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  1. High Pre-β1 HDL Concentrations and Low Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activities Are Strong Positive Risk Markers for Ischemic Heart Disease and Independent of HDL-Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amar A.; Sampson, Maureen; Warnick, Russell; Muniz, Nehemias; Vaisman, Boris; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We hypothesized that patients with high HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) may have dysfunctional HDL or unrecognized nonconventional risk factors. METHODS Individuals with IHD (Copenhagen University Hospital) and either high HDL-C (n = 53; women ≥735 mg/L; men ≥619 mg/L) or low HDL-C (n = 42; women ≤387 mg/L; men ≤341 mg/L) were compared with individuals without IHD (Copenhagen City Heart Study) matched by age, sex, and HDL-C concentrations (n = 110). All participants had concentrations within reference intervals for LDL-C (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity by using a proteoliposome cholesterol esterification assay. RESULTS Pre-β1 HDL concentrations were 2-fold higher in individuals with IHD vs no IHD in both the high [63 (5.7) vs 35 (2.3) mg/L; P < 0.0001] and low HDL-C [49 (5.0) vs 27 (1.5) mg/L; P = 0.001] groups. Low LCAT activity was also associated with IHD in the high [95.2 (6.7) vs 123.0 (5.3) μmol · L−1 · h−1; P = 0.002] and low [93.4 (8.3) vs 113.5 (4.9) μmol · L−1 · h−1; P = 0.03] HDL-C groups. ROC curves for pre-β1 HDL in the high–HDL-C groups yielded an area under the curve of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.81) for predicting IHD, which increased to 0.92 (0.87–0.97) when LCAT was included. Similar results were obtained for low HDL-C groups. An inverse correlation between LCAT activity and pre-β1 HDL was observed (r2 = 0.30; P < 0.0001) in IHD participants, which was stronger in the low HDL-C group (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS IHD was associated with high pre-β1 HDL concentrations and low LCAT levels, yielding correct classification in more than 90% of the IHD cases for which both were measured, thus making pre-β1 HDL concentration and LCAT activity level potentially useful diagnostic markers for cardiovascular disease. PMID:20511449

  2. EEG activation differences in the pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area between normal individuals with high and low traits of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Vetter, Petra; Russo, Riccardo

    2010-06-25

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) is believed to provide a basic mechanism for social cognition. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) in alpha (8-12Hz) and low beta band (12-20Hz) over sensori-motor cortex has been suggested to index mirror neurons' activity. We tested whether autistic traits revealed by high and low scores on the Autistic Quotient (AQ) in the normal population are linked to variations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) over motor, pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) during action observation. Results revealed that in the low AQ group, the pre-motor cortex and SMA were more active during hand action than static hand observation whereas in the high AQ group the same areas were active both during static and hand action observation. In fact participants with high traits of autism showed greater low beta ERD while observing the static hand than those with low traits and this low beta ERD was not significantly different when they watched hand actions. Over primary motor cortex, the classical alpha and low beta ERD during hand actions relative to static hand observation was found across all participants. These findings suggest that the observation-execution matching system works differently according to the degree of autism traits in the normal population and that this is differentiated in terms of the EEG according to scalp site and bandwidth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly recoverable pyridinium-tagged Hoveyda-Grubbs pre-catalyst for olefin metathesis. Design of the boomerang ligand toward the optimal compromise between activity and reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Diane; Caïjo, Fréderic; Laurent, Isabelle; Gulajski, Lukasz; Grela, Karol; Mauduit, Marc

    2007-09-28

    Whereas the boomerang ligand of Hoveyda-Grubbs pre-catalysts can be modified by attachment of a pyridinium tag to its benzylidene moiety, a precise adjustment of the length of the spacer allows the optimum balance to be reached between the activity of the catalyst and its recoverability, exceeding 98% after 6 catalytic runs in the best case.

  4. Instrument pre-development activities for FLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinato, L.; Fossati, E.; Coppo, P. M.; Taiti, A.; Labate, D.; Capanni, A.; Taccola, M.; Bézy, J. L.; Francois, M.; Meynart, R.; Erdmann, L.; Triebel, P.

    2017-09-01

    The FLuorescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) is the payload of the FLuorescence Explorer Mission (FLEX) of the European Space Agency. The mission objective is to perform quantitative measurements of the solar induced vegetation fluorescence to monitor photosynthetic activity. FLORIS works in a push-broom configuration and it is designed to acquire data in the 500-780 nm spectral range, with a sampling of 0.1 nm in the oxygen bands (759-769 nm and 686- 697 nm) and 0.5-2.0 nm in the red edge, chlorophyll absorption and Photochemical Reflectance Index bands. FLEX will fly in formation with Sentinel-3 to benefit of the measurements made by the Sentinel-3 instruments OLCI and SLSTR, particularly for cloud screening, proper characterization of the atmospheric state and determination of the surface temperature. The instrument concept is based on a common telescope and two modified Offner spectrometers with reflective concave gratings both for the High Resolution (HR) and Low Resolution (LR) spectrometers. In the frame of the instrument pre-development Leonardo Company (I) has built and tested an elegant breadboard of the instrument consisting of the telescope and the HR spectrometer. The development of the LR spectrometer is in charge of OHB System AG (D) and is currently in the manufacturing phase. The main objectives of the activity are: anticipate the development of the instrument and provide early risk retirement of critical components, evaluate the system performances such as imaging quality parameters, straylight, ghost, polarization sensitivity and environmental influences, verify the adequacy of critical tests such as spectral characterization and straylight, define and optimize instrument alignment procedures. Following a brief overview of the FLEX mission, the paper will cover the design and the development of the optics breadboard with emphasis on the results obtained during the tests and the lessons learned for the flight unit.

  5. "You Know I Hate It when People Half Ass Things": A Case Study of a High School Science Student and the Role of Pre-Instructional Activities, Goal Orientation, and Self-Efficacy in Learning with Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Samuel Arthur

    2010-01-01

    This single subject case study followed a high school student and his use of a simulation of marine ecosystems. The study examined his metaworld, motivation, and learning before, during and after using the simulation. A briefing was conceptualized based on the literature on pre-instructional activities, advance organizers, and performance…

  6. Active pre-filters for dc/dc Boost regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an active pre-filter to mitigate the current harmonics generated by classical dc/dc Boost regulators, which generate current ripples proportional to the duty cycle. Therefore, high output voltage conditions, i.e., high voltage conversion ratios, produce high current harmonics that must be filtered to avoid damage or source losses. Traditionally, these current components are filtered using electrolytic capacitors, which introduce reliability problems because of their high failure rate. The solution introduced in this paper instead uses a dc/dc converter based on the parallel connection of the Boost canonical cells to filter the current ripples generated by the Boost regulator, improving the system reliability. This solution provides the additional benefits of improving the overall efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. Finally, the solution is validated with simulations and experimental results.

  7. Sleep disorders in high school and pre-university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia R.S. Rocha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period in which youngsters have to make choices such as applying for university. The selection process is competitive, and it brings distress and anxiety, risk factors for the appearance of sleep disorders. OBJECTIVE: To verify the occurrence of sleep disorders in third-year high school and pre-university students. METHOD: This cross-sectional descriptive study comprised a sample of 529 students (M=241, F=288 from three public schools, four private schools and two pre-university courses - a middle-class neighborhood in the city of São Paulo - aged between 16 and 19 years old. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI - a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The participants (52.9% took about 30 minutes to fall asleep, with an average of 306.4 minutes asleep, moderate daytime sleepiness (n=243, 45.9% and indisposition (n=402, 75.9% to develop the activities. The scores (M and F were similar regarding problems that affect sleep. CONCLUSION: The investigated population showed sleep disorders and poor sleep quality.

  8. Sleep disorders in high school and pre-university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Célia R S; Rossini, Sueli; Reimão, Rubens

    2010-12-01

    Adolescence is a period in which youngsters have to make choices such as applying for university. The selection process is competitive, and it brings distress and anxiety, risk factors for the appearance of sleep disorders. To verify the occurrence of sleep disorders in third-year high school and pre-university students. This cross-sectional descriptive study comprised a sample of 529 students (M=241, F=288) from three public schools, four private schools and two pre-university courses - a middle-class neighborhood in the city of São Paulo - aged between 16 and 19 years old. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) - a standardized questionnaire. The participants (52.9%) took about 30 minutes to fall asleep, with an average of 306.4 minutes asleep, moderate daytime sleepiness (n=243, 45.9%) and indisposition (n=402, 75.9%) to develop the activities. The scores (M and F) were similar regarding problems that affect sleep. The investigated population showed sleep disorders and poor sleep quality.

  9. Pre-Language Activities for the Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…

  10. Sleep disorders in high school and pre-university students

    OpenAIRE

    Célia R.S. Rocha; Sueli Rossini; Rubens Reimão

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a period in which youngsters have to make choices such as applying for university. The selection process is competitive, and it brings distress and anxiety, risk factors for the appearance of sleep disorders. Objective: To verify the occurrence of sleep disorders in third-year high school and pre-university students. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study comprised a sample of 529 students (M=241, F=288) from three public schools, four private schools and two pre-univer...

  11. Preparation of black soybean (Glycine max L) extract with enhanced levels of phenolic compound and estrogenic activity using high hydrostatic pressure and pre-germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on the estrogenic properties and conversion of the phenolic compounds in germinated black soybean. The black soybean was germinated for two- or four-days, and then subjected to HHP at 0.1, 50, 100, or 150 MPa for 12 or 24 h. The highest total polyphenol content (3.9 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (0.8 mg CE/g), phenolic acid content (940 ± 18.96 μg/g), and isoflavonone content (2600 μg/g) were observed after germination for four days and HHP treatment at 100 MPa for 24 h. In terms of isoflavone composition, the malonyl, acetyl and β-glycoside contents decreased, while the aglycone content increased with HHP. The highest proliferative effect (150%) is observed at four days germination and HHP treatment at 100 MPa. These results suggest that application of HHP may provide useful information regarding the utility of black soybean as alternative hormone replacement therapy.

  12. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria I: one year clinical isolates identification in Tertiary Hospital Aids Reference Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in pre highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Rosa Maria Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM isolates at University Hospital, Reference Center for Aids in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during one year. We used standard biochemical tests for species identification and IS1245 PCR amplification was applied as a Mycobacterium avium specific identification marker. Four hundred and four specimens from 233 patients yielded acid-fast bacilli growth. M. tuberculosis was identified in 85% of the patients and NTM in 15%. NTM disseminated infection was a common event correlated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients and only in HIV negative patients the source of NTM was non sterile site. M. avium complex (MAC was biochemically identified in 57.8% (49/83 of NTM isolates, most of them from sterile sites (75.5%, and in 94% (46/49 the IS 1245 marker specific for M. avium was present. Twenty NTM strains showed a MAC biochemical pattern with the exception of a urease-positive (99% of MAC are urease-negative, however IS1245 was detected in 96% of the strains leading to their identification as M. avium. In this group differences in NTM source was not significant. The second most frequently isolated NTM was identified as M. scrofulaceum (7.2%, followed by M. terrae (3.6%, M. gordonae (2.4%, M. chelonae (1.2%, M. fortuitum (1.2% and one strain which could not be identified. All were IS1245 negative except for one strain identified as M. scrofulaceum. It is interesting to note that non-sterile sites were the major source of these isolates (92.8%. Our finding indicated that M. avium is still the major atypical species among in the MAC isolates recovered from Brazilian Aids patients without highty active antiretroviral therapy schema. Some discrepancies were seen between the identification methods and further investigations must be done to better characterize NTM isolates using other phenotypic and genotypic methods.

  13. Pre-activation of ice-nucleating particles by the pore condensation and freezing mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the resurgence in ice nucleation research a comparatively small number of studies deal with the phenomenon of pre-activation in heterogeneous ice nucleation. Fifty years ago, it was shown that various mineral dust and volcanic ash particles can be pre-activated to become nuclei for ice crystal formation even at temperatures as high as 270–271 K. Pre-activation was achieved under ice-subsaturated conditions without any preceding macroscopic ice growth by just temporarily cooling the particles to temperatures below 228 K. A two-step mechanism involving capillary condensation of supercooled water and subsequent homogeneous freezing was proposed to account for the particles' enhanced ice nucleation ability at high temperatures. This work reinvestigates the efficiency of the proposed pre-activation mechanism in temperature-cycling experiments performed in a large cloud chamber with suspended particles. We find the efficiency to be highest for the clay mineral illite as well as for highly porous materials like zeolite and diatomaceous earth, whereas most aerosols generated from desert dust surface samples did not reveal a measurable pre-activation ability. The pre-activation efficiency is linked to particle pores in a certain size range. As estimated by model calculations, only pores with diameters between about 5 and 8 nm contribute to pre-activation under ice-subsaturated conditions. This range is set by a combination of requirements from the negative Kelvin effect for condensation and a critical size of ice embryos for ice nucleation and melting. In contrast to the early study, pre-activation is only observed for temperatures below 260 K. Above that threshold, the particles' improved ice nucleation ability disappears due to the melting of ice in the pores.

  14. Pre-motor and motor activities in early handwriting

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwieten, Koos Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural studies make use of handwritten letters’ characteristics like strokes, roundedness, etcetera. In consequence, Fisher et al. (2010) studying brain activation during rejected love, noticed typical pre-motor activity patterns, as suggested by irregular writing patterns as well, due to basal ganglia dysfunction (Mergl et al., 2004). A short historical text written in a presumably depressed mood was checked on such characteristics in the light of hypothesised finger-, and hand movement...

  15. Elevated circulating soluble thrombomodulin activity, tissue factor activity and circulating procoagulant phospholipids: new and useful markers for pre-eclampsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Aurélie; Favier, Rémi; Van Dreden, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    One of the most frequently proposed mechanisms for pre-eclampsia refers to uteroplacental thrombosis. However, the contribution of classical thrombotic risk factors remains questionable. The aims of this study were to investigate the activities of thrombomodulin, tissue factor and procoagulant phospholipids to assess endothelial cell injury in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and to compare them with other classical markers of vascular injury and thrombotic risk. Using three new functional assays we studied the plasma levels of these new markers in 35 healthy women, 30 healthy pregnant women, and 35 women with pre-eclampsia. We found that plasma levels of thrombomodulin activity, tissue factor activity and procoagulant phospholipids were significantly elevated in women with pre-eclampsia versus normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. It is thus suggested that elevated levels of these parameters in pre-eclampsia may reflect vascular endothelium damage, and may be a more valuable biomarker than antigen for the assessment of endothelial damage in pre-eclampsia. The high increased levels of procoagulant phospholipids and tissue factor activities in pre-eclampsia could suggest that the procoagulant potential may be implicated in this complication and makes these markers very promising for the understanding, follow-up and therapeutic handling of complicated pregnancy.

  16. Pre-Irradiation Chemotherapy in High Risk Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El-Aal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: The present study evaluates the effect of pre-irradiation chemotherapy in pediatric patients with high risk medulloblastoma. Twenty-four (24) pediatric patients attended the pediatric unit of Kasr-EI-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK) from January 2000 to January 2003. Patients and Methods: Our patients were 13 boys and II girls aged 3-12 years with a median of 6.5 years. According to Chang staging system 6 cases had T2, 14 cases had T3 A and 4 cases had T3 B, 20 cases were M0, 3 cases were M I and I case was M2. All patients were treated by initial surgery, 2 cycles of pre-irradiation chemotherapy followed by craniospinal radiation then by 4 cycles of post-radiation chemotherapy. Results: Fifteen out of the 20 patients with M0 had objective response (10CR + 5PR) and no one had disease progression after pre-irradiation chemotherapy. Among 4 patients with M0 disease, 2 patients had PR and 2 had S.D. There was no disease progression among patients who received pre-irradiation chemotherapy. The 3-year overall survival and 3-year progression-free survival; (PFS) were 50% and 51 %, respectively, Myelosuppression was the main toxic effect observed during pre-irradiation chemotherapy; however, there was no delay or interruption of craniospinal irradiation. Conclusion: Pre-irradiation chemotherapy is effective in high risk medulloblastoma and is associated with acceptable side effects. The delay in craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for about 5 weeks to receive 2 courses of chemotherapy will not significantly increase disease progression. Multiple cycles of post-irradiation chemotherapy can be given safely after C51. A larger number of patients and longer follow-up is needed to confirm the results

  17. Construction environment education development activity for children pre-school

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  18. Examination of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Activities Using Problem Based Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Didem Inel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, both the activities prepared by pre-service science teachers regarding the Problem Based Learning method and the pre-service science teachers' views regarding the method were examined before and after applying their activities in a real class environment. 69 pre-service science teachers studying in the 4th grade of the science…

  19. Why Change to Active Learning? Pre-Service and In-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Audrey; Simmie, Geraldine Mooney; Kennedy, Therese

    2014-01-01

    This article explores pre-service and in-service science teachers' perceptions on active learning, and examines the effectiveness of active learning by pre-service science teachers in the Irish second level classroom through a two-phase study. In the first phase, data on perceptions were gathered from final year pre-service teachers and in-service…

  20. High activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  1. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention

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    Mara eKottlow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health.We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods.Four temporally coherent networks - the default mode network (DMN, the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network - were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks’ pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing.We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be online synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals.

  2. Pre-reading activities in EFL/ESL reading textbooks and Turkish preparatory school teachers' attitudes toward pre-reading activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jecksembieyva, Nurgaisha

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : Faculty of Humanities and Letters and the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 35-40. The main focus of this study was to investigate pre-reading activities in EFL/ESL reading textbooks and to determine teachers' attitudes toward pre-reading activities. Fifteen reading textbooks for EFL/ESL students for different proficiency levels (beginning, interm...

  3. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms

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    Michael Whitacre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.

  4. Dosage of high COD industrial wastewaters as an external carbon source in the pre-denitrification step of activated sludge plants; Utilizzo di reflui industriali a elevato COD come fonte esterna di carbonio in pre-denitrificazione negli impianti a fanghi attivi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertanza, G.; Collivignarelli, C.; Pedrazzani, R. [Brescia Univ., Brescia (Italy). Facolta' di Ingegneria, Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile

    2001-04-01

    In pre-denitrification plants, the organic carbon shortage in the influent wastewater can inhibit the denitrification process. In this case, the dosage of organic substrates can be considered, when the F/M ratio in the nitrification stage is adequate. Beside commonly available substances (acetic acid, methanol etc.) industrial wastewaters can be dosed. This research was aimed to assess the feasibility of this alternative, by testing several industrial wastewaters in addition to real municipal wastewater. The experiment consisted in running a continuous-flow activated sludge pilot plant and in carrying out NUR (Nitrogen Uptake Rate) tests. The studied wastewaters derive from the food industry and, more precisely, from cocoa working and from the cold drink industry. Results were compared with two reference situations (dosage of sodium acetate and of an available organic solution). [Italian] Negli impianti con pre-denitrificazione, il processo di denitrificazione puo' essere inibito dalla carenza di carbonio organico nel liquame influente. Un rimedio (applicabile qualora il carico del fango in nitrificazione sia compatibile) consiste nel dosaggio di substrati carboniosi. Accanto alle soluzioni commercializzate (acido acetico, metanolo, ecc.) e' possibile dosare reflui industriali aventi caratteristiche adeguate. Nel presente studio si e' voluta verificare tale alternativa mediante una sperimentazione svolta su liquame fognario a cui sono stati aggiunti, di volta in volta, diversi substrati carboniosi. Le prove sono state effettuate sia in continuo (mediante l'impiego di un impianto pilota a fanghi attivi) sia in batch (test di NUR - Nitrogen Uptake Rate). I reflui studiati originano dall'industria alimentare, in particolare, dalla laovrazione del cacao e dalla produzione di bevande analcoliche. I risultati sono stati confrontati con due situazioni di riferimento (dosaggio di acetato di sodio e di una soluzione carboniosa disponibile in

  5. High-power pre-chirp managed amplification of femtosecond pulses at high repetition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Jian; Bai, Dongbi; Luo, Daping; Zeng, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond pulses at 250 MHz repetition rate from a mode-locked fiber laser are amplified to high power in a pre-chirp managed amplifier. The experimental strategy offers a potential towards high-power ultrashort laser pulses at high repetition rates. By investigating the laser pulse evolution in the amplification processes, we show that self-similar evolution, finite gain bandwidth and mode instabilities determine pulse characteristics in different regimes. Further average power scaling is limited by the mode instabilities. Nevertheless, this laser system enables us to achieve sub-50 fs pulses with an average power of 93 W. (letter)

  6. Association between maximal hamstring strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Husted, Rasmus; Bencke, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reduced hamstring pre-activity during side-cutting may predispose for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part of ACL injury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong...... hamstring (ACL-agonist) musculature is associated with a high level of hamstring muscle pre-activity during high risk movements such as side-cutting. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hamstring muscle pre-activity recorded during a standardized sidecutting maneuver...... translate into high levels of muscle pre-activity during movements like the sidecutting maneuver. Thus, other exercise modalities (i.e. neuromuscular training) are needed to optimize hamstring muscle pre-activity during movements associated with non-contact ACL injury....

  7. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Scholten, Anne-Marie; de Vries, Sanne I

    2014-05-03

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in terms of physical activity, cognitive and social outcomes. In addition, we aimed to identify which playground characteristics are the strongest correlates of beneficial effects and for which subgroups of children effects are most distinct. In total, 13 experimental and 17 observational studies have been summarized of which 10 (77%) and 16 (94%) demonstrated moderate to high methodological quality, respectively. Nearly all experimental studies (n = 11) evaluated intervention effects on time spent in different levels of physical activity during recess. Research on the effects of (pre)school playgrounds on cognitive and social outcomes is scarce (n = 2). The experimental studies generated moderate evidence for an effect of the provision of play equipment, inconclusive evidence for an effect of the use of playground markings, allocating play space and for multi-component interventions, and no evidence for an effect of decreasing playground density, the promotion of physical activity by staff and increasing recess duration on children's health. In line with this, observational studies showed positive associations between play equipment and children's physical activity level. In contrast to experimental studies, significant associations were also found between children's physical activity and a decreased playground density and increased recess duration. To confirm the findings of this review, researchers are advised to conduct more experimental studies with a randomized controlled design and to incorporate the assessment of implementation strategies and process evaluations to reveal which intervention strategies and playground characteristics are most effective.

  8. C/EBPα Activates Pre-existing and De Novo Macrophage Enhancers during Induced Pre-B Cell Transdifferentiation and Myelopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Oevelen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcription-factor-induced somatic cell conversions are highly relevant for both basic and clinical research yet their mechanism is not fully understood and it is unclear whether they reflect normal differentiation processes. Here we show that during pre-B-cell-to-macrophage transdifferentiation, C/EBPα binds to two types of myeloid enhancers in B cells: pre-existing enhancers that are bound by PU.1, providing a platform for incoming C/EBPα; and de novo enhancers that are targeted by C/EBPα, acting as a pioneer factor for subsequent binding by PU.1. The order of factor binding dictates the upregulation kinetics of nearby genes. Pre-existing enhancers are broadly active throughout the hematopoietic lineage tree, including B cells. In contrast, de novo enhancers are silent in most cell types except in myeloid cells where they become activated by C/EBP factors. Our data suggest that C/EBPα recapitulates physiological developmental processes by short-circuiting two macrophage enhancer pathways in pre-B cells.

  9. Effects of Pre-exhaustion on the Patterns of Muscular Activity in the Flat Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaś, Artur; Maszczyk, Adam; Pietraszewski, Przemyslaw; Stastny, Petr; Tufano, James J; Zając, Adam

    2017-07-01

    Gołaś, A, Maszczyk, A, Pietraszewski, P, Stastny, P, Tufano, JJ, and Zając, A. Effects of pre-exhaustion on the patterns of muscular activity in the flat bench press. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1919-1924, 2017-Pre-exhaustion (PE) has been applied in resistance training (RT) to manipulate the order of performing 2 resistance exercises, a single-joint exercise to momentary exhaustion, followed by a multi-joint movement that includes the same muscle group. This method ensures greater recruitment of muscles or muscle groups in the multi-joint exercise to further increase muscle strength and overcome strength plateaus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle activity by electromyography during high-intensity (95% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) bench press (BP), before and after PE of the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles to determine the effects of PE of the prime movers. Eight healthy athletes, experienced in RT, participated in the study. There were 4 sessions in the experiment. Session 1 was aimed at determination of 1RM during a flat BP. Sessions 2, 3, and 4 consisted of performing a BP after PE of the muscles studied by the incline dumbbell fly, front deltoid raise, and lying triceps extension exercise. Peak concentric TB activation after TB PE (mean ± SD, 147.76 ± 18.6%) was significantly greater by analysis of variance (η = 0.82, F = 5.45, p = 0.004) compared with peak TB activation (114.77 ± 19.4%) before TB PE. The statistical analysis for PM and AD did not show any significant differences. Coaches should not expect the usefulness of PE protocol to elicit higher PM or AD activity or fatigue, but they can use it to increase TB activity before high-intensity BP exercise.

  10. Biological Activity Alterations of Human Amniotic Membrane Pre and Post Irradiation Tissue Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Waleed; Bashandy, A S; Araby, Eman; Khamiss, O

    Innate immunity of Human Amniotic Membrane (HAM) and its highly active secretome that rich with various types of growth factors and anti-inflammatory substances proposed it as a promising material for many medical studies and applications. This study evaluate the biological activity of cultivated HAM pre and post tissue banking process in which freeze-dried HAM was sterilized by 25 KGray (kGy) dose of γ radiation. The HAM's antimicrobial activity, viability, growth of isolated human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs), hematopoietic stimulation of co-cultivated murine bone marrow cells (mammalian model), scaffold efficiency for fish brain building up (non-mammalian model) and self re-epithelialization after trypsin denuding treatment were examined as supposed biological activity features. Native HAM revealed viability indications and was active to kill all tested microorganisms; 6 bacterial species (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative) and Candida albicans as a pathogenic fungus. Also, HAM activity promoted colony formation of murine hematopoietic cells, Tilapia nilotica brain fragment building-up and self re-epithelialization after trypsin treatment. In contrary, radiation-based tissue banking of HAM caused HAM cellular death and consequently lacked almost all of examined biological activity features. Viable HAM was featured with biological activity than fixed HAM prepared by irradiation tissue banking.

  11. Early incorporation of cell-derived cholesterol into pre-beta-migrating high-density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.R.; Fielding, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cultures of human skin fibroblasts were labeled to high cholesterol specific activity with [ 3 H]cholesterol and incubated briefly (1-3 min) with normal human plasma. The plasma was fractionated by two-dimensional agarose-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the early appearance of cholesterol label among plasma lipoproteins determined. A major part of the label at 1-min incubation was in a pre-beta-migrating apo A-I lipoprotein fraction with a molecular weight of ca. 70,000. Label was enriched about 30-fold in this fraction relative to its content of apo A-I (1-2% of total apo A-I). The proportion of label in this lipoprotein was strongly correlated with its concentration in plasma. Further incubation (2 min) in the presence of unlabeled cells demonstrated transfer of label from this fraction to a higher molecular weight pre-beta apo A-I species, to low-density lipoprotein, and to the alpha-migrating apo A-I that made up the bulk (96%) of total apo A-I in plasma. The data suggest that a significant part of cell-derived cholesterol is transferred specifically to a pre-beta-migrating lipoprotein A-I species as part of a cholesterol transport transfer sequence in plasma

  12. Perceptions of Prospective Pre-School Teachers Regarding Children's Right to Participate in Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Nihan; Avci, Neslihan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the behaviours of pre-school teachers working with children aged between 4 and 6 years with regard to their right to participate in classroom activities. In this context, pre-school teacher's negative or positive applications regarding children's participation rights were revealed. Furthermore, preschool teachers'…

  13. The influence of gender on neuromuscular pre-activity during side-cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Zebis, Mette K

    2011-01-01

    investigated. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine gender differences in neuromuscular pre-activity during a maneuver that mimics a movement associated with the incidence of ACL injuries. Twenty-four team handball players (12 male and 12 female) with no history of ACL injury were tested for EMG pre...

  14. Relation of chromospheric activity to convection, rotation, and pre-main-sequence evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliland, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Pre-main-sequence, or T Tauri, stars are characterized by much larger fluxes of nonradiative origin than their main-sequence counterparts. As a class, the T Tauri stars have only moderate rotation rates, making an explanation of their chromospheric properties based on rapid rotation problematic. The recent success of correlating nonradiative fluxes to the Rossby number, Ro = P/sub rot//tau/sub conv/, a central parameter of simple dynamo theories of magnetic field generation, has led to the suggestion that the same relation might be of use in explaining the pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars if tau/sub conv/ is very large. We show that tau/sub conv/ does depend strongly on evolutionary effects above the main sequence (MS), but that this dependence alone cannot account for the high observed nonradiative fluxes. The acoustic flux is also strongly dependent on PMS evolutionary state, and when coupled to the parameterization of magnetic activity based on Ro, these two mechanisms seem capable of explaining the high observed level of chromospheric activity in T Tauri stars. The moment of inertia decreases by two to three order of magnitude during PMS evolution. Since young MS stars do not rotate two to three orders of magnitude faster than PMS stars, rapid loss or redistribution of angular momentum must occur

  15. Evaluation of bias associated with high-multiplex, target-specific pre-amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Okino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel PCR-based pre-amplification (PreAmp technology that can increase the abundance of over 350 target genes one million-fold. To assess potential bias introduced by PreAmp we utilized ERCC RNA reference standards, a model system that quantifies measurement error in RNA analysis. We assessed three types of bias: amplification bias, dynamic range bias and fold-change bias. We show that our PreAmp workflow introduces only minimal amplification and fold-change bias under stringent conditions. We do detect dynamic range bias if a target gene is highly abundant and PreAmp occurred for 16 or more PCR cycles; however, this type of bias is easily correctable. To assess PreAmp bias in a gene expression profiling experiment, we analyzed a panel of genes that are regulated during differentiation using the NTera2 stem cell model system. We find that results generated using PreAmp are similar to results obtained using standard qPCR (without the pre-amplification step. Importantly, PreAmp maintains patterns of gene expression changes across samples; the same biological insights would be derived from a PreAmp experiment as with a standard gene expression profiling experiment. We conclude that our PreAmp technology can facilitate analysis of extremely limited samples in gene expression quantification experiments.

  16. Overview of the testing activities on ITER sub-scale pre-compression rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Capobianchi, Mario; Crescenzi, Fabio; Massimi, Alberto; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pizzuto, Aldo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Knaster, Juan [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115, St. Paul lez Durance (France); Rajainmaki, Hannu [FUSION FOR ENERGY, Josep Pla no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral Edificio B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ENEA developed a high strength glass fiber-epoxy composite for ITER pre-compression rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High UTS values were obtained at RT on linear specimens (2200 MPa) and on scaled ring mock-ups (1550 MPa). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Creep tests showed very low creep strain and creep rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long term tests showed no significant stress relaxation on the ring mock-ups. - Abstract: After a first R and D and testing activity to develop and characterize by tensile and creep tests a high strength glass fiber-epoxy composite as reference material for the manufacture of ITER pre-compression rings, ENEA designed and manufactured a dedicated testing facility and different sub-scale composite ring mock-ups in order to characterize their mechanical properties. The paper reports the results of the overall testing activities performed during the last years on a total number of eleven sub-scale pre-compression ring mock-ups manufactured by winding S2 glass fibers on a diameter of 1 m (1/5 of the full scale) both by vacuum pressure epoxy impregnation (VPI) and filament wet winding techniques (WW). The first three rings were manufactured by ENEA Frascati thanks to a particular VPI technique; one of them was used as base composite material to manufacture different sets of specimens for shear, compression and non destructive tests (NDT). Then, five other mock-ups were manufactured following ENEA VPI process and three using WW technique by two different industrial companies. The rings were tested in ENEA Frascati in a dedicated hydraulic testing machine consisting of 18 radial actuators working in position control with a total load capability of 1000 tons. The complete testing campaign consisted of six ultimate tensile strength (UTS) tests and four stress relaxation (SR) tests. The tests demonstrated that the composite (S2 glass-epoxy) is a valid and viable solution for the ITER pre

  17. Remapping high-capacity, pre-attentive, fragile sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerr, Paul; Gayet, Surya; Mulder, Kees; Pinto, Yaïr; Sligte, Ilja; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-11-21

    Humans typically make several saccades per second. This provides a challenge for the visual system as locations are largely coded in retinotopic (eye-centered) coordinates. Spatial remapping, the updating of retinotopic location coordinates of items in visuospatial memory, is typically assumed to be limited to robust, capacity-limited and attention-demanding working memory (WM). Are pre-attentive, maskable, sensory memory representations (e.g. fragile memory, FM) also remapped? We directly compared trans-saccadic WM (tWM) and trans-saccadic FM (tFM) in a retro-cue change-detection paradigm. Participants memorized oriented rectangles, made a saccade and reported whether they saw a change in a subsequent display. On some trials a retro-cue indicated the to-be-tested item prior to probe onset. This allowed sensory memory items to be included in the memory capacity estimate. The observed retro-cue benefit demonstrates a tFM capacity considerably above tWM. This provides evidence that some, if not all sensory memory was remapped to spatiotopic (world-centered, task-relevant) coordinates. In a second experiment, we show backward masks to be effective in retinotopic as well as spatiotopic coordinates, demonstrating that FM was indeed remapped to world-centered coordinates. Together this provides conclusive evidence that trans-saccadic spatial remapping is not limited to higher-level WM processes but also occurs for sensory memory representations.

  18. Measuring Pre-Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions: Compliance with the High/Scope Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Silvia M.

    2004-01-01

    The research study examined the relationship between pre-kindergarten teachers' age and years of experience with their perceptions and their actual compliance with the norms of the High/Scope Pre-kindergarten Program. Teachers' perceptions of satisfaction with the supervisory relationship were measured by the Early Childhood Job Satisfaction…

  19. Unsupervised classification of neocortical activity patterns in neonatal and pre-juvenile rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eCichon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexible communication within the brain, which relies on oscillatory activity, is not confined to adult neuronal networks. Experimental evidence has documented the presence of discontinuous patterns of oscillatory activity already during early development. Their highly variable spatial and time-frequency organization has been related to region specificity. However, it might be equally due to the absence of unitary criteria for classifying the early activity patterns, since they have been mainly characterized by visual inspection. Therefore, robust and unbiased methods for categorizing these discontinuous oscillations are needed for increasingly complex data sets from different labs. Here, we introduce an unsupervised detection and classification algorithm for the discontinuous activity patterns of rodents during early development. For this, firstly time windows with discontinuous oscillations vs. epochs of network silence were identified. In a second step, the major features of detected events were identified and processed by principal component analysis for deciding on their contribution to the classification of different oscillatory patterns. Finally, these patterns were categorized using an unsupervised cluster algorithm. The results were validated on manually characterized neonatal spindle bursts, which ubiquitously entrain neocortical areas of rats and mice, and prelimbic nested gamma spindle bursts. Moreover, the algorithm led to satisfactory results for oscillatory events that, due to increased similarity of their features, were more difficult to classify, e.g. during the pre-juvenile developmental period. Based on a linear classification, the optimal number of features to consider increased with the difficulty of detection. This algorithm allows the comparison of neonatal and pre-juvenile oscillatory patterns in their spatial and temporal organization. It might represent a first step for the unbiased elucidation of activity patterns

  20. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women....... the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (ptraining intervention reduced body weight (p

  1. Risk activities and pre-travel health seeking practices of notified cases of imported infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash; Raina, C; Zwar, Nicholas; Seale, Holly; Worth, Heather; Sheikh, Mohamud; Heywood, Anita E

    2017-09-01

    Travellers are at risk of acquiring infectious diseases during travel, with risks differing by destination, travel and traveller characteristics. A pre-travel health consultation may minimize this risk. However, uptake of pre-travel health advice remains low. We investigated pre-travel health preparations and disease-specific risk behaviours among notified cases of selected travel-associated infectious diseases imported into Australia. Prospective enhanced surveillance of notified cases of typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya was conducted in two Australian states between February 2013 and January 2014. Details of pre-travel health preparation and disease-specific risk behaviours were collected. Among 180 cases associated with international travel, 28% were travellers and 22% were frequent travellers, having travelled ≥5 times in the past 5 years. 25% had sought pre-travel advice from a healthcare provider, and 16% reported a pre-travel vaccine. Seeking pre-travel health advice did not differ by immigrant status ( P  = 0.22) or by reason for travel ( P  = 0.13) but was more commonly sought by first time travellers ( P  = 0.03). Travellers visiting friends and relatives were more likely to report at-risk activities of brushing teeth with tap water ( P  food ( P  = 0.03) during travel compared to other travellers. Pre-travel health advice seeking practices and vaccine uptake was suboptimal among cases of notified disease. The results of this study highlight the need for a better understanding of barriers to pre-travel health seeking, particularly among high risk travellers, to reduce the importation of infectious diseases into Australia. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Physical Activity and Improvement of Glycaemia in Pre-diabetes by Different Diagnostic Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Kristine; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Brunner, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Context: The effects of physical activity (PA) on improvement of glycaemia may differ between pre-diabetic individuals defined by OGTT versus HbA1c. Objective: We studied the association between PA and improvement of glycaemia in individuals with pre-diabetes defined by glucose versus HbA1c...... criteria. Design, setting and participants: From the Whitehall II study, 957 participants with pre-diabetes defined by isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or both (IFG+IGT), and 457 with pre-diabetes defined by HbA1c were included. Main outcome measures......-up, 405 (42%) individuals with glucose-defined pre-diabetes reverted to NGT. A 5-year increase in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA was associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, but PA was not generally associated with reversion to NGT. Only among women ≥50 years with i...

  3. Low vitamin C intake increases risk of pre-eclampsia in high pesticide exposure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifatul Masrikhiyah

    2016-08-01

    Low vitamin C intake played the most important role toward pre-eclampsia. Greater caution is needed when issuing recommendations regarding the consumption of vitamin supplements in pregnancy, as high doses of some vitamins may be deleterious.

  4. High heat flux tests of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Plankensteiner, A.; Schedler, B.

    2007-01-01

    The high heat flux (HHF) testing of WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements is an indispensable step in the qualification of the manufacturing process. A set of 20 full scale pre-series elements was manufactured by PLANSEE SE to validate the materials and manufacturing technologies prior to the start of the series production. The HHF tests were performed in the ion beam test facility GLADIS. All actively water-cooled elements were tested for about 100 cycles at 10 MW/m 2 (10-15 s pulse duration). Several elements were loaded with even higher cycle numbers (up to 1000) and heat loads up to 24 MW/m 2 . Hot spots were, observed at the edges of several tiles during the HHF tests indicating local bonding problems of the CFC. The thermo-mechanical behaviour under HHF loading has been evaluated and compared to the FEM predictions. The measured temperatures and strains confirm the chosen FEM approach. This allows a component optimisation to achieve a successful series production of the W7-X divertor target elements

  5. High yield silicon carbide pre-ceramic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baney, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Polysilanes which are substituted with (CH 3 ) 3 SiO-groups are useful for the preparation in high yields of fine grained silicon carbide ceramic materials. They consist of 0 to 60 mole % (CH 3 ) 2 Si units and 100 to 40 mole % CH 3 Si units, all Si valences not satisfied by CH 3 groups or Si atoms being directed to groups (CH 3 ) 3 SiO-, which siloxane groups amount to 23 to 61 weight % of the polysilane. They are prepared by reaction of the corresponding chloro- or bromo-methyl polysilanes with at least the stoichiometric amounts of (CH 3 ) 3 SiOSi(CH 3 ) 3 and water in the presence of a strong acid. (author)

  6. Solidification of highly active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.B.

    1986-07-01

    This document contains the annual reports for the contracts: (A) Glass Technology; (B) Calcination of Highly Active Waste Liquors; (C) Formation and Trapping of Volatile Ruthenium; (D) Deposition of Ruthenium; (E) Enhancement of Off-Gas Aerosol Collection; (F) Volatilisation of Cs, Tc and Te in High Level Waste Vitrification. (author)

  7. Levels and predictors of physical activity in a sample of pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack or inadequate physical activity may have dire health implications on both pre-retirement and retired individuals. Previous studies on the socioeconomic and demographic predictors of physical activity in this population may not fully apply in African because most were conducted outside the continent, ...

  8. Pre- and Postnatal Women's Leisure Time Physical Activity Patterns: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Anita G.; Bray, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine women's leisure time physical activity (LTPA) before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and through the first 7 months postnatal. Pre- and postnatal women (n = 309) completed the 12-month Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and demographic information. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate a growth curve…

  9. 76 FR 27044 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA, 15... renovation and remodeling activities of pre-1978 housing and child-occupied facilities in the State of...

  10. Western Canada: high prices, high activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savidant, S

    2000-01-01

    The forces responsible for the high drilling and exploration activity in Western Canada (recent high prices, excess pipeline capacity, and the promise of as yet undiscovered natural gas resources) are discussed. Supply and demand signposts, among them weather impacts, political response by governments, the high demand for rigs and services, the intense competition for land, the scarcity of qualified human resources, are reviewed/. The geological potential of Western Canada, the implications of falling average pool sizes, the industry's ability to catch up to increasing declines, are explored. The disappearance of easy large discoveries, rising development costs involved in smaller, more complex hence more expensive pools are assessed and the Canadian equity and capital markets are reviewed. The predicted likely outcome of all the above factors is fewer players, increasing expectation of higher returns, and more discipline among the remaining players

  11. Daucus aristidis Coss. essential oil: Volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity in pre-flowering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebarka Lamamra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of an Algerian endemic plant, Daucus aristidis Coss. (Apiaceae (D. aristidis (synonym Ammiopsis aristidis Batt. collected in pre-flowering stage in East of Algeria. Methods: The aerial parts of D. aristidis Coss were collected. Essential oil (in pre-flowering stage obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated for the first time by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion method at various dilutions of the oil. Results: The main components of D. aristidis oil in pre-flowering stage were α-pinene (20.13%, cedrol (20.11% and E-asarone (18.53%. D. aristidis oil exhibited an antibacterial activity against almost all the strains tested except for Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 K6 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452 which exhibited a resistance against the oil with all dilutions. Also, the oil of D. aristidis had no activity against all fungi tested. Conclusions: This is the first report on the volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity of D. aristidis in pre-flowering stage. The studied essential oil possesses moderate antibacterial activity against almost all strains tested but no antifungal activity.

  12. The effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Anna Cecilia; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results of laboratory analyses are affected by pre-analytical variables, and in particular can platelets be activated by shear handling stress and secrete granular substances. We therefore evaluated the effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation....... METHODS: Citrate- and EDTA-anticoagulated blood from healthy volunteers were centrifuged at 80-10,000 g for 5-15 min to prepare plasma and platelet-rich plasma. Pre-analytical platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometric measurement of platelet P-selectin (CD62p) expression. Blood cell counts, mean...... of platelets expressing P-selectin in citrate- and EDTA-plasma centrifuged at 2000 g for 10 min were 43% [interquartile range (IQR), 38%-53%] and 56% (IQR, 31%-78%), respectively (p=0.82). Platelet-rich plasma prepared at 100-250 g for 10 min had significantly lower platelet P-selectin expression (11%-15%), p...

  13. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  14. Pre-activation negativity (PrAN in brain potentials to unfolding words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle Söderström

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe an ERP effect termed the ‘pre-activation negativity’ (PrAN, which is proposed to index the degree of pre-activation of upcoming word-internal morphemes in speech processing. Using lexical competition measures based on word-initial speech fragments (WIFs, as well as statistical analyses of ERP data from three experiments, it is shown that the PrAN is sensitive to lexical competition and that it reflects the degree of predictive certainty: the negativity is larger when there are fewer upcoming lexical competitors.

  15. Pre-Activation Negativity (PrAN) in Brain Potentials to Unfolding Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle; Frid, Johan; Roll, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    We describe an event-related potential (ERP) effect termed the "pre-activation negativity" (PrAN), which is proposed to index the degree of pre-activation of upcoming word-internal morphemes in speech processing. Using lexical competition measures based on word-initial speech fragments (WIFs), as well as statistical analyses of ERP data from three experiments, it is shown that the PrAN is sensitive to lexical competition and that it reflects the degree of predictive certainty: the negativity is larger when there are fewer upcoming lexical competitors.

  16. Pre-conceptual design activities for the materials plasma exposure experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsdaine, Arnold; Rapp, Juergen; Varma, Venugopal; Bjorholm, Thomas; Bradley, Craig; Caughman, John; Duckworth, Robert; Goulding, Richard; Graves, Van; Giuliano, Dominic; Lessard, Timothy; McGinnis, Dean; Meitner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The development of long-pulse nuclear fusion devices requires testing plasma facing components at reactor relevant conditions. • The pre-conceptual design of a proposed linear plasma facility is presented. • Engineering considerations for multiple systems—plasma source and heating, magnet, vacuum, water cooling, and target, are presented. - Abstract: The development of next step fusion facilities such as DEMO or a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) requires first closing technology gaps in some critical areas. Understanding the material-plasma interface is necessary to enable the development of divertors for long-pulse plasma facilities. A pre-conceptual design for a proposed steady-state linear plasma device, the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment (MPEX), is underway. A helicon plasma source along with ion cyclotron and electron Bernstein wave heating systems will produce ITER divertor relevant plasma conditions with steady-state parallel heat fluxes of up to 40 MW/m"2 with ion fluxes up to 10"2"4/m"2 s on target. Current plans are for the device to use superconducting magnets to produce 1–2 T fields. As a steady-state device, active cooling will be required for components that interact with the plasma (targets, limiters, etc.), as well as for other plasma facing components (transport regions, vacuum tanks, diagnostic ports). Design concepts for the vacuum system, the cooling system, and the plasma heating systems have been completed. The device will include the capability for handling samples that have been neutron irradiated in order to consider the multivariate effects of neutrons, plasma, and high heat-flux on the microstructure of divertor candidate materials. A vacuum cask, which can be disconnected from the high field environment in order to perform in-vacuo diagnosis of the surface evolution is also planned for the facility.

  17. Pre-conceptual design activities for the materials plasma exposure experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, Arnold, E-mail: lumsdainea@ornl.gov; Rapp, Juergen; Varma, Venugopal; Bjorholm, Thomas; Bradley, Craig; Caughman, John; Duckworth, Robert; Goulding, Richard; Graves, Van; Giuliano, Dominic; Lessard, Timothy; McGinnis, Dean; Meitner, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The development of long-pulse nuclear fusion devices requires testing plasma facing components at reactor relevant conditions. • The pre-conceptual design of a proposed linear plasma facility is presented. • Engineering considerations for multiple systems—plasma source and heating, magnet, vacuum, water cooling, and target, are presented. - Abstract: The development of next step fusion facilities such as DEMO or a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) requires first closing technology gaps in some critical areas. Understanding the material-plasma interface is necessary to enable the development of divertors for long-pulse plasma facilities. A pre-conceptual design for a proposed steady-state linear plasma device, the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment (MPEX), is underway. A helicon plasma source along with ion cyclotron and electron Bernstein wave heating systems will produce ITER divertor relevant plasma conditions with steady-state parallel heat fluxes of up to 40 MW/m{sup 2} with ion fluxes up to 10{sup 24}/m{sup 2} s on target. Current plans are for the device to use superconducting magnets to produce 1–2 T fields. As a steady-state device, active cooling will be required for components that interact with the plasma (targets, limiters, etc.), as well as for other plasma facing components (transport regions, vacuum tanks, diagnostic ports). Design concepts for the vacuum system, the cooling system, and the plasma heating systems have been completed. The device will include the capability for handling samples that have been neutron irradiated in order to consider the multivariate effects of neutrons, plasma, and high heat-flux on the microstructure of divertor candidate materials. A vacuum cask, which can be disconnected from the high field environment in order to perform in-vacuo diagnosis of the surface evolution is also planned for the facility.

  18. Pre-installation empirical testing of room shielding for high dose rate remote afterloaders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, E.E.; Grigsby, P.W.; Williamson, J.F.; Meigooni, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many facilities are acquiring high dose rate remote afterloading units. It is economical that these units be placed in existing shielded teletherapy rooms. Scatter-radiation barriers marginally protect uncontrolled areas from a high dose rate source especially in a room that houses a non-dynamic Cobalt-60 unit. In addition the exact thickness and material composition of the barriers are unknown and therefore, a calculation technique may give misleading results. Also, it would be impossible to evaluate an entire wall barrier by taking isolated core samples in order to assist in the calculations. A quick and inexpensive measurement of dose equivalent using a rented high activity 192Ir source evaluates the barriers and locates shielding deficiencies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed transmission calculations for primary and scattered radiation based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports 49 and 51, respectively. We then rented a high activity 21.7 Ci (8.03 x 10(11) Bq) Ir-192 source to assess our existing teletherapy room shielding for adequacy and voids. This source was placed at the proposed location for clinical high dose rate treatment and measurements were performed. RESULTS: No deficiencies were found in controlled areas surrounding the room, but large differences were found between the calculated and measured values. Our survey located a region in the uncontrolled area above the room requiring augmented shielding which was not predicted by the calculations. A canopy shield was designed to potentially augment the shielding in the ceiling direction. CONCLUSION: Pre-installation testing by measurement is an invaluable method for locating shielding deficiencies and avoiding unnecessary enhancement of shielding particularly when there is lack of information of the inherent shielding

  19. A highly invasive human glioblastoma pre-clinical model for testing therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Brian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models greatly facilitate understanding of cancer and importantly, serve pre-clinically for evaluating potential anti-cancer therapies. We developed an invasive orthotopic human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM mouse model that enables real-time tumor ultrasound imaging and pre-clinical evaluation of anti-neoplastic drugs such as 17-(allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (17AAG. Clinically, GBM metastasis rarely happen, but unexpectedly most human GBM tumor cell lines intrinsically possess metastatic potential. We used an experimental lung metastasis assay (ELM to enrich for metastatic cells and three of four commonly used GBM lines were highly metastatic after repeated ELM selection (M2. These GBM-M2 lines grew more aggressively orthotopically and all showed dramatic multifold increases in IL6, IL8, MCP-1 and GM-CSF expression, cytokines and factors that are associated with GBM and poor prognosis. DBM2 cells, which were derived from the DBTRG-05MG cell line were used to test the efficacy of 17AAG for treatment of intracranial tumors. The DMB2 orthotopic xenografts form highly invasive tumors with areas of central necrosis, vascular hyperplasia and intracranial dissemination. In addition, the orthotopic tumors caused osteolysis and the skull opening correlated to the tumor size, permitting the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to evaluate antitumor drug activity. We show that 17AAG significantly inhibits DBM2 tumor growth with significant drug responses in subcutaneous, lung and orthotopic tumor locations. This model has multiple unique features for investigating the pathobiology of intracranial tumor growth and for monitoring systemic and intracranial responses to antitumor agents.

  20. Pre-Session Satiation as a Treatment for Stereotypy During Group Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia Hoher; Neely, Leslie; Gerow, Stephanie; Lang, Russell; Goodwyn, Fara; Ninci, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities may engage in automatically reinforced behaviors that may interfere with learning opportunities. Manipulation of motivating operations has been shown to reduce automatically maintained behavior in some individuals. Considering behavioral indicators of satiation may assist in identifying the point at which an abolishing operation has begun to effect behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-session satiation of automatic reinforcement on subsequent levels of stereotypy and activity engagement during group activities for three males ages 5 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. Following functional analyses with analogue conditions, an alternating treatment design compared a pre-session access to stereotypy condition with a no-pre-session access condition prior to group activity sessions. Results indicated that pre-session satiation of the putative reinforcer produced by stereotypy was effective in decreasing stereotypy and increasing activity engagement during subsequent group activities for all participants. These findings add to the literature supporting the effectiveness of abolishing operations to decrease automatically maintained stereotypy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Forehearing words: Pre-activation of word endings at word onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Söderström, Pelle; Frid, Johan; Mannfolk, Peter; Horne, Merle

    2017-09-29

    Occurring at rates up to 6-7 syllables per second, speech perception and understanding involves rapid identification of speech sounds and pre-activation of morphemes and words. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the time-course and neural sources of pre-activation of word endings as participants heard the beginning of unfolding words. ERPs showed a pre-activation negativity (PrAN) for word beginnings (first two segmental phonemes) with few possible completions. PrAN increased gradually as the number of possible completions of word onsets decreased and the lexical frequency of the completions increased. The early brain potential effect for few possible word completions was associated with a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast increase in Broca's area (pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus) and angular gyrus of the left parietal lobe. We suggest early involvement of the left prefrontal cortex in inhibiting irrelevant left parietal activation during lexical selection. The results further our understanding of the importance of Broca's area in rapid online pre-activation of words. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PRE-ACTIVITY MODULATION OF LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLES WITHIN DIFFERENT TYPES AND HEIGHTS OF DEEP JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mrdakovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine modulation of pre- activity related to different types and heights of deep jump. Sixteen male soccer players without experience in deep jumps training (the national competition; 15.0 ± 0.5yrs; weight 61.9 ± 6.1kg; height 1.77 ± 0.07m, who participated in the study, performed three types of deep jump (bounce landing, counter landing, and bounce drop jump from three different heights (40cm, 60cm, and 80cm. Surface EMG device (1000Hz was used to estimate muscle activity (maximal amplitude of EMG - AmaxEMG; integral EMG signal - iEMG of five muscles (mm.gastrocnemii, m.soleus, m.tibialis anterior, m.vastus lateralis within 150ms before touchdown. All the muscles, except m. gastrocnemius medialis, showed systematic increase in pre-activity when platform height was raised. For most of the lower extremity muscles, the most significant differences were between values of pre-activity obtained for 40 cm and 80 cm platforms. While the amount of muscle pre-activity in deep jumps from the heights above and beneath the optimal one did not differ significantly from that generated in deep jumps from the optimal drop height of 60 cm, the patterns of muscle pre-activity obtained for the heights above the optimal one did differ from those obtained for the optimal drop height. That suggests that deep jumps from the heights above the optimal one do not seem to be an adequate exercise for adjusting muscle activity for the impact. Muscle pre-activity in bounce drop jumps differed significantly from that in counter landing and bounce landing respectively, which should indicate that a higher amount of pre-activity generated during bounce drop jumps was used for performing take-offs. As this study included the subjects who were not familiar with deep jumps training, the prospective studies should reveal the results of athletes with previous experience

  3. High-resolution Observations of Downflows at One End of a Pre-eruption Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qin; Deng, Na; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin, E-mail: ql47@njit.edu [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Studying the dynamics of filaments at the pre-eruption phase can shed light on the precursor of eruptive events. Such high-resolution studies (of the order of 0.″1) are highly desirable yet very rare. In this work, we present a detailed observation of a pre-eruption evolution of a filament obtained by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). One end of the filament is anchored at the sunspot in the NOAA active region (AR) 11515, which is well observed by NST H α off-bands from four hours before to one hour after the filament eruption. A M1.6 flare is associated with the eruption. We observed persistent downflowing materials along the H α multi-threaded component of the loop toward the AR end during the pre-eruption phase. We traced the trajectories of plasma blobs along the H α threads and obtained a plane-of-sky velocity of 45 km s{sup −1} on average. Furthermore, we estimated the real velocities of the downflows and the altitude of the filament by matching the observed H α threads with magnetic field lines extrapolated from a nonlinear force-free field model. Observations of chromospheric brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma blobs are also presented. The lower limit of the kinetic energy per second of the downflows through the brightenings is found to be ∼10{sup 21} erg. Larger FOV observations from BBSO full-disk H α images show that the AR end of the filament started ascending four hours before the flare. We attribute the observed downflows at the AR end of the filament to the draining effect of the filament rising prior to its eruption. During the slow-rise phase, the downflows continuously drained away ∼10{sup 15}g mass from the filament over a few hours, which is believed to be essential for the instability, and could be an important precursor of eruptive events.

