-tumor immunity and tumor progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissecting the T Cell Response: Proliferation Assays vs. Cytokine Signatures by ELISPOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Tary-Lehmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors of transplant graft survival have most commonly focused on only one measure of the alloimmune response. Because differing qualities and frequencies of the allospecific T cell response may provide distinctly different information we analyzed the relationship between frequency of soluble antigen and allo-antigen specific memory IFN-g secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells, their ability to secrete IL-2, and their proliferative capacity, while accounting for cognate and bystander proliferation. The results show proliferative responses primarily reflect on IL-2 production by antigen-specific T cells, and that proliferating cells in such assays entail a considerable fraction of bystander cells. On the other hand, proliferation (and IL-2 production did not reflect on the frequency of IFN-γ producing memory cells, a finding particularly accentuated in the CD8 T cell compartment. These data provide rationale for considering both frequency and effector function of pre-transplant T cell reactivity when analyzing immune predictors of graft rejection.

  13. Dissecting the T Cell Response: Proliferation Assays vs. Cytokine Signatures by ELISPOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Donald D.; Milkovich, Kimberly A.; Zhang, Wenji; Rodriguez, Benigno; Yonkers, Nicole L.; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Lehmann, Paul V.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors of transplant graft survival have most commonly focused on only one measure of the alloimmune response. Because differing qualities and frequencies of the allospecific T cell response may provide distinctly different information we analyzed the relationship between frequency of soluble antigen and allo-antigen specific memory IFN-γ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells, their ability to secrete IL-2, and their proliferative capacity, while accounting for cognate and bystander proliferation. The results show proliferative responses primarily reflect on IL-2 production by antigen-specific T cells, and that proliferating cells in such assays entail a considerable fraction of bystander cells. On the other hand, proliferation (and IL-2 production) did not reflect on the frequency of IFN-γ producing memory cells, a finding particularly accentuated in the CD8 T cell compartment. These data provide rationale for considering both frequency and effector function of pre-transplant T cell reactivity when analyzing immune predictors of graft rejection. PMID:24710419

  14. Pro-inflammatory effects of interleukin-17A on vascular smooth muscle cells involve NAD(P)H- oxidase derived reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, Eweline; Bender, Bianca; Huppert, Jula; White, Robin; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kuhlmann, Christoph R W

    2011-01-01

    T cells are known for their contribution to the inflammatory element of atherosclerosis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the Th17 derived cytokine IL-17 is involved in the pro-inflammatory response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The aim of the present study was to examine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) might be involved in this context. The effect of IL-17A on ROS generation was examined using the fluorescent dye 2'7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (H(2)DCF) in primary murine VSMC. IL-17A induced an increase in H(2)DCF fluorescence in VSMC, and this effect was blocked by the NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibitor apocynin and siRNA targeting Nox2. The p38-MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and SB202190 dose-dependently reduced the IL-17A induced ROS production. The IL-17A induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1 from VSMC, as detected by the Luminex technology, was completely abolished by NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibition. Taken together, our data indicate that IL-17A causes the NAD(P)H-oxidase dependent generation of ROS leading to a pro-inflammatory activation of VSMC. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Gene expression profiles in BCL11B-siRNA treated malignant T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarczyk Piotr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downregulation of the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/lymphoma11B (BCL11B gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA leads to growth inhibition and apoptosis of the human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL cell line Molt-4. To further characterize the molecular mechanism, a global gene expression profile of BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells was established. The expression profiles of several genes were further validated in the BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells and primary T-ALL cells. Results 142 genes were found to be upregulated and 109 genes downregulated in the BCL11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells by microarray analysis. Among apoptosis-related genes, three pro-apoptotic genes, TNFSF10, BIK, BNIP3, were upregulated and one anti-apoptotic gene, BCL2L1 was downregulated. Moreover, the expression of SPP1 and CREBBP genes involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF-β pathway was down 16-fold. Expression levels of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, SPP1, and CREBBP were also examined by real-time PCR. A similar expression pattern of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, and SPP1 was identified. However, CREBBP was not downregulated in the BLC11B-siRNA -treated Molt-4 cells. Conclusion BCL11B-siRNA treatment altered expression profiles of TNFSF10, BCL2L1, and SPP1 in both Molt-4 T cell line and primary T-ALL cells.

  16. The role of T and B cells in human atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, E; Moroni, F; Magnoni, M; Camici, P G

    2015-02-01

    Far from being merely a passive cholesterol accumulation within the arterial wall, the development of atherosclerosis is currently known to imply both inflammation and immune effector mechanisms. Adaptive immunity has been implicated in the process of disease initiation and progression interwined with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Although the body of knowledge regarding the correlation between atherosclerosis and immunity in humans is growing rapidly, a relevant proportion of it derives from studies carried out in animal models of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, while the mouse is a well-suited model, the results obtained therein are not fully transferrable to the human setting due to intrinsic genomic and environmental differences. In the present review, we will discuss mainly human findings, obtained either by examination of post-mortem and surgical atherosclerotic material or through the analysis of the immunological profile of peripheral blood cells. In particular, we will discuss the findings supporting a pro-atherogenic role of T cell subsets, such as effector memory T cells or the potential protective function of regulatory T cells. Recent studies suggest that traditional T cell-driven B2 cell responses appear to be atherogenic, while innate B1 cells appear to exert a protective action through the secretion of naturally occurring antibodies. The insights into the immune pathogenesis of atherosclerosis can provide new targets in the quest for novel therapeutic targets to abate CVD morbidity and mortality. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  17. Monitoring of regulatory T cell frequencies and expression of CTLA-4 on T cells, before and after DC vaccination, can predict survival in GBM patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Fong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dendritic cell (DC vaccines have recently emerged as an innovative therapeutic option for glioblastoma patients. To identify novel surrogates of anti-tumor immune responsiveness, we studied the dynamic expression of activation and inhibitory markers on peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL subsets in glioblastoma patients treated with DC vaccination at UCLA. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Pre-treatment and post-treatment PBL from 24 patients enrolled in two Phase I clinical trials of dendritic cell immunotherapy were stained and analyzed using flow cytometry. A univariate Cox proportional hazards model was utilized to investigate the association between continuous immune monitoring variables and survival. Finally, the immune monitoring variables were dichotomized and a recursive partitioning survival tree was built to obtain cut-off values predictive of survival. RESULTS: The change in regulatory T cell (CD3(+CD4(+CD25(+CD127(low frequency in PBL was significantly associated with survival (p = 0.0228; hazard ratio = 3.623 after DC vaccination. Furthermore, the dynamic expression of the negative co-stimulatory molecule, CTLA-4, was also significantly associated with survival on CD3(+CD4(+ T cells (p = 0.0191; hazard ratio = 2.840 and CD3(+CD8(+ T cells (p = 0.0273; hazard ratio = 2.690, while that of activation markers (CD25, CD69 was not. Finally, a recursive partitioning tree algorithm was utilized to dichotomize the post/pre fold change immune monitoring variables. The resultant cut-off values from these immune monitoring variables could effectively segregate these patients into groups with significantly different overall survival curves. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that monitoring the change in regulatory T cell frequencies and dynamic expression of the negative co-stimulatory molecules on peripheral blood T cells, before and after DC vaccination, may predict survival. The cut-off point generated from these data can be utilized in future

  18. T-cell receptor transfer into human T cells with ecotropic retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koste, L; Beissert, T; Hoff, H; Pretsch, L; Türeci, Ö; Sahin, U

    2014-05-01

    Adoptive T-cell transfer for cancer immunotherapy requires genetic modification of T cells with recombinant T-cell receptors (TCRs). Amphotropic retroviral vectors (RVs) used for TCR transduction for this purpose are considered safe in principle. Despite this, TCR-coding and packaging vectors could theoretically recombine to produce replication competent vectors (RCVs), and transduced T-cell preparations must be proven free of RCV. To eliminate the need for RCV testing, we transduced human T cells with ecotropic RVs so potential RCV would be non-infectious for human cells. We show that transfection of synthetic messenger RNA encoding murine cationic amino-acid transporter 1 (mCAT-1), the receptor for murine retroviruses, enables efficient transient ecotropic transduction of human T cells. mCAT-1-dependent transduction was more efficient than amphotropic transduction performed in parallel, and preferentially targeted naive T cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that ecotropic TCR transduction results in antigen-specific restimulation of primary human T cells. Thus, ecotropic RVs represent a versatile, safe and potent tool to prepare T cells for the adoptive transfer.

  19. The STOX1 genotype associated with pre-eclampsia leads to a reduction of trophoblast invasion by alpha-T-catenin upregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marie; van Bezu, Jan; van Abel, Daan; Dunk, Caroline; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Oudejans, Cees B. M.; Lye, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    By using complementary in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we show that the risk allele (Y153H) of the pre-eclampsia susceptibility gene STOX1 negatively regulates trophoblast invasion by upregulation of the cell-cell adhesion protein alpha-T-catenin (CTNNA3). This is effectuated at the crucial

  20. Selection and characterization of T-cell variants lacking molecules involved in T-cell activation (T3 T-cell receptor, T44, and T11): analysis of the functional relationship among different pathways of activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretta, A.; Poggi, A.; Olive, D.; Bottino, C.; Fortis, C.; Pantaleo, G.; Moretta, L.

    1987-01-01

    A clone of the interleukin 2-producing Jurkat leukemia cell line termed JA3 (surface phenotype, T3 + , Ti + , T44 + , T11 + , T40 + ) has been used to induce and select cell variants lacking surface molecules involved in T-cell activation. Following 200 rad of γ-radiation (1 rad = 0.01 Gy), cells were treated with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to T3, Ti, T44, or T11 antigen and complement. After growth of the residual cells in culture, negative cells were cloned under limiting conditions. Depending on the specificity of the mAb used for the immunoselection, three groups of variants were obtained. (i) The use of mAbs directed to T3 or Ti resulted in cell variants that expressed the T3 - Ti - T44 + Leu1 + T11 + T40 + 4F2 + HLA class I + surface phenotype. (ii) Immunoselection with anti-T44 mAb resulted in 2 variants that shared the T3 - Ti - T44 - Leu1 - T11 - T40 - 4F2 - HLA class I + phenotype. (iii) Cell treatment with anti-T11 mAb resulted in 15 variants characterized by the lack of T11 antigen expression and of all the other T-cell-specific surface antigens. Therefore, it appears that the different sets of JA3 cell variants, like T cells at discrete stages of intrathymic differentiation, may follow a coordinated expression of surface differentiation antigens. Analysis of the functional responsiveness of the three distinct groups of JA3 cell variants to different stimuli showed that all produced interleukin 2 in response to A23187 calcium ionophore plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

  1. FOXO3 regulates CD8 T cell memory by T cell-intrinsic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A Sullivan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available CD8 T cell responses have three phases: expansion, contraction, and memory. Dynamic alterations in proliferation and apoptotic rates control CD8 T cell numbers at each phase, which in turn dictate the magnitude of CD8 T cell memory. Identification of signaling pathways that control CD8 T cell memory is incomplete. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway controls cell growth in many cell types by modulating the activity of FOXO transcription factors. But the role of FOXOs in regulating CD8 T cell memory remains unknown. We show that phosphorylation of Akt, FOXO and mTOR in CD8 T cells occurs in a dynamic fashion in vivo during an acute viral infection. To elucidate the potentially dynamic role for FOXO3 in regulating homeostasis of activated CD8 T cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, we infected global and T cell-specific FOXO3-deficient mice with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV. We found that FOXO3 deficiency induced a marked increase in the expansion of effector CD8 T cells, preferentially in the spleen, by T cell-intrinsic mechanisms. Mechanistically, the enhanced accumulation of proliferating CD8 T cells in FOXO3-deficient mice was not attributed to an augmented rate of cell division, but instead was linked to a reduction in cellular apoptosis. These data suggested that FOXO3 might inhibit accumulation of growth factor-deprived proliferating CD8 T cells by reducing their viability. By virtue of greater accumulation of memory precursor effector cells during expansion, the numbers of memory CD8 T cells were strikingly increased in the spleens of both global and T cell-specific FOXO3-deficient mice. The augmented CD8 T cell memory was durable, and FOXO3 deficiency did not perturb any of the qualitative attributes of memory T cells. In summary, we have identified FOXO3 as a critical regulator of CD8 T cell memory, and therapeutic modulation of FOXO3 might enhance vaccine-induced protective immunity against intracellular pathogens.

  2. Regulatory B and T cell responses in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur due to faulty self-tolerance. Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are classic examples of organ-specific autoimmune diseases. GD is an auto-antibody-mediated disease where autoantibodies are produced against the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR...... (Bregs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were investigated in the context of GD and HT. First, we studied the role of the thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin (TG) in healthy donors. The self-antigen TG, but not the foreign recall antigen tetanus toxoid (TT), was able to induce interleukin 10 (IL-10......) secretion by B cells and CD4+ T cells. These IL-10 producing B cells (B10 cells) from healthy donors were enriched with the CD5+ and CD24hi phenotype. In addition, TG was able to induce IL-6 production by B cells. In contrast, TT induced production of Th1-type pro-inflammatory cytokines including interferon...

  3. Scleroderma dermal microvascular endothelial cells exhibit defective response to pro-angiogenic chemokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabquer, Bradley J.; Ohara, Ray A.; Stinson, William A.; Campbell, Phillip L.; Amin, M. Asif; Balogh, Beatrix; Zakhem, George; Renauer, Paul A.; Lozier, Ann; Arasu, Eshwar; Haines, G. Kenneth; Kahaleh, Bashar; Schiopu, Elena; Khanna, Dinesh; Koch, Alisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Angiogenesis plays a critical role in SSc (scleroderma). The aim of this study was to examine the expression of growth-regulated protein-γ (Gro-γ/CXCL3), granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2/CXCL6) and their receptor CXCR2 in endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from SSc skin and determine whether these cells mount an angiogenic response towards pro-angiogenic chemokines. The downstream signalling pathways as well as the pro-angiogenic transcription factor inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 1 (Id-1) were also examined. Methods. Skin biopsies were obtained from patients with dcSSc. ECs were isolated via magnetic positive selection. Angiogenesis was measured by EC chemotaxis assay. Results. Gro-γ/CXCL3 and GCP-2/CXCL6 were minimally expressed in both skin types but elevated in SSc serum. Pro-angiogenic chemokine mRNA was greater in SSc ECs than in normal ECs. SSc ECs did not migrate to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Gro-γ/CXCL3, GCP-2/CXCL6 or CXCL16. The signalling pathways stimulated by these chemokines were also dysregulated. Id-1 mRNA in SSc ECs was lower compared with normal ECs, and overexpression of Id-1 in SSc ECs increased their ability to migrate towards VEGF and CXCL16. Conclusion. Our results show that SSc ECs are unable to respond to pro-angiogenic chemokines despite their increased expression in serum and ECs. This might be due to the differences in the signalling pathways activated by these chemokines in normal vs SSc ECs. In addition, the lower expression of Id-1 also decreases the angiogenic response. The inability of pro-angiogenic chemokines to promote EC migration provides an additional mechanism for the impaired angiogenesis that characterizes SSc. PMID:26705326

  4. Pre-operative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stage IIIA (N2) Non-Small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Keun Chil

    1999-01-01

    This is to evaluate the acute complication, resection rate, and tumor down-staging after pre-operative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer. Fifteen patients with non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in this study from May 1997 to June 1998 in Samsung Medical Center. The median age of the patients was 61 (range, 45-67) years and male to female ratio was 12:3. Pathologic types were squamous cell carcinoma (11) and adenocarcinoma (4). Pre-operative clinical tumor stages were cT1 in 2 patients, cT2 in 12, and cT3 in 1 and all were N2. Ten patients were proved to be N2 with mediastinoscopic biopsy and five had clinically evident mediastinal lymph node metastases on the chest CT scans. Pre-operative radiation therapy field included the primary tumor, the ipsilateral hilum, and the mediastinum. Total radiation dose was 45 Gy over 5 weeks with daily dose of 1.8 Gy. Pre-operative concurrent chemotherapy consisted of two cycles of intraventous cis-Platin (100 mg/m 2 ) on day 1 and oral Etoposide (50 mg/m 2 /day) on days 1 through 14 with 4 weeks' interval. Surgery was followed after the pre-operative re-evaluation including chest CT scan in 3 weeks of the completion of the concurrent chemoradiotherapy if there was no evidence of disease progression. Full dose radiation therapy was administered to all the 15 patients. Planned two cycles of chemotherapy was completed in 11 patients and one cycle was given to four. One treatment related death of acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in 15 days of surgery. Hospital admission was required in three patients including one with radiation pneumonitis and two with neutropenic fever. Hematologic complications and other acute complications including esophagitis were tolerable. Resection rate was 92.3% (12/13) in 13 patients excluding two patients who refused surgery. Pleural seeding was found in one patient after thoracotomy and tumor resection was not feasible. Post-operative tumor

  5. Pre-operative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stage IIIA (N2) Non-Small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Keun Chil [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    This is to evaluate the acute complication, resection rate, and tumor down-staging after pre-operative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer. Fifteen patients with non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in this study from May 1997 to June 1998 in Samsung Medical Center. The median age of the patients was 61 (range, 45-67) years and male to female ratio was 12:3. Pathologic types were squamous cell carcinoma (11) and adenocarcinoma (4). Pre-operative clinical tumor stages were cT1 in 2 patients, cT2 in 12, and cT3 in 1 and all were N2. Ten patients were proved to be N2 with mediastinoscopic biopsy and five had clinically evident mediastinal lymph node metastases on the chest CT scans. Pre-operative radiation therapy field included the primary tumor, the ipsilateral hilum, and the mediastinum. Total radiation dose was 45 Gy over 5 weeks with daily dose of 1.8 Gy. Pre-operative concurrent chemotherapy consisted of two cycles of intraventous cis-Platin (100 mg/m{sup 2}) on day 1 and oral Etoposide (50 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on days 1 through 14 with 4 weeks' interval. Surgery was followed after the pre-operative re-evaluation including chest CT scan in 3 weeks of the completion of the concurrent chemoradiotherapy if there was no evidence of disease progression. Full dose radiation therapy was administered to all the 15 patients. Planned two cycles of chemotherapy was completed in 11 patients and one cycle was given to four. One treatment related death of acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in 15 days of surgery. Hospital admission was required in three patients including one with radiation pneumonitis and two with neutropenic fever. Hematologic complications and other acute complications including esophagitis were tolerable. Resection rate was 92.3% (12/13) in 13 patients excluding two patients who refused surgery. Pleural seeding was found in one patient after thoracotomy and tumor resection was not feasible. Post

  6. A novel dendritic cell-based direct ex vivo assay for detection and enumeration of circulating antigen-specific human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrio, Roberto; Zhang, Ge; Drake, Donald R; Schanen, Brian C

    2018-05-07

    Although a variety of assays have been used to examine T cell responses in vitro, standardized ex vivo detection of antigen-specific CD4 + T cells from human circulatory PBMCs remains constrained by low-dimensional characterization outputs and the need for polyclonal, mitogen-induced expansion methods to generate detectable response signals. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel methodology utilizing antigen-pulsed autologous human dendritic target cells in a rapid and sensitive assay to accurately enumerate antigen-specific CD4 + T cell precursor frequency by multiparametric flow cytometry. With this approach, we demonstrate the ability to reproducibly quantitate poly-functional T cell responses following both primary and recall antigenic stimulation. Furthermore, this approach enables more comprehensive phenotypic profiling of circulating antigen-specific CD4 + T cells, providing valuable insights into the pre-existing polarization of antigen-specific T cells in humans. Combined, this approach permits sensitive and detailed ex vivo detection of antigen-specific CD4 + T cells delivering an important tool for advancing vaccine, immune-oncology and other therapeutic studies.

