WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre test posttest

  1. Single Group, Pre- and Post-Test Research Designs: Some Methodological Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Emma; Torgerson, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides two illustrations of some of the factors that can influence findings from pre- and post-test research designs in evaluation studies, including regression to the mean (RTM), maturation, history and test effects. The first illustration involves a re-analysis of data from a study by Marsden (2004), in which pre-test scores are…

  2. Pre- and Post-Test Results of KEEP Class 2: 1973-74. Technical Report #40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Candy

    This report presents the pre-and posttest results for the kindergarten year of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) Class 2, 1973-1974. Results are presented for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and the Standard English Repetition Test (SERT). Comparisons are made…

  3. Pre-and Post-test Genetic Counseling for Chromosomal and Mendelian Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill Fonda; Stoll, Katie; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Genetic carrier screening, prenatal screening for aneuploidy and prenatal diagnostic testing have expanded dramatically over the past two decades. Driven in part by powerful market forces, new complex testing modalities have become available after limited clinical research. The responsibility for offering these tests lies primarily on the obstetrical care provider, and has become more burdensome as the number of testing options expands. Genetic testing in pregnancy is optional, and decisions about undergoing tests, as well as follow-up testing, should be informed and based on individual patients’ values and needs. Careful pre- and post-test counseling is central to supporting informed decision-making. This article explores three areas of technical expansion in genetic testing: expanded carrier screening, non-invasive prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies using cell-free DNA, and diagnostic testing using fetal chromosomal microarray testing, and provides insights aimed at enabling the obstetrical practitioner to better support patients considering these tests. PMID:26718445

  4. Pre- and post-test genetic counseling for chromosomal and Mendelian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda Allen, Jill; Stoll, Katie; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2016-02-01

    Genetic carrier screening, prenatal screening for aneuploidy, and prenatal diagnostic testing have expanded dramatically over the past 2 decades. Driven in part by powerful market forces, new complex testing modalities have become available after limited clinical research. The responsibility for offering these tests lies primarily on the obstetrical care provider and has become more burdensome as the number of testing options expands. Genetic testing in pregnancy is optional, and decisions about undergoing tests, as well as follow-up testing, should be informed and based on individual patients' values and needs. Careful pre- and post-test counseling is central to supporting informed decision-making. This article explores three areas of technical expansion in genetic testing: expanded carrier screening, non-invasive prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidies using cell-free DNA, and diagnostic testing using fetal chromosomal microarray testing, and provides insights aimed at enabling the obstetrical practitioner to better support patients considering these tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Challenges of Pre- and Post-Test Counseling for Orthodox Jewish Individuals in the Premarital Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E; Schreiber-Agus, N; Bajaj, K; Klugman, S; Goldwaser, T

    2016-02-01

    The Jewish community has traditionally taken ownership of its health, and has taken great strides to raise awareness about genetic issues that affect the community, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome. Thanks in part to these heightened awareness efforts, many Orthodox Jewish individuals are now using genetics services as they begin to plan their families. Due to unique cultural and religious beliefs and perceptions, the Orthodox Jewish patients who seek genetic counseling face many barriers to a successful counseling session, and often seek the guidance of programs such as the Program for Jewish Genetic Health (PJGH). In this article, we present clinical vignettes from the PJGH's clinical affiliate, the Reproductive Genetics practice at the Montefiore Medical Center. These cases highlight unique features of contemporary premarital counseling and screening within the Orthodox Jewish Community, including concerns surrounding stigma, disclosure, "marriageability," the use of reproductive technologies, and the desire to include a third party in decision making. Our vignettes demonstrate the importance of culturally-sensitive counseling. We provide strategies and points to consider when addressing the challenges of pre- and post-test counseling as it relates to genetic testing in this population.

  6. Pre- and post-test analyses of a KKL turbine trip test at 109% power using RETRAN-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddington, P.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the PSI/HSK STARS project, pre-test calculations have been performed for a KKL turbine trip test at 109% power using the RETRAN-3D code. In this paper, we first present the results of these calculations, together with a description of the test and a comparison of the results with the measured plant data, and then discuss in more detail the differences between the pre-test results and the plant measurements, including the differences in the initial and boundary conditions, and how these differences influenced the calculated results. Finally, we comment on a series of post-test and sensitivity analyses, which were performed to resolve some of the discrepancies. The results of the pre-test (blind) calculations show good overall agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the maximum in the steam-line mass flow rate following the opening of the turbine bypass valves. This is of critical importance, since the steam-line flow has the least margin to the reactor scram limit. The agreement is especially good since the control rod banks used for the selected rod insertion were changed from those given in the test specification. Following a review of the comparison of the pre-test calculations with the measured data, several deficiencies in the RETRAN-3D model for KKL were identified and corrected as part of the post-test analysis. This allowed for both an improvement in the calculated results, and a deeper understanding of the behaviour of the turbine trip transient. (author)

  7. Test implementation of a school-oriented drug prevention program "Study without Drugs": pre- and post-testing for effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaak, Fariel; de Vries, Nanne Karel; van der Wolf, Kees

    2014-06-11

    In this article, the test implementation of a school-oriented drug prevention program "Study without Drugs" is discussed. The aims of this study were to determine the results of the process evaluation and to determine whether the proposed school-oriented drug prevention program during a pilot project was effective for the participating pupils. Sixty second-grade pupils at a junior high school in Paramaribo, Suriname participated in the test implementation. They were divided into two classes. For the process evaluation the students completed a structured questionnaire focusing on content and teaching method after every lesson. Lessons were qualified with a score from 0-10. The process was also evaluated by the teachers through structured interviews. Attention was paid to reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, connection, achieved effects/observed behaviors, areas for improvement, and lesson strengths. The effect evaluation was conducted by using the General Liniair Model (repeated measure). The research (-design) was a pre-experimental design with pre-and post-test. No class or sex differences were detected among the pupils with regard to the assessment of content, methodology, and qualification of the lessons. Post-testing showed that participating pupils obtained an increased knowledge of drugs, their drug-resisting skills were enhanced, and behavior determinants (attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention) became more negative towards drugs. From the results of the test implementation can be cautiously concluded that the program "Study without Drugs" may yield positive results when applied in schools). Thus, this pilot program can be considered a step towards the development and implementation of an evidence-based school-oriented program for pupils in Suriname.

  8. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  9. Persuasive technology in teaching acute pain assessment in nursing: Results in learning based on pre and post-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ana Graziela; Dal Sasso, Grace T Marcon; Iyengar, M Sriram

    2017-03-01

    Thousands of patients seek health services every day with complaints of pain. However, adequate pain assessment is still flawed, a fact that is partly related to gaps in professional learning on this topic. Innovative strategies such as the use of a virtual learning object mediated by persuasive technology in the learning of undergraduate nursing students can help to fill these gaps and to provide different ways of learning to learn. To evaluate the results in learning among undergraduate nursing students about assessment of acute pain in adults and newborns, before and after an online educational intervention. This is a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent study using pre-and post-testing. Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil. 75 undergraduate nursing students. Our study was conducted in three steps (pre-test, education intervention, post-test). Data were collected from November 2013 to February 2014. The educational intervention was performed using online access to virtual learning object about acute pain assessment, which students accessed on their mobile devices. A significant difference was seen in student learning (ppersuasive technology such as small mobile devices as mediators of online educational interventions broadens learning spaces in an innovative, flexible, motivational, and promising manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of a National Continuing Medical Education Meeting to Provide Simulation-Based Training in Temporary Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion Skills: A Pre-Test Post-Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G Clark

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs. Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Objectives: Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Design: Pre-testpost-test study. Setting: 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Participants: Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Measurements: Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Methods: Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Results: Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21. Seventeen of 22 participants (77% completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001. All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics

  11. Use of a national continuing medical education meeting to provide simulation-based training in temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion skills: a pre-test post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward G; Paparello, James J; Wayne, Diane B; Edwards, Cedric; Hoar, Stephanie; McQuillan, Rory; Schachter, Michael E; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML) is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs). Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME) meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Pre-test - post-test study. 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21). Seventeen of 22 participants (77%) completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001). All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics, prior experience or procedural self-confidence with pre-test performance. Small sample-size and

  12. Evaluation of World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Topics in Nursing Education: Pre-test, post-test, none-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mansour; Skull, Alice; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide was launched by the World Health Organization to develop a patient safety-friendly curriculum in health education. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of teaching related to two topics from the Patient Safety Curriculum Guide on student nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward patient safety. A pretest, posttest, nonexperimental design was used. Patient safety education questionnaires were distributed to a convenience sample of 181 nursing students before the intervention, and 141 questionnaires after the intervention in one university in the East of England. The intervention consisted of two face-to-face lectures and one facilitated group work discussion. Seventy-one responses from pre- and posttest stages were matched. Paired t test, McNemar's test, and frequency measures were used for data analysis. The findings suggest that there are statistically significant differences in the subscales of the error and patient safety and personal influence over safety. The differences in the students' answers on patient safety knowledge before and after the interventions were not statistically significant. Although the student nurses highly commended the teaching delivered in this study, the use of experimental design in future curriculum evaluation may provide a more complementary insight to the findings of this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Flippin' Fluid Mechanics - Quasi-experimental Pre-test and Post-test Comparison Using Two Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D. R.; Majerich, D. M.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-01

    A flipped classroom approach has been implemented in an undergraduate fluid mechanics course. Students watch short on-line videos before class, participate in active in-class problem solving (in dyads), and complete individualized on-line quizzes weekly. In-class activities are designed to achieve a trifecta of: 1. developing problem solving skills, 2. learning subject content, and 3. developing inquiry skills. The instructor and assistants provide critical ``just-in-time tutoring'' during the in-class problem solving sessions. Comparisons are made with a simultaneous section offered in a traditional mode by a different instructor. Regression analysis was used to control for differences among students and to quantify the effect of the flipped fluid mechanics course. The dependent variable was the students' combined final examination and post-concept inventory scores and the independent variables were pre-concept inventory score, gender, major, course section, and (incoming) GPA. The R-square equaled 0.45 indicating that the included variables explain 45% of the variation in the dependent variable. The regression results indicated that if the student took the flipped fluid mechanics course, the dependent variable (i.e., combined final exam and post-concept inventory scores) was raised by 7.25 points. Interestingly, the comparison group reported significantly more often that their course emphasized memorization than did the flipped classroom group.

  14. Certainty rating in pre-and post-tests of study modules in an online clinical pharmacy course - A pilot study to evaluate teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetsch, Karen; Burrows, Judith

    2016-10-14

    Graduate and post-graduate education for health professionals is increasingly delivered in an e-learning environment, where automated, continuous formative testing with integrated feedback can guide students' self-assessment and learning. Asking students to rate the certainty they assign to the correctness of their answers to test questions can potentially provide deeper insights into the success of teaching, with test results informing course designers whether learning outcomes have been achieved. It may also have implications for decision making in clinical practice. A study of pre-and post-tests for five study modules was designed to evaluate the teaching and learning within a pharmacotherapeutic course in an online postgraduate clinical pharmacy program. Certainty based marking of multiple choice questions (MCQ) was adapted for formative pre- and post-study module testing by asking students to rate their certainty of correctness of MCQ answers. Paired t-tests and a coding scheme were used to analyse changes in answers and certainty between pre-and post-tests. A survey evaluated students' experience with the novel formative testing design. Twenty-nine pharmacists enrolled in the postgraduate program participated in the study. Overall 1315 matched pairs of MCQ answers and certainty ratings between pre- and post-module tests were available for evaluation. Most students identified correct answers in post-tests and increased their certainty compared to pre-tests. Evaluation of certainty ratings in addition to correctness of answers identified MCQs and topic areas for revision to course designers. A survey of students showed that assigning certainty ratings to their answers assisted in structuring and focusing their learning throughout online study modules, facilitating identification of areas of uncertainty and gaps in their clinical knowledge. Adding certainty ratings to MCQ answers seems to engage students with formative testing and feedback and focus their

  15. Increasing the health literacy of learning disability and mental health nurses in physical care skills: a pre and post-test evaluation of a workshop on diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Steve; Stephenson, John; Trotter, Fiona; Clifton, Andrew; Holdich, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the pre- and post-test results of the outcomes of a workshop designed to increase learning disability and mental health nurses' knowledge and skill to undertake interventions for service users at risk of, or with a diagnosis of, type 2 diabetes. Health literacy is also discussed as a way of explaining why such nurses may lack expertise in physical health care. Findings from the workshop show that learning disability and mental health nurses have the motivation to increase their health literacy (skills and knowledge) in diabetes care. The potential of such workshops, and how organisations looking forward to the future can build health literacy, is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conceptual Mobility of Geoscience Concepts in Introductory College-Level Courses: Results from Pre- and Post-testing with the Geoscience Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. W.; Libarkin, J.

    2012-12-01

    College-level teaching of Earth science concepts typically assumes students have a supporting-science conceptual framework and skills for visualizing in three dimensions. The Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) is an assessment instrument for measuring learning that includes questions from most geologic sub-disciplines, as well as some from supporting science areas. Several questions rely on the ability to interpret two and three dimensional situations. Nationwide pre- and post-testing of introductory Earth science courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory show little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of matched tests shows that students are typically switching between wrong answers. Of the 22 GCI questions that showed a normalized gain of students have high conceptual mobility. These results also pertain to the high pre-test students, suggesting that little conceptual entrenchment occurs for many students enrolled in entry-level courses. We suggest that students may have difficulty settling on a correct geological conception because of the shaky supporting-science underpinnings upon which these ideas are built. These results prompt the following questions; when do our hydrology and other Earth science students learn fundamental science concepts, and what role does an introductory course play in this learning? We suggest that longitudinal studies are needed for time periods longer than a semester, and that more attention be paid to when conceptual change occurs for our advanced learners.