  4. Prediction signatures in the brain: Semantic pre-activation during language comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Maess

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is broad agreement that context-based predictions facilitate lexical-semantic processing. A robust index of semantic prediction during language comprehension is an evoked response, known as the N400, whose amplitude is modulated as a function of semantic context. However, the underlying neural mechanisms that utilize relations of the prior context and the embedded word within it are largely unknown. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG data while participants were listening to simple German sentences in which the verbs were either highly predictive for the occurrence of a particular noun (i.e., provided context or not. The identical set of nouns was presented in both conditions. Hence, differences for the evoked responses of the nouns can only be due to differences in the earlier context. We observed a reduction of the N400 response for highly predicted nouns. Interestingly, the opposite pattern was observed for the preceding verbs: Highly predictive (that is more informative verbs yielded stronger neural magnitude compared to less predictive verbs. A negative correlation between the N400 effect of the verb and that of the noun was found in a distributed brain network, indicating an integral relation between the predictive power of the verb and the processing of the subsequent noun. This network consisted of left hemispheric superior and middle temporal areas and a subcortical area; the parahippocampus. Enhanced activity for highly predictive relative to less predictive verbs, likely reflects establishing semantic features associated with the expected nouns, that is a pre-activation of the expected nouns.

  5. Platelets retain high levels of active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helén Brogren

    Full Text Available The vascular fibrinolytic system is crucial for spontaneous lysis of blood clots. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, the principal inhibitor of the key fibrinolytic enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, is present in platelets at high concentrations. However, the majority of PAI-1 stored in platelets has been considered to be inactive. Our recent finding (Brogren H, et al. Blood 2004 that PAI-1 de novo synthesized in platelets remained active for over 24 h, suggested that PAI-1 stored in the α-granules might be active to a larger extent than previously reported. To re-evaluate this issue, we performed experiments where the fraction of active PAI-1 was estimated by analyzing the tPA-PAI-1 complex formation. In these experiments platelets were lysed with Triton X-100 in the presence of serial dilutions of tPA and subsequently the tPA-PAI-1 complex was evaluated by Western blot. Also, using a non-immunologic assay, tPA was labeled with (125I, and (125I-tPA and (125I-tPA-PAI-1 was quantified by scintigraphy. Interestingly, both methods demonstrated that the majority (>50% of platelet PAI-1 is active. Further analyses suggested that pre-analytical procedures used in previous studies (sonication or freezing/thawing may have substantially reduced the activity of platelet PAI-1, which has lead to an underestimation of the proportion of active PAI-1. Our in vitro results are more compatible with the role of PAI-1 in clot stabilization as demonstrated in physiological and pathophysiological studies.

  6. Building an Understanding of Functions: A Series of Activities for Pre-Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Olivia M.

    2008-01-01

    Building block toys can be used to illustrate various concepts connected with functions including graphs and rates of change of linear and exponential functions, piecewise functions, and composition of functions. Five brief activities suitable for a pre-calculus course are described.

  7. The association between leisure time physical activity in the year before pregnancy and pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Bent; Hedegaard, M

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the association between leisure time physical activity in the year before pregnancy and pre-eclampsia, stratifying for maternal BMI, a prospective study was carried out from 1996 to 1998. Pregnant women attending their first antenatal care visit, were invited to participate...

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Learning Styles and Preferences towards Instructional Technology Activities and Collaborative Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…

  9. Development of an Eccentric CAM Based Active Pre-Alignment System for the CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, F; Collette, C; Mainaud Durand, H; Hauviller, C; Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R

    2010-01-01

    CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) is a study for a future electron-positron collider that would allow physicists to explore a new energy region beyond the capabilities of today's particle accelerators. The demanding transverse and vertical beam sizes and emittance specifications are resulting in stringent alignment and a nanometre stability requirement. In the current feasibility study, the main beam quadrupole magnets have to be actively pre-aligned with a precision of 1 µm in 5 degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) before being mechanically stabilized to the nm scale above 1 Hz. This contribution describes the approach of performing this active pre-alignment based on an eccentric cam system. In order to limit the amplification of the vibration sources at resonant frequencies a sufficiently high Eigenfrequency is required. Therefore the contact region between cam and support was optimized for adequate stiffness based on the Hertzian theory. Furthermore, practical tests performed on a single degree of freedom mock-up wil...

  10. Discrimination between pre-seismic electromagnetic anomalies and solar activity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouras, G.; Balasis, G.; Kiourktsidis, I.; Nannos, E.; Kontakos, K.; Stonham, J.; Ruzhin, Y.; Eftaxias, K.; Cavouras, D.; Nomicos, C.

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that electromagnetic emissions in a wide frequency spectrum ranging from kilohertz (kHz) to very high megahertz (MHz) frequencies are produced by the opening of microcracks, with the MHz radiation appearing earlier than the kHz radiation. Earthquakes are large-scale fracture phenomena in the Earth's heterogeneous crust. Thus, the radiated kHz-MHz electromagnetic emissions are detectable not only in the laboratory but also at a geological scale. Clear MHz-to-kHz electromagnetic anomalies have been systematically detected over periods ranging from a few days to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. We should bear in mind that whether electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes exist is an important question not only for earthquake prediction but mainly for understanding the physical processes of earthquake generation. An open question in this field of research is the classification of a detected electromagnetic anomaly as a pre-seismic signal associated with earthquake occurrence. Indeed, electromagnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of MHz are known to be related to a few sources, including atmospheric noise (due to lightning), man-made composite noise, solar-terrestrial noise (resulting from the Sun-solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere-Earth's surface chain) or cosmic noise, and finally, the lithospheric effect, namely pre-seismic activity. We focus on this point in this paper. We suggest that if a combination of detected kHz and MHz electromagnetic anomalies satisfies the set of criteria presented herein, these anomalies could be considered as candidate precursory phenomena of an impending earthquake.

  11. Discrimination between pre-seismic electromagnetic anomalies and solar activity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulouras, G; Kiourktsidis, I; Stonham, J; Balasis, G; Nannos, E; Kontakos, K; Nomicos, C; Ruzhin, Y; Eftaxias, K; Cavouras, D

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that electromagnetic emissions in a wide frequency spectrum ranging from kilohertz (kHz) to very high megahertz (MHz) frequencies are produced by the opening of microcracks, with the MHz radiation appearing earlier than the kHz radiation. Earthquakes are large-scale fracture phenomena in the Earth's heterogeneous crust. Thus, the radiated kHz-MHz electromagnetic emissions are detectable not only in the laboratory but also at a geological scale. Clear MHz-to-kHz electromagnetic anomalies have been systematically detected over periods ranging from a few days to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. We should bear in mind that whether electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes exist is an important question not only for earthquake prediction but mainly for understanding the physical processes of earthquake generation. An open question in this field of research is the classification of a detected electromagnetic anomaly as a pre-seismic signal associated with earthquake occurrence. Indeed, electromagnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of MHz are known to be related to a few sources, including atmospheric noise (due to lightning), man-made composite noise, solar-terrestrial noise (resulting from the Sun-solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere-Earth's surface chain) or cosmic noise, and finally, the lithospheric effect, namely pre-seismic activity. We focus on this point in this paper. We suggest that if a combination of detected kHz and MHz electromagnetic anomalies satisfies the set of criteria presented herein, these anomalies could be considered as candidate precursory phenomena of an impending earthquake.

  12. 75 FR 6383 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied....C. 2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section... TSCA, and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA...

  13. Is administered radioiodine activity appropriate? The effects of pre- treatment antithyroid drugs on the therapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanayakkara, D.; Udugama, C.; Perera, K.; Herath, S.

    2007-01-01

    initiation of thyroxine replacement. Statistical analysis was done by chi -squared test. A total 297- thyrotoxic patients were treated with RAI during this period. There were 101 GD and 196 TMND patients in this study. Of the GD patients 90% had become hypothyroid, 10% had become euthyroid and none was persistently toxic at one year. On the other hand patient TMND, 30% had become hypothyroid, 66% had become euthyroid and 4% remained persistently toxic at one year. This result showed that GD received activity of 400mBq of RAI had a high frequency of hypothyroidism at one year. Patients with TMND received 550 mBq of RAI showed a high frequency of euthyroidism with less number of hypothyroidism and with few cases of persistent thyrotoxicosis. The rate of RAI induced hypothyroidism between GD and TMND was significant (P< 0.001) in spite of high activity received by the TMND patients than for GD. Table 1.0 Effects of ATD on the RAI Therapy out come at one year GD (n=101) TMND (n=196) 400mBq 550mBq RAI only RAI+ATD RAI only RAI+ATD (n=45) (n=56) (n=49) (n=147) Hypothyroid % 90 91 75 41 Euthyroid % 10 9 21 42 Toxic % 0 0 4 17 Table 1.0 shows effects of ATD on the RAI Therapy out come at one year. In GD patients there was no outcome difference between those who received RAI only and RAI and pre therapy ATD. However, TMND patients who received RAI and pre therapy ATD showed decreased response to the RAI therapy dose compared to the RAI only group. These data demonstrated; 1. 400mBq of RAI is ablative for majority of GD at one year. 2. 550mBq of RAI is nearly optimal for majority of TMND at one year at the expense of few persistent thyrotoxicosis. 3. Pre therapy ATD has no major effects on the RAI therapy outcome in patients with GD 4. Pre therapy ATD has reduced the outcome of RAI therapy dose in patients with TMND 5. Fixed dose RAI regimen recommended by the RCP guideline showed high rate of hypothyroidism in both GD and TMND at 1 year than expected. Close follow- up is important

  14. The role of physical activity in pre-service teachers’ subjective vitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Bora Özkara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present study, subjective vitality considered to be one of the contributions provided by participation in physical activity is examined on a sample of pre-service teachers. When teachers who are important part of education system are healthy and fit, it will help to build future generations. Materials: The research was conducted in the city of Trabzon, located in the northeastern region of Turkey. The sample of the study is composed of 328 last grade pre-service teachers (133 women, 195 men, age: 23.14 ± 2.62 studying at Karadeniz Technical University in the academic year of 2015-2016. Data was collected through Childhood and Adolescence Physical Activity Levels Questionnaire, Subjective Vitality Scale, and a personal information form asking for information about gender, doing sports as a certified sportsman/woman and department. Results: The research results yielded a significant difference between subjective vitality levels of those who do sports as a certified sportsman/woman and those who do not, and between pre-service teachers of physical education and those of other departments (p<0,01. There was also a positive and low-level significant relationship between subjective vitality and physical activity experiences of pre-service teachers (r= .23; p<0.01. However, subjective vitality did not differ significantly by gender. Conclusions: The research results seem to support other studies that reveal social and psychological contributions provided by participation in physical activity. Therefore, participation in physical activity seems to have positive effects on the subjective vitality of pre-service teachers.

  15. Determination of iodine in diverse botanical and dietary matrices by pre-irradiation combustion followed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.R.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1994-01-01

    The method chosen for determination of iodine in this investigation is an extension of an existing analytical technique to food samples which was developed for environmental samples. The method is based on pre-irradiation combustion of the sample to liberate iodine, trapping the iodine on charcoal, and quantitating the element by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Existing botanical and dietary reference materials were used to check the validity of the method. Several mixed diet samples with high fat content from the U.S. Total Diet Study and composites of cereals with both low and high iodine content were analyzed. This method of pre-irradiation combustion followed by NAA has been shown to be a viable technique for the determination of iodine in dietary samples. However, with a detection limit of about 50 ng of iodine, large amounts of sample (> 1 g) are typically required for each determination. (orig.)

  16. Effect of cyclic pre-strain on low cycle fatigue life at middle high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Motoki; Kanno, Satoshi; Takagi, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of cyclic plastic pre-strain on low cycle fatigue life at middle high temperature to evaluate the structural integrity of the nuclear components introduced plastic strain to the local portion by the large seismic load. The materials selected in this study were austenitic steel (SUS316NG) and ferritic steel (SFVQ1A, STS410: JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards). The low cycle fatigue tests at RT and middle high temperature (300 degrees C) were carried out using cyclic plastic pre-strained materials. The results obtained here show that the damage by the cyclic plastic pre-strain, which is equivalent to usage factor UF=0.2, does not affect the fatigue lives of the materials. In addition, it is confirmed that the estimation based on the usage factor UF can also be useful for the life prediction at 300 degrees C as well as RT. (author)

  17. Pre-Activity and Post-Activity Stretching Perceptions and Practices in NCAA Division I Volleyball Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Bellar, David; Bottone, Adam; Wanless, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if NCAA Division I women's volleyball programs were in compliance with suggested current pre- and post-activity stretching protocols. Questionnaires were sent to NCAA division I women's volleyball programs in the United States. Fifty six coaches (23 males & 33 females) participated in the study. Some…

  18. Pre-transplant soluble CD30 in combination with total DSA but not pre-transplant C1q-DSA predicts antibody-mediated graft loss in presensitized high-risk kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, S M; Süsal, C; Opelz, G; Döhler, B; Becker, L E; Klein, K; Sickmüller, S; Waldherr, R; Macher-Goeppinger, S; Schemmer, P; Beimler, J; Zeier, M; Morath, C

    2016-02-01

    Presensitized kidney transplant recipients are at high-risk for early antibody-mediated rejection. We studied the impact of pre- and post-transplant donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) and T-cell-activation on the occurrence of antibody-mediated rejection episodes (AMR) and graft loss (AMR-GL) in a unique cohort of 80 desensitized high-risk kidney transplant recipients. Patients with pre-transplant DSA demonstrated more AMR episodes than patients without DSA, but did not show a significantly increased rate of AMR-GL. The rates of AMR and AMR-GL were not significantly increased in patients with complement split product (C1q)-binding pre-transplant DSA. Pre-transplant C1q-DSA became undetectable post-transplant in 11 of 13 (85%) patients; 2 (18%) of these 11 patients showed AMR but no AMR-GL. In contrast, the post-transplant presence of C1q-DSA was associated with significantly higher rates of AMR (86 vs 33 vs 0%; P transplant DSA without C1q-binding or the absence of DSA. Patients with both pre-transplant DSA and evidence of pre-transplant T-cell-activation as indicated by soluble CD30-positivity showed a significantly increased risk for AMR-GL [HR = 11.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.68-73.4; log-rank P = 0.013]. In these high-risk patients, AMR-GL was associated with total DSA in combination with T-cell-activation pre-transplant, and de novo or persistent C1q-binding DSA post-transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Voltage pre-regulator without insulation with high efficiency; Pre-regulador de tension sin aislamiento con alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ramos, Octaviano

    2003-04-15

    Nowadays there are problems caused by the inadequate and inefficient use of the electrical energy in the supplying systems, these problems are becoming more complicated with the passage of time, due to the proliferation of electronic equipment that does not incorporate some solutions to such problems. This has originated a tendency towards the development of systems that process with higher efficiency ({eta}) the electrical energy. In addition of making good use of the energy, they are designed so that they can correct the power factor (PF) and therefore reduce the contamination of harmonics in the network; which causes faults or destruction in other electronic equipment. Additionally it is possible to design them to obtain a good dynamic response, which assures that they can efficiently counteract load changes. The non-lineal characteristic that is present in all of the power supplies, which base its entrance on a rectification and filtration stage and, causes a low power factor (PF) and a high total harmonic distortion (THD). The factor is to contaminate the electric network, which can cause faults or breakdowns of other equipment. Since approximately 15 years the concern for solving this problem of the inadequate use of the energy has been taking importance, developing converters that correct the PF (pre-regulator) and that traditionally are connected in cascade with the typical stage of conversion of direct current to direct current (DC-DC) used to regulate the voltage; this solution has a low efficiency ({eta}) and high cost, by the excess of components connected in cascade. Nevertheless the dynamic response (DR) is adequate since it counts with separate stages for the correction of the PF and the regulation. From a revision of the state-of-the-art, in this thesis a new topology of pre-regulator for power supplies with a high efficiency is presented ({eta}), due to a novel strategy of managing the energy; also it corrects the PF. This represents an advance

  20. Effect of pre-acclimation of granular activated carbon on microbial electrolysis cell startup and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarge, Nicole; Yilmazel, Yasemin Dilsad; Hong, Pei-Ying; Logan, Bruce E

    2017-02-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can generate methane by fixing carbon dioxide without using expensive catalysts, but the impact of acclimation procedures on subsequent performance has not been investigated. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to pre-enrich electrotrophic methanogenic communities, as GAC has been shown to stimulate direct transfer of electrons between different microbial species. MEC startup times using pre-acclimated GAC were improved compared to controls (without pre-acclimation or without GAC), and after three fed batch cycles methane generation rates were similar (P>0.4) for GAC acclimated to hydrogen (22±9.3nmolcm -3 d -1 ), methanol (25±9.7nmolcm -3 d -1 ), and a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mix (22±11nmolcm -3 d -1 ). However, MECs started with GAC but no pre-acclimation had lower methane generation rates (13±4.1nmolcm -3 d -1 ), and MECs without GAC had the lowest rates (0.7±0.8nmolcm -3 d -1 after cycle 2). Microbes previously found in methanogenic MECs, or previously shown to be capable of exocellular electron transfer, were enriched on the GAC. Pre-acclimation using GAC is therefore a simple approach to enrich electroactive communities, improve methane generation rates, and decrease startup times in MECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactivity evaluation method for pre-packed concrete packages of low-level dry active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshiaki; Funahashi, Tetsuo; Watabe, Kiyomi; Ozawa, Yukitoshi; Kashiwagi, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    Low-level dry active wastes of nuclear power plants are grouted with cement mortal in a container and planned to disposed into the shallow land disposal site. The characteristics of radionuclides contained in dry active wastes are same as homogeneous solidified wastes. In the previous report, we reported the applicability of the radioactivity evaluation methods established for homogeneous solidified wastes to pre-packed concrete packages. This report outlines the developed radioactivity evaluation methods for pre-packed concrete packages based upon recent data. Since the characteristics of dry active wastes depend upon the plant system in which dry active wastes originate and the types of contamination, sampling of wastes and activity measurement were executed to derive scaling factors. The radioactivity measurement methods were also verified. The applicability of non-destructive methods to measure radioactivity concentration of pre-packed concrete packages was examined by computer simulation. It is concluded that those methods are accurate enough to measure actual waste packages. (author)

  2. Beyond the magic number four: Remapping high-capacity, pre-attentive, fragile working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerr, P.; Gayet, S.; Mulder, K.T.; Sligte, I.G.; Stigchel, S. van der

    2017-01-01

    Visual short term memory allows us to access visual information after termination of its retinal input. Generally, a distinction is made between a robust, capacity-limited form (working memory, WM) and high-capacity, pre-attentive, maskable forms (sensory memory, e.g. fragile memory, FM). Eye

  3. Proposal for an alignment method of the CLIC linear accelerator - From geodesic networks to the active pre-alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touze, T.

    2011-01-01

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is the particle accelerator project proposed by the european organization for nuclear research (CERN) for high energy physics after the large hadron collider (LHC). Because of the nano-metric scale of the CLIC leptons beams, the emittance growth budget is very tight. It induces alignment tolerances on the positions of the CLIC components that have never been achieved before. The last step of the CLIC alignment will be done according to the beam itself. It falls within the competence of the physicists. However, in order to implement the beam-based feedback, a challenging pre-alignment is required: 10 μm at 3σ along a 200 m sliding window. For such a precision, the proposed solution must be compatible with a feedback between the measurement and repositioning systems. The CLIC pre-alignment will have to be active. This thesis does not demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC active pre-alignment but shows the way to the last developments that have to be done for that purpose. A method is proposed. Based on the management of the Helmert transformations between Euclidean coordinate systems, from the geodetic networks to the metrological measurements, this method is likely to solve the CLIC pre-alignment problem. Large scale facilities have been built and Monte-Carlo simulations have been made in order to validate the mathematical modeling of the measurement systems and of the alignment references. When this is done, it will be possible to extrapolate the modeling to the entire CLIC length. It will be the last step towards the demonstration of the CLIC pre-alignment feasibility. (author)

  4. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  5. A simple assessment of physical activity is associated with obesity and motor fitness in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Otmar; Bolte, Gabriele; Morlock, Gabriele; Rückinger, Simon; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2009-08-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated. Survey, cross-sectional. Weight and height were measured in 12,556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004-5 and 2005-6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity. The mean age of the children evaluated was 5.78 (sd 0.43) years, 6535 (52.1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.786, 95 % CI 0.687, 0.898) or obese (OR = 0.655, 95 % CI 0.506, 0.849) and achieved 6.7 (95 % CI 5.8, 7.7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables. Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.

  6. Thermal activation and radiation quenching effects in pre-dose dating of porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weida; Xia Junding

    2005-01-01

    The pre-dose technique is very useful for thermoluminescence dating of porcelain. It incorporates two characteristics in the porcelain dating, i.e. thermal activation and radiation quenching. Two methods, activation method and quenching method, for evaluation of paleodose were introduced. The results show that activation method and quenching method one suitable for dating of lower limit age (less than 100 years B.P.) and upper limit age (greater than 1000 years B.P.), respectively. When both methods are co-used, the dating will be more accurate. (authors)

  7. HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL MODIFIERS FOR PRODUCTION OF CONCRETES WITH PRE-SET PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya Vladimirovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the application of industrial by-products and recycled materials. Waterproofing admixtures improve the structure and the properties of the cement stone. Development and preparation of highly effective waterproofing modifiers of durable effect, as well as development of the process procedure parameters, including mixing, activation, heat treatment, etc. are to be implemented. The composition of waterproofing modifiers is to be fine-tuned to synergize the behaviour of various ingredients of cement systems to assure the substantial improvement of their strength, freeze- and corrosion resistance. Multi-functional waterproofing admixtures were used to produce highly effective modified concretes. The key idea of the new method of modifying cement-based building materials is that the waterproofing admixture concentration is to exceed 10% of the weight of the binding agent within the per-unit weight of the cement stone, given that its strength does not deteriorate. GKM-type modifier coupled with organo-mineral waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M may be recommended for mass use in the manufacturing of hydraulic concrete and reinforced concrete products. Overview of their practical implementation has proven that waterproofing modifier GKM-S, if coupled with waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M, improves the corrosion control inside the cement stone and makes it possible to manufacture durable concrete and reinforced concrete products that demonstrate pre-set physical and processing behaviour. Comprehensive concrete modification by modifier GKM-S and waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M may be regarded as one of the most ambitious methods of production of highly effective waterproof concretes.

  8. Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tranchina Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pre-exercise high energy drink on reaction time and anaerobic power in competitive strength/power athletes. In addition, the effect of the pre-exercise drink on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus was also explored. Methods Twelve male strength/power athletes (21.1 ± 1.3 y; 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; 88.6 ± 12.1 kg; 17.6 ± 3.3% body fat underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory and were provided with either 120 ml of a high energy drink (SUP, commercially marketed as Redline Extreme® or 120 ml of a placebo (PL that was similar in taste and appearance but contained no active ingredients. Following consumption of the supplement or placebo subjects rested quietly for 10-minutes prior to completing a survey and commencing exercise. The survey consisted of 4 questions asking each subject to describe their feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus for that moment. Following the completion of the questionnaire subjects performed a 2-minute quickness and reaction test on the Makoto testing device (Makoto USA, Centennial CO and a 20-second Wingate Anaerobic Power test. Following a 10-minute rest subjects repeated the testing sequence and after a similar rest period a third and final testing sequence was performed. The Makoto testing device consisted of subjects reacting to both a visual and auditory stimulus and striking one out of 30 potential targets on three towers. Results Significant difference in reaction performance was seen between SUP and PL in both average number of targets struck (55.8 ± 7.4 versus 51.9 ± 7.4, respectively and percent of targets struck (71.9 ± 10.5% versus 66.8 ± 10.9%, respectively. No significant differences between trials were seen in any anaerobic power measure. Subjective feelings of energy (3.5 ± 0

  9. Compressive pre-stress effects on magnetostrictive behaviors of highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia R. Downing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Ga (Galfenol and Fe-Al (Alfenol are rare-earth-free magnetostrictive alloys with mechanical robustness and strong magnetoelastic coupling. Since highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets along orientations have been developed with magnetostrictive performances of ∼270 ppm and ∼160 ppm, respectively, they have been of great interest in sensor and energy harvesting applications. In this work, we investigate stress-dependent magnetostrictive behaviors in highly textured rolled sheets of NbC-added Fe80Al20 and Fe81Ga19 alloys with a single (011 grain coverage of ∼90%. A compact fixture was designed and used to introduce a uniform compressive pre-stress to those thin sheet samples along a [100] direction. As compressive pre-stress was increased to above 100 MPa, the maximum observed magnetostriction increased 42% in parallel magnetostriction along the stress direction, λ//, in highly textured (011 Fe81Ga19 thin sheets for a compressive pre-stress of 60 MPa. The same phenomena were observed for (011 Fe80Al20 (maximum increase of 88% with a 49 MPa compressive stress. This trend is shown to be consistent with published results on the effect of pre-stress on magnetostriction in rods of single crystal and textured polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloy of similar compositions, and single crystal data gathered using our experimental set up. Interestingly, the saturating field (Hs does not vary with pre-stresses, while the saturating field in rod-shaped samples of Fe-Ga increases with an increase of pre-stress. This suggests that for a range of compressive pre-stresses, thin sheet samples have larger values of d33 transduction coefficients and susceptibility than rod-shaped samples of similar alloy compositions, and hence they should provide performance benefits when used in sensor and actuator device applications. Thus, we discuss potential reasons for the unexpected trends in Hs with pre-stress, and present preliminary results from tests conducted

  10. The virtual library in action: Collaborative international control of high-energy physics pre-print

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitz, P.A.; Addis, L.; Galic, H.; Johnson, T.

    1996-02-01

    This paper will discuss how control of the grey literature in high-energy physics pre-prints developed through a collaborative effort of librarians and physicists. It will highlight the critical steps in the development process and describe one model of a rapidly evolving virtual library for high-energy physics information. In conclusion, this paper will extend this physics model to other areas of grey literature management

  11. Static stretching does not alter pre and post-landing muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Wesley R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Static stretching may result in various strength and power deficiencies. Prior research has not determined, however, if static stretching causes a change in muscle activation during a functional task requiring dynamic stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if static stretching has an effect on mean pre and postlanding muscle (vastus medialis VM, vastus lateralis VL, medial hamstring MH, and biceps femoris BF activity. Methods 26 healthy, physically active subjects were recruited, from which 13 completed a 14-day static stretching regimen for the quadriceps and hamstrings. Using the data from the force plate and EMG readings, a mean of EMG amplitude was calculated for 150 msec before and after landing. Each trial was normalized to an isometric reference position. Means were calculated for the VM, VL, MH, and BF from 5 trials in each session. Measures were collected pre, immediately following the 1st stretching session, and following 2 weeks of stretching. Results A 14-day static stretching regimen resulted in no significant differences in pre or postlanding mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing either acutely or over a 14-day period. Conclusions Static stretching, done acutely or over a 14-day period does not result in measurable differences of mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing. Static stretching may not impede dynamic stability of joints about which stretched muscles cross.

  12. Impact of Educational Activities in Reducing Pre-Analytical Laboratory Errors: A quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaithi, Hamed; Pathare, Anil; Al-Mamari, Sahimah; Villacrucis, Rodrigo; Fawaz, Naglaa; Alkindi, Salam

    2017-08-01

    Pre-analytic errors during diagnostic laboratory investigations can lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to ascertain the effect of educational nursing activities on the incidence of pre-analytical errors resulting in non-conforming blood samples. This study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2015. All specimens received at the Haematology Laboratory of the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, during this period were prospectively collected and analysed. Similar data from 2007 were collected retrospectively and used as a baseline for comparison. Non-conforming samples were defined as either clotted samples, haemolysed samples, use of the wrong anticoagulant, insufficient quantities of blood collected, incorrect/lack of labelling on a sample or lack of delivery of a sample in spite of a sample request. From 2008 onwards, multiple educational training activities directed at the hospital nursing staff and nursing students primarily responsible for blood collection were implemented on a regular basis. After initiating corrective measures in 2008, a progressive reduction in the percentage of non-conforming samples was observed from 2009 onwards. Despite a 127.84% increase in the total number of specimens received, there was a significant reduction in non-conforming samples from 0.29% in 2007 to 0.07% in 2015, resulting in an improvement of 75.86% ( P educational activities directed primarily towards hospital nursing staff had a positive impact on the quality of laboratory specimens by significantly reducing pre-analytical errors.

  13. Non-invasive pre-lens tear film assessment with high-speed videokeratoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens-Quintana, Clara; Mousavi, Maryam; Szczesna-Iskander, Dorota; Iskander, D Robert

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of two types of daily contact lenses (delefilcon A and omafilcon A) on the tear film and establish whether it is dependent on pre-corneal tear film characteristics using a new method to analyse high-speed videokeratoscopy recordings, as well as to determine the sensitivity of the method in differentiating between contact lens materials on eye. High-speed videokeratoscopy recordings were analysed using a custom made automated algorithm based on a fractal dimension approach that provides a set of parameters directly related to tear film stability. Fifty-four subjects participated in the study. Baseline measurements, in suppressed and natural blinking conditions, were taken before subjects were fitted with two different daily contact lenses and after four hours of contact lens wear. The method for analysing the stability of the tear film provides alternative parameters to the non-invasive break up time to assess the quality of the pre-corneal and pre-lens tear film. Both contact lenses significantly decreased the quality of the tear film in suppressed and natural blinking conditions (pfilm characteristics were not correlated with the decrease in pre-lens tear film quality. High-speed videokeratoscopy equipped with an automated method to analyse the dynamics of the tear film is able to distinguish between contact lens materials in vivo. Incorporating the assessment of pre-lens tear film to the clinical practice could aid improving contact lens fitting and understand contact lens comfort. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SONO-OXIDATIVE PRE-TREATMENT OF WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE BEFORE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Şahinkaya

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of sonication, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4 oxidation and their simultaneous combination (called "sono-oxidative pre-treatment" on chemical properties and anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS were investigated and compared comprehensively. Based on chemical parameters, the optimum operating conditions were found to be 0.3 g K2FeO4/g total solids (TS dosage for 2-h individual K2FeO4 oxidation, 0.50 W/mL ultrasonic power density for 10-min individual sonication and, lastly, the combination of 2.5-min sonication at 0.75 W/mL ultrasonic power density with 2-h chemical oxidation at 0.3 g K2FeO4/g TS dosage for sono-oxidative pre-treatment. The disintegration efficiencies of these methods under the optimized conditions were in the following descending order: 37.8% for sono-oxidative pre-treatment > 26.3% for sonication > 13.1% for K2FeO4 oxidation. The influences of these methods on anaerobic biodegradability were tested with the biochemical methane potential assay. It was seen that the cumulative methane production increased by 9.2% in the K2FeO4 oxidation reactor, 15.8% in the sonicated reactor and 18.6% in the reactor with sono-oxidative pre-treatment, compared to the control (untreated reactor.

  15. Outcomes of Nulliparous Women with Spontaneous Labor Onset Admitted to Hospitals in Pre-active versus Active Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre-active

  16. Simulations of iron K pre-edge X-ray absorption spectra using the restricted active space method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meiyuan; Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Delcey, Mickaël G; Pinjari, Rahul V; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-01-28

    The intensities and relative energies of metal K pre-edge features are sensitive to both geometric and electronic structures. With the possibility to collect high-resolution spectral data it is important to find theoretical methods that include all important spectral effects: ligand-field splitting, multiplet structures, 3d-4p orbital hybridization, and charge-transfer excitations. Here the restricted active space (RAS) method is used for the first time to calculate metal K pre-edge spectra of open-shell systems, and its performance is tested against on six iron complexes: [FeCl6](n-), [FeCl4](n-), and [Fe(CN)6](n-) in ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The method gives good descriptions of the spectral shapes for all six systems. The mean absolute deviation for the relative energies of different peaks is only 0.1 eV. For the two systems that lack centrosymmetry [FeCl4](2-/1-), the ratios between dipole and quadrupole intensity contributions are reproduced with an error of 10%, which leads to good descriptions of the integrated pre-edge intensities. To gain further chemical insight, the origins of the pre-edge features have been analyzed with a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture that serves as a bridge between the spectra and the electronic structures. The pre-edges contain information about both ligand-field strengths and orbital covalencies, which can be understood by analyzing the RAS wavefunction. The RAS method can thus be used to predict and rationalize the effects of changes in both the oxidation state and ligand environment in a number of hard X-ray studies of small and medium-sized molecular systems.

  17. Promoting Diversity in STEM through Active Recruiting and Mentoring: The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) at the University of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Binder, Breanna; Tremmel, Michael; Garofali, Kristen; Agol, Eric; Meadows, Victoria

    2015-11-01

    The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) is a research and mentoring program for underclassmen and transfer students offered by the University of Washington Astronomy Department since 2005. The primary goal of Pre-MAP is to recruit and retain students from groups traditionally underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through early exposure to research. The Pre-MAP seminar is the core component of the program and offers instruction in computing skills, data manipulation, science writing, statistical analysis, and scientific speaking and presentation skills. Students choose research projects proposed by faculty, post-docs and graduate students in areas related to astrophysics, planetary science, and astrobiology. Pre-MAP has been successful in retaining underrepresented students in STEM fields relative to the broader UW population, and we've found these students are more likely to graduate and excel academically than their peers. As of spring 2015, more than one hundred students have taken the Pre-MAP seminar, and both internal and external evaluations have shown that all groups of participating students report an increased interest in astronomy and science careers at the end of the seminar. Several former Pre-MAP students have obtained or are pursuing doctoral and master’s degrees in STEM fields; many more work at NASA centers, teaching colleges, or as engineers or data analysts. Pre- MAP student research has produced dozens of publications in peer-reviewed research journals. This talk will provide an overview of the program: the structure of the seminar, examples of projects completed by students, cohort-building activities outside the seminar, funding sources, recruitment strategies, and the aggregate demographic and achievement data of our students. It is our hope that similar programs may be adopted successfully at other institutions.

  18. Quality properties of pre- and post-rigor beef muscle after interventions with high frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Anita L; Mawson, Raymond; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2014-11-01

    The delivery of a consistent quality product to the consumer is vitally important for the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for using high frequency ultrasound applied to pre- and post-rigor beef muscle on the metabolism and subsequent quality. High frequency ultrasound (600kHz at 48kPa and 65kPa acoustic pressure) applied to post-rigor beef striploin steaks resulted in no significant effect on the texture (peak force value) of cooked steaks as measured by a Tenderometer. There was no added benefit of ultrasound treatment above that of the normal ageing process after ageing of the steaks for 7days at 4°C. Ultrasound treatment of post-rigor beef steaks resulted in a darkening of fresh steaks but after ageing for 7days at 4°C, the ultrasound-treated steaks were similar in colour to that of the aged, untreated steaks. High frequency ultrasound (2MHz at 48kPa acoustic pressure) applied to pre-rigor beef neck muscle had no effect on the pH, but the calculated exhaustion factor suggested that there was some effect on metabolism and actin-myosin interaction. However, the resultant texture of cooked, ultrasound-treated muscle was lower in tenderness compared to the control sample. After ageing for 3weeks at 0°C, the ultrasound-treated samples had the same peak force value as the control. High frequency ultrasound had no significant effect on the colour parameters of pre-rigor beef neck muscle. This proof-of-concept study showed no effect of ultrasound on quality but did indicate that the application of high frequency ultrasound to pre-rigor beef muscle shows potential for modifying ATP turnover and further investigation is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Behaviour of a pre-stressed concrete pressure-vessel subjected to a high temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, F.

    1965-01-01

    After a review of the problems presented by pressure-vessels for atomic reactors (shape of the vessel, pressures, openings, foundations, etc.) the advantages of pre-stressed concrete vessels with respect to steel ones are given. The use of pre-stressed concrete vessels however presents many difficulties connected with the properties of concrete. Thus, because of the absence of an exact knowledge of the material, it is necessary to place a sealed layer of steel against the concrete, to have a thermal insulator or a cooling circuit for limiting the deformations and stresses, etc. It follows that the study of the behaviour of pre-stressed concrete and of the vessel subjected- to a high temperature gradient can yield useful information. A one-tenth scale model of a pre-stressed concrete cylindrical vessel without any side openings and without a base has been built. Before giving a description of the tests the authors consider some theoretical aspects concerning 'scale model-actual structure' similitude conditions and the calculation of the thermal and mechanical effects. The pre-stressed concrete model was heated internally by a 'pyrotenax' element and cooled externally by a very strong air current. The concrete was pre-stressed using horizontal and vertical cables held at 80 kg/cm 2 ; the thermal gradient was 160 deg. C. During the various tests, measurements were made of the overall and local deformations, the changes in water content, the elasticity modulus, the stress and creep of the cables and the depths of the cracks. The overall deformations observed are in line with thermal deformation theories and the creep of the cables attained 20 to 30 per cent according to their position relative to the internal surface. The dynamic elasticity modulus decreased by half but the concrete keeps its good mechanical properties. Finally, cracks 8 to 12 cm deep and 2 to 3 mms wide appeared in that part of the concrete which was not pre-stressed. The results obtained make it

  20. Effect of pre-acclimation of granular activated carbon on microbial electrolysis cell startup and performance

    KAUST Repository

    LaBarge, Nicole

    2016-09-09

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can generate methane by fixing carbon dioxide without using expensive catalysts, but the impact of acclimation procedures on subsequent performance has not been investigated. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to pre-enrich electrotrophic methanogenic communities, as GAC has been shown to stimulate direct transfer of electrons between different microbial species. MEC startup times using pre-acclimated GAC were improved compared to controls (without pre-acclimation or without GAC), and after three fed batch cycles methane generation rates were similar (P > 0.4) for GAC acclimated to hydrogen (22 ± 9.3 nmol cm− 3 d− 1), methanol (25 ± 9.7 nmol cm− 3 d− 1), and a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mix (22 ± 11 nmol cm− 3 d− 1). However, MECs started with GAC but no pre-acclimation had lower methane generation rates (13 ± 4.1 nmol cm− 3 d− 1), and MECs without GAC had the lowest rates (0.7 ± 0.8 nmol cm− 3 d− 1 after cycle 2). Microbes previously found in methanogenic MECs, or previously shown to be capable of exocellular electron transfer, were enriched on the GAC. Pre-acclimation using GAC is therefore a simple approach to enrich electroactive communities, improve methane generation rates, and decrease startup times in MECs. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Prediction of novel pre-microRNAs with high accuracy through boosting and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Yang, Yifan; Zhang, Huan; Jiang, Xiaohua; Xu, Bo; Xue, Yu; Cao, Yunxia; Zhai, Qian; Zhai, Yong; Xu, Mingqing; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-05-15

    High-throughput deep-sequencing technology has generated an unprecedented number of expressed short sequence reads, presenting not only an opportunity but also a challenge for prediction of novel microRNAs. To verify the existence of candidate microRNAs, we have to show that these short sequences can be processed from candidate pre-microRNAs. However, it is laborious and time consuming to verify these using existing experimental techniques. Therefore, here, we describe a new method, miRD, which is constructed using two feature selection strategies based on support vector machines (SVMs) and boosting method. It is a high-efficiency tool for novel pre-microRNA prediction with accuracy up to 94.0% among different species. miRD is implemented in PHP/PERL+MySQL+R and can be freely accessed at http://mcg.ustc.edu.cn/rpg/mird/mird.php.

  2. Level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre-school children in their ordinary lives

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    and keywords The level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre- school children in their ordinary lives. The diploma thesis deals with the issue of movement activity of pre-school children. Movement activities are vital part of healthy life, especially for children. It should be an essential part of every activity, no matter if it is sport, game, relaxation or just a walk to school. It should be a common part of every pre-school child daily programme. The ac...

  3. Use of pre-pulse in laser spot welding of materials with high optical reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, Ihor; Geiger, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Laser micro welding has become a standard manufacturing technique, particularly in industry sectors, such as automotive and aerospace electronics or medical devices, where the requirements for strength, miniaturization and temperature resistance are constantly rising. So far the use of laser micro welding is limited due to the fluctuation of the quality of the welded joints, because the welding results for material with high optical reflection and thermal conductivity, such as copper and copper alloys, depend very strongly on the condition of the material surface. This paper presents investigations on the use of a laser pre-pulse in spot welding of electronic materials with Nd:YAG laser. In order to achieve reproducible joining results two strategies are followed-up. The first one utilizes a reflection-based process control for measuring the reflection during the short pre-pulse. The intensity of the reflected light is used to calculate an appropriated welding pulse power, which corresponds to the measured relative absorption. Adjustment of laser parameters according to the condition of the surface is done in real time before laser main pulse. A second possibility for the stabilization of copper welding is the employment of a short and powerful laser pre-pulse before laser main pulse. This pre-pulse affects the workpiece surface and creates more reproducible absorption conditions for the main pulse, independent from the initial situation on material surface.

  4. The effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Anna C; Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Christian; Vinholt, Pernille J

    2016-12-01

    The results of laboratory analyses are affected by pre-analytical variables, and in particular can platelets be activated by shear handling stress and secrete granular substances. We therefore evaluated the effect of centrifugation speed and time on pre-analytical platelet activation. Citrate- and EDTA-anticoagulated blood from healthy volunteers were centrifuged at 80-10,000 g for 5-15 min to prepare plasma and platelet-rich plasma. Pre-analytical platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometric measurement of platelet P-selectin (CD62p) expression. Blood cell counts, mean platelet volume (MPV), immature platelet fraction (IPF), and platelet distribution width (PDW) were measured. Platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma induced by arachidonic acid (AA), ADP or thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 (TRAP) was tested by 96-well aggregometry. The median percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin in citrate- and EDTA-plasma centrifuged at 2000 g for 10 min were 43% [interquartile range (IQR), 38%-53%] and 56% (IQR, 31%-78%), respectively (p=0.82). Platelet-rich plasma prepared at 100-250 g for 10 min had significantly lower platelet P-selectin expression (11%-15%), pcentrifuged. In platelet-rich plasma, increasing centrifugation speed significantly increased platelet yield but decreased contamination from other blood cells, platelet composition was altered as platelet parameters (MPV, IPF, and PDW) was lowered. Platelet aggregation was not affected by the centrifugation speed platelet-rich plasma was prepared. Proportional to centrifugation speed, platelets in plasma and platelet-rich plasma were activated with centrifugation speed, cell content and composition changed while platelet aggregation was unaltered.

  5. Potentiated virucidal activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE and punicalagin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV when co-administered with zinc (II ions, and antiviral activity of PRE against HSV and aciclovir-resistant HSV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M J Houston

    Full Text Available There is a clinical need for new therapeutic products against Herpes simplex virus (HSV. The pomegranate, fruit of the tree Punica granatum L, has since ancient times been linked to activity against infection. This work probed the activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE and co-administered zinc (II ions.PRE was used in conjunction with zinc (II salts to challenge HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant HSV in terms of virucidal plaque assay reduction and antiviral activities in epithelial Vero host cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay using a commercial kit.Zinc sulphate, zinc citrate, zinc stearate and zinc gluconate demonstrated similar potentiated virucidal activity with PRE against HSV-1 by up to 4-fold. A generally parabolic relationship was observed when HSV-1 was challenged with PRE and varying concentrations of ZnSO4, with a maximum potentiation factor of 5.5. Punicalagin had 8-fold greater virucidal activity than an equivalent mass of PRE. However, antiviral data showed that punicalagin had significantly lower antiviral activity compared to the activity of PRE (EC50 = 0.56 μg mL-1 a value comparable to aciclovir (EC50 = 0.18 μg mL-1; however, PRE also demonstrated potency against aciclovir-resistant HSV (EC50 = 0.02 μg mL-1, whereas aciclovir showed no activity. Antiviral action of PRE was not influenced by ZnSO4. No cytotoxicity was detected with any test solution.The potentiated virucidal activity of PRE by coadministered zinc (II has potential as a multi-action novel topical therapeutic agent against HSV infections, such as coldsores.

  6. SUPPORT OF PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises

  7. Correlation of Managers' Value Systems and Students' Moral Development in High Schools and Pre-University Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamid Reza; Rahimipoor, Tahereh

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand the managers' value system, the students' moral development, and their relationship in the high schools and pre-universities of District One in Kerman City. The research method used was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population was composed of high school and pre-university managers and…

  8. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka Palanivel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015. Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity. From the results of the study it is understood that Stoechospermum marginatum contain a high amount of carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber and phytonutrients like tannin, flavonoid, saponin, alkaloid, terpenoids, steroid and total phenolic content. The physicochemical properties namely Water absorption and Swelling power were very promising. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity was recorded to be high in both aqueous and ethanol extracts of eight hour extraction than in extracts taken from six hours extraction. Antioxidant activity was detected using DPPH, FRAP, beta carotene scavenging and H2O2 assay and found to have a high radical scavenging activity. Stoechospermum marginatum possess a valuable amount of total phenolic content and other phytonutrients and physicochemical properties, it may the reason for the potential inhibition of alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase and antioxidant activity. It is concluded from the study that the brown algae may be incorporated into foods to enhance their nutritional and therapeutic value.

  9. Pre-oxidation and its effect on reducing high-temperature corrosion of superheater tubes during biomass firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Kvisgaard, M.; Montgomery, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Superheater tubes in biomass-fired power plants experience high corrosion rates due to condensation of corrosive alkali chloride-rich deposits. To explore the possibility of reducing the corrosion attack by the formation of an initial protective oxide layer, the corrosion resistance of pre......-oxidised Al and Ti-containing alloys (Kanthal APM and Nimonic 80A, respectively) was investigated under laboratory conditions mimicking biomass firing. The alloys were pre-oxidised at 900°C for 1 week. Afterwards, pre-oxidised samples, and virgin non-pre-oxidised samples as reference, were coated...... with a synthetic deposit of KCl and exposed at 560°C for 1 week to a gas mixture typical of biomass firing. Results show that pre-oxidation could hinder the corrosion attack; however, the relative success was different for the two alloys. While corrosion attack was observed on the pre-oxidised Kanthal APM, the pre...

  10. Effect of pre-acclimation of granular activated carbon on microbial electrolysis cell startup and performance

    KAUST Repository

    LaBarge, Nicole; Yilmazel, Yasemin Dilsad; Hong, Pei-Ying; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    ) was used to pre-enrich electrotrophic methanogenic communities, as GAC has been shown to stimulate direct transfer of electrons between different microbial species. MEC startup times using pre-acclimated GAC were improved compared to controls (without pre

  11. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  12. Exploring Indigenous Game-Based Physics Activities in Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptual Change and Transformation of Epistemic Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz Escaño

    2017-01-01

    "Laro-ng-Lahi" (Indigenous Filipino game) based physics activities invigorated the integration of culture in the pre-service physics education to develop students' epistemic beliefs and the notion of conceptual understanding through conceptual change. The study conveniently involved 28 pre-service undergraduate physics students enrolled…

  13. Relative validity of the pre-coded food diary used in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Gille, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Trine Holmgaard

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative validity of the pre-coded food diary applied in the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity. Design: A cross-over study among seventy-two adults (aged 20 to 69 years) recording diet by means of a pre-coded food diary over 4 d and a 4 d...

  14. 75 FR 39524 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied... pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA, 15 U.S.C. 2686(b). This... and child-occupied facilities in the State of Oregon. Individuals and firms falling under the North...

  15. ERECTA signaling controls Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture through chromatin-mediated activation of PRE1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hanyang; Zhao, Lihua; Wang, Lulu; Zhang, Man; Su, Zhenxia; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Heming; Qin, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Flowering plants display a remarkable diversity in inflorescence architecture, and pedicel length is one of the key contributors to this diversity. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the receptor-like kinase ERECTA (ER) mediated signaling pathway plays important roles in regulating inflorescence architecture by promoting cell proliferation. However, the regulating mechanism remains elusive in the pedicel. Genetic interactions between ERECTA signaling and the chromatin remodeling complex SWR1 in the control of inflorescence architecture were studied. Comparative transcriptome analysis was applied to identify downstream components. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and nucleosome occupancy was further investigated. The results indicated that the chromatin remodeler SWR1 coordinates with ERECTA signaling in regulating inflorescence architecture by activating the expression of PRE1 family genes and promoting pedicel elongation. It was found that SWR1 is required for the incorporation of the H2A.Z histone variant into nucleosomes of the whole PRE1 gene family and the ERECTA controlled expression of PRE1 gene family through regulating nucleosome dynamics. We propose that utilization of a chromatin remodeling complex to regulate gene expression is a common theme in developmental control across kingdoms. These findings shed light on the mechanisms through which chromatin remodelers orchestrate complex transcriptional regulation of gene expression in coordination with a developmental cue. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. CLIC main beam quadrupole active pre-alignment based on cam movers

    CERN Document Server

    Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R; Mainaud Durand, H; Sandomierski, J; Sosin, M

    2012-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a study for a future 48 km long linear electron-positron collider in the multi TeV range. Its target luminosity can only be reached if the main beam quadrupoles (MB quads) are actively pre-aligned within 17 µm in sliding windows of 200 m with respect to a straight reference line. In addition to the positioning requirement, the pre-alignment system has to provide a rigid support for the nano-stabilization system to ensure that the first eigenfrequency is above 100 Hz. Re-adjustment based on cam movers was chosen for detailed studies to meet the stringent pre-alignment requirements. There are four different types of MB quads in CLIC. Their lengths and masses vary so that at least two types of cam movers have to be developed. The validation of the cams with less stringent space restrictions has proceeded to a test setup in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF). Prototypes of the more demanding, smaller cams have been manufactured and they are under tests in 1 DOF. This paper describes the...

  17. An Evaluation Method for Activation Analysis using Pre-evaluated Contribution of Nuclides with Impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gee Suck [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclides in radiation facilities become unstable from nuclear reaction. It emits residual radiation to be stable. Some unstable nuclides remain after operation in the material. It continuously emits the radiation, which has a harmful effect to worker when they try maintenance and plant decommissioning. It is known that residual radiation from impurity occupies a large portion of the radiation dose. If impurity concentration is higher than expectation, the effects of residual radiation could be underestimated. Therefore, estimation of residual radiation is repeatedly calculated according to impurity concentration. In this study, an approach estimating the activation was proposed using pre-evaluated nuclide's contribution to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker. In this study, in order to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker, activation analysis method based on pre-evaluated nuclide contribution was proposed. This method was verified using concreate activation problem, which is located in nuclear power plant. The results show that our proposed method has good agreement with Bateman equation.

  18. Na-ion capacitor using sodium pre-doped hard carbon and activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuratani, Kentaro; Yao, Masaru; Senoh, Hiroshi; Takeichi, Nobuhiko; Sakai, Tetsuo; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    We assembled a sodium-ion capacitor (Na-IC) by combining sodium pre-doped hard carbon (HC) as the negative- and activated carbon (AC) as the positive-electrode. The electrochemical properties were compared with two lithium-ion capacitors (Li-ICs) in which the negative electrodes were prepared with Li pre-doped HC and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB). The positive and negative electrodes were prepared using the established doctor blade method. The negative electrodes were galvanostatically pre-doped with Na or Li to 80% of the full capacity of carbons. The potential of the negative electrodes after pre-doping was around 0.0 V vs. Na/Na + or Li/Li + , which resulted in the higher output potential difference of the Na-IC and Li-ICs than that of the conventional electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) because AC positive electrode works in the same principle both in the ion capacitors and in the EDLC. The state-of-charge of the negative electrode varied 80 ± 10% during the electrochemical charging and discharging. The capacity of the cell was evaluated using galvanostatic charge–discharge measurement. At the discharge current density of 10 mA cm −2 , the Na-IC maintained 70% of the capacity that obtained at the current density of 0.5 mA cm −2 , which was comparable to the Li-ICs. At 50 mA cm −2 , the capacities of the Li-IC(MCMB) and the Na-IC dropped to 20% whereas the Li-IC(HC) retained 30% of the capacity observed at 0.5 mA cm −2 . The capacities of the Na-IC and Li-ICs decreased by 9% and 3%, respectively, after 1000 cycles of charging and discharging.

  19. Integration of educational methods and physical settings: design guidelines for High/Scope methodology in pre-schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Izadpanah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality design and appropriate space organization in preschool settings can support preschool children's educational activities. Although the relationship between the well-being and development of children and physical settings has been emphasized by many early childhood researchers, there is still a need for theoretical design guidelines that are geared towards the improvement of this issue. This research focuses on High/Scope education and aims to shape a theoretical guideline that raises teachers' awareness about the potential of learning spaces and guides them to improve the quality of the physical spaces. To create a theoretical framework, reliable sources are investigated in the light of High/Scope education and the requirements of pre-school children educational spaces. Physical space characteristics, the preschool child's requirements and High/Scope methodology identified design inputs, design considerations and recommendations that shape the final guideline for spatial arrangement in a High/Scope setting are integrated. Discussions and suggestions in this research benefit both designers and High/ Scope teaching staff. Results help High/Scope teaching staff increase the quality of a space in an educational setting without having an architectural background. The theoretical framework of the research allows designers to consider key features and users' possible activities in High/ Scope settings and shape their designs accordingly.

  20. Effect of pre-strain on susceptibility of Indian Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel to hydrogen embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonak, Sagar; Tiwari, Abhishek; Jain, Uttam; Keskar, Nachiket; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Ram N.; Dey, Gautam K.

    2015-01-01

    The role of pre-strain on hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of Indian Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel was investigated using constant nominal strain-rate tension test. The samples were pre-strained to different levels of plastic strain and their mechanical behavior and mode of fracture under the influence of hydrogen was studied. The effect of plastic pre-strain in the range of 0.5–2% on the ductility of the samples was prominent. Compared to samples without any pre-straining, effect of hydrogen was more pronounced on pre-strained samples. Prior deformation reduced the material ductility under the influence of hydrogen. Up to 35% reduction in the total strain was observed under the influence of hydrogen in pre-strained samples. Hydrogen charging resulted in increased occurrence of brittle zones on the fracture surface. Hydrogen Enhanced Decohesion (HEDE) was found to be the dominant mechanism of fracture.