  7. MAR binding protein SMAR1 favors IL-10 mediated regulatory T cell function in acute colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Patil, Sachin; Bopanna, Ramanamurthy; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2015-01-01

    T reg cells are not only crucial for controlling immune responses to autoantigens but also prevent those directed towards commensal pathogens. Control of effector immune responses by T reg cells depend on their capacity to accumulate at inflammatory site and accordingly accommodate to inflammatory environment. Till date, the factors associated with maintaining these aspects of T reg phenotype is not understood properly. Here we have shown that a known nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 is selectively expressed more in colonic T reg cells and is required for their ability to accumulate at inflammatory site and to sustain high levels of Foxp3 and IL-10 expression during acute colitis. Elimination of anti-inflammatory subsets revealed a protective role for IL-10 producing T reg cells in SMAR1 −/− mice. Moreover, a combined action of Foxp3 and SMAR1 restricts effector cytokine production and enhance the production of IL-10 by colonic T reg cells that controls acute colitis. This data highlights a critical role of SMAR1 in maintaining T reg physiology during inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • SMAR1 is essential to sustain high level of Foxp3 and IL-10 in T reg cells. • SMAR1 −/− T reg cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 leads to inflammation. • IL-10 administration can control the inflammation in SMAR1 −/− mice. • Both Foxp3 and SMAR1 maintain T reg phenotype that controls colitis

  8. Activation of AMPK in human fetal membranes alleviates infection-induced expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, R; Barker, G; Lappas, M

    2015-04-01

    In non-gestational tissues, the activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is associated with potent anti-inflammatory actions. Infection and/or inflammation, by stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, play a central role in the rupture of fetal membranes. However, no studies have examined the role of AMPK in human labour. Fetal membranes, from term and preterm, were obtained from non-labouring and labouring women, and after preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes (PPROM). AMPK activity was assessed by Western blotting of phosphorylated AMPK expression. To determine the effect of AMPK activators on pro-inflammatory cytokines, fetal membranes were pre-treated with AMPK activators then stimulated with bacterial products LPS and flagellin or viral dsDNA analogue poly(I:C). Primary amnion cells were used to determine the effect of AMPK activators on IL-1β-stimulated MMP-9 expression. AMPK activity was decreased with term labour. There was no effect of preterm labour. AMPK activity was also decreased in preterm fetal membranes, in the absence of labour, with PROM compared to intact membranes. AMPK activators AICAR, phenformin and A769662 significantly decreased IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by LPS, flagellin and poly(I:C). Primary amnion cells treated with AMPK activators significantly decreased IL-1β-induced MMP-9 expression. The decrease in AMPK activity in fetal membranes after spontaneous term labour and PPROM indicates an anti-inflammatory role for AMPK in human labour and delivery. The use of AMPK activators as possible therapeutics for threatened preterm labour would be an exciting future avenue of research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do mechanical strain and TNF-α interact to amplify pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human annulus fibrosus cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Torre, Olivia M; Gruen, Jadry; Walter, Benjamin A; Hecht, Andrew C; Iatridis, James C

    2016-05-03

    During intervertebral disc (IVD) injury and degeneration, annulus fibrosus (AF) cells experience large mechanical strains in a pro-inflammatory milieu. We hypothesized that TNF-α, an initiator of IVD inflammation, modifies AF cell mechanobiology via cytoskeletal changes, and interacts with mechanical strain to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Human AF cells (N=5, Thompson grades 2-4) were stretched uniaxially on collagen-I coated chambers to 0%, 5% (physiological) or 15% (pathologic) strains at 0.5Hz for 24h under hypoxic conditions with or without TNF-α (10ng/mL). AF cells were treated with anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6. ELISA assessed IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 production and immunocytochemistry measured F-actin, vinculin and α-tubulin in AF cells. TNF-α significantly increased AF cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to basal conditions (IL-1β:2.0±1.4-84.0±77.3, IL-6:10.6±9.9-280.9±214.1, IL-8:23.9±26.0-5125.1±4170.8pg/ml for basal and TNF-α treatment, respectively) as expected, but mechanical strain did not. Pathologic strain in combination with TNF-α increased IL-1β, and IL-8 but not IL-6 production of AF cells. TNF-α treatment altered F-actin and α-tubulin in AF cells, suggestive of altered cytoskeletal stiffness. Anti-TNF-α (infliximab) significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production while anti-IL-6 (atlizumab) did not. In conclusion, TNF-α altered AF cell mechanobiology with cytoskeletal remodeling that potentially sensitized AF cells to mechanical strain and increased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results suggest an interaction between TNF-α and mechanical strain and future mechanistic studies are required to validate these observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. RhoA Drives T-Cell Activation and Encephalitogenic Potential in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Manresa-Arraut

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells are known to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. T-cell activation is controlled by a range of intracellular signaling pathways regulating cellular responses such as proliferation, cytokine production, integrin expression, and migration. These processes are crucial for the T-cells’ ability to mediate inflammatory processes in autoimmune diseases such as MS. RhoA is a ubiquitously expressed small GTPase well described as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. It is essential for embryonic development and together with other Rho GTPases controls various cellular processes such as cell development, shaping, proliferation, and locomotion. However, the specific contribution of RhoA to these processes in T-cells in general, and in autoreactive T-cells in particular, has not been fully characterized. Using mice with a T-cell specific deletion of the RhoA gene (RhoAfl/flLckCre+, we investigated the role of RhoA in T-cell development, functionality, and encephalitogenic potential in EAE. We show that lack of RhoA specifically in T-cells results in reduced numbers of mature T-cells in thymus and spleen but normal counts in peripheral blood. EAE induction in RhoAfl/flLckCre+ mice results in significantly reduced disease incidence and severity, which coincides with a reduced CNS T-cell infiltration. Besides presenting reduced migratory capacity, both naïve and autoreactive effector T-cells from RhoAfl/flLckCre+ mice show decreased viability, proliferative capacity, and an activation profile associated with reduced production of Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our study demonstrates that RhoA is a central regulator of several archetypical T-cell responses, and furthermore points toward RhoA as a new potential therapeutic target in diseases such as MS, where T-cell activity plays a central role.

  11. Fine-tuning the CAR spacer improves T-cell potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Bajgain, Pradip; Sukumaran, Sujita; Ansari, Salma; Heslop, Helen E.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Leen, Ann M.; Vera, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has emerged as a transformative cancer therapy with curative potential, precipitating a wave of preclinical and clinical studies in academic centers and the private sector. Indeed, significant effort has been devoted to improving clinical benefit by incorporating accessory genes/CAR endodomains designed to enhance cellular migration, promote in vivo expansion/persistence or enhance safety by genetic programming to enable the recognition of a tumor signature. However, our efforts centered on exploring whether CAR T-cell potency could be enhanced by modifying pre-existing CAR components. We now demonstrate how molecular refinements to the CAR spacer can impact multiple biological processes including tonic signaling, cell aging, tumor localization, and antigen recognition, culminating in superior in vivo antitumor activity. PMID:28180032

  12. Peripheral blood T cell activation after radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Teng; Stark, R.; Borysiewicz, L.K.; Weetman, A.P. (Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge Clinical School, Level 5, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)); Munro, A.J. (Department of Clinical Oncology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); McHardy Young, S. (Department of Medicine, Central Middlesex Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis produces a rise in thyroid autoantibodies in the first three months after treatment, but little is known of its effects on T cells. We have therefore followed the changes in T cell subsets in sequential samples from 23 patients with Graves' disease treated with radioiodine, using dualcolour flow cytometry. In the first month after treatment there was a significant rise in activated T cells, identified by the markers HLA-DR(la) and CDw26/Tal (p<0.025 in both cases). CD45RO-positive T cells, which are the primed population containing memory cells, also increased (p<0.025), but there was no change in CD45R-positive, resting T cells or in the CD4 to CD8 (helper to cytotoxic/suppressor) ratio. Vicia villosa-binding T cells, containing the contrasuppressor population, showed a more variable response, but the trend was to an overall increase from pre-treatment values (p<0.025). The changes did not appear to be related to antithyroid drug treatment, since they were seen irrespective of whether patients continued such therapy. These results suggest that T cell activation and enhanced contrasuppressor activity may in part be responsible for the rise in autoantibodies after radioiodine. The T cell changes could also contribute to the worsening of ophthalmopathy seen in some radioiodine-treated patients. (author).

  13. Engineering CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) have achieved inspiring outcomes in patients with B cell malignancies, and are now being investigated in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. CAR-T cells are generated by the T cells from patients' or donors' blood. After the T cells are expanded and genetically modified, they are reinfused into the patients. However, many challenges still need to be resolved in order for this technology to gain widespread adoption. In this review, we first discuss the structure and evolution of chimeric antigen receptors. We then report on the tools used for production of CAR-T cells. Finally, we address the challenges posed by CAR-T cells.

  14. T helper 17.1 cells associate with multiple sclerosis disease activity: perspectives for early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Langelaar, Jamie; van der Vuurst de Vries, Roos M; Janssen, Malou; Wierenga-Wolf, Annet F; Spilt, Isis M; Siepman, Theodora A; Dankers, Wendy; Verjans, Georges M G M; de Vries, Helga E; Lubberts, Erik; Hintzen, Rogier Q; van Luijn, Marvin M

    2018-05-01

    Interleukin-17-expressing CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells are considered as critical regulators of multiple sclerosis disease activity. However, depending on the species and pro-inflammatory milieu, Th17 cells are functionally heterogeneous, consisting of subpopulations that differentially produce interleukin-17, interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In the current study, we studied distinct effector phenotypes of human Th17 cells and their correlation with disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients. T helper memory populations single- and double-positive for C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) were functionally assessed in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid from a total of 59 patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 35 untreated patients and 24 natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and nine patients with end-stage multiple sclerosis. Within the clinically isolated syndrome group, 23 patients had a second attack within 1 year and 26 patients did not experience subsequent attacks during a follow-up of >5 years. Low frequencies of T helper 1 (Th1)-like Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3+), and not Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3-) effector memory populations in blood strongly associated with a rapid diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. In cerebrospinal fluid of clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, Th1-like Th17 effector memory cells were abundant and showed increased production of interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to paired CCR6+ and CCR6-CD8+ T cell populations and their blood equivalents after short-term culturing. Their local enrichment was confirmed ex vivo using cerebrospinal fluid and brain single-cell suspensions. Across all pro-inflammatory T helper cells analysed in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis blood, Th1-like Th17 subpopulation T helper 17.1 (Th17.1; CCR6+CXCR3+CCR4

  15. A compact pre-processor system for the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, U

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describ es the researc h whose aim is to dev elop a compact Pre-Pro cessor system for the A TLAS Lev el-1 Calorimeter T rigger. Con tributions to the p erformance and the arc hitecture of the Pre-Pro cessor w ere made. A demonstrator Multi-Chip Mo dule (PPrD- MCM) w as dev elop ed and assem bled whic h p erforms most of the prepro cessing of four analogue trigger-to w er signals. The prepro cessing includes digitisation to 8-bit precision, iden ti cation of the corresp onding bunc h-crossing in time (BCID), calibration of the transv erse energy , readout of ra w trigger data, and high-sp eed serial data transmission to the trigger pro cessors. The demonstrator Multi-Chip Mo dule has a size of 15.9 cm 2 and it consists of 9 dies. The MCM w as designed with a smallest feature size of 100 m and it w as fabricated in a laminated MCM-L pro cess o ered b yW urth Elektronik. A Flip-Chip in terconnection ASIC (Finco) w as dev elop ed for the PPrD-MCM and fabricated in a 0.8 m BiCMOS- pro cess o ered b ...

  16. Regulatory T cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cell-dependent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, J L; Akbari, O

    2017-08-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a recently identified group of cells with the potent capability to produce Th2-type cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13. Several studies suggest that ILC2s play an important role in the development of allergic diseases and asthma. Activation of pulmonary ILC2s in murine models lacking T and B cells induces eosinophilia and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR), which are cardinal features of asthma. More importantly, numerous recent studies have highlighted the role of ILC2s in asthma persistence and exacerbation among human subjects, and thus, regulation of pulmonary ILC2s is a major area of investigation aimed at curbing allergic lung inflammation and exacerbation. Emerging evidence reveals that a group of regulatory T cells, induced Tregs (iTregs), effectively suppress the production of ILC2-driven, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The inhibitory effects of iTregs are blocked by preventing direct cellular contact or by inhibiting the ICOS-ICOS-ligand (ICOSL) pathway, suggesting that both direct contact and ICOS-ICOSL interaction are important in the regulation of ILC2 function. Also, cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β1 significantly reduce cytokine secretion by ILC2s. Altogether, these new findings uncover iTregs as potent regulators of ILC2 activation and implicate their utility as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of ILC2-mediated allergic asthma and respiratory disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Partial reconstitution of virus-specific memory CD8+ T cells following whole body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, Jason M.; Laniewski, Nathan G.; Holbrook, Beth C.

    2006-01-01

    CD8 + memory T cells are critical in providing immunity to viral infection. Previous studies documented that antigen-specific CD8 + memory T cells are more resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis than naive T cells. Here, we determined the number and in vivo function of memory CD8 + T cells as immune reconstitution progressed following irradiation. Immediately following irradiation, the number of memory CD8 + T cells declined 80%. As reconstitution progressed, the number of memory cells reached a zenith at 33% of pre-irradiation levels, and was maintained for 120 days post-irradiation. In vitro, memory CD8 + T cells were able to produce cytokines at all times post-irradiation, but when adoptively transferred, they were not able to expand upon rechallenge immediately following irradiation, but regained this ability as reconstitution progressed. When proliferation was examined in vitro, irradiated memory CD8 + T cells were able to respond to mitogenic growth but were unable to divide

  18. THE EXPRESSION OF Bcl-2 AND PRO-CASPASE 3 IN HEAD AND NECK SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Cör

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer and accounts for 6% of cancers worldwide. A better understanding of its biology could lead to improved treatment options. Generally, the goal of cancer treatment is to abolish cell proliferation and to induce necrotic or aptoptotic cell death. Apoptosis has been recognized as a key mechanism of tumour cell elimination. Different apoptotic signals converge to induce caspase cascade activation. Caspase 3 is the central executioner caspase and is necessary for effective apoptotic cell death. Bcl-2 protein family regulates apoptosis. The Bcl-2 protein itself is a product of a proto-oncogene and has an antiapoptotic action.Methods. In our study, the expression of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase 3 by immunohistochemistry in 28 HNSCC graded into well, moderately and poorly differentiated cancers were investigated.Results. Our results of Bcl-2 expression confirm and extend previous reports in which Bcl-2 over-expression has been recognised as an important parameter in HNSCC biological behaviour. Three of 28 tumours (11% showed significant Bcl-2 expression. Two of them were poorly and one was moderately differentiated. Pro-caspase 3 immunoreactivity was confined mainly to the cytoplasm. Absent or low pro-caspase 3 immunoreactivity was found only in 1 of 6 well differentiated and in 1of 10 moderately differentiated tumours in contrast to 5 of 12 poorly differentiated tumours. In six of 12 poorly differentiated tumours procasapse 3 immunoreactivity was strongly positive. In two cases hyperplastic epithelium was strongly positive in contrast to adjacent HNSCC in the same slide which was completely negative for pro-caspase 3.Conclusions. Our results indicate downregulation of pro-caspase 3 expression, especially in poorly differentiated HNSCC. Further studies are needed to test whether this is related to HNSCC behaviour and predict treatment outcome.

  19. Probiotic Lactobacilli Modulate Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Activation of Conventional and Unconventional T cells and NK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Johansson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are probiotic commensal bacteria and potent modulators of immunity. When present in the gut or supplemented as probiotics, they beneficially modulate ex vivo immune responsiveness. Further, factors derived from several lactobacilli strains act immune regulato-ry in vitro. In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is known to induce excessive T cell activation. In this study we aimed to investigate S. aureus-induced activation of human muco-sal associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells, γδ T cells, NK cells, as well as of conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro. Further, we investigated if lactobacilli-derived factors could modulate their activation.PBMC were cultured with S. aureus 161:2 cell free supernatant (CFS, staphylococcal en-terotoxin A or CD3/CD28-beads alone or in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus GG-CFS or Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri DSM 17938-CFS, and activation of T and NK cells was evaluated. S. aureus-CFS induced IFN-γ and CD107a expression as well as proliferation. Co-stimulation with lactobacilli-CFS dampened lymphocyte activation in all cell types analysed. Pre-incubation with lactobacilli-CFS was enough to reduce subsequent activation and the ab-sence of APC or APC-derived IL-10 did not prevent lactobacilli-mediated dampening. Final-ly, lactate selectively dampened activation of unconventional T cells and NK cells. In summary, we show that molecules present in the lactobacilli-CFS are able to directly dampen in vitro activation of conventional and unconventional T cells and of NK cells. This study provides novel insights on the immune modulatory nature of probiotic lactobacilli and suggests a role for lactobacilli in modulation of induced T and NK cell activation.

  20. Lipophilic fractions from the marine sponge Halichondria sitiens decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type response by allogeneic CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaxia; Oskarsson, Jon T; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2017-12-01

    Halichondria (Halichondriidae) marine sponges contain components possessing various biological activities, but immunomodulation is not among the ones reported. This study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of fractions/compounds from Halichondria sitiens Schmidt. Crude dichloromethane/methanol extracts of H. sitiens were subjected to various chromatographic techniques to obtain fractions/compounds with immunomodulatory activity, using bioassay-guided isolation. The effects of the fractions/compounds were determined by measuring secretion of cytokines and expression of surface molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) and their ability to stimulate and modify cytokine secretion by allogeneic CD4 + T cells. The bioactive fractions were chemically analyzed to identify the immunomodulatory constituents by 1D, 2D NMR, and HRMS data. Several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens at 10 μg/mL decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and IL-6 by the DCs, with maximum inhibition being 64% and 25%, respectively. In addition, fractions B3b3F and B3b3J decreased the ability of DCs to induce T cell secretion of IFN-γ. Fraction B3b3 induced morphological changes in DCs, characterized by extreme elongation of dendrites and cell clustering. Chemical screening revealed the presence of glycerides and some minor unknown constituents in the biologically active fractions. One new glyceride, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl 2-methylhexadecanoate (1), was isolated from one fraction and two known compounds, 3-[(1-methoxyhexadecyl)oxy]propane-1,2-diol (2) and monoheptadecanoin (3), were identified in another, but none of them had immunomodulatory activity. These results demonstrate that several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens have anti-inflammatory effects on DCs and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type immune response.

  1. Surgical Stress Abrogates Pre-Existing Protective T Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Immunity Leading to Postoperative Cancer Recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirami A Ananth

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor CD8+ T cells are a key determinant for overall survival in patients following surgical resection for solid malignancies. Using a mouse model of cancer vaccination (adenovirus expressing melanoma tumor-associated antigen (TAA-dopachrome tautomerase (AdDCT and resection resulting in major surgical stress (abdominal nephrectomy, we demonstrate that surgical stress results in a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cell that produce cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, Granzyme B in response to TAA. This effect is secondary to both reduced proliferation and impaired T cell function following antigen binding. In a prophylactic model, surgical stress completely abrogates tumor protection conferred by vaccination in the immediate postoperative period. In a clinically relevant surgical resection model, vaccinated mice undergoing a positive margin resection with surgical stress had decreased survival compared to mice with positive margin resection alone. Preoperative immunotherapy with IFNα significantly extends survival in surgically stressed mice. Importantly, myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC population numbers and functional impairment of TAA-specific CD8+ T cell were altered in surgically stressed mice. Our observations suggest that cancer progression may result from surgery-induced suppression of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Preoperative immunotherapies aimed at targeting the prometastatic effects of cancer surgery will reduce recurrence and improve survival in cancer surgery patients.

  2. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (Car T Cell Therapy In Hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Ataca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well demonstrated that immune system can control and eliminate cancer cells. Immune-mediated elimination of tumor cells has been discovered and is the basis of both cancer vaccines and cellular therapies including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Adoptive T cell transfer has been improved to be more specific and potent and cause less off-target toxicities. Currently, there are two forms of engineered T cells being tested in clinical trials: T cell receptor (TCR and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR modified T cells. On July 1, 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted ‘breakthrough therapy’ designation to anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy. Many studies were conducted to evaluate the beneficiaries of this exciting and potent new treatment modality. This review summarizes the history of adoptive immunotherapy, adoptive immunotherapy using CARs, the CAR manufacturing process, preclinical-clinical studies, effectiveness and drawbacks of this strategy.

  3. Interferon-β Inhibits Neurotrophin 3 Signalling and Pro-Survival Activity by Upregulating the Expression of Truncated TrkC-T1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedoni, Simona; Olianas, Maria C; Ingianni, Angela; Onali, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    Although clinically useful for the treatment of various diseases, type I interferons (IFNs) have been implicated as causative factors of a number of neuroinflammatory disorders characterized by neuronal damage and altered CNS functions. As neurotrophin 3 (NT3) plays a critical role in neuroprotection, we examined the effects of IFN-β on the signalling and functional activity of the NT3/TrkC system. We found that prolonged exposure of differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to IFN-β impaired the ability of NT3 to induce transphosphorylation of the full-length TrkC receptor (TrkC-FL) and the phosphorylation of downstream signalling molecules, including PLCγ1, Akt, GSK-3β and ERK1/2. NT3 was effective in protecting the cells against apoptosis triggered by serum withdrawal or thapsigargin but not IFN-β. Prolonged exposure to the cytokine had little effects on TrkC-FL levels but markedly enhanced the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of the truncated isoform TrkC-T1, a dominant-negative receptor that inhibits TrkC-FL activity. Cell depletion of TrkC-T1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment enhanced NT3 signalling through TrkC-FL and allowed the neurotrophin to counteract IFN-β-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the upregulation of TrkC-T1 by IFN-β was associated with the inhibition of NT3-induced recruitment of the scaffold protein tamalin to TrkC-T1 and tamalin tyrosine phosphorylation. These data indicate that IFN-β exerts a negative control on NT3 pro-survival signalling through a novel mechanism involving the upregulation of TrkC-T1.