  17. Changes in affect after completing a mailed survey about trauma: two pre- and post-test studies in former disability applicants for posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Murdoch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One potential concern with using mailed surveys containing trauma-related content is the possibility of re-traumatizing survivors without a trained mental health professional present. Prior research provides insufficient guidance regarding the prevalence and magnitude of this risk because the psychological harms of trauma-related surveys have typically been estimated using single post-test observations. Post-test observations cannot quantify magnitude of change in participants’ emotional states and may over or under estimate associations between participants’ characteristics (risk factors and post-survey upset. Methods We conducted two pre- and post-test studies in samples of former applicants for posttraumatic stress disorder disability benefits: 191 males who served during Gulf War I plus 639 male and 921 female Veterans who served sometime between 1955 and 1998. We used two 9-point items from the Self-Assessment Manikins to measure participants’ valence (sadness/happiness and arousal (tenseness/calmness before and after they completed mailed surveys asking about trauma-related symptoms or experiences. We examined the following potential predictors for post-survey sadness and tenseness: screening positive for posttraumatic stress disorder, having a serious mental illness, and history of military sexual assault or combat. Results After the survey, across the groups, 29.3–41.8% were sadder, 45.3–52.2% had no change in valence, and 12.9–22.5% were happier; 31.7–40.2% were tenser, 40.6–48.2% had no change in arousal, and 17.3–24.0% were calmer. The mean increase in sadness or tenseness post-survey was less than one point in all groups (SD’s < 1.7. Cohen’s d ranged from 0.07 to 0.30. Most hypothesized predictors were associated with greater baseline sadness or tenseness, but not necessarily with larger post-survey changes. Women with a history of military sexual assault had the largest net post

  18. Changes in affect after completing a mailed survey about trauma: two pre- and post-test studies in former disability applicants for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Maureen; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon Marie; Partin, Melissa Ruth

    2017-05-10

    One potential concern with using mailed surveys containing trauma-related content is the possibility of re-traumatizing survivors without a trained mental health professional present. Prior research provides insufficient guidance regarding the prevalence and magnitude of this risk because the psychological harms of trauma-related surveys have typically been estimated using single post-test observations. Post-test observations cannot quantify magnitude of change in participants' emotional states and may over or under estimate associations between participants' characteristics (risk factors) and post-survey upset. We conducted two pre- and post-test studies in samples of former applicants for posttraumatic stress disorder disability benefits: 191 males who served during Gulf War I plus 639 male and 921 female Veterans who served sometime between 1955 and 1998. We used two 9-point items from the Self-Assessment Manikins to measure participants' valence (sadness/happiness) and arousal (tenseness/calmness) before and after they completed mailed surveys asking about trauma-related symptoms or experiences. We examined the following potential predictors for post-survey sadness and tenseness: screening positive for posttraumatic stress disorder, having a serious mental illness, and history of military sexual assault or combat. After the survey, across the groups, 29.3-41.8% were sadder, 45.3-52.2% had no change in valence, and 12.9-22.5% were happier; 31.7-40.2% were tenser, 40.6-48.2% had no change in arousal, and 17.3-24.0% were calmer. The mean increase in sadness or tenseness post-survey was less than one point in all groups (SD's survey changes. Women with a history of military sexual assault had the largest net post-survey changes in sadness (mean = 0.7, SD = 1.4) and tenseness (mean = 0.6, SD = 1.6). While a substantial minority of Veterans reported more sadness or tenseness post-survey, the net change in affect was small. Most hypothesized risk

  19. Does child and adolescent mental health in-service training result in equivalent knowledge gain among cadres of non-specialist health workers in Uganda? A pre-test post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, Angela; Nalugya, Joyce; Nshemereirwe, Sylvia; Babirye, Juliet N; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv

    2017-01-01

    Early identification and management of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) disorders helps to avert mental illness in adulthood but a CAMH treatment gap exists in Uganda. CAMH integration into primary health care (PHC) through in-service training of non-specialist health workers (NSHW) using the World Health Organisation (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide (IG) is a strategy to address this gap. However, results of such training are not supported by information on training development or delivery; and are undifferentiated by NSHW cadre. We aim to describe an in-service CAMH training for NSHW in Uganda and assess cadre-differentiated learning outcomes. Thirty-six clinical officers, nurses and midwives from 18 randomly selected PHC clinics in eastern Uganda were trained for 5 days on CAMH screening and referral using a curriculum based on the mhGAP-IG version 1.0 and PowerPoint slides from the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP). The residential training was evaluated through pre- and post- training tests of CAMH knowledge and attitudes using the participants' post-test scores; and the difference between pre-test and post-test scores. Two-tailed t-tests assessed differences in mean pre-test and post-test scores between the cadres; hierarchical linear regression tested the association between cadre and post test scores; and logistic regression evaluated the relationship between cadre and knowledge gain at three pre-determined cut off points. Thirty-three participants completed both pre-and post-tests. Improved mean scores from pre- to post-test were observed for both clinical officers (20% change) and nurse/midwives (18% change). Clinical officers had significantly higher mean test scores than nurses and midwives (p training. Thus, an option for integrating CAMH into PHC in Uganda using the mhGAP-IG and IACAPAP PowerPoint slides is to proceed without cadre differentiation.

  20. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Janneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. Continuing professional education may be necessary to refresh and reflect on the communication and motivational interviewing skills of experienced primary care practice nurses. A video-feedback method was designed to improve these skills. Pre-test/posttest control group design. Seventeen Dutch practice nurses and 325 patients participated between June 2010-June 2011. Nurse-patient consultations were videotaped at two moments (T0 and T1), with an interval of 3-6 months. The videotaped consultations were rated using two protocols: the Maastrichtse Anamnese en Advies Scorelijst met globale items (MAAS-global) and the Behaviour Change Counselling Index. Before the recordings, nurses were allocated to a control or video-feedback group. Nurses allocated to the video-feedback group received video-feedback between T0 and T1. Data were analysed using multilevel linear or logistic regression. Nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay significantly more attention to patients' request for help, their physical examination and gave significantly more understandable information. With respect to motivational interviewing, nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay more attention to 'agenda setting and permission seeking' during their consultations. Video-feedback is a potentially effective method to improve practice nurses' generic communication skills. Although a single video-feedback session does not seem sufficient to increase all motivational interviewing skills, significant improvement in some specific skills was found. Nurses' clinical competences were not altered after feedback due to already high standards. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Post-test analysis of PANDA test P4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Woudstra, A.; Koning, H.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a post-test analysis of the integral system test P4, which has been executed in the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland within the framework of Work Package 2 of the TEPSS project are presented. The post-test analysis comprises an evaluation of the PANDA test P4 and a comparison of the test results with the results of simulations using the RELAPS/MOD3.2, TRAC-BF1, and MELCOR 1.8.4 codes. The PANDA test P4 has provided data about how trapped air released from the drywell later in the transient affects PCCS performance in an adequate manner. The well-defined measurements can serve as an important database for the assessment of thermal hydraulic system analysis codes, especially for conditions that could be met in passively operated advanced reactors, i.e. low pressure and small driving forces. Based on the analysis of the test data, the test acceptance criteria have been met. The test P4 has been successfully completed and the instrument readings were with the permitted ranges. The PCCs showed a favorable and robust performance and a wide margin for decay heat removal from the containment. The PANDA P4 test demonstrated that trapped air, released from the drywell later in the transient, only temporarily and only slightly affected the performance of the passive containment cooling system. The analysis of the results of the RELAPS code showed that the overall behaviour of the test has been calculated quite well with regards to pressure, mass flow rates, and pool boil-down. This accounts both for the pre-test and the post-test simulations. However, due to the one-dimensional, stacked-volume modeling of the PANDA DW, WW, and GDCS vessels, 3D-effects such as in-vessel mixing and recirculation could not be calculated. The post-test MELCOR simulation showed an overall behaviour that is comparable to RELAPS. However, MELCOR calculated almost no air trapping in the PCC tubes that could hinder the steam condensation rate. This resulted in lower calculated

  2. Measuring the impact of information literacy e-learning and in-class courses via pre-tests and post-test at the Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kratochvíl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper aims to evaluate the results of the assessment and comparison of the impact of information literacy in e-learning and in-class courses at the Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Czech Republic. The objective herein is to show that e-learning can be as effective a method of teaching IL activities as in-class lessons. Methods: In the autumn of 2012 and the spring of 2013, a total of 159 medical students enrolled in the e-learning course and completed the required pre-tests and post-tests comprising 30 multiple-choice questions on information literacy topics; another 92 PhD students from in-class courses took the 22-question test. The pre-test and post-test scores along with the number of students who correctly answered the questions were counted and the overall percentage was calculated. The final outcome was the extent of knowledge increase and the number of students with correct answers, expressed in percentage. Results: On average, 95.5% and 92.5% increase in knowledge was recorded among the medical students and PhD students respectively; an average of 4.5% medical students and 7.5% of PhD students recorded low scores in the post-test. As for the number of correct answers, the average results of the 22 set questions shared among the study groups were as follows: 15 questions were answered correctly more often by medical students, 6 were answered correctly more often by PhD students and only 1 question was correctly answered in the same average percentage by both the groups. Discussion: The results point to the need for proposing several key revisions. Among these include an exercise to be included in both curricula on online search for an article (Web of Science or Scopus without full text availability via link service, while instructions on manually creating bibliographic references shall be added to the PhD course. Additional search examples shall be added to the study materials and video records of in

  3. Pre-test prediction and post-test analysis of PWR fuel rod ballooning in the MT-3 in-pile LOCA simulation experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.T.; Horwood, R.A.; Healey, T.

    1983-01-01

    The USNRC and the UKAEA have jointly funded a series of in-pile LOCA simulation experiments in the Canadian NRU reactor in order to secure further information on the thermal hydraulic and clad deformation response of PWR fuel rod bundles. Test MT-3 in the series was performed using reflood rate and rod internal pressure conditions specified by the UK nuclear industry. The parameters were selected to ensure the development of a near-isothermal clad temperature history during which zircaloy was required to balloon and rupture near the alpha-alpha/beta phase transition. Specification of the reflood rate conditions was assisted by the performance of a precursor test on an unpressurised rod bundle and by complementary application of appropriate thermal hydraulic analyses. Identification of the rod internal pressure needed to cause ballooning and rupture was achieved using a creep deformation model, BALLOON, in conjunction with the clad thermal history defined by the prior thermal hydraulic test. This paper presents the basis of the BALLOON analysis and describes its application in calculating the fill gas pressure for rods MT-3, their axial ballooning profile and the clad temperature at peak radial strain elevations. (author)

  4. A pre-test and post-test study of the physical and psychological effects of out-of-home respite care on caregivers of children with life-threatening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Cheryl; Willenberg, Lisa; Zordan, Rachel; Murphy, Andrea; Hessel, Gail; Philip, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    Respite services are recommended as an important support for caregivers of children with life-threatening conditions. However, the benefits of respite have not been convincingly demonstrated through quantitative research. To determine the impact of out-of home respite care on levels of fatigue, psychological adjustment, quality of life and relationship satisfaction among caregivers of children with life-threatening conditions. A mixed-methods, pre-test and post-test study A consecutive sample of 58 parental caregivers whose children were admitted to a children's hospice for out-of-home respite over an average of 4 days. Caregivers had below-standard levels of quality of life compared to normative populations. Paired t-tests demonstrated that caregivers' average psychological adjustment scores significantly improved from pre-respite (mean = 13.9, standard error = 0.71) to post-respite (mean = 10.7, standard error = 1); p psychological adjustment of caregivers of children with life-threatening conditions. Study outcomes inform service provision and future research efforts in paediatric palliative care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Effectiveness of a web-based child protection training programme designed for dental practitioners in Saudi Arabia: a pre- and post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabaan, R; Asimakopoulou, K; Newton, J T

    2016-02-01

    Safeguarding children is an integral part of dental training and practice. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a web-based training program in child protection on dental practitioners' knowledge and practice in Saudi Arabia. In addition, participants' views of the course were also assessed. Pre-, immediately post-training, and one month post-training knowledge and self reported behaviour were assessed following completion of an online training course in child protection by 82 dental practitioners working in Saudi Arabia. Eighty-two participants completed the whole training package and 62 completed the one month post-training survey. A significant increase in knowledge was found immediately after taking part in the child protection training program in comparison to baseline knowledge (P child protection policy in their practice, 29% identified a staff member to lead on child protection since completing the program, almost all participants have been aware of child abuse and neglect (CAN) signs in their daily practice and 27.4% have made a report of a suspected case of CAN in the last month since the training. The web-based training program in child protection was appraised positively and was effective in increasing knowledge and changing attitudes towards safeguarding children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The effect of an enrolled nursing registration pathway program on undergraduate nursing students' confidence level: A pre- and post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevacore, Carol; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana; Nicol, Pam

    2016-04-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, registered nurse education moved to university degree level. As a result, there has been a reduction in access for students to clinical experience. In numerous studies, nursing graduates have reported that they do not feel prepared for practice. The importance of maximising every learning opportunity during nursing school is paramount. At Edith Cowan University, a program was initiated that allows students to become enrolled nurses at the midway point of their degree to enable them to work and therefore gain experience in the clinical practice setting during their education. This study investigated the effect of the program on the nursing students' perception of their clinical abilities and explored their ability to link theory to practice. The research design for this study was a quasi-experimental, prospective observational cohort study. The study included 39 second-year nursing students not enrolled in the program (Group 1), 45 second-year nursing students enrolled in the program (Group 2), and 28 third-year nursing students who completed the program and are working as enrolled nurses (Group 3). Participants were asked to complete a Five Dimension of Nursing Scale questionnaire. The quantitative analyses showed that students in Group 1 had statistically significant higher pre-questionnaire perceived abilities across all domains, except in two dimensions when compared to Group 2. The post-questionnaire analysis showed that Group 1 had statistically significant lower perceived abilities in four of the five dimensions compared to Group 2. Group 1 also had significantly lower abilities in all dimensions compared to Group 3. Group 3 had a significantly higher perception of their clinical abilities compared to Group 2. This study highlights the value of meaningful employment for undergraduate nursing students by providing opportunities to increase confidence in clinical abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of post-test core samples from the Spent Fuel Test - Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Beiriger, J.