  1. Pre-coating of LSCM perovskite with metal catalyst for scalable high performance anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir

    2013-07-01

    In this work, a highly scalable technique is proposed as an alternative to the lab-scale impregnation method. LSCM-CGO powders were pre-coated with 5 wt% of Ni from nitrates. After appropriate mixing and adequate heat treatment, coated powders were then dispersed into organic based vehicles to form a screen-printable ink which was deposited and fired to form SOFC anode layers. Electrochemical tests show a considerable enhancement of the pre-coated anode performances under 50 ml/min wet H2 flow with polarization resistance decreased from about 0.60cm2 to 0.38 cm2 at 900 C and from 6.70 cm2 to 1.37 cm2 at 700 C. This is most likely due to the pre-coating process resulting in nano-scaled Ni particles with two typical sizes; from 50 to 200 nm and from 10 to 40 nm. Converging indications suggest that the latter type of particle comes from solid state solution of Ni in LSCM phase under oxidizing conditions and exsolution as nanoparticles under reducing atmospheres. Copyright © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High pre-transplant soluble CD30 levels are predictive of the grade of rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakariar, Ravindra; Jivanji, Naina; Varagunam, Mira; Rafiq, Mohammad; Gupta, Arun; Sheaff, Michael; Sinnott, Paul; Yaqoob, M M

    2005-08-01

    In renal transplantation, serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels in graft recipients are associated with increased rejection and graft loss. We investigated whether pre-transplant sCD30 concentrations are predictive of the grade of rejection. Pre-transplant sera of 51 patients with tubulointerstitial rejection (TIR), 16 patients with vascular rejection (VR) and an age-matched control group of 41 patients with no rejection (NR) were analyzed for sCD30. The transplant biopsies were immunostained for C4d. The median sCD30 level was significantly elevated in the group with VR (248 Units (U)/mL, range: 92-802) when compared with TIR (103 U/mL, range: 36-309, psCD30 levels compared to NR. Based on C4d staining, a TH2 driven process, the median sCD30 levels were significantly raised in C4d+ patients compared with C4d- group (177 U/mL vs. 120 U/mL, psCD30 levels measured at time of transplantation correlate with the grade of rejection. High pre-transplant levels are associated with antibody-mediated rejection which carries a poorer prognosis. sCD30 could be another tool to assess immunological risk prior to transplantation and enable a patient centered approach to immunosuppression.

  3. Radiation Simulations and Development of Concepts for High Power Beam Dumps, Catchers and Pre-separator Area Layouts for the Fragment Separators for RIA

    CERN Document Server

    Ronningen, Reginald; Beene, James R; Blideanu, Valetin; Boles, Jason; Bollen, Georg; Burgess, Thomas; Carter, Ken; Conner, David L; Gabriel, Tony A; Geissel, Hans; Gomes, Itacil C; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Iwase, Hiroshi; Lawton, Don; Levand, Anthony; Mansur, Louis; Momozaki, Yoichi; Morrissey, David; Nolen, Jerry; Reed, Claude; Remec, Igor; Rennich, Mark; Reyes, Susana; Sherrill, Bradley; Stein, Werner; Stoyer, Mark; Stracener, Dan; Wendel, Mark; Zeller, Al

    2005-01-01

    The development of high-power beam dumps and catchers, and pre-separator layouts for proposed fragment separators of the Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility are important in realizing how to handle the 400 kW in the primary beam. We will present examples of pre-conceptual designs of beam dumps, fragment catchers, and the pre-separator layout. We will also present examples of ongoing work on radiation simulations using the heavy-ion-transport code PHITS, characterizing the secondary radiation produced by the high-power ion beams interacting with these devices. Results on radiation heating of targets, magnet coils, associated hardware and shielding, component activation, and levels of radiation dose will be presented. These initial studies will yield insight into the impact of the high-power dissipation on fragment separator design, remote handling concepts, nuclear safety and potential facility hazard classification, shielding design, civil construction design, component design, and material choices. Furth...

  4. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: 'Advanced science research' (Pre-review report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Advanced Science Research' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for prior assessment of 'Advanced Science Research,' in accordance with 'General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program and activities of the Advanced Science Research Center (hereinafter referred to as 'ASRC') for the period of five years from April 2010. The Committee evaluated the management and the research program of the ASRC based on the explanatory documents prepared by the ASRC and the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director and the research group leaders. This report summarizes the result of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached from page 7. (author)

  5. Adsorption of lignocelluloses of model pre-hydrolysis liquor on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Pedram; Ryan, Jennifer; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the adsorption behavior of various components dissolved in the pre-hydrolysis of kraft process on activated carbon. In this work, model prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) solutions (MPHL)s were prepared via mixing various commercially available monosugars, xylan, lignin and furfural; and their adsorption performance on activated carbon (AC) was investigated. In singular (one component) MPHL/AC systems, furfural had the maximum and xylose had the minimum adsorption, and the adsorption of monosugars was basically similar on AC. Also, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was added (0.5 g/l) to singular xylan or lignin MPHL/AC system, which increased the lignin and xylan adsorptions to 350 and 190 mg/g on AC, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pre-amplification in the context of high-throughput qPCR gene expression experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korenková, Vlasta; Scott, J.; Novosadová, Vendula; Jindřichová, Marie; Langerová, Lucie; Švec, David; Šídová, Monika; Sjoback, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 5 (2015) ISSN 1471-2199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08239S; GA ČR GA13-02154S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : High-throughput qPCR * Gene expression * Exponential pre-amplification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2015

  7. NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Susan K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The new Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards should be part of every school district's repertoire of standards to ensure that the learning needs of advanced students are being met. "NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services" details six standards that…

  8. Automated cleaning and pre-processing of immunoglobulin gene sequences from high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri eMichaeli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing (HTS yields tens of thousands to millions of sequences that require a large amount of pre-processing work to clean various artifacts. Such cleaning cannot be performed manually. Existing programs are not suitable for immunoglobulin (Ig genes, which are variable and often highly mutated. This paper describes Ig-HTS-Cleaner (Ig High Throughput Sequencing Cleaner, a program containing a simple cleaning procedure that successfully deals with pre-processing of Ig sequences derived from HTS, and Ig-Indel-Identifier (Ig Insertion – Deletion Identifier, a program for identifying legitimate and artifact insertions and/or deletions (indels. Our programs were designed for analyzing Ig gene sequences obtained by 454 sequencing, but they are applicable to all types of sequences and sequencing platforms. Ig-HTS-Cleaner and Ig-Indel-Identifier have been implemented in Java and saved as executable JAR files, supported on Linux and MS Windows. No special requirements are needed in order to run the programs, except for correctly constructing the input files as explained in the text. The programs' performance has been tested and validated on real and simulated data sets.

  9. Soil Microbial Activity Responses to Fire in a Semi-arid Savannah Ecosystem Pre- and Post-Monsoon Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, J. R.; Raub, H. D.; Jong, E. L.; Muscarella, C. R.; Smith, W. K.; Gallery, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) of soil microorganisms can act as important proxies for nutrient limitation and turnover in soil and provide insight into the biochemical requirements of microbes in terrestrial ecosystems. In semi-arid ecosystems, microbial activity is influenced by topography, disturbances such as fire, and seasonality from monsoon rains. Previous studies from forest ecosystems show that microbial communities shift to similar compositions after severe fires despite different initial conditions. In semi-arid ecosystems with high spatial heterogeniety, we ask does fire lead to patch intensification or patch homogenization and how do monsoon rains influence the successional trajectories of microbial responses? We analyzed microbial activity and soil biogeochemistry throughout the monsoon season in paired burned and unburned sites in the Santa Rita Experimental Range, AZ. Surface soil (5cm) from bare-ground patches, bole, canopy drip line, and nearby grass patches for 5 mesquite trees per site allowed tests of spatiotemporal responses to fire and monsoon rain. Microbial activity was low during the pre-monsoon season and did not differ between the burned and unburned sites. We found greater activity near mesquite trees that reflects soil water and nutrient availability. Fire increased soil alkalinity, though soils near mesquite trees were less affected. Soil water content was significantly higher in the burned sites post-monsoon, potentially reflecting greater hydrophobicity of burned soils. Considering the effects of fire in these semi-arid ecosystems is especially important in the context of the projected changing climate regime in this region. Assessing microbial community recovery pre-, during, and post-monsoon is important for testing predictions about whether successional pathways post-fire lead to recovery or novel trajectories of communities and ecosystem function.

  10. Effect of biological activated carbon pre-treatment to control organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2014-10-15

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane (0.1 μm polyvinylidene fluoride) in the treatment of a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. BAC treatment of the BTSE resulted in a marked improvement in permeate flux, which was attributed to the effective removal of organic foulants and particulates. Although the BAC removed significantly less dissolved organic carbon than the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment which was used as a control for comparison, it led to a markedly greater flux. This was attributed to the effective removal of the very high molecular weight substances such as biopolymers by the BAC through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm. Size exclusion chromatography showed the BAC treatment led to approximately 30% reduction in these substances, whereas the GAC did not greatly remove these molecules. The BAC treatment led to a greater reduction of loosely-attached and firmly-attached membrane surface foulant, and this was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. This study demonstrated the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the microfiltration of BTSE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unique Transcriptional Profile of Sustained Ligand-Activated Preconditioning in Pre- and Post-Ischemic Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Kevin J.; Tupicoff, Amanda; Williams-Pritchard, Grant; Kiessling, Can J.; See Hoe, Louise E.; Headrick, John P.; Peart, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning) induced by 3–5 days of opioid receptor (OR) agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%). Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des), natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb) and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds). Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3), cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf) and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3), together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1) and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid). Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia), which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2) and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu), and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1) and Txnip. Conclusions Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up

  12. Unique transcriptional profile of sustained ligand-activated preconditioning in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Ashton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning induced by 3-5 days of opioid receptor (OR agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%. Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des, natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds. Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3, cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3, together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1 and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid. Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia, which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2 and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu, and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1 and Txnip. CONCLUSIONS: Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up

  13. Pre-Launch GOES-R Risk Reduction Activities for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Boccippio, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a new instrument planned for GOES-R that will greatly improve storm hazard nowcasting and increase warning lead time day and night. Daytime detection of lightning is a particularly significant technological advance given the fact that the solar illuminated cloud-top signal can exceed the intensity of the lightning signal by a factor of one hundred. Our approach is detailed across three broad themes which include: Data Processing Algorithm Readiness, Forecast Applications, and Radiance Data Mining. These themes address how the data will be processed and distributed, and the algorithms and models for developing, producing, and using the data products. These pre-launch risk reduction activities will accelerate the operational and research use of the GLM data once GOES-R begins on-orbit operations. The GLM will provide unprecedented capabilities for tracking thunderstorms and earlier warning of impending severe and hazardous weather threats. By providing direct information on lightning initiation, propagation, extent, and rate, the GLM will also capture the updraft dynamics and life cycle of convective storms, as well as internal ice precipitation processes. The GLM provides information directly from the heart of the thunderstorm as opposed to cloud-top only. Nowcasting applications enabled by the GLM data will expedite the warning and response time of emergency management systems, improve the dispatch of electric power utility repair crews, and improve airline routing around thunderstorms thereby improving safety and efficiency, saving fuel and reducing delays. The use of GLM data will assist the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service in quickly detecting lightning ground strikes that have a high probability of causing fires. Finally, GLM data will help assess the role of thunderstorms and deep convection in global climate, and will improve regional air quality and global chemistry/climate modeling

  14. Solidification of highly active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.B.

    1984-11-01

    Final reports are presented on work on the following topics: glass technology; enhancement of off-gas aerosol collection; formation and trapping of volatile ruthenium; volatilisation of caesium, technetium and tellurium in high-level waste vitrification; deposition of ruthenium; and calcination of high-level waste liquors. (author)

  15. Pre-fracture individual characteristics associated with high total health care costs after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, J T; Paudel, M L; Taylor, B C; Kats, A M; Virnig, B A; Dowd, B E; Langsetmo, L; Ensrud, K E

    2017-03-01

    Older women with pre-fracture slow walk speed, high body mass index, and/or a high level of multimorbidity have significantly higher health care costs after hip fracture compared to those without those characteristics. Studies to investigate if targeted health care interventions for these individuals can reduce hip fracture costs are warranted. The aim of this study is to estimate the associations of individual pre-fracture characteristics with total health care costs after hip fracture, using Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) cohort data linked to Medicare claims. Our study population was 738 women age 70 and older enrolled in Medicare Fee for Service (FFS) who experienced an incident hip fracture between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2009. We assessed pre-fracture individual characteristics at SOF study visits and estimated costs of hospitalizations, skilled nursing facility and inpatient rehabilitation stays, home health care visits, and outpatient utilization from Medicare FFS claims. We used generalized linear models to estimate the associations of predictor variables with total health care costs (2010 US dollars) after hip fracture. Median total health care costs for 1 year after hip fracture were $35,536 (inter-quartile range $24,830 to $50,903). Multivariable-adjusted total health care costs for 1 year after hip fracture were 14 % higher ($5256, 95 % CI $156 to $10,356) in those with walk speed total health care costs after hip fracture in older women. Studies to investigate if targeted health care interventions for these individuals can reduce the costs of hip fractures are warranted.

  16. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Activities of everyday life with high spinal loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Rohlmann

    Full Text Available Activities with high spinal loads should be avoided by patients with back problems. Awareness about these activities and knowledge of the associated loads are important for the proper design and pre-clinical testing of spinal implants. The loads on an instrumented vertebral body replacement have been telemetrically measured for approximately 1000 combinations of activities and parameters in 5 patients over a period up to 65 months postoperatively. A database containing, among others, extreme values for load components in more than 13,500 datasets was searched for 10 activities that cause the highest resultant force, bending moment, torsional moment, or shear force in an anatomical direction. The following activities caused high resultant forces: lifting a weight from the ground, forward elevation of straight arms with a weight in hands, moving a weight laterally in front of the body with hanging arms, changing the body position, staircase walking, tying shoes, and upper body flexion. All activities have in common that the center of mass of the upper body was moved anteriorly. Forces up to 1650 N were measured for these activities of daily life. However, there was a large intra- and inter-individual variation in the implant loads for the various activities depending on how exercises were performed. Measured shear forces were usually higher in the posterior direction than in the anterior direction. Activities with high resultant forces usually caused high values of other load components.

  18. The validity and reliability of a home environment preschool-age physical activity questionnaire (Pre-PAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peat Jennifer K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for valid population level measures of physical activity in young children. The aim of this paper is to report the development, and the reliability and validity, of the Preschool-age Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ which was designed to measure activity of preschool-age children in the home environment in population studies. Methods Pre-PAQ was completed by 103 families, and validated against accelerometry for 67 children (mean age 3.8 years, SD 0.74; males 53%. Pre-PAQ categorizes activity into five progressive levels (stationary no movement, stationary with limb or trunk movement, slow, medium, or fast-paced activity. Pre-PAQ Levels 1-2 (stationary activities were combined for analyses. Accelerometer data were categorized for stationary, sedentary (SED, non-sedentary (non-SED, light (LPA, moderate (MPA and vigorous (VPA physical activity using manufacturer's advice (stationary or the cut-points described by Sirard et al and Reilly et al. Bland-Altman methods were used to assess agreement between the questionnaire and the accelerometer measures for corresponding activity levels. Reliability of the Pre-PAQ over one week was determined using intraclass correlations (ICC or kappa (κ values and percentage of agreement of responses between the two questionnaire administrations. Results Pre-PAQ had good agreement with LPA (mean difference 1.9 mins.day-1 and VPA (mean difference -4.8 mins.day-1, was adequate for stationary activity (mean difference 7.6 mins.day-1 and poor for sedentary activity, whether defined using the cut-points of Sirard et al (mean difference -235.4 mins.day-1 or Reilly et al (mean difference -208.6 mins.day-1 cut-points. Mean difference between the measures for total activity (i.e. Reilly's non-sedentary or Sirard's LMVPA was 20.9 mins.day-1 and 45.2 mins.day-1. The limits of agreement were wide for all categories. The reliability of Pre-PAQ question responses ranged from

  19. The validity and reliability of a home environment preschool-age physical activity questionnaire (Pre-PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Genevieve M; Hardy, Louise L; Peat, Jennifer K; Baur, Louise A

    2011-08-04

    There is a need for valid population level measures of physical activity in young children. The aim of this paper is to report the development, and the reliability and validity, of the Preschool-age Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ) which was designed to measure activity of preschool-age children in the home environment in population studies. Pre-PAQ was completed by 103 families, and validated against accelerometry for 67 children (mean age 3.8 years, SD 0.74; males 53%). Pre-PAQ categorizes activity into five progressive levels (stationary no movement, stationary with limb or trunk movement, slow, medium, or fast-paced activity). Pre-PAQ Levels 1-2 (stationary activities) were combined for analyses. Accelerometer data were categorized for stationary, sedentary (SED), non-sedentary (non-SED), light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity using manufacturer's advice (stationary) or the cut-points described by Sirard et al and Reilly et al. Bland-Altman methods were used to assess agreement between the questionnaire and the accelerometer measures for corresponding activity levels. Reliability of the Pre-PAQ over one week was determined using intraclass correlations (ICC) or kappa (κ) values and percentage of agreement of responses between the two questionnaire administrations. Pre-PAQ had good agreement with LPA (mean difference 1.9 mins.day⁻¹) and VPA (mean difference -4.8 mins.day⁻¹), was adequate for stationary activity (mean difference 7.6 mins.day⁻¹) and poor for sedentary activity, whether defined using the cut-points of Sirard et al (mean difference -235.4 mins.day⁻¹) or Reilly et al (mean difference -208.6 mins.day⁻¹) cut-points. Mean difference between the measures for total activity (i.e. Reilly's non-sedentary or Sirard's LMVPA) was 20.9 mins.day⁻¹ and 45.2 mins.day⁻¹. The limits of agreement were wide for all categories. The reliability of Pre-PAQ question responses ranged from 0.31-1.00 (ICC (2

  20. Increased activity of pre-motor network does not change the excitability of motoneurons during protracted scratch initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Alaburda, Aidas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær

    2013-01-01

    of their intrinsic excitability. Here we employed an experimental paradigm of protracted scratch initiation in the integrated carapace-spinal cord preparation of adult turtles (Chrysemys scripta elegans). The protracted initiation of scratch network activity allows us to investigate the excitability of motoneurons...... and pre-motor network activity in the time interval from the start of sensory stimulation until the onset of scratch activity. Our results suggest that increased activity in the pre-motor network facilitates the onset of scratch episodes but does not change the excitability of motoneurons at the onset...... of scratching....

  1. Monocrotophos induces the expression and activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in pre-sensitized cultured human brain cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Tripathi

    Full Text Available The expression and metabolic profile of cytochrome P450s (CYPs is largely missing in human brain due to non-availability of brain tissue. We attempted to address the issue by using human brain neuronal (SH-SY5Y and glial (U373-MG cells. The expression and activity of CYP1A1, 2B6 and 2E1 were carried out in the cells exposed to CYP inducers viz., 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, cyclophosphamide (CPA, ethanol and known neurotoxicant- monocrotophos (MCP, a widely used organophosphorous pesticide. Both the cells show significant induction in the expression and CYP-specific activity against classical inducers and MCP. The induction level of CYPs was comparatively lower in MCP exposed cells than cells exposed to classical inducers. Pre-exposure (12 h of cells to classical inducers significantly added the MCP induced CYPs expression and activity. The findings were concurrent with protein ligand docking studies, which show a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR, PXR and AHR. Similarly, the known CYP inducers- 3-MC, CPA and ethanol have also shown significantly high docking scores with all the three studied CYP regulators. The expression of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells has suggested their possible association with the endogenous physiology of the brain. The findings also suggest the xenobiotic metabolizing capabilities of these cells against MCP, if received a pre-sensitization to trigger the xenobiotic metabolizing machinery. MCP induced CYP-specific activity in neuronal cells could help in explaining its effect on neurotransmission, as these CYPs are known to involve in the synthesis/transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells is also of significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The data provide better understanding of the metabolizing capability of the human brain cells against

  2. Evaluation of chemical, thermobaric and thermochemical pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of high-fat cattle slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter W; Schmidt, Thomas; McCabe, Bernadette K

    2017-11-01

    This work aimed to enhance the anaerobic digestion of fat-rich dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge through chemical, thermobaric, and thermochemical pre-treatment methods. Soluble chemical oxygen demand was enhanced from 16.3% in the control to 20.84% (thermobaric), 40.82% (chemical), and 50.7% (thermochemical). Pre-treatment altered volatile fatty acid concentration by -64% (thermobaric), 127% (chemical) and 228% (thermochemical). Early inhibition was reduced by 20% in the thermochemical group, and 100% in the thermobaric group. Specific methane production was enhanced by 3.28% (chemical), 8.32% (thermobaric), and 8.49% (thermochemical) as a result of pre-treatment. Under batch digestion, thermobaric pre-treatment demonstrated the greatest improvement in methane yield with respect to degree of pre-treatment applied. Thermobaric pre-treatment was also the most viable for implementation at slaughterhouses, with potential for heat-exchange to reduce pre-treatment cost. Further investigation into long-term impact of pre-treatments in semi-continuous digestion experiments will provide additional evaluation of appropriate pre-treatment options for high-fat slaughterhouse wastewater. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-Parameter Observation and Detection of Pre-Earthquake Signals in Seismically Active Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Parrot, M.; Liu, J. Y.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    The recent large earthquakes (M9.0 Tohoku, 03/2011; M7.0 Haiti, 01/2010; M6.7 L Aquila, 04/2008; and M7.9 Wenchuan 05/2008) have renewed interest in pre-anomalous seismic signals associated with them. Recent workshops (DEMETER 2006, 2011 and VESTO 2009 ) have shown that there were precursory atmospheric /ionospheric signals observed in space prior to these events. Our initial results indicate that no single pre-earthquake observation (seismic, magnetic field, electric field, thermal infrared [TIR], or GPS/TEC) can provide a consistent and successful global scale early warning. This is most likely due to complexity and chaotic nature of earthquakes and the limitation in existing ground (temporal/spatial) and global satellite observations. In this study we analyze preseismic temporal and spatial variations (gas/radon counting rate, atmospheric temperature and humidity change, long-wave radiation transitions and ionospheric electron density/plasma variations) which we propose occur before the onset of major earthquakes:. We propose an Integrated Space -- Terrestrial Framework (ISTF), as a different approach for revealing pre-earthquake phenomena in seismically active areas. ISTF is a sensor web of a coordinated observation infrastructure employing multiple sensors that are distributed on one or more platforms; data from satellite sensors (Terra, Aqua, POES, DEMETER and others) and ground observations, e.g., Global Positioning System, Total Electron Content (GPS/TEC). As a theoretical guide we use the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model to explain the generation of multiple earthquake precursors. Using our methodology, we evaluated retrospectively the signals preceding the most devastated earthquakes during 2005-2011. We observed a correlation between both atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies preceding most of these earthquakes. The second phase of our validation include systematic retrospective analysis for more than 100 major earthquakes (M>5

  4. Horticultural activity predicts later localized limb status in a contemporary pre-industrial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin C; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Modern humans may have gracile skeletons due to low physical activity levels and mechanical loading. Tests using pre-historic skeletons are limited by the inability to assess behavior directly, while modern industrialized societies possess few socio-ecological features typical of human evolutionary history. Among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists, we test whether greater activity levels and, thus, increased loading earlier in life are associated with greater later-life bone status and diminished age-related bone loss. We used quantitative ultrasonography to assess radial and tibial status among adults aged 20+ years (mean ± SD age = 49 ± 15; 52% female). We conducted systematic behavioral observations to assess earlier-life activity patterns (mean time lag between behavioural observation and ultrasound = 12 years). For a subset of participants, physical activity was again measured later in life, via accelerometry, to determine whether earlier-life time use is associated with later-life activity levels. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during medical exams. Structural decline with age is reduced for the tibia (female: -0.25 SDs/decade; male: 0.05 SDs/decade) versus radius (female: -0.56 SDs/decade; male: -0.20 SDs/decade), which is expected if greater loading mitigates bone loss. Time allocation to horticulture, but not hunting, positively predicts later-life radial status (β Horticulture  = 0.48, p = 0.01), whereas tibial status is not significantly predicted by subsistence or sedentary leisure participation. Patterns of activity- and age-related change in bone status indicate localized osteogenic responses to loading, and are generally consistent with the logic of bone functional adaptation. Nonmechanical factors related to subsistence lifestyle moderate the association between activity patterns and bone structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Biogas pre-upgrading by adsorption of trace compounds onto granular activated carbons and an activated carbon fiber-cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulinguiez, B; Le Cloirec, P

    2009-01-01

    The study assesses the adsorption onto activated carbon materials of selected volatile organic compounds -VOCs- (dichloromethane, 2-propanol, toluene, siloxane D4) in a biogas matrix composed of methane and carbon dioxide (55:45 v/v). Three different adsorbents are tested, two of them are granular activated carbon (GAC), and the last is an activated carbon fiber-cloth (ACFC). The adsorption isotherm data are fitted by different models by nonlinear regression. The Langmuir-Freundlich model appears to be the adequate one to describe the adsorption phenomena independently of the VOC considered or the adsorbent. The adsorbents present attractive adsorption capacity of the undesirable compounds in biogas atmosphere though the maximum adsorption capacities for a VOC are quite different from each other. The adsorption kinetics are characterized through three coefficients: the initial adsorption coefficient, the external film mass transfer coefficient and the internal diffusion coefficient of Weber. The ACFC demonstrates advanced kinetic yields compared to the granular activated carbon materials whatever VOC is considered. Therefore, pre-upgrading of biogas produced from wastewater sludge or co-digestion system by adsorption onto activated carbon appears worth investigating. Especially with ACFC material that presents correct adsorption capacities toward VOCs and concrete regeneration process opportunity to realize such process.

  6. Zeolite A synthesized from alkaline assisted pre-activated halloysite for efficient heavy metal removal in polluted river water and industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingpeng; Chen, Hong; Lin, Junzhong; Lin, Zhang; Sun, Junliang

    2017-06-01

    High quality zeolite A was synthesized through a hydrothermal process using alkaline-assisted pre-activated halloysite mineral as the alumina and silica source. The synthesis conditions employed in this study were finely tuned by varying the activating temperature, sodium hydroxide content, water content and Si/Al ratio. The obtained zeolite A showed excellent adsorption properties for both single metal cation solutions and mixed cation solutions when the concentrations of the mixed cations were comparable with those in polluted natural river water and industrial wastewater. High adsorptive capacities for Ag + (123.05mg/g) and Pb 2+ (227.70mg/g) were achieved using the synthesized zeolite A. This observation indicates that the zeolite A synthesized from alkaline-assisted pre-activated halloysite can be used as a low-cost and relatively effective adsorbent to purify heavy metal cation polluted natural river water and industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The effect of high fidelity simulated learning methods on physiotherapy pre-registration education: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Fiona; Cooper, Kay

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify if high fidelity simulated learning methods are effective in enhancing clinical/practical skills compared to usual, low fidelity simulated learning methods in pre-registration physiotherapy education.

  8. The PreS2 activator MHBs(t) of hepatitis B virus activates c-raf-1/Erk2 signaling in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildt, Eberhard; Munz, Barbara; Saher, Gesine; Reifenberg, Kurt; Hofschneider, Peter Hans

    2002-02-15

    The large hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface protein (LHBs) and C-terminally truncated middle size surface proteins (MHBs(t)) form the family of the PreS2 activator proteins of HBV. Their transcriptional activator function is based on the cytoplasmic orientation of the PreS2 domain. MHBs(t) activators are paradigmatic for this class of activators. Here we report that MHBs(t) is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependently phosphorylated at Ser28. The integrity of the phosphorylation site is essential for the activator function. MHBs(t) triggers PKC-dependent activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling that is a prerequisite for MHBs(t)-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB. To analyze the pathophysiological relevance of these data in vivo, transgenic mice were established that produce the PreS2 activator MHBs(t) specifically in the liver. In these mice, a permanent PreS2-dependent specific activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling was observed, resulting in an increased hepatocyte proliferation rate. In transgenics older than 15 months, an increased incidence of liver tumors occurs. These data suggest that PreS2 activators LHBs and MHBs(t) exert a tumor promoter-like function by activation of key enzymes of proliferation control.

  9. The PreS2 activator MHBst of hepatitis B virus activates c-raf-1/Erk2 signaling in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildt, Eberhard; Munz, Barbara; Saher, Gesine; Reifenberg, Kurt; Hofschneider, Peter Hans

    2002-01-01

    The large hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface protein (LHBs) and C-terminally truncated middle size surface proteins (MHBst) form the family of the PreS2 activator proteins of HBV. Their transcriptional activator function is based on the cytoplasmic orientation of the PreS2 domain. MHBst activators are paradigmatic for this class of activators. Here we report that MHBst is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependently phosphorylated at Ser28. The integrity of the phosphorylation site is essential for the activator function. MHBst triggers PKC-dependent activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling that is a prerequisite for MHBst-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. To analyze the pathophysiological relevance of these data in vivo, transgenic mice were established that produce the PreS2 activator MHBst specifically in the liver. In these mice, a permanent PreS2-dependent specific activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling was observed, resulting in an increased hepatocyte proliferation rate. In transgenics older than 15 months, an increased incidence of liver tumors occurs. These data suggest that PreS2 activators LHBs and MHBst exert a tumor promoter-like function by activation of key enzymes of proliferation control. PMID:11847101

  10. Leisure time physical activity and the risk of pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, H T; Owe, K M; Juhl, M

    2014-01-01

    Today, pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It has been proposed that leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with a decreased risk of PE. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic literature review examining...... the association between LTPA before and/or during pregnancy and the risk of PE. A systematic search of the EMBASE and PUBMED databases from inception to November 17, 2011 was conducted by two independent reviewers. Only studies describing the association between the intensity or amount of LTPA before and....../or during pregnancy and the risk of PE were included. A narrative synthesis of the results was undertaken following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Eleven studies were included. None...

  11. Pre-treatment of Used-Cooking Oil as Feed Stocks of Biodiesel Production by Using Activated Carbon and Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Syah Putra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many low-cost feedstock i.e. used-cooking oil (UCO for the production of biodiesel fuel (BDF has contained a large amount of water and high proportion of free fatty acids (FFAs. Therefore, a pre-treatment process to reduce the water content (<0.1 wt.% and FFAs (<2.0 wt.% were necessary in order to avoid an undesirable side reactions, such as saponification, which could lead to serious problem of product separation and low fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield. . In this study, a pre-treatment process of used cooking oil as a feedstock for the production of BDF by using various adsorbents such as Activated Carbon (AC and various clay minerals, for example Smectite (S, Bentonite (B, Kaolinite (K, and Powdered Earthenware (PE were evaluated. The oil obtained from pre-treatment was compared with oil without pre-treatment process. In this study, we reported a basic difference in material ability to the oil, depending on the adsorption condition with respect to the physico-chemical parameters, e.g. refractive index (R, density (ρ, FFAs, and water content (W. The results showed that the water content and FFAs in the oil has decreased when using AC as an adsorbent compared with clay minerals. However, the refractive index of oil has similar with the oil without pre-treatment process as well; meanwhile, the density of oil has increased after the pre-treatment process by using clay minerals.

  12. The secrets of highly active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thea; Tong, Catherine; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2013-12-01

    Although physical activity is a recognized component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age (Manini & Pahor, 2009; Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In this article we examine the key factors that facilitate physical activity in highly active community-dwelling older adults. Using a strengths based approach, we examined the factors that facilitated physical activity in our sample of highly active older adults. Twenty-seven older adults participated in face-to face interviews. We extracted a sub-sample of 10 highly active older adults to be included in the analyses. Based on a framework analysis of our transcripts we identified three factors that facilitate physical activity in our sample, these include: 1) resourcefulness: engagement in self-help strategies such as self-efficacy, self-control and adaptability; 2) social connections: the presence of relationships (friend, neighborhood, institutions) and social activities that support or facilitate high levels of physical activity; and 3) the role of the built and natural environments: features of places and spaces that support and facilitate high levels of physical activity. Findings provide insight into, and factors that facilitate older adults' physical activity. We discuss implications for programs (e.g., accessible community centers, with appropriate programming throughout the lifecourse) and policies geared towards the promotion of physical activity (e.g., the development of spaces that facilitate both physical and social activities). © 2013.

  13. Physical activity reduces systemic blood pressure and improves early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Aggoun, Yacine; Marchand, Laetitia M; Martin, Xavier E; Herrmann, François R; Beghetti, Maurice

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of physical activity on systemic blood pressure (BP) and early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children. Hypertension and endothelial dysfunction are premature complications of obesity. We performed a 3-month randomized controlled trial with a modified crossover design: 44 pre-pubertal obese children (age 8.9 + or - 1.5 years) were randomly assigned (1:1) to an exercise (n = 22) or a control group (n = 22). We recruited 22 lean children (age 8.5 + or - 1.5 years) for baseline comparison. The exercise group trained 60 min 3 times/week during 3 months, whereas control subjects remained relatively inactive. Then, both groups trained twice/week during 3 months. We assessed changes at 3 and 6 months in office and 24-h BP, arterial intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness, endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), body mass index (BMI), body fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [VO(2)max]), physical activity, and biological markers. Obese children had higher BP, arterial stiffness, body weight, BMI, abdominal fat, insulin resistance indexes, and C-reactive protein levels, and lower flow-mediated dilation, VO(2)max, physical activity, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than lean subjects. At 3 months, we observed significant changes in 24-h systolic BP (exercise -6.9 + or - 13.5 mm Hg vs. control 3.8 + or - 7.9 mm Hg, -0.8 + or - 1.5 standard deviation score [SDS] vs. 0.4 + or - 0.8 SDS), diastolic BP (-0.5 + or - 1.0 SDS vs. 0 + or - 1.4 SDS), hypertension rate (-12% vs. -1%), office BP, BMI z-score, abdominal fat, and VO(2)max. At 6 months, change differences in arterial stiffness and IMT were significant. A regular physical activity program reduces BP, arterial stiffness, and abdominal fat; increases cardiorespiratory fitness; and delays arterial wall remodeling in pre-pubertal obese children. (Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Arterial Function and

  14. Exogenous Alpha-Synuclein Alters Pre- and Post-Synaptic Activity by Fragmenting Lipid Rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Emanuele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein (αSyn interferes with multiple steps of synaptic activity at pre-and post-synaptic terminals, however the mechanism/s by which αSyn alters neurotransmitter release and synaptic potentiation is unclear. By atomic force microscopy we show that human αSyn, when incubated with reconstituted membrane bilayer, induces lipid rafts' fragmentation. As a consequence, ion channels and receptors are displaced from lipid rafts with consequent changes in their activity. The enhanced calcium entry leads to acute mobilization of synaptic vesicles, and exhaustion of neurotransmission at later stages. At the post-synaptic terminal, an acute increase in glutamatergic transmission, with increased density of PSD-95 puncta, is followed by disruption of the interaction between N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and PSD-95 with ensuing decrease of long term potentiation. While cholesterol loading prevents the acute effect of αSyn at the presynapse; inhibition of casein kinase 2, which appears activated by reduction of cholesterol, restores the correct localization and clustering of NMDARs.

  15. Influence of electrochemical pre-treatment on highly reactive carbon nitride thin films deposited on stainless steel for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchikh, A.; Debiemme-Chouvy, C.; Cachet, H.; Pailleret, A.; Saidani, B.; Beaunier, L.; Berger, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a-CNx films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrate have been investigated as electrode materials. While their wide potential window was confirmed as a property shared by boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes, their electrochemical activity with respect to fast and reversible redox systems, [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+/2+ , [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− and [IrCl 6 ] 2−/3− , was assessed by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) after cathodic or anodic electrochemical pre-treatments or for as grown samples. It was shown for the three systems that electrochemical reactivity of the a-CNx films was improved after the cathodic pre-treatment and degraded after the anodic one, the apparent heterogeneous rate constant k 0app being decreased by at least one order of magnitude for the latter case. A high k 0app value of 0.11 cm s −1 for [IrCl 6 ] 2−/3− was obtained, close to the highest values found for BDD electrodes.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PARENTS` ATTUTUTES FROM NEIGHBOUR COUNTRIES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THEIR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A research has been done in pre-school institutions of Montenegro and Serb Republic whose aim was to get directions for improvement of physical education in pre-school institutions as well as for taking measures in order to educate parents of the children attending those institutions in the sense of improving knowledge on importance of physical activity for growth and development of pre-school children through monitoring and insight into attitudes of parents on physical activity of their children. Problem of this research is consisted of an attempt to use the parents` attitudes to estimate how active their children are within the time period when there are not on the pre-school institutions. Methods: The research was done by the poll method of anonymous questionnaire, with was filled by parents of the children attending pre-school institutions in Montenegro and Serb Republic. Sample of the examinees from Montenegro was made of 1356 of parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions from all three Montenegrin regions. Sample of the examinees from the Serb Republic was made of 386 parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions. Aim of the research was consisted of estimation of the parents` attitudes on volume and features of the physical activity of their children and of attempt to use the given data to take certain measures on the base of which their physical activities would be optimized. For this poll, a specially structured questionnaire for this purpose was used, in which the questions were set into groups with the aim of estimating features of physical activity of the pre-school children. Results: For the statistics processing methods of descriptive statistics were used, which were used for numerical and percent presentation of frequency of some answers of the examinees, and the answers were presented comparatively in tables for both samples. Results of this research indicate to trend

  17. Herbicidal Activity of Coumarin When Applied as a Pre-plant Incorporated into Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Hossein NAZEMI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to having a short half-life and novel site of action, the herbicidal potential of natural compounds are lionized. Coumarin is a secondary metabolite from Lavandula sp., family Lamiacae. The impact of eight concentrations of coumarin (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 and 6400 ppm were separately used as a pre-plant incorporated into soil on six plant species under greenhouse conditions. Generally, coumarin had phytotoxic effect against all plant species. The phytotoxic effect was concentration-dependent. The high concentrations could inhibit the emergence of seedlings (probably by stopping germination of seeds. Based on ED50 parameter, the ranking of plant species for tolerance to coumarin was S. halepense > Z. mays > C. album > A. retroflexus > E. cruss-gali > P. oleracea. Based on selectivity index, coumarin at a concentration of 365.69 ppm can control P. oleracea without damaging Z. mays, whereas any concentration it cannot control other weeds without damaging Z. mays.

  18. Effect of Child Centred Methods on Teaching and Learning of Science Activities in Pre-Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiema, Nelly C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite many research studies showing the effectiveness of teacher application of child-centered learning in different educational settings, few studies have focused on teaching and learning activities in Pre-Schools. This research investigates the effect of child centered methods on teaching and learning of science activities in preschools in…

  19. Pre-Service Teacher Opinions about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package Developed to Raise Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Sevcan; Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package developed in order to raise environmental awareness in pre-service teachers and enable them to be an example of an eco-friendly teacher for their future students, and the responses about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package were investigated. The study was conducted on 75…

  20. Matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2013-11-05

    Mechanisms for performing matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. A load and splat operation is performed to load an element of a second vector operand and replicating the element to each of a plurality of elements of a second target vector register. A multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the matrix multiplication operation. The partial product of the matrix multiplication operation is accumulated with other partial products of the matrix multiplication operation.

  1. Pre-gravid physical activity and reduced risk of glucose intolerance in pregnancy: the role of insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnakaran, Ravi; Qi, Ying; Sermer, Mathew; Connelly, Philip W; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J G

    2009-04-01

    Pre-gravid physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), although neither the types of exercise nor the physiologic mechanisms underlying this protective effect have been well-studied. Thus, we sought to study the relationships between types of pre-gravid physical activity and metabolic parameters in pregnancy, including glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. A total of 851 women underwent a glucose challenge test (GCT) and a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in late pregnancy, yielding four glucose tolerance groups: (i) GDM; (ii) gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT); (iii) abnormal GCT with normal glucose tolerance on OGTT (abnormal GCT NGT); and (iv) normal GCT with NGT on OGTT (normal GCT NGT). Pre-gravid physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire, which measures (i) total physical activity and (ii) its three component domains: work, nonsport leisure-time, and vigorous/sports activity. Glucose tolerance status improved across increasing quartiles of pre-gravid total physical activity (P = 0.0244). Whereas neither work nor nonsport leisure-time activity differed between glucose tolerance groups, pre-gravid vigorous/sports activity was significantly higher in women with normal GCT NGT compared to women with (i) abnormal GCT NGT (P = 0.0018) (ii) GIGT (P = 0.0025), and (iii) GDM (P = 0.0044). In particular, vigorous/sports activity correlated with insulin sensitivity (measured by IS(OGTT)) (r = 0.21, P sports activity emerged as a significant independent predictor of IS(OGTT) in pregnancy (t = 4.97, P sports activity is associated with a reduced risk of glucose intolerance in pregnancy, an effect likely mediated by enhanced insulin sensitivity.

  2. Midazolam microdose to determine systemic and pre-systemic metabolic CYP3A activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Nicolas; Kocheise, Franziska; Carls, Alexandra; Burhenne, Jürgen; Haefeli, Walter E; Mikus, Gerd

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to establish a method to assess systemic and pre-systemic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity using ineffective microgram doses of midazolam. In an open, one sequence, crossover study, 16 healthy participants received intravenous and oral midazolam at microgram (0.001 mg intravenous and 0.003 mg oral) and regular milligram (1 mg intravenous and 3 mg oral) doses to assess the linearity of plasma and urine pharmacokinetics. Dose-normalized AUC and Cmax were 37.1 ng ml(-1 ) h [95% CI 35.5, 40.6] and 39.1 ng ml(-1) [95% CI 30.4, 50.2] for the microdose and 39.0 ng ml(-1 ) h [95% CI 36.1, 42.1] and 37.1 ng ml(-1) [95% CI 26.9, 51.3] for the milligram dose. CLmet was 253 ml min(-1) [95% CI 201, 318] vs. 278 ml min(-1) [95% CI 248, 311] for intravenous doses and 1880 ml min(-1) [95% CI 1590, 2230] vs. 2050 ml min(-1) [95% CI 1720, 2450] for oral doses. Oral bioavailability of a midazolam microdose was 23.4% [95% CI 20.0, 27.3] vs. 20.9% [95% CI 17.1, 25.5] after the regular dose. Hepatic and gut extraction ratios for microgram doses were 0.44 [95% CI 0.39, 0.49] and 0.53 [95% CI 0.45, 0.63] and compared well with those for milligram doses (0.43 [95% CI 0.37, 0.49] and 0.61 [95% CI 0.53, 0.70]). The pharmacokinetics of an intravenous midazolam microdose is linear to the applied regular doses and can be used to assess safely systemic CYP3A activity and, in combination with oral microdoses, pre-systemic CYP3A activity. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation alleviates damage to the flag leaf caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Jian, Dong

    2011-01-01

    and enhanced cell membrane peroxidation, as exemplified by increased O2-• production rate and reduction in activities of antioxiditave enzymes. However, under post-anthesis heat stress, plants with pre-anthesis hightemperature acclimation (HH)showedmuchhigher photosynthetic rates than those without pre...... all up-regulated under HH, whereas a gene encoding a major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab) was up-regulated by post-anthesis heat stress at 10 DAA, but was down-regulated at 13 DAA. The changes in the expression levels of the HH plants were more pronounced than those for the CH. Collectively......, the results indicated that pre-anthesis high-temperature acclimation could effectively alleviate the photosynthetic and oxidative damage caused by post-anthesis heat stress in wheat flag leaves, which was partially attributable to modifications in the expression of the photosythesis-responsive and antioxidant...

  4. Effect of Elliptical High Intensity Interval Training on Metabolic Risk Factor in Pre- and Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fex, Annie; Leduc-Gaudet, Jean-Philippe; Filion, Marie-Eve; Karelis, Antony D; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of elliptical high intensity interval training (HIIT) on metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients. Sixteen pre- (n = 8) and type 2 diabetes (n = 8) participants completed this study. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, anthropometric measurements, body composition (DXA), blood pressure, resting heart rate, VO2max, and dietary factors, as well as total and physical activity energy expenditure, were measured. The HIIT program on the elliptical was performed 3 times a week for 12 weeks. After the intervention, we observed a significant improvement for fasting blood glucose, waist and hip circumference, appendicular fat mass, leg lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass, systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, and VO2max (P body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.

  5. Active Learning of Geometrical Optics in High School: The ALOP Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborch, Alejandra; Pandiella, Susana; Benegas, Julio

    2017-01-01

    A group comparison experiment of two high school classes with pre and post instruction testing has been carried out to study the suitability and advantages of using the active learning of optics and photonics (ALOP) curricula in high schools of developing countries. Two parallel, mixed gender, 12th grade classes of a high school run by the local…

  6. Blood Lead Level and Δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in Pre-Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R Elezaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship of blood lead levels (BLL and blood, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(ALAD activity and haematocrit value(Hct to menopause , were examined 17 pre-or perimenopausal (PreM and 17 postmenopausal women (PosMfrom Prishtina City, the capital ofRepublic Kosovo. The mean age of the PreM women was 28.8 years (21-46, with a mean blood lead level of 1.2 μg/dL (SD=0.583 μg/dL , the mean blood ALAD activity53.2 U/LE (SD= 2.8 U/LE and haematocrit value42.1 % (SD= 4.3 %. The mean age of the PosM women was 53.6 years (43-67, with a mean blood lead level1.9 μg/dL (SD=0.94 μg/dL, the mean blood ALAD activity 44.4 U/LE(SD=7.2 U/LE and haematocrit value 42.1 % ( SD= 4.3 % and 42.2 % (SD=4.4 %. The BPb level of PosM women was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with the BPb level in PreM women. The blood ALAD activity of PosM was significantly inhibited (P<0.002 in comparison with blood ALAD activity in PreM women. The haematocrit values were relatively unchanged. There was established significantly negative correlation between BPb and blood ALAD activity (r=- 0.605; P<0.01 in the PreM women.These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with adverse health effects on women in menopause transition.

  7. Research on pre-scientific concept of light in children's cognitive activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Zhigao; Yu, Yang; Yan, Dan; Yang, Shulin

    2017-08-01

    Based on the theory of Ausubel's meaningful learning and cognitive characteristic of childens pre-scientific concept, two students of Huang Gang Middle School have been interviewed continuously about cognition of interaction between light and matter. Comprehension degree of childens pre-scientific concept about interaction between light and matter has been deeply understood, formation of strategy of childens pre-scientific concept has been discussed. Several influence factors related to formation of childens pre-scientific concept have been analyzed, such as sex, family environment, and learning experience of kindergarten and primary school.

  8. Effect of high-temperature pre-precipitation on microstructure and properties of 7055 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈康华; 黄兰萍

    2003-01-01

    The near-solvus pre-precipitation following higher temperature solution treatment was performed on 7055 aluminum alloy. The effect of the pre-precipitation on the microstructure, age hardening and stress corrosion cracking of 7055 alloy was investigated. The optical and transmission electron microscopy results show that the near-solvus pre-precipitation can be limited to grain boundary and enhance the discontinuity of grain boundary precipitates in the sequent age. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of aged 7055 alloys could be improved with non-deteriorated strength and plasticity via the pre-precipitation.

  9. STS-105/Discovery/ISS 7A.1: Pre-Launch Activities, Launch, Orbit Activities and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-105 is introduced at their pre-launch meal and at suit-up. The crew members include Commander Scott Horowitz, Pilot Rick Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Patrick Forrester and Daniel Barry, together with the Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition 3 crew includes Commander Frank Culbertson, Soyuz Commander Vladimir Dezhurov, and Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin. When the astronauts depart for the launch pad in the Astrovan, their convoy is shown from above. Upon reaching the launch pad, they conduct a walk around of the shuttle, display signs for family members while being inspected in the White Room, and are strapped into their seats onboard Disciovery. The video includes footage of Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility, and some of the pre-launch procedures at the Launch Control Center are shown. The angles of launch replays include: TV-1, Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad A, Tower 1, UCS-15, Grandstand, OTV-70, Onboard, IGOR, and UCS-23. The moment of docking between Discovery and the ISS is shown from inside Discovery's cabin. While in orbit, the crew conducted extravehicular activities (EVAs) to attach an experiments container, and install handrails on the Destiny module of the ISS. The video shows the docking and unloading of the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) onto the ISS. The deployment of a satellite from Discovery with the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the background is shown. Cape Canaveral is also shown from space. Landing replays include VAB, Tower 1, mid-field, South End SLF, North End SLF, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV). NASA Administrator Dan Goldin meets the crew upon landing and participates in their walk around of Discovery. The video concludes with a short speech by commander Horowitz.

  10. High activity gamma irradiators developed in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.

    1997-01-01

    The development of high activity Gamma irradiators began in Hungary already in the early years of 60s. The very first designs were serving research in irradiation chemistry, radiation physics, food and agricultural research, radiation sterilization, plastic radiation chemistry, radiobiology, cancer therapy, personal and high dose dosimetry, following the international trends. Domestic and new international demands forced us to design and construct High Activity Gamma Irradiators: Multipurpose Pilot, Portable and Large scale bulk, Multipurpose Industrial scale types

  11. Effect of the Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor precursor (preGcMAF) on phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Syota; Takeuchi, Ryota; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Hirota, Keiji; Terada, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Shinya; Nakata, Eiji; Hori, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    The 1f1f subtype of the Gc protein (Gc(1f1f) protein) was converted into Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) by enzymatic processing in the presence of β-galactosidase of an activated B-cell and sialidase of a T-cell. We hypothesized that preGc(1f1f)MAF, the only Gc(1f1f) protein lacking galactose, can be converted to GcMAF in vivo because sialic acid is cleaved by residual sialidase. Hence, we investigated the effect of preGc(1f1f)MAF on the phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages. We examined the sugar moiety of preGc(1f1f)MAF with a Western blot using peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) lectin. We also found that preGc(1f1f)MAF significantly enhanced phagocytic activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages but only in the presence of the mouse peritoneal fluid; the level of phagocytic activity was the same as that observed for GcMAF. PreGc(1f1f)MAF can be used as an effective macrophage activator in vivo.

  12. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  13. Active euthanasia in pre-modern society, 1500-1800: learned debates and popular practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Historians of medical ethics have found that active euthanasia, in the sense of intentionally hastening the death of terminally-ill patients, was considered unacceptable in the Christian West before the 1870s. This paper presents a range of early modern texts on the issue which reflect a learned awareness of practices designed to shorten the lives of dying patients which were widely accepted among the lay public. Depriving the dying abruptly of their head-rest or placing them flat on the cold floor may strike us as merely symbolic today, but early moderns associated such measures with very concrete and immediate effects. In this sense, the intentional hastening of death in agonising patients had an accepted place in pre-modern popular culture. These practices must, however, be put into their proper context. Death was perceived more as a transition to the after-life and contemporary notions of dying could make even outright suffocation appear as an act of compassion which merely helped the soul depart from the body at the divinely ordained hour of death. The paper concludes with a brief comparison of early modern arguments with those of today.

  14. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon-producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P; Newmyer, Brandon A; Ottolini, Matteo; Raje, Vidisha; Warthen, Daniel M; Lambeth, Philip S; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G; Harris, Thurl E; Patel, Manoj K; Williams, Kevin W; Scott, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide-secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake-lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide-expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal.

  15. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon–producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Ottolini, Matteo; Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G.; Harris, Thurl E.; Patel, Manoj K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2017-01-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide–secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake–lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide–expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal. PMID:28218622

  16. Rapid high resolution MR neurography with a diffusion-weighted pre-pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Masami; Nakamura, Masanobu; Tabuchi, Takashi; Takahara, Taro; Kwee, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce, optimize, and assess the feasibility of a new scheme to rapidly acquire high-resolution volumetric neurographic images using a three-dimensional turbo spin-echo sequence combined with a diffusion-weighted pre-pulse called improved motion-sensitized driven equilibrium (iMSDE): Diffusion-prepared magnetic resonance (MR) Neurography (D-prep MRN). In order to optimize the signal suppression of blood vessels and muscle at D-prep MRN, coronal lumbosacral plexus images were acquired in five volunteers at 3T, and the following parameters were examined: iMSDE gradient-strength (b-value) of 0, 2 and 10 s/mm 2 (with the aim to suppress blood vessels) and iMSDE preparation duration (iMSDE prep-time ) of 18, 50 and 100 ms (with the aim to suppress muscle signal). Subsequently, the feasibility of the optimized D-prep MRN sequence in visualizing the brachial plexus, lumbosacral plexus, and cranial nerves was evaluated in 5 healthy volunteers. A higher b-value of 10 s/mm 2 was better in signal suppression of blood vessels, whereas an intermediate iMSDE prep-time of 50 ms provided the best compromise between suppression of muscle signal and minimization of signal loss of nerves. With these parameters, the normal nerve structures showed high signal intensity, while the blood vessels and muscles were effectively suppressed. The optimized D-prep MRN sequence clearly showed the three-dimensional trajectory of the brachial plexus, lumbosacral plexus, and cranial nerves. D-prep MRN was introduced and optimized, and clearly showed detailed anatomy of the brachial plexus, lumbosacral plexus, and cranial nerves. These results suggest that the D-prep MRN can be used for fast, high-resolution, volumetric imaging of the peripheral nervous system. (author)

  17. Pre-drilling prediction techniques on the high-temperature high-pressure hydrocarbon reservoirs offshore Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Liu, Huaishan; Wu, Shiguo; Sun, Jin; Yang, Chaoqun; Xie, Yangbing; Chen, Chuanxu; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jiliang

    2018-02-01

    Decreasing the risks and geohazards associated with drilling engineering in high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) geologic settings begins with the implementation of pre-drilling prediction techniques (PPTs). To improve the accuracy of geopressure prediction in HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs offshore Hainan Island, we made a comprehensive summary of current PPTs to identify existing problems and challenges by analyzing the global distribution of HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs, the research status of PPTs, and the geologic setting and its HTHP formation mechanism. Our research results indicate that the HTHP formation mechanism in the study area is caused by multiple factors, including rapid loading, diapir intrusions, hydrocarbon generation, and the thermal expansion of pore fluids. Due to this multi-factor interaction, a cloud of HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs has developed in the Ying-Qiong Basin, but only traditional PPTs have been implemented, based on the assumption of conditions that do not conform to the actual geologic environment, e.g., Bellotti's law and Eaton's law. In this paper, we focus on these issues, identify some challenges and solutions, and call for further PPT research to address the drawbacks of previous works and meet the challenges associated with the deepwater technology gap. In this way, we hope to contribute to the improved accuracy of geopressure prediction prior to drilling and provide support for future HTHP drilling offshore Hainan Island.