  4. Nonmalignant T cells stimulate growth of T-cell lymphoma cells in the presence of bacterial toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woetmann, Anders; Lovato, Paola; Eriksen, Karsten W

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). Here, we investigate SE-mediated interactions between nonmalignant T cells and malignant T-cell lines established from skin and blood of CTCL patients....... The malignant CTCL cells express MHC class II molecules that are high-affinity receptors for SE. Although treatment with SE has no direct effect on the growth of the malignant CTCL cells, the SE-treated CTCL cells induce vigorous proliferation of the SE-responsive nonmalignant T cells. In turn, the nonmalignant...... T cells enhance proliferation of the malignant cells in an SE- and MHC class II-dependent manner. Furthermore, SE and, in addition, alloantigen presentation by malignant CTCL cells to irradiated nonmalignant CD4(+) T-cell lines also enhance proliferation of the malignant cells. The growth...

  5. Introduction of the human proα1(I) collagen gene into proα1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnieke, A.; Dziadek, M.; Bateman, J.; Mascara, T.; Harbers, K.; Gelinas, R.; Jaenisch, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the proα1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of proα2 mRNA are synthesized. The authors have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse proα1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse proα1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse proα2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human α1 chains and one mouse α2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both α1(I) and α2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the α(I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse α1 and α2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human α chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow the authors to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected proα1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I

  6. Protein translation and cell death: the role of rare tRNAs in biofilm formation and in activating dormant phage killer genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García-Contreras

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We discovered previously that the small Escherichia coli proteins Hha (hemolysin expression modulating protein and the adjacent, poorly-characterized YbaJ are important for biofilm formation; however, their roles have been nebulous. Biofilms are intricate communities in which cell signaling often converts single cells into primitive tissues. Here we show that Hha decreases biofilm formation dramatically by repressing the transcription of rare codon tRNAs which serves to inhibit fimbriae production and by repressing to some extent transcription of fimbrial genes fimA and ihfA. In vivo binding studies show Hha binds to the rare codon tRNAs argU, ileX, ileY, and proL and to two prophage clusters D1P12 and CP4-57. Real-time PCR corroborated that Hha represses argU and proL, and Hha type I fimbriae repression is abolished by the addition of extra copies of argU, ileY, and proL. The repression of transcription of rare codon tRNAs by Hha also leads to cell lysis and biofilm dispersal due to activation of prophage lytic genes rzpD, yfjZ, appY, and alpA and due to induction of ClpP/ClpX proteases which activate toxins by degrading antitoxins. YbaJ serves to mediate the toxicity of Hha. Hence, we have identified that a single protein (Hha can control biofilm formation by limiting fimbriae production as well as by controlling cell death. The mechanism used by Hha is the control of translation via the availability of rare codon tRNAs which reduces fimbriae production and activates prophage lytic genes. Therefore, Hha acts as a toxin in conjunction with co-transcribed YbaJ (TomB that attenuates Hha toxicity.

  7. Polyfunctional response by ImmTAC (IMCgp100) redirected CD8+ and CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudousquie, Caroline; Bossi, Giovanna; Hurst, Jacob M; Rygiel, Karolina A; Jakobsen, Bent K; Hassan, Namir J

    2017-11-01

    The success of immune system-based cancer therapies depends on a broad immune response engaging a range of effector cells and mechanisms. Immune mobilizing monoclonal T cell receptors (TCRs) against cancer (ImmTAC™ molecules: fusion proteins consisting of a soluble, affinity enhanced TCR and an anti-CD3 scFv antibody) were previously shown to redirect CD8 + and CD4 + T cells against tumours. Here we present evidence that IMCgp100 (ImmTAC recognizing a peptide derived from the melanoma-specific protein, gp100, presented by HLA-A*0201) efficiently redirects and activates effector and memory cells from both CD8 + and CD4 + repertoires. Using isolated subpopulations of T cells, we find that both terminally differentiated and effector memory CD8 + T cells redirected by IMCgp100 are potent killers of melanoma cells. Furthermore, CD4 + effector memory T cells elicit potent cytotoxic activity leading to melanoma cell killing upon redirection by IMCgp100. The majority of T cell subsets belonging to both the CD8 + and CD4 + repertoires secrete key pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin-6) and chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α-β, interferon-γ-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). At an individual cell level, IMCgp100-redirected T cells display a polyfunctional phenotype, which is a hallmark of a potent anti-cancer response. This study demonstrates that IMCgp100 induces broad immune responses that extend beyond the induction of CD8 + T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These findings are of particular importance because IMCgp100 is currently undergoing clinical trials as a single agent or in combination with check point inhibitors for patients with malignant melanoma. © 2017 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The pro-Forms of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) Are Predominant in Skeletal Muscle and Alter IGF-I Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durzyńska, Julia; Philippou, Anastassios; Brisson, Becky K.; Nguyen-McCarty, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    IGF-I is a key regulator of muscle development and growth. The pre-pro-peptide produced by the Igf1gene undergoes several posttranslational processing steps to result in a secreted mature protein, which is thought to be the obligate ligand for the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). The goals of this study were to determine what forms of IGF-I exist in skeletal muscle, and whether the mature IGF-I protein was the only form able to activate the IGF-IR. We measured the proportion of IGF-I species in murine skeletal muscle and found that the predominant forms were nonglycosylated pro-IGF-I and glycosylated pro-IGF-I, which retained the C-terminal E peptide extension, instead of mature IGF-I. These forms were validated using samples subjected to viral expression of IGF-I combined with furin and glycosidase digestion. To determine whether the larger molecular weight IGF-I forms were also ligands for the IGF-IR, we generated each specific form through transient transfection of 3T3 cells and used the enriched media to perform kinase receptor activation assays. Compared with mature IGF-I, nonglycosylated pro-IGF-I had similar ability to activate the IGF-IR, whereas glycosylation of pro-IGF-I significantly reduced receptor activation. Thus, it is important to understand not only the quantity, but also the proportion of IGF-I forms produced, to evaluate the true biological activity of this growth factor. PMID:23407451

  9. Curcumin induces apoptotic cell death of activated human CD4+ T cells via increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Zhang, Qinggao; Joe, Yeonsoo; Lee, Bong Hee; Ryu, Do Gon; Kwon, Kang Beom; Ryter, Stefan W; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2013-03-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic antioxidant compound, exerts well-known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, the latter which can influence the activation of immune cells including T cells. Furthermore, curcumin can inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, through suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. The beneficial effects of curcumin in diseases such as arthritis, allergy, asthma, atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer may be due to its immunomodulatory properties. We studied the potential of curcumin to modulate CD4+ T cells-mediated autoimmune disease, by examining the effects of this compound on human CD4+ lymphocyte activation. Stimulation of human T cells with PHA or CD3/CD28 induced IL-2 mRNA expression and activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. The treatment of T cells with curcumin induced the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway, initiated by the phosphorylation of PERK and IRE1. Furthermore, curcumin increased the expression of the ER stress associated transcriptional factors XBP-1, cleaved p50ATF6α and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in human CD4+ and Jurkat T cells. In PHA-activated T cells, curcumin further enhanced PHA-induced CHOP expression and reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Finally, curcumin treatment induced apoptotic cell death in activated T cells via eliciting an excessive ER stress response, which was reversed by the ER-stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid or transfection with CHOP-specific siRNA. These results suggest that curcumin can impact both ER stress and mitochondria functional pathways, and thereby could be used as a promising therapy in the context of Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment inhibits T cell responses in LDLr deficient mice without affecting atherosclerotic lesion development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C Foks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules are mainly expressed on T cells and antigen presenting cells and strongly orchestrate adaptive immune responses. Whereas co-stimulatory molecules enhance immune responses, signaling via co-inhibitory molecules dampens the immune system, thereby showing great therapeutic potential to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Signaling via co-inhibitory T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT directly inhibits T cell activation and proliferation, and therefore represents a novel therapeutic candidate to specifically dampen pro-atherogenic T cell reactivity. In the present study, we used an agonistic anti-TIGIT antibody to determine the effect of excessive TIGIT-signaling on atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: TIGIT was upregulated on CD4(+ T cells isolated from mice fed a Western-type diet in comparison with mice fed a chow diet. Agonistic anti-TIGIT suppressed T cell activation and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. However, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment of LDLr(-/- mice fed a Western-type diet for 4 or 8 weeks did not affect atherosclerotic lesion development in comparison with PBS and Armenian Hamster IgG treatment. Furthermore, elevated percentages of dendritic cells were observed in the blood and spleen of agonistic anti-TIGIT-treated mice. Additionally, these cells showed an increased activation status but decreased IL-10 production. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the inhibition of splenic T cell responses, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment does not affect initial atherosclerosis development, possibly due to increased activity of dendritic cells.

  11. Manufacturing validation of biologically functional T cells targeted to CD19 antigen for autologous adoptive cell therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollyman, Daniel; Stefanski, Jolanta; Przybylowski, Mark; Bartido, Shirley; Borquez-Ojeda, Oriana; Taylor, Clare; Yeh, Raymond; Capacio, Vanessa; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Hosey, James; Sadelain, Michel; Brentjens, Renier J.; Rivière, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Summary Based on promising pre-clinical data demonstrating the eradication of systemic B cell malignancies by CD19-targeted T lymphocytes in vivo in SCID beige mouse models, we are launching Phase 1 clinical trials in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We present here the validation of the bioprocess we developed for the production and expansion of clinical grade autologous T cells derived from patients with CLL. We demonstrate that T cells genetically modified with a replication-defective gammaretroviral vector derived from the Moloney murine leukemia virus encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeted to CD19 (1928z) can be expanded with Dynabeads® CD3/CD28. This bioprocess allows us to generate clinical doses of 1928z+ T cells in approximately 2 to 3 weeks in a large-scale semi-closed culture system using the Wave bioreactor. These 1928z+ T cells remain biologically functional not only in vitro but also in SCID beige mice bearing disseminated tumors. The validation requirements in terms of T cell expansion, T cell transduction with the 1928z CAR, biological activity, quality control testing and release criteria were met for all four validation runs using apheresis products from patients with CLL. Additionally, following expansion of the T cells, the diversity of the skewed Vβ T cell receptor repertoire was significantly restored. This validated process will be used in phase I clinical trials in patients with chemo-refractory CLL and in patients with relapsed ALL. It can also be adapted for other clinical trials involving the expansion and transduction of patient or donor T cells using any chimeric antigen receptor or T cell receptor. PMID:19238016

  12. MAR binding protein SMAR1 favors IL-10 mediated regulatory T cell function in acute colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Patil, Sachin [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Bopanna, Ramanamurthy [Experimental Animal Facility, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Chattopadhyay, Samit, E-mail: samit@nccs.res.in [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2015-08-21

    T{sub reg} cells are not only crucial for controlling immune responses to autoantigens but also prevent those directed towards commensal pathogens. Control of effector immune responses by T{sub reg} cells depend on their capacity to accumulate at inflammatory site and accordingly accommodate to inflammatory environment. Till date, the factors associated with maintaining these aspects of T{sub reg} phenotype is not understood properly. Here we have shown that a known nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 is selectively expressed more in colonic T{sub reg} cells and is required for their ability to accumulate at inflammatory site and to sustain high levels of Foxp3 and IL-10 expression during acute colitis. Elimination of anti-inflammatory subsets revealed a protective role for IL-10 producing T{sub reg} cells in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. Moreover, a combined action of Foxp3 and SMAR1 restricts effector cytokine production and enhance the production of IL-10 by colonic T{sub reg} cells that controls acute colitis. This data highlights a critical role of SMAR1 in maintaining T{sub reg} physiology during inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • SMAR1 is essential to sustain high level of Foxp3 and IL-10 in T{sub reg} cells. • SMAR1{sup −/−} T{sub reg} cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 leads to inflammation. • IL-10 administration can control the inflammation in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. • Both Foxp3 and SMAR1 maintain T{sub reg} phenotype that controls colitis.

  13. Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawei; Teige, Ingrid; Birnir, Bryndis

    2006-01-01

    Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflamma......Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS......) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between...... neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+ TGF-beta1+ CTLA-4+ FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4...

  14. Pro-Resolving Effects of Resolvin D2 in LTD4 and TNF-α Pre-Treated Human Bronchi.

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    Rayan Khaddaj-Mallat

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a major burden in respiratory diseases, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness. Our hypothesis is that resolution of inflammation may represent a long-term solution in preventing human bronchial dysfunctions. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of RvD2, a member of the D-series resolving family, with concomitant effects on ASM mechanical reactivity. The role and mode of action of RvD2 were assessed in an in vitro model of human bronchi under pro-inflammatory conditions, induced either by 1 μM LTD4 or 10 ng/ml TNF-α pre-treatment for 48h. TNF-α and LTD4 both induced hyperreactivity in response to pharmacological stimuli. Enhanced 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1 detection was documented in LTD4 or TNF-α pre-treated human bronchi when compared to control (untreated human bronchi. In contrast, RvD2 treatments reversed 5-LOX/β-actin and CysLTR1/β-actin ratios and decreased the phosphorylation levels of AP-1 subunits (c-Fos, c-Jun and p38-MAP kinase, while increasing the detection of the ALX/FPR2 receptor. Moreover, various pharmacological agents revealed the blunting effects of RvD2 on LTD4 or TNF-α induced hyper-responsiveness. Combined treatment with 300 nM RvD2 and 1 μM WRW4 (an ALX/FPR2 receptor inhibitor blunted the pro-resolving and broncho-modulatory effects of RvD2. The present data provide new evidence regarding the role of RvD2 in a human model of airway inflammation and hyperrresponsiveness.

  15. The gene expression profile of CD11c+ CD8α- dendritic cells in the pre-diabetic pancreas of the NOD mouse.

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    Wouter Beumer

    Full Text Available Two major dendritic cell (DC subsets have been described in the pancreas of mice: The CD11c+ CD8α- DCs (strong CD4+ T cell proliferation inducers and the CD8α+ CD103+ DCs (T cell apoptosis inducers. Here we analyzed the larger subset of CD11c+ CD8α- DCs isolated from the pancreas of pre-diabetic NOD mice for genome-wide gene expression (validated by Q-PCR to elucidate abnormalities in underlying gene expression networks. CD11c+ CD8α- DCs were isolated from 5 week old NOD and control C57BL/6 pancreas. The steady state pancreatic NOD CD11c+ CD8α- DCs showed a reduced expression of several gene networks important for the prime functions of these cells, i.e. for cell renewal, immune tolerance induction, migration and for the provision of growth factors including those for beta cell regeneration. A functional in vivo BrdU incorporation test showed the reduced proliferation of steady state pancreatic DC. The reduced expression of tolerance induction genes (CD200R, CCR5 and CD24 was supported on the protein level by flow cytometry. Also previously published functional tests on maturation, immune stimulation and migration confirm the molecular deficits of NOD steady state DC. Despite these deficiencies NOD pancreas CD11c+ CD8α- DCs showed a hyperreactivity to LPS, which resulted in an enhanced pro-inflammatory state characterized by a gene profile of an enhanced expression of a number of classical inflammatory cytokines. The enhanced up-regulation of inflammatory genes was supported by the in vitro cytokine production profile of the DCs. In conclusion, our data show that NOD pancreatic CD11c+ CD8α- DCs show various deficiencies in steady state, while hyperreactive when encountering a danger signal such as LPS.

  16. CD4+ T cell effects on CD8+ T cell location defined using bioluminescence.

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    Mitra Azadniv

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes of the CD8+ class are critical in delivering cytotoxic function and in controlling viral and intracellular infections. These cells are "helped" by T lymphocytes of the CD4+ class, which facilitate their activation, clonal expansion, full differentiation and the persistence of memory. In this study we investigated the impact of CD4+ T cells on the location of CD8+ T cells, using antibody-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion and imaging the antigen-driven redistribution of bioluminescent CD8+ T cells in living mice. We documented that CD4+ T cells influence the biodistribution of CD8+ T cells, favoring their localization to abdominal lymph nodes. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that this was associated with an increase in the expression of specific integrins. The presence of CD4+ T cells at the time of initial CD8+ T cell activation also influences their biodistribution in the memory phase. Based on these results, we propose the model that one of the functions of CD4+ T cell "help" is to program the homing potential of CD8+ T cells.

  17. IFN-Gamma-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms of CD4+ Memory T Cell-Mediated Protection from Listeria Infection

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    Stephanie M. Meek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While CD8+ memory T cells can promote long-lived protection from secondary exposure to intracellular pathogens, less is known regarding the direct protective mechanisms of CD4+ T cells. We utilized a prime/boost model in which mice are initially exposed to an acutely infecting strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV, followed by a heterologous rechallenge with Listeria monocytogenes recombinantly expressing the MHC Class II-restricted LCMV epitope, GP61–80 (Lm-gp61. We found that heterologous Lm-gp61 rechallenge resulted in robust activation of CD4+ memory T cells and that they were required for rapid bacterial clearance. We further assessed the relative roles of TNF and IFNγ in the direct anti-bacterial function of CD4+ memory T cells. We found that disruption of TNF resulted in a complete loss of protection mediated by CD4+ memory T cells, whereas disruption of IFNγ signaling to macrophages results in only a partial loss of protection. The protective effect mediated by CD4+ T cells corresponded to the rapid accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages in the spleen and an altered inflammatory environment in vivo. Overall, we conclude that protection mediated by CD4+ memory T cells from heterologous Listeria challenge is most directly dependent on TNF, whereas IFNγ only plays a minor role.

  18. Activation of Pro-uPA is Critical for Initial Escape from the Primary Tumor and Hematogenous Dissemination of Human Carcinoma Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekes, Erin; Deryugina, Elena; Kuprianova, Tatyana

    2011-01-01

    disseminating variant of the human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line, PC-hi/diss, as a prototype of aggressive carcinomas to investigate the mechanisms whereby pro-uPA activation and uPA-generated plasmin functionally contribute to specific stages of metastasis. The PC-hi/diss cells secrete and activate...... significant amounts of pro-uPA, leading to efficient generation of plasmin in solution and at the cell surface. In a mouse orthotopic xenograft model, treatment with the specific pro-uPA activation-blocking antibody mAb-112 significantly inhibited local invasion and distant metastasis of the PC-hi/diss cells....... To mechanistically examine the uPA/plasmin-mediated aspects of tumor cell dissemination, the anti pro-uPA mAb-112 and the potent serine protease inhibitor, aprotinin, were utilized in parallel in a number of in vivo assays modeling various rate-limiting steps in early metastatic spread. Our findings demonstrate...