    1985-02-01

    We have characterized a suite of samples taken subsequent to the end of the Spent Fuel Test - Climax by petrographic and microanalytical techniques and determined their mineral assemblage, modal properties, and mineral chemistry. The samples were obtained immediately adjacent to the canister borehole at a variety of depths and positions within the canister drift, as well as radially outward from each canister hole. This method of sampling allows variations in post-test mineralogic properties to be evaluated on the basis of (1) depth along a particular canister hole and (2) position within the canister drift, with respect to the heat and radiation sources, and with respect to the pre - test samples. In no case did we find any significant correlation between the mineralogical properties and variables listed above. In short, the Spent Fuel Test - Climax has produced no identifiable mineralogical response in the Climax quartz monzonite. 12 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  8. FARO base case post-test analysis by COMETA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziato, A.; Addabbo, C. [Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The paper analyzes the COMETA (Core Melt Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis) post test calculations of FARO Test L-11, the so-called Base Case Test. The FARO Facility, located at JRC Ispra, is used to simulate the consequences of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants under a variety of conditions. The COMETA Code has a 6 equations two phase flow field and a 3 phases corium field: the jet, the droplets and the fused-debris bed. The analysis shown that the code is able to pick-up all the major phenomena occurring during the fuel-coolant interaction pre-mixing phase.

  9. TRACG post-test analysis of panthers prototype tests of SBWR passive containment condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, J.R.; Billig, P.F.; Abdollahian, D.; Masoni, P.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the validation effort for application of the TRACG code to the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR), calculations have been performed for the various test facilities which are part of the SBWR design and technology certification program. These calculations include post-test calculations for tests in the PANTHERS Passive Containment Condenser (PCC) test program. Sixteen tests from the PANTHERS/PCC test matrix were selected for post-test analysis. This set includes three steady-state pure-steam tests, nine steady-state steam-air tests, and four transient tests. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the results of the post-test analysis. The author includes a brief description of the PANTHERS/PCC test facility and test matrix, a description of the PANTHERS/PCC post-test TRACG model and the manner in which the various types of tests in the post-test evaluation were simulated, and a presentation of the results of the TRACG simulation

  10. Post-Test Inspection of Nasa's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long Duration Test Hardware: Ion Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Shastry, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    A Long Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005 as a part of NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) service life validation approach. Testing was voluntarily terminated in February 2014, with the thruster accumulating 51,184 hours of operation, processing 918 kg of xenon propellant, and delivering 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. This presentation will present the post-test inspection results to date for the thrusters ion optics.

  11. TRENDS: The aeronautical post-test database management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, W. S.; Bondi, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    TRENDS, an engineering-test database operating system developed by NASA to support rotorcraft flight tests, is described. Capabilities and characteristics of the system are presented, with examples of its use in recalling and analyzing rotorcraft flight-test data from a TRENDS database. The importance of system user-friendliness in gaining users' acceptance is stressed, as is the importance of integrating supporting narrative data with numerical data in engineering-test databases. Considerations relevant to the creation and maintenance of flight-test database are discussed and TRENDS' solutions to database management problems are described. Requirements, constraints, and other considerations which led to the system's configuration are discussed and some of the lessons learned during TRENDS' development are presented. Potential applications of TRENDS to a wide range of aeronautical and other engineering tests are identified.

  12. MITG post-test analysis and design improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design, performance analysis, and key attributes of the Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) were described in a 1981 IECEC paper; and the design, fabrication, and testing of prototypical MITG test assemblies were described in preceding papers in these proceedings. Each test assembly simulated a typical modular slice of the flight generator. The present paper describes a detailed thermal-stress analysis, which identified the causes of stress-related problems observed during the tests. It then describes how additional analyses were used to evaluate design changes to alleviate those problems. Additional design improvements are discussed in the next paper in these proceedings, which also describes revised fabrication procedures and updated performance estimates for the generator

  13. Breaking HIV News to Clients: SPIKES Strategy in Post-Test Counseling Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Emadi-Koochak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Breaking bad news is one of the most burdensome tasks physicians face in their everyday practice. It becomes even more challenging in the context of HIV+ patients because of stigma and discrimination. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the quality of giving HIV seroconversion news according to SPIKES protocol. Numbers of 154 consecutive HIV+ patients from Imam Khomeini Hospital testing and counseling center were enrolled in this study. Patients were inquired about how they were given the HIV news and whether or not they received pre- and post-test counseling sessions. Around 51% of them were men, 80% had high school education, and 56% were employed. Regarding marital status, 32% were single, and 52% were married at the time of the interview. Among them, 31% had received the HIV news in a counseling center, and only 29% had pre-test counseling. SPIKES criteria were significantly met when the HIV news was given in an HIV counseling and testing center (P.value<0.05. Low coverage of HIV counseling services was observed in the study. SPIKES criteria were significantly met when the HIV seroconversion news was given in a counseling center. The need to further train staff to deliver HIV news seems a priority in the field of HIV care and treatment.

  14. Post-test thermal calculations and data analyses for the Spent Fuel Test, Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montan, D.N.; Patrick, W.C.

    1986-06-01

    After the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) was completed, additional calculations were performed using the best available (directly measured or inferred from measurements made during the test) input parameters, thermal properties, and power levels. This report documents those calculations and compares the results with measurements made during the three-year heating phase and six-month posttest cooling phase of the SFT-C. Three basic types of heat-transfer calculations include a combined two-dimensional/three-dimensional, infinite-length, finite-difference model; a fully three-dimensional, finite-length, finite-difference model; and a fully three-dimensional, finite-length, analytical solution. The finite-length model much more accurately reflects heat flow near the ends of the array and produces cooler temperatures everywhere than does its infinite-length counterpart. 14 refs., 144 figs., 4 tabs

  15. MARS-LMR modeling for the post-test analysis of Phenix End-of-Life natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong; Ha, Kwi Seok; Chang, Won Pyo; Lee, Kwi Lim

    2011-01-01

    For a successful design and analysis of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), it is required to have a reliable and well-proven system analysis code. To achieve this purpose, KAERI is enhancing the modeling capability of MARS code by adding the SFR-specific models such as pressure drop model, heat transfer model and reactivity feedback model. This version of MARS-LMR will be used as a basic tool in the design and analysis of future SFR systems in Korea. Before wide application of MARS-LMR code, it is required to verify and validate the code models through analyses for appropriate experimental data or analytical results. The end-of-life test of Phenix reactor performed by the CEA provided a unique opportunity to have reliable test data which is very valuable in the validation and verification of a SFR system analysis code. The KAERI joined this international program of the analysis of Phenix end-of-life natural circulation test coordinated by the IAEA from 2008. The main test of natural circulation was completed in 2009. Before the test the KAERI performed the pre-test analysis based on the design condition provided by the CEA. Then, the blind post-test analysis was also performed based on the test conditions measured during the test before the CEA provide the final test results. Finally, the final post-test analysis was performed recently to predict the test results as accurate as possible. This paper introduces the modeling approach of the MARS-LMR used in the final post-test analysis and summarizes the major results of the analysis

  16. Round Robin Posttest analysis of a 1/10-scale Steel Containment Vessel Model Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Kuniaki; Konno, Mutsuo

    1999-01-01

    NUPEC and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) have been jointly sponsoring 'Structural Behavior Test' at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) in Cooperative Containment Research Program'. As one of the test, a test of a mixed scaled SCV model with 1/10 in the geometry and 1/4 in the shell thickness. Round Robin analyses of a 1/10-scale Steel Containment Vessel (SCV) Model Test were carried out to obtain an adequate analytical method among seven organizations belonged to five countries in the world. As one of sponsor, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) filled the important role of a posttest analysis of SCV model. This paper describes NUPEC's analytical results in the round robin posttest analysis. (author)

  17. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  18. Evaluation of a Biomedical Informatics course for medical students: a pre-posttest study at UNAM Faculty of Medicine in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor; Martínez-Franco, Adrián I; Lobato-Valverde, Marlette; Fernández-Saldívar, Fabián; Vives-Varela, Tania; Martínez-González, Adrián

    2015-04-01

    Biomedical Informatics (BMI) education in medical schools is developing a sound curricular base, but there are few published reports of their educational usefulness. The goal of this paper is to assess knowledge change and satisfaction in medical students after a BMI curriculum. The National Autonomous University of México Faculty of Medicine (UNAM) recently implemented a curricular reform that includes two BMI sequential courses (BMI-1 and BMI-2). The research design was one-group pretest-posttest. An objective test with evidence of validity was used for knowledge measurement. A satisfaction questionnaire was applied at the end of the courses. Two-tailed paired Student's t-tests were applied, comparing knowledge scores in the pre and post-test for each course. The study included student cohorts during two consecutive academic years. The 2013 BMI-1 course (n = 986 students) knowledge pretest score was 43.0 ± 8.6 (mean percent correct ± SD), and the post-test score was 57.7 ± 10.3 (p < 0.001); the 2014 BMI-1 (n = 907) pretest score was 43.7 ± 8.5, and the post-test was 58.1 ± 10.5 (p < 0.001). The 2012 BMI-2 course (n = 683) pretest score was 26.3 ± 7.9, the post-test score was 44.3 ± 13.3 (p < 0.001); the 2013 BMI-2 (n = 926) pretest score was 27.5 ± 7.5, and the post-test was 42.0 ± 11.0 (p < 0.001). The overall opinion of the students regarding the course was from good to excellent, with a response rate higher than 90%. The satisfaction questionnaires had high reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.93). The study shows a significant increase in BMI knowledge after an educational intervention in four medical student cohorts, and an overall positive evaluation by the students. Long-term follow-up is needed, as well as controlled studies of BMI educational interventions using performance endpoints.

  19. Provision of test results and posttest counseling at STD clinics in 24 health departments: U.S., 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Elin; VanHandel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    We determined the demographic and HIV test characteristics of tests conducted in CDC-funded sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics with provision of test results and posttest counseling. We used CDC's HIV Counseling and Testing System data from 2007 for the 24 U.S. health departments that reported test-level data from STD clinics. We calculated and analyzed newly identified HIV positivity and the percentage of tests with provision of test results and posttest counseling (provision of posttest counseling), by demographic and HIV-related characteristics. Of 372,757 tests conducted among people without a previous HIV diagnosis by self-report, provision of posttest counseling was documented for 191,582 (51.4%) HIV tests overall and 1,922 (71.2%) newly identified HIV-positive test results. At these STD clinics, provision of posttest counseling varied by HIV serostatus, age, race/ethnicity, test type, and risk category; however, documentation of posttest counseling was missing for more than 20% of tests. The newly identified HIV positivity among all testers was 0.7%. One of the main goals of HIV counseling and testing is to inform people of their HIV status, because knowledge of one's HIV-positive serostatus can result in a reduction in risk behaviors and allow the person to access HIV medical care and treatment. STD clinics offering HIV testing may need to further their emphasis on increasing the proportion of clients who are provided posttest counseling and on improving documentation of this information.

  20. Posttest TRAC-PD2/MOD1 predictions for FLECHT SEASET test 31504

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, C.P.

    1982-01-01

    TRAC-PD2/MOD1 is a publicly released version of TRAC that is used primarily to analyze large-break loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). TRAC-PD2 can calculate, among other things, reflood phenomena. TRAC posttest predictions are compared with test 31504 reflood data from the Full-Length Emergency Core Heat Transfer (FLECHT) System Effects and Separate Effects Tests (SEASET) facility. A false top-down quench is predicted near the top of the core and the subcooling is underpredicted at the bottom of the core. However, the overall TRAC predictions are good, especially near the center of the core

  1. Estimation of post-test probabilities by residents: Bayesian reasoning versus heuristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stacey; Phang, Sen Han; Schaefer, Jeffrey P; Ghali, William; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    Although the process of diagnosing invariably begins with a heuristic, we encourage our learners to support their diagnoses by analytical cognitive processes, such as Bayesian reasoning, in an attempt to mitigate the effects of heuristics on diagnosing. There are, however, limited data on the use ± impact of Bayesian reasoning on the accuracy of disease probability estimates. In this study our objective was to explore whether Internal Medicine residents use a Bayesian process to estimate disease probabilities by comparing their disease probability estimates to literature-derived Bayesian post-test probabilities. We gave 35 Internal Medicine residents four clinical vignettes in the form of a referral letter and asked them to estimate the post-test probability of the target condition in each case. We then compared these to literature-derived probabilities. For each vignette the estimated probability was significantly different from the literature-derived probability. For the two cases with low literature-derived probability our participants significantly overestimated the probability of these target conditions being the correct diagnosis, whereas for the two cases with high literature-derived probability the estimated probability was significantly lower than the calculated value. Our results suggest that residents generate inaccurate post-test probability estimates. Possible explanations for this include ineffective application of Bayesian reasoning, attribute substitution whereby a complex cognitive task is replaced by an easier one (e.g., a heuristic), or systematic rater bias, such as central tendency bias. Further studies are needed to identify the reasons for inaccuracy of disease probability estimates and to explore ways of improving accuracy.