  18. Combining task-evoked and spontaneous activity to improve pre-operative brain mapping with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael D.; Qian, Tianyi; Madsen, Joseph R.; Wang, Danhong; Li, Meiling; Ge, Manling; Zuo, Huan-cong; Groppe, David M.; Mehta, Ashesh D.; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive localization of brain function is used to understand and treat neurological disease, exemplified by pre-operative fMRI mapping prior to neurosurgical intervention. The principal approach for generating these maps relies on brain responses evoked by a task and, despite known limitations, has dominated clinical practice for over 20 years. Recently, pre-operative fMRI mapping based on correlations in spontaneous brain activity has been demonstrated, however this approach has its own limitations and has not seen widespread clinical use. Here we show that spontaneous and task-based mapping can be performed together using the same pre-operative fMRI data, provide complimentary information relevant for functional localization, and can be combined to improve identification of eloquent motor cortex. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of our approach are quantified through comparison with electrical cortical stimulation mapping in eight patients with intractable epilepsy. Broad applicability and reproducibility of our approach is demonstrated through prospective replication in an independent dataset of six patients from a different center. In both cohorts and every individual patient, we see a significant improvement in signal to noise and mapping accuracy independent of threshold, quantified using receiver operating characteristic curves. Collectively, our results suggest that modifying the processing of fMRI data to incorporate both task-based and spontaneous activity significantly improves functional localization in pre-operative patients. Because this method requires no additional scan time or modification to conventional pre-operative data acquisition protocols it could have widespread utility. PMID:26408860

  19. Effects of Phonological Input as a Pre-Listening Activity on Vocabulary Learning and L2 Listening Comprehension Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre­-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-­year students at a Japanese university. There were two…

  20. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  1. An Examination of Undergraduates' Metacognitive Strategies in Pre-Class Asynchronous Activity in a Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Rabia M.; Baydas, Ozlem

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine undergraduate students' awareness of metacognition, the metacognitive strategies they use in their learning and their learning performance in pre-class asynchronous activity in a flipped classroom. The sample consisted of 47 undergraduate students. Eleven students were not included in this study since they did…

  2. Does leisure time physical activity in early pregnancy protect against pre-eclampsia? Prospective cohort in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, M L; Strøm, M; Klemmensen, A K

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between physical activity in early pregnancy and risk of pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 85,139 pregnant Danish women, recruited between 1996 and 2002. METHODS: The authors assessed leisure time physical...

  3. Singularity in the positive Hall coeffcient near pre-onset temperatures in high-Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, G. C.; Chen, M. F.; Craver, F.; Moon, B. M.; Safari, A.; Burke, T.; Stanley, W.

    1990-10-01

    Hall measurements using continuous extremely slow cooling and reheating rates as well as employing eqiulibrium point-by-point conventional techniques reveals a clear anomally in RH at pre-onset temperatures near Tc in polycrystalline samples Y1Ba2Cu3O7 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10. The anomaly has the appearance of a singularity of Dirac-delta function which parallels earlier work on La1-xSrxCuO4. Recent single crystal work on the Bi-containing high-Tc superconductor is in accord with a clearcut anomaly. The singularity is tentatively interpreted to be associated (upon cooling) with initially the removal of positive holes from the hopping conduction system of the normal state such as from the increased concentration of bound virtual excitons due to increased exciton and hole lifetimes at low temperature. Subsequently the formation of Cooper pairs by mediation from these centers (bound-holes) and/or bound excitons) may cause an ionization of these bound virtual excitons thereby re-introducing holes and electrons into the conduction system at Tc.

  4. High relative humidity pre-harvest reduces post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Giurcanu, Mihai C; Hochmuth, George J; Speybroeck, Niko; Havelaar, Arie H; Teplitski, Max

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of human illness caused by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella are increasingly linked to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Knowledge on the factors affecting Salmonella proliferation on fresh produce therefore becomes increasingly important to safeguard public health. Previous experiments showed a limited impact of pre-harvest production practices on Salmonella proliferation on tomatoes, but suggested a significant effect of harvest time. We explored the data from two previously published and one unpublished experiment using regression trees, which allowed overcoming the interpretational difficulties of classical statistical models with higher order interactions. We assessed the effect of harvest time by explicitly modeling the climatic conditions at harvest time and by performing confirmatory laboratory experiments. Across all datasets, regression trees confirmed the dominant effect of harvest time on Salmonella proliferation, with humidity-related factors emerging as the most important underlying climatic factors. High relative humidity the week prior to harvest was consistently associated with lower Salmonella proliferation. A controlled lab experiment confirmed that tomatoes containing their native epimicrobiota supported significantly lower Salmonella proliferation when incubated at higher humidity prior to inoculation. The complex interactions between environmental conditions and the native microbiota of the tomato crop remain to be fully understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Perception toward Hands-on Lab Activity and 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. H.; Risdianto, E.; Sutarno, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the hands-on lab activities and 21st century skills of pre-service physics teachers at a university in Bengkulu. The respondents of this study were 113 students who have been finished and were following the laboratory course. The research instrument was questionnaire. The explored aspects of laboratory activities were motivation, the importance of laboratory activities, equipment, laboratory activities process, suitability of curriculum, assessment, laboratory design, and the 21st century skills training. The 21st century skills explored consist of learning and innovation skills, life and careers skills, and media, information and technology skills. The data obtained will be analyzed descriptively. Based on the results of data analysis was obtained that they have a good perception toward the aspect of motivation, the importance of hands-on lab activities, and laboratory activities process; and the perception was fair for other aspects. The lowest perception score was obtained in the aspects of the 21st century skills training. This result was in accordance with the 21st century skills of pre-service physics teachers which were still in moderate category. So it is necessary to develop a model of laboratory activities design that can training and enhancing the 21st century skills for pre-service physics teachers.

  6. Pre-study on the Berlin-Budapest high-speed rail link; Hochgeschwindigkeitsverkehr: Vorstudie zur Strecke Berlin-Budapest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fengler, W.; Stehle, J. [TU Dresden (Germany). Fakultaet Verkehrswissenschaften ' ' Friedrich List' ' ; Schach, R. [TU Dresden (Germany). Fakultaet Bauingenieurwesen; Stephan, A. [Inst. fuer Bahntechnik GmbH, Dresden/Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In a pre-study, the Government of the State of Saxony commissioned a comparison between wheel/rail and maglev technology for high-speed operations on the northern section of the pan-European Corridor IV. From the holistic perspective of the business evaluation and the expected economic impact, it can be concluded that there is a case for establishing a guided high-speed link between Berlin and Budapest and that the plan should be pursued further. Teh pre-study showed that, taking a comprehensive view of investment and operational aspects, the Transrapid technology already stands comparison with wheel/rail technology. (orig.)

  7. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  8. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  9. High risk men's perceptions of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Miree, Cheryl A; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Zhao, Xiuhua; Friedman, Susan; Yi, Susan; Mayer, James

    2010-10-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an assisted reproductive technology procedure which provides parents with the option of conducting genetic analyses to determine if a mutation is present in an embryo. Though studies have discussed perceptions of PGD from a general population, couples or high-risk women, no studies to date have specifically examined PGD usage among men. This study sought to explore perceptions and attitudes towards PGD among males who either carry a BRCA mutation or have a partner or first degree relative with a BRCA mutation. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 228 men visiting the Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered or Craigslist website. Eligibility criteria included men who self-reported they had been tested for a BRCA mutation or had a partner or first degree relative tested for a BRCA mutation. A 41-item survey assessed socio-demographic, clinical characteristics, PGD knowledge and attitudinal factors and consideration of the use of PGD. Differences in proportions of subgroups were tested using the Monte Carlo exact test for categorical data. A multiple logistic regression model was then built through a backward elimination procedure. Although 80% of men reported being previously unfamiliar with PGD, after learning the definition of PGD, 34% of the 228 respondents then said they would 'ever consider the use of PGD'. Respondents who thought of PGD only in terms of 'health and safety' were almost three times more likely (OR = 2.82; 95% 1.19-6.71) to 'ever consider the use of PGD' compared with respondents who thought of PGD in terms of both 'health and safety', and 'religion and morality'. As with other anonymous web-based surveys, we cannot verify clinical characteristics that may impact consideration of PGD use. Our findings indicate high-risk men need more information about PGD and may benefit from educational materials to assist them in reproductive decision-making.

  10. Comparison Between Pre-Exhaustion and Traditional Exercise Order on Muscle Activation and Performance in Trained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Enrico Gori; Brown, Lee E.; Gomes, Willy Andrade; Corrêa, Daniel Alves; Serpa, Érica Paes; da Silva, Josinaldo Jarbas; Junior, Guanis de Barros Vilela; Fioravanti, Gustavo zorzi; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects of pre-exhaustion vs. traditional exercise order on neuromuscular performance and sEMG in trained men. Fourteen young, healthy, resistance trained men (age: 25.5 ± 4.0 years, height: 174.9 ± 4.1 cm, and total body mass: 80.0 ± 11.1 kg) took part of this study. All tests were randomized and counterbalanced for all subjects and experimental conditions. Volunteers attended one session in the laboratory. First, they performed ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests for each exercise (bench press and triceps pushdown) separately. Secondly, they performed all three conditions at 10RM: pre-test (bench press and triceps pushdown, separately), pre-exhaustion (triceps pushdown+bench press, PE) and traditional (bench press+triceps pushdown, TR), and rested 30 minutes between conditions. Results showed that pre-test was significantly greater than PE (p = 0.031) but not different than TR, for total volume load lifted. There was a significant difference between the pre-test and the time-course of lactate measures (p = 0.07). For bench press muscle activity of the pectoralis major, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). Also, for muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.001, PE: p = 0.005, and TR: p = 0.006). For triceps pushdown, muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). For RPE, there were no significant differences between PE and TR (p = 0.15). Our results suggest that exercise order decreases repetitions performed, however, neuromuscular fatigue, lactate, and RPE are not impacted. The lack of difference in total volume load lifted between PE and TR might explain, at least in part, the similar metabolic and perceptual

  11. Comparison of Pulmonary Functions, Physical Activity Level and Quality of Life in Obese and Pre-Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Aktan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are studies regarding pulmonary functions of obese individuals in literature; however, there is insufficient data regarding pre-obese individuals. This study aimed to compare the pulmonary functions, physical activity levels, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL of obese and pre-obese individuals. Methods: The characteristics of 62 subjects participating in the study were recorded All subjects were evaluated using pulmonary function tests (PFT, short form-36 health survey (SF-36, obesity and weight loss quality of life measure (OWLQOL, international physical activity questionnaires (IPAQ, and modified medical research council (mMRC scale. Results: The severity of perceived dyspnea in obese subjects was significantly higher than that in pre-obese subjects. The PFT parameters (FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF25–75, FEF25–75%, MVV, and MVV% were significantly lower in obese subjects. Although individuals in both groups were inactive, the inactivity levels in obese subjects were significantly higher. HRQOL scores were significantly lower in obese individuals. The body mass index (BMI was significantly correlated with dyspnea severity, SF-36 subscores, OWLQOL scores, and PFT parameters. Conclusion: While an increasing BMI has an adverse effect on the pulmonary functions of pre-obese individuals, increased BMI coupled with reduced pulmonary functions causes a decrease in the physical activity levels and reduces HRQOL of obese individuals.

  12. Weight gain in healthy pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2015-07-01

    to explore gestational weight gain in healthy women in relation to pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet and physical activity. a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages receiving antenatal care from an independent midwife in the Netherlands. Weight gain was assessed using the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and classified as below, within, or above the guidelines. A multinomial regression analysis was performed with weight gain classifications as the dependent variable (within IOM-guidelines as reference). Independent variables were pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet (broken down into consumption of vegetables, fruit and fish) and physical activity (motivation to engage in physical activity, pre-pregnancy physical activity and decline in physical activity during pregnancy). Covariates were age, gestational age, parity, ethnicity, family income, education, perceived sleep deprivation, satisfaction with pre-pregnancy weight, estimated prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, having a weight gain goal and having received weight gain advice from the midwife. forty-two per cent of the women surveyed gained weight within the guidelines. Fourteen per cent of the women gained weight below the guidelines and 44 per cent gained weight above the guidelines. Weight gain within the guidelines, compared to both above and below the guidelines, was not associated with pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index nor with diet. A decline in physical activity was associated with weight gain above the guidelines (OR 0.54, 95 per cent CI 0.33-0.89). Weight gain below the guidelines was seen more often in women who perceived a greater sleep deprivation (OR 1.20, 95 per cent CI 1.02-1.41). Weight gain above the guidelines was seen less often in Caucasian women in comparison to non-Caucasian women (OR 0.22, 95 per cent CI 0.08-0.56) and with women who did not stop smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.49, 95 per cent CI 0.25-0.95). a decline in

  13. [Maternal metabolic diseases related to pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in mexican women with high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Higareda, Salvador; Pérez-Pérez, Omar-Alejandro; Balderas-Peña, Luz-Ma-Adriana; Martínez-Herrera, Brenda-Eugenia; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana-Leticia; Ramírez-Conchas, Rosa-Emilia

    Pre-pregnancy obesity has been proposed as a risk factor related to gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Identify pregnancy related diseases associated with pre-pregnancy obesity as a risk factor ina high risk preganancy patient population. 600 patients whose pre-pregnancy obesity had been assessed as a high risk factor were included in the study. The means, standard deviation, median, interquartile intervals, Pearson and Spearman correlation and logistic regression to estimate risk with the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The mean pre-pregnancy body mass index was 29.59 ± 6.42 kg/m 2 . The mean for recommended pregnancy weight gain was 2.31 ± 1.03 kg, but the mean of real weight gain was 8.91 ± 6.84 kg. A significant correlation between pre-pregnancy obesity and family history of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000), systemic hypertension (p=0.003), cardiac diseases (p=0.000), dyslipidemia (p=0.000) and obesity (p=0.000) was identified. Pre-pregnancy obesity was identified as a risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes (OR: 1.95; IC95%: 1.39 to 2.76; p=0.000) in this kind of patient. 75% of high risk pregnancy women in a high specialty hospital in West Mexico are overweight or obese when they become pregnant. These are risk factors in the development of gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of motor learning and fatigue on pre-activation of the lower extremity muscles during different jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamelska, Anna M; Kot, Bartosz

    2017-09-22

    The first step in identifying risk factors for injuries is to characterize the myoelectric activity of different muscles after ground contact, especially when fatigue is a limiting factor. This study aimed at: (a) recording the myoelectric activity of calf muscles after ground contact during different types of jumps and (b) investigating the effect of motor learning and fatigue on muscle pre-activation. Twenty four male students aged 24.3 ± 1.2 years old performed three different motor activities: (a) Jump from a box with counter landing (JCL) on 30x30 cm plate (b) Drop jump with bounce drop jump (BDJ) and (c) BDJ followed by a jump on 51-cm step. The surface EMG was used to examine the following muscles: m. tibialis anterior (TA), m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM), m. gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), and m. soleus (S). The measurements were taken during different jumps before and after motor learning and fatigue stimulus. There were significant differences in pre-activation for TA between JCL and BDJ followed by a jump under the influence of fatigue (p<0.05). The differences were observed also during BDJ between non-fatigued and fatigued conditions. There was a statistically significant difference for GL between BDJ pre- and post-movement motor learning and BDJ pre- and post-fatigue influence. Current results indicate that myoelectric activity of muscles during motor activities is different, and the effect of motor learning and fatigue was shown. Thus, it could be important in the injury prevention in sport.

  15. PRE-CONCENTRATION AND DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS ON MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBON IN REAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and simple method for the simultaneous pre-concentration of nutritionally important minerals in real samples has been reported. The method is based on the formation of metal complexes by N, N'-diacetyl-4-bromo-2, 6-di (aminomethyl phenol (DBDP loaded on activated carbon. The metals content on the complexes are then eluted using 6mL 4M HNO3, which are detected by AAS at resonance line. In this procedure, minerals such as Ni, Cu, Co, Pb Zn and Cd can be analyzed in one run by caring out the simultaneous separation and quantification of them. At optimum condition the response are linear over concentration range of for 0.03-1.1 µg mL-1 for Ni2+ , 0.03-1.0 µg mL-1 for Cu2+, 0.02-1.0 µg mL-1 for  Pb2+ , 0.02-1.0 µg mL-1 for  Co2+,0.02-1.1 µg mL-1 Zn2+ and 0.05-1.3 µg mL-1for Cd2+. The detection limits of each element are expressed as the amount of analytes in µg mL-1 giving a signal to noise ratio of 3 are equal to 2.5, 2.4, 1.6, 2.4, 1.9 and 2.1 for Ni2+ , Cu2+, Pb2+ , Co2+,Zn2+ and Cd2+. The ability of method for repeatable recovery of trace ion are 99.9, 98.7, 99.2 , 98.7, 98.5and 95.6 with R.S.D of 1.3, 1.4, 1.2, 1.4, 1.7 and 1.4 for Ni2+ , Cu2+, Pb2+ , Co2+,Zn2+ and Cd2+. The method has been successfully applied for these metals content evaluation in some real samples including natural water and vegetable.     Keywords: Heavy Metals, N, N'-diacetyl-4-bromo-2,6-di(aminomethyl phenol (DBDP, Activated Carbon

  16. Serum markers of macrophage activation in pre-eclampsia: no predictive value of soluble CD163 and neopterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Camilla S; Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Moestrup, Søren K

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alternatively activated macrophages expressing the CD163 and CD206 surface receptors are the dominant immune-cell type found in the placenta. The placental number and distribution of macrophages is altered in pre-eclampsia, and the generalised inflammatory reaction associated with pre-eclampsia...... might lead to shedding of soluble CD163 into the circulation. METHODS: Serum samples from 18 women with pre-eclampsia and 90 normal pregnancies were obtained from a longitudinal study of 955 pregnant women at Randers County Hospital, Denmark. sCD163 and Neopterin were measured by ELISA on samples....... Neopterin increased throughout pregnancy in both healthy (from median 5.4 to 6.7 nmol/l, ppre-eclampsia...

  17. Probing Pre-Galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. Y.; Bromm, Volker; Greif, Thomas H.; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z. G.; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp -3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp -3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may

  18. Characterizing Design Cognition of High School Students: Initial Analyses Comparing Those with and without Pre-Engineering Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John; Lammi, Matthew; Gero, John; Grubbs, Michael E.; Paretti, Marie; Williams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Reported in this article are initial results from of a longitudinal study to characterize the design cognition and cognitive design styles of high school students with and without pre-engineering course experience over a 2-year period, and to compare them with undergraduate engineering students. The research followed a verbal protocol analysis…

  19. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  20. Identifying Pre-High School Students' Science Class Motivation Profiles to Increase Their Science Identification and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittum, Jessica R.; Jones, Brett D.

    2017-01-01

    One purpose of this study was to determine whether patterns existed in pre-high school students' motivation-related perceptions of their science classes. Another purpose was to examine the extent to which these patterns were related to their science identification, gender, grade level, class effort, and intentions to persist in science. We…

  1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadery, S.; Geerlings, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    The global incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased by 15% over the past years, but is still too high. Despite current programs to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, further approaches are needed to limit this epidemic. Oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis

  2. GAP pre-polymer, as an energetic binder and high performance additive for propellants and explosives: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet S. Eroglu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In preparation of energetic composite formulations, functionally terminated pre-polymers have been used as binder. After physically mixing the pre-polymers with oxidizing components, metallic fuel, burning rate modifier and other minor ingredients, they are cured with a suitable curing agent to provide physical and chemical stability. These pre-polymers could be functionalized with carboxyl, epoxide or hydroxyl groups at varying average chain functionalities. For carboxyl-terminated pre-polymers, an epoxy functional curing agents could be used. If the pre-polymer possesses hydroxyl groups, isocyanate functional curing agents are the most suitable curing agents in terms of easy and efficient processing. Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP is one of the well-known low-molecular weight energetic liquid pre-polymer, which was developed to use as energetic binder, high performance additive and gas generator for high performance smokeless composite propellant and explosive formulations. Linear or branched GAP can be synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of corresponding poly(epichlorohydrin (PECH with sodium azide through replacement of chloromethyl groups of PECH with pendant energetic azido-methyl groups on the polyether main chain. Positive heat of formation (+957 kJ/kg enables exothermic and rapid decomposition of GAP producing fuel rich gases. Its polyether main chain provides GAP with relatively low glass transition temperature (Tg= - 48 oC and presence of hydroxyl functional groups allows it to have easy processing in curing with isocyanate curing agents to form covalently crosslinked polyurethane structure. These outstanding properties of GAP enable it to be used as energetic polymeric binder and high performance additive in preparation of energetic materials and low vulnerable explosives.

  3. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other trace elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  4. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.; Bowman, W.W.; Zeh, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  5. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  6. Enclosure for handling high activity materials abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.; Dominguez Rodriguez, G.; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Rodriguez Esteban, A.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With that purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. A description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (author) [es

  7. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  8. Management of synchronized network activity by highly active neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shein, Mark; Raichman, Nadav; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Volman, Vladislav; Hanein, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the idea that spontaneous brain activity may have an important functional role. Cultured neuronal networks provide a suitable model system to search for the mechanisms by which neuronal spontaneous activity is maintained and regulated. This activity is marked by synchronized bursting events (SBEs)—short time windows (hundreds of milliseconds) of rapid neuronal firing separated by long quiescent periods (seconds). However, there exists a special subset of rapidly firing neurons whose activity also persists between SBEs. It has been proposed that these highly active (HA) neurons play an important role in the management (i.e. establishment, maintenance and regulation) of the synchronized network activity. Here, we studied the dynamical properties and the functional role of HA neurons in homogeneous and engineered networks, during early network development, upon recovery from chemical inhibition and in response to electrical stimulations. We found that their sequences of inter-spike intervals (ISI) exhibit long time correlations and a unimodal distribution. During the network's development and under intense inhibition, the observed activity follows a transition period during which mostly HA neurons are active. Studying networks with engineered geometry, we found that HA neurons are precursors (the first to fire) of the spontaneous SBEs and are more responsive to electrical stimulations

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT ON TAPIOCA WASTEWATER PRE-CHLORINATION TOWARD EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Mulyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to study about influence of calcium hypochlorite dosage adjustment on tapioca wastewater chlorination toward efficiency of activated sludge treatment especially at MLVSS profile and percentage of COD removal. This research mainly divided into pre-chlorination and activated sludge treatment. Pre-chlorination taken place for 60 minutes at pH 8. The variation of calcium hypochlorite dosages which used are 58, 59, and 60 mg/L. Pre-chlorination effluent with no free chlorine residual then becomes activated sludge treatment influent. Sampling has done each aeration time interval 0, 2, 4, and 6 hour for analysis of COD and MLVSS content. Research result generally shows that addition of aeration time for each variation of calcium hypochlorite dosage will increase MLVSS and decrease COD content. Smallest value of COD effluent could achieved in the activated sludge treatment with calcium hipochlorite dosage 60 mg/L addition at influent during 4 hours aeration time. Addition of 58 mg/l calcium hypochlorite results highest MLVSS and percentage of COD removal.

  10. The influence of whole-body vs. torso pre-cooling on physiological strain and performance of high-intensity exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleivert, G G; Cotter, J D; Roberts, W S; Febbraio, M A

    2001-04-01

    Little research has been reported examining the effects of pre-cooling on high-intensity exercise performance, particularly when combined with strategies to keep the working muscle warm. This study used nine active males to determine the effects of pre-cooling the torso and thighs (LC), pre-cooling the torso (ice-vest in 3 degrees C air) while keeping the thighs warm (LW), or no cooling (CON: 31 degrees C air), on physiological strain and high-intensity (45-s) exercise performance (33 degrees C, 60% rh). Furthermore, we sought to determine whether performance after pre-cooling was influenced by a short exercise warm-up. The 45-s test was performed at different (PForearm blood flow prior to exercise was also lower in LC (3.1+/-2.0 ml 100 ml tissue(-1) x min(-1)) than CON (8.2+/-2.5, P=0.01) but not LW (4.3+/-2.6, P=0.46). After an exercise warm-up, muscle temperature (Tm) was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 37.3+/-1.5, LW: 37.3+/-1.2, LC: 36.6+/-0.7 degrees C, P=0.16) but when warm-up was excluded, T(m) was lower in LC (34.5+/-1.9 degrees C, P=0.02) than in CON (37.3+/-1.0) and LW (37.1+/-0.9). Even when a warm-up was performed, torso+thigh pre-cooling decreased both peak (-3.4+/-3.8%, P=0.04) and mean power output (-4.1+/-3.8%, P=0.01) relative to the control, but this effect was markedly larger when warm-up was excluded (peak power -7.7+/-2.5%, P=0.01; mean power -7.6+/-1.2%, P=0.01). Torso-only pre-cooling did not reduce peak or mean power, either with or without warm-up. These data indicate that pre-cooling does not improve 45-s high-intensity exercise performance, and can impair performance if the working muscles are cooled. A short exercise warm-up largely removes any detrimental effects of a cold muscle on performance by increasing Tm.

  11. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Pre-Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    of staff with a pedagogic education, and a higher share of teachers with non-Danish ethnic background lead to significant improvements in children’s test results in Danish at the end of the 9th grade. Boys benefit more from pre-school quality than girls. We address possible selectivity by using...

  12. Developing a Pre-Engineering Curriculum for 3D Printing Skills for High School Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Hung

    2017-01-01

    This study developed an integrated-STEM CO[subscript 2] dragster design course using 3D printing technology. After developing a pre-engineering curriculum, we conducted a teaching experiment to assess students' differences in creativity, race forecast accuracy, and learning performance. We compared student performance in both 3D printing and…

  13. High School Pre-Engineering Programs: Do They Contribute to College Retention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Belinda; High, Karen; Weinland, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the retention of students in the College of Engineering, Architecture and Technology at Oklahoma State University that enter college with a defined course sequence in a pre-engineering program from a regional career technology center as compared with the retention rates of university engineering students for the same time…

  14. Pre-coating of LSCM perovskite with metal catalyst for scalable high performance anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir; Cassidy, Mark; Djurado, Elisabeth; Irvine, John Ts S; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    then dispersed into organic based vehicles to form a screen-printable ink which was deposited and fired to form SOFC anode layers. Electrochemical tests show a considerable enhancement of the pre-coated anode performances under 50 ml/min wet H2 flow

  15. A Pre-Engineering Program Using Robots to Attract Underrepresented High School and Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Pauline Helen; Liu, Yun; Hargrove, S. Keith; Doswell, Jayfus T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a new pre-engineering program--Robotics Technician Curriculum--that uses robots to solicit underrepresented students pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The curriculum uses a project-based learning environment, which consists of part lecture and part laboratory. This program…

  16. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...... risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than...... recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement: What is already known on this subject: Previous studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed...

  17. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingdan; Qian, Hongmei; Chen, Lili; Sun, Bo; Chang, Jiaqi; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main healthy phytochemicals as well as antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage were investigated. 6-day-old sprouts were treated by red light for 24h before harvest and sampled for further analysis of nutritional quality on the first, second and third day after harvest. The results indicated that red light exposure notably postponed the degradation of aliphatic, indole, and total glucosinolates during postharvest storage. The vitamin C level was remarkably higher in red light treated sprouts on the first and second day after harvest when compared with the control. In addition, red light treatment also enhanced the accumulation of total phenolics and maintained higher level of antioxidant activity than the control. All above results suggested that pre-harvest red light treatment might provide a new strategy to maintain the nutritive value of Chinese kale sprouts during postharvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impacts of Mathematical Representations Developed through Webquest and Spreadsheet Activities on the Motivation of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halat, Erdogan; Peker, Murat

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of instruction using WebQuest activities with the influence of an instruction using spreadsheet activities on the motivation of pre-service elementary school teachers in mathematics teaching course. There were a total of 70 pre-service elementary school teachers involved in this study. Thirty…

  19. Teaching Active Listening Skills to Pre-Service Speech-Language Pathologists: A First Step in Supporting Collaboration with Parents of Young Children Who Require AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Jennifer J.; McNaughton, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of instruction in an active listening strategy on the communication skills of pre-service speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: Twenty-three pre-service SLPs in their 2nd year of graduate study received a brief strategy instruction in active listening skills. Participants were videotaped during a…

  20. Perceived stigma and highly active antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stigma and highly active antiretroviral treatment adherence among persons living with HIV/AIDS in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. ... Data on socio-demographic characteristics, stigma and adherence to drug regimen were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Data were ...

  1. Disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the deep sea ocean disposal for high-activity nuclear wastes. The following topics are covered: effect of ionizing radiation on marine ecosystems; pathways by which radionuclides are transferred to man from the marine environment; information about releases of radioactivity to the sea; radiological protection; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes and information needs. (U.K.)

  2. Students’ Perception on Pre-reading Activities in Basic Reading II Class of the English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindy Cahya Ekaningrum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The students’ perception on the teacher instruction shows whether the teaching techniques meet the students’ need or not. Because of this reason, the researcher wants to find out the varieties of pre-reading activities used by the teacher and the students’ perception on the implementation of the pre-reading activities. There were two problem formulations in this study: 1 What kinds of pre-reading activities that are used by Basic Reading II teacher in the English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University? 2 How is the students’ perception on pre-reading activities used by the teacher? This research was a survey research. In gathering the data, there were two instruments used in this research. They were interview and questionnaire. The interview was done by interviewing the teacher of Basic Reading II Class. The interview was used to answer the first research question about the varieties of pre-reading activities in Basic Reading II class. Then, the researcher distributed the questionnaire to 56 students of Basic Reading II class. The questionnaire was used to answer the second research question about the students’ perception on pre-reading activities used by the teacher. The result of this research showed that brainstorming, pre-teaching vocabulary, pre-questioning, visual aids, and KWL strategy were the varieties of pre-reading activities used by the teacher. There were two different implementation of pre-teaching vocabulary. There were also two activities combined together, they were the use of visual aids and KWL strategy. The students had positive perception on the implementation of pre-reading activities in Basic Reading II Class.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180206

  3. High serum interleukin-8 levels in Afro-Caribbean women with pre-eclampsia. Relations with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Duffy negative phenotype and von Willebrand factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; Muskiet, FAJ; van der Dijs, FPL; Duits, AJ

    PROBLEM: Pre-eclampsia is characterized by neutrophil activation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a strong neutrophil chemo-attractant and activator. METHOD OF STUDY: We measured serum IL-8 in 13 pre-eclamptic Afro-Caribbean women and 13 gestational age-, race- and parity-matched normotensive and

  4. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions

  5. Combining task-evoked and spontaneous activity to improve pre-operative brain mapping with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael D; Qian, Tianyi; Madsen, Joseph R; Wang, Danhong; Li, Meiling; Ge, Manling; Zuo, Huan-Cong; Groppe, David M; Mehta, Ashesh D; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive localization of brain function is used to understand and treat neurological disease, exemplified by pre-operative fMRI mapping prior to neurosurgical intervention. The principal approach for generating these maps relies on brain responses evoked by a task and, despite known limitations, has dominated clinical practice for over 20years. Recently, pre-operative fMRI mapping based on correlations in spontaneous brain activity has been demonstrated, however this approach has its own limitations and has not seen widespread clinical use. Here we show that spontaneous and task-based mapping can be performed together using the same pre-operative fMRI data, provide complimentary information relevant for functional localization, and can be combined to improve identification of eloquent motor cortex. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of our approach are quantified through comparison with electrical cortical stimulation mapping in eight patients with intractable epilepsy. Broad applicability and reproducibility of our approach are demonstrated through prospective replication in an independent dataset of six patients from a different center. In both cohorts and every individual patient, we see a significant improvement in signal to noise and mapping accuracy independent of threshold, quantified using receiver operating characteristic curves. Collectively, our results suggest that modifying the processing of fMRI data to incorporate both task-based and spontaneous activity significantly improves functional localization in pre-operative patients. Because this method requires no additional scan time or modification to conventional pre-operative data acquisition protocols it could have widespread utility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Erythrocytic cation transport receptor numbers and activity in pregnancies complicated by essential hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

    OpenAIRE

    Aronson, J K; Moore, M P; Redman, C W; Harper, C

    1984-01-01

    Various functions of erythrocytic cation transport were studied in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancy (women with pre-eclampsia and essential hypertension). The results showed that in pregnancy there is an increase in the number of erythrocytic glycoside binding sites accompanied by a proportional increase in the active inward transport of rubidium (used as a substitute for potassium). There was no evidence of an effect of pregnancy on intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations. These chang...

  7. Quality assurance of pre-operative assessment--a review of quality assurance activities related to pre-operative assessment in nine hospitals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klazinga, N. S.; Helsloot, R.

    1989-01-01

    Pre-operative assessment of patients for surgery is one of the most prevalent topics for quality assurance by peer-review in Dutch hospitals. This article describes the experiences with pre-operative assessment in nine hospitals. It is discussed why preoperative assessment is performed, what tests

  8. Pre-hospital physical activity status affects in-hospital course of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Takamichi; Obayashi, Tohru; Hattori, Eijirou; Yamauchi, Yasuteru; Niwa, Akihiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2010-03-01

    The clinical course of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can sometimes unexpectedly result in an adverse outcome even when therapy appears to be successful. We suspect that specific factors may characterize this worsening of status during hospitalization. This study examines whether the pre-hospital physical activity status of the elderly treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for AMI affects their in-hospital course. We studied 110 consecutive patients, aged 80 or older, who had undergone emergent PCI for AMI. Patients were divided into two groups based on clinical presentation: Better Killip class (Killip classes I and II) and Worse Killip class (Killip classes III and IV). Patients were also divided into two groups based on pre-hospital physical activity status, determined retrospectively by review of medical records: Good physical activity (n=57) comprising those able to go out alone independently and Poor physical activity comprising those mainly confined to home (n=53). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 9.1% for the study population. The Worse Killip class group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the Better Killip class group (27.8% vs 5.4%, respectively; p=0.0102). In addition, the Poor physical activity group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the Good physical activity group (15.1% vs. 3.5%, respectively; p=0.047). These data suggest that pre-hospital physical activity status in elderly patients with AMI may affect in-hospital mortality as well as Killip class.

  9. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    OpenAIRE

    Reka Palanivel; Thahira Banu Azeez; Seethalakshmi Muthaya

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015). Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase...

  10. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  11. IAEA high temperature gas cooled reactor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    IAEA activities on high temperature gas cooled reactors are conducted with the review and support of Member States, primarily through the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR). This paper summarises the results of the IAEA gas cooled reactor project activities in recent years along with ongoing current activities through a review of Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs), meetings and other international efforts. A series of three recently completed CRPs have addressed the key areas of reactor physics for LEU fuel, retention of fission products, and removal of post shutdown decay heat through passive heat transport mechanisms. These activities along with other completed and ongoing supporting CRPs and meetings are summarised with reference to detailed documentation of the results. (author)

  12. Manipulation of pre-target activity on the right frontal eye field enhances conscious visual perception in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Chanes

    Full Text Available The right Frontal Eye Field (FEF is a region of the human brain, which has been consistently involved in visuo-spatial attention and access to consciousness. Nonetheless, the extent of this cortical site's ability to influence specific aspects of visual performance remains debated. We hereby manipulated pre-target activity on the right FEF and explored its influence on the detection and categorization of low-contrast near-threshold visual stimuli. Our data show that pre-target frontal neurostimulation has the potential when used alone to induce enhancements of conscious visual detection. More interestingly, when FEF stimulation was combined with visuo-spatial cues, improvements remained present only for trials in which the cue correctly predicted the location of the subsequent target. Our data provide evidence for the causal role of the right FEF pre-target activity in the modulation of human conscious vision and reveal the dependence of such neurostimulatory effects on the state of activity set up by cue validity in the dorsal attentional orienting network.

  13. The use of high impact practices (HIPs) on chemistry lesson design and implementation by pre-service teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamrat, Suthida; Apichatyotin, Nattaya; Puakanokhirun, Kittaporn

    2018-01-01

    The quality of lesson design is essential to learning effectiveness. Research shows some characteristics of lessons have strong effect on learning which were grouped into "High Impact Practices or HIPs. This research aims to examine the use of HIPs on chemistry lesson design as a part of Teaching Science Strand in Chemistry Concepts course. At the first round of lesson design and implementing in classroom, 14 chemistry pre-services teachers freely selected topics, designed and implemented on their own ideas. The lessons have been reflected by instructors and their peers. High Impact Practices were overtly used as the conceptual framework along with the After-Action Review and Reflection (AARR). The selected High Impact practice in this study consisted of 6 elements: well-designed lesson, vary cognitive demand/academic challenge, students center approach, opportunity of students to reflect by discussion or writing, the assignment of project based learning or task, and the lesson reflects pre-service teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). The second round, pre-service teachers were encouraged to explicitly used 6 High Impact Practices in cooperated with literature review specified on focused concepts for bettering designed and implemented lessons. The data were collected from 28 lesson plans and 28 classroom observations to compare and discuss between the first and second lesson and implementation. The results indicated that High Impact Practices effect on the quality of delivered lesson. However, there are some elements that vary on changes which were detailed and discussed in this research article.

  14. A primary care based healthy-eating and active living education session for weight reduction in the pre-diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Daniala L; Johnson, Steven T; Mundt, Clark; Bray, Dianne; Taylor, Lorian; Eurich, Dean T; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of primary prevention strategies in type 2 diabetes, however, questions remain around the feasibility of high resource, intensive interventions within a healthcare setting. We report the results of a dietitian-led pre-diabetes education session targeting healthy eating and active living as strategies for weight reduction. Participants were asked to complete a baseline questionnaire prior to completing the pre-diabetes education session and were sent follow-up questionnaires at 3 and 6 months. Differences between participants at baseline, 3 and 6 months were determined using χ(2), t-tests and ANOVA. Of the 211 participants asked to fill out baseline questionnaires, 45 participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Although we observed general trends towards improvements in diet, physical activity and weight related behaviours among the 45 completers, no significant changes were observed among participants between questionnaire periods. A "one-off", theory-guided group education session may be insufficient to support lifestyle modifications in the context of weight management in a pre-diabetic population. Further evaluation of the efficacy and feasibility of the PCN as a setting for lifestyle intervention is required. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MEG time-frequency analyses for pre- and post-surgical evaluation of patients with epileptic rhythmic fast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Keitaro; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Nakane, Shingo; Asahina, Naoko; Kohsaka, Shinobu; Nakama, Hideyuki; Otsuki, Taisuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Saitoh, Shinji

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of surgery for epilepsy, we analyzed rhythmic fast activity by magnetoencephalography (MEG) before and after surgery using time-frequency analysis. To assess reliability, the results obtained by pre-surgical MEG and intraoperative electrocorticography were compared. Four children with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy caused by circumscribed cortical lesion were examined in the present study using 204-channel helmet-shaped MEG with a sampling rate of 600Hz. One patient had dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) and three patients had focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Aberrant areas were superimposed, to reconstruct 3D MRI images, and illustrated as moving images. In three patients, short-time Fourier transform (STFT) analyses of MEG showed rhythmic activities just above the lesion with FCD and in the vicinity of DNT. In one patient with FCD in the medial temporal lobe, rhythmic activity appeared in the ipsilateral frontal lobe and temporal lateral aspect. These findings correlate well with the results obtained by intraoperative electrocorticography. After the surgery, three patients were relieved of their seizures, and the area of rhythmic MEG activity disappeared or become smaller. One patient had residual rhythmic MEG activity, and she suffered from seizure relapse. Time-frequency analyses using STFT successfully depicted MEG rhythmic fast activity, and would provide valuable information for pre- and post-surgical evaluations to define surgical strategies for patients with epilepsy.

  16. Active case finding and treatment adherence in risk groups in the tuberculosis pre-elimination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Lipman, M; Story, A; Hayward, A; de Vries, G; van Hest, R; Erkens, C; Rangaka, M X; Abubakar, I

    2018-05-01

    Vulnerable populations, including homeless persons, high-risk drug and alcohol users, prison inmates and other marginalised populations, contribute a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis (TB) cases in low-incidence settings. Drivers of this disease burden include an increased risk of both TB transmission in congregate settings, and progression from infection to active disease. Late diagnosis and poor treatment completion further propagate the epidemic and fuel the acquisition of drug resistance. These groups are therefore a major priority for TB control programmes in low-incidence settings. Targeted strategies include active case finding (ACF) initiatives and interventions to improve treatment completion, both of which should be tailored to local populations. ACF usually deploys mobile X-ray unit screening, which allows sensitive, high-throughput screening with immediate availability of results. Such initiatives have been found to be effective and cost-effective, and associated with reductions in proxy measures of transmission in hard-to-reach groups. The addition of point-of-care molecular diagnostics and automated X-ray readers may further streamline the screening pathway. There is little evidence to support interventions to improve adherence among these risk groups. Such approaches include enhanced case management and directly observed treatment, while video-observed therapy (currently under evaluation) appears to be a promising tool for the future. Integrating outreach services to include both case detection and case-management interventions that share a resource infrastructure may allow cost-effectiveness to be maximised. Integrating screening and treatment for other diseases that are prevalent among targeted risk groups into TB outreach interventions may further improve cost-effectiveness. This article reviews the existing literature, and highlights priorities for further research.

  17. Ammonia modification of activated carbon to enhance carbon dioxide adsorption: Effect of pre-oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafeeyan, Mohammad Saleh; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Houshmand, Amirhossein; Arami-Niya, Arash

    2011-02-01

    A commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) was subjected to thermal treatment with ammonia for obtaining an efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent. In general, CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon can be increased by introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities onto the carbon surface. In this work, the effect of oxygen surface groups before introduction of basic nitrogen functionalities to the carbon surface on CO2 adsorption capacity was investigated. For this purpose two different approaches of ammonia treatment without preliminary oxidation and amination of oxidized samples were studied. Modified carbons were characterized by elemental analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study the impact of changes in surface chemistry and formation of specific surface groups on adsorption properties. The texture of the samples was characterized by conducting N2 adsorption/desorption at -196 °C. CO2 capture performance of the samples was investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that in both modification techniques, the presence of nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface generally increased the CO2 adsorption capacity. The results indicated that oxidation followed by high temperature ammonia treatment (800 °C) considerably enhanced the CO2 uptake at higher temperatures.

  18. Work on the high voltage platform of the pre-injector of PS Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Henry Charmot adjusting the electronics of the ion source on a platform which, during operation, was at 520 kV to ground. The cage containing the electronics is opened by hydraulic jacks. Visible on the left is the ion source (pill box structure) attached to the corrugated acceleration column, where the protons pass from 520 kV to ground potential. See 7403120 and for more details on the pre-injector see 7403064X and 7403066X.

  19. Research of high speed data readout and pre-processing system based on xTCA for silicon pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingzhou; Lin Haichuan; Guo Fang; Liu Zhen'an; Xu Hao; Gong Wenxuan; Liu Zhao

    2012-01-01

    As the development of the detector, Silicon pixel detectors have been widely used in high energy physics experiments. It needs data processing system with high speed, high bandwidth and high availability to read data from silicon pixel detectors which generate more large data. The same question occurs on Belle II Pixel Detector which is a new style silicon pixel detector used in SuperKEKB accelerator with high luminance. The paper describes the research of High speed data readout and pre-processing system based on xTCA for silicon pixel detector. The system consists of High Performance Computer Node (HPCN) based on xTCA and ATCA frame. The HPCN consists of 4XFPs based on AMC, 1 AMC Carrier ATCA Board (ACAB) and 1 Rear Transmission Module. It characterized by 5 high performance FPGAs, 16 fiber links based on RocketIO, 5 Gbit Ethernet ports and DDR2 with capacity up to 18GB. In a ATCA frame, 14 HPCNs make up a system using the high speed backplane to achieve the function of data pre-processing and trigger. This system will be used on the trigger and data acquisition system of Belle II Pixel detector. (authors)

  20. Impact of biological activated carbon pre-treatment on the hydrophilic fraction of effluent organic matter for mitigating fouling in microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2017-07-24

    The hydrophilic (HPI) fraction of effluent organic matter, which has protein and carbohydrate contents, has a high propensity to foul low-pressure membranes. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was examined as a pre-treatment for reducing the fouling of a microfiltration (MF) membrane (0.1 µm PVDF) by the HPI organic fraction extracted from a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE). Although the BAC removed less dissolved organic carbon, carbohydrate and protein from the HPI fraction than the granular activated carbon treatment which was used for comparison, it led to better improvement in permeate flux. This was shown to be due to the removal/breakdown of the HPI fraction resulting in less deposition of these organics on the membrane, many components of which are high molecular weight biopolymers (such as protein and carbohydrate molecules) through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm and activated carbon. This study established the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing the HPI fouling of the membrane and thus improving the performance for the MF of BTSE for water reclamation.

  1. Origin of life: hypothesized roles of high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation, thermosynthesis and pre-photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that during the organization of pre-biotic bacterial cell(s), high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation (IR), thermosynthesis and possibly pre-photosynthesis were central to the origin of life. High-energy electrical discharges generated some simple organic molecules available for the origin of life. Infrared radiation, both incoming to the Earth and generated on the cooling Earth with day/night and warming/cooling cycles, was a component of heat engine thermosynthesis before enzymes and the genetic code were present. Eventually, a primitive forerunner of photosynthesis and the capability to capture visible light emerged. In addition, the dual particle-wave nature of light is discussed from the perspective that life requires light acting both as a wave and particle.

  2. Effect of pre-oxidation on high temperature sulfidation behavior of FeCr and FeCrAl alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillis Marina Fuser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature corrosion of structural alloys in sulfur bearing environments is many orders of magnitude higher than in oxidizing environments. Efforts to increase sulfidation resistance of these alloys include addition of alloying elements. Aluminum additions to iron-chromium alloys bring about increase in sulfidation resistance. This paper reports the effect of pre-oxidation on the sulfidation behavior of Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-5Al alloys in H2-2% H2S environment at 800 °C. The surfaces of sulfidized specimens were also examined. Pre-oxidation of the two alloys results in an incubation period during subsequent sulfidation. After this incubation period, the Fe-20Cr alloy showed sulfidation behavior similar to that when the alloy was not pre-oxidized. The incubation period during sulfidation of the Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy was significantly longer, over 45 h, compared to 2 h for the Al free alloy. Based on the microscopic and gravimetric data a mechanism for sulfidation of these alloys with pre-oxidation has been proposed.

  3. Active Construction of Profession-Related Events: The Priming Effect among Pre-service Teachers with Different Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Qiang; Zhu, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Lu; Chen, Xiang-Yu; Huo, Jun-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Pre-service teachers with different professional identity may actively construct different subjective profession-related events based on the same objective profession-related events. To explore the priming effect among pre-service teachers with different professional identity, this study examined the effect of positive, negative, or neutral priming sentences in an individualized narration of profession-related events through a priming paradigm. Forty-two female volunteers were asked to complete positive, negative, and neutral priming sentences describing profession-related events. The results showed that, relative to those with weak professional identity, participants with strong professional identity generated a higher number of positive items when primed with different stimuli and displayed greater positive priming bias for positive and neutral stimuli. In addition, relative to those with strong professional identity, participants with weak professional identity generated a higher number of neutral and negative items when primed with positive and negative stimuli, respectively, and displayed greater negative priming bias toward negative stimuli. These results indicate that pre-service teachers with strong professional identity were likely to have established positive self-schemas involving profession-related events, which facilitated active, positive construction of such events.

  4. Active Construction of Profession-Related Events: The Priming Effect among Pre-service Teachers with Different Professional Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-qiang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers with different professional identity may actively construct different subjective profession-related events based on the same objective profession-related events. To explore the priming effect among pre-service teachers with different professional identity, this study examined the effect of positive, negative, or neutral priming sentences in an individualized narration of profession-related events through a priming paradigm. Forty-two female volunteers were asked to complete positive, negative, and neutral priming sentences describing profession-related events. The results showed that, relative to those with weak professional identity, participants with strong professional identity generated a higher number of positive items when primed with different stimuli and displayed greater positive priming bias for positive and neutral stimuli. In addition, relative to those with strong professional identity, participants with weak professional identity generated a higher number of neutral and negative items when primed with positive and negative stimuli, respectively, and displayed greater negative priming bias toward negative stimuli. These results indicate that pre-service teachers with strong professional identity were likely to have established positive self-schemas involving profession-related events, which facilitated active, positive construction of such events.

  5. Early high-Tc commercial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The high temperature superconductors have already begun to generate the first stirrings of commercial activity. Companies that supply instruments and chemicals to researchers have enjoyed increased business. At least one company has begun to supply educational materials. Venture capital firms have invested about $15 million in startups to capitalize on developments in high-field applications, superconducting electronics, and magnetic shielding. Consulting firms are gathering and selling market research information. And the federal government is studying the question of how to cooperate with American companies to commercialize the research taking place in the national laboratories. This article discusses these issues

  6. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide 32 Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of 32 Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of 32 Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms

  7. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  8. In-situ X-ray diffraction activation study on an Fe/TiO2 pre-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Matthew K; Billing, David G; Coville, Neil J

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on the use of in situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method to monitor the structural properties of a titania-supported iron (10% Fe/TiO2) pre-catalyst during calcination (oxidation) and activation (reduction) in the temperature range 25-900°C. The TiO2 oxidation study revealed an increase in anatase particle size before the anatase to rutile phase transformation, lending credibility to the bridging mechanism proposed by Kim et al. [(2007), Mater. Sci. Forum, 534-536, 65-68]. Pre-catalyst oxidation experiments allowed for the determination of a suitable calcination temperature (450°C) of the pre-catalyst in terms of maximum hematite concentration and appropriate particle size. These experiments also confirmed that the anatase to rutile phase transformation occurred at higher temperatures after Fe addition and that anatase was the sole donor of Ti(4+) ions, which are known to migrate into hematite (Gennari et al., 1998), during the formation of pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) at temperatures above 690°C. Using the results from the oxidation experiments, two pre-catalyst samples were calcined at different temperatures; one to represent the preferred case and one to represent a case where the pre-catalyst had been excessively heated. Samples of the excessively heated catalysts were exposed to different reducing gas atmospheres (5, 10 and 100% H2/N2) and heated in the in situ PXRD reactor, so that diffraction data could be collected during the activation process. The results show that reduction with gases containing low concentrations of H2 (5 and 10%) led to the formation of ilmenite (FeTiO3) and we were able to show that both anatase and rutile are consumed in the reaction. Higher concentrations of H2 led to the formation of magnetite (Fe3O4) and metallic iron (Fe(0)). We also noted a decrease in the anatase to rutile transformation temperature under reducing atmospheres when compared with the pre

  9. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Rasmus; Pedersen, S; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ......Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics...... such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal...... specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial...

  10. Promoting Inclusivity in STEM through Active Recruiting and Mentoring: The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) at the University of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Binder, Breanna A.; Pre-Major in Astronomy Program

    2016-01-01

    The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) is a research and mentoring program for entering undergraduate students offered by the University of Washington Astronomy Department since 2005. The primary goal of Pre-MAP is to recruit and retain students from groups traditionally underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through early exposure to guided research projects. The Pre-MAP seminar is the core component of the program and offers instruction in computing skills, data manipulation, science writing, statistical analysis, and scientific speaking and presentation skills. Students choose research projects proposed by faculty, post-docs and graduate students in areas related to astrophysics, planetary science, and astrobiology. Pre-MAP has been successful in retaining underrepresented students in STEM fields relative to the broader UW population, and we've found these students are more likely to graduate and excel academically than their peers. As of fall 2015, more than one hundred students have taken the Pre-MAP seminar, and both internal and external evaluations have shown that all groups of participating students report an increased interest in astronomy and science careers at the end of the seminar. This talk will provide an overview of the program and the structure of the core seminar. In particular, the talk will focus on additions and revisions to the seminar course over the last few years, such as the introduction of a public speaking coach, career and internship modules, and the formalization of external lab tours.

  11. Work activities and risk of prematurity, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Harris, E Clare

    2013-01-01

    -eclampsia/gestational hypertension); 33 reports were new to this review. For PTD, findings across a substantial evidence base were generally consistent, effectively ruling out large effects (eg, RR>1.2). Larger and higher quality studies were less positive, while meta-estimates of risk were smaller than in previous analyses......Objectives We assessed the evidence relating preterm delivery (PTD), low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension to five occupational exposures (working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and physical workload). We conducted a systematic search...

  12. Mechanistic examination of pre-exfoliating confinement of surface-active polystyrene nanobeads within pristine clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvan, Svetlana; Kim, Junkyung; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2007-02-01

    Hydrophobic polymer (PS) nanoparticles preformed through an emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization method were successfully incorporated into a gallery of pristine sodium montmorillonite via interfacial cation exchange. The polymer beads confined between clay nanosheets were capable of (1) preventing the silicate layers from restacking and (2) maintaining the exfoliated state of clay. The increase in the abundance of surface groups promoted adsorption of the nanobeads onto the silicate surface and eventually led to the establishment of strong polymer-clay interactions. These findings suggest that, on the basis of the obtained pre-exfoliated clay masterbatch, the presence of strong polymer-clay interactions could improve the mechanical performance of nanocomposites.

  13. Work on the high voltage platform of the pre-injector of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Henry Charmot adjusting the electronics of the ion source on a platform which, during operation, was at a potential of 520 kV to ground. The cage containing the electronics is opened by hydraulic jacks. Visible on the right is the ion source (pill box structure) attached to the corrugated acceleration column, where the protons pass from 520 keV to ground potential. For more details on the pre-injector see 7403064X, 7403066X, 7403067X, 7403070, 7403071X, 7403124.

  14. Free microparticles—An inducing mechanism of pre-firing in high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-03-01

    Microparticle initiated pre-firing of high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) is experimentally and theoretically verified. First, a dual-electrode gas switch equipped with poly-methyl methacrylate baffles is used to capture and collect the microparticles. By analyzing the electrode surfaces and the collecting baffles by a laser scanning confocal microscope, microparticles ranging in size from tens of micrometers to over 100 μm are observed under the typical working conditions of FLTDs. The charging and movement of free microparticles in switch cavity are studied, and the strong DC electric field drives the microparticles to bounce off the electrode. Three different modes of free microparticle motion appear to be responsible for switch pre-firing. (i) Microparticles adhere to the electrode surface and act as a fixed protrusion which distorts the local electric field and initiates the breakdown in the gap. (ii) One particle escapes toward the opposite electrode and causes a near-electrode microdischarge, inducing the breakdown of the residual gap. (iii) Multiple moving microparticles are occasionally in cascade, leading to pre-firing. Finally, as experimental verification, repetitive discharges at ±90 kV are conducted in a three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, with two 8 mm gaps and pressurized with nitrogen. An ultrasonic probe is employed to monitor the bounce signals. In pre-firing incidents, the bounce is detected shortly before the collapse of the voltage waveform, which demonstrates that free microparticles contribute significantly to the mechanism that induces pre-firing in FLTD gas switches.