  19. Irigenin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via enhancing pro-apoptotic molecules in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Gao, Cheng-Cheng; Pan, Zhen-Guo; Zhou, Chuan-Wen

    2018-02-12

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promising value for cancer therapy due to its capacity to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Nevertheless, TRAIL therapy is greatly hampered by its resistance. Irigenin (Iri), isoflavonoids, can be isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis, and has been shown anti-cancer properties. In this study, we explored if Iri could enhance TRAIL-regulated apoptosis in TRAIL resistant gastric cancer cells. Iri significantly potentiated TRAIL-triggered cytotoxicity. Iri alone and TRAIL alone showed no effective role in apoptosis induction, whereas combined treatment with Iri and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in cancer cells, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cleaved Caspase-8/-9/-3 and PARP. Additionally, the sensitization to TRAIL was along with the enhancement of pro-apoptotic proteins, including FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD), death receptor 5 (DR5) and Bax. And suppressing FADD, DR5 and Bax by si RNA significantly reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the cell viability induced by the co-application of Iri and TRAIL. Moreover, the sensitization to TRAIL was accompanied by the decrease of Cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), Bcl-2 and Survivin. Additionally, Iri could sensitize TRAIL to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pre-treatment of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), ROS scavenger, attenuated Iri plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis and improved cell viability. Finally, combination of Iri and TRAIL inhibited tumor growth in the xenograft model. Collectively, our present study gave new insights into the effects of Iri on potentiating TRAIL-sensitivity, and suggested that Iri could be a potential candidate for sensitizer of TRAIL-resistant cancer cell treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. γδ T Cells Support Pancreatic Oncogenesis by Restraining αβ T Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Donnele; Zambirinis, Constantinos Pantelis; Seifert, Lena; Akkad, Neha; Mohan, Navyatha; Werba, Gregor; Barilla, Rocky; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Hundeyin, Mautin; Mani, Vishnu Raj Kumar; Avanzi, Antonina; Tippens, Daniel; Narayanan, Rajkishen; Jang, Jung-Eun; Newman, Elliot; Pillarisetty, Venu Gopal; Dustin, Michael Loran; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Hajdu, Cristina; Miller, George

    2016-09-08

    Inflammation is paramount in pancreatic oncogenesis. We identified a uniquely activated γδT cell population, which constituted ∼40% of tumor-infiltrating T cells in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Recruitment and activation of γδT cells was contingent on diverse chemokine signals. Deletion, depletion, or blockade of γδT cell recruitment was protective against PDA and resulted in increased infiltration, activation, and Th1 polarization of αβT cells. Although αβT cells were dispensable to outcome in PDA, they became indispensable mediators of tumor protection upon γδT cell ablation. PDA-infiltrating γδT cells expressed high levels of exhaustion ligands and thereby negated adaptive anti-tumor immunity. Blockade of PD-L1 in γδT cells enhanced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltration and immunogenicity and induced tumor protection suggesting that γδT cells are critical sources of immune-suppressive checkpoint ligands in PDA. We describe γδT cells as central regulators of effector T cell activation in cancer via novel cross-talk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bovine ovarian cells have (pro)renin receptors and prorenin induces resumption of meiosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Andressa Minussi Pereira; da Silva, Eduardo Pradebon; da Rosa, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Bastiani, Felipe Tusi; Gutierrez, Karina; Ilha, Gustavo Freitas; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of a receptor that binds prorenin and renin in human endothelial and mesangial cells highlights the possible effect of renin-independent prorenin in the resumption of meiosis in oocytes that was postulated in the 1980s.This study aimed to identify the (pro)renin receptor in the ovary and to assess the effect of prorenin on meiotic resumption. The (pro)renin receptor protein was detected in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, theca cells, granulosa cells, and in the corpus luteum. Abundant (pro)renin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells, while prorenin mRNA was identified in the cumulus cells only. Prorenin at concentrations of 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8)M incubated with oocytes co-cultured with follicular hemisections for 15h caused the resumption of oocyte meiosis. Aliskiren, which inhibits free renin and receptor-bound renin/prorenin, at concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-5), and 10(-3)M blocked this effect (Pmeiosis resumption, cumulus-oocyte complexes and follicular hemisections were treated with prorenin and with angiotensin II or saralasin (angiotensin II antagonist). Prorenin induced the resumption of meiosis independently of angiotensin II. Furthermore, cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured with forskolin (200μM) and treated with prorenin and aliskiren did not exhibit a prorenin-induced resumption of meiosis (Pmeiosis in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Roles of IFN-γ and γδ T cells in protective immunity against blood-stage malaria

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    Shin-Ichi eInoue

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites. Various studies with knockout mice have indicated that IFN-γ plays essential roles in protective immunity against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, after Plasmodium infection, increased IFN-γ production by various types of cells is involved not only in protective immunity, but also in immunopathology. Recent reports have shown that IFN-γ acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine to induce not only the activation of macrophages, but also the generation of uncommon myelolymphoid progenitor cells after Plasmodium infection. However, the effects of IFN-γ on hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells are unclear. Therefore, the regulation of hematopoiesis by IFN-γ during Plasmodium infection remains to be clarified. Although there are conflicting reports concerning the significance of γδ T cells in protective immunity against Plasmodium infection, γδ T cells may respond to infection and produce IFN-γ as innate immune cells in the early phase of blood-stage malaria. Our recent studies have shown that γδ T cells express CD40 ligand and produce IFN-γ after Plasmodium infection, resulting in the enhancement of dendritic cell activation as part of the immune response to eliminate Plasmodium parasites. These data suggest that the function of γδ T cells is similar to that of NK cells. Although several reports suggest that γδ T cells have the potential to act as memory cells for various infections, it remains to be determined whether memory γδ T cells are generated by Plasmodium infection and whether memory γδ T cells can contribute to the host defense against re-infection with Plasmodium. Here, we summarize and discuss the effects of IFN-γ and the various functions of γδ T cells in blood-stage Plasmodium infection.

  3. Anti-CD20 B-cell depletion enhances monocyte reactivity in neuroimmunological disorders

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    Hohlfeld Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion in multiple sclerosis (MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO generated encouraging results. Our recent studies in the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE attributed clinical benefit to extinction of activated B-cells, but cautioned that depletion of naïve B-cells may be undesirable. We elucidated the regulatory role of un-activated B-cells in EAE and investigated whether anti-CD20 may collaterally diminish regulatory B-cell properties in treatment of neuroimmunological disorders. Methods Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG peptide-immunized C57Bl/6 mice were depleted of B-cells. Functional consequences for regulatory T-cells (Treg and cytokine production of CD11b+ antigen presenting cells (APC were assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 22 patients receiving anti-CD20 and 23 untreated neuroimmunological patients were evaluated for frequencies of B-cells, T-cells and monocytes; monocytic reactivity was determined by TNF-production and expression of signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM. Results We observed that EAE-exacerbation upon depletion of un-activated B-cells closely correlated with an enhanced production of pro-inflammatory TNF by CD11b+ APC. Paralleling this pre-clinical finding, anti-CD20 treatment of human neuroimmunological disorders increased the relative frequency of monocytes and accentuated pro-inflammatory monocyte function; when reactivated ex vivo, a higher frequency of monocytes from B-cell depleted patients produced TNF and expressed the activation marker SLAM. Conclusions These data suggest that in neuroimmunological disorders, pro-inflammatory APC activity is controlled by a subset of B-cells which is eliminated concomitantly upon anti-CD20 treatment. While this observation does not conflict with the general concept of B-cell depletion in human autoimmunity, it implies that its safety and

  4. Supernatural T cells: genetic modification of T cells for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Michael H; Teng, Michele W L; Smyth, Mark J; Darcy, Phillip K

    2005-12-01

    Immunotherapy is receiving much attention as a means of treating cancer, but complete, durable responses remain rare for most malignancies. The natural immune system seems to have limitations and deficiencies that might affect its ability to control malignant disease. An alternative to relying on endogenous components in the immune repertoire is to generate lymphocytes with abilities that are greater than those of natural T cells, through genetic modification to produce 'supernatural' T cells. This Review describes how such T cells can circumvent many of the barriers that are inherent in the tumour microenvironment while optimizing T-cell specificity, activation, homing and antitumour function.

  5. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

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    Ebi, Masahide [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Hiromi, E-mail: hkataoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Higashiyama, Shigeki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to

  6. Evaluating Human T-Cell Therapy of Cytomegalovirus Organ Disease in HLA-Transgenic Mice.

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    Simone Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV can cause severe disease in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although preclinical research in murine models as well as clinical trials have provided 'proof of concept' for infection control by pre-emptive CD8 T-cell immunotherapy, there exists no predictive model to experimentally evaluate parameters that determine antiviral efficacy of human T cells in terms of virus control in functional organs, prevention of organ disease, and host survival benefit. We here introduce a novel mouse model for testing HCMV epitope-specific human T cells. The HCMV UL83/pp65-derived NLV-peptide was presented by transgenic HLA-A2.1 in the context of a lethal infection of NOD/SCID/IL-2rg-/- mice with a chimeric murine CMV, mCMV-NLV. Scenarios of HCMV-seropositive and -seronegative human T-cell donors were modeled by testing peptide-restimulated and T-cell receptor-transduced human T cells, respectively. Upon transfer, the T cells infiltrated host tissues in an epitope-specific manner, confining the infection to nodular inflammatory foci. This resulted in a significant reduction of viral load, diminished organ pathology, and prolonged survival. The model has thus proven its potential for a preclinical testing of the protective antiviral efficacy of HCMV epitope-specific human T cells in the evaluation of new approaches to an immunotherapy of CMV disease.

  7. Pretreating mesenchymal stem cells with electrical stimulation causes sustained long-lasting pro-osteogenic effects

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    Maria Eischen-Loges

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical stimulation (ES has a long history of successful use in the clinical treatment of refractory, non-healing bone fractures and has recently been proposed as an adjunct to bone tissue-engineering treatments to optimize their therapeutic potential. This idea emerged from ES’s demonstrated positive effects on stem cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and adherence to scaffolds, all cell behaviors recognized to be advantageous in Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE. In previous in vitro experiments we demonstrated that direct current ES, administered daily, accelerates Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. In the present study, we sought to define the optimal ES regimen for maximizing this pro-osteogenic effect. Methods Rat bone marrow-derived MSC were exposed to 100 mV/mm, 1 hr/day for three, seven, and 14 days, then osteogenic differentiation was assessed at Day 14 of culture by measuring collagen production, calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Results We found that exposing MSC to ES for three days had minimal effect, while seven and 14 days resulted in increased osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by significant increases in collagen and calcium deposits, and expression of osteogenic marker genes Col1a1, Osteopontin, Osterix and Calmodulin. We also found that cells treated with ES for seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long (for at least seven days after discontinuing ES exposure. Discussion This study showed that while three days of ES is insufficient to solicit pro-osteogenic effects, seven and 14 days significantly increases osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, we found that cells treated with ES for only seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long after discontinuing ES exposure. This sustained positive osteogenic effect is likely due to the enhanced expression of RunX2 and Calmodulin we observed. This

  8. Two distinct populations of bovine IL-17⁺ T-cells can be induced and WC1⁺IL-17⁺γδ T-cells are effective killers of protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, R K; Brill, R; Foster, D S; Bowen, A L; Leigh, J A; Coffey, T J; Flynn, R J

    2014-06-25

    IL-17 has emerged as a key player in the immune system, exhibiting roles in protection from infectious diseases and promoting inflammation in autoimmunity. Initially thought to be CD4 T-cell-derived, the sources of IL-17 are now known to be varied and belong to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Mechanisms for inducing IL-17 production in lymphoid cells are thought to rely on appropriate antigenic stimulation in the context of TGF-β1, IL-6 and/or IL-1β. Using culture protocols adapted from human studies, we have effectively induced both bovine CD4(+) and WC1(+) γδ T-cells to produce IL-17 termed Th17 and γδ17 cells, respectively. The negative regulatory effect of IFN-γ on mouse and human IL-17 production can be extended to the bovine model, as addition of IFN-γ decreases IL-17 production in both cell types. Furthermore we show that infection with the protozoan Neospora caninum will induce fibroblasts to secrete pro-IL-17 factors thereby inducing a γδ17 phenotype that preferentially kills infected target cells. Our study identifies two T-cell sources of IL-17, and is the first to demonstrate a protective effect of IL-17(+) T-cells in ruminants. Our findings offer further opportunities for future adjuvants or vaccines which could benefit from inducing these responses.

  9. The common mouse protozoa Tritrichomonas muris alters mucosal T cell homeostasis and colitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Nichole K; Lemire, Paul; Cruz Tleugabulova, Mayra; Prescott, David; Mortha, Arthur; Streutker, Catherine J; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-12-12

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility. We identified the protozoan Tritrichomonas muris as the disease-exacerbating element. Furthermore, experimental colonization with T. muris induced an elevated Th1 response in the cecum of naive wild-type mice and accelerated colitis in Rag1 -/- mice after T cell transfer. Overall, we describe a novel cross-kingdom interaction within the murine gut that alters immune cell homeostasis and disease susceptibility. This example of unpredicted microbial priming of the immune response highlights the importance of studying trans-kingdom interactions and serves as a stark reminder of the importance of using littermate controls in all mouse research. © 2016 Escalante et al.

  10. Osteopontin ablation ameliorates muscular dystrophy by shifting macrophages to a pro-regenerative phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Joana; Martinez, Leonel; Vetrone, Sylvia; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Miceli, M. Carrie

    2016-01-01

    In the degenerative disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy, inflammatory cells enter muscles in response to repetitive muscle damage. Immune factors are required for muscle regeneration, but chronic inflammation creates a profibrotic milieu that exacerbates disease progression. Osteopontin (OPN) is an immunomodulator highly expressed in dystrophic muscles. Ablation of OPN correlates with reduced fibrosis and improved muscle strength as well as reduced natural killer T (NKT) cell counts. Here, we demonstrate that the improved dystrophic phenotype observed with OPN ablation does not result from reductions in NKT cells. OPN ablation skews macrophage polarization toward a pro-regenerative phenotype by reducing M1 and M2a and increasing M2c subsets. These changes are associated with increased expression of pro-regenerative factors insulin-like growth factor 1, leukemia inhibitory factor, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Furthermore, altered macrophage polarization correlated with increases in muscle weight and muscle fiber diameter, resulting in long-term improvements in muscle strength and function in mdx mice. These findings suggest that OPN ablation promotes muscle repair via macrophage secretion of pro-myogenic growth factors. PMID:27091452

  11. A novel method to generate T-cell receptor-deficient chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Takahiro; Wong, Desmond; Png, Yi Tian; Campana, Dario

    2018-03-13

    Practical methods are needed to increase the applicability and efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies. Using donor-derived CAR-T cells is attractive, but expression of endogenous T-cell receptors (TCRs) carries the risk for graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). To remove surface TCRαβ, we combined an antibody-derived single-chain variable fragment specific for CD3ε with 21 different amino acid sequences predicted to retain it intracellularly. After transduction in T cells, several of these protein expression blockers (PEBLs) colocalized intracellularly with CD3ε, blocking surface CD3 and TCRαβ expression. In 25 experiments, median TCRαβ expression in T lymphocytes was reduced from 95.7% to 25.0%; CD3/TCRαβ cell depletion yielded virtually pure TCRαβ-negative T cells. Anti-CD3ε PEBLs abrogated TCRαβ-mediated signaling, without affecting immunophenotype or proliferation. In anti-CD3ε PEBL-T cells, expression of an anti-CD19-41BB-CD3ζ CAR induced cytokine secretion, long-term proliferation, and CD19 + leukemia cell killing, at rates meeting or exceeding those of CAR-T cells with normal CD3/TCRαβ expression. In immunodeficient mice, anti-CD3ε PEBL-T cells had markedly reduced GVHD potential; when transduced with anti-CD19 CAR, these T cells killed engrafted leukemic cells. PEBL blockade of surface CD3/TCRαβ expression is an effective tool to prepare allogeneic CAR-T cells. Combined PEBL and CAR expression can be achieved in a single-step procedure, is easily adaptable to current cell manufacturing protocols, and can be used to target other T-cell molecules to further enhance CAR-T-cell therapies. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Memory CD8 T cells mediate severe immunopathology following respiratory syncytial virus infection.

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    Megan E Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory CD8 T cells can provide protection from re-infection by respiratory viruses such as influenza and SARS. However, the relative contribution of memory CD8 T cells in providing protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection is currently unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we utilized a prime-boost immunization approach to induce robust memory CD8 T cell responses in the absence of RSV-specific CD4 T cells and antibodies. Unexpectedly, RSV infection of mice with pre-existing CD8 T cell memory led to exacerbated weight loss, pulmonary disease, and lethal immunopathology. The exacerbated disease in immunized mice was not epitope-dependent and occurred despite a significant reduction in RSV viral titers. In addition, the lethal immunopathology was unique to the context of an RSV infection as mice were protected from a normally lethal challenge with a recombinant influenza virus expressing an RSV epitope. Memory CD8 T cells rapidly produced IFN-γ following RSV infection resulting in elevated protein levels in the lung and periphery. Neutralization of IFN-γ in the respiratory tract reduced morbidity and prevented mortality. These results demonstrate that in contrast to other respiratory viruses, RSV-specific memory CD8 T cells can induce lethal immunopathology despite mediating enhanced viral clearance.

  13. Validation of pre-coated ELISA tests to detect antibodies against T. congolense and T. vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumba, W.

    2000-01-01

    The anti-trypanosomal antibody detecting enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was first described in 1977 and was further developed for use in large scale surveys in Zimbabwe. More recently, the IAEA initiated a programme to improve the robustness and standardisation of the assay. The IAEA supplied plates pre-coated with either a crude T. congolense or T. vivax antigen and the reagents necessary for analysing samples. Parasitologically positive and negative sera were used to validate and determine the cut-off values of the two tests. The samples were tested and results analysed using a variety of cut-off values. The tests provided similar information although the T. congolense pre-coated plates gave significantly higher optical density values than the plates coated with T. vivax. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated using the different cut-off points. Results indicate that the test using T. congolense antigen had the highest specificity and sensitivity for a given cut-off value. Although the test could distinguish positive from negative sera, it was quite difficult to provide a suitable cut-off value, but the value should be dictated by the use of the test. (author)

  14. N-terminal Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide: a measure of significant patent cuctus arteriosus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OFarombi-Oghuvbu, IO

    2008-01-24

    Background: B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker for ventricular dysfunction secreted as a pre-prohormone, Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (ProBNP), and cleaved into BNP and a biologically inactive fragment, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Little is known about the clinical usefulness of NT-proBNP in preterm infants.\\r\

  15. TNF-α-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by phosphatidylcholine in intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Gareth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylcholine (PC is a major lipid of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. We recently showed that mucus from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis has low levels of PC. Clinical studies reveal that the therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus using slow release preparations is beneficial. The positive role of PC in this disease is still unclear; however, we have recently shown that PC has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory property. It could be demonstrated that the exogenous application of PC inhibits membrane-dependent actin assembly and TNF-α-induced nuclear NF-κB activation. We investigate here in more detail the hypothesis that the exogenous application of PC has anti-inflammatory properties. Methods PC species with different fatty acid side chains were applied to differentiated and non-differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with TNF-α to induce a pro-inflammatory response. We analysed TNF-α-induced NF-κB-activation via the transient expression of a NF-κB-luciferase reporter system. Pro-inflammatory gene transcription was detected with the help of a quantitative real time (RT-PCR analysis. We assessed the binding of TNF-α to its receptor by FACS and analysed lipid rafts by isolating detergent resistant membranes (DRMs. Results The exogenous addition of all PC species tested significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory signalling. The expression levels of IL-8, ICAM-1, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α and MMP-1 were significantly reduced after PC pre-treatment for at least two hours. The effect was comparable to the inhibition of NF-kB by the NF-kB inhibitor SN 50 and was not due to a reduced binding of TNF-α to its receptor or a decreased surface expression of TNF-α receptors. PC was also effective when applied to the apical side of polarised Caco-2 cultures if cells were stimulated from the basolateral side. PC treatment changed the compartmentation of the TNF-α-receptors 1 and 2 to DRMs. Conclusion PC

  16. The Association of PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T Polymorphisms with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Their Influence on Lipid and Lipoprotein Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rahimi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of present study was to clarify the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and their influence on lipid and lipoprotein profiles of patients. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study consisted of 50 women with PCOS, who referred to the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Clinic between April and October 2015, and 233 unrelated age-matched healthy women from the same region (West Iran. The PPARγ Pro12Ala and PPARγ C161T polymorphisms were gen- otyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, serum triglycerides (TG, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C and estradiol levels were measured. Results The serum level of estradiol was significantly lower in PCOS patients compared to healthy women. The PPARγ Pro12Ala (CG genotype increased the risk of PCOS 2.96-fold. The frequency of the PPARγ T allele (at C161T was 21% in patients and 17.2% in controls with no significant difference (P=0.52. In all studied individuals, the PPARγ CG geno- type was associated with significantly higher levels of TG. However, significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C were observed in PPARγ TT individuals compared with those with the CC genotype. Within the PCOS group, the PPARγ CG genotype was significantly associated with lower levels of estradiol compared with the CC genotype. Also, the CG genotype was significantly associated with higher levels of TG when compared with the CC genotype. Conclusion Our study shows that, unlike PPARγ C161T, PPARγ Pro12Ala is associated with the risk of PCOS. Also, we found that the lipid and lipoprotein profiles significantly vary based on PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T genotypes.

  17. T-cells fighting B-cell lymphoproliferative malignancies: the emerging field of CD19 CAR T-cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, D. M.; Kater, A. P.; Hazenberg, M. D.; Hagenbeek, A.; Kersten, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    CAR T-cells are autologous T-cells transduced with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The CAR contains an antigen recognition part (originating from an antibody), a T-cell receptor transmembrane and cytoplasmic signalling part, and one or more co-stimulatory domains. While CAR T-cells can be

  18. Biomarkers on melanoma patient T Cells associated with ipilimumab treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ipilimumab induces long-lasting clinical responses in a minority of patients with metastatic melanoma. To better understand the mechanism(s of action and to identify novel biomarkers associated with the clinical benefit and toxicity of ipilimumab, baseline characteristics and changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab were characterized by gene profiling and flow cytometry. Methods Microarray analysis of flow-cytometry purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was employed to assess gene profiling changes induced by ipilimumab. Selected molecules were further investigated by flow cytometry on pre, 3-month and 6-month post-treatment specimens. Results Ipilimumab up-regulated Ki67 and ICOS on CD4+ and CD8+ cells at both 3- and 6-month post ipilimumab (p ≤ 0.001, decreased CCR7 and CD25 on CD8+ at 3-month post ipilimumab (p ≤ 0.02, and increased Gata3 in CD4+ and CD8+ cells at 6-month post ipilimumab (p ≤ 0.001. Increased EOMES+CD8+, GranzymeB+EOMES+CD8+ and decreased Ki67+EOMES+CD4+ T cells at 6 months were significantly associated with relapse (all p ≤ 0.03. Decreased Ki67+CD8+ T cells were significantly associated with the development of irAE (p = 0.02. At baseline, low Ki67+EOMES+CD8+ T cells were associated with relapse (p ≤ 0.001, and low Ki67+EOMES+CD4+ T cells were associated with irAE (p ≤ 0.008. Conclusions Up-regulation of proliferation and activation signals in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were pharmacodynamic markers for ipilimumab. Ki67+EOMES+CD8+ and Ki67+EOMES+CD4+T cells at baseline merit further testing as biomarkers associated with outcome and irAEs, respectively.

  19. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide,...

  20. T cell immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Bülbül Başkan

    2013-01-01

    Since birth, our immune system is constantly bombarded with self-antigens and foreign pathogens. To stay healthy, complex immune strategies have evolved in our immune system to maintain self-tolerance and to defend against foreign pathogens. Effector T cells are the key players in steering the immune responses to execute immune functions. While effector T cells were initially identified to be immune promoting, recent studies unraveled negative regulatory functions of effector T cells...