  2. Posttest analysis of MIST Test 330302 using TRAC-PF1/MOD1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B E [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses a posttest analysis of Multi-Loop Integral System Test (MIST) 330302 which has been performed using TRAC-PF1/MOD1. This test was one of group performed in the MIST facility to investigate high-pressure injection (HPI)-power-operated relief valve (PORV) cooling, also known as feed-and-bleed cooling. In Test 330302, HPI cooling was delayed 20 min after opening and locking the PORV open to induce extensive system voiding. We have concluded that the TRAC-calculated results are in reasonable overall agreement with the data for Test 330302. All major trends and phenomena were correctly predicted. Differences observed between the measured and calculated results have been traced and related, in part, to deficiencies in our knowledge of the facility configuration and operation. We have identified two models forwhich additional review is appropriate. However, in general, the TRAC closure models and correlations appear to be adequate for the prediction of the phenomena expected to occur during feed-and-bleed transientsin the MIST facility. We believe that the correct conclusions about trends and phenomena will be reached if the code is used in similar applications. Conclusions reached regarding use of the code to calculate similar phenomena in full-size plants (scaling implications) and regulatory implications of this work are also presented.

  3. Nonlinear Analysis and Post-Test Correlation for a Curved PRSEUS Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kevin; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn; Neal, Albert L.; Linton, Kim, A.; Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, developed by The Boeing Company, has been extensively studied as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA s) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. The PRSEUS concept provides a light-weight alternative to aluminum or traditional composite design concepts and is applicable to traditional-shaped fuselage barrels and wings, as well as advanced configurations such as a hybrid wing body or truss braced wings. Therefore, NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and The Boeing Company partnered in an effort to assess the performance and damage arrestments capabilities of a PRSEUS concept panel using a full-scale curved panel in the FAA Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility. Testing was conducted in the FASTER facility by subjecting the panel to axial tension loads applied to the ends of the panel, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure loadings. Additionally, reactive hoop loads were applied to the skin and frames of the panel along its edges. The panel successfully supported the required design loads in the pristine condition and with a severed stiffener. The panel also demonstrated that the PRSEUS concept could arrest the progression of damage including crack arrestment and crack turning. This paper presents the nonlinear post-test analysis and correlation with test results for the curved PRSEUS panel. It is shown that nonlinear analysis can accurately calculate the behavior of a PRSEUS panel under tension, pressure and combined loading conditions.

  4. Posttest analysis of MIST Test 330302 using TRAC-PF1/MOD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses a posttest analysis of Multi-Loop Integral System Test (MIST) 330302 which has been performed using TRAC-PF1/MOD1. This test was one of group performed in the MIST facility to investigate high-pressure injection (HPI)-power-operated relief valve (PORV) cooling, also known as feed-and-bleed cooling. In Test 330302, HPI cooling was delayed 20 min after opening and locking the PORV open to induce extensive system voiding. We have concluded that the TRAC-calculated results are in reasonable overall agreement with the data for Test 330302. All major trends and phenomena were correctly predicted. Differences observed between the measured and calculated results have been traced and related, in part, to deficiencies in our knowledge of the facility configuration and operation. We have identified two models forwhich additional review is appropriate. However, in general, the TRAC closure models and correlations appear to be adequate for the prediction of the phenomena expected to occur during feed-and-bleed transientsin the MIST facility. We believe that the correct conclusions about trends and phenomena will be reached if the code is used in similar applications. Conclusions reached regarding use of the code to calculate similar phenomena in full-size plants (scaling implications) and regulatory implications of this work are also presented

  5. Post-test examination of a copper electrode from deposition hole 5 in the Prototype Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosborg, Bo

    2013-04-01

    Three copper electrodes have been exposed for eight years in the outer section of the Prototype Repository at Aespoe. The electrodes were installed in the upper bentonite block of deposition hole 5 in May 2003. Most of the time the temperature of the electrodes has been somewhat below 35 deg C. The electrodes were retrieved for post-test examination in September 2011. This report presents results from electrochemical measurements and the post-test examination of one of the electrodes. The corrosion potential of the examined copper electrode was -40 mV SHE (2011-02-04) when part of the concrete plug to the outer section of the repository had been removed and made measurements possible. When the back-fill in the deposition tunnel had been removed it was 25 mV SHE (2011-09-12). Finally, before letting loose the copper electrode from the retrieved bentonite block, the corrosion potential was found to be 165 mV SHE (2011-11-15) being a sign of air ingress to the electrode/ bentonite interface. It was immediately obvious from the appearance of the copper electrode, when part of the surrounding bentonite had been removed, that both Cu(I) and Cu(II) corrosion products existed on the electrode surface. X-ray diffraction measurements also verified the presence of cuprite, Cu 2 O, and malachite, Cu 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 , on the electrode; however, paratacamite, Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl, was not found. The performed Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed these observations. The corrosion product film, of which cuprite is the main part, was quite uneven and porous. No unmistakable signs of pitting have been found. The appearance of the copper electrode reminded of the coupons from the retrieved LOT test parcels, but was different from the appearance of the surface on the full-size canisters. For the latter blue-green Cu(II) corrosion products have not or only rarely been observed from visual examination immediately after removing the surrounding bentonite. Differences that

  6. Post-test examination of a copper electrode from deposition hole 5 in the Prototype Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Three copper electrodes have been exposed for eight years in the outer section of the Prototype Repository at Aespoe. The electrodes were installed in the upper bentonite block of deposition hole 5 in May 2003. Most of the time the temperature of the electrodes has been somewhat below 35 deg C. The electrodes were retrieved for post-test examination in September 2011. This report presents results from electrochemical measurements and the post-test examination of one of the electrodes. The corrosion potential of the examined copper electrode was -40 mV SHE (2011-02-04) when part of the concrete plug to the outer section of the repository had been removed and made measurements possible. When the back-fill in the deposition tunnel had been removed it was 25 mV SHE (2011-09-12). Finally, before letting loose the copper electrode from the retrieved bentonite block, the corrosion potential was found to be 165 mV SHE (2011-11-15) being a sign of air ingress to the electrode/ bentonite interface. It was immediately obvious from the appearance of the copper electrode, when part of the surrounding bentonite had been removed, that both Cu(I) and Cu(II) corrosion products existed on the electrode surface. X-ray diffraction measurements also verified the presence of cuprite, Cu{sub 2}O, and malachite, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, on the electrode; however, paratacamite, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl, was not found. The performed Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed these observations. The corrosion product film, of which cuprite is the main part, was quite uneven and porous. No unmistakable signs of pitting have been found. The appearance of the copper electrode reminded of the coupons from the retrieved LOT test parcels, but was different from the appearance of the surface on the full-size canisters. For the latter blue-green Cu(II) corrosion products have not or only rarely been observed from visual examination immediately after removing the surrounding

  7. The Development of Man and His Culture: Old World Prehistory. Grade 5. Teacher Guide [And] Pupil Text [And] Pupil Guide [And] Teacher Background Material [And] A Sequential Curriculum in Anthropology. Test Form 5, Composite Form for Pre- and Post-Test. Revised, January 1968. Publications No. 25, 31, 23, 24 and 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potterfield, James E.; And Others

    This social studies unit includes a teaching guide, student text, study guide, teacher background material, and composite pretest/posttest covering archaeological methods, evolution, fossils and man, and development of culture during the prehistoric periods in the Old World. It is part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project and is designed for…

  8. Post-test analysis of lithium-ion battery materials at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareno, Javier; Dietz-Rago, Nancy; Bloom, Ira

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performance is often limited by surface and interfacial reactions at the electrodes. However, routine handling of samples can alter the very surfaces that are the object of study. Our approach combines standardized testing of batteries with sample harvesting under inert atmosphere conditions. Cells of different formats are disassembled inside an Argon glove box with controlled water and oxygen concentrations below 2 ppm. Cell components are characterized in situ, guaranteeing that observed changes in physicochemical state are due to electrochemical operation, rather than sample manipulation. We employ a complementary set of spectroscopic, microscopic, electrochemical and metallographic characterization to obtain a complete picture of cell degradation mechanisms. The resulting information about observed degradation mechanisms is provided to materials developers, both academic and industrial, to suggest new strategies and speed up the Research & Development cycle of Li-ion and related technologies. This talk will describe Argonne's post-test analysis laboratory, with an emphasis on capabilities and opportunities for collaboration. Cell disassembly, sample harvesting procedures and recent results will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, Hybrid and Electric Systems, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Post-test sensitivity analysis of OECD/CSNI ISP42 panda experiment by Relap5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanocco, P.; D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    The present document deals with Relap5/Mod3.2 analysis of the International Standard Problem (ISP-42) exercise performed in PANDA facility on April 21-22, 1998. PANDA is installed at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute). PANDA is a large-scale thermal-hydraulic test facility suitable for the simulation of passive containment for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR). The work focuses phase A of the ISP-42 experiment, including the break in the main steam line, and the Passive Containment Cooling System Start-Up. The objective is to investigate the start-up phenomenology of passive cooling system when steam is injected into cold vessel filled with air and to observe the resulting system behavior. A detailed nodalization was set-up at the University of Pisa, in order to model 3-D flow paths with a 1-D code. The comparison between pre-test predictions and experimental data is discussed. Overall time behavior is reasonably well predicted, showing a rather good and robust overall code behavior in the simulation of the global test scenario. The results of a preliminary post-test analysis are discussed, including the comparison with the experimental data. (authors)

  10. Relap5/mod2 post-test calculation of a loss of feedwater experiment at the Pactel test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protze, M. [Siemens-KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Post-test calculations for verification purposes of the thermal hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 are of fundamental importance for the licensing procedure. The RELAP5/MOD2 code has a large international assessment base regarding western PWR. WWER-reactors are russian designed PWRs with some specific differences compared with the western PWR`s, especially the horizontal steam generators. For that reason some post-test calculations have to be performed to verify the RELAP5/MOD2 code for these WWER typical phenomena. The impact of the horizontal steam generators on the accident behaviour during transients or pipe ruptures on the secondary side is significant. The nodalization of the test facility PACTEL was chosen equally to WWER plant nodalization to verify the use of a coarse modelling of the steam generator secondary side for analyses of transient with decreasing water level in the SG secondary side. The calculational results showed a good compliance to the test results, demonstrating the correct use of a coarse nodalization. To sum up, the RELAP5/ MOD2 results met the test results appropriately thereby the RELAP5/ MOD2 code is validated for analyses of transients with decreasing water level in a horizontal steam generator secondary side. (orig.). 4 refs.

  11. Post-test creep analysis of piping failure tests in wind project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, E.; Maruyama, Y.; Yuchi, Y.; Shibazaki, H.; Nakamura, H.; Hidaka, A.; Kudo, T.; Hashimoto, K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal and structural responses of the reactor coolant piping under elevated temperature and pressure conditions are being investigated in piping failure tests in WIND (Wide Range Piping Integrity Demonstration) project at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute). The elasto-plastic creep analysis was performed with ABAQUS code for the test using a nuclear grade type 316 stainless steel pipe, which had an outer diameter of 114.3 mm and a wall thickness of 13.5 mm. The major material properties at elevated temperature needed for the analysis were measured for specimen sectioned from the test pipe. Based on the measured creep data, a creep constitutive equation including the tertiary stage was developed and incorporated into ABAQUS code. We compared the results of the three-dimensional analysis with those of two-dimensional analysis and the piping failure test. The comparison showed that the piping failure timing and deformation of pipe obtained from the three dimensional analysis underestimated the test results, and that temperature history at the elevated temperature should be adequately considered. (author)

  12. Post-test investigation result on the WWER-1000 fuel tested under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, A.; Shtuckert, Yu.; Zwir, E.; Stupina, L.

    1996-01-01

    The model bundle of WWER-type were tested under SFD condition in the out-of-pile CORA installation. The objective of the test was to provide an information on the WWER-type fuel bundles behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions. Also it was assumed to compare the WWER-type bundle damage mechanisms with these experienced in the PWR-type bundle tests with aim to confirm a possibility to use the various code systems, worked our for PWR as applied to WWER. In order to ensure the possibility of the comparison of the calculated core degradation parameters with the real state of the tested bundle, some parameters have been measured on the bundle cross-sections under examination. Quantitative parameters of the bundle degradation have been evaluated by digital image processing of the bundle cross-sections. The obtained results are shown together with corresponding results obtained by the other participants of this investigation. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs

  13. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation (LITE). Post-Test Grease Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Martinez, James E.; Devivar, Rodrigo V.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a mechanism of the International Space Station (ISS) that orients the solar power generating arrays toward the sun as the ISS orbits our planet. The orientation with the sun must be maintained to fully charge the ISS batteries and maintain all the other ISS electrical systems operating properly. In 2007, just a few months after full deployment, the starboard SARJ developed anomalies that warranted a full investigation including ISS Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The EVA uncovered unexpected debris that was due to degradation of a nitride layer on the SARJ bearing race. ISS personnel identified the failure root-cause and applied an aerospace grease to lubricate the area associated with the anomaly. The corrective action allowed the starboard SARJ to continue operating within the specified engineering parameters. The SARJ LITE (Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation) program was initiated by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing to simulate the operation of the ISS SARJ for an extended time. The hardware was designed to test and evaluate the exact material components used aboard the ISS SARJ, but in a controlled area where engineers could continuously monitor the performance. After running the SARJ LITE test for an equivalent of 36+ years of continuous use, the test was opened to evaluate the metallography and lubrication. We have sampled the SARJ LITE rollers and plate to fully assess the grease used for lubrication. Chemical and thermal analysis of these samples has generated information that has allowed us to assess the location, migration, and current condition of the grease. The collective information will be key toward understanding and circumventing any performance deviations involving the ISS SARJ in the years to come.