  15. High fat diet intake during pre and periadolescence impairs learning of a conditioned place preference in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanabria Federico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain regions that mediate learning of a conditioned place preference (CPP undergo significant development in pre and periadolescence. Consuming a high fat (HF diet during this developmental period and into adulthood can lead to learning impairments in rodents. The present study tested whether HF diet intake, consumed only in pre and periadolescence, would be sufficient to cause impairments using a CPP procedure. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to consume a HF or a low fat (LF diet during postnatal days (PD 21-40 and were then placed back on a standard lab chow diet. A 20-day CPP procedure, using HF Cheetos® as the unconditioned stimulus (US, began either the next day (PD 41 or 40 days later (PD 81. A separate group of adult rats were given the HF diet for 20 days beginning on PD 61, and then immediately underwent the 20-day CPP procedure beginning on PD 81. Results Pre and periadolescent exposure to a LF diet or adult exposure to a HF diet did not interfere with the development of a HF food-induced CPP, as these groups exhibited robust preferences for the HF Cheetos® food-paired compartment. However, pre and periadolescent exposure to the HF diet impaired the development of a HF food-induced CPP regardless of whether it was assessed immediately or 40 days after the exposure to the HF diet, and despite showing increased consumption of the HF Cheetos® in conditioning. Conclusions Intake of a HF diet, consumed only in pre and periadolescence, has long-lasting effects on learning that persist into adulthood.

  16. Free microparticles-An inducing mechanism of pre-firing in high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-03-01

    Microparticle initiated pre-firing of high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) is experimentally and theoretically verified. First, a dual-electrode gas switch equipped with poly-methyl methacrylate baffles is used to capture and collect the microparticles. By analyzing the electrode surfaces and the collecting baffles by a laser scanning confocal microscope, microparticles ranging in size from tens of micrometers to over 100 μm are observed under the typical working conditions of FLTDs. The charging and movement of free microparticles in switch cavity are studied, and the strong DC electric field drives the microparticles to bounce off the electrode. Three different modes of free microparticle motion appear to be responsible for switch pre-firing. (i) Microparticles adhere to the electrode surface and act as a fixed protrusion which distorts the local electric field and initiates the breakdown in the gap. (ii) One particle escapes toward the opposite electrode and causes a near-electrode microdischarge, inducing the breakdown of the residual gap. (iii) Multiple moving microparticles are occasionally in cascade, leading to pre-firing. Finally, as experimental verification, repetitive discharges at ±90 kV are conducted in a three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, with two 8 mm gaps and pressurized with nitrogen. An ultrasonic probe is employed to monitor the bounce signals. In pre-firing incidents, the bounce is detected shortly before the collapse of the voltage waveform, which demonstrates that free microparticles contribute significantly to the mechanism that induces pre-firing in FLTD gas switches.

  17. High Class-Imbalance in pre-miRNA Prediction: A Novel Approach Based on deepSOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmayer, Georgina; Yones, Cristian; Kamenetzky, Laura; Milone, Diego H

    2017-01-01

    The computational prediction of novel microRNA within a full genome involves identifying sequences having the highest chance of being a miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA). These sequences are usually named candidates to miRNA. The well-known pre-miRNAs are usually only a few in comparison to the hundreds of thousands of potential candidates to miRNA that have to be analyzed, which makes this task a high class-imbalance classification problem. The classical way of approaching it has been training a binary classifier in a supervised manner, using well-known pre-miRNAs as positive class and artificially defining the negative class. However, although the selection of positive labeled examples is straightforward, it is very difficult to build a set of negative examples in order to obtain a good set of training samples for a supervised method. In this work, we propose a novel and effective way of approaching this problem using machine learning, without the definition of negative examples. The proposal is based on clustering unlabeled sequences of a genome together with well-known miRNA precursors for the organism under study, which allows for the quick identification of the best candidates to miRNA as those sequences clustered with known precursors. Furthermore, we propose a deep model to overcome the problem of having very few positive class labels. They are always maintained in the deep levels as positive class while less likely pre-miRNA sequences are filtered level after level. Our approach has been compared with other methods for pre-miRNAs prediction in several species, showing effective predictivity of novel miRNAs. Additionally, we will show that our approach has a lower training time and allows for a better graphical navegability and interpretation of the results. A web-demo interface to try deepSOM is available at http://fich.unl.edu.ar/sinc/web-demo/deepsom/.

  18. Neutron activation analysis of high purity substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.

    1987-01-01

    Peculiarities of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) of high purity substances are considered. Simultaneous determination of a wide series of elements, high sensitivity (the lower bound of determined contents 10 -9 -10 -10 %), high selectivity and accuracy (Sr=0.10-0.15, and may be decreased up to 0.001), possibility of analysis of the samples from several micrograms to hundreds of grams, simplicity of calibration may be thought NAA advantages. Questions of accounting of NAA systematic errors associated with the neutron flux screening by the analysed matrix and with production of radionuclides of determined elements from accompanying elements according to concurrent nuclear reactions, as well as accounting of errors due to self-absorption of recorded radiation by compact samples, are considered

  19. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  20. High-surface-area active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, T.M.; Wennerberg, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and properties of a unique active carbon having exceptionally high surface areas, over 2500 m 2 /gm, and extraordinary adsorptive capacities. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 400 0 to 500 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 800 0 to 900 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts. These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product. A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques. Typical properties of the carbon include Iodine Numbers of 3000 to 3600, methylene blue adsorption of 650 to 750 mg/gm, pore volumes of 2.0 to 2.6 cc/gm and less than 3.0% ash. This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area, purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc

  1. Influence of pre-deformation, sensitization and oxidation in high temperature water on corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jinlong, E-mail: ljltsinghua@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liang, Tongxiang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Hongyun [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Xueyuan Road 37, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The pre-strain accelerated desensitization and sensitization for austenitic stainless steels. • Low temperature sensitization (carbide precipitation) induced α′-martensite. • The sensitization level could affect directly corrosion resistance of the oxide film. - Abstract: The effects of pre-deformation on sensitization of AISI 304 stainless steel were investigated by the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test. The effects of pre-deformation and sensitization on high temperature oxidized film formed in high temperature water were analyzed by a XRD and SEM. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at room temperature was used to study corrosion resistance of oxidized film. The point defect density of oxidized film was calculated by Mott–Schottky plots. The results showed that the value of the degree of sensitization first decreased and then slight increased with the increasing of engineering strain. Moreover, low temperature promoted to form sensitization induced “secondary” α′-martensite. The sample with 20% engineering strain had higher impedance value than other samples. The result was supported by further Mott–Schottky experiments. Considering increased α′-martensite with the increasing of strain, the results of the impedance were more consistent with values of the degree of sensitization.

  2. Developing plan and pre-conceptual design of target system for JAERI`s high intensity neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ishikura, Syuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakamura, Fumito; Uchida, Shoji

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an outline of developing plan of a target system and topics obtained by a pre-conceptual design, which aims to establish a technology base of the target system and to make clear a system concept. In the plan, two types of target - solid and mercury targets - are to be developed for a neutron scattering facility. Information obtained through the development shall be applied to designs of an irradiation and a transmutation facilities. Through the pre-conceptual design, system arrangement, scale etc. were made clear: total weight will be 12000 ton, and 26 beam lines with beam shutters will be equipped for 4 moderators. Engineering problems were also made clear through the design; high flux heat removal, dynamic stress caused by thermal shock and pressure wave, loop technology for the mercury target and a slurry moderator consisting of methane pellets and liquefied hydrogen. We are now constructing new test apparatuses and arranging computer codes for solving these problems. (author)

  3. High-active waste (HAW) data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement trans-ducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the period from July 1st, 1990 to December 31, 1990. (author). 4 refs.; 100 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Improving the Performance of Electrically Activated NiTi Shape Memory Actuators by Pre-Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann1, Christian; Fleczok1, Benjamin; Otibar1, Dennis; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Shape memory alloys possess an array of unique functional properties which are influenced by a complex interaction of different factors. Due to thermal sensitivity, slight changes in temperature may cause the properties to change significantly. This poses a huge challenge especially for the use of shape memory alloys as actuators. The displacement is the key performance indicator, which has to be of equal or better quality compared to conventional actuators. One problem of shape memory alloys is the change in functional fatigue in the first cycles, which makes it rather difficult to design the actuator. Therefore, the reduction of this shakedown effect is crucial. For this reason, this paper investigates the effect of electrical heat treatment as a method for pre-aging. This topic has so far been little investigated so that the investigations focus on identifying important factors and effects by using the design of experiments.

  5. Evaluation of pre transplant T-cell activation status by soluble CD 30 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Khawar; Muzaffar, Rana; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Mubarak, Muhammad; Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hassan

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the utility of serum CD30 (sCD30) levels as predictor of early acute graft rejection in live related renal transplant programme. This prospective study included 50 consecutive renal transplant recipients who received their first live related renal allograft at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) between October 2006 and March 2007. Blood samples were obtained one day before transplantation and on the third and fourteenth posttransplant days. Blood samples were also obtained from 50, age and sex matched healthy control individuals. Levels of serum sCD30 were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Donor-recipient blood group matching was identical in all patients. Pre-transplant lymphocyte crossmatch for T and B cells was negative, and panel reactive antibodies (PRA) were 0% for all recipients. The mean age of recipients was 31.6 +/- 10.23 years (range 5 to 55 years), while mean donor age was 32.74 +/- 8.48 years (range 21-50 years). Eleven (22%) recipients and donors were HLA identical while remaining (78%) were one haplotype match. Average serum sCD30 pre-transplant levels (37.8 +/- 4.97U/ml) were significantly higher than those of healthy individual's mean value of 8.48 +/- 4.97 U/ml, (P = 0.001). Eight (16%) patients developed acute rejection episode during this follow up period. Rejections were described and classified according to BANFF 97 classification. In this small single center study the serum levels of sCD30 did not show any significant difference between rejection and non rejection group in our transplant population.

  6. Influence of pre-hydration and pharmacogenetics on plasma methotrexate concentration and renal dysfunction following high-dose methotrexate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Goto, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Naruto, Takuya; Sasaki, Koji; Takeuchi, Masanobu; Tanoshima, Reo; Kato, Hiromi; Yokosuka, Tomoko; Kajiwara, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hisaki; Tanaka, Fumiko; Goto, Shoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Kai, Sumio; Yokota, Shumpei

    2013-12-01

    High-dose methotrexate therapy (HD-MTX) has been well established for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this study were to investigate whether clinical and pharmacogenetic factors influence plasma MTX concentration and renal dysfunction in patients treated with HD-MTX. In a total of 127 courses of HD-MTX in 51 patients with childhood ALL, influence of clinical and pharmacogenetic factors on plasma MTX concentration and HD-MTX-related renal dysfunction was evaluated. Clinical factors included age, gender, duration of HD-MTX continuous-infusion and duration of pre-hydration before HD-MTX. Pharmacogenetic factors included 5 gene polymorphisms within the MTX pathway genes, namely, SLC19A1, MTHFR, ABCC2 and ABCG2. Short duration of pre-hydration before HD-MTX is the most important risk factor for prolonged high MTX concentration (p < 0.001, OR 6.40, 95 % CI 2.39-17.16) and renal dysfunction (p = 0.013, OR 3.15, 95 % CI 1.27-7.80). The T allele at MTHFR C677T was the risk factor for prolonged high MTX concentration (p = 0.009, OR 5.54, 95 % CI 1.54-19.85), but not for renal dysfunction. We found the influence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on prolonged high MTX concentration. We reconfirmed the importance of adequate pre-hydration before HD-MTX to prevent prolonged high MTX concentration and MTX-related renal dysfunction.

  7. Warm pre-stress experiments on highly irradiated reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landron, C.; Ait-Bachir, M.; Moinereau, D.; Molinie, E.; Garbay, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the aim to justify in-service integrity of reactor pressure vessel beyond 40 years, experimental warm pre-stress (WPS) tests were performed on irradiated materials representative of RPV steels corresponding to 40 operating years. Different types of WPS loading path have been considered to cover typical postulated accidental transients. These results confirmed the beneficial effect of WPS on the cleavage fracture resistance of the irradiated materials. No fracture occurred during the cooling phase of the loading path and the fracture toughness values are higher than that measured with conventional isothermal tests. The analyses of the experiments, conducted using either simplified engineering models or more refined fracture models based on local approach to cleavage fracture, are in agreement with the experimental results. (authors)

  8. The effect of science demonstrations as a community service activity on pre-service science teachers' teaching practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Derya Kaltakci

    2016-03-01

    In the scope of this study, pre-service science teachers (PSST) developed and carried out science demonstrations with everyday materials for elementary school students as a community service activity. 17 PSST enrolled in the community services practices course at Kocaeli University comprised the sample of the present study. Community service practices aim to develop consciousness of social responsibility and professional skills, as well as to gain awareness of social and community problems and find solutions for pre-service teachers. With this aim, each PSST developed five science demonstration activities and their brochures during a semester. At the end of the semester, a total of 85 demonstrations were carried out at public elementary schools, which are especially located in socioeconomically poor districts of Kocaeli, Turkey. In the present case study, the effect of developing and carrying out science demonstrations for elementary school students on six of the PSST' teaching practices on density and buoyancy concept was investigated. 30-minute interviews conducted with each PSST, videos recorded during their demonstration performances, brochures they prepared for their demonstration activities, and reflection papers were used as data collection tools of the study. The results showed that community service practices with science demonstrations had positive effects on PSST' science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.

  9. Free and controlled game and activities in pre-school education in terms of teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Kázmerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with free and controlled play activities in preschool education in terms of teachers. It focuses primarily on the game preschool children playing children spend most of their time is their most important activities for the advancement of their entire personality. The theoretical part is focused on defining the concept of game play and substance of the relationship and the importance of play of preschool children. It is focused on free and controlled the game and activities, ...

  10. Development capacity of pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes evaluated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Hanne; Li, Rong; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Most of the porcine oocytes used for in vitro studies are collected from gilts. Our aims were to study development capacity of gilt v. sow oocytes (pre- and postpubertal respectively) using 2 techniques illustrating development competence [parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear...... transfer (SCNT)], and to describe a simple method to select the most competent oocytes. Inside-ZP diameter of in vitro-matured gilt oocytes was measured (µm; small ≤110; medium >110; large ≥120). Gilt and sow oocytes were morphologically grouped as good (even cytoplasm, smooth cell membrane, visible...

  11. Underground disposal of high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the engineering aspects relating to the deep burial of high active waste in stable geological formations. The design of a repository depends upon a number of factors not least of which is the type of rock in which it is to be constructed. High level wastes must be isolated from man's environment for such periods that subsequent release will not result in an unacceptable hazard to human population. Design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual design are present in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Over long time periods the most probable mode of release of radionuclides is through groundwater contacting the waste. The proposed concepts therefore include the use of engineered and natural barriers to delay the eventual release of waterborne radionuclides into mans environment. In all cases the ultimate barrier will be the geological formation. Nevertheless, depending upon the type of host rock, use will be made of various additional engineered barriers to delay water contacting the high level waste for several hundreds of years. During this time the level of radiation and associated heat emitted by the waste, will fall by several orders of magnitude and the rock temperatures within a repository will be returning to ambient. Thereafter the residual activity will mainly arise from the actinides. Containment may be enhanced by surrounding the canisters with materials having high sorption capabilities for many of the radionuclides involved. The depth at which a repository is excavated must be sufficient to ensure that the overburden will withstand changes in environmental conditions. The depth of cover required in different rock types may vary. In clay excavating at depth of up to -250 m appears feasible, while in hard rocks and salts working at depth of up to -1000 m is entirely practicable. (orig./RW)

  12. Comparison of pre- and postimplantation development following the application of three artificial activating stimuli in a mouse model with round-headed sperm cells deficient for oocyte activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Nikiforaki, D.; De Roo, C.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the application of three different artificial activating stimuli lead to a difference in pre- and post-implantation embryo development in the wobbler mouse, a mouse model with oocyte activation deficient round-headed sperm cells similar to human globozoospermia? SUMMARY ANSWER...... fertilized by wobbler and wild-type (WT) sperm following ICSI with or without three different artificial activating agents. Preimplantation development was assessed on 70 injected oocytes on average per group. On average, 10 foster mothers were used per activating group to compare post......-implantation development. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We used the wobbler mouse model that possesses oocyte activation deficient round-headed sperm cells. First, the calcium release following ICSI using wobbler sperm was compared with that of WT sperm. Outcome measures were the percentage of oocytes...

  13. Science Activities Pre-K-3: The Leaves are Falling in Rainbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michael; Graham, Terry

    Opportunities to learn and discover surround a young child every day. The activities and ideas within this book have been formulated to encourage a child's natural curiosity and sense of wonder and to engage all the child's senses in learning and discovery. The activities focus on the child as a natural explorer and involve children in identifying…

  14. A Qualitative Research on Active Learning Practices in Pre-School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Kanak, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    In educational environments prepared based on the active learning method, children learn with interest and pleasure, doing and experiencing, and directly through their own experiences. Considering the contributions of the active learning method and the educational environments designed based on it to children's development, it can be said that…

  15. Physical Activity and Music to Support Pre-School Children's Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Jessica; Englund Bohm, Anna; Jeppsson, Catarina; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2018-01-01

    In order to give all children equal opportunities in school, methods to prevent early differences are needed. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two structured teaching methods: Math in Action, characterised by physical activity and music, and common numerical activities. Children (28 girls, 25 boys) were…

  16. Active caspase-3 and ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis in spontaneous and induced cell death in bovine in vitro produced pre-implantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørret, Jakob O.; Fabian, Dusan; Avery, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated chronological onset and involvement of active caspase-3, apoptotic nuclear morphology, and TUNEL-labeling, as well as ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis, in both spontaneous and induced cell death during pre-implantation development of bovine in vitro produced...... microscopy in both treated and untreated blastocysts. Activation of caspase-3 is likely involved in both spontaneous and induced apoptosis in bovine pre-implantation embryos, and immunohistochemical staining of active caspase-3 may be used in combination with other markers to identify apoptosis in pre...... embryos. Pre-implantation embryos (2-cell to Day 8 blastocysts) were cultured with either no supplementation (untreated) or with 10 µM staurosporine for 24 hr (treated). Embryos were subjected to immunohistochemical staining of active caspase-3, TUNEL-reaction for detection of DNA degradation and DAPI...

  17. REMOVE AND RELEASE OF NUTRIENTS AFTER HYBRID PRE-TREATMENT OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Machnicka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in wastewater treatment technologies is the formation of foam/scum on the surface of bioreactors. The foam elimination/destruction can be carried out by various methods among which disintegration is included. Hybrid disintegration (chemical decomposition and hydrodynamic cavitation of the foam microorganisms results in phosphates, ammonium nitrogen, magnesium and potassium transferred from the foam solids into the liquid phase. Application of both methods as a hybrid pre-treatment process caused in an increased concentration of phosphates of about 677 mg PO43- L-1, ammonium nitrogen about 41 mg N-NH4+ L-1. The concentration of Mg2+ and K+ in the solution increased from 6.2 to 31.1 mg Mg2+ L-1 and from 22.4 to 102.0 mg K+ L-1, respectively. The confirmation of physicochemical changes and release of cellular matter as a result of cellular lysis (hybrid disintegration was IR analysis. It was demonstrated that the disintegration of foam permits removal of a part of nutrients in the form of struvite.

  18. Sexual activity and function after surgical treatment in patients with (pre)invasive vulvar lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimm, Donata; Eulenburg, Christine; Brummer, Oliver; Schliedermann, Anna-Katharina; Trillsch, Fabian; Prieske, Katharina; Gieseking, Friederike; Selka, Enzia; Mahner, Sven; Woelber, Linn

    Sexual activity (SA) and sexual function (SF) are central outcome measures in women affected by preinvasive (vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, VIN) and invasive (vulvar cancer, VC) vulvar lesions. Data on sexuality after treatment are scarce. Validated questionnaires including the female sexual

  19. Importance of Pre-pregnancy Counseling in Iran: Results from the High Risk Pregnancy Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eslami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background To identify the prevalence of behavioural (Pre-pregnancy, obstetrical and medical risks of pregnancy in Iranian women. Methods A total of 2993 postpartum women who delivered in 23 randomly selected hospitals of six provinces were enrolled in this nationwide cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was completed based on interviewees’ self-reports and medical record data, consisting of socio-demographic characteristics, behavioural, obstetrical and medical risks, before and during pregnancy. Results Less than 6.0% had no health insurance and 5.0% had no prenatal visit before labour. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.5% of women. Waterpipe and/or cigarette smoking was reported by 7.1% of them and 0.9% abused opiates during pregnancy. Physical abuse by husband in the year before pregnancy occurred in 7.5% of participants. The rate of cesarean section was 50.4%. Preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth were seen in 6.8, 7.7, and 1.2% of deliveries respectively. The most frequent medical risk factors were urinary tract infection (32.5%, anemia (21.6%, and thyroid disease (4.1%. Conclusion More effort should be devoted by health policymakers to the establishment of a preconception counselling (health education and risk assessment and surveillance system; although obstetrical and medical risks should not be neglected too.

  20. Sleep Spindles in the Right Hemisphere Support Awareness of Regularities and Reflect Pre-Sleep Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Bruns, Eike; Kirov, Roumen; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    The present study explored the sleep mechanisms which may support awareness of hidden regularities. Before sleep, 53 participants learned implicitly a lateralized variant of the serial response-time task in order to localize sensorimotor encoding either in the left or right hemisphere and induce implicit regularity representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded at multiple electrodes during both task performance and sleep, searching for lateralized traces of the preceding activity during learning. Sleep EEG analysis focused on region-specific slow (9-12 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) sleep spindles during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Fast spindle activity at those motor regions that were activated during learning increased with the amount of postsleep awareness. Independently of side of learning, spindle activity at right frontal and fronto-central regions was involved: there, fast spindles increased with the transformation of sequence knowledge from implicit before sleep to explicit after sleep, and slow spindles correlated with individual abilities of gaining awareness. These local modulations of sleep spindles corresponded to regions with greater presleep activation in participants with postsleep explicit knowledge. Sleep spindle mechanisms are related to explicit awareness (1) by tracing the activation of motor cortical and right-hemisphere regions which had stronger involvement already during learning and (2) by recruitment of individually consolidated processing modules in the right hemisphere. The integration of different sleep spindle mechanisms with functional states during wake collectively supports the gain of awareness of previously experienced regularities, with a special role for the right hemisphere. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  1. Cultural Practice of Children's-adult Research Activity in Pre-school Education: Content and Risks (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieva T.I.,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of children's "research" activities, discusses the features and examples of its existence in pre-school education. Kinds of activity in which the child shows an educational initiative and curiosity, and also the contents of interests of children of preschool age are discussed. The author shows how everyday life situations, communication with adults and peers become sources of children's "research". In such situations, samples are set and the model of the cultural practices of cognition implemented. The author analyses the elements of technology of children's "research" according to empirical material. This work was supported by Federal Research Centre for Projects Evaluation and Consulting Services (project № 2.48.2016/НМ.

  2. Low Sleeping Time, High TV Viewing Time, and Physical Inactivity in School Are Risk Factors for Obesity in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Srichan, Weerachat; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Khouw, Ilse Tan; Deurenberg, Pual

    2016-03-01

    Explore the association between physically active behavior and obesity in 7- to 12-years-old Thai children. As part of SEANUTS Thailand, information on anthropometry, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables were collected in 7- to 12-years-old urban and rural Thai children. Multi-stage sampling technique was used and 1,345 children (32% urban, and 50.3% boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) using World Health Organization Growth Reference. Obesity was defined as BAZ > 2SD. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). The PAQ provided an activity score, activity time in school, sleeping hours, and TV watching time as categorical variable, low, moderate, and high. Chi-square by likelihood ratio test and logistic regression were used to compare obese and non-obese groups. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.2 and 10.8% respectively, whereas 8.2% was classified as thin. Maternal education and religion did not differ between obese and non-obese children. However, obese children's family income was higher. After controlling for family income, maternal education, and religion, obese children were significantly less active during break times in school, slept less, and watched more TV than non-obese. However, there was no difference in the activity score of obese and non-obese children. The study showed that physical activity during break time in school, sleep duration, and hours of TV viewing were associated with obesity in pre-adolescent Thai children. It is important to note that activity score was not associated with obesity. One of the most important benefits to be physically active in childhood is the potential to maintain this behavior into adulthood. Therefore, programs that encourage healthy behaviors and address these modifiable risk factors should be incorporated in the school curriculum.

  3. High-affinity RNA aptamers to C-reactive protein (CRP): newly developed pre-elution methods for aptamer selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, N; Umekage, S; Sakai, E; Tanaka, T; Kikuchi, Y; Sato, K; Kawauchi, S; Tanaka, H

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a modified SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method to obtain RNA aptamers with high affinity to C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a clinical biomarker present in plasma, the level of which increases in response to infections and noninfectious inflammation. The CRP level is also an important prognostic indicator in patients with several syndromes. At present, CRP content in blood is measured immunochemically using antibodies. To develop a more sensitive method using RNA aptamers, we have attempted to obtain high-affinity RNA aptamers to CRP. We succeeded in obtaining an RNA aptamer with high affinity to CRP using a CRP-immobilized Sepharose column and pre-elution procedure. Pre-elution is a method that removes the weak binding portion from a selected RNA population by washing for a short time with buffer containing CRP. By surface plasmon-resonance (SPR) analysis, the affinity constant of this aptamer for CRP was calculated to be K D = 2.25x10 -9 (M). The secondary structure, contact sites with CRP protein, and application of this aptamer will be described.

  4. Pre-hospital identification and post-recovery challenges of intoxication with synthetic cannabinoid containing legal high products such as 'Exodus Damnation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, David; O'Meara, Patrick; Cunningham, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    This short report describes the case of a young adult male who had smoked a synthetic cannabinoid legal high product called 'Exodus Damnation'. The patient's presentation was atypical from that described in the literature, with hypotension and hypoxaemia. Of note was the rapid recovery after pre-hospital intervention with high-flow oxygen therapy and intravenous fluids. The patient refused on-going care, despite repeated advice to attend the Emergency Department. The distinct lack of specialist support and referral to drug treatment for this patient population, with whom ambulance services are coming into contact with increasing frequency, is reported. For those patients with the capacity to refuse on-going care, ambulance services may be in an opportune position to actively promote referral to support services for these vulnerable individuals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. THE PRE-PERIHELION ACTIVITY OF DYNAMICALLY NEW COMET C/2013 A1 (SIDING SPRING) AND ITS CLOSE ENCOUNTER WITH MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; A’Hearn, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Li, Jian-Yang, E-mail: dennis@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: farnham@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: jyli@psi.edu [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell Road, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    We used the UltraViolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to systematically follow the dynamically new comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) on its approach to the Sun. The comet was observed from a heliocentric distance of 4.5 AU pre-perihelion to its perihelion at 1.4 AU. From our observations, we estimate that the water production rate during closest approach to Mars was 1.5 ± 0.3 × 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup −1}, that peak gas delivery rates where between 4.5 and 8.8 kg s{sup −1}, and that in total between 3.1 and 5.4 × 10{sup 4} kg cometary gas was delivered to the planet. Seasonal and evolutionary effects on the nucleus govern the pre-perihelion activity of comet Siding Spring. The sudden increase of its water production between 2.46 and 2.06 AU suggests the onset of the sublimation of icy grains in the coma, likely driven by CO{sub 2}. As the comet got closer to the Sun, the relative contribution of the nucleus’ water production increased, while CO{sub 2} production rates decreased. The changes in the comet’s activity can be explained by a depletion of CO{sub 2}, but the comet’s high mass loss rate suggests they may reflect primordial heterogeneities in the nucleus.

  6. How an active-learning class influences physics self-efficacy in pre-service teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Usher, Ellen L.; Mamaril, Natasha A.

    2013-01-01

    Education majors in an inquiry-based physics content course were asked to reflect on the ways the course affected their self-efficacy for completing physics tasks, such as creating a circuit. Responses were coded according to the contributor of the influence and whether that influence was positive or negative. The group learning structure, hands-on activities in the class, and the constructed repertoire of science knowledge, processes, and activities, were all reported to be positive influences on self-efficacy, whereas the influence of the instructor was mixed. Overall, students' responses indicated both a desire for more guidance and lecture and an appreciation for their ability to construct their own understanding through the class activities.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.; Verevkin, G.V.; Obrazovskij, E.G.; Shatskaya, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    A scheme of neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium is developed. Weighed amount of Te (0.5 g) is irradiated for 20-40 hr in the flux of 2x10 13 neutron/(cm 2 xs). After decomposition of the sample impurities of gold and palladium are determined by the extraction with organic sulphides. Tellurium separation from the remaining impurities is carried out by the extraction with monothiobenzoic acid from weakly acidic HCl solutions in the presence of iodide-ions, suppressing silver extraction. Remaining impurity elements in the refined product are determined γ-spectrometrically. The method allows to determine 34 impurities with determination limits 10 -6 -10 -11 g

  8. FY16 ASME High Temperature Code Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, M. J. [Chromtech Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, R. I. [R. I Jetter Consulting, Pebble Beach, CA (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    One of the objectives of the ASME high temperature Code activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to be used to assess whether or not a specific component under specified loading conditions will satisfy the elevated temperature design requirements for Class A components in Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this task is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the program will be structured for eventual incorporation all the features and permitted materials of HBB. Since this task has recently been initiated, this report focuses on the description of the initial path forward and an overall description of the approach to computer program development.

  9. Enzymatic pre-treatment of high content cellulosic feedstock improves biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes with high lignin and cellulosic contents can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. However, these high lignin and cellulosic feedstocks are quite recalcitrant to be readily utilized by methanogens to produce ben...

  10. Draft pre-application safety evaluation report for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; King, T.L.; Wilson, J.N.

    1989-03-01

    This draft safety evaluation report (SER) presents the preliminary results of a pre-application design review for the standard modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) (Project 672). The MHTGR conceptual design was submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC) 'Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants' (51 FR 24643), which provides for early Commission review and interaction. The standard MHTGR consists of four identical reactor modules, each with a thermal output of 350 MWt, coupled with two steam turbine-generator sets to produce a total plant electrical output of 540 MWe. The reactors are helium cooled and graphite moderated and utilize ceramically coated particle-type nuclear fuel. The design includes passive reactor-shutdown and decay-heat-removal features. The staff and its contractors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Brookhaven National Laboratory have reviewed this design with emphasis on those unique provisions in the design that accomplish the key safety functions of reactor shutdown, decay-heat removal, and containment of radioactive material. This report presents the NRC staff's technical evaluation of those features in the MHTGR design important to safety, including their proposed research and testing needs. In addition this report presents the criteria proposed by the NRC staff to judge the acceptability of the MHTGR design and, where possible, includes statements on the potential of the MHTGR to meet these criteria. However, it should be recognized that final conclusions in all matters discussed in this report require approval by the Commission. Final determination on the acceptability of the MHTGR standard design is contingent on receipt and evaluation of additional information requested from DOE pertaining to the adequacy of the containment design and on the following: (1) satisfactory resolution of open safety issues identified

  11. Aberrant SSEA-4 upregulation mediates myofibroblast activity to promote pre-cancerous oral submucous fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2016-11-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), regarded as a precancerous condition, is characterized by juxta-epithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibro-elastic change in the lamina properia and epithelial atrophy. The pathologic mechanisms of OSF still need to be further clarified. In the study, we investigated the functional expression of SSEA-4, which is a well-known stemness marker, in myofibroblast activity and the clinical significance in OSF tissues. The expression of SSEA-4 in OSF was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Functional analysis of SSEA-4 on myofibroblast activity of OSF was achieved by lentiviral silencing ST3GAL2. Immunohisitochemistry demonstrated that SSEA-4 expression was significantly higher expression in areca quid chewing-associated OSF tissues than those of normal oral mucosa tissues. From flow cytometry analysis, arecoline dose-dependently activated SSEA-4 expression in primary human normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Sorted SSEA-4-positive cells from fibrotic BMFs (fBMFs) have higher colony-forming unit, collagen gel contraction, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression than SSEA-4-negative subset. Knockdown of ST3GAL2 in fBMFs suppressed SSEA-4 expression, collagen contraction, migration, invasiveness, and wound healing capability. Consistently, silencing ST3GAL2 was found to repress arecoline-induced myofibroblast activity in BMFs. The study highlights SSEA-4 as a critical marker for therapeutic intervention to mediate myofibroblast transdifferentiation in areca quid chewing-associated OSF.

  12. Dendritic calcium activity precedes inspiratory bursts in preBotzinger complex neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Negro, Christopher A; Hayes, John A; Rekling, Jens C

    2011-01-01

    to evoke a Ca(2+)-activated inward current that contributes to inspiratory burst generation. We measured Ca(2+) transients by two-photon imaging dendrites while recording neuronal somata electrophysiologically. Dendritic Ca(2+) accumulation frequently precedes inspiratory bursts, particularly at recording...

  13. An ontology-based recommender system to promote physical activity for pre-frail elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassabi, Hossein; op den Akker, Harm; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2014-01-01

    The increasing ageing population and the prevalence of chronic diseases have introduced new challenges to healthcare systems motivating researchers to use telemonitoring solutions for providing care. In some solutions, a special focus has been given to promoting physical activity as it can decrease

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Quick Response (QR) Code Integration in Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nagla; Santos, Ieda M.; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-01-01

    Quick Response (QR) codes have been discussed in the literature as adding value to teaching and learning. Despite their potential in education, more research is needed to inform practice and advance knowledge in this field. This paper investigated the integration of the QR code in classroom activities and the perceptions of the integration by…

  15. Problems of evaluation of nuclear reactor active zone tubes during pre-irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezinskaya, E.Ya.; Buryak, T.N.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of standard methods of graine size estimation of basic indexes of austenitic steel and alloys of active area of atomic reactors. It is shown insolvency of standard methods of grain size estimation in the real wares. The suggested method of computer simulation of structures of pipes-shells raped for working aut of modes of heat treatment

  16. Pre-disposal storage, transport and handling of vitrified high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.; Martin, A.

    1981-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to review non site-specific engineering features of the storage, transport and handling of vitrified high level radioactive waste prior to its transfer into an underground repository, and to identify those features which require validation or development. Section headings are: introduction (historical and technical background); characteristics and arisings of vitrified high level waste; overpacks (additional containment barrier, corrosion resistant); interim storage of HLW; transport of HLW; handling; conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  17. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  18. Cardiovascular events and hospital resource utilization pre- and post-transcatheter mitral valve repair in high-surgical risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Lippmann, Steven J; Krucoff, Mitchell; Hernandez, Adrian F; Curtis, Lesley H; Foster, Elyse; Qasim, Atif; Wang, Andrew; Glower, Donald D; Feldman, Ted; Hammill, Bradley G

    2017-07-01

    MitraClip is an approved therapy for mitral regurgitation (MR); however, health care resource utilization pre- and post-MitraClip remains understudied. Patients with functional and degenerative MR at high surgical risk in the EVEREST II High-Risk Registry and REALISM Continued-Access Study were linked to Medicare data. Pre- and post-MitraClip all-cause death, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure (HF), and bleeding hospitalizations were identified. Inpatient costs, adjusted to 2010 US dollars, were calculated, and event rate ratios and cost ratios were estimated with multivariable modeling. Among 403 linked patients, the mean age was 80 years, 60% were male, mean baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 49.6%, 83.3% were New York Heart Association class III/IV, 78.2% were MR grade 3+/4+, and 63.3% had functional MR. All-cause hospitalization decreased from 1,854 to 1,435/1,000 person-years (Pproviders seeking to reduce HF hospitalizations and associated Medicare costs may consider MitraClip among appropriate patients likely to survive 1 year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devantier, R. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, S. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Olsson, L. [Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved. (orig.)

  20. Pre-market clinical evaluations of innovative high-risk medical devices in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulstaert, Frank; Neyt, Mattias; Vinck, Imgard; Stordeur, Sabine; Huić, Mirjana; Sauerland, Stefan; Kuijpers, Marja R; Abrishami, Payam; Vondeling, Hindrik; Flamion, Bruno; Garattini, Silvio; Pavlovic, Mira; van Brabandt, Hans

    2012-07-01

    High-quality clinical evidence is most often lacking when novel high-risk devices enter the European market. At the same time, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is often initiated as a requirement for obtaining market access in the US. Should coverage in Europe be postponed until RCT data are available? We studied the premarket clinical evaluation of innovative high-risk medical devices in Europe compared with the US, and with medicines, where appropriate. The literature and regulatory documents were checked. Representatives from industry, Competent Authorities, Notified Bodies, Ethics Committees, and HTA agencies were consulted. We also discuss patient safety and the transparency of information. In contrast to the US, there is no requirement in Europe to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of high-risk devices in the premarket phase. Patients in Europe can thus have earlier access to a potentially lifesaving device, but at the risk of insufficiently documented efficacy and safety. Variations in the stringency of clinical reviews, both at the level of Notified Bodies and Competent Authorities, do not guarantee patient safety. We tried to document the design of premarket trials in Europe and number of patients exposed, but failed as this information is not made public. Furthermore, the Helsinki Declaration is not followed with respect to the registration and publication of premarket trials. For innovative high-risk devices, new EU legislation should require the premarket demonstration of clinical efficacy and safety, using an RCT if possible, and a transparent clinical review, preferably centralized.

  1. FINANCIAL STABILITY – THE PRE-REQUISIT OF A SUCCESSFUL FINANCIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirila Emil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential component of social life, the economic activity is faced with the problems of permanent balance. General economic balance implies the existence of a correspondence between needs for material goods and goods possibly available; needs for labor force and manpower available; needs for financial resources and opportunities for their procurement; between revenues of the population and their possible coverage with goods and services; between needs for foreign currency resources and those potentially available in given circumstances. We believe that the financial balance of an company must reflect, through financing rates, the method of ensuring, allocating and using financial resources, on the one hand, and the economic-financial results obtained from the activity performed on the other hand, as well as reflect the relation between cash flows generated by operation activities, by investments and financing, on the one hand, and cash flows used for these activities, on the other hand. The financial balance study, according to "Cross-border research programme - performance indicators of entities in the Bihor- Hajdu Bihar Euro-region" - HURO/0901/204/2.2.3 was based on the basis of financial reporting for the years 2008-2010 for a number of 50 companies grouped in the representative activity sectors contributing to the county’s GDP performance as follows: Processing industry, Building, Building materials industry, Light industry, Agricultural products processing, Forestry and wood-processing industry, Commerce, Tourism services, Transport services. The calculation of balance indicators for the examined Bihor county companies are presented in the tables from the second chapter and briefly interpreted. It is important to note that companies which are representative for the economy of the Bihor county, possess 93,7% of the total subscribed and used capital, given that the number of public limited companies is 330 and represents only 1

  2. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  3. PRE-MARKET CLINICAL EVALUATIONS OF INNOVATIVE HIGH-RISK MEDICAL DEVICES IN EUROPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulstaert, F.; Neyt, M.; Vinck, I.

    2012-01-01

    data are available? We studied the premarket clinical evaluation of innovative high-risk medical devices in Europe compared with the US, and with medicines, where appropriate. Methods: The literature and regulatory documents were checked. Representatives from industry, Competent Authorities, Notified...... of premarket trials in Europe and number of patients exposed, but failed as this information is not made public. Furthermore, the Helsinki Declaration is not followed with respect to the registration and publication of premarket trials. Conclusions: For innovative high-risk devices, new EU legislation should...

  4. Prospective implementation of a software application for pre-disposal L/ILW waste management activities in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fako, Raluca; Sociu, Florin; Stan, Camelia; Georgescu, Roxana; Barariu, Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    Romania is actively engaged to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Considering relevant documents to be further updated, about 122,000 m 3 SL-LILW are to be disposed in a near surface facility that will have room, also, for quantities of VLLW. Planned date for commissioning is under revision. Taking into account that in this moment there are initiated several actions for the improvement of the technical capability for LILW treatment and conditioning, several steps for the possible use of SAFRAN software were considered. In view of specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are trying to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with the implementation of SAFRAN software for the foreseen pre-disposal waste management activities. There are challenges that have to be faced in the near future related with clear definition of the properties of each room, area and waste management activity. This work has the aim to address several LILW management issues in accordance with national and international regulatory framework for the assurance of nuclear safety. Also, authors intend to develop their institutional capability for the safety demonstration of the existent and future radioactive waste management facilities and activities. (authors)

  5. Determination of rare earth elements in rocks by neutron activation analysis with pre-irradiation separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Rare earth elements were determined by neutron activation analysis in rocks, a group separation before irradiation was developed. The international reference standards AGV-1, BE-N and JB-1, as well the Brazilian geological standards BB-1 and GB-1, provided by the Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade Federal da Bahia, were analysed. The method was based on acid digestion of the samples, cation exchange separation, and coprecipitation of the REE with calcium oxalate. Interferents like U, Th, Ta and Fe were eliminated. The concentration values of eleven REE's (La, Co, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Yb and Lu) were determined. (author)

  6. Impact of an Engineering Case Study in a High School Pre-Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Eugene; Shafer, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Students at an all-girls high school who were enrolled in an introduction to engineering course were presented an engineering case study to determine if the case study affected their attitudes toward engineering and their abilities to solve engineering problems. A case study on power plants was implemented during a unit on electrical engineering.…

  7. Pulsational instability of high-luminosity H-rich pre-white dwarf star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcaferro Leila M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a pulsational stability analysis on high-luminosity H-rich (DA white dwarf models evolved from low-metallicity progenitors. We found that the ε mechanism due to H-shell burning is able to excite low-order g modes.

  8. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  9. Dynamic high pressure induced strong and weak hydrogen bonds enhanced by pre-resonance stimulated Raman scattering in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenghan; Fang, Wenhui; Li, Fabing; Gong, Nan; Li, Zhanlong; Li, Zuowei; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2017-12-11

    355 nm pulsed laser is employed to excite pre-resonance forward stimulated Raman scattering (FSRS) of liquid water at ambient temperature. Due to the shockwave induced dynamic high pressure, the obtained Raman spectra begin to exhibit double peaks distribution at 3318 and 3373 cm -1 with the input energy of 17 mJ,which correspond with OH stretching vibration with strong and weak hydrogen (H) bonds. With laser energy rising from 17 to 27 mJ, the Stokes line at 3318 cm -1 shifts to 3255 and 3230 cm -1 because of the high pressure being enlarged. When the energy is up to 32 mJ, only 3373 cm -1 peak exists. The strong and weak H bond exhibit quite different energy dependent behaviors.

  10. High-power Yb-fiber comb based on pre-chirped-management self-similar amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Daping; Liu, Yang; Gu, Chenglin; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenchao; Deng, Zejiang; Zhou, Lian; Li, Wenxue; Zeng, Heping

    2018-02-01

    We report a fiber self-similar-amplification (SSA) comb system that delivers a 250-MHz, 109-W, 42-fs pulse train with a 10-dB spectral width of 85 nm at 1056 nm. A pair of grisms is employed to compensate the group velocity dispersion and third-order dispersion of pre-amplified pulses for facilitating a self-similar evolution and a self-phase modulation (SPM). Moreover, we analyze the stabilities and noise characteristics of both the locked carrier envelope phase and the repetition rate, verifying the stability of the generated high-power comb. The demonstration of the SSA comb at such high power proves the feasibility of the SPM-based low-noise ultrashort comb.

  11. The Influence of University Coursework on Pre-service Middle and High School Teachers' Experiences with Multicultural Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Geeta

    2009-08-01

    The study explored the influence of university-based teacher education courses on pre-service middle and high school teachers’ experiences with multicultural themes in a secondary science alternative certification program. Eight participants ( N = 8), six women and two men, volunteered to be a part of the study that took place over a period of four semesters. Qualitative data was collected, coded and analyzed to make meaning of the participants’ experiences. Data comprised of participants’ reflective journals, personal and group interviews, and classroom observations done in middle school practicum and high school student teaching placements. The findings indicated that while the participants became more familiar with the themes of multicultural education, many did not demonstrate fluency with these themes and struggled with balancing their responsibilities as a science teacher and a culturally competent teacher.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of GaN-based light-emitting diodes without pre-activation of p-type GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Long; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) without pre-activation of p-type GaN. During the fabrication process, a 100-nm-thick indium tin oxide film was served as the p-type contact layer and annealed at 500°C in N2 ambient for 20 min to increase its transparency as well as to activate the p-type GaN. The electrical measurements showed that the LEDs were featured by a lower forward voltage and higher wall-plug efficiency in comparison with LEDs using pre-activation of p-type GaN. We discussed the mechanism of activation of p-type GaN at 500°C in N2 ambient. Furthermore, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy examinations were carried out to study the improved electrical performances of the LEDs without pre-activation of p-type GaN.

  13. High-resolution mutational profiling suggests the genetic validity of glioblastoma patient-derived pre-clinical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn E Yost

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the ability to efficiently characterize tumor genomes is enabling targeted drug development, which requires rigorous biomarker-based patient selection to increase effectiveness. Consequently, representative DNA biomarkers become equally important in pre-clinical studies. However, it is still unclear how well these markers are maintained between the primary tumor and the patient-derived tumor models. Here, we report the comprehensive identification of somatic coding mutations and copy number aberrations in four glioblastoma (GBM primary tumors and their matched pre-clinical models: serum-free neurospheres, adherent cell cultures, and mouse xenografts. We developed innovative methods to improve the data quality and allow a strict comparison of matched tumor samples. Our analysis identifies known GBM mutations altering PTEN and TP53 genes, and new actionable mutations such as the loss of PIK3R1, and reveals clear patient-to-patient differences. In contrast, for each patient, we do not observe any significant remodeling of the mutational profile between primary to model tumors and the few discrepancies can be attributed to stochastic errors or differences in sample purity. Similarly, we observe ∼96% primary-to-model concordance in copy number calls in the high-cellularity samples. In contrast to previous reports based on gene expression profiles, we do not observe significant differences at the DNA level between in vitro compared to in vivo models. This study suggests, at a remarkable resolution, the genome-wide conservation of a patient's tumor genetics in various pre-clinical models, and therefore supports their use for the development and testing of personalized targeted therapies.

  14. Lactadherin inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 activity on pre-apoptotic leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nyegaard

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2's do not bind to plasma membranes of quiescent cells but bind and digest phospholipids on the membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells. The capacity of these phospholipases to digest membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells correlates to the exposure of phosphatidylserine. In the present study, the ability of the phosphatidyl-L-serine-binding protein, lactadherin to inhibit phospholipase enzyme activity has been assessed. Inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on phospholipid vesicles exceeded 90%, whereas inhibition of Naja mossambica sPLA2 plateaued at 50-60%. Lactadherin inhibited 45% of activity of Naja mossambica sPLA2 and >70% of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on the membranes of human NB4 leukemia cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187. The data indicate that lactadherin may decrease inflammation by inhibiting sPLA2.

  15. Success in Introductory Calculus: The Role of High School and Pre-calculus Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayebo, Abraham; Ukkelberg, Sarah; Assuah, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Calculus at the college level has significantpotential to serve as a pump for increasing the number of students majoring inSTEM fields. It is a foundation course for all STEM majors and, if mastered well,should provide students with a positive and successful first-year experienceand gateway into more advanced courses. Studies have shown that a high percentage of studentsfailing college calculus has caused a shortage of individuals entering fieldsthat are heavily dependent on mathematics. Many...

  16. The analysis of pre-hispanic obsidians by the neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza L, R.; Tenorio C, D.; Jimenez R, M.

    2005-01-01

    The project called Bank of Data of the locations of obsidian of the occident of Mexico (Analysis by Neutron activation) as it has been explained, for the use of the Neutron activation analysis in archaeological materials it was developed from the years 1960. In Mexico it use is unfortunately very later, until the middle of the decade of 1990 the first studies were made. Without a doubt we face a bigger challenge which consists on creating databases of different materials to have comparison parameters of the studied materials. In the foreigner's different institutions (Missouri Research Reactor, University of Berkeley, among other) it has been of great importance the possibility to be able to compare the databases of each investigation with other coming from different institutions. The results to that have arrived even present certain error margin using the same study patterns, for what is advisable to only use own databases; for it, in the project of this investigation it is sought that the Nuclear Center has its own wealth of information of the different obsidian locations that they exist in the Mexican territory, so that later on the reliable analysis of materials coming from different archaeological places is made to know its origin. Thirteen obsidian locations were analyzed that are located in the states of Michoacan, Jalisco, Guanajuato and Zacatecas. The geologic samples were obtained of different investigation projects, of the National Institute of Anthropology and History, of the Center of Meso-American Studies and of Central America (CEMCA) and of the New Orleans University. One of the problems that face when studying the obsidian locations in the occident of Mexico is linked with the variety of colors that they exist in different locations. With it, we want to show the difficulty that it exists to study this material at level 'eye meter', that which could carry errors and graft of the archaeological information. It is for that reason that it becomes

  17. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of postanthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre...... had much higher starch content, and caused less modified B-type starch granule size indicators than the CH plants. Our results indicated that, compared with the non-acclimated plants, the pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation effectively enhanced carbohydrate remobilization from stems to grains...

  18. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  19. Pre-meal screen-time activities increase subjective emotions, but not food intake in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Pollard, Damion; Welch, Jo M; Rossiter, Melissa; Faghih, Shiva; Bellissimo, Nick

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of pre-meal screen-time activities on subjective emotions, subjective appetite, and food intake (FI) in 9-14 year-old girls. In this clinical study, 31 girls completed four 45-min treatment conditions of television viewing (TVV), video game playing (VGP), a challenging computer task (CT), and sitting without screen exposure (control) in a randomized order. Each treatment condition was followed immediately by an ad libitum pizza lunch, and FI was calculated from the weight of the consumed pizza. Subjective appetite was assessed at baseline, 15, 30, and 45 min during the treatment condition, and upon trial completion at 75 min. Subjective emotions were assessed at baseline and at 45 min. FI was not affected by screen type, but was positively correlated with body composition (fat mass [FM, kg], fat free mass [FFM, kg]) in all treatment conditions. Subjective appetite was not affected by screen type, but increased with time in all treatment conditions (p < 0.0001). Subjective emotions were affected by VGP only. Anger, excitement, frustration, and upset feelings were increased at 45 min following VGP. VGP led to increased frustration compared to control (p = 0.0003), CT (p = 0.007) and TVV (p = 0.0002). Exposure to TVV or CT before eating did not affect subjective emotions, subjective appetite, or FI, and no difference was found between screen activities and the control condition for average appetite or FI. Despite a change in subjective emotions during the VGP condition, there was no increase in subjective appetite or subsequent FI. These findings suggest that physiologic signals of satiation and satiety are not overridden by environmental stimuli of pre-meal screen-time exposure among young girls. (Clinical trial number NCT01750177). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Normative Functional Performance Values in High School Athletes: The Functional Pre-Participation Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James; Chaudhari, Ajit; Comstock, R Dawn; Cortes, Nelson; Grooms, Dustin R; Hertel, Jay; Hewett, Timothy E; Miller, Meghan Maume; Pan, Xueliang; Schussler, Eric; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2018-01-01

      The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited. Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs.   To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States.   Cross-sectional study.   Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States.   A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study.   Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) tests, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ 2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP test performance and symmetry.   The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance among grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful.   We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional performances and implement approaches for preventing musculoskeletal

  1. Pre-thymic somatic mutation leads to high mutant frequency at hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    While characterizing the background mutation spectrum of the Hypoxathine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene in a healthy population, an outlier with a high mutant frequency of thioguanine resistant lymphocytes was found. When studied at the age of 46, this individual had been smoking 60 cigarettes per day for 38 years. His mutant frequency was calculated at 3.6 and 4.2x10{sup {minus}4} for two sampling periods eight months apart. Sequencing analysis of the HPRT gene in his mutant thioguanine resistant T lymphocytes was done to find whether the cells had a high rate of mutation, or if the mutation was due to a single occurrence of mutation and, if so, when in the T lymphocyte development the mutation occurred. By T-cell receptor analysis it has been found that out of 35 thioguanine resistant clones there was no dominant gamma T cell receptor gene rearrangement. During my appointment in the Science & Engineering Research Semester, I found that 34 of those clones have the same base substitution of G{yields}T at cDNA position 197. Due to the consistent mutant frequency from both sampling periods and the varying T cell receptors, the high mutant frequency cannot be due to recent proliferation of a mature mutant T lymphocyte. From the TCR and DNA sequence analysis we conclude that the G{yields}T mutation must have occurred in a T lymphocyte precursor before thymic differentiation so that the thioguanine resistant clones share the same base substitution but not the same gamma T cell receptor gene.

  2. Investigation of a high power UV pre-ionized tea CO2 laser for making purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Shiw Jin; Low Kum Seng

    1988-01-01

    A simple, high-power TEA CO 2 laser using profiled electrodes with capacitatively-coupled side-arcs to provide preionization is described. The output pulse energy, beam size and beam divergence of this laser is measured as well as the voltage across the two laser electrodes. The effect of various operating parameters on the output pulse energy and efficiency of this laser are also described. The laser, with a maximum output energy of 4 J per pulse, has been used successfully to mark plastic surfaces such as plastic Ic components. (author)

  3. Battery-powered pulsed high density inductively coupled plasma source for pre-ionization in laboratory astrophysics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vernon H; Bellan, Paul M

    2015-07-01

    An electrically floating radiofrequency (RF) pre-ionization plasma source has been developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and to access new experimental regimes in the Caltech laboratory astrophysics experiments. The source uses a customized 13.56 MHz class D RF power amplifier that is powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 3-6 kV with the electrodes of the high voltage pulsed power experiments. The amplifier, which is capable of 3 kW output power in pulsed (<1 ms) operation, couples electrical energy to the plasma through an antenna external to the 1.1 cm radius discharge tube. By comparing the predictions of a global equilibrium discharge model with the measured scalings of plasma density with RF power input and axial magnetic field strength, we demonstrate that inductive coupling (rather than capacitive coupling or wave damping) is the dominant energy transfer mechanism. Peak ion densities exceeding 5 × 10(19) m(-3) in argon gas at 30 mTorr have been achieved with and without a background field. Installation of the pre-ionization source on a magnetohydrodynamically driven jet experiment reduced the breakdown time and jitter and allowed for the creation of hotter, faster argon plasma jets than was previously possible.