  1. Poliovirus 2A protease triggers a selective nucleo-cytoplasmic redistribution of splicing factors to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Álvarez

    Full Text Available Poliovirus protease 2A (2A(pro obstructs host gene expression by reprogramming transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory events during infection. Here we demonstrate that expression of 2A(pro induces a selective nucleo-cytoplasm translocation of several important RNA binding proteins and splicing factors. Subcellular fractionation studies, together with immunofluorescence microscopy revealed an asymmetric distribution of HuR and TIA1/TIAR in 2A(pro expressing cells, which modulates splicing of the human Fas exon 6. Consistent with this result, knockdown of HuR or overexpression of TIA1/TIAR, leads to Fas exon 6 inclusion in 2A(pro-expressing cells. Therefore, poliovirus 2A(pro can target alternative pre-mRNA splicing by regulating protein shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

  2. Intrinsic pro-angiogenic status of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, Catherine; Tabruyn, Sebastien P.; Oury, Cecile; Bours, Vincent; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2007-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic disorder characterized by a severe lung inflammation and fibrosis leading to the patient's death. Enhanced angiogenesis in cystic fibrosis (CF) tissue has been suggested, probably caused by the process of inflammation, as similarly described in asthma and chronic bronchitis. The present study demonstrates an intrinsic pro-angiogenic status of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. Microarray experiments showed that CF airway epithelial cells expressed several angiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, VEGF-C, bFGF, and PLGF at higher levels than control cells. These data were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and, at the protein level, by ELISA. Conditioned media of these cystic fibrosis cells were able to induce proliferation, migration and sprouting of cultured primary endothelial cells. This report describes for the first time that cystic fibrosis epithelial cells have an intrinsic angiogenic activity. Since excess of angiogenesis is correlated with more severe pulmonary disease, our results could lead to the development of new therapeutic applications

  3. Self-reactive T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Jürgen C; thor Straten, Per; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2014-01-01

    -proteins expressed in regulatory immune cells have been reported, especially in patients with cancer. The seemingly lack of tolerance toward such proteins is interesting, as it suggests a regulatory function of self-reactive T (srT) cells, which may be important for the fine tuning of the immune system......The immune system is a tightly regulated and complex system. An important part of this immune regulation is the assurance of tolerance toward self-antigens to maintain immune homeostasis. However, in recent years, antigen-specific cellular immune responses toward several normal self....... In particular, surprising has been the description of cytotoxic srT cells that are able to eliminate normal regulatory immune cells. Such srT cells may be important as effector cells that suppress regulatory suppressor cells. The current knowledge of the nature and function of srT cells is still limited. Still...

  4. Gap junctions at the dendritic cell-T cell interface are key elements for antigen-dependent T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Raul; Tobar, Jaime A; Shoji, Kenji F; De Calisto, Jaime; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bono, Maria R; Rosemblatt, Mario; Sáez, Juan C

    2009-07-01

    The acquired immune response begins with Ag presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) to naive T cells in a heterocellular cell-cell contact-dependent process. Although both DCs and T cells are known to express connexin43, a gap junction protein subunit, the role of connexin43 on the initiation of T cell responses remains to be elucidated. In the present work, we report the formation of gap junctions between DCs and T cells and their role on T cell activation during Ag presentation by DCs. In cocultures of DCs and T cells, Lucifer yellow microinjected into DCs is transferred to adjacent transgenic CD4(+) T cells, only if the specific antigenic peptide was present at least during the first 24 h of cocultures. This dye transfer was sensitive to gap junction blockers, such as oleamide, and small peptides containing the extracellular loop sequences of conexin. Furthermore, in this system, gap junction blockers drastically reduced T cell activation as reflected by lower proliferation, CD69 expression, and IL-2 secretion. This lower T cell activation produced by gap junction blockers was not due to a lower expression of CD80, CD86, CD40, and MHC-II on DCs. Furthermore, gap junction blocker did not affect polyclonal activation of T cell induced with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 Abs in the absence of DCs. These results strongly suggest that functional gap junctions assemble at the interface between DCs and T cells during Ag presentation and that they play an essential role in T cell activation.

  5. Changes in some pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells following foot and mouth disease vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Delirezh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17 is exclusively produced by CD4 helper T-cells upon activation. It most often acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF. In this study, we studied the in-vitro IL-17 response to specific antigens and a variety of mitogens and compared the IL-17 response to IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ responses. We used a foot and mouth disease (FMD vaccine as specific antigens and mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA], pokeweed mitogen [PWM], and concanavalin A [Con A] to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of vaccinated calves. Cell culture supernatant was harvested and analyzed for cytokines, using commercially available bovine ELISA kits. The mitogens induced a significant increase in IL-17 production. IL-17 was produced at high levels in response to the T cell-stimulated mitogens, PHA, and Con A, and at low levels in response to PWM mitogens. In contrast, level of the produced IL-17 cytokines in response to the FMDV antigens was lower as compared to those produced by mitogens. The FMDV antigens and mitogens significantly increased IL-17 production. There was not a correlation between IL-17 production and type-1 cytokine, IFN-γ, and IL-2, while there was a correlation between type-2 cytokine, IL-4, and IL-5 at either cytokine level produced by PBMCs stimulated by FMDV antigens. Moreover, there was an interaction between IL-17 and IL-6, that is, as IL-6 cytokine level elevated or diminished, IL-17 cytokine level increased or decreased, as well.

  6. T-lineage blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia: simple record of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika W. Taroeno-Hariadi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Blast crisis (BC transformation in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML can involve each differentiation lineage of the hematopoietic system, i.e. granulocyte, monocyte, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte, and lymphocyte lineage. The lymphoid blast crisis (BC leukemia cells usually belong to B-lineage, commonly having the phenotype of Pre-B stage of the B-lineage, in which cell-surface immunoglobulin (sIg is not yet expressed. In contrast, T-lineage BC of CML is extremely rare. The objective of this study is to describe the fenotype, fusion transcript of bcr-abl, TdT, and cytoplasmic CD3 in T-lineage BC CML cases. Case report study. This report shows a simple summary of 4 cases of T-lineage BC of CML which have been collected in the phenotypic and genotypic analysis study for 17 years (1987-2004. In all cases, the chromosomal analysis revealed the presence of t(9;22(q34;q11 at presentation. Cell surface analysis were done at diagnosis. Cases’ mononuclear cells stored as 10% DMSO were retrieved to be performed reverse transcription (RT PCR BCR-ABL multiplex to demonstrate the presence of the fusion transcript of bcr-abl. RT-PCR was also performed for detecting the expression of cytoplasmic CD3ε and terminal deoxynucleotydil transferase (TdT. The results of cell surface antigen (CSA at presentation showed that 1 case was CD7+, CD5-, and CD2-; 1 case CD7+, CD5+, and CD2-; and 2 cases CD7+, CD5+ and CD2+ indicating that all these T-lineage BC of CML cells show the phenotype of pre-(pro- thymic stage phenotype. In the present study, two cases showed b2a2, one e1a2, and one negative bcr-abl transcript. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of CD3ε mRNA in all cases, and TdT mRNA in only one case. These results can constitute a basis for the future analysis of T-lineage BC of CML from now on. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 184-9Keywords: chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, blastic crisis (BC, T-lineage, bcr-abl fusion gene, CDε, TdT

  7. High levels of the type III inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) can confer faster cell adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Kongsfelt, Iben Boutrup; Byskov, Kristina; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. We recently showed that overexpression of human PiT1 was sufficient to increase proliferation of two strict density-inhibited cell lines, murine fibroblastic NIH3T3 and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, and allowed the cultures to grow to higher cell densities. In addition, upon transformation NIH3T3 cells showed increased ability to form colonies in soft agar. The cellular regulation of PiT1 expre...

  8. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone increase interleukin-10 production in CD4+ T cells from patients with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Lars Erik; Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Agnholt, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    ,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with and without DEX could induce IL-10 production, downregulate pro-inflammatory Interferon (IFN)-gamma and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha production, and influence cell kinetics in peripheral CD4+ T cells from CD patients. METHODS: CD4+ T cells were separated from peripheral blood from CD......BACKGROUND AND AIM: In Crohn's disease (CD), epidemiological data and animal studies suggest that vitamin D (vitD) has protective immune-modulating properties. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone (DEX) induce interleukin (IL)-10 productions in healthy controls (HC) T cells. We studied if 1...... patients and HC. Cells were activated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and/or DEX. Cytokine levels, proliferation, and apoptosis were measured following 7 days of culture. RESULTS: In T cells from CD patients, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and DEX increased IL-10 production...

  9. Functional Consequences of Intracellular Proline Levels Manipulation Affecting PRODH/POX-Dependent Pro-Apoptotic Pathways in a Novel in Vitro Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Ilona; Surazynski, Arkadiusz; Chrusciel, Marcin; Miltyk, Wojciech; Doroszko, Milena; Rahman, Nafis; Palka, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The effect of impaired intracellular proline availability for proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX)-dependent apoptosis was studied. We generated a constitutively knocked-down PRODH/POX MCF-7 breast cancer cell line (MCF-7shPRODH/POX) as a model to analyze the functional consequences of impaired intracellular proline levels. We have used inhibitor of proline utilization in collagen biosynthesis, 2-metoxyestradiol (MOE), inhibitor of prolidase that generate proline, rapamycin (Rap) and glycyl-proline (GlyPro), substrate for prolidase. Collagen and DNA biosynthesis were evaluated by radiometric assays. Cell viability was determined using Nucleo-Counter NC-3000. The activity of prolidase was determined by colorimetric assay. Expression of proteins was assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence bioimaging. Concentration of proline was analyzed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. PRODH/POX knockdown decreased DNA and collagen biosynthesis, whereas increased prolidase activity and intracellular proline level in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. All studied compounds decreased cell viability in MCF-7 and MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. DNA biosynthesis was similarly inhibited by Rap and MOE in both cell lines, but GlyPro inhibited the process only in MCF-7shPRODH/POX and MOE+GlyPro only in MCF-7 cells. All the compounds inhibited collagen biosynthesis, increased prolidase activity and cytoplasmic proline level in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells and contributed to the induction of pro-survival mode only in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. In contrast, all studied compounds upregulated expression of pro-apoptotic protein only in MCF-7 cells. PRODH/POX was confirmed as a driver of apoptosis and proved the eligibility of MCF-7shPRODH/POX cell line as a highly effective model to elucidate the different mechanisms underlying proline utilization or generation in PRODH/POX-dependent pro-apoptotic pathways. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Immune cell subsets, cytokine and cortisol levels during the first week of life in neonates born to pre-eclamptic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Florentina; Toldi, Gergely; Treszl, András; Hajdú, Júlia; Harmath, Ágnes; Rigó, János; Tulassay, Tivadar; Vásárhelyi, Barna

    2017-06-01

    To address the hypothesis that pre-eclampsia (PE) impacts the fetal immune system, we investigated the prevalence of distinct immune cell subsets along with plasma cortisol and cytokine levels in pre-term newborns of PE mothers. Cord blood and peripheral blood samples on the 1st, 3rd and 7th postnatal days of life were collected from 14 pre-term infants affected by PE and 14 non-PE pregnancies. We measured plasma cortisol and cytokine levels with immunoassays and assessed the prevalence of T, NK and DC subsets using flow cytometry. The prevalence of CD4+ cells was lower in PE infants, while that of memory T cells was higher. Myeloid DCs had a lower prevalence in PE neonates. Cytokine and cortisol levels were lower in PE neonates. Our observations show that PE pregnancies are associated with altered newborn immune status during the first week of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the highly potent mast cell-degranulating substance P analog H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-NH-C sub 12 H sub 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, M.; Oehlke, J.; Niedrich, H. (Academy of Sciences of GDR, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. of Drug Research); Mittag, E. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    Tritium labeling of the mast cell degranulating substance P analog H-Arg-Pro-Lys(3,4-{sup 3}H-Pro)-NH-C{sub 12}H{sub 25} by catalytic saturation of the dehydroproline (Dhp{sup 1}) double bond is described. Catalytic tritiation in water afforded the radioactive analog with a specific activity of 1.07 TBq/mmol. Tenfold enhancement of the catalyst-to-substrate ratio resulted in a reduced specific activity of 0.74 TBq/mmol. (author).

  12. In dubio pro aegroti / Ants Nõmper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõmper, Ants, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Kriminaalmenetluses kehtivast põhimõttest in dubio pro reo, mille kohaselt kõik kohtu arvates ebapiisavalt tõendatud asjaolud tuleb tõlgendada nii, nagu on kohtualusele kasulik. Patsiendikaitsest

  13. Pro-inflammatory cytokines derived from West Nile virus (WNV-infected SK-N-SH cells mediate neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerurkar Vivek R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WNV-associated encephalitis (WNVE is characterized by increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, glial cells activation and eventual loss of neurons. WNV infection of neurons is rapidly progressive and destructive whereas infection of non-neuronal brain cells is limited. However, the role of neurons and pathological consequences of pro-inflammatory cytokines released as a result of WNV infection is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the role of key cytokines secreted by WNV-infected neurons in mediating neuroinflammatory markers and neuronal death. Methods A transformed human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, was infected with WNV at multiplicity of infection (MOI-1 and -5, and WNV replication kinetics and expression profile of key pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by plaque assay, qRT-PCR, and ELISA. Cell death was measured in SK-N-SH cell line in the presence and absence of neutralizing antibodies against key pro-inflammatory cytokines using cell viability assay, TUNEL and flow cytometry. Further, naïve primary astrocytes were treated with UV-inactivated supernatant from mock- and WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line and the activation of astrocytes was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA. Results WNV-infected SK-N-SH cells induced the expression of IL-1β, -6, -8, and TNF-α in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which coincided with increase in virus-induced cell death. Treatment of cells with anti-IL-1β or -TNF-α resulted in significant reduction of the neurotoxic effects of WNV. Furthermore treatment of naïve astrocytes with UV-inactivated supernatant from WNV-infected SK-N-SH cell line increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and key inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Our results for the first time suggest that neurons are one of the potential sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines in WNV-infected brain and these neuron-derived cytokines contribute to WNV

  14. γ/δ T cell subsets in human aging using the classical α/β T cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Anusha; Ying, Crystal Tan Tze; Ayyadhury, Shamini; Puan, Kia Joo; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Shadan, Nurhidaya Binte; Mustafa, Seri; Low, Ivy; Rotzschke, Olaf; Fulop, Tamas; Ng, Tze Pin; Larbi, Anis

    2014-10-01

    Aging is associated with an increased susceptibility to infections and diseases. It has also been associated with reduced functionality and altered distribution of immune cells, especially T cells. Whereas classical α/β T cells, especially CD8(+) T cells, were shown to be highly susceptible to aging, the effects of viral persistent stimulations on the fate of γ/δ T cells are much less documented. Healthy, elderly individuals of Chinese ethnical background were recruited under the aegis of SLAS-II. In this observational study, γ/δ T cell populations were characterized by flow cytometry and compared with the α/β CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in elderly and young controls. In our study, we identified a reduced frequency of γ/δ T cells but not α/β T cells with aging. The classical markers of α/β T cell aging, including CD28, CD27, and CD57, did not prove significant for γ/δ T cells. The extreme range of expression of these markers in γ/δ T cells was responsible for the lack of relationship between γ/δ T cell subsets, CD4/CD8 ratio, and anti-CMV titers that was significant for α/β T cells and, especially, CD8(+) T cells. Although markers of aging for γ/δ T cells are not clearly identified, our data collectively suggest that the presence of CD27 γ/δ T cells is associated with markers of α/β T cell aging. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. ArtinM Mediates Murine T Cell Activation and Induces Cell Death in Jurkat Human Leukemic T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Brito, Patrícia Kellen Martins; Gonçalves, Thiago Eleutério; Vendruscolo, Patrícia Edivânia; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The recognition of cell surface glycans by lectins may be critical for the innate and adaptive immune responses. ArtinM, a d-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, activates antigen-presenting cells by recognizing TLR2 N-glycans and induces Th1 immunity. We recently demonstrated that ArtinM stimulated CD4+ T cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we further studied the effects of ArtinM on adaptive immune cells. We showed that ArtinM activates murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, augmenting their positivity for CD25, CD69, and CD95 and showed higher interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ production. The CD4+ T cells exhibited increased T-bet expression in response to ArtinM, and IL-2 production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells depended on the recognition of CD3εγ-chain glycans by ArtinM. The ArtinM effect on aberrantly-glycosylated neoplastic lymphocytes was studied in Jurkat T cells, in which ArtinM induced IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-1β production, but decreased cell viability and growth. A higher frequency of AnnexinV- and propidium iodide-stained cells demonstrated the induction of Jurkat T cells apoptosis by ArtinM, and this apoptotic response was reduced by caspases and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ArtinM effects on murine T cells corroborated with the immunomodulatory property of lectin, whereas the promotion of Jurkat T cells apoptosis may reflect a potential applicability of ArtinM in novel strategies for treating lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:28665310

  16. Apoptosis of purified CD4+ T cell subsets is dominated by cytokine deprivation and absence of other cells in new onset diabetic NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Kaminitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Treg play a significant role in immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Excessive sensitivity of isolated Treg to apoptosis has been demonstrated in NOD mice and humans suffering of type 1 diabetes, suggesting a possible role in the immune dysfunction that underlies autoimmune insulitis. In this study the sensitivity to apoptosis was measured in T cells from new onset diabetic NOD females, comparing purified subsets to mixed cultures. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Apoptotic cells are short lived in vivo and death occurs primarily during isolation, manipulation and culture. Excessive susceptibility of CD25(+ T cells to spontaneous apoptosis is characteristic of isolated subsets, however disappears when death is measured in mixed splenocyte cultures. In variance, CD25(- T cells display balanced sensitivity to apoptosis under both conditions. The isolation procedure removes soluble factors, IL-2 playing a significant role in sustaining Treg viability. In addition, pro- and anti-apoptotic signals are transduced by cell-to-cell interactions: CD3 and CD28 protect CD25(+ T cells from apoptosis, and in parallel sensitize naïve effector cells to apoptosis. Treg viability is modulated both by other T cells and other subsets within mixed splenocyte cultures. Variations in sensitivity to apoptosis are often hindered by fast proliferation of viable cells, therefore cycling rates are mandatory to adequate interpretation of cell death assays. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of purified Treg to apoptosis is dominated by cytokine deprivation and absence of cell-to-cell interactions, and deviate significantly from measurements in mixed populations. Balanced sensitivity of naïve/effector and regulatory T cells to apoptosis in NOD mice argues against the concept that differential susceptibility affects disease evolution and progression.

  17. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  18. Imbalance of placental regulatory T cell and Th17 cell population dynamics in the FIV-infected pregnant cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudreaux Crystal E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An appropriate balance in placental regulatory T cells (Tregs, an immunosuppressive cell population, and Th17 cells, a pro-inflammatory cell population, is essential in allowing tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus. TGF-β and IL-6 are cytokines that promote differentiation of Tregs and Th17 cells from a common progenitor; aberrant expression of the cytokines may perturb the balance in the two cell populations. We previously reported a pro-inflammatory placental environment with decreased levels of FoxP3, a Treg marker, and increased levels of IL-6 in the placentas of FIV-infected cats at early pregnancy. Thus, we hypothesized that FIV infection in the pregnant cat causes altered placental Treg and Th17 cell populations, possibly resulting in placental inflammation. Methods We examined the effect of FIV infection on Treg and Th17 populations in placentas at early pregnancy using quantitative confocal microscopy to measure FoxP3 or RORγ, a Th17 marker, and qPCR to quantify expression of the key cytokines TGF-β and IL-6. Results FoxP3 and RORγ were positively correlated in FIV-infected placentas at early pregnancy, but not placentas from normal cats, indicating virus-induced alteration in the balance of these cell populations. In control cats the expression of IL-6 and RORγ was positively correlated as predicted, but this relationship was disrupted in infected animals. TGF-β was reduced in infected queens, an occurrence that could dysregulate both Treg and Th17 cell populations. Co-expression analyses revealed a highly significant positive correlation between IL-6 and TGF-β expression in control animals that did not occur in infected animals. Conclusion Collectively, these data point toward potential disruption in the balance of Treg and Th17 cell populations that may contribute to FIV-induced inflammation in the feline placenta.