  14. Post-test analysis of the ROSA/LSTF and PKL counterpart test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, S., E-mail: scarlos@iqn.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); Querol, A., E-mail: anquevi@iqn.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); Instituto de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València (Spain); Gallardo, S., E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); Instituto de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València (Spain); Sanchez-Saez, F., E-mail: frasansa@etsii.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); and others

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • TRACE modelization for PKL and ROSA/LSTF installations. • Secondary-side depressurization as accident management action. • CET vs PCT relation. • Analysis of differences in the vessel models. - Abstract: Experimental facilities are scaled models of commercial nuclear power plants, and are of great importance to improve nuclear power plants safety. Thus, the results obtained in the experiments undertaken in such facilities are essential to develop and improve the models implemented in the thermal-hydraulic codes, which are used in safety analysis. The experiments and inter-comparisons of the simulated results are usually performed in the frame of international programmes in which different groups of several countries simulate the behaviour of the plant under the accidental conditions established, using different codes and models. The results obtained are compared and studied to improve the knowledge on codes performance and nuclear safety. Thus, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), in the nuclear safety work area, auspices several programmes which involve experiments in different experimental facilities. Among the experiments proposed in NEA programmes, one on them consisted of performing a counterpart test between ROSA/LSTF and PKL facilities, with the main objective of determining the effectiveness of late accident management actions in a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). This study was proposed as a result of the conclusion obtained by the NEA Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents, which analyzed different installations and observed differences in the measurements of core exit temperature (CET) and maximum peak cladding temperature (PCT). In particular, the transient consists of a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) in a hot leg with additional failure of safety systems but with accident management measures (AM), consisting of a fast secondary-side depressurization, activated by the CET. The paper

  15. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  16. Influence of the type of training task on intermanual transfer effects in upper-limb prosthesis training: A randomized pre-posttest study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Romkema

    Full Text Available Intermanual transfer, the transfer of motor skills from the trained hand to the untrained hand, can be used to train upper limb prosthesis skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effect and the type of training task. The used tasks were based on different aspects of prosthetic handling: reaching, grasping, grip-force production and functional tasks. A single-blinded clinical trial, with a pre-posttest design was executed. Seventy-one able-bodied, right-handed participants were randomly assigned to four training and two control groups. The training groups performed a training program with an upper-limb prosthesis simulator. One control group performed a sham training (a dummy training without the prosthesis simulator and another control group received no training at all. The training groups and sham group trained on five consecutive days. To determine the improvement in skills, a test was administered before, immediately after, and one week after the training. Training was performed with the 'unaffected' arm; tests were performed with the 'affected' arm, with the latter resembling the amputated limb. In this study half of the participants trained with the dominant hand, while the other half trained with the non-dominant hand. Participants executed four tests that corresponded to the different training tasks. The tests measured the reaching (movement time and symmetry ratio, grasping (opening time, duration of maximum hand opening, and closing time, grip-force production (deviation of asked grip-force and functional (movement time performance. Half of the participants were tested with their dominant arm and half of the participants with their non-dominant arm. Intermanual transfer effects were not found for reaching, grasping or functional tasks. However, we did find intermanual transfer effects for grip-force production tasks. Possibly, the study design contributed to the

  17. Metallographic post-test investigations for the scaled core-meltdown-experiments FOREVER-1 and -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.; Boehmert, J.

    2000-08-01

    FOREVER (Failure Of Reactor Vessel Rentention) experiments have been carried out in order to simulate the behaviour the lower head of a reactor pressure vessel under the conditions of a depressurized core melt down scenario. In particular the creep behaviour and the vessel failure mode have been investigated. Metallographic post test investigations have complemented the experimental programme. Samples of different height positions of the vessel of the FOREVER-C1 and -C2 experiments were metallographically examined and characteristic microstructural appearances were identified. Additionally samples with ineffected microstructure were annealed at different temperatures and cooled by different rates and afterwards investigated. In this way the microstructural effects of the temperature regime, the thermomechanical loads and the environmental attack could be characterized. Remarkable effects were characteristic for the FOREVER-C2 experiment where the highest-loaded region below the welding joint reached temperatures of approx. 1100 C and a strong creep damage occurred. In the FOREVER-C1 experiment creep damage could not be observed and the maximum temperature did not exceed 900 C. Environmental attack generated decarburization and oxidation but the effect was restricted to a narrow surface layer. There was almost no chemical interaction between the oxidic melt and the vessel material. (orig.)

  18. Post-test analysis of components from selenide isotope generator modules M-7, M-15, and M-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, G.C.; Keiser, J.R.; Crouse, R.S.; Allen, M.D.; Schaffhauser, A.C.

    1979-05-01

    Several critical components removed from SIG (Selenide Isotope Generator) thermoelectric modules M-7, M-15C, M-15D, and M-18 were examined. These modules failed to show the predicted stability and conversion efficiency. Understanding the degradation and identifying means for preventing it necessitated detailed post-test examinations of key parts in the modules. Steel springs, which provided pressure for contacts at the hot and cold ends of P- or N-legs, relaxed more than expected. Beryllium oxide insulators had dark deposits that caused electrical shorts. The GdSe 1 49 N-leg exhibited cracking. The (Cu,Ag) 2 Se P-leg lost weight or sublimed excessively in module M-7 and more than expected in the other modules

  19. Realizing the cognitive potential of children 5-7 with a mathematics focus: post-test and long-term effects of a 2-year intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayer, Michael; Adhami, Mundher

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the British Government's policy directed on improving standards in schools, this paper presents research on the effects of a programme intended to promote the cognitive development of children in the first 2 years of primary school (Y1 & 2, aged 5-7 years). The programme is based on earlier work dealing with classroom-based interventions with older children at both primary and secondary levels of schooling. The hypothesis tested is that it is possible to increase the cognitive ability of children by assisting teachers towards that aim in the context of mathematics. A corollary hypothesis is that such an increase would result in an increase in long-term school achievement. The participants were 8 teachers in one local education authority (LEA) and 10 teachers in another. Data were analysed on 275 children present at Year 1 pre-test in 2002 and at long-term Key Stage 2 post-test in 2008. Two intervention methods were employed: a Y1 set of interactive activities designed around Piagetian concrete operational schemata, and mathematics lessons in both Y1 and Y2 designed from a theory-base derived from both Piaget and Vygotsky. At post-test in 2004, the mean effect sizes for cognitive development of the children - assessed by the Piagetian test Spatial Relations - were 0.71 SD in one LEA and 0.60 SD in the other. Five classes achieved a median increase of 1.3 SD. The mean gains over pre-test in 2002 for all children in Key Stage 1 English in 2004 were 0.51 SD, and at Key Stage 2 English in 2008 - the long-term effect - were 0.36 SD, an improvement of 14 percentile points. The main hypothesis was supported by the data on cognitive development. The corollary hypothesis is supported by the gains in English. The implications of this study are that relative intelligence can be increased and is not fixed, and that children can be led into collaborating with each other to the benefit of their own thinking, and that there does exist a theory-based methodology

  20. Assessing the Effectiveness of Web-Based Tutorials Using Pre-and Post-Test Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Retta Sweat; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent

    2012-01-01

    Computer technology in general and the Internet in particular have facilitated as well as motivated the development of Web-based tutorials (MacKinnon & Williams, 2006). The current research study describes a pedagogical approach that exploits the use of self-paced, Web-based tutorials for assisting students with reviewing grammar and mechanics…

  1. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  2. Comparison of approaches to estimate confidence intervals of post-test probabilities of diagnostic test results in a nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zaane Bas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nested case–control studies become increasingly popular as they can be very efficient for quantifying the diagnostic accuracy of costly or invasive tests or (biomarkers. However, they do not allow for direct estimation of the test’s predictive values or post-test probabilities, let alone for their confidence intervals (CIs. Correct estimates of the predictive values itself can easily be obtained using a simple correction by the (inverse sampling fractions of the cases and controls. But using this correction to estimate the corresponding standard error (SE, falsely increases the number of patients that are actually studied, yielding too small CIs. We compared different approaches for estimating the SE and thus CI of predictive values or post-test probabilities of diagnostic test results in a nested case–control study. Methods We created datasets based on a large, previously published diagnostic study on 2 different tests (D-dimer test and calf difference test with a nested case–control design. We compared six different approaches; the approaches were: 1. the standard formula for the SE of a proportion, 2. adaptation of the standard formula with the sampling fraction, 3. A bootstrap procedure, 4. A approach, which uses the sensitivity, the specificity and the prevalence, 5. Weighted logistic regression, and 6. Approach 4 on the log odds scale. The approaches were compared with respect to coverage of the CI and CI-width. Results The bootstrap procedure (approach 3 showed good coverage and relatively small CI widths. Approaches 4 and 6 showed some undercoverage, particularly for the D-dimer test with frequent positive results (positive results around 70%. Approaches 1, 2 and 5 showed clear overcoverage at low prevalences of 0.05 and 0.1 in the cohorts for all case–control ratios. Conclusion The results from our study suggest that a bootstrap procedure is necessary to assess the confidence interval for the predictive

  3. Ten Year Operating Test Results and Post-Test Analysis of a 1/10 Segment Stirling Sodium Heat Pipe, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John, H; Minnerly, Kenneth, G; Dyson, Christopher, M.

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 yr) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described.

  4. Influence of Inter-Training Intervals on Intermanual Transfer Effects in Upper-Limb Prosthesis Training: A Randomized Pre-Posttest Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Romkema

    Full Text Available Improvement in prosthetic training using intermanual transfer (the transfer of motor skills from the trained, “unaffected” hand to the untrained, “affected” hand has been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of the inter-training interval on the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effects. This was done using a mechanistic, randomized, single-blinded pretest-posttest design. Sixty-four able-bodied, right-handed participants were randomly assigned to the Short and Long Interval Training Groups and the Short and Long Interval Control Groups. The Short and Long Interval Training Groups used a prosthesis simulator in their training program. The Short and Long Interval Control Groups executed a sham training program, that is, a dummy training program in which the same muscles were trained as with the prosthesis simulator. The Short Interval Training Group and the Short Interval Control Groups trained on consecutive days, while the Long Interval Training Group and Long Interval Control Group trained twice a week. To determine the improvement in skills, a test was administered before, immediately after, and at two points in time after the training. Training was performed with the “unaffected” arm; tests were performed with the “affected” arm. The outcome measurements were: the movement time (the time from the beginning of the movement until completion of the task; the duration of maximum hand opening, (the opening of the prosthetic hand while grasping an object; and the grip-force control (the error from the required grip-force during a tracking task. Intermanual transfer was found in movement times, but not in hand opening or grip-force control. The length of the inter-training interval did not affect the magnitude of intermanual transfer effects. No difference in the intermanual transfer effect in upper-limb prosthesis training was found for training on a daily basis as compared to training

  5. Conditional non-independence of radiographic image features and the derivation of post-test probabilities – A mammography BI-RADS example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Bayes' theorem has proven to be one of the cornerstones in medical decision making. It allows for the derivation of post-test probabilities, which in case of a positive test result become positive predictive values. If several test results are observed successively Bayes' theorem may be used with assumed conditional independence of test results or with incorporated conditional dependencies. Herein it is examined whether radiographic image features should be considered conditionally independent diagnostic tests when post-test probabilities are to be derived. For this purpose the mammographic mass dataset from the UCI (University of California, Irvine) machine learning repository is analysed. It comprises the description of 961 (516 benign, 445 malignant) mammographic mass lesions according to the BI-RADS (Breast Imaging: Reporting and Data System) lexicon. Firstly, an exhaustive correlation matrix is presented for mammography BI-RADS features among benign and malignant lesions separately; correlation can be regarded as measure for conditional dependence. Secondly, it is shown that the derived positive predictive values for the conjunction of the two features “irregular shape” and “spiculated margin” differ significantly depending on whether conditional dependencies are incorporated into the decision process or not. It is concluded that radiographic image features should not generally be regarded as conditionally independent diagnostic tests.

  6. Comparing two methods of education (virtual versus traditional) on learning of Iranian dental students: a post-test only design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazami, Fariborz; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Azar, Mohammad Reza; Jahedi, Farzad; Moattari, Marzieh

    2014-03-05

    The importance of using technologies such as e-learning in different disciplines is discussed in the literature. Researchers have measured the effectiveness of e-learning in a number of fields.Considering the lack of research on the effectiveness of online learning in dental education particularly in Iran, the advantages of these learning methods and the positive university atmosphere regarding the use of online learning. This study, therefore, aims to compare the effects of two methods of teaching (virtual versus traditional) on student learning. This post-test only design study approached 40, fifth year dental students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. From this group, 35 students agreed to participate. These students were randomly allocated into two groups, experimental (virtual learning) and comparison (traditional learning). To ensure similarity between groups, we compared GPAs of all participants by the Mann-Whitney U test (P > 0.05). The experimental group received a virtual learning environment courseware package specifically designed for this study, whereas the control group received the same module structured in a traditional lecture form. The virtual learning environment consisted of online and offline materials. Two identical valid, reliable post-tests that consisted of 40 multiple choice questions (MCQs) and 4 essay questions were administered immediately (15 min) after the last session and two months later to assess for knowledge retention. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. A comparison of the mean knowledge score of both groups showed that virtual learning was more effective than traditional learning (effect size = 0.69). The newly designed virtual learning package is feasible and will result in more effective learning in comparison with lecture-based training. However further studies are needed to generalize the findings of this study.