  4. Weakened activity of starved ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by the presence of pre-activated Nitrobacter winogradskyi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laanbroek, H.J.; Bär-Gilissen, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are able to maintain a high oxidizing potential during starvation. nitrite has a short-lasting stimulatory effect on the oxidation of ammonia after starvation when supplied simultaneously with fresh ammonium. To examine whether nitrite-oxidizing bacteria as partners in

  5. Weakened activity of starved ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by the presence of pre-activated Nitrobacter winogradskyi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laanbroek, H.J.; Bär-Gilissen, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are able to maintain a high oxidizing potential during starvation. Nitrite has a short-lasting stimulatory effect on the oxidation of ammonia after starvation when supplied simultaneously with fresh ammonium9). To examine whether nitrite-oxidizing bacteria as partners in

  6. Effect of low dose pre-irradiation on DNA damage and genetic material damage caused by high dosage of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Zhu Jingjuan; Shang Qingjun; Wang Zhuomin; Cui Fuxian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose γ-rays pre-irradiation on the induction of DNA damage and genetic material damage in peripheral lymphocytes by high dosage of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Methods: Male Kunming strain mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, sham-irradiated group, low dose irradiated group(LDR group), cyclophosphamide chemotherapy group(CTX group) and low dose irradiation combined with chemotherapy group(LDR + CTX group). After being feeded for one week, all the mice were implanted subcutaneously with S180 cells in the left groin (control group excluded). On days 8 and 11, groups of LDR and LDR + CTX were administered with 75 mGy of whole-body irradiation, 30 h later groups CTX and LDR + CTX were injected intraperitoneally 3.0 mg cyclophosphamide. All the mice were sacrificed on day 13. DNA damage of the peripheral lymphocytes was analyzed using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Genetic material damage was analyzed using micronucleus frequency(MNF) of polychromatoerythrocytes(PCE) in bone marrow. Results: (1) Compared with control group and sham-irradiated group, the DNA damage of peripheral lymphocytes in CTX group were increased significantly (P 0.05). Conclusions: (1) High- dosage of CTX chemotherapy can cause DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes. 75 mGy y-irradiation before chemotherapy may have certain protective effect on DNA damage. (2) CTX has potent mutagenic effect, giving remarkable rise to MNF of PCE. 75 mGy γ-ray pre-irradiation has not obvious protection against genetic toxicity of high-dose CTX chemotherapy. (authors)

  7. From pre-storm activity to magnetic storms: a transition described in terms of fractal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that distinct changes in scaling parameters of the Dst index time series occur as an intense magnetic storm approaches, revealing a gradual reduction in complexity. The remarkable acceleration of energy release – manifested in the increase in susceptibility – couples to the transition from anti-persistent (negative feedback to persistent (positive feedback behavior and indicates that the occurence of an intense magnetic storm is imminent. The main driver of the Dst index, the VBSouth electric field component, does not reveal a similar transition to persistency prior to the storm. This indicates that while the magnetosphere is mostly driven by the solar wind the critical feature of persistency in the magnetosphere is the result of a combination of solar wind and internal magnetospheric activity rather than solar wind variations alone. Our results suggest that the development of an intense magnetic storm can be studied in terms of "intermittent criticality" that is of a more general character than the classical self-organized criticality phenomena, implying the predictability of the magnetosphere.

  8. S. cerevisiae fermentation activity after moderate pulsed electric field pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Jessy R; Turk, Mohammad F; Nonus, Maurice; Lebovka, Nikolai I; El Zakhem, Henri; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    The batch fermentation process, inoculated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treated wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actiflore F33), was studied. PEF treatment was applied to the aqueous yeast suspensions ([Y] = 0.012 g/L) at the electric field strengths of E = 100 and 6000 V/cm using the same treatment protocol (number of pulses n = 1000, pulse duration ti = 100 μs, and pulse repetition time Δt = 100 ms). Electrical conductivity was increasing during and after the PEF treatment, which reflected cell electroporation. Then, fermentation was run for 150 h in an incubator (30 °C) with synchronic agitation. Electro-stimulation was revealing itself by the improvement of fermentation characteristics, and thus increased yeast metabolism. At the end of the lag phase (t = 40 h), fructose consumption in samples with electrically activated inoculum exceeded that of the control samples by ≈ 2.33 times for E = 100 V/cm and by ≈ 3.98 for E = 6000 V/cm. At the end of the log phase (120 h of fermentation), ≈ 30% mass reduction was reached in samples with PEF-treated inocula (E = 6000 V/cm), whereas the same mass reduction of the control sample required approximately 20 extra hours of fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of activity-based nanoscience and nanotechnology education on pre-service science teachers' conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenel Zor, Tuba; Aslan, Oktay

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of activity-based nanoscience and nanotechnology education (ABNNE) on pre-service science teachers' (PST') conceptual understanding of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Within this context, the study was conducted according to mixed methods research with the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods. The participants were 32 PST who were determined by using criterion sampling that is one of the purposive sampling methods. ABNNE was carried out during 7 weeks as 2 h per week in special issues at physics course. Design and implementation of ABNNE were based on "Big Ideas" which was found in literature and provided guidance for teaching nanoscience and nanotechnology. All activities implemented during ABNNE were selected from literature. "Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Concept Test (NN-CT)" and "Activity-Based Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Education Assessment Form (ABNNE-AF)" were used as data collection tools in research. Findings obtained with data collection tools were discussed with coverage of literature. The findings revealed that PST conceptual understanding developed following ABNNE. Various suggestions for increasing PST conceptual understanding of nanoscience and nanotechnology were presented according to the results of the study.

  10. Characterization of a high resolution and high sensitivity pre-clinical PET scanner with 3D event reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Rissi, M; Bolle, E; Dorholt, O; Hines, K E; Rohne, O; Skretting, A; Stapnes, S; Volgyes, D

    2012-01-01

    COMPET is a preclinical PET scanner aiming towards a high sensitivity, a high resolution and MRI compatibility by implementing a novel detector geometry. In this approach, long scintillating LYSO crystals are used to absorb the gamma-rays. To determine the point of interaction (P01) between gamma-ray and crystal, the light exiting the crystals on one of the long sides is collected with wavelength shifters (WLS) perpendicularly arranged to the crystals. This concept has two main advantages: (1) The parallax error is reduced to a minimum and is equal for the whole field of view (FOV). (2) The P01 and its energy deposit is known in all three dimension with a high resolution, allowing for the reconstruction of Compton scattered gamma-rays. Point (1) leads to a uniform point source resolution (PSR) distribution over the whole FOV, and also allows to place the detector close to the object being imaged. Both points (1) and (2) lead to an increased sensitivity and allow for both high resolution and sensitivity at the...

  11. High yield silicon carbide from alkylated or arylated pre-ceramic polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baney, R.H.; Gaul, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Alkylated or arylated methylpolysilanes which exhibit ease of handling and are used to obtain silicon carbide ceramic materials in high yields contain 0 to 60 mole percent (CH 3 ) 2 Si double bond units and 40 to 100 mole percent CH 3 Si triple bond units, wherein there is also bonded to the silicon atoms other silicon atoms and additional alkyl radicals of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or phenyl. They may be prepared by reaction of a Grignard reagent RMgX, where X is halogen and R is Csub(1-4)-alkyl or phenyl, with a starting material which is a solid at 25 0 C, and is identical to the product except that the remaining bonds on the silicon atoms are attached to another silicon atom, or a chlorine or a bromine atom. Ceramics result from heating the polysilane products to 1200 0 C, optionally with fillers. (author)

  12. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM)-like Activities of Diarylheptanoid, a Phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa, in Breast Cancer Cells, Pre-osteoblast Cells, and Rat Uterine Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongon, Natthakan; Boonmuen, Nittaya; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Wichit, Patsorn; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2017-05-03

    Diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa, of the Zingiberaceae family, exhibit diverse estrogenic activities. In this study we investigated the estrogenic activity of a major hydroxyl diarylheptanoid, 7-(3,4 -dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene (compound 092) isolated from C. comosa. The compound elicited different transcriptional activities of estrogen agonist at low concentrations (0.1-1 μM) and antagonist at high concentrations (10-50 μM) using luciferase reporter gene assay in HEK-293T cells. In human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, compound 092 showed an anti-estrogenic activity by down-regulating ERα-signaling and suppressing estrogen-responsive genes, whereas it attenuated the uterotrophic effect of estrogen in immature ovariectomized rats. Of note, compound 092 promoted mouse pre-osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cell differentiation and the related bone markers, indicating its positive osteogenic effect. Our findings highlight a new, nonsteroidal, estrogen agonist/antagonist of catechol diarylheptanoid from C. comosa, which is scientific evidence supporting its potential as a dietary supplement to prevent bone loss with low risk of breast and uterine cancers in postmenopausal women.

  13. Material selection for a constructed wetroof receiving pre-treated high strength domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater-Pereyra, M; van Dien, F; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2013-01-01

    A constructed wetroof (CWR) is defined in this study as the combination of a green roof and a constructed wetland: a shallow wastewater treatment system placed on the roof of a building. The foremost challenge of such CWRs, and the main aim of this investigation, is the selection of an appropriate matrix capable of assuring the required hydraulic retention time, the long-term stability and the roof load-bearing capacity. Six substrata were subjected to water dynamics and destructive tests in two testing-tables. Among all the materials tested, the substratum configuration composed of sand, light expanded clay aggregates, biodegradable polylactic acid beads together with stabilization plates and a turf mat is capable of retaining the water for approximately 3.8 days and of providing stability (stabilization plates) and an immediate protection (turf mat) to the system. Based on those results, a full-scale CWR was built, which did not show any physical deterioration after 1 year of operation. Preliminary wastewater treatment results on the full-scale CWR suggest that it can highly remove main wastewater pollutants (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, PO4(3-)-P and NH4(+)-N). The results of these tests and practical design considerations of the CWR are discussed in this paper.

  14. The Cooney Ridge Fire Experiment: An early operation to relate pre-, active, and post-fire field and remotely sensed measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Patrick H. Freeborn; Sarah A. Lewis; Sharon M. Hood; Helen Y. Smith; Colin C. Hardy; Robert J. Kremens; Bret W. Butler; Casey Teske; Robert G. Tissell; Lloyd P. Queen; Bryce L. Nordgren; Benjamin C. Bright; Penelope Morgan; Philip J. Riggan; Lee Macholz; Leigh B. Lentile; James P. Riddering; Edward E. Mathews

    2018-01-01

    The Cooney Ridge Fire Experiment conducted by fire scientists in 2003 was a burnout operation supported by a fire suppression crew on the active Cooney Ridge wildfire incident. The fire experiment included measurements of pre-fire fuels, active fire behavior, and immediate post-fire effects. Heat flux measurements collected at multiple scales with multiple ground and...

  15. Electromyographic analyses of muscle pre-activation induced by single joint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Valdinar A R; Bottaro, Martim; Pereira, Maria C C; Andrade, Marcelino M; P Júnior, Paulo R W; Carmo, Jake C

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether performing a low-intensity, single-joint exercises for knee extensors was an efficient strategy for increasing the number of motor units recruited in the vastus lateralis muscle during a subsequent multi-joint exercises. Nine healthy male participants (23.33+/-3.46 yrs) underwent bouts of exercise in which knee extension and 45 degrees , and leg press exercises were performed in sequence. In the low-intensity bout (R30), 15 unilateral knee extensions were performed, followed by 15 repetitions of the leg presses at 30% and 60% of one maximum repetition load (1-MR), respectively. In the high-intensity bout (R60), the same sequence was performed, but the applied load was 60% of 1-MR for both exercises. A single set of 15 repetitions of the leg press at 60% of 1-MR was performed as a control exercise (CR). The surface electromyographic signals of the vastus lateralis muscle were recorded by means of a linear electrode array. The root mean square (RMS) values were determined for each repetition of the leg press, and linear regressions were calculated from these results. The slopes of the straight lines obtained were then normalized using the linear coefficients of the regression equations and compared using one-way ANOVAs for repeated measures. The slopes observed in the CR were significantly lower than those in the R30 and R60 (precruitment of motor units was more effective when a single-joint exercise preceded the multi-joint exercise. Article registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) under the number ACTRN12609000413224.

  16. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  17. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-01-01

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps

  18. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  19. High heat flux tests of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements - experimental evaluation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Plankensteiner, A.; Schedler, B.

    2006-01-01

    The HHF testing of WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements is an indispensable step in the qualification of the manufacturing process. The finally 890 divertor target elements are made of an actively water-cooled CuCrZr heat sink covered with flat tiles of CFC NB31 as plasma facing material. A set of 20 full scale pre-series elements was manufactured by PLANSEE to validate the materials and manufacturing technologies prior to the start of the series production. Due to the large mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion for CFC and CuCrZr - resulting in high residual stresses as well as high operation-induced stresses - the bonding zone between CFC and CuCrZr was detected to be the most critical issue for the operational behaviour of the target elements. To achieve a sufficiently high manufacturing quality together with a high lifetime during operation thermal testing of full scale mockups was performed in combination with extensive FEM analyses. In both cases heat loads were applied similar to the expected heat loads in W7-X. All pre-series elements were tested in the ion beam test facility GLADIS. The elements were tested with 100 cycles of 10 MW/m 2 and several elements with even higher cycle numbers and heat loads up to 24 MW/m 2 . The instrumentation of the targets (thermocouples, strain gages) and the infrared camera observation of the heat loaded surface allow an experimental evaluation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the tested elements. The main result is a good agreement between experimental data and numerically computed predictions. Hot spots were, however, observed at the edges of several tiles during the HHF tests indicating local bonding problems. Therefore, a programme of fully 3D nonlinear thermal-mechanical FEM calculations was started to evaluate the thermo-mechanical behavior of the target elements with special focus on the optimization of the stress situation in the bonding zone between the CFC and the CuCrZr heat sink. This

  20. Effect of a comprehensive health education program on pre-hospital delay intentions in high-risk stroke population and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zhao, Qiuli; Zhu, Xuemei; Shen, Xiaoying; Zhu, Yulan; Yang, Liu; Gao, Wei; Li, Minghui

    2017-08-01

    Many factors influence pre-hospital delays in the event of stroke. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a comprehensive educational program for decreasing pre-hospital delays in high-risk stroke population. We enrolled 220 high-risk stroke population and caregivers from six urban communities in Harbin from May 2013 to May 2015, and randomly divided them into intervention and control groups. We implemented a comprehensive educational program (intervention group), comprising public lectures, instructional brochures, case videos, simulations, and role-playing from May 2013 to May 2015. We delivered conventional oral education in the control group. We compared stroke pre-hospital delay behavioral intention (SPDBI), pre-hospital stroke symptom coping test (PSSCT), and stroke pre-symptoms alert test (SPSAT) results between the groups before and 6, 12, and 18 months after health intervention. There were significant differences between before and after intervention (P educational program was significantly effective in decreasing SPDBI, improving knowledge, enhancing stroke pre-symptoms alert, and reducing the possibility of pre-hospital delays.

  1. The Throw-and-Catch Model of Human Gait: Evidence from Coupling of Pre-Step Postural Activity and Step Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Matthew J.; Day, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    Postural activity normally precedes the lift of a foot from the ground when taking a step, but its function is unclear. The throw-and-catch hypothesis of human gait proposes that the pre-step activity is organized to generate momentum for the body to fall ballistically along a specific trajectory during the step. The trajectory is appropriate for the stepping foot to land at its intended location while at the same time being optimally placed to catch the body and regain balance. The hypothesis therefore predicts a strong coupling between the pre-step activity and step location. Here we examine this coupling when stepping to visually-presented targets at different locations. Ten healthy, young subjects were instructed to step as accurately as possible onto targets placed in five locations that required either different step directions or different step lengths. In 75% of trials, the target location remained constant throughout the step. In the remaining 25% of trials, the intended step location was changed by making the target jump to a new location 96 ms ± 43 ms after initiation of the pre-step activity, long before foot lift. As predicted by the throw-and-catch hypothesis, when the target location remained constant, the pre-step activity led to body momentum at foot lift that was coupled to the intended step location. When the target location jumped, the pre-step activity was adjusted (median latency 223 ms) and prolonged (on average by 69 ms), which altered the body’s momentum at foot lift according to where the target had moved. We conclude that whenever possible the coupling between the pre-step activity and the step location is maintained. This provides further support for the throw-and-catch hypothesis of human gait. PMID:28066208

  2. The Throw-and-Catch Model of Human Gait: Evidence from Coupling of Pre-Step Postural Activity and Step Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Matthew J; Day, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    Postural activity normally precedes the lift of a foot from the ground when taking a step, but its function is unclear. The throw-and-catch hypothesis of human gait proposes that the pre-step activity is organized to generate momentum for the body to fall ballistically along a specific trajectory during the step. The trajectory is appropriate for the stepping foot to land at its intended location while at the same time being optimally placed to catch the body and regain balance. The hypothesis therefore predicts a strong coupling between the pre-step activity and step location. Here we examine this coupling when stepping to visually-presented targets at different locations. Ten healthy, young subjects were instructed to step as accurately as possible onto targets placed in five locations that required either different step directions or different step lengths. In 75% of trials, the target location remained constant throughout the step. In the remaining 25% of trials, the intended step location was changed by making the target jump to a new location 96 ms ± 43 ms after initiation of the pre-step activity, long before foot lift. As predicted by the throw-and-catch hypothesis, when the target location remained constant, the pre-step activity led to body momentum at foot lift that was coupled to the intended step location. When the target location jumped, the pre-step activity was adjusted (median latency 223 ms) and prolonged (on average by 69 ms), which altered the body's momentum at foot lift according to where the target had moved. We conclude that whenever possible the coupling between the pre-step activity and the step location is maintained. This provides further support for the throw-and-catch hypothesis of human gait.

  3. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  4. Chitinolytic activity of highly halotolerant Streptomyces tendae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    many plant diseases by degrading the chitin polymer in ... Chitin in soil can be degraded by a wide variety of microorganisms including fungal and bacterial species. .... fraction contained chitinolytic activity was dialyzed using plastic.

  5. Association between physical activity and health-related quality of life in elderly individuals with pre-diabetes in rural Hunan Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhao; Gao, Fan; Yang, Yang; Qin, Lulu; Luo, Bang-an

    2018-01-01

    Objectives There are few data on the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity among elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. This study aimed to determine if differences existed in HRQoL between individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active compared with those who were physically inactive in rural China. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the elderly (≧60 years) in rural communities in Yiyang City of China. Multistage cluster random sampling was carried out to select 42 areas, and interviews were conducted among 434 elderly individuals with pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes was screened using an oral glucose tolerance test. Main outcome measures The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire was used to measure HRQoL. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to test for differences in HRQoL between the physically active group and the inactive group. Results A total of 434 individuals with pre-diabetes were included in this study. The physical component summary (PCS) score of HRQoL was 42.1±10.2 and the mental component summary score was 46.4±8.9. A median total physical activity of 524 metabolic equivalent-min/week was reported. A significant MANCOVA model (Wilks’ λ=0.962, F(2,423)=8.44, Pphysically active reported higher PCS scores (Mdiff=5.2, Peffective size=0.47) compared with those physically inactive after adjusting for the following covariates: age, gender, marital status, education, smoking, chronic disease, body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusions The HRQoL of elderly individuals with pre-diabetes is poor in rural China. These findings demonstrated that elderly individuals with pre-diabetes who were physically active had higher PCS scores than those who were physically inactive. Furthermore, these results support the rationale

  6. The health-related quality of life among pre-diabetics and its association with body mass index and physical activity in a semi-urban community in Malaysia--a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norliza; Moy, Foong Ming; Awalludin, Intan Attikah Nur; Ali, Zainudin; Ismail, Ikram Shah

    2014-04-01

    People with pre-diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Measurements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among pre-diabetics enable the health care providers to understand their overall health status and planning of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. Therefore we aimed to determine the HRQOL and physical activity level; and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI) among pre-diabetics. This was a cross sectional study carried out in two primary care clinics in a semi-urban locality of Ampangan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires assessing the demographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle and physical activity. The Short Form 36-items health survey was used to measure HRQOL among the pre-diabetics. Data entry and analysis were performed using the SPSS version 19. A total of 268 eligible pre-diabetics participated in this study. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity were 7.1%, 21.6% and 71.3% respectively. Their mean (SD) age was 52.5 (8.3) years and 64.2% were females. Among the obese pre-diabetics, 42.2% had both IFG and IGT, 47.0% had isolated IFG and 10.8% had isolated IGT, 36.2% had combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia and musculoskeletal diseases. More than 53.4% of the obese pre-diabetics had family history of diabetes, 15.7% were smokers and 60.8% were physically inactive with mean PA of obese; normal vs obese [Mdiff=9.84, p=0.006, 95% CIdiff=2.28, 17.40] and between overweight vs obese [Mdiff=8.14, pobese. These results suggest a potentially greater risk of poor HRQOL among pre-diabetics who were overweight and obese especially with regard to the physical health component. Promoting recommended amount of physical activity and weight control are particularly important interventions for pre-diabetics at the primary care level.

  7. The health-related quality of life among pre-diabetics and its association with body mass index and physical activity in a semi-urban community in Malaysia- a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background People with pre-diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Measurements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among pre-diabetics enable the health care providers to understand their overall health status and planning of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. Therefore we aimed to determine the HRQOL and physical activity level; and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI) among pre-diabetics. Methods This was a cross sectional study carried out in two primary care clinics in a semi-urban locality of Ampangan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires assessing the demographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle and physical activity. The Short Form 36-items health survey was used to measure HRQOL among the pre-diabetics. Data entry and analysis were performed using the SPSS version 19. Results A total of 268 eligible pre-diabetics participated in this study. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity were 7.1%, 21.6% and 71.3% respectively. Their mean (SD) age was 52.5 (8.3) years and 64.2% were females. Among the obese pre-diabetics, 42.2% had both IFG and IGT, 47.0% had isolated IFG and 10.8% had isolated IGT, 36.2% had combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia and musculoskeletal diseases. More than 53.4% of the obese pre-diabetics had family history of diabetes, 15.7% were smokers and 60.8% were physically inactive with mean PA of obese; normal vs obese [Mdiff = 9.84, p = 0.006, 95% CIdiff = 2.28, 17.40] and between overweight vs obese [Mdiff = 8.14, p obese. These results suggest a potentially greater risk of poor HRQOL among pre-diabetics who were overweight and obese especially with regard to the physical health component. Promoting recommended amount of physical activity and weight control are particularly important interventions for pre-diabetics at the primary care level. PMID:24684809

  8. The Safety of Tenofovir-Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Individuals With Active Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Marc M; Schechter, Mauro; Liu, Albert Y; McMahan, Vanessa M; Guanira, Juan V; Hance, Robert J; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Mayer, Kenneth H; Grant, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents HIV infection. The safety and feasibility of HIV PrEP in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were evaluated. The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición study randomized 2499 HIV-negative men and transgender women who have sex with men to once-daily oral FTC/TDF versus placebo. Hepatitis serologies and transaminases were obtained at screening and at the time PrEP was discontinued. HBV DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and drug resistance was assessed by population sequencing. Vaccination was offered to individuals susceptible to HBV infection. Of the 2499 participants, 12 (0.5%; including 6 randomized to FTC/TDF) had chronic HBV infection. After stopping FTC/TDF, 5 of the 6 participants in the active arm had liver function tests performed at follow-up. Liver function tests remained within normal limits at post-stop visits except for a grade 1 elevation in 1 participant at post-stop week 12 (alanine aminotransferase = 90, aspartate aminotransferase = 61). There was no evidence of hepatic flares. Polymerase chain reaction of stored samples showed that 2 participants in the active arm had evidence of acute HBV infection at enrollment. Both had evidence of grade 4 transaminase elevations with subsequent resolution. Overall, there was no evidence of TDF or FTC resistance among tested genotypes. Of 1633 eligible for vaccination, 1587 (97.2%) received at least 1 vaccine; 1383 (84.7%) completed the series. PrEP can be safely provided to individuals with HBV infection if there is no evidence of cirrhosis or substantial transaminase elevation. HBV vaccination rates at screening were low globally, despite recommendations for its use, yet uptake and efficacy were high when offered.

  9. The Safety of Tenofovir–Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Individuals With Active Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Mauro; Liu, Albert Y.; McManhan, Vanessa M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Hance, Robert J.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Grant, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents HIV infection. The safety and feasibility of HIV PrEP in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were evaluated. Methods: The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición study randomized 2499 HIV-negative men and transgender women who have sex with men to once-daily oral FTC/TDF versus placebo. Hepatitis serologies and transaminases were obtained at screening and at the time PrEP was discontinued. HBV DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and drug resistance was assessed by population sequencing. Vaccination was offered to individuals susceptible to HBV infection. Results: Of the 2499 participants, 12 (0.5%; including 6 randomized to FTC/TDF) had chronic HBV infection. After stopping FTC/TDF, 5 of the 6 participants in the active arm had liver function tests performed at follow-up. Liver function tests remained within normal limits at post-stop visits except for a grade 1 elevation in 1 participant at post-stop week 12 (alanine aminotransferase = 90, aspartate aminotransferase = 61). There was no evidence of hepatic flares. Polymerase chain reaction of stored samples showed that 2 participants in the active arm had evidence of acute HBV infection at enrollment. Both had evidence of grade 4 transaminase elevations with subsequent resolution. Overall, there was no evidence of TDF or FTC resistance among tested genotypes. Of 1633 eligible for vaccination, 1587 (97.2%) received at least 1 vaccine; 1383 (84.7%) completed the series. Conclusions: PrEP can be safely provided to individuals with HBV infection if there is no evidence of cirrhosis or substantial transaminase elevation. HBV vaccination rates at screening were low globally, despite recommendations for its use, yet uptake and efficacy were high when offered. PMID:26413853

  10. Biomarkers for screening of lung cancer and pre-neoplastic lesions in a high risk Chilean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Adonis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mortality of lung cancer (LC, increases each year in the world, in spite of any advances, in development of new drugs to advance stages of LC. The high incidence of LC has been associated with smoking habit, genetic diversity and environmental pollution. Antofagasta region has been reported to have the highest LC mortality rate in Chile and its inhabitants were exposed to arsenic in their drinking water in concentrations as high as 870 μg/L. Non-invasive techniques such as biomarkers (Automatic Quantitative Cytometry: AQC and DR70 and Auto Fluorescence Bronchoscopy (AFB might be potentially useful as a supplementary diagnostic approach and early detection. Early detection is one of the most important factors to intervene and prevent cancer progression in LC. This is a work of an ongoing prospective bimodality cancer surveillance study in high risk LC volunteers. Enrolment was done in subjects from Antofagasta and Metropolitan regions. In addition, we enrolled subjects who were suspected of having lung cancer. AQC, DR70 and AFB were used as tools in the detection of pre-neoplastic (PNL and neoplastic lesions (NL. RESULTS: Half of the samples, classified as suspicious by AFB, were confirmed as metaplasia or dysplasia by histopathology. For LC, DR70 showed a higher sensitivity (95.8% and specificity (91.9% than AQC. However, for PNL AQC showed a higher sensitivity (91.9% than DR70 (27.3%, although both with low PPV values. As a pre screener, both biomarkers might be employed as complementary tools to detect LC, especially as serially combined tests, with a sensitivity of 60% and a PPV of 65.2%. Additionally, the use of parallel combined tests might support the detection of PNL (sensitivity 91.2%; PPV 49.1%. CONCLUSION: This work adds information on cellular and molecular biomarkers to complement imaging techniques for early detection of LC in Latin America that might contribute to formulate policies concerning screening of LC

  11. High-resolution respirometry of fine-needle muscle biopsies in pre-manifest Huntington's disease expansion mutation carriers shows normal mitochondrial respiratory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buck

    Full Text Available Alterations in mitochondrial respiration are an important hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD, one of the most common monogenetic causes of neurodegeneration. The ubiquitous expression of the disease causing mutant huntingtin gene raises the prospect that mitochondrial respiratory deficits can be detected in skeletal muscle. While this tissue is readily accessible in humans, transgenic animal models offer the opportunity to cross-validate findings and allow for comparisons across organs, including the brain. The integrated respiratory chain function of the human vastus lateralis muscle was measured by high-resolution respirometry (HRR in freshly taken fine-needle biopsies from seven pre-manifest HD expansion mutation carriers and nine controls. The respiratory parameters were unaffected. For comparison skeletal muscle isolated from HD knock-in mice (HdhQ111 as well as a broader spectrum of tissues including cortex, liver and heart muscle were examined by HRR. Significant changes of mitochondrial respiration in the HdhQ knock-in mouse model were restricted to the liver and the cortex. Mitochondrial mass as quantified by mitochondrial DNA copy number and citrate synthase activity was stable in murine HD-model tissue compared to control. mRNA levels of key enzymes were determined to characterize mitochondrial metabolic pathways in HdhQ mice. We demonstrated the feasibility to perform high-resolution respirometry measurements from small human HD muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we conclude that alterations in respiratory parameters of pre-manifest human muscle biopsies are rather limited and mirrored by a similar absence of marked alterations in HdhQ skeletal muscle. In contrast, the HdhQ111 murine cortex and liver did show respiratory alterations highlighting the tissue specific nature of mutant huntingtin effects on respiration.

  12. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut among unmarried high school female students in bahir Dar town, Ethiopia: cross- sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Yeshalem; Berhane, Yemane

    2014-05-31

    Pre-marital sexual debut increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy. It may also affect their school performance and completion rate. In spite of this fact, number of unmarried female students who started sexual debut is increasing from time to time. However, information on the extent of pre-marital sexual debut and associated factors were not well studied and documented in the study area where pre-marital sexual debut is largely condemned. Therefore this study was conducted to assess the magnitude and associated factors of pre-marital sexual debut. School based cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 10-13/2012. A total of 1123 unmarried high school female students were selected by multi- stage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured, self administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut. Among unmarried high school female students 30.8% reported pre-marital sexual debut. The major associated factors were frequent watching of pornographic video [AOR = 10.15, 95% CI: (6.63, 15.53)], peer pressure [AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: (1.57, 5.67)] and chewing khat [AOR = 8.99, 95% CI: (3.84, 21.06)]. Significant proportion of unmarried high school female students have started pre-marital sexual debut. The finding suggests the need for communicating and supporting school students to help them make informed and safer decisions on their sexual behavior. Therefore, Bahir dar city administration health and education bureau should design persistent and effective health education to decrease pre-marital sexual debut in unmarried female students.

  13. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut among unmarried high school female students in bahir Dar town, Ethiopia: cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-marital sexual debut increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy. It may also affect their school performance and completion rate. In spite of this fact, number of unmarried female students who started sexual debut is increasing from time to time. However, information on the extent of pre-marital sexual debut and associated factors were not well studied and documented in the study area where pre-marital sexual debut is largely condemned. Therefore this study was conducted to assess the magnitude and associated factors of pre-marital sexual debut. Methods School based cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 10-13/2012. A total of 1123 unmarried high school female students were selected by multi- stage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured, self administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut. Results Among unmarried high school female students 30.8% reported pre-marital sexual debut. The major associated factors were frequent watching of pornographic video [AOR = 10.15, 95% CI: (6.63, 15.53)], peer pressure [AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: (1.57, 5.67)] and chewing khat [AOR = 8.99, 95% CI: (3.84, 21.06)]. Conclusion Significant proportion of unmarried high school female students have started pre-marital sexual debut. The finding suggests the need for communicating and supporting school students to help them make informed and safer decisions on their sexual behavior. Therefore, Bahir dar city administration health and education bureau should design persistent and effective health education to decrease pre-marital sexual debut in unmarried female students. PMID:24885739

  14. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  15. AK SCO, FIRST DETECTION OF A HIGHLY DISTURBED ATMOSPHERE IN A PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLOSE BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana I.

    2009-01-01

    AK Sco is a unique source: a ∼10 Myr old pre-main-sequence (PMS) spectroscopic binary composed of two nearly equal F5 stars that at periastron are separated by barely 11 stellar radii, so the stellar magnetospheres fill the Roche lobe at periastron. The orbit is not yet circularized (e = 0.47) and very strong tides are expected. This makes AK Sco the ideal laboratory to study the effect of gravitational tides in the stellar magnetic field building up during PMS evolution. In this Letter, the detection of a highly disturbed (σ ≅ 100 km s -1 ) and very dense atmosphere (n e = 1.6 x 10 10 cm -3 ) is reported. Significant line broadening blurs any signs of ion belts or bow shocks in the spectrum of the atmospheric plasma. The radiative losses cannot be accounted for solely by the dissipation of energy from the tidal wave propagating in the stellar atmosphere or by the accreting material. The release of internal energy from the star seems to be the most likely source of the plasma heating. This is the first clear indication of a highly disturbed atmosphere surrounding a PMS close binary.

  16. AK Sco, First Detection of a Highly Disturbed Atmosphere in a Pre-Main-Sequence Close Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.

    2009-06-01

    AK Sco is a unique source: a ~10 Myr old pre-main-sequence (PMS) spectroscopic binary composed of two nearly equal F5 stars that at periastron are separated by barely 11 stellar radii, so the stellar magnetospheres fill the Roche lobe at periastron. The orbit is not yet circularized (e = 0.47) and very strong tides are expected. This makes AK Sco the ideal laboratory to study the effect of gravitational tides in the stellar magnetic field building up during PMS evolution. In this Letter, the detection of a highly disturbed (σ sime 100 km s-1) and very dense atmosphere (n e = 1.6 × 1010 cm-3) is reported. Significant line broadening blurs any signs of ion belts or bow shocks in the spectrum of the atmospheric plasma. The radiative losses cannot be accounted for solely by the dissipation of energy from the tidal wave propagating in the stellar atmosphere or by the accreting material. The release of internal energy from the star seems to be the most likely source of the plasma heating. This is the first clear indication of a highly disturbed atmosphere surrounding a PMS close binary.

  17. Presal36: a high resolution ocean current model for Brazilian pre-salt area: implementation and validation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellkopf, Jacques P. [Advanced Subsea do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The PRESAL 36 JIP is a project for the development of a powerful Ocean Current Model of 1/36 of a degree resolution, nested in an existing Global Ocean global Model, Mercator PSY4 (1/12-a-degree resolution ), with tide corrections, improved bathymetry accuracy and high frequency atmospheric forcing (every 3 hours). The simulation outputs will be the 3 dimensional structure of the velocity fields (u,v,w) at 50 vertical levels over the water column, including geostrophic, Ekman and tidal currents, together with Temperature, Salinity and sea surface height at a sub-mesoscale spatial resolution. Simulations will run in hindcast, nowcast and forecast modes, with a temporal resolution of 3 hours . This Ocean current model will allow to perform detailed statistical studies on various areas using conditions analysed using hindcast mode, short term operational condition prediction for various surface and sub sea operations using realtime and Forecast modes. The paper presents a publication of significant results of the project, in term of pre-sal zoomed model implementation, and high resolution model validation. It demonstrate the capability to properly describe ocean current phenomenon at beyond mesoscale frontier. This project demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining accurate information for engineering studies and operational conditions, based on a 'zoom technique' starting from global ocean models. (author)

  18. Increased HSF activation in muscles with a high constitutive Hsp70 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, Marius; Tanguay, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    Stress-induced transcriptional regulation of the Hsps is mediated by trimerization and binding of a pre-existing heat shock transcription factor (HSF1) to a specific DNA sequence located in the 5′ region of hsp genes, known as the heat shock element. Hsp70 has been implicated in regulating the activation of the HSF and, according to cell culture models, high steady-state levels of Hsp70 are inversely correlated with HSF activation. To determine if this applies in an intact animal, muscles of ...

  19. Engaging Pre-Service Science Teachers to Act as Active Designers of Technology Integration: A MAGDAIRE Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Ta; Chang, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Kuo-En

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts in developing the MAGDAIRE framework (abbreviated from Modeled Analysis, Guided Development, Articulated Implementation, and Reflected Evaluation) to transform pre-service science teachers' roles in a teacher education course: moving pre-service teachers from the roles of passive users of technology, as they…

  20. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. (Sanne) de Vries; Karen Broekhuizen; Anne-Marie Scholten

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in

  1. Scientific Research Activity of Students Pre-Service Teachers of Sciences at University: The Aspects of Understanding, Situation and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanauskas, Vincentas; Augiene, Dalia

    2017-01-01

    The development of student abilities of scientific research activity (SRA) in the process of studies appears as a highly important area. In the course of studies, students not only increase their general competencies, acquire professional abilities and skills but also learn to conduct research. This does not mean that all students will build their…

  2. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  3. Enzymes catalyzing pre-hydrolysis facilitated the anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge with acidogenic and microbiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaodong; He, Junguo; Li, Lin; Qiu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated acidogenic and microbiological perspectives in the anaerobic fermentation (AF) of waste activated sludge (WAS) pre-hydrolyzed by enzymes catalysis. The enzymes catalysis boosted WAS biodegradability dramatically with nearly 8500 mg/L soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) increase just within 4 h. The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the acidogenesis were accumulated effectively with over 3200 mg COD/L in 12 d, which reached 0.687 kWh/kg VSS electricity conversion efficiency (2.5 times higher than the control test). The fermentation process favored the compression of fermentative sludge with the distribution spread index (DSI) rising. The core populations of bacteria and archaea shifting enlarged the dissimilarity of communities at different fermentation stages. Increase of community diversity contributed to VFAs accumulation stability. Moreover, the intermediate bacterial community evenness favored VFAs accumulation potentially. The enzymes catalysis might be a promising solution for strengthening VFAs accumulation in the WAS fermentation with boosting the electricity conversion potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of low solids retention time and focused pulsed pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Su; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-02-01

    The interacting effects of Focused Pulsed (FP) treatment and solids retention time (SRT) were evaluated in laboratory-scale digesters operated at SRTs of 2-20 days. Anaerobic digestion and methanogenesis of waste activated sludge (WAS) were stable for SRT ≥ 5 days, but the effluent soluble organic compounds increased significantly for SRT=2 days due to a combination of faster hydrolysis kinetics and washout of methanogens. FP treatment increased the CH(4) production rate and TCOD removal efficiency by up to 33% and 18%, respectively, at a SRT of 20 days. These effects were the result of an increase in the hydrolysis rate, since the concentrations of soluble components remained low for SRT ≥ 5 days. Alternately, FP pre-treatment of WAS allowed the same conversion of TCOD to CH(4) with a smaller SRT and digester size: e.g., 40% size savings with a CH(4) conversion of 0.23 g CH(4)-COD/g COD(in). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cdk1 Activates Pre-Mitotic Nuclear Envelope Dynein Recruitment and Apical Nuclear Migration in Neural Stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffet, Alexandre D.; Hu, Daniel J.; Vallee, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dynein recruitment to the nuclear envelope is required for pre-mitotic nucleus-centrosome interactions in nonneuronal cells, and for apical nuclear migration in neural stem cells. In each case, dynein is recruited to the nuclear envelope (NE) specifically during G2, via two nuclear pore-mediated mechanisms involving RanBP2-BicD2 and Nup133-CENP-F. The mechanisms responsible for cell cycle control of this behavior are unknown. We now find that Cdk1 serves as a direct master controller for NE dynein recruitment in neural stem cells and HeLa cells. Cdk1 phosphorylates conserved sites within RanBP2 and activates BicD2 binding and early dynein recruitment. Late recruitment is triggered by a Cdk1-induced export of CENP-F from the nucleus. Forced NE targeting of BicD2 overrides Cdk1 inhibition, fully rescuing dynein recruitment and nuclear migration in neural stem cells. These results reveal how NE dynein recruitment is cell cycle regulated, and identify the trigger mechanism for apical nuclear migration in the brain. PMID:26051540

  6. Increased antibody responses to Herpes virus papio (HVP) antigens in pre-lymphomatous baboons (Papio hamadryas) of the Sukhumi high lymphoma stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodin, A F; Yakovleva, L A; Lapin, B A; Ponomarjeva, T I

    1983-11-15

    Antibody responses to Herpes virus papio (HVP) antigens were studied in 21 pre-lymphoma baboons (which subsequently died of malignant lymphoma), 21 paired controls, i.e. age-, sex- and population-matched healthy baboons, and 185 randomly selected healthy baboons of the same population. The sera were all collected at the same time and were tested blind in the fixed-cell indirect immunofluorescence test against HVP viral capsid antigen (VCA)-positive, early antigen (EA)-positive cell targets before and after absorption with HVP. Eleven of the pre-lymphoma sera were anti-EA-positive whereas none of the paired controls contained anti-EA. Anti-VCA titers of pre-lymphoma sera were higher than those of paired controls in thirteen cases. Only in four cases were anti-VCA titers of pre-lymphoma sera lower than those of paired controls. Qualitatively, the same results were obtained when anti-VCA and anti-EA titers of pre-lymphoma sera were compared with respective mean population values. The differences between pre-lymphoma group and control groups, especially in the case of anti-EA, were statistically highly significant. Thus, elevated anti-HVP titers in healthy baboons of the Sukhumi lymphoma-prone stock can be considered as a marker of high risk for development of malignant lymphoma.

  7. The role of reaction pathways and support interactions in the development of high activity hydrotreating catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Henrik; Hinnemann, Berit; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    structures may be present as single sulfide sheets. Thus, stacking is not an essential feature of Type II catalysts. The article illustrates how the new scientific insight has aided the introduction of the new high activity BRIM (TM) type catalysts for FCC pre-treatment and production of ultra low sulfur...... exhibiting a metallic character are observed to be involved in adsorption, hydrogenation and C-S bond cleavage. The insight is seen to provide a new framework for understanding the DDS and HYD pathways and the role of steric hindrance and poisons. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have illustrated...... how support interactions may influence the activity of sulfided catalysts. The brim sites and the tendency to form vacancies are seen to differ in types I and II Co-Mo-S. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) studies show that the high activity Type II...

  8. Strengthening Children's Math Skills with Enhanced Instruction: The Impacts of Making Pre-K Count and High 5s on Kindergarten Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, Shira K.; Jacob, Robin; Morris, Pamela A.

    2018-01-01

    Early math skills are a strong predictor of later achievement for young children, not only in math, but in other domains as well. Exhibiting strong math skills in elementary school is predictive of later high school completion and college attendance. To that end, the Making Pre-K Count and High 5s studies set out to rigorously assess whether…

  9. Physical activity and pre-diabetes—an unacknowledged mid-life crisis: findings from NHANES 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Farni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of pre-diabetes (PD among US adults has increased substantially over the past two decades. By current estimates, over 34% of US adults fall in the PD category, 84% of whom meet the American Diabetes Association’s criteria for impaired fasting glucose (IFG. Low physical activity (PA and/or sedentary behavior are key drivers of hyperglycemia. We examined the relationship between PD and objectively measured PA in NHANES 2003–2006 of 20,470 individuals, including 7,501 individuals between 20 and 65 yrs.We excluded all participants without IFG measures or adequate accelerometry data (final N = 1,317. Participants were identified as PD if FPG was 100–125 mg/dL (5.6–6.9 mmol/L. Moderate and vigorous PA in minutes/day individuals were summed to create the exposure variable “moderate-vigorous PA” (MVPA. The analysis sample included 884 normoglycemic persons and 433 with PD. There were significantly fewer PD subjects in the middle (30.3% and highest (24.6% tertiles of PA compared to the lowest tertile (35.5%. After adjusting for BMI, participants were 0.77 times as likely to be PD if they were in the highest tertile compared to the lowest PA tertile (p < 0.001. However, these results were no longer significant when age and BMI were held constant. Univariate analysis revealed that physical activity was associated with decreased fasting glucose of 0.5 mg/dL per minute of MVPA, but multivariate analysis adjusting for age and BMI was not significant. Overall, our data suggest a negative association between measures of PA and the prevalence of PD in middle-aged US adults independent of adiposity, but with significant confounding influence from measures of BMI and age.

  10. Conversion of highly active waste to solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffler, K.

    Borosilicate glasses were selected as matrix material for solidification of highly radioactive wastes. Current laboratory work on the VERA process is described. Goals were met by a five-component glass VG-38 and a glass-ceramic VC-15. The VERA process is described: flowsheet, denitration, calcinator, fusion facility

  11. Activities in nuclear and high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    High energy and nuclear physics research concerning bubble chamber investigations, European hybrid system ACCMOR, WA 18, PETRA, PEP, VA 4, SING, LENA, LEP 3 and DELPHI experiments is summarized. Experiments with electron beams, and in pions and muons physics, and radiochemistry are reported on.

  12. Efficiency of chitosan (Poly-[D] Glucosamine as natural organic coagulant in pre-treatment of active carbon effluent in Panacan, Davao City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezel A. Cinco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of environmental friendly coagulant is widened which can be proposed as an imperative option for water treatment. In this study, the efficiency of Chitosan, a natural organic coagulant in pre-treating Active Carbon Effluent (ACE as alternative to conventional metal based coagulants in terms of Turbidity (T, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Suspended Solid (TSS was evaluated. Collection of effluent for testing was conducted at the Philippine – Japan Active Carbon Corporation, Panacan, Davao City, Philippines. Chitosan (Deacetylated chitin; Poly- [1- 4] – β- glucosamine was obtained from Qingdao Develop Chemistry Co., Ltd., China. Suspensions added with experimental coagulant dosages (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mgL-1 were made by sediment mixer maintained at pH 5 and analyzed with the following parameters: Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Turbidity (T. The efficiency of the chitosan coagulation was found to be high in terms of turbidity (99.2%, Chemical Oxygen Demand (97.2% in 5 mg/L dose of chitosan and Total Suspended Solid (99.15% in 10 mg/L dose of chitosan. It can be concluded that Chitosan is an effective coagulant which can significantly reduce the level of turbidity, COD and TSS. A further study with different types of effluent and higher Chitosan doses are needed for recommending it for practical application as a natural organic coagulant.

  13. Association between maximal hamstring muscle strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, M. K.; Sorensen, R. S.; Thorborg, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reduced hamstring pre-activity during sidecutting increases the risk for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part ofACLinjury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a stro...

  14. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD)....

  15. High-throughput platform assay technology for the discovery of pre-microrna-selective small molecule probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Daniel A; Song, James M; Garner, Amanda L

    2015-01-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) play critical roles in human development and disease. As such, the targeting of miRNAs is considered attractive as a novel therapeutic strategy. A major bottleneck toward this goal, however, has been the identification of small molecule probes that are specific for select RNAs and methods that will facilitate such discovery efforts. Using pre-microRNAs as proof-of-concept, herein we report a conceptually new and innovative approach for assaying RNA-small molecule interactions. Through this platform assay technology, which we term catalytic enzyme-linked click chemistry assay or cat-ELCCA, we have designed a method that can be implemented in high throughput, is virtually free of false readouts, and is general for all nucleic acids. Through cat-ELCCA, we envision the discovery of selective small molecule ligands for disease-relevant miRNAs to promote the field of RNA-targeted drug discovery and further our understanding of the role of miRNAs in cellular biology.

  16. AN EXTREME HIGH-VELOCITY BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 08005-2356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Patel, N. A., E-mail: raghvendra.sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ∼1″–5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the {sup 12}CO J = 2–1, 3–2, {sup 13}CO J = 2–1, and SiO J = 5–4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4–3 and SiO J = 6–5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M{sub ⊙}), extreme high velocity outflow (V ∼ 200 km s{sup −1}) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  17. Correlations of Fecal Metabonomic and Microbiomic Changes Induced by High-fat Diet in the Pre-Obesity State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; An, Yanpeng; Hao, Fuhua; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Obesity resulting from interactions of genetic and environmental factors becomes a serious public health problem worldwide with alterations of the metabolic phenotypes in multiple biological matrices involving multiple metabolic pathways. To understand the contributions of gut microbiota to obesity development, we analyzed dynamic alterations in fecal metabonomic phenotype using NMR and fecal microorganism composition in rats using pyrosequencing technology during the high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 81 days (pre-obesity state). Integrated analysis of these two phenotypic datasets was further conducted to establish correlations between the altered rat fecal metabonome and gut microbiome. We found that one-week HFD feeding already caused significant changes in rat fecal metabonome and such changes sustained throughout 81-days feeding with the host and gut microbiota co-metabolites clearly featured. We also found that HFD caused outstanding decreases in most fecal metabolites implying enhancement of gut absorptions. We further established comprehensive correlations between the HFD-induced changes in fecal metabonome and fecal microbial composition indicating contributions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis and progression of the HFD-induced obesity. These findings provided essential information about the functions of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of metabolic disorders which could be potentially important for developing obesity prevention and treatment therapies.

  18. A novel high sensitivity HPLC assay for topiramate, using 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as pre-column fluorescence derivatizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Bahareh

    2007-05-01

    A new, sensitive and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analysis of topiramate, an antiepileptic agent, using 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan as pre-column derivatization agent is described. Following liquid-liquid extraction of topiramate and an internal standard (amlodipine) from human serum, derivatization of the drugs was performed by the labeling agent in the presence of dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile and borate buffer (0.05 M; pH 10.6). A mixture of sodium phosphate buffer (0.05 M; pH 2.4): methanol (35:65 v/v) was eluted as mobile phase and chromatographic separation was achieved using a Shimpack CLC-C18 (150 x 4.6 mm) column. In this method the limit of quantification of 0.01 microg/mL was obtained and the procedure was validated over the concentration range of 0.01 to 12.8 microg/mL. No interferences were found from commonly co-administrated antiepileptic drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital carbamazepine, lamotrigine, zonisamide, primidone, gabapentin, vigabatrin, and ethosuximide. The analysis performance was carried-out in terms of specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability and the method was shown to be accurate, with intra-day and inter-day accuracy from -3.4 to 10% and precise, with intra-day and inter-day precision from 1.1 to 18%.

  19. Effects of Habitual Physical Activity and Fitness on Tibial Cortical Bone Mass, Structure and Mass Distribution in Pre-pubertal Boys and Girls: The Look Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckham, Rachel L; Rantalainen, Timo; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Richard D; Telford, Rohan M; Daly, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    Targeted weight-bearing activities during the pre-pubertal years can improve cortical bone mass, structure and distribution, but less is known about the influence of habitual physical activity (PA) and fitness. This study examined the effects of contrasting habitual PA and fitness levels on cortical bone density, geometry and mass distribution in pre-pubertal children. Boys (n = 241) and girls (n = 245) aged 7-9 years had a pQCT scan to measure tibial mid-shaft total, cortical and medullary area, cortical thickness, density, polar strength strain index (SSIpolar) and the mass/density distribution through the bone cortex (radial distribution divided into endo-, mid- and pericortical regions) and around the centre of mass (polar distribution). Four contrasting PA and fitness groups (inactive-unfit, inactive-fit, active-unfit, active-fit) were generated based on daily step counts (pedometer, 7-days) and fitness levels (20-m shuttle test and vertical jump) for boys and girls separately. Active-fit boys had 7.3-7.7 % greater cortical area and thickness compared to inactive-unfit boys (P girls, but active-fit girls had 6.1 % (P girls, which was likely due to their 6.7 % (P active-fit girls. Higher levels of habitual PA-fitness were associated with small regional-specific gains in 66 % tibial cortical bone mass in pre-pubertal children, particularly boys.

  20. Persistent humoral immune defect in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated children with HIV-1 infection: loss of specific antibodies against attenuated vaccine strains and natural viral infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Vincent; Scherpbier, Henriëtte; Pajkrt, Dasja; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Zaaijer, Hans; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy era, a loss of specific antibodies was seen. Our objective with this study was to describe the loss of specific antibodies during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: In a prospective, single-center, cohort study of

  1. Non-transactivational, dual pathways for LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation in primary cultures of brown pre-adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Therese E.; Mattsson, Charlotte L.; Wang, Yanling; Iakovleva, Irina; Petrovic, Natasa; Nedergaard, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In many cell types, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced Erk1/2 MAP kinase activation is mediated via receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) transactivation, in particular via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting via GPCRs, is a mitogen and MAP kinase activator in many systems, and LPA can regulate adipocyte proliferation. The mechanism by which LPA activates the Erk1/2 MAP kinase is generally accepted to be via EGF receptor transactivation. In primary cultures of brown pre-adipocytes, EGF can induce Erk1/2 activation, which is obligatory and determinant for EGF-induced proliferation of these cells. Therefore, we have here examined whether LPA, via EGF transactivation, can activate Erk1/2 in brown pre-adipocytes. We found that LPA could induce Erk1/2 activation. However, the LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation was independent of transactivation of EGF receptors (or PDGF receptors) in these cells (whereas in transformed HIB-1B brown adipocytes, the LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation indeed proceeded via EGF receptor transactivation). In the brown pre-adipocytes, LPA instead induced Erk1/2 activation via two distinct non-transactivational pathways, one G i -protein dependent, involving PKC and Src activation, the other, a PTX-insensitive pathway, involving PI3K (but not Akt) activation. Earlier studies showing LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation being fully dependent on RTK transactivation have all been performed in cell lines and transfected cells. The present study implies that in non-transformed systems, RTK transactivation may not be involved in the mediation of GPCR-induced Erk1/2 MAP kinase activation.