  19. T-cell clones from Th1, Th17 or Th1/17 lineages and their signature cytokines have different capacity to activate endothelial cells or synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavocat, Fabien; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco; Miossec, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    To compare the direct effect of cytokines on synoviocytes and endothelial cells to the effects of supernatants from Th1, Th17 and Th1/17 clones and the direct cell-cell interactions with the same clones. Th17 and Th1/17 clones were obtained from the CD161+CCR6+ fraction and Th1 clones from the CD161-CCR6- fraction of human CD4+ T-cells. Endothelial cells or synoviocytes were cultured in the presence of either isolated pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17 and/or TNF-α) or supernatants from the T-cell clones or co-cultured with T-cell clones themselves. IL-6 and IL-8 expression and production were analyzed. IL-17 and TNF-α induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression, although IL-17 alone had a limited effect on endothelial cells compared to synoviocytes. Supernatants from activated T-helper clones also induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression but with discrepancies between endothelial cells and synoviocytes. Endothelial cells were mostly activated by Th1 clone supernatants whereas synoviocytes were activated by all T-cell subtypes. Finally, cell-cell contact experiments showed a great heterogeneity among cell clones, even from the same lineage. IL-6 expression was mostly induced by contact with Th1 clones both in endothelial and mesenchymal cells whereas IL-8 expression was induced by all T-cell clones whatever their phenotype. We showed that endothelial cells were much more sensitive to Th1 activation whereas synoviocytes were activated by all T-helper lineages. This work highlights the heterogeneity of interactions between T-cells and stromal cells through soluble factors or direct cell contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  1. Curative or pre-emptive adenovirus-specific T cell transfer from matched unrelated or third party haploidentical donors after HSCT, including UCB transplantations: a successful phase I/II multicenter clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsheng Qian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, the most widely used potentially curable cellular immunotherapeutic approach in the treatment of hematological malignancies, is limited by life-threatening complications: graft versus host disease (GVHD and infections especially viral infections refractory to antiviral drugs. Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells is becoming an alternative treatment for infections following HSCT. We report here the results of a phase I/II multicenter study which includes a series of adenovirus-specific T cell (ADV-VST infusion either from the HSCT donor or from a third party haploidentical donor for patients transplanted with umbilical cord blood (UCB. Methods Fourteen patients were eligible and 11 patients received infusions of ADV-VST generated by interferon (IFN-γ-based immunomagnetic isolation from a leukapheresis from their original donor (42.9% or a third party haploidentical donor (57.1%. One patient resolved ADV infection before infusion, and ADV-VST could not reach release or infusion criteria for two patients. Two patients received cellular immunotherapy alone without antiviral drugs as a pre-emptive treatment. Results One patient with adenovirus infection and ten with adenovirus disease were infused with ADV-VST (mean 5.83 ± 8.23 × 103 CD3+IFN-γ+ cells/kg up to 9 months after transplantation. The 11 patients showed in vivo expansion of specific T cells up to 60 days post-infusion, associated with adenovirus load clearance in ten of the patients (91%. Neither de novo GVHD nor side effects were observed during the first month post-infusion, but GVHD reactivations occurred in three patients, irrespective of the type of leukapheresis donor. For two of these patients, GVHD reactivation was controlled by immunosuppressive treatment. Four patients died during follow-up, one due to refractory ADV disease. Conclusions Adoptive transfer of rapidly isolated ADV

  2. CD4+CD62L+ Central Memory T Cells Can Be Converted to Foxp3+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Chang Li, Xian; Xiao, Xiang; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2013-01-01

    The peripheral Foxp3+ Treg pool consists of naturally arising Treg (nTreg) and adaptive Treg cells (iTreg). It is well known that naive CD4+ T cells can be readily converted to Foxp3+ iTreg in vitro, and memory CD4+ T cells are resistant to conversion. In this study, we investigated the induction of Foxp3+ T cells from various CD4+ T-cell subsets in human peripheral blood. Though naive CD4+ T cells were readily converted to Foxp3+ T cells with TGF-β and IL-2 treatment in vitro, such Foxp3+ T cells did not express the memory marker CD45RO as do Foxp3+ T cells induced in the peripheral blood of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) patients. Interestingly, a subset of human memory CD4+ T cells, defined as CD62L+ central memory T cells, could be induced by TGF-β to differentiate into Foxp3+ T cells. It is well known that Foxp3+ T cells derived from human CD4+CD25- T cells in vitro are lack suppressive functions. Our data about the suppressive functions of CD4+CD62L+ central memory T cell-derived Foxp3+ T cells support this conception, and an epigenetic analysis of these cells showed a similar methylation pattern in the FOXP3 Treg-specific demethylated region as the naive CD4+ T cell-derived Foxp3+ T cells. But further research showed that mouse CD4+ central memory T cells also could be induced to differentiate into Foxp3+ T cells, such Foxp3+ T cells could suppress the proliferation of effector T cells. Thus, our study identified CD4+CD62L+ central memory T cells as a novel potential source of iTreg. PMID:24155942

  3. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell

  4. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  5. Regulatory T cells and immunity to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Barry T; Suvas, Susmit

    2007-09-01

    Immune responses to pathogens are modulated by one or more types of cells that perform a regulatory function. Some cells with this function, such as CD4+ Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells (nTreg), pre-exist prior to infections whereas others may be induced as a consequence of infection (adaptive Treg). With pathogens that have a complex pathogenesis, multiple types of regulatory cells could influence the outcome. One major property of Treg is to help minimize collateral tissue damage that can occur during immune reactions to a chronic infection. The consequence is less damage to the host but in such situations the pathogen is likely to establish persistence. In some cases, a fine balance is established between Treg responses, effector components of immunity and the pathogen. Treg responses to pathogens may also act to hamper the efficacy of immune control. This review discusses these issues as well as the likely mechanisms by which various pathogens can signal the participation of Treg during infection.

  6. Accessory signals in T-T cell interactions between antigen- and alloantigen-specific, human memory T cells generated in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, N; Ryder, L P; Georgsen, J

    1990-01-01

    The potential of activated HLA class II-positive T cells as antigen-/alloantigen-presenting cells remains controversial. In our model system we use in vitro-primed, HLA class II-specific T cells of the memory T-cell phenotype, CD4+, CD29+ (4B4+), and CD45RO+ (UCHL-1). We have previously shown......), or a calcium ionophore (A23187) enabled Ta to elicit alloantigen-specific memory T-cell responses and to present purified protein derivative (PPD) to PPD-specific T-cell lines. The addition of irradiated, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines (EBV-LCL) (but not their supernatants) had a similar but less...

  7. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- γ-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  8. MacBook Pro Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Miser, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Tips and techniques for forward-thinking MacBook Pro users Now that you have a MacBook Pro, you need just one more accessory, your very own copy of MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition. This handy, compact book lets you in on a wealth of tips and tricks, so you get the very most out of Apple's very popular notebook. Discover the latest on the most recent release of iLife, get the skinny on the new Intel Core i7 and i5 processors in the Pro, see how to go wireless in a smart way, and much more. The book is easy to navigate, doesn't skimp on the essentials, and helps you save time and avoi

  9. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia display an exhausted phenotype and impaired functionality that can be restored by chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, F.

    2012-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), beside a massive accumulation of neoplastic B cells, tumour-induced deficiencies in autologous T cells have been reported that impede efficient tumour control and might even support survival of the malignant clone. Here, we investigated our hypothesis that T cells in CLL, due to the persistent availability of tumour antigen, are exhausted, and that reduction of tumour load by chemotherapy might restore T cell functions. We could show that T cells in CLL patients and in a CLL mouse model display an exhausted phenotype, with high expression of the inhibitory surface receptor PD-1, that is clearly induced by the presence of tumour cells. Although the PD-1 ligand PD-L1 is not expressed on peripheral CLL cells, abundant expression could be shown in lymph node sections. Intriguingly, blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway increased short term tumour lysis in a murine in vivo cytotoxicity assay. Furthermore, we present data that after cytoreduction by fludarabine, a standard chemotherapy agent for CLL, the surviving T cell pool consists mainly of fully functional memory T cells with high proliferative potential and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines. Taken together, we conclude that the impaired tumour surveillance observed in CLL might be rooted in the exhaustion of tumour-specific effector T cells. A combination of cytodepletion by chemotherapy and blockade of PD-1 might hence represent a novel therapeutic approach for CLL. (author) [de

  10. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  11. IFN-Gamma-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms of CD4⁺ Memory T Cell-Mediated Protection from Listeria Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Stephanie M; Williams, Matthew A

    2018-02-13

    While CD8⁺ memory T cells can promote long-lived protection from secondary exposure to intracellular pathogens, less is known regarding the direct protective mechanisms of CD4⁺ T cells. We utilized a prime/boost model in which mice are initially exposed to an acutely infecting strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), followed by a heterologous rechallenge with Listeria monocytogenes recombinantly expressing the MHC Class II-restricted LCMV epitope, GP 61-80 (Lm-gp61). We found that heterologous Lm-gp61 rechallenge resulted in robust activation of CD4⁺ memory T cells and that they were required for rapid bacterial clearance. We further assessed the relative roles of TNF and IFNγ in the direct anti-bacterial function of CD4⁺ memory T cells. We found that disruption of TNF resulted in a complete loss of protection mediated by CD4⁺ memory T cells, whereas disruption of IFNγ signaling to macrophages results in only a partial loss of protection. The protective effect mediated by CD4⁺ T cells corresponded to the rapid accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages in the spleen and an altered inflammatory environment in vivo. Overall, we conclude that protection mediated by CD4⁺ memory T cells from heterologous Listeria challenge is most directly dependent on TNF, whereas IFNγ only plays a minor role.

  12. Commensal-induced regulatory T cells mediate protection against pathogen-stimulated NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin O'Mahony

    Full Text Available Host defence against infection requires a range of innate and adaptive immune responses that may lead to tissue damage. Such immune-mediated pathologies can be controlled with appropriate T regulatory (Treg activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of gut microbiota composition on Treg cellular activity and NF-kappaB activation associated with infection. Mice consumed the commensal microbe Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 followed by infection with Salmonella typhimurium or injection with LPS. In vivo NF-kappaB activation was quantified using biophotonic imaging. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell phenotypes and cytokine levels were assessed using flow cytometry while CD4+ T cells were isolated using magnetic beads for adoptive transfer to naïve animals. In vivo imaging revealed profound inhibition of infection and LPS induced NF-kappaB activity that preceded a reduction in S. typhimurium numbers and murine sickness behaviour scores in B. infantis-fed mice. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, T cell proliferation, and dendritic cell co-stimulatory molecule expression were significantly reduced. In contrast, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers were significantly increased in the mucosa and spleen of mice fed B. infantis. Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells transferred the NF-kappaB inhibitory activity. Consumption of a single commensal micro-organism drives the generation and function of Treg cells which control excessive NF-kappaB activation in vivo. These cellular interactions provide the basis for a more complete understanding of the commensal-host-pathogen trilogue that contribute to host homeostatic mechanisms underpinning protection against aberrant activation of the innate immune system in response to a translocating pathogen or systemic LPS.

  13. Silencing p75NTR prevents proNGF-induced endothelial cell death and development of acellular capillaries in rat retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Y Shanab

    Full Text Available Accumulation of the nerve growth factor precursor (proNGF and its receptor p75NTR have been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases in both brain and retina. However, whether proNGF contributes to microvascular degeneration remain unexplored. This study seeks to investigate the mechanism by which proNGF/p75NTR induce endothelial cell (EC death and development of acellular capillaries, a surrogate marker of retinal ischemia. Stable overexpression of the cleavage-resistant proNGF and molecular silencing of p75NTR were utilized in human retinal EC and rat retinas in vivo. Stable overexpression of proNGF decreased NGF levels and induced retinal vascular cell death evident by 1.9-fold increase in acellular capillaries and activation of JNK and cleaved-PARP that were mitigated by p75NTRshRNA. In vitro, overexpression of proNGF did not alter TNF-α level, reduced NGF, however induced EC apoptosis evident by activation of JNK and p38 MAPK, cleaved-PARP. Silencing p75NTR using siRNA restored expression of NGF and TrkA activation and prevented EC apoptosis. Treatment of EC with human-mutant proNGF induced apoptosis that coincided with marked protein interaction and nuclear translocation of p75NTR and the neurotrophin receptor interacting factor. These effects were abolished by a selective p75NTR antagonist. Therefore, targeting p75NTR represents a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases associated with aberrant expression of proNGF.

  14. Central memory CD4 T cells are associated with incomplete restoration of the CD4 T cell pool after treatment-induced long-term undetectable HIV viraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallón, Norma; Sempere-Ortells, José M; Soriano, Vincent; Benito, José M

    2013-11-01

    It is unclear to what extent T cell reconstitution may be possible in HIV-1-infected individuals on continuous successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herein, we analysed distinct phenotypic markers of immune recovery in patients with undetectable viraemia for 8 years, taking as reference untreated patients and healthy controls. Seventy-two subjects were examined: 28 HIV-1+ patients on successful long-term HAART, 24 HIV-1+ untreated viraemic patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Analysis of naive and memory CD4 and CD8 T cells was combined with measurements of activation status (expression of CD38) and with thymic function (expression of CD31). Statistical significance was determined by non-parametric tests. After long-term HAART, the majority of parameters were normalized compared with age-matched control values, including T cell activation and thymic function. However, absolute counts of naive and central memory CD4 T cells remained below normal levels. The only parameters significantly associated with CD4 counts at the end of follow-up were the pre-HAART CD4 count ( β ± SD = 0.54 ± 0.16, P = 0.003) and the level of CD4 central memory cells at the end of follow-up (β ± SD = 1.18 ± 0.23, P 350 cells/mm(3) reached a complete normalization of CD4 counts. Even after long-term successful HAART, complete CD4 restoration may be attainable only in patients starting therapy with moderately high CD4 counts, prompting early initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Incomplete CD4 restoration may be associated with a defective restoration of central memory CD4 T cells, a cell subset with a pivotal role in T cell homeostasis.

  15. Resultados quirúrgicos de la facoemulsificación por técnicas de Pre Chop Surgical results of phacoemulsification by Pre Chop techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Hernández Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propuso determinar los resultados obtenidos con la técnica de Pre-Chop en la cirugía de catarata por facoemulsificación en el Centro de Microcirugía Ocular del Hospital Oftalmológico Docente "Ramón Pando Ferrer" en el 2001. El universo de trabajo estuvo constituido por todos los pacientes (ojos con diagnóstico de catarata presenil y senil y recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico con la técnica de Pre-Chop por facoemulsificación. Se analizaron como variables: edad, sexo, agudeza visual con corrección, microscopia endotelial y cilindro refractivo, todos en el pre y posoperatorio, así como el tiempo de ultrasonido y complicaciones más frecuentes. Estos datos se analizaron a través de tablas de contingencia con frecuencias absolutas y relativas, medias y se utilizó la prueba T de Student para su comparación. Se encontró que la catarata predominó en el sexo masculino entre los 46 y los 60 años; la agudeza visual con corrección mejoró a 0.64 (20/40 como promedio, el cilindro refractivo apenas se modificó, el tiempo de ultrasonido aplicado estuvo dentro de valores normales, la pérdida de células endoteliales no fue importante y la complicación transoperatoria más frecuente fue rotura de cápsula posterior con salida de vítreo y queratitis.The aim of this paper was to determine the results obtained with the Pre Chop technique in the cataract surgery by phacoemulsification at the Center of Ocular Microsurgery of "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Ophthalmological Teaching Hospital in 2001. All the patients (eyes with diagnosis of presenile and senile cataract that received surgical treatment with the Pre Chop technique by phacoemulsification were included in the study. Variables such as age, sex, visual acuity with correction, endothelial microscopy, refractive cylinder in the pre- and postoperative, time of ultrasound and the most frequent complications, were analyzed through contingency tables with mean absolute and relative

  16. CXCR5-Dependent Entry of CD8 T Cells into Rhesus Macaque B-Cell Follicles Achieved through T-Cell Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Victor I; Deleage, Claire; Trivett, Matthew T; Jain, Sumiti; Coren, Lori V; Breed, Matthew W; Kramer, Joshua A; Thomas, James A; Estes, Jacob D; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Ott, David E

    2017-06-01

    Follicular helper CD4 T cells, T FH , residing in B-cell follicles within secondary lymphoid tissues, are readily infected by AIDS viruses and are a major source of persistent virus despite relative control of viral replication. This persistence is due at least in part to a relative exclusion of effective antiviral CD8 T cells from B-cell follicles. To determine whether CD8 T cells could be engineered to enter B-cell follicles, we genetically modified unselected CD8 T cells to express CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), the chemokine receptor implicated in cellular entry into B-cell follicles. Engineered CD8 T cells expressing human CXCR5 (CD8 hCXCR5 ) exhibited ligand-specific signaling and chemotaxis in vitro Six infected rhesus macaques were infused with differentially fluorescent dye-labeled autologous CD8 hCXCR5 and untransduced CD8 T cells and necropsied 48 h later. Flow cytometry of both spleen and lymph node samples revealed higher frequencies of CD8 hCXCR5 than untransduced cells, consistent with preferential trafficking to B-cell follicle-containing tissues. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of thin-sectioned lymphoid tissues demonstrated strong preferential localization of CD8 hCXCR5 T cells within B-cell follicles with only rare cells in extrafollicular locations. CD8 hCXCR5 T cells were present throughout the follicles with some observed near infected T FH In contrast, untransduced CD8 T cells were found in the extrafollicular T-cell zone. Our ability to direct localization of unselected CD8 T cells into B-cell follicles using CXCR5 expression provides a strategy to place highly effective virus-specific CD8 T cells into these AIDS virus sanctuaries and potentially suppress residual viral replication. IMPORTANCE AIDS virus persistence in individuals under effective drug therapy or those who spontaneously control viremia remains an obstacle to definitive treatment. Infected follicular helper CD4 T cells, T FH , present inside B-cell follicles represent a

  17. T-cell libraries allow simple parallel generation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theaker, Sarah M; Rius, Cristina; Greenshields-Watson, Alexander; Lloyd, Angharad; Trimby, Andrew; Fuller, Anna; Miles, John J; Cole, David K; Peakman, Mark; Sewell, Andrew K; Dolton, Garry

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of peptide-specific T-cell clones is highly desirable for determining the role of T-cells in human disease, as well as for the development of therapies and diagnostics. However, generation of monoclonal T-cells with the required specificity is challenging and time-consuming. Here we describe a library-based strategy for the simple parallel detection and isolation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones from CD8(+) or CD4(+) polyclonal T-cell populations. T-cells were first amplified by CD3/CD28 microbeads in a 96U-well library format, prior to screening for desired peptide recognition. T-cells from peptide-reactive wells were then subjected to cytokine-mediated enrichment followed by single-cell cloning, with the entire process from sample to validated clone taking as little as 6 weeks. Overall, T-cell libraries represent an efficient and relatively rapid tool for the generation of peptide-specific T-cell clones, with applications shown here in infectious disease (Epstein-Barr virus, influenza A, and Ebola virus), autoimmunity (type 1 diabetes) and cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of the expression of GARP/latent TGF-β1 complexes on mouse T cells and their role in regulatory T cell and Th17 differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Justin P; Fujii, Hodaka; Zhou, Angela X; Creemers, John; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M

    2013-06-01

    GARP/LRRC32 was defined as a marker of activated human regulatory T cells (Tregs) that is responsible for surface localization of latent TGF-β1. We find that GARP and latent TGF-β1 are also found on mouse Tregs activated via TCR stimulation; however, in contrast to human Tregs, GARP is also expressed at a low level on resting Tregs. The expression of GARP can be upregulated on mouse Tregs by IL-2 or IL-4 exposure in the absence of TCR signaling. GARP is expressed at a low level on Tregs within the thymus, and Treg precursors from the thymus concomitantly express GARP and Foxp3 upon exposure to IL-2. The expression of GARP is independent of TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 loading into GARP and is independent of furin-mediated processing of pro-TGF-β1 to latent TGF-β1. Specific deletion of GARP in CD4(+) T cells results in lack of expression of latent TGF-β1 on activated Tregs. GARP-deficient Tregs develop normally, are present in normal numbers in peripheral tissues, and are fully competent suppressors of the activation of conventional T cells in vitro. Activated Tregs expressing GARP/latent TGF-β1 complexes are potent inducers of Th17 differentiation in the presence of exogenous IL-6 and inducers of Treg in the presence of IL-2. Induction of both Th17-producing cells and Tregs is caused preferentially by Tregs expressing the latent TGF-β1/GARP complex on their cell surface rather than by secreted latent TGF-β1.

  19. Differentiation, distribution and gammadelta T cell-driven regulation of IL-22-producing T cells in tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Yao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation, distribution and immune regulation of human IL-22-producing T cells in infections remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated in a nonhuman primate model that M. tuberculosis infection resulted in apparent increases in numbers of T cells capable of producing IL-22 de novo without in vitro Ag stimulation, and drove distribution of these cells more dramatically in lungs than in blood and lymphoid tissues. Consistently, IL-22-producing T cells were visualized in situ in lung tuberculosis (TB granulomas by confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry, indicating that mature IL-22-producing T cells were present in TB granuloma. Surprisingly, phosphoantigen HMBPP activation of Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells down-regulated the capability of T cells to produce IL-22 de novo in lymphocytes from blood, lung/BAL fluid, spleen and lymph node. Up-regulation of IFNgamma-producing Vgamma2Vdelta2 T effector cells after HMBPP stimulation coincided with the down-regulated capacity of these T cells to produce IL-22 de novo. Importantly, anti-IFNgamma neutralizing Ab treatment reversed the HMBPP-mediated down-regulation effect on IL-22-producing T cells, suggesting that Vgamma2Vdelta2 T-cell-driven IFNgamma-networking function was the mechanism underlying the HMBPP-mediated down-regulation of the capability of T cells to produce IL-22. These novel findings raise the possibility to ultimately investigate the function of IL-22 producing T cells and to target Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells for balancing potentially hyper-activating IL-22-producing T cells in severe TB.