  7. Evaluation of an interaction-skills training for reducing the burden of family caregivers of patients with severe mental illness: a pre-posttest design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavi, Yasmin; Stringer, Barbara; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan; Boogaarts, Jan; Van Raaij, Bas; Van Meijel, Berno

    2018-03-27

    Family members who care for patients with severe mental illness experience emotional distress and report a higher incidence of mental illness than those in the general population. They report feeling inadequately prepared to provide the necessary practical and emotional support for these patients. The MAT training, an Interaction-Skills Training program (IST) for caregivers, was developed to meet those needs. This study used a single-arm pretest-posttest design to examine the impact of the training on caregivers' sense of competence (self-efficacy) and burden. One hundred family caregivers recruited from three mental health institutions participated in the training. Burden was assessed using the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire, and self-efficacy using the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to investigate whether participation in the training changed the level of family caregivers' burden and self-efficacy. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the relationships between self-efficacy and burden. Our results indicate that, after the training, self-efficacy increased significantly over time (p training. After following the IST program, family caregivers of patients with severe mental illness experienced a greater sense of competence and a significant decrease in burden. The training was greatly appreciated and satisfied caregivers' need to acquire the skills required in complex caregiving situations. This study was retrospectively registered (14/01/2018) in the ISRCTN registry with study ID ISRCTN44495131 .

  8. Thermal-hydraulic posttest analysis for the ANL/MCTF 3600 model heat-exchanger water test under mixed convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.I.; Sha, W.T.; Kasza, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a result of the uncertainties in the understanding of the influence of thermal-buoyancy effects on the flow and heat transfer in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor heat exchangers and steam generators under off-normal operating conditions, an extensive experimental program is being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to eliminate these uncertainties. Concurrently, a parallel analytical effort is also being pursued to develop a three-dimensional transient computer code (COMMIX-IHX) to study and predict heat exchanger performance under mixed, forced, and free convection conditions. This paper presents computational results from a heat exchanger simulation and compares them with the results from a test case exhibiting strong thermal buoyancy effects. Favorable agreement between experiment and code prediction is obtained

  9. Post-test analysis of 20kW molten carbonate fuel cell stack operated on coal gas. Final report, August 1993--February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A 20kW carbonate fuel cell stack was operated with coal gas for the first time in the world. The stack was tested for a total of 4,000 hours, of which 3,900 hours of testing was conducted at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, Plaquemine, Louisiana outdoor site. The operation was on either natural gas or coal gas and switched several times without any effects, demonstrating duel fuel capabilities. This test was conducted with 9142 kJ/m{sup 3} (245 Btu/cft) coal gas provided by a slipstream from Destec`s entrained flow, slagging, slurry-fed gasifier equipped with a cold gas cleanup subsystem. The stack generated up to 21 kW with this coal gas. Following completion of this test, the stack was brought to Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and a detailed post-test analysis was conducted to identify any effects of coal gas on cell components. This investigation has shown that the direct fuel cell (DFC) can be operated with properly cleaned and humidified coal-as, providing stable performance. The basic C direct fuel cell component materials are stable and display normal stability in presence of the coal gas. No effects of the coal-borne contaminants are apparent. Further cell testing at ERC 1 17, confirmed these findings.

  10. Pretest and Posttest Results of the First KEEP Program Year. Technical Report #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    This report presents a pre- and posttest evaluation of the first program year of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). Each of the 28 children in the KEEP kindergarten class received three tests: the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and the Standard English Repetition…

  11. Post-test characterization of a solid oxide fuel cell stack operated for more than 30,000 hours: The cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzler, Norbert H.; Sebold, Doris; Guillon, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    A four-layer solid oxide fuel cell stack with planar anode-supported cells was operated galvanostatically at 700 °C and 0.5Acm-2 for nearly 35,000 h. One of the four planes started to degrade more rapidly after ∼28,000 h and finally more progressively after ∼33,000 h. The stack was then shut down and a post-test analysis was carefully performed. The cell was characterized with respect to cathodic impurities and clarification of the reason(s) for failure. Wet chemical analysis revealed very low chromium incorporation into the cathode. However, SEM and TEM observations on polished and fractured surfaces showed catastrophic failure in the degraded layer. The cathode-barrier-electrolyte cell layer system delaminated from the entire cell over large areas. The source of delamination was the formation of a porous, sponge-like secondary phase consisting of zirconia, yttria and manganese (oxide). Large secondary phase islands grew from the electrolyte-anode interface towards the anode and cracked the bonding between both layers. The manganese originated from the contact or protection layers used on the air side. This stack result shows that volatile species - in this case manganese - should be avoided, especially when long-term applications are envisaged.

  12. Post-test calculations of out-of-pile single rod burst experiments with Argentine ZRY-4 tubes using SSYST codes system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassini, H.; Meyder, R.

    1988-11-01

    The calculations were performed with SSYST-3 code system. The experiments have been carried out with shortened REBEKA simulators. The main goal was to verify whether the model for describing the Zircaloy cladding deformation and rupture at high temperatures (NORA2 model) is able to predict the Argentine cladding material behaviour under such conditions. A good agreement between experimental results and model predictions was found in the range of temperatures from 700 to 850 0 C (in α phase and first half of α+β transition phase). There were some discrepances at higher temperatures, probably due to the strong influence of heating rate on material properties. According to the results of these post-test calculations, it can be concluded that NORA2 model is able to well describe the Argentine Zircaloy cladding deformation and rupture under LOCA conditions, because there was a good agreement in the range of burst (ballooning) temperatures which are expected in this type of accident. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Effects of an intensive clinical skills course on senior nursing students' self-confidence and clinical competence: A quasi-experimental post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyun

    2018-02-01

    To foster nursing professionals, nursing education requires the integration of knowledge and practice. Nursing students in their senior year experience considerable stress in performing the core nursing skills because, typically, they have limited opportunities to practice these skills in their clinical practicum. Therefore, nurse educators should revise the nursing curricula to focus on core nursing skills. To identify the effect of an intensive clinical skills course for senior nursing students on their self-confidence and clinical competence. A quasi-experimental post-test study. A university in South Korea during the 2015-2016 academic year. A convenience sample of 162 senior nursing students. The experimental group (n=79) underwent the intensive clinical skills course, whereas the control group (n=83) did not. During the course, students repeatedly practiced the 20 items that make up the core basic nursing skills using clinical scenarios. Participants' self-confidence in the core clinical nursing skills was measured using a 10-point scale, while their clinical competence with these skills was measured using the core clinical nursing skills checklist. Independent t-test and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. The mean scores in self-confidence and clinical competence were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. This intensive clinical skills courses had a positive effect on senior nursing students' self-confidence and clinical competence for the core clinical nursing skills. This study emphasizes the importance of reeducation using a clinical skills course during the transition from student to nursing professional. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Post-test analysis of the experiment 5.2C - total loss of feed water at the BETHSY test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, E.; Schaefer, F.

    1998-10-01

    The BETHSY-test facility is a 1:100 scaled thermohydraulic model of a 900 MW(el) pressurized water reactor (FRAMATOME). The test facility is mainly designed to investigate various accident scenarios and to provide an experimental data base for code validation and for the verification of accident management measures. (orig.)

  15. Results of post-test psychological examinations of the crewmen from the 90-day manned test of an advanced regenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, J. S.; Macfarlane, T. G.

    1972-01-01

    The following material presents the results of two temporally remote administrations of an identical projective personality assessment device (Rorschach Inkblot) using crew members aboard the 90-day test. The first administration took place during preselection crew psychodiagnostic testing in the period extending from mid-December 1969 through mid-January 1970. Second administration took place in late May and early June, 1971, approximately one year after termination of the test. During the 90-day program duration, the subjects participated in the crew training program, were selected and served as onboard crew during the 90-day test. The testing was undertaken in order to determine the character and extent of change (if any) in basic personality dynamics accompanying or caused by participation in the 90-day test program. Results indicate that significant personality changes occurred in three of the four onboard crew members. A detailed discussion of the results is provided. Objective scores which served as the basis for the discussion are presented in the Appendix.

  16. Opportunity to learn: Investigating possible predictors for pre-course Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Katie J.

    As astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the widely used Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Usually used in a pre-test and post-test research design, one might naturally assume that the pre-course differences observed between high- and low-scoring college students might be due in large part to their pre-existing motivation, interest, experience in science, and attitudes about astronomy. To explore this notion, 11 non-science majoring undergraduates taking ASTRO 101 at west coast community colleges were interviewed in the first few weeks of the course to better understand students' pre-existing affect toward learning astronomy with an eye toward predicting student success. In answering this question, we hope to contribute to our understanding of the incoming knowledge of students taking undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but also gain insight into how faculty can best meet those students' needs and assist them in achieving success. Perhaps surprisingly, there was only weak correlation between students' motivation toward learning astronomy and their pre-test scores. Instead, the most fruitful predictor of TOAST pre-test scores was the quantity of pre-existing, informal, self-directed astronomy learning experiences.

  17. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre... must comply with the following requirements: (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before... the purpose of pre-employment alcohol testing (i.e., it must not test some covered employees and not...

  18. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pre-employment alcohol test before the first performance of safety-sensitive functions by every...-employment alcohol test. (d) The employer must conduct all pre-employment alcohol tests using the alcohol... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655...

  19. Impact of a "TED-Style" presentation on potential patients' willingness to accept dental implant therapy: a one-group, pre-test post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Henry; Afrashtehfar, Kelvin Ian; Abi-Nader, Samer; Tamimi, Faleh

    2015-12-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the impact of a TED-like educational session on participants' willingness to accept dental implant therapy. Volunteers interested in having information about dental implant therapies were recruited and asked to complete a two-part survey before and after an educational session. The initial survey elicited demographic information, self-perceived knowledge on dental implants and willingness to this kind of treatment. A "TED-style" presentation that provided information about dental implant treatments was conducted before asking the participants to complete a second set of questions assessing the impact of the session. The survey was completed by 104 individuals, 78.8% were women and the mean age was 66.5±10.8. Before the educational session, 76.0% of the participants refused dental implants mainly due to lack of knowledge. After the educational session, the rejection of dental implants decreased by almost four folds to 20.2%. This study proved that an educational intervention can significantly increase willingness to accept treatment with dental implants in a segment of the population who is interested in having information about dental implant therapy. Furthermore, educational interventions, such as TED-like talks, might be useful to increase popular awareness on dental implant therapy.

  20. Impact of a "TED-Style" presentation on potential patients' willingness to accept dental implant therapy: a one-group, pre-test post-test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Henry; Abi-Nader, Samer

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE A survey was conducted to assess the impact of a TED-like educational session on participants' willingness to accept dental implant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Volunteers interested in having information about dental implant therapies were recruited and asked to complete a two-part survey before and after an educational session. The initial survey elicited demographic information, self-perceived knowledge on dental implants and willingness to this kind of treatment. A "TED-style" presentation that provided information about dental implant treatments was conducted before asking the participants to complete a second set of questions assessing the impact of the session. RESULTS The survey was completed by 104 individuals, 78.8% were women and the mean age was 66.5±10.8. Before the educational session, 76.0% of the participants refused dental implants mainly due to lack of knowledge. After the educational session, the rejection of dental implants decreased by almost four folds to 20.2%. CONCLUSION This study proved that an educational intervention can significantly increase willingness to accept treatment with dental implants in a segment of the population who is interested in having information about dental implant therapy. Furthermore, educational interventions, such as TED-like talks, might be useful to increase popular awareness on dental implant therapy. PMID:26816573

  1. Evaluation of the theory-based Quality Improvement in Physical Therapy (QUIP) programme: a one-group, pre-test post-test pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Geert M.; Harting, Janneke; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Schlief, Angelique; Oostendorp, Rob Ab; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Guideline adherence in physical therapy is far from optimal, which has consequences for the effectiveness and efficiency of physical therapy care. Programmes to enhance guideline adherence have, so far, been relatively ineffective. We systematically developed a theory-based Quality Improvement in

  2. Pre-Test and Post-Test Applications to Shape the Education of Phlebotomists in A Quality Management Program: An Experience in A Training Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykal Güzin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: After the introduction of modern laboratory instruments and information systems, preanalytic phase is the new field of battle. Errors in preanalytical phase account for approximately half of total errors in clinical laboratory. The objective of this study was to share an experience of an education program that was believed to be successful in decreasing the number of rejected samples received from the Emergency Department (ED.

  3. Verification of the ATHLET computer code based on post-test analyses of BETHSY experiments (BETHSY 4.1a TC and BETHSY 3.4a). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schall, M.

    1994-10-01

    To validate the fluid dynamic computer code ATHLET a post-test calculation of experiment BETHSY 4.1aTC was performed. The test objective was the investigation of natural circulation at constant core power (5% nominal power) at different mass inventories in the primary circuit and the steam generators. BETHSY 4.1aTC consists of 2 phases with different liquid levels in the steam generators: Nominal liquid level (H=13.5 m) in phase 1 and reduced liquid level (H=1 m) in phase 2. The results of the post-test calculations of both phases showed excellent agreement with the experimental data (pressure differences in the primary circuit, loop flow rates) before the beginning of vaporization in the U-tubes. Subsequently the calculated results concerning the difference of the average void fraction in the ascending and descending leg of the U-tubes disagreed from the measured data in phase 1 leading to discrepancies between calculated and measured data with respect to the loop flow rates and other physical quantities. In phase 2 of the experiment market cyclic filling and voiding processes in the U-tubes are detected, which are not simulated qualitatively in the calculation. These processes possibly lead to an increase in the global heat transfer between primary and secondary circuit in the experiment which is not predicted in the calculation. As a consequence dry out in the core occurs in the calculation, however not in the experiment. The code version ATHLET Mod 1.1, Cycle A has an increased robustness compared to the predecessor version ATHLET Mod 1.0, Cycle E. This could be demonstrated in a post-test calculation of the BETHSY 3.4a, which was already analysed in project 1500887 using the version ATHLET Mod 1.0, Cycle E. Whereas significant numerical problems (e.g. code breakdowns) occured in the latter calculation, the corresponding simulation using the new version performed smoothly and showed identical results with a reduced computer run time. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Introducing evidence based medicine to the journal club, using a structured pre and post test: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin C

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal Club at a University-based residency program was restructured to introduce, reinforce and evaluate residents understanding of the concepts of Evidence Based Medicine. Methods Over the course of a year structured pre and post-tests were developed for use during each Journal Club. Questions were derived from the articles being reviewed. Performance with the key concepts of Evidence Based Medicine was assessed. Study subjects were 35 PGY2 and PGY3 residents in a University based Family Practice Program. Results Performance on the pre-test demonstrated a significant improvement from a median of 54.5 % to 78.9 % over the course of the year (F 89.17, p Conclusions Following organizational revision, the introduction of a pre-test/post-test instrument supported achievement of the learning objectives with a better understanding and utilization of the concepts of Evidence Based Medicine.