  2. The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Ramsey

    Chemistry is a complex knowledge domain. Specifically, research notes that Chemical Equilibrium presents greater cognitive challenges than other topics in chemistry. Cognitive Load Theory describes the impact a subject, and the learning environment, have on working memory. Intrinsic load is the facet of Cognitive Load Theory that explains the complexity innate to complex subjects. The purpose of this study was to build on the limited research into intrinsic cognitive load, by examining the effects of using multimedia screencasts as a pre-training technique to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students. A convenience sample of 62 fourth-year high school students enrolled in an advanced chemistry course from a co-ed high school in urban San Francisco were given a chemical equilibrium concept pre-test. Upon conclusion of the pre-test, students were randomly assigned to two groups: pre-training and no pre-training. The pre-training group received a 10 minute and 52 second pre-training screencast that provided definitions, concepts and an overview of chemical equilibrium. After pre-training both group received the same 50-minute instructional lecture. After instruction, all students were given a chemical equilibrium concept post-test. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine differences in performance and intrinsic load. No significant differences in performance or intrinsic load, as measured by ratings of mental effort, were observed on the pre-test. Significant differences in performance, t(60)=3.70, p=.0005, and intrinsic load, t(60)=5.34, p=.0001, were observed on the post-test. A significant correlation between total performance scores and total mental effort ratings was also observed, r(60)=-0.44, p=.0003. Because no significant differences in prior knowledge were observed, it can be concluded that pre-training was successful at reducing intrinsic load. Moreover, a significant

  3. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  4. Microenvironmental influence on pre-clinical activity of polo-like kinase inhibition in multiple myeloma: implications for clinical translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas W McMillin

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinases (PLKs play an important role in cell cycle progression, checkpoint control and mitosis. The high mitotic index and chromosomal instability of advanced cancers suggest that PLK inhibitors may be an attractive therapeutic option for presently incurable advanced neoplasias with systemic involvement, such as multiple myeloma (MM. We studied the PLK 1, 2, 3 inhibitor BI 2536 and observed potent (IC50<40 nM and rapid (commitment to cell death <24 hrs in vitro activity against MM cells in isolation, as well as in vivo activity against a traditional subcutaneous xenograft mouse model. Tumor cells in MM patients, however, don't exist in isolation, but reside in and interact with the bone microenvironment. Therefore conventional in vitro and in vivo preclinical assays don't take into account how interactions between MM cells and the bone microenvironment can potentially confer drug resistance. To probe this question, we performed tumor cell compartment-specific bioluminescence imaging assays to compare the preclinical anti-MM activity of BI 2536 in vitro in the presence vs. absence of stromal cells or osteoclasts. We observed that the presence of these bone marrow non-malignant cells led to decreased anti-MM activity of BI 2536. We further validated these results in an orthotopic in vivo mouse model of diffuse MM bone lesions where tumor cells interact with non-malignant cells of the bone microenvironment. We again observed that BI 2536 had decreased activity in this in vivo model of tumor-bone microenvironment interactions highlighting that, despite BI 2536's promising activity in conventional assays, its lack of activity in microenvironmental models raises concerns for its clinical development for MM. More broadly, preclinical drug testing in the absence of relevant tumor microenvironment interactions may overestimate potential clinical activity, thus explaining at least in part the gap between preclinical vs. clinical efficacy in MM

  5. Amelioration of rCBF and PbtO2 following TBI at high altitude by hyperbaric oxygen pre-conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengli; Li, Fei; Luo, Haishui; Xia, Yongzhi; Zhang, Jiuquan; Hu, Rong; Cui, Gaoyu; Meng, Hui; Feng, Hua

    2010-03-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude can lead to brain damage and pre-conditioning with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) can reduce ischemic/hypoxic brain injury. This study investigates the effects of high altitude on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examines the neuroprotection provided by HBO preconditioning against TBI. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: HBO pre-conditioning group (HBOP, n=10), high altitude group (HA, n=10), plain control group (PC, n=10) and plain sham operation group (sham, n=10). All groups were subjected to head trauma by weight drop device except for the sham group. Rats from each group were examined for neurological function, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO(2)) and were killed for analysis by transmission electron microscope. The score of neurological deficits in the HA group was highest, followed by the HBOP group and the PC group, respectively. Both rCBF and PbtO(2) were the lowest in the HA group. Brain morphology and structure seen via the transmission electron microscope was diminished in the HA group, while fewer pathological injuries occurred in the HBOP and PC groups. High altitude aggravates TBI significantly and HBO pre-conditioning can attenuate TBI in rats at high altitude by improvement of rCBF and PbtO(2). Pre-treatment with HBO might be beneficial for people traveling to high altitude locations.

  6. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on waste activated sludge rheology, hygienization and methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hernando, M; Martín-Díaz, J; Labanda, J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Llorens, J; Lucena, F; Astals, S

    2014-09-15

    Waste activated sludge is slower to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions than is primary sludge due to the glycan strands present in microbial cell walls. The use of pre-treatments may help to disrupt cell membranes and improve waste activated sludge biodegradability. In the present study, the effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on the rheology, hygienization and biodegradability of waste activated sludge was evaluated. The optimum condition of each pre-treatment was selected based on rheological criteria (reduction of steady state viscosity) and hygienization levels (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia). The three pre-treatments were able to reduce the viscosity of the sludge, and this reduction was greater with increasing treatment intensity. However, only the alkali and thermal conditioning allowed the hygienization of the sludge, whereas the ultrasonication did not exhibit any notorious effect on microbial indicators populations. The selected optimum conditions were as follows: 27,000 kJ/kg TS for the ultrasound, 80 °C during 15 min for the thermal and 157 g NaOH/kg TS for the alkali. Afterward, the specific methane production was evaluated through biomethane potential tests at the specified optimum conditions. The alkali pre-treatment exhibited the greatest methane production increase (34%) followed by the ultrasonication (13%), whereas the thermal pre-treatment presented a methane potential similar to the untreated sludge. Finally, an assessment of the different treatment scenarios was conducted considering the results together with an energy balance, which revealed that the ultrasound and alkali treatments entailed higher costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of pre-irradiation annealing at high temperature on optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance of natural pumpellyite mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javier-Ccallata, Henry; Filho, Luiz Tomaz; Sartorelli, Maria L.; Watanabe, Shigueo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Natural pumpellyite mineral presents superposition bands around 900 and 1060 nm due Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . •High temperature annealing influences the EPR and OA spectra. •The behavior of EPR line for 800 and 900 °C can be attributed to forbidden dd transitions due the Fe 3+ . -- Abstract: Natural silicate mineral of pumpellyite, Ca 2 MgAl 2 (SiO 4 )(Si 2 O 7 )(OH) 2 ·(H 2 O), point group A2/m, has been studied concerning high temperature annealing and γ-radiation effects on Optical Absorption (OA) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) properties. Chemical analysis revealed that besides Si, Al, Ca and Mg, other oxides i.e., Fe, Mn, Na, K, Ti and P are present in the structure as impurities. OA measurements of natural and annealed pumpellyite revealed several bands in the visible region due to spin forbidden transitions of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ . The behaviour of bands around 900 and 1060 nm, with pre-annealing and γ radiation dose, indicating a transition Fe 2+ → e − + Fe 3+ . On the other hand, EPR measurements reveal six lines of Mn 2+ , and satellites due to hyperfine interaction, superimposed on the signal of Fe 3+ around of g = 2. For heat treatment from 800 °C the signal grows significantly and for 900 °C a strong signal of Fe 3+ hides all Mn 2+ lines. The strong growth of this signal indicates that the transitions are due to Fe 3+ dipole–dipole interactions

  8. Effects of pre-irradiation annealing at high temperature on optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance of natural pumpellyite mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javier-Ccallata, Henry, E-mail: henrysjc@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Alas Peruanas Filial Arequipa, Urb. D. A. Carrión G-14, J. L. Bustamante y Rivero, Arequipa (Peru); Laboratório de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Filho, Luiz Tomaz [Departamento de Física Nuclear, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências Exatas, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, Rua Taquari 546, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratório de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo [Departamento de Física Nuclear, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Natural pumpellyite mineral presents superposition bands around 900 and 1060 nm due Fe{sup 2+}and Fe{sup 3+}. •High temperature annealing influences the EPR and OA spectra. •The behavior of EPR line for 800 and 900 °C can be attributed to forbidden dd transitions due the Fe{sup 3+}. -- Abstract: Natural silicate mineral of pumpellyite, Ca{sub 2}MgAl{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4})(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O), point group A2/m, has been studied concerning high temperature annealing and γ-radiation effects on Optical Absorption (OA) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) properties. Chemical analysis revealed that besides Si, Al, Ca and Mg, other oxides i.e., Fe, Mn, Na, K, Ti and P are present in the structure as impurities. OA measurements of natural and annealed pumpellyite revealed several bands in the visible region due to spin forbidden transitions of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The behaviour of bands around 900 and 1060 nm, with pre-annealing and γ radiation dose, indicating a transition Fe{sup 2+} → e{sup −} + Fe{sup 3+}. On the other hand, EPR measurements reveal six lines of Mn{sup 2+}, and satellites due to hyperfine interaction, superimposed on the signal of Fe{sup 3+} around of g = 2. For heat treatment from 800 °C the signal grows significantly and for 900 °C a strong signal of Fe{sup 3+} hides all Mn{sup 2+} lines. The strong growth of this signal indicates that the transitions are due to Fe{sup 3+} dipole–dipole interactions.

  9. A trans-activator function is generated by integration of hepatitis B virus preS/S sequences in human hepatocellular carcinoma DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselmann, W.H.; Meyer, M.; Kekule, A.S.; Lauer, U.; Hofschneider, P.H.; Koshy, R.

    1990-01-01

    The X gene of wild-type hepatitis B virus or integrated DNA has recently been shown to stimulate transcription of a variety of enhancers and promoters. To further delineate the viral sequences responsible for trans-activation in hepatomas, the authors cloned the single hepatitis B virus insert from human hepatocellular carcinoma DNA M1. The plasmid pM1 contains 2004 base of hepatitis B virus DNA subtype adr, including truncated preS/S sequences and the enhancer element. The X promoter and 422 nucleotides of the X coding region are present. The entire preC/C gene is deleted. In transient cotransfection assays using Chang liver cells (CCL 13), pM1 DNA exerts a 6- to 10-fold trans-activating effect on the expression of the pSV2CAT reporter plasmid. The transactivation occurs by stimulation of transcription and is dependent on the simian virus 40 enhancer in the reporter plasmid. Deletion analysis of pM1 subclones reveals that the transactivator is encoded by preS/S and not by X sequences. A frameshift mutation within the preS2 open reading frame shows that this portion is indispensable for the trans-activating function. Initiation of transcription has been mapped to the S1 promoter. A comparable trans-activating effect is also observed with cloned wild-type hepatitis B virus sequences similarly truncated. These results show that a transcriptional trans-activator function not present in the intact gene is generated by 3' truncation of integrated hepatitis B virus DNA preS/S sequences

  10. Formation of toroidal pre-heat plasma without residual magnetic field for high-beta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nagayasu; Tamaru, Ken; Nagata, Akiyoshi.

    1979-01-01

    Formation of toroidal pre-heat plasma was studied. The pre-heat plasma without residual magnetic field was made by chopping the current for pre-heat, A small toroidal-pinch system was used for the experiment. The magnetic field was measured with a magnetic probe. One turn loop was used for the measurement of the toroidal one-turn electric field. A pair of Rogoski coil was used for the measurement of plasma current. The dependence of residual magnetic field on chopping time was measured. By fast chopping of the primary current in the pre-heating circuit, the poloidal magnetic field was reduced to several percent within 5 microsecond. After chopping, no instability was observed in the principal discharge plasma produced within several microsecond. As the conclusion, it can be said that the control of residual field can be made by current chopping. (Kato, T.)

  11. Analysis of Maths Learning Activities Developed By Pre-service Teachers in Terms of the Components of Content, Purpose, Application Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Toprak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today- when the influence of the alteration movement done in order to keep up with the age of the educational system is still continuing- the importance of teachers in students’ learning and achieving what is expected from the education system has been stated by the studies conducted (Hazır & Bıkmaz, 2006. Teachers own a critical role in the stage of both preparing teaching materials and using them (Stein & Smith, 1998b; Swan, 2007. When the existing curriculums –in particular, maths and geometry cirriculums- are analyzed, it can be observed that activities are the most significant teaching materials (Bozkurt, 2012. In fact, it is possible to characterize the existing curriculums as activity-based ones (Report of Workshop Examining Content of Primary School Curriculums According to Branches, 2010; Epö, 2005. Therefore, what sort of learning activities there are, what qualities they need to have, how to design and apply them are topics that must be elaborated (Uğurel et al., 2010.  At this point, our study to increase the skills of pre-service teachers during the process of developing activities was conducted with 27 pre-service teachers -19 girls 8 boys- studying in the 4th year in Mathematics Education Department at a state university in the Aegean Region. The activity designs the pre-service teachers developed considering the patterns given after a series of practice were analyzed in documents in terms of the aim of design and the form of practice. As a result of the studies, it is observed that pre-service teachers deal with the topics from the maths curriculum and these topics are of different grade levels. The result of the examination named as target component suggests that activities developed aim firstly at providing learning and this is followed by reinforcing the concepts already learned. It is stated that pre-service teachers prefer mostly small group (cooperative studies in the activities they develop.Key Words:

  12. Pindolol antagonises G-protein activation at both pre- and postsynaptic serotonin 5-HT1A receptors: a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Millan, M J

    2001-04-01

    The arylalkylamine, pindolol, may potentiate the clinical actions of antidepressant agents. Although it is thought to act via blockade of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, its efficacy at these sites remains controversial. Herein, we evaluated the actions of pindolol at 5-HT1A autoreceptors and specific populations of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors employing [35S]GTPgammaS autoradiography, a measure of receptor-mediated G-protein activation. Both 8-OH-DPAT (1 microM) and 5-HT (10 microM) elicited a pronounced increase in [35S]GTPyS binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus, which contains serotonergic cell bodies bearing 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Pindolol abolished their actions. In the dentate gyrus, lateral septum and entorhinal cortex, structures enriched in postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, 8-OH-DPAT (1 microM) and 5-HT (10 microM) also elicited a marked increase in [35S]GTPgammaS binding which was likewise blocked by pindolol. The antagonism of 5-HT-induced [35S]GTPgammaS labelling in the dentate gyrus was shown to be concentration-dependent, yielding a pIC50 of 5.82. Pindolol did not, itself, affect [35S]GTPgammaS binding in any brain region examined. In conclusion, these data suggest that, as characterised by [35S]GTPgammaS autoradiography, and compared with 5-HT and 8-OH-DPAT, pindolol possesses low efficacy at both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.

  13. Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Murakami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on endurance performance. Subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet at each meal for 3 days, followed by a high-fat meal (HFM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 30% CHO, 55% F and 15% P or high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 71% CHO, 20% F and 9% P 4 h before exercise. Furthermore, just prior to the test, subjects in the HFM group ingested either maltodextrin jelly (M or a placebo jelly (P, while subjects in the HCM ingested a placebo jelly. Endurance performance was measured as running time until exhaustion at a speed between lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation. All subjects participated in each trial, randomly assigned at weekly intervals. We observed that the time until exhaustion was significantly longer in the HFM + M (p < 0.05 than in HFM + P and HCM + P conditions. Furthermore, the total amount of fat oxidation during exercise was significantly higher in HFM + M and HFM + P than in HCM + P (p < 0.05. These results suggest that ingestion of a HFM prior to exercise is more favorable for endurance performance than HCM. In addition, HFM and maltodextrin ingestion following 3 days of carbohydrate loading enhances endurance running performance.

  14. Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Laughlin, David D; Nguyen, Timothy V

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA) and low activity (LA) participants were assigned to self-control (SC) and yoked (YK) feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control-High Activity; Self-Control-Low Activity; Yoked-High Activity; and Yoked-Low Activity. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be "good" trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after "good" trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.

  15. Self-controlled feedback facilitates motor learning in both high and low activity individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Fairbrother

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if high and low activity individuals differed in terms of the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance and learning of a movement skill. The task consisted of a blindfolded beanbag toss using the non-preferred arm. Participants were pre-screened according to their physical activity level using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An equal number of high activity (HA and low activity (LA participants were assigned to self-control (SC and yoked (YK feedback conditions, creating four groups: Self-Control High Activity (SC-HA; Self-Control Low Activity (SC-LA; Yoked High Activity (YK-HA; and Yoked Low Activity (YK-LA. SC condition participants were provided feedback whenever they requested it, while YK condition participants received feedback according to a schedule created by their SC counterpart. Results indicated that the SC condition was more accurate than the YK condition during acquisition and transfer phases, and the HA condition was more accurate than the LA condition during all phases of the experiment. A post-training questionnaire indicated that participants in the SC condition asked for feedback mostly after what they perceived to be good trials; those in the YK condition indicated that they would have preferred to receive feedback after good trials. This study provided further support for the advantages of self-controlled feedback when learning motor skills, additionally showing benefits for both active and less active individuals. The results suggested that the provision of self-controlled feedback to less active learners may be a potential avenue to teaching motor skills necessary to engage in greater amounts of physical activity.

  16. The Influence of Pre-stimulus EEG Activity on Reaction Time During a Verbal Sternberg Task is Related to Musical Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carina; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Koenig, Thomas; Kottlow, Mara; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Previous work highlighted the possibility that musical training has an influence on cognitive functioning. The suggested reason for this influence is the strong recruitment of attention, planning, and working memory functions during playing a musical instrument. The purpose of the present work was twofold, namely to evaluate the general relationship between pre-stimulus electrophysiological activity and cognition, and more specifically the influence of musical expertise on working memory functions. With this purpose in mind, we used covariance mapping analyses to evaluate whether pre-stimulus electroencephalographic activity is predictive for reaction time during a visual working memory task (Sternberg paradigm) in musicians and non-musicians. In line with our hypothesis, we replicated previous findings pointing to a general predictive value of pre-stimulus activity for working memory performance. Most importantly, we also provide first evidence for an influence of musical expertise on working memory performance that could distinctively be predicted by pre-stimulus spectral power. Our results open novel perspectives for better comprehending the vast influences of musical expertise on cognition.

  17. Development and Application of a Category System to Describe Pre-Service Science Teachers' Activities in the Process of Scientific Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Walzer, Christine; Hergert, Susann; Krüger, Dirk

    2017-09-01

    As part of their professional competencies, science teachers need an elaborate meta-modelling knowledge as well as modelling skills in order to guide and monitor modelling practices of their students. However, qualitative studies about (pre-service) science teachers' modelling practices are rare. This study provides a category system which is suitable to analyse and to describe pre-service science teachers' modelling activities and to infer modelling strategies. The category system was developed based on theoretical considerations and was inductively refined within the methodological frame of qualitative content analysis. For the inductive refinement, modelling practices of pre-service teachers (n = 4) have been video-taped and analysed. In this study, one case was selected to demonstrate the application of the category system to infer modelling strategies. The contribution of this study for science education research and science teacher education is discussed.

  18. Leveraging the Pre-DFG Residue Thr-406 To Obtain High Kinase Selectivity in an Aminopyrazole-Type PAK1 Inhibitor Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Joachim; Aliagas, Ignacio; Crawford, James J; Mathieu, Simon; Lee, Wendy; Chao, Qi; Dong, Ping; Rouge, Lionel; Wang, Weiru; Heise, Christopher; Murray, Lesley J; La, Hank; Liu, Yanzhou; Manning, Gerard; Diederich, François; Hoeflich, Klaus P

    2015-06-11

    To increase kinase selectivity in an aminopyrazole-based PAK1 inhibitor series, analogues were designed to interact with the PAK1 deep-front pocket pre-DFG residue Thr-406, a residue that is hydrophobic in most kinases. This goal was achieved by installing lactam head groups to the aminopyrazole hinge binding moiety. The corresponding analogues represent the most kinase selective ATP-competitive Group I PAK inhibitors described to date. Hydrogen bonding with the Thr-406 side chain was demonstrated by X-ray crystallography, and inhibitory activities, particularly against kinases with hydrophobic pre-DFG residues, were mitigated. Leveraging hydrogen bonding side chain interactions with polar pre-DFG residues is unprecedented, and similar strategies should be applicable to other appropriate kinases.

  19. Application of Pre-coated Microfiltration Ceramic Membrane with Powdered Activated Carbon for Natural Organic Matter Removal from Secondary Wastewater Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Kurniasari, Novita

    2012-12-01

    Ceramic membranes offer more advantageous performances than conventional polymeric membranes. However, membrane fouling caused by Natural Organic Matters (NOM) contained in the feed water is still become a major problem for operational efficiency. A new method of ceramic membrane pre-coating with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC), which allows extremely contact time for adsorbing aquatic contaminants, has been studied as a pre-treatment prior to ceramic microfiltration membrane. This bench scale study evaluated five different types of PAC (SA Super, G 60, KCU 6, KCU 8 and KCU 12,). The results showed that KCU 6 with larger pore size was performed better compared to other PAC when pre-coated on membrane surface. PAC pre-coating on the ceramic membrane with KCU 6 was significantly enhance NOM removal, reduced membrane fouling and improved membrane performance. Increase of total membrane resistance was suppressed to 96%. The removal of NOM components up to 92%, 58% and 56% for biopolymers, humic substances and building blocks, respectively was achieved at pre-coating dose of 30 mg/l. Adsorption was found to be the major removal mechanism of NOM. Results obtained showed that biopolymers removal are potentially correlated with enhanced membrane performance.

  20. Effect of α-Amylase Degradation on Physicochemical Properties of Pre-High Hydrostatic Pressure-Treated Potato Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Raad, Leyla; Sun, Hong-Nan; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the susceptibility of potato starch (25%, w/v) suspended in water to degradation by exposure to bacterial α-amylase (0.02%, 0.04% and 0.06%, w/v) for 40 min at 25°C was investigated. Significant differences (p starch (PS) exposed to α-amylase (0.06%, w/v) showed a significantly greater degree of hydrolysis and amount of reducing sugar released compared to α-amylase at a concentration of 0.04% (w/v) or 0.02% (w/v). Native PS (NPS) granules have a spherical and elliptical form with a smooth surface, whereas the hydrolyzed NPS (hNPS) and hydrolyzed HHP-treated PS granules showed irregular and ruptured forms with several cracks and holes on the surface. Hydrolysis of HHP-treated PS by α-amylase could decrease the average granule size significantly (p starch in both the ordered and the amorphous structure, especially in hydrolyzed HHP600 PS. The B-type of hydrolyzed HHP600 PS with α-amylase at a concentration 0.06% (w/v) changed to a B+V type with an additional peak at 2θ = 19.36°. The HHP600 starch with 0.06% (w/v) α-amylase displayed the lowest value of T o (onset temperature), T c (conclusion temperature) and ΔH gel (enthalpies of gelatinization). These results indicate the pre-HHP treatment of NPS leads to increased susceptibility of the granules to enzymatic degradation and eventually changes of both the amorphous and the crystalline structures. PMID:26642044

  1. Development and application of high-precision metrology for the ATLAS tile-calorimeter construction (pre-assembly experience and lessons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, V.Yu.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Khubua, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the forthcoming ATLAS assembly in the pit the pre-assembly of the Hadron Tile Calorimeter BARRELS was undertaken at the laboratory hall. A complex of metrology methods (laser, photogrammetry, theodolite, mechanic, PREDICTION programme) developed at the principal stages and resulted in successful high-precision erection of the barrels has been described

  2. Acquisition of wild-type HIV-1 infection in a patient on pre-exposure prophylaxis with high intracellular concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate: a case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornenborg, Elske; Prins, Maria; Achterbergh, Roel C A; Woittiez, Lycke R; Cornelissen, Marion; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Anderson, Peter L; Reiss, Peter; de Vries, Henry J C; Prins, Jan M; de Bree, Godelieve J

    2017-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate

  3. Pre-clinical activity of PR-104 as monotherapy and in combination with sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbattista, Maria R; Jamieson, Stephen M F; Gu, Yongchuan; Nickel, Jennifer E; Pullen, Susan M; Patterson, Adam V; Wilson, William R; Guise, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    PR-104 is a clinical stage bioreductive prodrug that is converted in vivo to its cognate alcohol, PR-104A. This dinitrobenzamide mustard is reduced to activated DNA cross-linking metabolites (hydroxylamine PR-104H and amine PR-104M) under hypoxia by one-electron reductases and independently of hypoxia by the 2-electron reductase aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3). High expression of AKR1C3, along with extensive hypoxia, suggested the potential of PR-104 for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, a phase IB trial with sorafenib demonstrated significant toxicity that was ascribed in part to reduced PR-104A clearance, likely reflecting compromised glucuronidation in patients with advanced HCC. Here, we evaluate the activity of PR-104 in HCC xenografts (HepG2, PLC/PRF/5, SNU-398, Hep3B) in mice, which do not significantly glucuronidate PR-104A. Cell line differences in sensitivity to PR-104A in vitro under aerobic conditions could be accounted for by differences in both expression of AKR1C3 (high in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5) and sensitivity to the major active metabolite PR-104H, to which PLC/PRF/5 was relatively resistant, while hypoxic selectivity of PR-104A cytotoxicity and reductive metabolism was greatest in the low-AKR1C3 SNU-398 and Hep3B lines. Expression of AKR1C3 in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 xenografts was in the range seen in 21 human HCC specimens. PR-104 monotherapy elicited significant reductions in growth of Hep3B and HepG2 xenografts, and the combination with sorafenib was significantly active in all 4 xenograft models. The results suggest that better-tolerated analogs of PR-104, without a glucuronidation liability, may have the potential to exploit AKR1C3 and/or hypoxia in HCC in humans.

  4. Pre-cancer risk assessment in habitual smokers from DIC images of oral exfoliative cells using active contour and SVM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Susmita; Sarkar, Ripon; Chatterjee, Kabita; Datta, Pallab; Barui, Ananya; Maity, Santi P

    2017-04-01

    Habitual smokers are known to be at higher risk for developing oral cancer, which is increasing at an alarming rate globally. Conventionally, oral cancer is associated with high mortality rates, although recent reports show the improved survival outcomes by early diagnosis of disease. An effective prediction system which will enable to identify the probability of cancer development amongst the habitual smokers, is thus expected to benefit sizable number of populations. Present work describes a non-invasive, integrated method for early detection of cellular abnormalities based on analysis of different cyto-morphological features of exfoliative oral epithelial cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy provides a potential optical tool as this mode provides a pseudo three dimensional (3-D) image with detailed morphological and textural features obtained from noninvasive, label free epithelial cells. For segmentation of DIC images, gradient vector flow snake model active contour process has been adopted. To evaluate cellular abnormalities amongst habitual smokers, the selected morphological and textural features of epithelial cells are compared with the non-smoker (-ve control group) group and clinically diagnosed pre-cancer patients (+ve control group) using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Accuracy of the developed SVM based classification has been found to be 86% with 80% sensitivity and 89% specificity in classifying the features from the volunteers having smoking habit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental Education and Pre-School Children’s Objectively Measured Sedentary Time: The Role of Co-Participation in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children’s sedentary time (ST. Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864, mean age 4.8, 52% boys with their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS (Increased Health and Wellbeing in Pre-schools study between years 2015 and 2016. Children (N = 821 wore an accelerometer for one week. Parents were informed of their educational background, and the frequency of visits with their child in nature, to parks or playgrounds, their own yard, and indoor sport facilities (N = 808. Testing the associations required multiple regression analyses. Parents with a low educational background reported more frequent visits with their child to their own yard, and these visits were associated with children’s lower ST. More highly educated parents co-visited indoor sport facilities more frequently, although this did not have a significant association with children’s ST. More frequent visits in nature were associated with a lower ST at weekdays, regardless of educational background. Future health promotion strategies should inform parents that frequent co-participation in PA, for example, in one’s own yard, is beneficial for lowering children’s ST.

  6. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract down-regulates expression of PPARγ2 and leptin genes in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J Mice and retards in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ramani, Umed V; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity.

  7. Chemical composition and resistance to oxidation of high-oleic rapeseed oil pressed from microwave pre-treated intact and de-hulled seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rękas, A.; Wroniak, M.; Siger, A.; Ścibisz, I.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of a microwave (MV) pre-treatment (3, 6, 9 min, 800W) on the physicochemical properties of high-oleic rapeseed oil prepared from intact (HORO) and de-hulled seeds (DHORO) was investigated in this study. A control DHORO contained higher levels of total tocopherols and carotenoids, while higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds and chlorophylls were detected in the HORO. The MV pre-treatment caused a decrease in the unsaturated fatty acids content that was more evident for the DHOROs. The microwaving time significantly affected phytochemical contents and the color of both types of oils. A vast increase in canolol concentration was noticeable following 9 min of microwaving, which increased 506- and 155-fold in the HORO and DHORO, respectively. At the same time, the antioxidant capacity of oil produced from MV pre-treated seeds for 9 min was nearly 4 times higher than that of the control oil for both types of oils. [es

  8. Participation in Pre-High School Football and Neurological, Neuroradiological, and Neuropsychological Findings in Later Life: A Study of 45 Retired National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew W; Zuckerman, Scott L; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Lovell, Mark R; Sills, Allen K

    2016-05-01

    A recent study found that an earlier age of first exposure (AFE) to tackle football was associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment in retired National Football League (NFL) players. To assess the association between years of exposure to pre-high school football (PreYOE) and neuroradiological, neurological, and neuropsychological outcome measures in a different sample of retired NFL players. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-five former NFL players were included in this study. All participants prospectively completed extensive history taking, a neurological examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. To measure the associations between PreYOE and these outcome measures, multiple regression models were utilized while controlling for several covariates. After applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, none of the neurological, neuroradiological, or neuropsychological outcome measures yielded a significant relationship with PreYOE. A second Bonferroni-corrected analysis of a subset of these athletes with self-reported learning disability yielded no significant relationships on paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests but did result in a significant association between learning disability and computerized indices of visual motor speed and reaction time. The current study failed to replicate the results of a prior study, which concluded that an earlier AFE to tackle football might result in long-term neurocognitive deficits. In 45 retired NFL athletes, there were no associations between PreYOE and neuroradiological, neurological, and neuropsychological outcome measures. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Nanoscale analysis of the influence of pre-oxidation on oxide formation and wetting behavior of hot-dip galvanized high strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, M.; Duchoslav, J.; Steinberger, R.; Hesser, G.; Commenda, C.; Samek, L.; Arenholz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-oxidized hot-dip galvanized advanced high strength steel was examined. • The interface was analyzed in detail via high energy resolution Auger spectra. • Evidence for an aluminothermic reduction of the Mn oxide was found. • A new model for galvanizing high manganese steel was developed. - Abstract: Hot-dip galvanized (HDG) 2nd generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS), nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) with 15.8 wt.% Mn, 0.79 wt.% C, was analyzed at the interface between steel and zinc by scanning Auger electron microscopy (AES) in order to confirm and improve an existing model of additional pre-oxidation treatment before annealing and immersion into the hot zinc bath. Furthermore these steel samples were fractured in the analysis chamber of the AES and analyzed without breaking vacuum. In these measurements the results of an aluminothermic reduction of the manganese and iron surface oxides on the steel could be confirmed by AES

  10. Impact of Structured Group Activities on Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Classroom Motivation: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Caroline F.; Volet, Simone E.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' beliefs about classroom motivation, and how these beliefs may be developed during initial teacher preparation, is a relatively new aspect of enquiry in the fields of motivation and teacher education. An empirical study, grounded in a social constructivist perspective, was designed to examine the impact of providing…

  11. Social capital and physical activity among Croatian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, D; Doubova, S V; Kawachi, I

    2016-06-01

    To examine factors associated with regular physical activity in Croatian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013/14 school year. A survey was conducted among 33 high schools in Zagreb City, Croatia. Participants were students aged 17-18 years. The dependent variables were regular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall physical activity measured by the short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and defined as 60 min or more of daily physical activity. The independent variables included family, neighborhood, and high school social capital. Other study covariates included: socio-economic status, self-rated health, psychological distress and nutritional status. The associations between physical activity and social capital variables were assessed separately for boys and girls through multiple logistic regression and inverse probability weighting in order to correct for missing data bias. A total of 1689 boys and 1739 girls responded to the survey. A higher percentage of boys reported performing regular vigorous and moderate physical activity (59.4%) and overall physical activity (83.4%), comparing with the girls (35.4% and 70%, respectively). For boys, high family social capital and high informal social control were associated with increased odds of regular MVPA (1.49, 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90 and 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.56, respectively), compared to those with low social capital. For girls, high informal social control was associated with regular overall physical activity (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.76). High social capital is associated with regular MVPA in boys and regular overall activity in girls. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for promotion of physical activity in youth. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with High Support Needs in Regular Classrooms in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Tariq; Sharma, Umesh

    2018-01-01

    In the process of educational reforms for promoting equity and inclusion in education, pre-service teacher preparedness has been identified as a vital factor that has an impact on the success of inclusive education. Bangladesh, like other parts of the world, has taken various initiatives to promote inclusive education in the country context. This…

  13. A developed wedge fixtures assisted high precision TEM samples pre-thinning method: Towards the batch lamella preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion milling, wedge cutting or polishing, and focused ion beam (FIB milling are widely-used techniques for the transmission electron microscope (TEM sample preparation. Especially, the FIB milling provides a site-specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials in the micrometer and nanometer scale. However, the cost of FIB tools has been always a significant concern. Since it is inevitable to use the FIB technique, the improvement of efficiency is a key point. Traditional TEM sample preparation with FIB was routinely implemented on a single sample each time. Aiming at cost efficiency, a new pre-thinning technique for batch sample preparation was developed in this paper. The present proposal combines the sample preparation techniques with multi-samples thinning, cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM, wedge cutting, FIB and other sample pre-thinning techniques. The new pre-thinning technique is to prepare an edge TEM sample on a grinding and polishing fixture with a slant surface. The thickness of the wedges sample can be measured to 1∼2 μm under optical microscope. Therefore, this fixture is superior to the traditional optical method of estimating the membrane thickness. Moreover, by utilizing a multi-sample holding fixture, more samples can be pre-thinned simultaneously, which significantly improved the productivity of TEM sample preparation.

  14. Early Professional Development in the Scottish Context: Pre-Service High School Teachers and the Management of Behaviour in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an account of an exploratory piece of research focused on understanding more fully the nature of pre-service teachers' developing approaches to classroom behaviour management on a one-year postgraduate teacher education programme in the Scottish context. Drawing on individual and focus group interviews as well as journaling of…

  15. High-Quality School-Based Pre-K Can Boost Early Learning for Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Deborah A.; Meloy, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses the effects of Tulsa, Oklahoma's school-based prekindergarten program on the school readiness of children with special needs using a regression discontinuity design. Participation in the pre-K program was associated with significant gains for children with special needs in early literacy scores, but not in math scores. These…

  16. Active Gaming Among High School Students--United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, MinKyoung; Carroll, Dianna D; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-08-01

    Our study is the first to describe the prevalence and correlates (demographics, body mass index [BMI], sedentary behaviors, and physical activity) of high school youth who report active videogame playing (active gaming) in a U.S. representative sample. The National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study of 2010 provided data for this study. Active gaming was assessed as the number of days in the 7 days prior to the survey that students in grades 9-12 (14-18 years of age) reported participating in active videogames (e.g., "Wii™ Fit" [Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan], "Dance Dance Revolution" [Konami, Osaka, Japan]). Students reporting ≥1 days were classified as active gamers. Logistic regression was used to examine the association among active gaming and demographic characteristics, BMI, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity. Among 9125 U.S. high school students in grades 9-12 surveyed, 39.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval=37.9 percent, 42.0 percent) reported active gaming. Adjusting for covariates, the following characteristics were positively associated (Pblack, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity; being overweight or obese; watching DVDs >0 hours/day; watching TV >0 hours/day; and meeting guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity. Four out of 10 U.S. high school students report participating in active gaming. Active gamers tend to spend more time watching DVDs or TV, meet guidelines for physical activity, and/or be overweight or obese compared with nonactive gamers. These findings may serve to provide a baseline to track active gaming in U.S. youth and inform interventions that target sedentary behaviors and/or physical activity.

  17. Comparison of pre- and post-levothyroxine high-sensitivity c-reactive protein and fetuin-a levels in subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Bilgir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this trial was to determine the levels of inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A pre- and post-levothyroxine treatment in cases of subclinical hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 patients with a diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group of 30 healthy individuals were tested for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A, followed by the administration of 50 µg of levothyroxine in the patient group for 3 months. During the post-treatment stage, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A levels in the patient group were re-assessed and compared with pre-treatment values. RESULTS: Pre-treatment levels of both high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A were observed to be higher in the patient group than in the control group. The decrease in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels during the post-treatment stage was not statistically significant. However, the decrease observed in post-treatment fetuin-A levels was found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The decrease in fetuin-A levels in subclinical hypothyroidism cases indicates that levothyroxine treatment exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Although the decrease in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels was statistically non-significant, it is predicted to reach significance with sustained treatment.

  18. ISSUES AND FEASIBILITY DEMONSTRATION OF CLIC SUPPORTING SYSTEM CHAIN ACTIVE PRE-ALIGNMENT USING A MULTI-MODULE TEST SETUP (MOCK-UP)

    CERN Document Server

    Sosin, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    The implementation study of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is under way at CERN with a focus on the challenging issues. The pre-alignment precision and accuracy requirements are part of these technical challenges: the permissible transverse position errors of the linac components are typically 14 micrometers over sliding windows of 200m. To validate the proposed methods and strategies, the Large Scale Metrology section at CERN has performed campaigns of measurements on the CLIC Two Beam Test Modules, focusing inter alia on the alignment performance of the CLIC “snake”- girders configuration and the Main Beam Quadrupoles supporting structures. This paper describes the activities and results of tests which were performed on the test mock-up for the qualification of the CLIC supporting system chain for active pre-alignment. The lessons learnt (“know how”), the issues encountered in the girder position determination as well as the behaviour of the mechanical components are presented.

  19. Age-related changes in pre- and post-conization HPV genotype distribution among women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannella, Luca; Fodero, Cristina; Boselli, Fausto; Rubino, Teresa; Mfuta, Kabala; Prandi, Sonia

    2017-04-01

    To assess the effect of age on pre- and post-conization HPV genotype distribution. The present retrospective observational study included consecutive women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who underwent conization at the Cervical Cancer Screening Centre of Reggio Emilia, Italy, and University Hospital of Modena, Italy, between February 1, 2012, and October 31, 2014. Pre-conization and 6-month post-conization HPV genotyping results were compared between four age groups (<30, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥50 years) and age-related changes in the HPV genotypes present were evaluated. There were 162 patients included. The lowest occurrence of pre-conization high-risk and probable high-risk HPV genotypes was observed among patients aged at least 50 years when compared with younger patients (P=0.017). Conversely, women aged at least 50 years exhibited the highest level of post-conization high-risk and probable high-risk HPV genotypes (P=0.043). Additionally, an increasing incidence of recording identical pre- and post-conization HPV genotypes was associated with increasing age (P=0.024), as was increasing post-treatment recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (P=0.030). The presence of high-risk and probable high-risk HPV genotypes was lowest among older patients before conization and was highest among these patients post-conization; post-treatment HPV clearance decreased with age and increasing age could be a risk factor for post-conization recurrence. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Diversity of activity participation determines bone mineral content in the lower limbs of pre-pubertal children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, S S M; Vackova, D; Choi, A W M; Cheng, Y T Y; Yam, T T T; Guo, X

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between activity participation and bone mineralization in children with developmental coordination disorder. Limited participation in physical, recreational, social, and skill-based and self-improvement activities contributed to lower bone mineral content. For improved bone health, these children should participate in a variety of activities, not only physical activities. Limited activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may have a negative impact on bone mineral accrual. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineralization and activity participation patterns of pre-pubertal children with DCD and those with typical development, and to determine the association between activity participation patterns and bone mineralization in children with DCD. Fifty-two children with DCD (mean age = 7.51 years) and 61 children with typical development (mean age = 7.22 years) participated in the study. Appendicular and total body (less head) bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated by a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Activity participation patterns were assessed using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) questionnaire. Children with DCD had lower appendicular and total body BMCs and BMDs than children with typical development overall (p accounting for the effects of age, sex, height, lean mass, and fat mass, the total activity diversity score remained independently associated with leg BMC in children with DCD, explaining 5.1% of the variance (p = 0.030). However, the physical activity diversity score was no longer associated with leg BMC (p = 0.090). Diversity of activity participation and bone mineralization were lower in pre-pubertal children with DCD. Decreased total activity participation diversity was a contributing factor to lower BMC in the legs of children with DCD.

  1. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly active eighth-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Although girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Data from 1,866 eighth-grade girls from six field centers across the United States participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed-model analysis of variance examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. High-active girls were taller, had lower body mass indices and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of pre-drying treatments on solution-coated organic thin films for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongkyun; Hong, Ki-Young; Park, Jongwoon

    2017-12-01

    Due to capillary rise, organic thin films fabricated by solution coating exhibit the concave thickness profile. It is found that the thickness and emission uniformities within pixels vary depending sensitively on the pre-drying treatment that has been done before hard bake. We investigate its effect on the film quality by varying the temperature, time, pressure, fluid flow-related solute concentration, and evaporation-related solvent. To this end, we carry out spin coatings of a non-aqueous poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) for a hole transporting blanket layer. With a low-boiling-point (BP) organic solvent, the pre-drying makes no significant impact on the thickness profiles. With a high-BP organic solvent, the PVK films pre-dried in a vacuum for a sufficient time exhibit very uniform light emission in the central region, but non-emission phenomenon near the perimeter of pixels. It is addressed that such a non-emission phenomenon can be suppressed to some extent by decreasing the vacuum pressure. However, the rapid evaporation by heat conduction during the pre-drying degrades the thickness uniformity due to a rapid microflow of solute from the edge to the center. No further enhancement in the thickness uniformity is obtained by varying the solute concentration and using a mixture of low- and high-BP solvents.

  3. Oxytocin receptor antagonist treatments alter levels of attachment to mothers and central dopamine activity in pre-weaning mandarin vole pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhixiong; Hou, Wenjuan; Hao, Xin; Dong, Na; Du, Peirong; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Jinfeng; Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao

    2017-10-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is known to be important in mother-infant bonding. Although the relationship between OT and filial attachment behavior has been studied in a few mammalian species, the effects on infant social behavior have received little attention in monogamous species. The present study examined the effects of OT receptor antagonist (OTA) treatment on attachment behavior and central dopamine (DA) activity in male and female pre-weaning mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Our data showed that OTA treatments decreased the attachment behavior of pups to mothers, measured using preference tests at postnatal day 14, 16, 18 and 20. OTA treatments reduced serum OT concentration in pre-weaning pups and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), indicating a decrease in central DA activity. In male and female pups, OTA reduced DA levels, DA 1-type receptor (D1R) and DA 2-type receptor (D2R) protein expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Our results indicate that OTA treatment inhibits the attachment of pre-weaning pups to mothers. This inhibition is possibly associated with central DA activity and levels of two types of dopamine receptor in the NAcc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of high dose "ethinylestradiol" in post-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients heavily pre-treated with endocrine agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Robertson, John F R; Cheung, K L

    2006-07-11

    High dose estrogens (HDEs) were frequently used as endocrine agents prior to the introduction of tamoxifen which carries fewer side effects. Due to the development of resistance to available endocrine agents in almost all women with metastatic breast cancer, interest has renewed in the use of HDEs as yet another endocrine option that may have activity. We report our experience with one of the HDEs ("ethinylestradiol" 1 mg daily) in advanced breast cancer (locally advanced and metastatic) in post-menopausal women who had progressed on multiple endocrine agents. According to a database of advanced breast cancer patients seen in our Unit since 1998, those who had complete set of information and fulfilled the following criteria were studied: (1) patients in whom further endocrine therapy was deemed appropriate i.e., patients who have had clinical benefit with previous endocrine agents or were not fit or unwilling to receive chemotherapy in the presence of potentially life-threatening visceral metastases; (2) disease was assessable by UICC criteria; (3) were treated with "ethinylestradiol" until they were withdrawn from treatment due to adverse events or disease progression. Twelve patients with a median age of 75.1 years (49.1-85 years) were identified. Majority (N = 8) had bony disease. They had ethinylestradiol as 3rd to 7th line endocrine therapy. One patient (8%) came off treatment early due to hepato-renal syndrome. Clinical benefit (objective response or durable stable disease for > or = 6 months) was seen in 4 patients (33.3%) with a median duration of response of 10+ (7-36) months. The time to treatment failure was 4 (0.5-36) months. Yet unreported, high dose "ethinylestradiol" is another viable therapeutic strategy in heavily pre-treated patients when further endocrine therapy is deemed appropriate. Although it tends to carry more side effects, they may not be comparable to those of other HDEs (such as diethylstilbestrol) or chemotherapy.

  5. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven .... Table 1: Relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and HAART adherence among ... constraints (44%), stigma (15%), travel/migration.

  6. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities As Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilina Indrajie Wickramaarachchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as “prw tasks” in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were initially selected with one group (experimental group engaging in “prw tasks” while the other group (control group performing the tasks without a pre-reading component. The intervention was for 6 sessions (one hour in each session. At the end of each session, the performance of the two groups was measured and the test scores were analyzed using the data analysis package SPSS to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. The results indicated that the experimental group had significantly performed better than the control group which indicated the effectiveness of the prw tasks in improving reading comprehension.

  7. Feasibility of High Energy Lasers for Interdiction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS FEASIBILITY OF HIGH ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES by Carlos Abel Javier Romero... ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Carlos Abel Javier Romero Chero 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...the people or cargo. High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons are an effective way to deliver energy precisely from a relative long range. This thesis studies

  8. Human Spaceflight: Activities for the Intermediate and Junior High Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsfield, John W.; Hartsfield, Kendra J.

    Since its beginning, space science has created high interest and continues to prod the imagination of students. This activity packet, which has been designed to enhance the curriculum and challenge gifted students, contains background information on spaceflight as well as 24 interdisciplinary classroom activities, 3 crossword puzzles, and 3 word…

  9. Principia designae pre-design, design, and post-design : social motive for the highly advanced technological society

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a broad design purview within the framework of “pre-design, design, and post-design” by focusing on the “motive of design,” which implies an underlying reason for the design of a product. The chapters are comprised of papers based on discussions at the “Design Research Leading Workshop” held in Nara, Japan, in 2013. This book encourages readers to enhance and expand their thinking within a widened design perspective.

  10. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight - a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær; Langberg, Henning; Ottesen, Bent; Damm, Peter

    2017-08-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary women, light exercisers, moderate exercisers and competitive athletes. The results showed that sedentary women on average gained 14.1 kg during pregnancy, whereas light exercisers gained 13.7 kg, moderate exercisers gained 14.3 kg and competitive athletes 16.1 kg. Competitive athletes had an increased risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement What is already known on this subjectPrevious studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed no association between the pre-pregnancy level of physical activity and mean birth weight. What the results of this study addWe found that women classified as competitive exercisers had a 2.6-fold increased risk of gaining more weight than recommended compared to light exercisers. Nearly 6 out of 10 women among the competitive exercisers gained more weight than recommended by IOM. Surprisingly, this did not appear to increase birth weight or post-partum weight gain, but other adverse effects cannot be excluded. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further researchIn the clinical practice it may be relevant to focus on and advise pre-pregnancy competitive exercisers in order to prevent excessive gestational weight gain.

  11. Higher Birthweight and Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI Persist with Obesity Association at Age 9 in High Risk Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Medrano, Rosalinda; Elwan, Deena; Mehta, Kala; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2018-02-03

    Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.

  12. The physical activity climate in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Anne; Lytle, Leslie; Pasch, Keryn; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Sirard, John Ronald

    2010-11-01

    This article describes policies, practices, and facilities that form the physical activity climate in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metro area middle and high schools and examines how the physical activity climate varies by school characteristics, including public/private, school location and grade level. Surveys examining school physical activity practices, policies and environment were administered to principals and physical education department heads from 115 middle and high schools participating in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA) study. While some supportive practices were highly prevalent in the schools studied (such as prohibiting substitution of other classes for physical education); other practices were less common (such as providing opportunity for intramural (noncompetitive) sports). Public schools vs. private schools and schools with a larger school enrollment were more likely to have a school climate supportive of physical activity. Although schools reported elements of positive physical activity climates, discrepancies exist by school characteristics. Of note, public schools were more than twice as likely as private schools to have supportive physical activity environments. Establishing more consistent physical activity expectations and funding at the state and national level is necessary to increase regular school physical activity.

  13. The maternal immune activation (MIA) model of schizophrenia produces pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) deficits in both juvenile and adult rats but these effects are not associated with maternal weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Amy R; Bilkey, David K

    2010-12-01

    The developmental onset of deficits in sensorimotor-gating was examined in the maternal immune activation (MIA) animal model of schizophrenia. Pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) deficits were evident in juvenile MIA rats. This parallels the sensorimotor-gating deficits observed in groups at high-risk of schizophrenia. PPI deficits were independent of maternal weight loss following the MIA manipulation, suggesting that this measure may not be a useful marker of treatment efficacy. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of HbA(1C) testing to diagnose pre-diabetes in high risk African American children: a comparison with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushma; Fleming, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the discriminating power of HbA(1C) with other pre-diabetes diagnostic tests specifically in high-risk African American children. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 172 children (70 boys and 102 girls) aged 9-11 years with BMI's above the 85th percentile. Fasting glucose, insulin and HbA(1C) were analyzed from the plasma samples. Of the 172 participants included in this analysis, 21 (12.2%) had HbA(1C) concentrations above the cutoff of 5.7 used to identify pre-diabetes. None (0%) of these 21 participants, however, were observed to have a glucose concentration above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 110 mg/dl, and only 13 of 21 participants had HOMA-IR above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 2.5. When compared to the previously identified glucose cutoff of 110 mg/dl and HOMA-IR cutoff of 2.5 for pre-diabetes, HbA(1C) showed high specificity (88 and 93%, respectively) but very low sensitivity (0 and 21%, respectively). Glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly interrelated, but HbA(1C) was not significantly correlated with these biochemical prediabetes assessment variables, nor with anthropometric (BMIz, WC) risk factors. Our results suggest that HbA(1C) had poor discrimination power to identify prediabetes in overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old African American children. Future studies are recommended to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and predictive power of different screening tests currently recommended to avoid inadequacy when screening for prediabetes and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of active antennas on the hot-restrike of high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoebing, T; Bergner, A; Ruhrmann, C; Mentel, J; Awakowicz, P; Koch, B; Manders, F

    2014-01-01

    The ignition voltage of high intensity discharge (HID) lamps with mercury as the buffer gas may rise from 3 kV for the cold state up to more than 15 kV for a hot lamp. By coating a lamp burner with an electrically conductive layer, which operates as an active antenna, the ignition voltage of HID lamps can be significantly reduced. An active antenna connected to one of the lamp electrodes transports the potential from this electrode to the vicinity of the opposite electrode and generates an enhanced electric field inside the burner. On applying a symmetrically shaped ignition pulse, a weak pre-discharge within the first half-cycle produces free charge carriers initiating ignition of the lamp within the subsequent second half-cycle. The authors present a set-up for electrical and optical investigations of hot-restrike in HID lamps. The ignition voltage is measured for two different polarities as a function of the cooldown time. An analysis of its reduction is given. Furthermore, the pre-discharge is investigated by means of short-time photography. It is demonstrated that a negative polarity of the active antenna within the first half-cycle and a positive polarity within the second one is the most effective succession. (paper)

  16. Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bleich

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Future ocean acidification has the potential to adversely affect many marine organisms. A growing body of evidence suggests that many species could suffer from reduced fertilization success, decreases in larval- and adult growth rates, reduced calcification rates, and even mortality when being exposed to near-future levels (year 2100 scenarios of ocean acidification. Little research focus is currently placed on those organisms/taxa that might be less vulnerable to the anticipated changes in ocean chemistry; this is unfortunate, as the comparison of more vulnerable to more tolerant physiotypes could provide us with those physiological traits that are crucial for ecological success in a future ocean. Here, we attempt to summarize some ontogenetic and lifestyle traits that lead to an increased tolerance towards high environmental pCO2. In general, marine ectothermic metazoans with an extensive extracellular fluid volume may be less vulnerable to future acidification as their cells are already exposed to much higher pCO2 values (0.1 to 0.4 kPa, ca. 1000 to 3900 μatm than those of unicellular organisms and gametes, for which the ocean (0.04 kPa, ca. 400 μatm is the extracellular space. A doubling in environmental pCO2 therefore only represents a 10% change in extracellular pCO2 in some marine teleosts. High extracellular pCO2 values are to some degree related to high metabolic rates, as diffusion gradients need to be high in order to excrete an amount of CO2 that is directly proportional to the amount of O2 consumed. In active metazoans, such as teleost fish, cephalopods and many brachyuran crustaceans, exercise induced increases in metabolic rate require an efficient ion-regulatory machinery for CO2 excretion and acid-base regulation, especially when anaerobic metabolism is involved and metabolic protons leak into the extracellular space. These ion-transport systems, which are located in highly developed gill epithelia, form the basis for

  17. IAEA Activities in Nuclear High Temperature Heat for Industrial Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    IAEA activities to support Member States: Information Exchange; Modelling and Simulations; Development of Methodologies; Safety; Technology Support; Education and Training; Knowledge Preservation. Assist MSs with national nuclear programmes; Support innovations in nuclear power deployment; Facilitate and assist international R&D collaborations. Interest in HTGR technology • The IAEA activities in the area of HTGR are guided by the recommendations of the TWG-GCRs – Currently 14 members: China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Netherlands, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America – 3 International Organizations: OECD/NEA, European Commission, Gen-IV Forum. – 2 new members in 2017: Poland and Singapore. Meetings • Meet every 24 months • Next meeting: 30 October – 1 November 2017 • Other Member states with some activities on HTGRs – Kazakhstan – history of close cooperation with Japan – Saudi Arabia – feasibility study for HTGRs to provide heat for the petro-chemical industry – Canada – three HTR designs under consideration in the nuclear regulator pre-licensing vendor design reviews

  18. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwat Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP. Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. Case description The interventions of the MM-MP included new strategies for prevention, vector control, case management, behavioral change communication (BCC/information, education and communication (IEC, and strengthening of the health system (surveillance, monitoring and evaluation and epidemic detection system. After a slow first year with non-satisfying scores for the performance indicators, the MM-MP truly engaged in its intervention activities in 2006 and kept its performance up until the end of 2009. A total of 69,994 long-lasting insecticide-treated nets were distributed and more than 15,000 nets re-impregnated. In high-risk areas, this was complemented with residual spraying of insecticides. Over 10,000 people were screened with active case detection in outbreak and high-risk areas. Additional notification points were established and the national health system was strengthened. Discussion and evaluation In the current paper, the MM-MP is evaluated both on account of the targets established within the programme and on account of its impact on the malaria situation in Suriname. Malaria vector populations, monitored in sentinel sites, collapsed after 2006 and concurrently the number of national malaria cases decreased from 8,618 in 2005 to 1,509 in 2009. Malaria transmission risk shifted from the stabile village communities to the mobile gold mining communities, especially those along the French Guiana border. Conclusions The novel strategies for malaria control introduced in Suriname within the MM-MP have led to a significant decrease in the national malaria burden. The challenge is to further reduce malaria using the available strategies as

  19. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, Hélène; Hardjopawiro, Loretta S; Takken, Willem; Villegas, Leopoldo

    2012-01-09

    Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP). Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. The interventions of the MM-MP included new strategies for prevention, vector control, case management, behavioral change communication (BCC)/information, education and communication (IEC), and strengthening of the health system (surveillance, monitoring and evaluation and epidemic detection system). After a slow first year with non-satisfying scores for the performance indicators, the MM-MP truly engaged in its intervention activities in 2006 and kept its performance up until the end of 2009. A total of 69,994 long-lasting insecticide-treated nets were distributed and more than 15,000 nets re-impregnated. In high-risk areas, this was complemented with residual spraying of insecticides. Over 10,000 people were screened with active case detection in outbreak and high-risk areas. Additional notification points were established and the national health system was strengthened. In the current paper, the MM-MP is evaluated both on account of the targets established within the programme and on account of its impact on the malaria situation in Suriname. Malaria vector populations, monitored in sentinel sites, collapsed after 2006 and concurrently the number of national malaria cases decreased from 8,618 in 2005 to 1,509 in 2009. Malaria transmission risk shifted from the stabile village communities to the mobile gold mining communities, especially those along the French Guiana border. The novel strategies for malaria control introduced in Suriname within the MM-MP have led to a significant decrease in the national malaria burden. The challenge is to further reduce malaria using the available strategies as appropriate in the affected areas and populations. Elimination of malaria in the country will

  20. Free nitrous acid pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances volatile solids destruction and improves sludge dewaterability in continuous anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Liguo; Laloo, Andrew; Duan, Haoran; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that pre-treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) with free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO 2 ) enhances the biodegradability of WAS, identified by a 20-50% increase in specific methane production in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. This suggests that FNA pre-treatment would enhance the destruction of volatile solids (VS) in an anaerobic sludge digester, and reduce overall sludge disposal costs, provided that the dewaterability of the digested sludge is not negatively affected. This study experimentally evaluates the impact of FNA pre-treatment on the VS destruction in anaerobic sludge digestion and on the dewaterability of digested sludge, using continuously operated bench-scale anaerobic digesters. Pre-treatment of full-scale WAS for 24 h at an FNA concentration of 1.8 mg NN/L enhanced VS destruction by 17 ± 1% (from 29.2 ± 0.9% to 34.2 ± 1.1%) and increased dewaterability (centrifuge test) from 12.4 ± 0.4% to 14.1 ± 0.4%. Supporting the VS destruction data, methane production increased by 16 ± 1%. Biochemical methane potential tests indicated that the final digestate stability was also improved with a lower potential from FNA treated digestate. Further, a 2.1 ± 0.2 log improvement in pathogen reduction was also achieved. With inorganic solids representing 15-22% of the full-scale WAS used, FNA pre-treatment resulted in a 16-17% reduction in the volume of dewatered sludge for final disposal. This results in significantly reduced costs as assessed by economic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Meta-Analysis and Cost Comparison of Empirical versus Pre-Emptive Antifungal Strategies in Hematologic Malignancy Patients with High-Risk Febrile Neutropenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fung

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal disease (IFD causes significant morbidity and mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia (FN. These patients therefore often receive empirical antifungal therapy. Diagnostic test-guided pre-emptive antifungal therapy has been evaluated as an alternative treatment strategy in these patients.We conducted an electronic search for literature comparing empirical versus pre-emptive antifungal strategies in FN among adult hematologic malignancy patients. We systematically reviewed 9 studies, including randomized-controlled trials, cohort studies, and feasibility studies. Random and fixed-effect models were used to generate pooled relative risk estimates of IFD detection, IFD-related mortality, overall mortality, and rates and duration of antifungal therapy. Heterogeneity was measured via Cochran's Q test, I2 statistic, and between study τ2. Incorporating these parameters and direct costs of drugs and diagnostic testing, we constructed a comparative costing model for the two strategies. We conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis on pooled estimates and one-way sensitivity analyses on other key parameters with uncertain estimates.Nine published studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive strategies were associated with significantly lower antifungal exposure (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.85 and duration without an increase in IFD-related mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36-1.87 or overall mortality (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.46-1.99. The pre-emptive strategy cost $324 less (95% credible interval -$291.88 to $418.65 pre-emptive compared to empirical than the empirical approach per FN episode. However, the cost difference was influenced by relatively small changes in costs of antifungal therapy and diagnostic testing.Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive antifungal therapy in patients with high-risk FN may decrease antifungal use without increasing mortality

  2. Meta-Analysis and Cost Comparison of Empirical versus Pre-Emptive Antifungal Strategies in Hematologic Malignancy Patients with High-Risk Febrile Neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Monica; Kim, Jane; Marty, Francisco M; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Koo, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia (FN). These patients therefore often receive empirical antifungal therapy. Diagnostic test-guided pre-emptive antifungal therapy has been evaluated as an alternative treatment strategy in these patients. We conducted an electronic search for literature comparing empirical versus pre-emptive antifungal strategies in FN among adult hematologic malignancy patients. We systematically reviewed 9 studies, including randomized-controlled trials, cohort studies, and feasibility studies. Random and fixed-effect models were used to generate pooled relative risk estimates of IFD detection, IFD-related mortality, overall mortality, and rates and duration of antifungal therapy. Heterogeneity was measured via Cochran's Q test, I2 statistic, and between study τ2. Incorporating these parameters and direct costs of drugs and diagnostic testing, we constructed a comparative costing model for the two strategies. We conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis on pooled estimates and one-way sensitivity analyses on other key parameters with uncertain estimates. Nine published studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive strategies were associated with significantly lower antifungal exposure (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and duration without an increase in IFD-related mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36-1.87) or overall mortality (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.46-1.99). The pre-emptive strategy cost $324 less (95% credible interval -$291.88 to $418.65 pre-emptive compared to empirical) than the empirical approach per FN episode. However, the cost difference was influenced by relatively small changes in costs of antifungal therapy and diagnostic testing. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive antifungal therapy in patients with high-risk FN may decrease antifungal use without increasing mortality. We

  3. A stability comparison of redox-active layers produced by chemical coupling of an osmium redox complex to pre-functionalized gold and carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, Susan; Foster, Kevin; Leech, Donal

    2009-01-01

    The production of stable redox active layers on electrode surfaces is a key factor for the development of practical electronic and electrochemical devices. Here, we report on a comparison of the stability of redox layers formed by covalently coupling an osmium redox complex to pre-functionalized gold and graphite electrode surfaces. Pre-treatment of gold and graphite electrodes to provide surface carboxylic acid groups is achieved via classical thiolate self-assembled monolayer formation on gold surfaces and the electro-reduction of an in situ generated aryldiazonium salt from 4-aminobenzoic acid on gold, glassy carbon and graphite surfaces. These surfaces have been characterized by AFM and electrochemical blocking studies. The surface carboxylate is then used to tether an osmium complex, [Os(2,2'-bipyridyl) 2 (4-aminomethylpyridine)Cl]PF 6 , to provide a covalently bound redox active layer, E 0 '' of 0.29 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4), on the pre-treated electrodes. The aryldiazonium salt-treated carbon-based surfaces showed the greatest stability, represented by a decrease of <5% in the peak current for the Os(II/III) redox transition of the immobilized complex over a 3-day period, compared to a decrease of 19% and 14% for the aryldiazonium salt treated and thiolate treated gold surfaces, respectively, over the same period

  4. The effects of the pre-reversal ExB drift, the EIA asymmetry, and magnetic activity on the equatorial spread F during solar maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Lee

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a digisonde at Jicamarca and a chain of GPS receivers on the west side of South America to investigate the effects of the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE in ExB drift, the asymmetry (Ia of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA, and the magnetic activity (Kp on the generation of equatorial spread F (ESF. Results show that the ESF appears frequently in summer (November, December, January, and February and equinoctial (March, April, September, and October months, but rarely in winter (May, June, July, and August months. The seasonal variation in the ESF is associated with those in the PRE ExB drift and Ia. The larger ExB drift (>20m/s and smaller |Ia| (<0.3 in summer and equinoctial months provide a preferable condition to development the ESF. Conversely, the smaller ExB drift and larger |Ia| are responsible for the lower ESF occurrence in winter months. Regarding the effects of magnetic activity, the ESF occurrence decreases with increasing Kp in the equinoctial and winter months, but not in the summer months. Furthermore, the larger and smaller ExB drifts are presented under the quiet (Kp<3 and disturbed (Kp≥3 conditions, respectively. These results indicate that the suppression in ESF and the decrease in ExB drifts are mainly caused by the decrease in the eastward electric field.