  20. Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate T cell-mediated hepatitis via autophagy activation

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    Yanli Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A and IFN-γ. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism, and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.

  1. T Cell Phenotype and T Cell Receptor Repertoire in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Kostas Patas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While a link between inflammation and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD is supported by a growing body of evidence, little is known about the contribution of aberrant adaptive immunity in this context. Here, we conducted in-depth characterization of T cell phenotype and T cell receptor (TCR repertoire in MDD. For this cross-sectional case–control study, we recruited antidepressant-free patients with MDD without any somatic or psychiatric comorbidities (n = 20, who were individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and smoking status to a non-depressed control subject (n = 20. T cell phenotype and repertoire were interrogated using a combination of flow cytometry, gene expression analysis, and next generation sequencing. T cells from MDD patients showed significantly lower surface expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6, which are known to be central to T cell differentiation and trafficking. In addition, we observed a shift within the CD4+ T cell compartment characterized by a higher frequency of CD4+CD25highCD127low/− cells and higher FOXP3 mRNA expression in purified CD4+ T cells obtained from patients with MDD. Finally, flow cytometry-based TCR Vβ repertoire analysis indicated a less diverse CD4+ T cell repertoire in MDD, which was corroborated by next generation sequencing of the TCR β chain CDR3 region. Overall, these results suggest that T cell phenotype and TCR utilization are skewed on several levels in patients with MDD. Our study identifies putative cellular and molecular signatures of dysregulated adaptive immunity and reinforces the notion that T cells are a pathophysiologically relevant cell population in this disorder.

  2. ZFAT plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its T cell receptor-mediated response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Keiko; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Okamura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoko; Mototani, Yasumasa; Goto, Motohito; Ota, Takeharu; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Masahide; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We generated Cd4-Cre-mediated T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice. ► Zfat-deficiency leads to reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. ► Impaired T cell receptor-mediated response in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. ► Decreased expression of IL-7Rα, IL-2Rα and IL-2 in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. ► Zfat plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis. -- Abstract: ZFAT, originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, development and primitive hematopoiesis. Zfat is highly expressed in T- and B-cells in the lymphoid tissues, however, its physiological function in the immune system remains totally unknown. Here, we generated the T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice and demonstrated that Zfat-deficiency leads to a remarkable reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Intriguingly, a reduced expression of IL-7Rα and the impaired responsiveness to IL-7 for the survival were observed in the Zfat-deficient T cells. Furthermore, a severe defect in proliferation and increased apoptosis in the Zfat-deficient T cells following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation was observed with a reduced IL-2Rα expression as well as a reduced IL-2 production. Thus, our findings reveal that Zfat is a critical regulator in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its TCR-mediated response.

  3. Memory T follicular helper CD4 T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott eHale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available T follicular helper (Tfh cells are the subset of CD4 T helper cells that are required for generation and maintenance of germinal center reactions and the generation of long-lived humoral immunity. This specialized T helper subset provides help to cognate B cells via their expression of CD40 ligand, IL-21, IL-4, and other molecules. Tfh cells are characterized by their expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5, expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6, and their capacity to migrate to the follicle and promote germinal center B cell responses. Until recently, it remained unclear whether Tfh cells differentiated into memory cells and whether they maintain their Tfh commitment at the memory phase. This review will highlight several recent studies that support the idea of Tfh-committed CD4 T cells at the memory stage of the immune response. The implication of these findings is that memory Tfh cells retain their capacity to recall their Tfh-specific effector functions upon reactivation to provide help for B cell responses and play an important role in prime and boost vaccination or during recall responses to infection. The markers that are useful for distinguishing Tfh effector and memory cells, as well as the limitations of using these markers will be discussed. Tfh effector and memory generation, lineage maintenance, and plasticity relative to other T helper lineages (Th1, Th2, Th17, etc will also be discussed. Ongoing discoveries regarding the maintenance and lineage stability versus plasticity of memory Tfh cells will improve strategies that utilize CD4 T cell memory to modulate antibody responses during prime and boost vaccination.

  4. Black seed oil ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T-cell proliferation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Yang, Xudong; Raza Asim, M B; Sun, Qingzhu; Han, Yan; Zhang, Fujun; Cao, Yongxiao; Lu, Shemin

    2009-02-01

    The black seeds, from the Ranunculaceae family, have been traditionally used by various cultures as a natural remedy for several ailments. In this study, we examined the effect of black seed oil as an immunomodulator in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation. Rats sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged intranasally with ovalbumin to induce an allergic inflammatory response were compared to ovalbumin-sensitized, intranasally ovalbumin-exposed rats pretreated with intraperitoneally administered black seed oil and to control rats. The levels of IgE, IgG1 and ova-specific T-cell proliferation in spleen were measured by ELISA. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The intraperitoneal administration of black seed oil inhibited the Th2 type immune response in rats by preventing inflammatory cell infiltration and pathological lesions in the lungs. It significantly decreased the nitric oxide production in BALF, total serum IgE, IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG1 along with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression. Black seed oil treatment resulted in decreased T-cell response evident by lesser delayed type hypersensitivity and lower T-cell proliferation in spleen. In conclusion, black seed oil exhibited a significant reduction in all the markers of allergic inflammation mainly by inhibiting the delayed type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. The data suggests that inhibition of T-cell response may be responsible for immunomodulatory effect of black seed oil in the rat model of allergic airway inflammation.

  5. Functional properties of T cells in patients with chronic T gamma lymphocytosis and chronic T cell neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rümke, H. C.; Miedema, F.; ten Berge, I. J.; Terpstra, F.; van der Reijden, H. J.; van de Griend, R. J.; de Bruin, H. G.; von dem Borne, A. E.; Smit, J. W.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.; Melief, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    The expanded T cell populations of 10 patients with either T gamma lymphocytosis (five patients) or proven chronic T cell malignancy (five patients) were analyzed with respect to functional activity in vitro, including proliferative responses to mitogens, cytotoxic activity (killer [K] and natural

  6. Memory CD8 T cell inflation vs tissue-resident memory T cells: Same patrollers, same controllers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, Suzanne P M; Sandu, Ioana; Baumann, Nicolas S; Oxenius, Annette

    2018-05-01

    The induction of long-lived populations of memory T cells residing in peripheral tissues is of considerable interest for T cell-based vaccines, as they can execute immediate effector functions and thus provide protection in case of pathogen encounter at mucosal and barrier sites. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines support the induction and accumulation of a large population of effector memory CD8 T cells in peripheral tissues, in a process called memory inflation. Tissue-resident memory (T RM ) T cells, induced by various infections and vaccination regimens, constitute another subset of memory cells that take long-term residence in peripheral tissues. Both memory T cell subsets have evoked substantial interest in exploitation for vaccine purposes. However, a direct comparison between these two peripheral tissue-localizing memory T cell subsets with respect to their short- and long-term ability to provide protection against heterologous challenge is pending. Here, we discuss communalities and differences between T RM and inflationary CD8 T cells with respect to their development, maintenance, function, and protective capacity. In addition, we discuss differences and similarities between the transcriptional profiles of T RM and inflationary T cells, supporting the notion that they are distinct memory T cell populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. ZFAT plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its T cell receptor-mediated response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Keiko [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute of Life Sciences for the Next Generation of Women Scientists, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujimoto, Takahiro [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Okamura, Tadashi [Division of Animal Models, Department of Infectious Diseases, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Masahiro [Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Yoko [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Mototani, Yasumasa; Goto, Motohito [Division of Animal Models, Department of Infectious Diseases, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ota, Takeharu; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroki, Masahide [Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsunoda, Toshiyuki [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sasazuki, Takehiko [Institute for Advanced Study, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirasawa, Senji, E-mail: sshirasa@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated Cd4-Cre-mediated T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zfat-deficiency leads to reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired T cell receptor-mediated response in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased expression of IL-7R{alpha}, IL-2R{alpha} and IL-2 in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zfat plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis. -- Abstract: ZFAT, originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, development and primitive hematopoiesis. Zfat is highly expressed in T- and B-cells in the lymphoid tissues, however, its physiological function in the immune system remains totally unknown. Here, we generated the T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice and demonstrated that Zfat-deficiency leads to a remarkable reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Intriguingly, a reduced expression of IL-7R{alpha} and the impaired responsiveness to IL-7 for the survival were observed in the Zfat-deficient T cells. Furthermore, a severe defect in proliferation and increased apoptosis in the Zfat-deficient T cells following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation was observed with a reduced IL-2R{alpha} expression as well as a reduced IL-2 production. Thus, our findings reveal that Zfat is a critical regulator in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its TCR-mediated response.

  8. T2 values of femoral cartilage of the knee joint: Comparison between pre-contrast and post-contrast images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Young Cheol; Choe, Bong Keun

    2014-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between T2 values of pre- and post-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) images of femoral cartilage in patients with varying degrees of osteoarthritis. A total of 19 patients underwent delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage. Six regions of interest for T2 value measurement were obtained from pre- and post-contrast T2-weighted, sagittal, multi-slice, multi-echo, source images in each subject. Regions with modified Noyes classification grade 2B and 3 were excluded. Comparison of T2 values between pre- and post-contrast images and T2 values among regions with the grade 0, 1 and 2A groups were statistically analyzed. Of a total of 114 regions, 79 regions showing grade 0 (n = 46), 1 (n = 18), or 2A (n = 15) were analyzed. The overall and individual T2 values of post-contrast images were significantly lower than those of pre-contrast images (overall, 35.3 ± 9.2 [mean ± SD] vs. 29.9 ± 8.2, p < 0.01; range of individual, 28.9-37.6 vs. 27.1-36.4, p < 0.01). Pearson correlation coefficients showed a strong positive correlation between pre- and post-contrast images (rho-Pearson = 0.712-0.905). T2 values of pre- and post-contrast images of the grade 0 group were significantly lower than those of the grade 1/2A group (pre T2, p = 0.003; post T2, p = 0.006). T2 values of the femoral cartilage of the knee joint are significantly lower on post-contrast images than on pre-contrast images. Furthermore, these T2 values have a strong positive correlation between pre- and post-contrast images.

  9. T2 values of femoral cartilage of the knee joint: Comparison between pre-contrast and post-contrast images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Young Cheol [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between T2 values of pre- and post-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) images of femoral cartilage in patients with varying degrees of osteoarthritis. A total of 19 patients underwent delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage. Six regions of interest for T2 value measurement were obtained from pre- and post-contrast T2-weighted, sagittal, multi-slice, multi-echo, source images in each subject. Regions with modified Noyes classification grade 2B and 3 were excluded. Comparison of T2 values between pre- and post-contrast images and T2 values among regions with the grade 0, 1 and 2A groups were statistically analyzed. Of a total of 114 regions, 79 regions showing grade 0 (n = 46), 1 (n = 18), or 2A (n = 15) were analyzed. The overall and individual T2 values of post-contrast images were significantly lower than those of pre-contrast images (overall, 35.3 ± 9.2 [mean ± SD] vs. 29.9 ± 8.2, p < 0.01; range of individual, 28.9-37.6 vs. 27.1-36.4, p < 0.01). Pearson correlation coefficients showed a strong positive correlation between pre- and post-contrast images (rho-Pearson = 0.712-0.905). T2 values of pre- and post-contrast images of the grade 0 group were significantly lower than those of the grade 1/2A group (pre T2, p = 0.003; post T2, p = 0.006). T2 values of the femoral cartilage of the knee joint are significantly lower on post-contrast images than on pre-contrast images. Furthermore, these T2 values have a strong positive correlation between pre- and post-contrast images.

  10. Repeated measurements of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin T or C-reactive protein do not predict future allograft rejection in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battes, Linda C; Caliskan, Kadir; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Constantinescu, Alina A; Robertus, Jan L; Akkerhuis, Martijn; Manintveld, Olivier C; Boersma, Eric; Kardys, Isabella

    2015-03-01

    Studies on the prognostic value of serial biomarker assays for future occurrence of allograft rejection (AR) are scarce. We examined whether repeated measurements of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), troponin T (TropT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict AR. From 2005 to 2010, 77 consecutive heart transplantation (HTx) recipients were included. The NT-proBNP, TropT, and CRP were measured at 16 ± 4 (mean ± standard deviation) consecutive routine endomyocardial biopsy surveillance visits during the first year of follow-up. Allograft rejection was defined as International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grade 2R or higher at endomyocardial biopsy. Joint modeling was used to assess the association between repeated biomarker measurements and occurrence of future AR. Joint modeling accounts for dependence among repeated observations in individual patients. The mean age of the patients at HTx was 49 ± 9.2 years, and 68% were men. During the first year of follow-up, 1,136 biopsies and concurrent blood samples were obtained, and 56 patients (73%) experienced at least one episode of AR. All biomarkers were elevated directly after HTx and achieved steady-state after ∼ 12 weeks, both in patients with or without AR. No associations were present between the repeated measurements of NT-proBNP, TropT, or CRP and AR both early (weeks 0-12) and late (weeks 13-52) in the course after HTx (hazard ratios for weeks 13-52: 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.68), 0.67 (0.27-1.69), and 1.44 (0.90-2.30), respectively, per ln[unit]). Combining the three biomarkers in one model also rendered null results. The temporal evolution of NT-proBNP, TropT, and CRP before AR did not predict occurrence of acute AR both in the early and late course of the first year after HTx.

  11. Ability of γδ T cells to modulate the Foxp3 T cell response is dependent on adenosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchun Liang

    Full Text Available Whether γδ T cells inhibit or enhance the Foxp3 T cell response depends upon their activation status. The critical enhancing effector in the supernatant is adenosine. Activated γδ T cells express adenosine receptors at high levels, which enables them to deprive Foxp3+ T cells of adenosine, and to inhibit their expansion. Meanwhile, cell-free supernatants of γδ T cell cultures enhance Foxp3 T cell expansion. Thus, inhibition and enhancement by γδ T cells of Foxp3 T cell response are a reflection of the balance between adenosine production and absorption by γδ T cells. Non-activated γδ T cells produce adenosine but bind little, and thus enhance the Foxp3 T cell response. Activated γδ T cells express high density of adenosine receptors and have a greatly increased ability to bind adenosine. Extracellular adenosine metabolism and expression of adenosine receptor A2ARs by γδ T cells played a major role in the outcome of γδ and Foxp3 T cell interactions. A better understanding of the functional conversion of γδ T cells could lead to γδ T cell-targeted immunotherapies for related diseases.

  12. Tumor-Targeted Human T Cells Expressing CD28-Based Chimeric Antigen Receptors Circumvent CTLA-4 Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Condomines

    Full Text Available Adoptive T cell therapy represents a promising treatment for cancer. Human T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR recognize and kill tumor cells in a MHC-unrestricted manner and persist in vivo when the CAR includes a CD28 costimulatory domain. However, the intensity of the CAR-mediated CD28 activation signal and its regulation by the CTLA-4 checkpoint are unknown. We investigated whether T cells expressing an anti-CD19, CD3 zeta and CD28-based CAR (19-28z displayed the same proliferation and anti-tumor abilities than T cells expressing a CD3 zeta-based CAR (19z1 costimulated through the CD80/CD28, ligand/receptor pathway. Repeated in vitro antigen-specific stimulations indicated that 19-28z+ T cells secreted higher levels of Th1 cytokines and showed enhanced proliferation compared to those of 19z1+ or 19z1-CD80+ T cells. In an aggressive pre-B cell leukemia model, mice treated with 19-28z+ T cells had 10-fold reduced tumor progression compared to those treated with 19z1+ or 19z1-CD80+ T cells. shRNA-mediated CTLA-4 down-regulation in 19z1-CD80+ T cells significantly increased their in vivo expansion and anti-tumor properties, but had no effect in 19-28z+ T cells. Our results establish that CTLA-4 down-regulation may benefit human adoptive T cell therapy and demonstrate that CAR design can elude negative checkpoints to better sustain T cell function.

  13. Pre-emptive rituximab for Epstein-Barr virus reactivation after haplo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shogo; Sano, Hideki; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Nobuhisa; Ohto, Hitoshi; Kikuta, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD) is a serious complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the incidence and potential risk factors for EBV reactivation and to assess the efficacy of the management of EBV reactivation with pre-emptive rituximab in children who had T-cell-replete haploidentical HSCT (TCR-haplo-SCT) with low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). EBV-DNA level in peripheral blood (PB) was measured when suspected EBV reactivation were observed. When the EBV-DNA level in PB increased to >1,000 copies/10 6 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), patients were pre-emptively treated with rituximab (375 mg/m 2 /dose). A total of 19 (50%) of 38 patients received rituximab infusion at a median time of 56 days after HSCT (range, 17-270 days). The median viral load at initiation of therapy was 2,900 copies/10 6 PBMC (range, 1,000-650 000). Pre-emptive therapy was started after a median of 2 days (range, 0-7 days). The median number of weekly treatment cycles was 2 (range, 1-3). None of the patients developed PTLD or other EBV-associated diseases. Pre-emptive rituximab therapy could be a useful strategy for EBV-PTLD in TCR-haplo-SCT recipients with low-dose ATG. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Regulation of the expression of GARP/latent-TGF-β1 complexes on mouse T cells and their role in Regulatory T Cell and Th17 differentiation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Justin P.; Fujii, Hodaka; Zhou, Angela X.; Creemers, John; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    GARP/LRRC32 has previously been defined as a marker of activated human regulatory T-cells (Tregs) that is responsible for surface localization of latent TGF-β1. We find that GARP and latent TGF-β1 are also found on mouse Tregs activated via TCR stimulation, but in contrast to human Tregs, GARP is also expressed at a low level on resting Tregs. The expression of GARP can be upregulated on mouse Tregs by IL-2 or IL-4 exposure in the absence of TCR signaling. GARP is expressed at a low level on Tregs within the thymus and Treg precursors from the thymus concomitantly express GARP and Foxp3 upon exposure to IL-2. The expression of GARP is independent of TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 loading into GARP and is independent of furin-mediated processing of pro-TGF-β1 to latent TGF-β1. Specific deletion of GARP in CD4+ T cells results in lack of expression of latent-TGF-β1 on activated Tregs. GARP-deficient Tregs develop normally, are present in normal numbers in peripheral tissues, and are fully competent suppressors of the activation of T conventional cells in vitro. Activated Tregs expressing GARP/latent-TGF-β1 complexes are potent inducers of Th17 differentiation in the presence of exogenous IL-6 and inducers of Treg in the presence of IL-2. Induction of both Th17 producing cells and Treg is preferentially induced by Tregs expressing the latent-TGF-β1/GARP complex on their cell surface rather than by secreted latent-TGF-β1. PMID:23645881

  15. Ni/YSZ anode – Effect of pre-treatments on cell degradation and microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Brodersen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    ,TPB) was decreased to ¼ or less for the pre-treated and fuel cell tested cells when compared with a non-pre-treated reference tested cell; all operated at the same fuel cell test conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and image analyses for the non-pre-treated reference tested cell and selected pre-treated cells...