  5. Online pre-race education improves test scores for volunteers at a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Shane; Renier, Colleen; Sikka, Robby; Widstrom, Luke; Paulson, William; Christensen, Trent; Olson, David; Nelson, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether an online course would lead to increased knowledge about the medical issues volunteers encounter during a marathon. Health care professionals who volunteered to provide medical coverage for an annual marathon were eligible for the study. Demographic information about medical volunteers including profession, specialty, education level and number of marathons they had volunteered for was collected. A 15-question test about the most commonly encountered medical issues was created by the authors and administered before and after the volunteers took the online educational course and compared to a pilot study the previous year. Seventy-four subjects completed the pre-test. Those who participated in the pilot study last year (N = 15) had pre-test scores that were an average of 2.4 points higher than those who did not (mean ranks: pilot study = 51.6 vs. non-pilot = 33.9, p = 0.004). Of the 74 subjects who completed the pre-test, 54 also completed the post-test. The overall post-pre mean score difference was 3.8 ± 2.7 (t = 10.5 df = 53 p change among first time marathon volunteers was significantly different from the others. Subjects reporting all degree/certification levels demonstrated improvement, but no difference in improvement was found between degree/certification levels. In this follow-up to the previous year's pilot study, online education demonstrated a long-term (one-year) increase in test scores. Testing also continued to show short-term improvement in post-course test scores, compared to pre-course test scores. In general, marathon medical volunteers who had no volunteer experience demonstrated greater improvement than those who had prior volunteer experience.

  6. Over-pressure test on BARCOM pre-stressed concrete containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, R.M.; Singh, Tarvinder; Thangamani, I.; Trivedi, Neha; Singh, Ram Kumar, E-mail: rksingh@barc.gov.in

    2014-04-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has organized an International Round Robin Analysis program to carry out the ultimate load capacity assessment of BARC Containment (BARCOM) test model. The test model located in BARC facilities Tarapur; is a 1:4 scale representation of 540 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) pre-stressed concrete inner containment structure of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) unit 3 and 4. There are a large number of sensors installed in BARCOM that include vibratory wire strain gauges of embedded and spot-welded type, surface mounted electrical resistance strain gauges, dial gauges, earth pressure cells, tilt meters and high resolution digital camera systems for structural response, crack monitoring and fracture parameter measurement to evaluate the local and global behavior of the containment test model. The model has been tested pneumatically during the low pressure tests (LPTs) followed by proof test (PT) and integrated leakage rate test (ILRT) during commissioning. Further the over pressure test (OPT) has been carried out to establish the failure mode of BARCOM Test-Model. The over-pressure test will be completed shortly to reach the functional failure of the test model. Pre-test evaluation of BARCOM was carried out with the results obtained from the registered international round robin participants in January 2009 followed by the post-test assessment in February 2011. The test results along with the various failure modes related to the structural members – concrete, rebars and tendons identified in terms of prescribed milestones are presented in this paper along with the comparison of the pre-test predictions submitted by the registered participants of the Round Robin Analysis for BARCOM test model.

  7. Time devoted to pre- and post-HIV test counselling in different health services according to participants of a rapid testing program in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos Miller, Juan; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Belza Egozcue, María José; García de Olalla, Patricia; Pulido Manzanero, Jose; Molist Señe, Gemma; de la Fuente de Hoz, Luis

    2014-02-01

    The role of pre- and post-test counselling in new HIV testing strategies to reduce delayed diagnosis has been debated. Data on time devoted to counselling are scarce. One approach to this problem is to explore patients' views on the time devoted to counselling by venue of their last HIV test. We analysed data from 1568 people with a previous HIV test who attended a mobile HIV testing program in Madrid between May and December 2008. The majority (71%) were men (48% had had sex with other men), 51% were counselling, 30% stated they were told only that they would receive the test; 26.3% reported counselling: 40.2% stated they were told only that the test was negative; 24.9% reported 2-6 min; 16.4% about 10 min; and 18.5%, 15 min or more. The percentage of participants who reported no counselling time was higher among those tested in general health services: primary care, hospital settings and private laboratories (over 40% in pre-test, over 50% in post-test counselling). Women received less counselling time than men in almost all settings. Policies to expand HIV testing in general health services should take this current medical behaviour into account. Any mention of the need for counselling can be a barrier to expansion, because HIV is becoming less of a priority in developed countries. Oral consent should be the only requirement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. RELAP5/MOD3.2 post-test analysis and CIAU uncertainty evaluation of LOFT experiment L2-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro Petruzzi; Walter Giannotti; Francesco D'Auria

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper deals with the activity performed at University of Pisa in the framework of the participation to the Phase II and III of the BEMUSE (Best Estimate Methods - Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation) Programme. The scope of the Programme is to perform Large Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) analyses making reference to experimental data and to a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in order to address the issue of 'the capabilities of computational tools' including scaling/uncertainty analysis. The justification for such an activity comes from the consideration that a wide spectrum of uncertainty methods applied to Best Estimate codes exist and are used in research laboratories, but their practicability and/or validity is not sufficiently established to support general use of the codes and acceptance by industry and safety authorities. The consideration of the Best Estimate codes and uncertainty evaluation for Design Basis Accident (DBA), by itself, shows the safety significance of the proposed activity.The Phase II of BEMUSE Programme is connected with the reanalysis of the Experiment L2 -5 performed in the LOFT (Loss Of Fluid Test) facility in June 1982. The LOFT facility, installed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), is a 50 MWth Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) system with instruments that measure and provide data on the system thermal-hydraulic and nuclear conditions. The operation of the LOFT is typical of large (∼1000 MWe) commercial PWR. For the performance of Experiment L2-5, the LOFT facility was configured to simulate a double-ended 200 % cold leg break in a four-loop PWR operating at nominal conditions. Assumption of loss of offsite power and atypical primary coolant pump coast down were incorporated into the simulation to create core flow stagnation. The light water reactor transient analysis code Relap5/Mod3.2 has been used to simulate this experiment and the standard procedure adopted at

  9. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 2: Charging System. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Roger L.; Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 2, Charging System, available separately as CE 031 208. Focus of the posttest is on the testing of the charging system. One multiple choice posttest is provided, that covers the three performance objectives contained in the unit. (No answer key is…

  10. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 1: Battery and Cranking System. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson-Roberts, Ludy; And Others

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 1, Battery and Cranking System. Focus of the posttests is the testing of the battery and cranking system. Four multiple choice posttests are provided, one for each of the performance objectives contained in the unit. (No answer keys are provided.)…

  11. Pre-employment medical testing in Brazil: ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palhares, Dario; Laurentino dos Santos, Ivone

    2012-01-01

    Pre-employment medical tests, considered to be a practice within the subspecialty of occupational medicine, are ordered by physicians on behalf of employers. Candidates for a job may be rejected if they are found to suffer from a condition that can be worsened by the job, or one that may put other workers at risk. As the physician who orders pre-employment tests is chosen by the employer, pre-employment tests can violate both the autonomy and the privacy of the individual. This paper discusses ethical conflicts inherent in pre-employment medical testing.

  12. Choreographer Pre-Testing Code Analysis and Operational Testing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Harrison, Christopher B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Perr, C. W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hurd, Steven A [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Choreographer is a "moving target defense system", designed to protect against attacks aimed at IP addresses without corresponding domain name system (DNS) lookups. It coordinates actions between a DNS server and a Network Address Translation (NAT) device to regularly change which publicly available IP addresses' traffic will be routed to the protected device versus routed to a honeypot. More details about how Choreographer operates can be found in Section 2: Introducing Choreographer. Operational considerations for the successful deployment of Choreographer can be found in Section 3. The Testing & Evaluation (T&E) for Choreographer involved 3 phases: Pre-testing, Code Analysis, and Operational Testing. Pre-testing, described in Section 4, involved installing and configuring an instance of Choreographer and verifying it would operate as expected for a simple use case. Our findings were that it was simple and straightforward to prepare a system for a Choreographer installation as well as configure Choreographer to work in a representative environment. Code Analysis, described in Section 5, consisted of running a static code analyzer (HP Fortify) and conducting dynamic analysis tests using the Valgrind instrumentation framework. Choreographer performed well, such that only a few errors that might possibly be problematic in a given operating situation were identified. Operational Testing, described in Section 6, involved operating Choreographer in a representative environment created through EmulyticsTM . Depending upon the amount of server resources dedicated to Choreographer vis-á-vis the amount of client traffic handled, Choreographer had varying degrees of operational success. In an environment with a poorly resourced Choreographer server and as few as 50-100 clients, Choreographer failed to properly route traffic over half the time. Yet, with a well-resourced server, Choreographer handled over 1000 clients without missrouting. Choreographer

  13. 40 CFR 89.406 - Pre-test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-test procedures. 89.406 Section 89.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures § 89.406 Pre-test procedures. (a) Allow a minimum of 30 minutes warmup in the standby or operating...

  14. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. BACKGROUND: Continuing professional education may be

  15. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. Background: Continuing professional education may be

  16. The relationship between the level of program integrity and pre- and post-test changes of Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Wissink, I.B.; Hendriks, J.

    2016-01-01

    Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient is a cognitive behavioral-based intervention for adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with severe aggressive behavioral problems. This pilot study (N = 26) examined the level of program integrity (PI; that is, the delivery of the

  17. The Relationship beween the Level of Program Interity and Pre- and Post-Test Changes of Responsive Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-Art) Out Patient: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M; van Horn, J.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Wissink, I.B.; Hendriks, J.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient is a cognitive behavioral-based intervention for adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with severe aggressive behavioral problems. This pilot study (N = 26) examined the level of program integrity (PI; that is, the delivery of the

  18. The relationship between the level of program integrity and pre- and post-test changes of Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M; van Horn, J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Wissink, I.B.; Hendriks, J.

    2016-01-01

    Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient is a cognitive behavioral-based intervention for adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with severe aggressive behavioral problems. This pilot study (N = 26) examined the level of program integrity (PI; that is, the delivery of the

  19. Legal consequences of not performing requisite pre-anaesthesia test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Suggested Precautions Perform sensitive test before giving anaesthesia and specifically record the said fact in pre-operative notes.Necessary precautions prescribed and followed in medicine must be strictly followed and duly recorded.

  20. Pre-clinical biocompatibility testing of peritoneal dialysis solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C J

    2000-01-01

    Pre-clinical biocompatibility testing of peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions has become an integral part of new solution development. The construction of a pre-clinical screening program for solution biocompatibility should take a hierarchical approach, starting with in vitro cell viability and function assays. The selection of cell types and assay systems for the in vitro studies should be broad enough to permit a balanced interpretation. Whenever possible, animal models are recommended for the next hierarchical level of testing, followed by human ex vivo study designs. Designs of the latter sort provide evidence that a new solution formulation is exerting an altered biological response in vivo; the response is not purely an in vitro artifact or restricted to a given animal species. This article discusses the various approaches available for biocompatibility testing during the pre-clinical phase of solution development, with an emphasis on the advantages and drawbacks of each method.

  1. Complot test section outlet CFD optimization (pre - test and dimensioning)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profir, M. M.; Moreau, V.; Kennedy, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the FP7 MAXSIMA European project, the COMPLOT (COMPonent LOop Testing) LBE experimental facility is employed for thermal-hydraulic experiments aimed to test and qualify, among other components, a buoyancy driven safety/control rods (SR/CR) system, as key components for the safe operation of the MYRRHA reactor. This paper focuses mainly on a simplified CFD representation of the SR test section outlet in order to optimise it for the testing program. Parametric cases, associated with different positions of the SR assembly have been set up and analysed. A quasi-static analysis has been performed for each case, accounting for the LBE volume displaced by the insertion of the SR bundle, by introducing appropriately positioned additional mass sources. Velocity and pressure fields, as well as pressure drop magnitudes and mass flow rates through relevant guide tube hole outlets have been calculated and compared. The CFD analysis proved that the outer boundary of the test section does not impact the expected performance of the SR (rapid transient downward insertion). Preliminary simulations reproducing the timely repositioning of the SR/CR in COMPLOT using procedures of automatic volume mesh regeneration, consistently with the rod imposed displacement, are illustrated. (authors)

  2. Light Duty Utility Arm system pre-operational (cold test) test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility (LDUA) Cold Test Facility, located in the Hanford 400 Area, will be used to support cold testing (pre- operational tests) of LDUA subsystems. Pre-operational testing is composed of subsystem development testing and rework activities, and integrated system qualification testing. Qualification testing will be conducted once development work is complete and documentation is under configuration control. Operational (hot) testing of the LDUA system will follow the testing covered in this plan and will be covered in a separate test plan

  3. The implications of policy pre-post test scores for street-level bureaucratic discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorch, Edwina L

    2009-01-01

    Substantial reductions in audit error rates observed over the past few years suggest eligibility workers have moved toward an eligibility compliance culture described by Bane and Ellwood. However, the results of this study indicate that social service caseworkers responded correctly to 49% of the targeted policy items at the pre-test stage and 68% at the post-test stage. Such findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that, in instances when caseworkers lack policy knowledge, they use their own discretion. Such a finding not only supports Lipsky's theory but also supports the notion that administrators should be encouraged to utilize 'mastery learning' procedures whereby caseworkers are retained in new-hire and follow-up training classes until they have mastered 100% of targeted policy information. Retention of caseworkers may also reduce federal and local audit errors and errors in crediting the reduction of caseloads to social service policies when in fact significant components of them have not been implemented (learned or utilized). And, most importantly, retention in training classes may increase the appropriate provision of services to the needy.