  5. Geo-metadata design for the GIS of the pre-selected site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Gao Min

    2008-01-01

    The information system for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste aims at the integrated management and full application of multi-sourceful information in the research for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. And the establishment and operation of the system need geo-metadata's support of multi-sourceful information. In the paper, on the basis of geo-data analysis for pre-selected site of disposal of high-level radioactive waste, we can apply the existing metadata standards. Also we can research and design the content information, management pattern and application for geo-metadata of the multi-sourceful information. (authors)

  6. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University ...

  7. Magnetic activity effect on equatorial spread-F under high and low solar activity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, K S.V.; Somayajulu, V V; Krishna Murthy, B V

    1986-08-01

    The effect of magnetic activity on spread-F at two equatorial stations, Trivandrum and Huancayo, separated in longitude by about 150 deg, under high and low solar activity conditions has been investigated. Magnetic activity produces strong inhibition effect on spread-F at Huancayo compared to that at Trivandrum especially during high solar activity period. This results in a decrease of spread-F with solar activity at Huancayo in contrast to Trivandrum. These findings are explained in terms of F-region electrodynamics and Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism for spread-F.

  8. Separation of amino acids and antibiotics by narrow-bore and normal-bore high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, H P; Plaga, A

    1987-01-16

    The selectivity, efficiency and lifetime of normal- and narrow-bore columns for high-performance liquid chromatography were investigated for the separation and quantification of amino acids and the amino acid-like antibiotics phosphinothricin and phosphinothricylalanylalanine in biological samples. These compounds were determined by an automated pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde-2-mercaptoethanol reagent and UV detection at 338 nm.

  9. A search for pre-main sequence stars in the high-latitude molecular clouds. II - A survey of the Einstein database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary results are reported of a survey of every EINSTEIN image which overlaps any high-latitude molecular cloud in a search for X-ray emitting pre-main sequence stars. This survey, together with complementary KPNO and IRAS data, will allow the determination of how prevalent low mass star formation is in these clouds in general and, particularly, in the translucent molecular clouds.

  10. The effects of a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, and amino acids during three weeks of high-intensity exercise on aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Abbie E; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-02-15

    A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was used to examine the effects of a pre-workout supplement combined with three weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic and anaerobic running performance, training volume, and body composition. Twenty-four moderately-trained recreational athletes (mean +/- SD age = 21.1 +/- 1.9 yrs; stature = 172.2 +/- 8.7 cm; body mass = 66.2 +/- 11.8 kg, VO2max = 3.21 +/- 0.85 l.min-1, percent body fat = 19.0 +/- 7.1%) were assigned to either the active supplement (GT, n = 13) or placebo (PL, n = 11) group. The active supplement (Game Time(R), Corr-Jensen Laboratories Inc., Aurora, CO) was 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of a proprietary blend including whey protein, cordyceps sinensis, creatine, citrulline, ginseng, and caffeine. The PL was also 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of only maltodextrin, natural and artificial flavors and colors. Thirty minutes prior to all testing and training sessions, participants consumed their respective supplements mixed with 8-10 oz of water. Both groups participated in a three-week HIIT program three days per week, and testing was conducted before and after the training. Cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) was assessed using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics TrueOne(R) 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Sandy, UT) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill (Woodway, Pro Series, Waukesha, WI). Also, four high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of the treadmill velocity recorded during VO2max, and the distances achieved were plotted over the times-to-exhaustion. Linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) and y-intercepts (anaerobic running capacity, ARC) of these relationships to assess aerobic and anaerobic performances, respectively. Training volumes were tracked by summing the distances achieved during each training session for each subject. Percent body fat (%BF) and lean

  11. The effects of a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, and amino acids during three weeks of high-intensity exercise on aerobic and anaerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall Kristina L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was used to examine the effects of a pre-workout supplement combined with three weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic running performance, training volume, and body composition. Methods Twenty-four moderately-trained recreational athletes (mean ± SD age = 21.1 ± 1.9 yrs; stature = 172.2 ± 8.7 cm; body mass = 66.2 ± 11.8 kg, VO2max = 3.21 ± 0.85 l·min-1, percent body fat = 19.0 ± 7.1% were assigned to either the active supplement (GT, n = 13 or placebo (PL, n = 11 group. The active supplement (Game Time®, Corr-Jensen Laboratories Inc., Aurora, CO was 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of a proprietary blend including whey protein, cordyceps sinensis, creatine, citrulline, ginseng, and caffeine. The PL was also 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of only maltodextrin, natural and artificial flavors and colors. Thirty minutes prior to all testing and training sessions, participants consumed their respective supplements mixed with 8-10 oz of water. Both groups participated in a three-week HIIT program three days per week, and testing was conducted before and after the training. Cardiovascular fitness (VO2max was assessed using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics TrueOne® 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Sandy, UT during graded exercise tests on a treadmill (Woodway, Pro Series, Waukesha, WI. Also, four high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of the treadmill velocity recorded during VO2max, and the distances achieved were plotted over the times-to-exhaustion. Linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV and y-intercepts (anaerobic running capacity, ARC of these relationships to assess aerobic and anaerobic performances, respectively. Training volumes were tracked by summing the distances achieved during each training session for each subject

  12. The pre-licensing of a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications 'MYRRHA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakimi, N.; Dams, C.; Wertelaers, A.; Nys, V.; Schrauben, M.; Dresselaers, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre in Mol has been working for several years on the design of a multi-purpose flexible irradiation facility in order to replace the ageing BR2, a multipurpose materials testing reactor (MTR), in operation since 1962. MYRRHA, a flexible fast spectrum research reactor is conceived as an accelerator driven system (ADS), able to operate in sub-critical and critical modes. It contains a proton accelerator of 600 MeV, a spallation target and a multiplying medium with MOX fuel, cooled by liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi). Since February 2011, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre has engaged in a 'pre-licensing' process with the regulatory authority for an estimated period up to mid 2014. The paper presents on the one hand the objectives of the pre-licensing phase as well as its implementation process and on the other hand, 2 implementing instruments which have been developed by the regulatory authority providing guidance to the designer of MYRRHA in order to meet the pre-licensing phase objectives. The first instrument is a strategic note for the design and operation of MYRRHA where as the second instrument is a guidance document for the format and content of a design options and provisions file (DOPF). Both instruments have been developed taking into account that MYRRHA is an irradiation facility using a Generation IV nuclear power system's type technology (liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactor). The strategic note overview aims to cover the safety approach as well as the security requirements and safeguards obligation applicable to MYRRHA. In particular, in the strategic note, a specific attention has been paid in order to ensure that a safety, security and safeguards integrated approach will drive the development of the MYRRHA design. The safety approach focuses on the safety goals and the minimum safety objectives set by the regulatory authority for this innovative design. The DOPF overview presents its objectives and structure resuming

  13. Pre-pregnancy high-risk factors at first antenatal visit: how predictive are these of pregnancy outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandu-Umba B

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barthélémy Tandu-Umba, Muela Andy Mbangama, Kitenge Marc Brunel Kamongola , Tchawou Armel Georges Kamgang, Mawamfumu Perthus Kivuidi, Munene Sam Kasonga, Meke Irène Kambashi, Kabasele Oscar Kapuku, Bituemi Jackson Kondoli, Kibundila Rolly Kikuni, Kuzungu Simon KasikilaDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo Objective: To determine relationships between pre-pregnancy risk factors at first antenatal visit booking and pregnancy outcomes.Study design: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study involving women admitted for singleton delivery from July 1 until October 31 (3 months, 2013, at nine major maternity clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. All women were checked for hereditary, community, and personal medical/surgical risk situations and mother/infant problems in previous pregnancies. Maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy were analyzed according to pre-pregnancy risk factors in order to establish their prediction concerning maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy (odds ratios. Results are given with 95% confidence intervals, and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The study sample comprised 2,086 women. Primiparity (36.5%, single relationship status (26.4%, and maternal age ≥35 years (18.3% were the most important non-pathologic risk factors, while arterial hypertension in family (34.3%, previous miscarriage (33.2%, overweight/obesity (21.9%, diabetes in family (21.1%, previous cesarean section (15.7%, previous postpartum hemorrhage (13.1%, low birth weight (10%, previous macrosomia (10%, and previous premature rupture of membranes (6.2% predominated among pathologic risk factors. Major adverse outcomes recurred in some women, with recurrence rates of 21/37 (57%, 111/208 (53%, 74/208 (36%, 191/598 (32%, 132/466 (28%, 24/130 (18%, and 4/65 (6% for prematurity

  14. Activation analysis of high pure quartz used as packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luknitskij, V.A.; Morozov, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A γ-spectrometric technique of neutron activation determination of microelements in quartz tubes used as a packing material for irradiation in reactors is reported. The analysis of 29 micro-admixtures in quartz tubes of USSR brands ''spectrtosil'' and ''KV'' was carried out. The γ-spectra of ''KV'' quartz irradiated by thermal and epithermal neutrons are presented. The activation by epithermal neutrons provides an activity gain for the nuclei whose resonance integral is high enough as compared to the activation cross-section with regard to thermal neutrons. The activation by epithermal neutrons permits additional determination of W, Cd, V, Th, Mn and Ni and provides for a substantial decrease in the activity of 24 Na, 42 K, 140 La, 46 Sc, 141 Ce, 51 Cr, and 59 Fe, which hinder the determination of the above-mentioned elements. The microelement composition of Soviet-made quartz varieties is compared to that of foreign-made quartz brands

  15. The Efficacy of a Pre-Workout Vegan Supplement on High-Intensity Cycling Performance in Healthy College-Aged Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallien, Gabrielle; Bellar, David; Davis, Greggory R

    2017-11-02

    There is a limited supply of sport nutrition supplements currently available for vegan or vegetarian athletes. In addition, the efficacy of a vegan or vegetarian pre-workout supplement that does not contain any processed ingredients or stimulants is currently unknown. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of an unprocessed vegan pre-workout supplement on high-intensity cycling performance. Participants completed three separate cycling trials following the consumption of a vegan pre-workout supplement, an isocaloric processed supplement, or a zero-calorie placebo supplement. Each supplement was consumed 30 minutes prior to each trial, and each cycling trial was separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Supplements were administered using a randomized, double-blind cross-over design. Each cycling trial was performed at a workload equal to 80% VO 2peak until exhaustion. The average time in seconds (s) until exhaustion values for the vegan, isocaloric, and zero-calorie supplements were 482 ± 163, 480 ± 157, and 496 ± 238, respectively. Consumption of the vegan supplement did not significantly improve performance compared to an isocaloric and zero-calorie supplement (F = 0.12, p =.89). The results of this study indicate that individuals who choose a vegan pre-workout supplement (over an isocaloric or zero-calorie product) will not experience any acute decrements or ergogenic benefits in cycling performance. Although the present study does not support performance benefits of the tested vegan pre-workout supplement before cycling, additional research examining various exercise intensities and modalities is warranted.

  16. Pre-commissioning activities of exchange units of Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (Paper No. 1.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, H.S.; Sikaria, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM) comprises of two exchange units where enrichment of deuterium from natural concentration to 15% concentration is achieved using dual temperature H 2 S-H 2 O exchange process in a three stage cascade. In each exchange unit an inventory of around 200 MT of H 2 S gas is required under normal operating pressure and a feed water flow rate of 450 MT/Hr is required to be maintained. In view of the large flow rates of H 2 S circulating gas, water, cooling water, steam etc., the lines sizes in exchange unit are quite large. Further, H 2 S gas being highly toxic and corrosive, extreme care is required in order to ensure integrity and leak tightness. While due care is taken in material selection, design, quality surveillance etc., during fabrication, certain additional measures are required to be taken during precommissioning of the systems handling H 2 S under pressure. This paper deals with the activities from completion of plant erection including hydrotesting of piping by the piping contractor to the stage of trial production run. (author)

  17. Chemical interactions between as-received and pre-oxidized Zircaloy-4 and stainless steel at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1994-05-01

    The chemical reaction behavior between Zircaloy-4 and 1.4919 (AISI 316) stainless steel, which are used in absorber assemblies of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR), has been studied in the temperature range 1000 - 1400 C. Zircaloy was used in the as-received, pre-oxidized and oxygen-containing condition. The maximum temperature was limited by the fast and complete liquefaction of the reaction couple as a result of eutectic chemical interactions. Liquefaction of the components occurs below their melting point. The effect of oxygen dissolved in Zircaloy plays an important role in the interaction; oxide layers on the Zircaloy surface delay the chemical interactions with stainless steel but cannot prevent them. Oxygen dissolved in Zircaloy reduces the reaction rates and shift the liquefaction temperature to slightly higher levels. The interaction experiments at the examined temperatures with or without pre-oxidized Zircaloy can be described by parabolic rate laws. The Arrhenius equations for the various conditions of interactions are given. (orig.) [de

  18. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment and... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High... potential impacts of each alternative on the human and natural environments. DATES: Comments and related...

  19. Enhancement of waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion by means of pre- and intermediate treatments. Technical and economic analysis at a full-scale WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Giuseppe; Cerutti, Alberto; Zanetti, Mariachiara; Scibilia, Gerardo; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Ruffino, Barbara

    2018-06-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most commonly applied end-treatment for the excess of waste activated sludge (WAS) generated in biological wastewater treatment processes. The efficacy of different typologies of pre-treatments in liberating intra-cellular organic substances and make them more usable for AD was demonstrated in several studies. However, the production of new extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) that occur during an AD process, due to microbial metabolism, self-protective reactions and cell lysis, partially neutralizes the benefit of pre-treatments. The efficacy of post- and inter-stage treatments is currently under consideration to overcome the problems due to this unavoidable byproduct. This work compares three scenarios in which low-temperature (<100 °C) thermal and hybrid (thermal+alkali) lysis treatments were applied to one sample of WAS and two samples of digestate with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 7 and 15 days. Batch mesophilic digestibility tests demonstrated that intermediate treatments were effective in making the residual organic substance of a 7-day digestate usable for a second-stage AD process. In fact, under this scenario, the methane generated in a two-stage AD process, with an in-between intermediate treatment, was 23% and 16% higher than that generated in the scenario that considers traditional pre-treatments carried out with 4% NaOH at 70 and 90 °C respectively. Conversely, in no cases (70 or 90 °C) the combination of a 15-day AD process, followed by an intermediate treatment and a second-stage AD process, made possible to obtain specific methane productions (SMPs) higher than those obtained with pre-treatments. The results of the digestibility tests were used for a tecno-economic assessment of pre- and intermediate lysis treatments in a full scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP, 2,000,000 p.e.). It was demonstrated that the introduction of thermal or hybrid pre-treatments could increase the revenues from the

  20. Evaluation of the effect of high-dose folic acid on endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclamptic patients: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia as a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy complicates up to 5–10% of pregnancies worldwide. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effect of high-dose folic acid on endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclamptic patients. Materials and Methods: In this triple-blinded randomized clinical trial, the enrolled patients were divided randomly into two groups. Folic acid 5.0 mg or placebo was taken daily by oral administration from the initiation of diagnosis until 2 months after delivery by the participants. Every patient's flow-mediated dilation (FMD was evaluated at the beginning of the study and 2 months after delivery with the same experienced operator at the same period of time (3–5 p.m. by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Potential confounding variables were included in the independent samples t-test. t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used in the comparison of means between the intervention and placebo groups. To compare FMD in each group, before and after the intervention, paired t-test was used. Results: Mean value of FMD in intervention (9.64 ± 5.57 and control group (9.30 ± 4.25 has no significant difference before the consumption of drugs (P < 0.05. FMD in intervention group (13.72 ± 7.89 significantly increases after daily consumption of 5 mg folic acid in comparison with control group (10.02 ± 4.81 after daily consumption of placebo (P = 0.002. Conclusion: Increased mean of FMD in intervention group shows that this supplement can improve endothelial function and can be significantly affected by maternal blood pressure during pregnancy and some endothelium-dependent disease such as pre-eclampsia and its associated adverse outcomes.

  1. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among Sexually Active Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Keosha T.; Gunn, Alana J.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) continues to remain scarce among Black women who are disproportionally affected by HIV in the United States. A thematic analysis of open-ended questions from a sample of Black women (n=119) who completed a mix-methods, online, e-health study was conducted to examine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using PrEP. Being a female controlled method, empowerment, option for women with risky sex partners, and serodiscordant couples were advantages described. Disadvantages of PrEP were identified as the complexity of the choice, encouragement of sex with risky partners, increased burden, promotion of unprotected sex, and newness of the drug. PMID:28725660

  2. N-tritioacetoxyphthalimide: A new high specific activity tritioacetylating reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saljoughian, M.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Than, Chit

    1996-01-01

    The authors' aim was to develop a nonvolatile, stable, and facile tritioacetylating reagent and to demonstrate its use on simple peptides. Accordingly, the authors made the synthesis of high specific activity N-(tritioacetoxy) derivatives of succinimide, phthalimide, and naphthalimide a major focus. As the preferred approach, N-(tritioacetoxy)phthalimide was prepared by radical dehalogenation of N-(iodoacetoxy)phthalimide using high specific activity tributyltin tritide. This tritiated acetylation reagent was characterized by 3 H and 1 H NMR spectroscopy and by radio-HPLC. Efficacy of the reagent was investigated by tritioacetylation of several peptides at their N-terminal amino group. 26 refs., 1 fig

  3. Development of cutting machine for disposal of highly activated equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Katumichi; Kitajima, Toshio; Hosokawa, Jinsaku; Abe, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Mituhiro; Iwai, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) Project has developed a cutting machine which can cut a highly activated in-pile tube under water and its performance and safety have been confirmed. This machine is for the purpose of cutting a multiplet structure pipe and made possible to cut it under water by adopting under-water discharge method. Furthermore, contamination of canal water and atmosphere is prevented by combining a filter with this machine. This report describes the outline and performance of the developed cutting machine and also results of cutting highly activated in-pile tubes. (author)

  4. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    activity restriction more often than obstetricians in five of the nine scenarios, in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labour, cervical ripening, total placenta praevia, and intrauterine growth restriction, whereas no differences were found in the remaining scenarios. Compared...... to the obstetricians, the midwives also reported that they expected the recommendation to be more effective. Most midwives and obstetricians reported that they thought strict activity restriction was associated with severe or moderate adverse effect, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis. Conclusions: Danish...... obstetricians and midwives prescribe activity restriction in most high-risk pregnancies. The degree of activity restriction and the presumed effect vary between clinicians. This may reflect different attitudes and lack of guidelines based on clinical studies of a possible benefit of activity restriction....

  5. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    , smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, physical work demands, leisure-time physical activity, and social class - showed a substantially reduced risk for IHD mortality among employees who were intermediately fit [VO (2)Max range 25-36; hazard ratio (HR) 0.54, 95% confidence......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHOD: We carried out a 30-year...... physical work demands and leisure-time physical activity using a self-reported questionnaire. Results Among 274 men with a history of CVD, 93 men died from IHD. Using male employees with a history of CVD and a low level of fitness as the reference group, our Cox analyses - adjusted for age, blood pressure...

  6. Chemical interactions between as-received and pre-oxidized Zircaloy-4 and Inconel-718 at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.; Markiewicz, M.

    1994-06-01

    Isothermal reaction experiments were performed in the temperature range of 1000 - 1300 C in order to determine the chemical interactions between Zircaloy-4 fuel rod cladding and Inconel-718 spacer grids of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) under severe accident conditions. It was not possible to apply even higher temperatures since fast and complete liquefaction of the components occurred as a result of eutectic interactions during heatup. The liquid reaction products formed enhance and accelerate the degradation of the material couples and the fuel elements, respectively. Only small amounts of Inconel are necessary to liquefy large amounts of Zircaloy. Thin oxide layers on the Zircaloy surface delay the beginning of the chemical interactions with Inconel but cannot prevent them. In this work the reaction kinetics have been determined for the system: as-received and pre-oxidized Zircaloy-4/Inconel 718. The interactions can be described by parabolic rate laws; the Arrhenius equations for the various interactions are given. (orig.) [de

  7. Physical activity barriers and motivators among high-risk employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paguntalan, John C; Gregoski, Mathew

    2016-11-22

    Worksite wellness programs offer an ideal setting to target high-risk sedentary workers to improve health status. Lack of physical activity is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and mortality. Despite the risks, the number of sedentary workers is increasing. This study examined the perceived barriers and motivators for physical activity among employees at high-risk for coronary heart disease. A purposive sample of 24 high-risk workers participating in a wellness program in rural South Carolina were enrolled in the study. Qualitative data was obtained through semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyze qualitative data, and identify overarching themes. Physical limitations due to pain and weakness, lack of motivation, and lack of time emerged as the main barriers to physical activity. Family relationships were reported as the strongest motivator along with social support and potential health benefits. Findings highlight the unique experience of high-risk workers with physical activity. The findingsunderscore the need to design and implement effective interventions specifically designed to meet the needs of high-risk employees.

  8. Dyslipidemia in HIV Infected Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anirban; Mukherjee, Aparna; Lakshmy, R; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to determine the associated risk factors for the same. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at a Pediatric Clinic of a tertiary care teaching center in India, from May 2011 through December 2012. HIV infected children aged 5-15 y were enrolled if they did not have any severe disease or hospital admission within last 3 mo or receive any medications known to affect the lipid profile. Eighty-one children were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 6 mo and 16 were receiving no antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants' sociodemographic, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded in addition to anthropometry and evidence of lipodystrophy. Fasting lipid profile, apolipoprotein A1 and B levels were done for all the children. Among the children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 38.3 % had dyslipidemia and 80.2 % had lipodystrophy, while 25 % antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV infected children had dyslipidemia. No clinically significant risk factors could be identified that increased the risk of dyslipidemia or lipodystrophy in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children with HIV infection with an imminent need to establish facilities for testing and treatment of these children for metabolic abnormalities.

  9. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longi...

  10. Increased viability and resilience of haemolymph cells in blue mussels following pre-treatment with acute high-dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B. [Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    In an initial experiment, blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to a range of acute high doses of gamma radiation in the laboratory. Haemolymph was extracted and the haemocytes (blood cells) were scored for cell viability (% living cells) under a microscope, directly after irradiation (0.04, 0.4 or 4 Gy) and again after a subsequent treatment with hydrogen peroxide in vitro (final H{sub 2}O{sub 2} conc.: 0.2 μM). Cell viability in controls (0 Gy) was approximately 100% and no cell death was observable from radiation exposure alone. When treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} a decrease in cell viability was seen across all treatments, however this decrease in viability was reduced with increasing radiation pre-treatment (0 Gy = 53%; 0.04 Gy = 66%; 0.4 Gy = 75%; 4 Gy = 83%). To investigate the mechanism for this therapeutic effect observed, the experiment was repeated. Using mussels from a different location, the same, but more extensive method of irradiation (0[control], 0.04, 0.4 Gy, 5 or 40 Gy) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment was used. Additional haemolymph sub-samples were taken for analysis of catalase concentration. In this second experiment, viability of cells from controls was only 62%, indicating the mussels were in a poorer condition than those of the previous experiment. The lowest level of radiation exposure (0.04 Gy) further decreased the viability (56%). However, at higher doses the viability was increased compared to control, which then gradually declined with increasing dose (0.4 Gy = 75%; 5 Gy = 72%; 40 Gy = 65%). Catalase analysis demonstrated a complimentary pattern of activity of the antioxidant in the haemolymph, directly correlating with radiation dose (0 Gy = 0.2 U; 0.04 Gy = 0.1 U; 0.4 Gy = 1.3 U; 5 Gy = 0.9 U; 40 Gy = 0.1 Gy). Treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreased cell viability across all treatments, but no pattern between radiation treatments was discernable. The results indicate that an acute dose of radiation not only has negligible

  11. Anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of an orally active apocynin derivative in pre-clinical models of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Anamitra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson’s disease (PD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor debilitation, which affects several million people worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that glial cell activation and its inflammatory response may contribute to the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Currently, there are no neuroprotective agents available that can effectively slow the disease progression. Herein, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of diapocynin, an oxidative metabolite of the naturally occurring agent apocynin, in a pre-clinical 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of PD. Methods Both pre-treatment and post-treatment of diapocynin were tested in the MPTP mouse model of PD. Diapocynin was administered via oral gavage to MPTP-treated mice. Following the treatment, behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistological studies were performed. Neuroinflammatory markers, such as ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, gp91phox and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, were measured in the nigrostriatal system. Nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive neurons as well as oxidative markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE and striatal dopamine levels were quantified for assessment of the neuroprotective efficacy of diapocynin. Results Oral administration of diapocynin significantly attenuated MPTP-induced microglial and astroglial cell activation in the substantia nigra (SN. MPTP-induced expression of gp91phox and iNOS activation in the glial cells of SN was also completely blocked by diapocynin. Notably, diapocynin markedly inhibited MPTP-induced oxidative markers including 3-NT and 4-HNE levels in the SN. Treatment with diapocynin also significantly improved locomotor activity, restored dopamine and its metabolites, and protected dopaminergic neurons and their nerve terminals in

  12. Aloe vera Derived Activated High-Surface-Area Carbon for Flexible and High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, M; Subramani, K; Sudhan, N; Ilayaraja, N; Sathish, M

    2016-12-28

    Materials which possess high specific capacitance in device configuration with low cost are essential for viable application in supercapacitors. Herein, a flexible high-energy supercapacitor device was fabricated using porous activated high-surface-area carbon derived from aloe leaf (Aloe vera) as a precursor. The A. vera derived activated carbon showed mesoporous nature with high specific surface area of ∼1890 m 2 /g. A high specific capacitance of 410 and 306 F/g was achieved in three-electrode and symmetric two-electrode system configurations in aqueous electrolyte, respectively. The fabricated all-solid-state device showed a high specific capacitance of 244 F/g with an energy density of 8.6 Wh/kg. In an ionic liquid electrolyte, the fabricated device showed a high specific capacitance of 126 F/g and a wide potential window up to 3 V, which results in a high energy density of 40 Wh/kg. Furthermore, it was observed that the activation temperature has significant role in the electrochemical performance, as the activated sample at 700 °C showed best activity than the samples activated at 600 and 800 °C. The electron microscopic images (FE-SEM and HR-TEM) confirmed the formation of pores by the chemical activation. A fabricated supercapacitor device in ionic liquid with 3 V could power up a red LED for 30 min upon charging for 20s. Also, it is shown that the operation voltage and capacitance of flexible all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors fabricated using aloe-derived activated carbon could be easily tuned by series and parallel combinations. The performance of fabricated supercapacitor devices using A. vera derived activated carbon in all-solid-state and ionic liquid indicates their viable applications in flexible devices and energy storage.

  13. Transfer of Active Learning Strategies from the Teacher Education Classroom to PreK-12th Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Kaye; Blackwell, Sarah; Monroe, Ann; Coskey, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    In this study, researchers investigated the influence of modeling active learning strategies in an introductory foundations teacher preparation course: 1) on teacher candidates' perceptions of participating in active learning in the college classroom, 2) on participants' acquisition of course content, and 3) on participants' later use of active…

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Modelling Processes through Engagement with Model Eliciting Activities with a Technological Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh M.; Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh

    2015-01-01

    Engaging mathematics students with modelling activities helps them learn mathematics meaningfully. This engagement, in the case of model eliciting activities, helps the students elicit mathematical models by interpreting real-world situation in mathematical ways. This is especially true when the students utilize technology to build the models.…

  15. Leisure time physical activity during pregnancy and impact on gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Pedersen, Bente K; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

    2007-01-01

    It has been questioned whether leisure time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy is beneficial or deleterious to pregnancy outcome, and whether a sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy has a negative impact on pregnancy. Answers to these questions are of general interest, since some young women...... are very physically active during leisure time, while others have a sedentary lifestyle....

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of high dose "ethinylestradiol" in post-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients heavily pre-treated with endocrine agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson John FR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dose estrogens (HDEs were frequently used as endocrine agents prior to the introduction of tamoxifen which carries fewer side effects. Due to the development of resistance to available endocrine agents in almost all women with metastatic breast cancer, interest has renewed in the use of HDEs as yet another endocrine option that may have activity. We report our experience with one of the HDEs ("ethinylestradiol" 1 mg daily in advanced breast cancer (locally advanced and metastatic in post-menopausal women who had progressed on multiple endocrine agents. Patients and methods According to a database of advanced breast cancer patients seen in our Unit since 1998, those who had complete set of information and fulfilled the following criteria were studied: (1 patients in whom further endocrine therapy was deemed appropriate i.e., patients who have had clinical benefit with previous endocrine agents or were not fit or unwilling to receive chemotherapy in the presence of potentially life-threatening visceral metastases; (2 disease was assessable by UICC criteria; (3 were treated with "ethinylestradiol" until they were withdrawn from treatment due to adverse events or disease progression. Results Twelve patients with a median age of 75.1 years (49.1 – 85 years were identified. Majority (N = 8 had bony disease. They had ethinylestradiol as 3rd to 7th line endocrine therapy. One patient (8% came off treatment early due to hepato-renal syndrome. Clinical benefit (objective response or durable stable disease for ≥ 6 months was seen in 4 patients (33.3% with a median duration of response of 10+ (7–36 months. The time to treatment failure was 4 (0.5–36 months. Conclusion Yet unreported, high dose "ethinylestradiol" is another viable therapeutic strategy in heavily pre-treated patients when further endocrine therapy is deemed appropriate. Although it tends to carry more side effects, they may not be comparable to those of other

  17. Synthesis of a tritiated herbicide with high activity: methyl thifensulfuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, J.; Ortega, F.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the binding on acetolactate synthase, a tritiated herbicide sulfonylurea (thifensulfuron methyl) of high specific activity was synthesized. By use of C 3 H 3 I for esterification of an acid group, a rapid incorporation of tritium into this compound may be achieved. (Author)

  18. Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among urban Ethiopian clients. ... clients' self-reported adherence to HAART medication, a descriptive, comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among adults receiving HAART medication at the Zewditu Memorial Hospital ART clinic in Addis Ababa.

  19. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven to be the only effective treatment for HIV/AIDS worldwide. Good adherence to HAART might require good family support. Objective: To determine the family dynamics and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its ...

  20. Influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report is part of the ongoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) trial, 167 patients were enlisted, but current analysis was restricted to 107 patients that were about a year old on the programme. The baseline weight, CD4+ cell count and serum albumin of 59 males and 48 females age 15-60 years, were ...

  1. Can pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging predict recurrence-free survival after whole-gland high-intensity focused ablation for prostate cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosset, Remy; Bratan, Flavie [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urinary and Vascular Radiology, Lyon (France); Crouzet, Sebastien [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urology, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faculte de Medecine Lyon Est, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon (France); Tonoli-Catez, Helene [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urology, Lyon (France); Mege-Lechevallier, Florence [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Pathology, Lyon (France); Gelet, Albert [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urology, Lyon (France); Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon (France); Rouviere, Olivier [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urinary and Vascular Radiology, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faculte de Medecine Lyon Est, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon (France)

    2017-04-15

    Our aim was to assess whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) after prostate cancer high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. We retrospectively selected 81 patients who underwent (i) whole-gland HIFU ablation between 2007 and 2011 as first-line therapy or salvage treatment after radiotherapy or brachytherapy, and (ii) pre- and postoperative MRI. On preoperative imaging, two senior (R1, R2) and one junior (R3) readers assessed the number of sectors invaded by the lesion with the highest Likert score (dominant lesion) using a 27-sector diagram. On postoperative imaging, readers assessed destruction of the dominant lesion using a three-level score. Multivariate analysis included the number of sectors invaded by the dominant lesion, its Likert and destruction scores, the pre-HIFU prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, and the clinical setting (primary/salvage). The most significant predictor was the number of prostate sectors invaded by the dominant lesion for R2 and R3 (p≤0.001) and the destruction score of the dominant lesion for R1 (p = 0.011). The pre-HIFU PSA level was an independent predictor for R2 (p = 0.014), but with only marginal significance for R1 (p = 0.059) and R3 (p = 0.053). The dominant lesion's size and destruction assessed by MRI provide independent prognostic information compared with usual predictors. (orig.)

  2. Contact system activation and high thrombin generation in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhee; Gu, Ja-Yoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Han, Se Eun; Kim, Young Il; Nam-Goong, Il Sung; Kim, Eun Sook; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombotic risk. As contact system activation through formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) has emerged as an important trigger of thrombosis, we hypothesized that the contact system is activated along with active NET formation in hyperthyroidism and that their markers correlate with disease severity. In 61 patients with hyperthyroidism and 40 normal controls, the levels of coagulation factors (fibrinogen, and factor VII, VIII, IX, XI and XII), D-dimer, thrombin generation assay (TGA) markers, NET formation markers (histone-DNA complex, double-stranded DNA and neutrophil elastase) and contact system markers (activated factor XII (XIIa), high-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK), prekallikrein and bradykinin) were measured. Patients with hyperthyroidism showed higher levels of fibrinogen (median (interquartile range), 315 (280-344) vs 262 (223-300), P  = 0.001), D-dimer (103.8 (64.8-151.5) vs 50.7 (37.4-76.0), P  hyperthyroidism's contribution to coagulation and contact system activation. Free T4 was significantly correlated with factors VIII and IX, D-dimer, double-stranded DNA and bradykinin. This study demonstrated that contact system activation and abundant NET formation occurred in the high thrombin generation state in hyperthyroidism and were correlated with free T4 level. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Highly Crumpled All-Carbon Transistors for Brain Activity Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Wenjing; Shi, Enzheng; Wei, Wenjing; Li, Xinming; Cao, Anyuan; Cao, Yanping; Fang, Ying

    2017-01-11

    Neural probes based on graphene field-effect transistors have been demonstrated. Yet, the minimum detectable signal of graphene transistor-based probes is inversely proportional to the square root of the active graphene area. This fundamentally limits the scaling of graphene transistor-based neural probes for improved spatial resolution in brain activity recording. Here, we address this challenge using highly crumpled all-carbon transistors formed by compressing down to 16% of its initial area. All-carbon transistors, chemically synthesized by seamless integration of graphene channels and hybrid graphene/carbon nanotube electrodes, maintained structural integrity and stable electronic properties under large mechanical deformation, whereas stress-induced cracking and junction failure occurred in conventional graphene/metal transistors. Flexible, highly crumpled all-carbon transistors were further verified for in vivo recording of brain activity in rats. These results highlight the importance of advanced material and device design concepts to make improvements in neuroelectronics.

  4. High-performance oxygen reduction catalysts in both alkaline and acidic fuel cells based on pre-treating carbon material and iron precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ping; Barkholtz, Heather M.; Wang, Ying; Xu, Weilin; Liu, Dijia; Zhuang, Lin

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate a new and simple method for pre-treating the carbon material and iron precursor to prepare oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, which can produce super-high performance and stability in alkaline solution, with high performance in acid solution. This strategy using cheap materials is simply controllable. Moreover, it has achieved smaller uniform nanoparticles to exhibit high stability, and the synergetic effect of Fe and N offered much higher performance in ORR than commercial Pt/C, with high maximum power density in alkaline and acid fuel cell test. So it can make this kind of catalysts be the most promising alternatives of Pt-based catalysts with best performance/price.

  5. The adsorption of NO on an oxygen pre-covered Pt(1 1 1) surface: in situ high-resolution XPS combined with molecular beam studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J. F.; Kinne, M.; Fuhrmann, T.; Tränkenschuh, B.; Denecke, R.; Steinrück, H.-P.

    2003-12-01

    Adsorption of NO on a Pt(1 1 1) surface pre-covered with a p(2 × 2) atomic oxygen layer has been studied in situ by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed XPS using third-generation synchrotron radiation at BESSY II, Berlin, combined with molecular beam techniques and ex situ by low energy electron diffraction and temperature-programmed desorption. O 1s XP spectra reveal that an ordered p(2 × 2)-O layer dramatically changes the adsorption behavior of NO as compared to the clean surface. The atomic oxygen occupies fcc hollow sites, and therefore blocks NO adsorption on these sites, which are energetically preferred on clean Pt(1 1 1). As a consequence, NO populates on-top sites at low coverage. At 110 K for higher coverages, NO can additionally adsorb on hcp hollow sites, thereby inducing a shift of the O 1s binding energy of atomic oxygen towards lower energies by about 0.25 eV. The bond strength of the hcp hollow NO species to the substrate is weakened by the presence of atomic oxygen. A sharp p(2 × 2) LEED pattern is observed for NO adsorption on the oxygen pre-covered surface, up to saturation coverage. The total saturation coverage of NO on Pt(1 1 1) pre-covered with varying amounts of oxygen (below 0.25 ML) decreases linearly with the coverage of oxygen. The initial sticking coefficient of NO is reduced from 0.96 on clean Pt(1 1 1) to 0.88 on a p(2 × 2) oxygen pre-covered surface.

  6. Organic cultivation of Ashwagandha with improved biomass and high content of active Withanolides: Use of Vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singh, Baldev; Ohri, Puja; Wang, Jia; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Kaur, Arvinder

    2018-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has recently been studied extensively for its health-supplementing and therapeutic activities against a variety of ailments. Several independent studies have experimentally demonstrated pharmaceutical potential of its active Withanolides, Withaferin A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and Withanolide A (Wil-A). However, to promote its use in herbal industry, an environmentally sustainable cultivation and high yield are warranted. In modern agriculture strategies, there has been indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers to boost the crop-yield, however the practice largely ignored its adverse effect on the quality of soil and the environment. In view of these, we attempted to recruit Vermicompost (Vcom, 20-100%) as an organic fertilizer of choice during the sowing and growing phases of Ashwagandha plants. We report that (i) pre-soaking of seeds for 12 h in Vermicompost leachate (Vcom-L) and Vermicompost tea (Vcom-T) led to higher germination, (ii) binary combination of pre-soaking of seeds and cultivation in Vcom (up to 80%) resulted in further improvement both in germination and seedling growth, (iii) cultivated plants in the presence of Vcom+Vcom-L showed higher leaf and root mass, earlier onset of flowering and fruiting and (iv) leaves from the Vcom+Vcom-L cultivated plants showed higher level of active Withanolides, Withanone (Wi-N), Withanolide A (Wil-A) and Withaferin A (Wi-A) and showed anticancer activities in cell culture assays. Taken together, we report a simple and inexpensive method for improving the yield and pharmaceutical components of Ashwagandha leaves.

  7. The effects of the pre-reversal ExB drift, the EIA asymmetry, and magnetic activity on the equatorial spread F during solar maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Lee

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a digisonde at Jicamarca and a chain of GPS receivers on the west side of South America to investigate the effects of the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE in ExB drift, the asymmetry (Ia of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA, and the magnetic activity (Kp on the generation of equatorial spread F (ESF. Results show that the ESF appears frequently in summer (November, December, January, and February and equinoctial (March, April, September, and October months, but rarely in winter (May, June, July, and August months. The seasonal variation in the ESF is associated with those in the PRE ExB drift and Ia. The larger ExB drift (>20m/s and smaller |Ia| (<0.3 in summer and equinoctial months provide a preferable condition to development the ESF. Conversely, the smaller ExB drift and larger |Ia| are responsible for the lower ESF occurrence in winter months. Regarding the effects of magnetic activity, the ESF occurrence decreases with increasing Kp in the equinoctial and winter months, but not in the summer months. Furthermore, the larger and smaller ExB drifts are presented under the quiet (Kp<3 and disturbed (Kp≥3 conditions, respectively. These results indicate that the suppression in ESF and the decrease in ExB drifts are mainly caused by the decrease in the eastward electric field.

  8. IAEA high temperature gas-cooled reactor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA activities on high temperature gas-cooled reactors are conducted with the review and support of the Member states, primarily through the International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWG-GCR). This paper summarises the results of the IAEA gas-cooled reactor project activities in recent years along with ongoing current activities through a review of Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs), meetings and other international efforts. A series of three recently completed CRPs have addressed the key areas of reactor physics for LEU fuel, retention of fission products and removal of post shutdown decay heat through passive heat transport mechanisms. These activities along with other completed and ongoing supporting CRPs and meetings are summarised with reference to detailed documentation of the results. (authors)

  9. Proliferative activity and branching morphogenesis in the human prostate: a closer look at pre- and postnatal prostate growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y.; Sonke, G.; Schoots, C.; Schalken, J.; Verhofstad, A.; de la Rosette, J.; Smedts, F.

    2001-01-01

    To gain further insight into the molecular cell biologic features of prostate development, we investigated the proliferative activity of prostate epithelial and stromal cells and their topographic relationship with neuroendocrine (NE) cell distribution and regional heterogeneity. Consecutive

  10. Proliferative activity and branching morphogenesis in the human prostate: a closer look at pre- and postnatal prostate growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y.; Sonke, G.S.; Schoots, C.; Schalken, J.A.; Verhofstad, A.A.J.; Rosette, J.J.M.H.C. de la; Smedts, F.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To gain further insight into the molecular cell biologic features of prostate development, we investigated the proliferative activity of prostate epithelial and stromal cells and their topographic relationship with neuroendocrine (NE) cell distribution and regional heterogeneity.

  11. Dental Fluorosis and Catalase Immunoreactivity of the Brain Tissues in Rats Exposed to High Fluoride Pre- and Postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Şirin; Uyar-Bozkurt, Süheyla; Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Menteş, Ali

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated dental fluorosis of the incisors and immunoreactivity in the brain tissues of rats given chronic fluoride doses pre- and postnatally. Female rats were given drinking water with 0, 30 or 100 ppm fluoride ad libitum throughout gestation and the nursing period. In addition, 63 male offspring were treated with the same water regimens as the mothers after weaning and were followed for 1, 3 or 5 months. The upper and lower incisors were collected, and all teeth were examined under a stereomicroscope and scored by two blinded examiners using a modified rodent enamel fluorosis index. Cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar brain samples were evaluated morphologically and immunohistochemically. All fluoride-treated pups were born with low body weight (p = 0.001). All animals from the fluoride groups had enamel fluorosis with defects of various degrees. The increase in the dental fluorosis scores in the fluoride treatment groups was significant (p fluoride groups was significantly higher than that in the controls after 1, 3 and 5 months (p toxicity of fluoride.

  12. Improvement of the galvanized coating quality of high strength dual phase steels by pre-electroplating nickel layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, N. [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); Zhang, K. [Institute of Concrete Pumps Machinery R and D, Sany Heavy Industry Co., Ltd. 410100 (China); Li, J. [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Hu, W.B. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Galvanized dual phase steel sheets are used extensively in the industrial applications because of their excellent mechanical properties and superior corrosion resistance, but the segregation of alloying elements and the formation of oxides on the steel surface often have a deleterious effect on coating adhesion during the galvanizing process. In order to improve the coating quality, a nickel layer was pre-electroplated on the steel substrate before galvanizing and it's found that there is an improvement in the coating quality. The coating microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, glow discharge optical emission spectroscope and X-ray diffractions. The experimental results show that the compact Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 22} intermetallic layer formed at the zinc/nickel interface during the galvanizing process, prohibiting the nucleation and the growth of the {zeta}-Zn phase layer and resulting in the improvement of the zinc coating adhesion. (Copyright copyright 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  14. An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Jane; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Grainger, Andrew; Bulley, Cathy; Reilly, John J; Mercer, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7 d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4 d of data with data for 4 d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3 d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7 h  d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.

  15. High variation of individual soluble serum CD30 levels of pre-transplantation patients: sCD30 a feasible marker for prediction of kidney allograft rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermann, Wolfgang; Schlaf, Gerald; Rothhoff, Anita; Seliger, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the pre-transplant levels of the soluble CD30 molecule (sCD30) represent a non-invasive tool which can be used as a biomarker for the prediction of kidney allograft rejections. In order to evaluate the feasibility of sCD30 for pre-transplantation monitoring the sera of potential kidney recipients (n = 652) were collected four times in a 3 months interval. Serum from healthy blood donors (n = 203) served as controls. The sCD30 concentrations of all samples were determined using a commercially available ELISA. This strategy allowed the detection of possible variations of individual sCD30 levels over time. Heterogeneous sCD30 concentrations were found in the samples obtained from individual putative kidney transplant recipients when quarterly measured over 1 year. Total 95% of serum samples obtained from healthy controls exhibited sCD30 values 30 U/ml). Total 524 patients (80.4%) constantly exhibited serum concentrations of sCD30 values >100 U/ml was significantly lower than that previously reported. The high degree of variation does not allow the stratification of patients into high and low immunological risk groups based on a single sCD30 value > 100 U/ml. Due to the heterogeneity of sCD30 levels during time course and the high values of SD, its implementation as a pre-transplant marker cannot be justified to generate special provisions for the organ allocation to patients with single sCD30 values > 100 U/ml.

  16. The Effects of Pre-slaughter Stress and Season on the Activity of Plasma Creatine Kinase and Mutton Quality from Different Sheep Breeds Slaughtered at a Smallholder Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Chulayo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pre-slaughter stress, season and breed on the activity of plasma creatine kinase (CK and the quality of mutton. One hundred and seventy-three (173 castrated sheep from Dormer (DM, South African Mutton Merino (SAMM, Dorper (DP and Blackhead Persian (BP sheep breeds were used in the study. The animals were grouped according to age-groups as follows: Group 1 (6 to 8 months, Group 2 (9 to 12 months and Group 3 (13 to 16 months. Blood samples were collected during exsanguinations using disposable vacutainer tubes for CK analysis. Representative samples of the Muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL were collected from 84 castrated sheep, of different breeds (28 per breed 24 h after slaughter. The following physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined; meat pH (pH24, color (L*, a* and b*, thawing and cooking losses and Warner Braztler Shear Force (WBSF. The activity of plasma CK was significantly higher (p0.001 levels (1,358.6±191.08 of CK. South African Mutton Merino had higher values for pH24 (5.9±0.06, L* (34.2±0.97, b* (12.2±0.50 and WBSF (26.8±1.51 and Blackhead Persian had higher values (35.5±2.17 for cooking loss (CL% than the other breeds. Computed Principal Component Analyses (PCA on the activity of plasma CK and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton revealed no correlations between these variables. However, positive correlations were observed between pH24, L*, a*, b*, CL% and WBSF. Relationships between pre-slaughter stress, CK activity and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were also observed. It was therefore concluded that although mutton quality and creatine kinase were not related, pre-slaughter stress, season and breed affected the activity of creatine kinase and mutton quality.

  17. High repetition rate, high energy, actively Q-switched all-in-fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, J. B.; Bertrand, A.; Guillemet, S.; Hernandez, Y.; Giannone, D.

    2010-05-01

    We report an actively Q-switched Ytterbium-doped all-in-fibre laser delivering 10ns pulses with high repetition rate (from 100kHz to 1MHz). The laser operation has been validated at three different wavelengths (1040, 1050 and 1064nm). The laser can deliver up to 20Watts average power with an high beam quality (M2 = 1).

  18. Auditory processing, speech perception and phonological ability in pre-school children at high-risk for dyslexia: a longitudinal study of the auditory temporal processing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; Van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquière, Pol

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school children at high-family risk for dyslexia, compared to a group of well-matched low-risk control children. Based on family risk status and first gra...

  19. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R.; Cheeseright, J.

    2016-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  20. Characterization of active CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensors are very attractive as radiation imaging pixel detector because they do not need cost-intensive fine pitch bump bonding. High radiation tolerance and time resolution are required to apply those sensors to upcoming particle physics experiments. To achieve these requirements, the active CMOS pixel sensors were developed on high resistive substrates. Signal charges are collected faster by drift in high resistive substrates than in standard low resistive substrates yielding also a higher radiation tolerance. A prototype of the active CMOS pixel sensor has been fabricated in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS process on 2 kΩcm substrate. This prototype chip was thinned down to 300 μm and the backside has been processed and can contacted by an aluminum contact. The breakdown voltage is around -115 V, and the depletion width has been measured to be as large as 180 μm at a bias voltage of -110 V. Gain and noise of the readout circuitry agree with the designed values. Performance tests in the lab and test beam have been done before and after irradiation with X-rays and neutrons. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.