  16. Selective T-cell depletion targeting CD45RA reduces viremia and enhances early T-cell recovery compared with CD3-targeted T-cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Brandon M; Muller, Brad; Kang, Guolian; Li, Ying; Cross, Shane J; Moen, Joseph; Cunningham, Lea; Janssen, William; Mamcarz, Ewelina; Shook, David R; Srinivasan, Ashok; Choi, John; Hayden, Randall T; Leung, Wing

    2018-02-01

    T-cell depletion (TCD) effectively reduces severe graft-versus-host disease in recipients of HLA-mismatched allografts. However, TCD is associated with delayed immune recovery and increased infections. We hypothesized that specific depletion of CD45RA+ naive T cells, rather than broad depletion of CD3+ T cells, can preserve memory-immunity in the allografts and confer protection against important viral infections in the early post-transplant period. Sixty-seven patients who received TCD haploidentical donor transplantation for hematologic malignancy on 3 consecutive trials were analyzed. Patients receiving CD45RA-depleted donor grafts had 2000-fold more donor T cells infused, significantly higher T-cell counts at Day +30 post transplant (550/μL vs 10/μL; P depleted grafts were more likely to experience adenovirus viremia (27% vs 4%, P = .02). CD45RA-depletion provided a large number of donor memory T cells to the recipients and was associated with enhanced early T-cell recovery and protection against viremia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cyr61/CCN1 and CTGF/CCN2 mediate the pro-angiogenic activity of VHL mutant renal carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Mastan R.; Markiewicz, Margaret; Kose, Nurgun; Dammai, Vincent; Champion, Kristen J.; Hoda, Rana S.; Trojanowska, Maria; Hsu, Tien

    2008-01-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein serves as a negative regulator of hypoxia inducible factor-alpha subunit (HIF-α). Since HIF regulates critical angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and lesions in VHL gene are present in a majority of the highly vascularized renal cell carcinoma (RCC), it is believed that deregulation of the VHL-HIF pathway is crucial for the pro-angiogenic activity of RCC. Although VEGF has been confirmed as a critical angiogenic factor up-regulated in VHL mutant cells, the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy specifically targeting VEGF signaling remains modest. In this study we developed a three-dimensional in vitro assay to evaluate the ability of RCC cells to promote cord formation by the primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). Compared to VHL wild-type cells, VHL mutant RCC cells demonstrated a significantly increased pro-angiogenic activity, which correlated with increased secretion of Cyr61/CCN1, CTGF/CCN2 and VEGF in conditioned culture medium. Both CCN proteins are required for HDMEC cord formation as shown by RNAi knock-down experiments. Importantly, the pro-angiogenic activities conferred by the CCN proteins and VEGF are additive, suggesting non-overlapping functions. Expression of the CCN proteins is at least partly dependent on the HIF-2α function, the dominant HIF-α isoform expressed in RCC. Finally, immunohistochemical staining of Cyr61/CCN1 and CTGF/CCN2 in renal cell carcinoma tissue samples showed that increased expression of these proteins correlates with loss of VHL protein expression. These findings strengthened the notion that the hypervascularized phenotype of RCC is afforded by multiple pro-angiogenic factors that function in parallel pathways. PMID:18212329

  18. High levels of the type III inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) can confer faster cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsfelt, Iben Boutrup; Byskov, Kristina; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    2014-01-01

    overexpression led to faster cell spreading. The final total numbers of attached cells did, however, not differ between cultures of PiT1 overexpressing cells and control cells of neither cell type. We suggest that the PiT1-mediated fast adhesion potentials allow the cells to go faster out of G0/G1 and thereby......The inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. We recently showed that overexpression of human PiT1 was sufficient to increase proliferation of two strict density-inhibited cell lines, murine fibroblastic NIH3T3 and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells......, and allowed the cultures to grow to higher cell densities. In addition, upon transformation NIH3T3 cells showed increased ability to form colonies in soft agar. The cellular regulation of PiT1 expression supports that cells utilize the PiT1 levels to control proliferation, with non-proliferating cells showing...

  19. T cell clones which share T cell receptor epitopes differ in phenotype, function and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yssel, H.; Blanchard, D.; Boylston, A.; de Vries, J. E.; Spits, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, we described a monoclonal antibody (3D6) that reacts with the T cell receptor (Ti) of the T leukemic cell line HPB-ALL and that cross-reacts with 2-10% of the T cells of normal healthy individuals. In this study we report the establishment of T cell clones that are 3D6+ but that differ in

  20. Can resting B cells present antigen to T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwell, J.D.; DeFranco, A.L.; Paul, W.E.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Antigen stimulation of T lymphocytes can occur only in the presence of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). An ever-increasing number of cell types have been found to act as APCs; these include macrophages, splenic and lymph node dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells of the skin. Although activated B lymphocytes and B cell lymphomas are known to serve as APCs, it has been generally believed that resting B cells cannot perform this function. However, in recent studies the authors have found that resting B cells can indeed present soluble antigen to T cell clones as well as to antigen-primed T cells. The previous difficulty in demonstrating this activity can be explained by the finding that, in contrast to macrophages and dendritic cells, the antigen-presenting ability of resting B cells is very radiosensitive. Macrophages are usually irradiated with 2000-3300 rads to prevent them from incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine in the T cell proliferation assay. Resting B cells, however, begin to lose presenting function at 1500 rads and have completely lost this activity at 3300 rads. It was also possible to distinguish two distinct T cell clonal phenotypes when resting B cells were used as APCs on the basis of two different assays (T cell proliferation, and B cell proliferation resulting from T cell activation). The majority of T cell clones tested were capable of both proliferating themselves and inducing the proliferation of B cells. Some T cells clones, however, could not proliferate in the presence of antigen and B cell APCs, although they were very good at inducing the proliferation of B cells

  1. Clonally expanded cytotoxic CD4+ T cells and the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, Hamid; Stone, John H; Pillai, Shiv

    2017-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic condition of unknown cause characterized by highly fibrotic lesions, with dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates containing a preponderance of IgG4-expressing plasma cells. CD4 + T cells and B cells constitute the major inflammatory cell populations in IgG4-RD lesions. IgG4-RD patients with active, untreated disease show a marked expansion of plasmablasts in the circulation. Although the therapeutic depletion of B cells suggests a role for these cells in the disease, a direct role for B cells or IgG4 in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is yet to be demonstrated. Among the CD4 + T-cell subsets, Th2 cells were initially thought to contribute to IgG4-RD pathogenesis, but many previous studies were confounded by the concomitant history of allergic diseases in the patients studied and the failure to use multi-color staining to definitively identify T-cell subsets in tissue samples. More recently, using an unbiased approach to characterize CD4 + T-cell subsets in patients with IgG4-RD - based on their clonal expansion and ability to infiltrate affected tissue sites - CD4 + CTLs have been identified as the major CD4 + T-cell subset in disease lesions as well as in the circulation. CD4 + CTLs in affected tissues secrete pro-fibrotic cytokines including IL-1β, TGF-β1, and IFN-γ as well as cytolytic molecules such as perforin and granzymes A and B. In this review, we examine possible mechanisms by which activated B cells and plasmablasts may collaborate with the expanded CD4 + CTLs in driving the fibrotic pathology of the disease and describe the lacunae in the field and in our understanding of IgG4-RD pathogenesis.

  2. Epicardial fat thickness in stable coronary artery disease: its relationship with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börekçi, Abdurrezzak; Gür, Mustafa; Özaltun, Betül; Baykan, Ahmet Oytun; Harbalioğlu, Hazar; Seker, Taner; Sen, Ömer; Acele, Armağan; Gözükara, Mehmet Yavuz; Kuloğlu, Osman; Koç, Mevlüt; Çayli, Murat

    2014-12-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is related to coronary atherosclerosis, left ventricle hypertrophy, myocardial dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and inflammation, which produces a variety of cytokines that influence key pathogenic mechanisms of atherogenesis. The main goal of this study is to examine the relationship between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and cardiovascular risk markers as well as the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with stable CAD. We prospectively included 439 stable CAD patients undergoing coronary angiography in the present study (mean age: 62.2±10.7 years). Patients were divided into two groups (EFTlow and EFThigh groups) according to their median EFT values. EFT was evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography before angiography. The SYNTAX score was calculated in all patients. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), uric acid, and other biochemical markers were also measured. Age, SYNTAX score, frequencies of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, NT-proBNP, hs-CRP, hs-cTnT, and uric acid levels were higher in EFThigh group compared with the EFTlow group (P<0.05 for all). EFT was associated independently with age (β=-0.102, P=0.001), diabetes (β=-0.083, P=0.011), SYNTAX score (β=0.352, P<0.001), hs-CRP level (β=0.217, P<0.001), hs-cTnT level (β=0.197, P<0.001), and NT-proBNP level (β=0.300, P<0.001) in multivariate analysis. EFT obtained by echocardiograpy may not only be an easy tool but also an important tool for early detection of increased cardiac risk as well as the extent and complexity of CAD in patients with stable CAD.

  3. MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, inhibits T cell propagation by modulation of cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, is a novel member of the MS4A gene family in mice. The MS4A family includes CD20, FcεRIβ, HTm4 and at least 26 novel members that are characterized by their structural features: with four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains and two cytoplasmic regions. CD20, FcεRIβ and HTm4 have been found to function in B cells, mast cells and hematopoietic cells respectively. However, little is known about the function of MS4a4B in T cell regulation. We demonstrate here that MS4a4B negatively regulates mouse T cell proliferation. MS4a4B is highly expressed in primary T cells, natural killer cells (NK and some T cell lines. But its expression in all malignant T cells, including thymoma and T hybridoma tested, was silenced. Interestingly, its expression was regulated during T cell activation. Viral vector-driven overexpression of MS4a4B in primary T cells and EL4 thymoma cells reduced cell proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of MS4a4B accelerated T cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that MS4a4B regulated T cell proliferation by inhibiting entry of the cells into S-G2/M phase. MS4a4B-mediated inhibition of cell cycle was correlated with upregulation of Cdk inhibitory proteins and decreased levels of Cdk2 activity, subsequently leading to inhibition of cell cycle progression. Our data indicate that MS4a4B negatively regulates T cell proliferation. MS4a4B, therefore, may serve as a modulator in the negative-feedback regulatory loop of activated T cells.

  4. MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, inhibits T cell propagation by modulation of cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Yan, Yaping; Williams, Mark S; Carey, Gregory B; Yang, Jingxian; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2010-11-01

    MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, is a novel member of the MS4A gene family in mice. The MS4A family includes CD20, FcεRIβ, HTm4 and at least 26 novel members that are characterized by their structural features: with four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains and two cytoplasmic regions. CD20, FcεRIβ and HTm4 have been found to function in B cells, mast cells and hematopoietic cells respectively. However, little is known about the function of MS4a4B in T cell regulation. We demonstrate here that MS4a4B negatively regulates mouse T cell proliferation. MS4a4B is highly expressed in primary T cells, natural killer cells (NK) and some T cell lines. But its expression in all malignant T cells, including thymoma and T hybridoma tested, was silenced. Interestingly, its expression was regulated during T cell activation. Viral vector-driven overexpression of MS4a4B in primary T cells and EL4 thymoma cells reduced cell proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of MS4a4B accelerated T cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that MS4a4B regulated T cell proliferation by inhibiting entry of the cells into S-G2/M phase. MS4a4B-mediated inhibition of cell cycle was correlated with upregulation of Cdk inhibitory proteins and decreased levels of Cdk2 activity, subsequently leading to inhibition of cell cycle progression. Our data indicate that MS4a4B negatively regulates T cell proliferation. MS4a4B, therefore, may serve as a modulator in the negative-feedback regulatory loop of activated T cells.

  5. Tumour-Derived Interleukin-1 Beta Induces Pro-inflammatory Response in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alajez, Nehad M; Al-toub, Mashael; Almusa, Abdulaziz

    ’ secreted factors as represented by a panel of human cancer cell lines (breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231); prostate (PC-3); lung (NCI-H522); colon (HT-29) and head & neck (FaDu)) on the biological characteristics of MSCs. Background Over the past several years, significant amount of research has emerged......, the goal of this study was to assess the cellular and molecular changes in MSCs in response to secreted factors present in conditioned media (CM) from a panel of human tumor cell lines covering a spectrum of human cancers (Breast, Prostate, Lung, colon, and head and neck). Research Morphological changes...... with bipolar processes. In association with phenotypic changes, genome-wide gene expression and bioinformatics analysis revealed an enhanced pro-inflammatory response of those MSCs. Pharmacological inhibitions of FAK and MAPKK severely impaired the pro-inflammatory response of MSCs to tumor CM (~80-99%, and 55...

  6. CD4+ T cell-derived novel peptide Thp5 induces interleukin-4 production in CD4+ T cells to direct T helper 2 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Moin; Chatterjee, Samit; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Pandey, Nishant Kumar; Singh, Yogesh; Tousif, Sultan; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Van Kaer, Luc; Das, Jyoti; Das, Gobardhan

    2012-01-20

    The differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells requires production of the cytokine IL-4 in the local microenvironment. It is evident that naïve/quiescently activated CD4(+) T cells produce the IL-4 that drives Th2 cell differentiation. Because early production of IL-4 in naïve T cells leads to preferential Th2 cell differentiation, this process needs to be tightly regulated so as to avoid catastrophic and misdirected Th2 cell differentiation. Here, we show that Thp5, a novel peptide with structural similarity to vasoactive intestinal peptide, regulates production of early IL-4 in newly activated CD4(+) T cells. Induction of IL-4 in CD4(+) T cells by Thp5 is independent of the transcription factor STAT6 but dependent on ERK1/2 signaling. Furthermore, cytokines (IL-12 and TGF-β) that promote the differentiation of Th1 or Th17 cells inhibit Thp5 induction, thus suppressing Th2 cell differentiation. We further showed that Thp5 enhances Th2 responses and exacerbates allergic airway inflammation in mice. Taken together, our findings reveal that early activated CD4(+) T cells produce Thp5, which plays a critical role as a molecular switch in the differentiation of Th cells, biasing the response toward the Th2 cell phenotype.

  7. Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Novel Nitro-Substituted Hydroxynaphthanilides on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Kauerova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ring-substituted hydroxynaphthanilides are considered as cyclic analogues of salicylanilides, compounds possessing a wide range of pharmacological activities, including promising anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer effect of novel nitro-substituted hydroxynaphthanilides with a special focus on structure-activity relationships. The antiproliferative effect was assessed by Water Soluble Tetrazolium Salts-1 (WST-1 assay, and cytotoxicity was evaluated via dye exclusion test. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis and detection of apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Protein expression was estimated by Western blotting. Our data indicate that the potential to cause the antiproliferative effect increases with the shift of the nitro substituent from the ortho- to the para-position. The most potent compounds, 3-hydroxy-N-(3-nitrophenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide (2, and 2-hydroxy-N-(4-nitrophenyl-naphthalene-1-carboxamide (6 showed antiproliferative activity against THP-1 and MCF-7 cancer cells without affecting the proliferation of 3T3-L1 non-tumour cells. Compounds 2 and 6 induced the accumulation of THP-1 and MCF-7 cells in G1 phase associated with the downregulation of cyclin E1 protein levels, while the levels of cyclin B1 were not affected. Moreover, compound 2 was found to exert the pro-apoptotic effect on the THP-1 cells. These results suggest that hydroxynaphthanilides might represent a potential model structure for the development of novel anticancer agents.

  8. Biomaterials trigger endothelial cell activation when co-incubated with human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, Manuela; Hanke, Jasmin; Hänsel, Stefanie; Drichel, Juliane; Marx, Monique; Maitz, Manfred F; Werner, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial cell activation resulting from biomaterial contact or biomaterial-induced blood activation may in turn also affect hemostasis and inflammatory processes in the blood. Current in vitro hemocompatibility assays typically ignore these modulating effects of the endothelium. This study describes a co-incubation system of human whole blood, biomaterial and endothelial cells (ECs) that was developed to overcome this limitation. First, human endothelial cells were characterized in terms of their expression of coagulation- and inflammation-relevant markers in response to various activators. Subsequently, their capacity to regulate hemostasis as well as complement and granulocyte activation was monitored in a hemocompatibility assay. After blood contact, quiescent ECs exhibited anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. When they were co-incubated with surfaces exhibiting pro-coagulant or pro-inflammatory characteristics, the ECs down-regulated coagulation but not complement or leukocyte activation. Analysis of intracellular levels of the endothelial activation markers E-selectin and tissue factor showed that co-incubation with model surfaces and blood significantly increased the activation state of ECs. Finally, the coagulation- and inflammation-modulating properties of the ECs were tested after blood/biomaterial exposure. Pre-activation of ECs by biomaterials in the blood induced a pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory state of the ECs, wherein the pro-coagulant response was higher for biomaterial/blood pre-activated ECs than for TNF-α-pre-activated cells. This work provides evidence that biomaterials, even without directly contacting the endothelium, affect the endothelial activation state with and have consequences for plasmatic and cellular reactions in the blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Modification Machinery Deficiency Is Responsible for the Formation of Pro-Prion Protein (PrP) in BxPC-3 Protein and Increases Cancer Cell Motility*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liheng; Gao, Zhenxing; Hu, Lipeng; Wu, Guiru; Yang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhu, Ying; Wong, Boon-Seng; Xin, Wei; Sy, Man-Sun; Li, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The normal cellular prion protein (PrP) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface glycoprotein. However, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines, such as BxPC-3, PrP exists as a pro-PrP retaining its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) peptide signaling sequence. Here, we report the identification of another pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line, AsPC-1, which expresses a mature GPI-anchored PrP. Comparison of the 24 genes involved in the GPI anchor modification pathway between AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 revealed 15 of the 24 genes, including PGAP1 and PIG-F, were down-regulated in the latter cells. We also identified six missense mutations in DPM2, PIG-C, PIG-N, and PIG-P alongside eight silent mutations. When BxPC-3 cells were fused with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which lack endogenous PrP, pro-PrP was successfully converted into mature GPI-anchored PrP. Expression of the individual gene, such as PGAP1, PIG-F, or PIG-C, into BxPC-3 cells does not result in phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C sensitivity of PrP. However, when PIG-F but not PIG-P is expressed in PGAP1-expressing BxPC-3 cells, PrP on the surface of the cells becomes phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-sensitive. Thus, low expression of PIG-F and PGAP1 is the major factor contributing to the accumulation of pro-PrP. More importantly, BxPC-3 cells expressing GPI-anchored PrP migrate much slower than BxPC-3 cells bearing pro-PrP. In addition, GPI-anchored PrP-bearing AsPC-1 cells also migrate slower than pro-PrP bearing BxPC-3 cells, although both cells express filamin A. “Knocking out” PRNP in BxPC-3 cell drastically reduces its migration. Collectively, these results show that multiple gene irregularity in BxPC-3 cells is responsible for the formation of pro-PrP, and binding of pro-PrP to filamin A contributes to enhanced tumor cell motility. PMID:26683373

  10. GLYCAN-DIRECTED CAR-T CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Migliorini, Denis; King, Tiffany R; Mandel, Ulla; June, Carl H; Posey, Avery D

    2018-01-23

    Cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing in the treatment of a variety of hematopoietic cancers, including pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. CARs are genetically encoded artificial T cell receptors that combine the antigen specificity of an antibody with the machinery of T cell activation. However, implementation of CAR technology in the treatment of solid tumors has been progressing much slower. Solid tumors are characterized by a number of challenges that need to be overcome, including cellular heterogeneity, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), and, in particular, few known cancer-specific targets. Post-translational modifications that differentially occur in malignant cells generate valid cell surface, cancer-specific targets for CAR-T cells. We previously demonstrated that CAR-T cells targeting an aberrant O-glycosylation of MUC1, a common cancer marker associated with changes in cell adhesion, tumor growth, and poor prognosis, could control malignant growth in mouse models. Here, we discuss the field of glycan-directed CAR-T cells and review the different classes of antibodies specific for glycan-targeting, including the generation of high affinity O-glycopeptide antibodies. Finally, we discuss historic and recently investigated glycan targets for CAR-T cells and provide our perspective on how targeting the tumor glycoproteome and/or glycome will improve CAR-T immunotherapy. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. C/EBPα Activates Pre-existing and De Novo Macrophage Enhancers during Induced Pre-B Cell Transdifferentiation and Myelopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Oevelen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcription-factor-induced somatic cell conversions are highly relevant for both basic and clinical research yet their mechanism is not fully understood and it is unclear whether they reflect normal differentiation processes. Here we show that during pre-B-cell-to-macrophage transdifferentiation, C/EBPα binds to two types of myeloid enhancers in B cells: pre-existing enhancers that are bound by PU.1, providing a platform for incoming C/EBPα; and de novo enhancers that are targeted by C/EBPα, acting as a pioneer factor for subsequent binding by PU.1. The order of factor binding dictates the upregulation kinetics of nearby genes. Pre-existing enhancers are broadly active throughout the hematopoietic lineage tree, including B cells. In contrast, de novo enhancers are silent in most cell types except in myeloid cells where they become activated by C/EBP factors. Our data suggest that C/EBPα recapitulates physiological developmental processes by short-circuiting two macrophage enhancer pathways in pre-B cells.

  12. Special regulatory T-cell review: T-cell dependent suppression revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Antony; Fazekas de St Groth, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The concept of T-cell dependent regulation of immune responses has been a central tenet of immunological thinking since the delineation of the two cell system in the 1960s. Indeed T-cell dependent suppression was discovered before MHC restriction. When reviewing the data from the original wave of suppression, it is intriguing to reflect not just on the decline and fall of suppressor T cells in the 1980s, but on their equally dramatic return to respectability over the past decade. Hopefully their resurgence will be supported by solid mechanistic data that will underpin their central place in our current and future understanding of the immune system. Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon in front of them Volley'd and thunder'd Storm'd at with shot and shell, Boldly they rode and well, Into the jaws of Death, Into the mouth of Hell, Rode the six hundred (suppressionists). (Adapted from The Charge of the Light Brigade, Alfred, Lord Tennyson)

  13. Membrane-bound Dickkopf-1 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppresses T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wook-Jin; Park, Jong-Hyun; Henegariu, Octavian; Yilmaz, Saliha; Hao, Liming; Bothwell, Alfred L M

    2017-10-01

    Induction of tolerance is a key mechanism to maintain or to restore immunological homeostasis. Here we show that Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells use Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) to regulate T-cell-mediated tolerance in the T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis model. Treg cells from DKK-1 hypomorphic doubleridge mice failed to control CD4 + T-cell proliferation, resulting in CD4 T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. Thymus-derived Treg cells showed a robust expression of DKK-1 but not in naive or effector CD4 T cells. DKK-1 expression in Foxp3 + Treg cells was further increased upon T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Foxp3 + Treg