  4. 40 CFR 90.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... during service accumulation is allowed only in accordance with § 90.118. (b) Engine pre-test preparation... by § 90.324(a). If necessary, allow the heated sample line, filters, and pumps to reach operating...

  5. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... accordance with § 91.117. (b) Engine pre-test preparation. (1) Drain and charge the fuel tank(s) with the..., including the sample probe, using mode 1 from Table 2 in appendix A of this subpart. The emission sampling...

  6. Behavior of pre-irradiated fuel under a simulated RIA condition. Results of NSRR Test JM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Mori, Yukihide; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Kamata, Hiroshi; Homma, Kozo; Sakai, Haruyuki.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents results from the power burst experiment with pre-irradiated fuel rod, Test JM-5, conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The data concerning test method, pre-irradiation, pre-pulse fuel examination, pulse irradiation, transient records and post-pulse fuel examination are described, and interpretations and discussions of the results are presented. Preceding to the pulse irradiation in the NSRR, test fuel rod was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) up to a fuel burnup of 25.7 MWd/kgU with average linear heat rate of 33.4 kW/m. The fuel rod was subjected to the pulse irradiation resulting in a desposited energy of 223 ± 7 cal/g·fuel (0.93 ± 0.03 kJ/g·fuel) and a peak fuel enthalpy of 167 ± 5 cal/g·fuel (0.70 ± 0.02 kJ/g·fuel) under stagnant water cooling condition at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Test fuel rod behavior was assessed from pre- and post-pulse fuel examinations and transient records during the pulse. The Test JM-5 resulted in cladding failure. More than twenty small cracks were found in the post-test cladding, and most of the defects located in pre-existing locally hydrided region. The result indicates an occurrence of fuel failure by PCMI (pellet/cladding mechanical interaction) in combination with decreased integrity of hydrided cladding. (author)

  7. Clay and Anxiety Reduction: A One-Group, Pretest/Posttest Design with Patients on a Psychiatric Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Hartzell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on using clay as an anxiety-reducing intervention with patients in psychiatric hospitals. This article reports on a study that used a one-group, pretest/posttest design with 49 adults in a psychiatric facility who created a clay pinch pot. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used as a pre- and posttest measure.…

  8. Consistent Posttest Calculations for LOCA Scenarios in LOBI Integral Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Reventós

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral test facilities (ITFs are one of the main tools for the validation of best estimate thermalhydraulic system codes. The experimental data are also of great value when compared to the experiment-scaled conditions in a full NPP. The LOBI was a single plus a triple-loop (simulated by one loop test facility electrically heated to simulate a 1300 MWe PWR. The scaling factor was 712 for the core power, volume, and mass flow. Primary and secondary sides contained all main active elements. Tests were performed for the characterization of phenomenologies relevant to large and small break LOCAs and special transients in PWRs. The paper presents the results of three posttest calculations of LOBI experiments. The selected experiments are BL-30, BL-44, and A1-84. They are LOCA scenarios of different break sizes and with different availability of safety injection components. The goal of the analysis is to improve the knowledge of the phenomena occurred in the facility in order to use it in further studies related to qualifying nodalizations of actual plants or to establish accuracy data bases for uncertainty methodologies. An example of procedure of implementing changes in a common nodalization valid for simulating tests occurred in a specific ITF is presented along with its confirmation based on posttests results.

  9. A well test analysis method accounting for pre-testoperations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.B.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2003-06-13

    We propose to use regular monitoring data from a productionor injection well for estimating the formation hydraulic properties inthe vicinity of the wellbore without interrupting the operations. In ourapproach, we select a portion of the pumping data over a certain timeinterval and then derive our conclusions from analysis of these data. Adistinctive feature of the proposed approach differing it formconventional methods is in the introduction of an additional parameter,an effective pre-test pumping rate. The additional parameter is derivedbased on a rigorous asymptotic analysis of the flow model. Thus, weaccount for the non-uniform pressure distribution at the beginning oftesting time interval caused by pre-test operations at the well. Bysynthetic and field examples, we demonstrate that deviation of thematching curve from the data that is usually attributed to skin andwellbore storage effects, can also be interpreted through this newparameter. Moreover, with our method, the data curve is matched equallywell and the results of the analysis remain stable when the analyzed datainterval is perturbed, whereas traditional methods are sensitive to thechoice of the data interval. A special efficient minimization procedurehas been developed for searching the best fitting parameters. We enhancedour analysis above with a procedure of estimating ambient reservoirpressure and dimensionless wellbore radius. The methods reported herehave been implemented in code ODA (Operations Data Analysis). A betaversion of the code is available for free testing and evaluation tointerested parties.

  10. The impact of an online learning platform about nursing education on enrolled nurse preceptor teaching capabilities: a pre-post-test evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Colleen; Young, Louise; McAllister, Margaret

    2017-06-01

    Enrolled nurses (ENs) across Australia precept nursing students in the clinical field. Yet learning about the preceptoring role is not widely available to ENs. Educational innovation: EN's in this study participated in a professional development project that utilised the material of an online learning resource, originally designed to inspire clinical registered nurses (RNs), and RN teachers, to develop teaching innovations in their role. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a pre-post-test questionnaire designed to evaluate the impact of the professional development intervention. The analysis showed high scoring means with many items in the questionnaire statistically significant (p capabilities between pre- and post-test scores. This suggests ENs appreciate education that extends beyond clinical skills and that professional development should include the nursing education role.

  11. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65... § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing... days. If an individual has negative results from drug and alcohol tests that were conducted under the...

  12. Pre-discharge defibrillation testing: Is it still justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Maciej; Królak, Tomasz; Drelich, Łukasz; Budrejko, Szymon; Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz, Ludmiła; Lewicka, Ewa; Kozłowski, Dariusz; Raczak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is routinely used to prevent sudden cardiac death. Since the introduction of that device into clinical practice, a defibrillation test (the so-called pre-discharge test [PDT]) has been an inseparable part of the ICD implantation procedure. Recently, the usefulness of PDT has been called into question. The aim of this research was to analyze ICD tests performed within two time periods: in years 1995-2001 (period I) and 2007-2010 (period II), in order to compare the results of tests and solutions to all the problems with ICD systems revealed by means of PDT. During period I, 193 tests were performed, among which the ICD system malfunction was observed in 16 cases. Those included: sensing issues, specifically R-wave undersensing during ventricular fibrillation (VF) (7 patients) and T-wave oversensing (4 patients), as well as high defibrillation threshold (DFT) (2 patients) and ICD-pacemaker interaction (3 patients). During period II, among 561 tests, system malfunction was observed in 15 cases. In 1 patient it was VF undersensing, and in the remaining 14 it was high DFT. All the above problems were solved by means of appropriate ICD reprogramming, repositioning of the endocardial defibrillation lead or implantation of an additional subcutaneous defibrillation lead. Contemporary ICD technical solutions, compared to older systems, in most cases allow to avoid sensing problems. The key rationale behind ICD testing is the ability to confirm the efficacy of high-voltage therapy. Despite the increasing maximal defibrillation out-put of devices, and all possible adjustments to the characteristics of the impulse, there is still a group of patients that require additional procedures to ensure the appropriate defibrillation efficacy.

  13. A Tool that Can be Effective in the Self-Regulated Learning of Pre-Service Teachers: The Mind Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriseven, Isil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of task planning with mind maps on the self-regulation strategies and motivational beliefs of pre-service teachers. A quasi-experimental design, with a pre-test and post-test control group, was applied in the research. The research group comprised of 60 pre-service teachers taking "Teaching…

  14. International Standard problem ISP 14: behaviour of a fuel bundle simulator during a specified heatup and flooding period (Rebeka experiment): results of post-test analyses: final comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1985-02-01

    The test consisted in investigating the non-steady material behaviour of a bundle of electrically heated fuel rod simulators with respect to local fuel temperatures, cladding strain, time to burst and local strain at location of burst, together with the thermal hydraulic boundary conditions. The original aim has not been fully achievable. The applied codes for mechanical fuel behaviour largely demonstrated their capabilities for pretest predictions when certain local fluid dynamic parameters are well known to the code users. The difficulties expected with proper analysis of thermal hydraulics of the test were confirmed, caused by the coupling between pin cooling conditions, rod upper plenum calculations and the feedback to clad deformation and burst simulation

  15. Pretest-Posttest-Posttest Multilevel IRT Modeling of Competence Growth of Students in Higher Education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Fox, Gerardus J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal research in higher education faces several challenges. Appropriate methods of analyzing competence growth of students are needed to deal with those challenges and thereby obtain valid results. In this article, a pretest-posttest-posttest multivariate multilevel IRT model for repeated

  16. A model for developing and pre-testing a multi-media teaching program to enhance the self-care behavior of diabetes insipidus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, O; Schubert, W

    1985-03-01

    A patient-education program was designed by members of the Neurology Nursing Service. The program was designed to provide patients with diabetes insipidus with the information needed to help them manage their condition in the hospital and at home upon discharge. The program was approved by the Nursing Department's Patient Education Committee. The nurses worked closely with the hospital's patient-education coordinator and television-production staff to produce a videotape for educating patients about managing diabetes insipidus. A literature review of patient-education resources on diabetes insipidus revealed that no materials were available in either audiovisual or print media. The program utilized the multi-media approach of a videotape that was shown over closed-circuit television and a booklet outlining the salient points of the television program. All patients utilizing the program have been pre-tested and post-tested to assess their achievement of behavioral objectives.

  17. A well test analysis method accounting for pre-test operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, D.B.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We propose to use regular monitoring data from a production or injection well for estimating the formation hydraulic properties in the vicinity of the wellbore without interrupting the operations. In our approach, we select a portion of the pumping data over a certain time interval and then derive our conclusions from analysis of these data. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach differing it form conventional methods is in the introduction of an additional parameter, an effective pre-test pumping rate. The additional parameter is derived based on a rigorous asymptotic analysis of the flow model. Thus, we account for the non-uniform pressure distribution at the beginning of testing time interval caused by pre-test operations at the well. By synthetic and field examples, we demonstrate that deviation of the matching curve from the data that is usually attributed to skin and wellbore storage effects, can also be interpreted through this new parameter. Moreover, with our method, the data curve is matched equally well and the results of the analysis remain stable when the analyzed data interval is perturbed, whereas traditional methods are sensitive to the choice of the data interval. A special efficient minimization procedure has been developed for searching the best fitting parameters. We enhanced our analysis above with a procedure of estimating ambient reservoir pressure and dimensionless wellbore radius. The methods reported here have been implemented in code ODA (Operations Data Analysis). A beta version of the code is available for free testing and evaluation to interested parties

  18. Heavy vehicle simulator testing on pre-cast concrete panels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available commonly found in California, pre-cast concrete slabs are considered to be a very suitable repair material for extending the service life of intermittently distressed concrete pavements. This is because of the long life expectancy of concrete slabs cast...

  19. Pre and Post Test Evaluations of Students in the Needs-Analysis Based EAP Course at Undergraduate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Nafissi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Iran’s education system is exam-based and to gain admission to universities at undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels, candidates have to sit a competitive examination. For this reason, developing an EAP course which prepares the candidates for these examinations is of crucial importance. The present study attempted to develop an EAP course for the selected number of undergraduate students of Statistics at Alzahra University and Shahid Beheshti University in Tehran. The aim was to prepare these students for the English language section of the entrance examination for MS degree in Statistics and then to determine if there was any significant difference between students’ performance in their pre and post tests. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were applied in this study and different instruments such as a questionnaire, semi-structured and structured interviews, and analysis of texts, were used to gather needs analysis data. The results indicated that the majority of participants preferred the presence of more ESP courses at universities. There was also a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores of the participants who took part in the EAP course.

  20. Neutronic and nuclear post-test analysis of MEGAPIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanini, L.; Aebersold, H. U.; Berg, K.; Eikenberg, J.; Filges, U.; Groeschel, F.; Luethy, M.; Ruethi, M.; Scazzi, S.; Tobler, L.; Wagner, W.; Wernli, B. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Panebianco, S.; David, J.-C.; Dore, D.; Lemaire, S.; Leray, S.; Letourneau, A.; Michel-Sendis, F.; Prevost, A.; Ridikas, D.; Stankunas, G. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toussaint, J.-C. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service d' Ingenierie des Systemes, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Eid, M. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SERMA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Latge, C. [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/DTN/DIR, Saint Paul Lez, Durance (France); Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Fischer, U. [Institut fuer Reaktorsichereit, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Gmbh, Karlsruhe (Germany); Thiolliere, N.; Guertin, A. [SUBATECH Laboratory, CNRS/IN2P3-EMN-University, Nantes (France); Buchillier, T.; Bailat, C. [Institut universitaire de radiophysique appliquee (IRA), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    The MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) project was started in 2000 to design, build and operate a liquid metal spallation neutron target at the power level of 1 MW. The project is an important step in the roadmap towards the demonstration of the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) concept and for high power molten metal targets in general. In an ADS the spallation target is placed inside a sub-critical reactor core. The role of the spallation target is to provide the extra neutrons needed by the sub-critical core to keep the reactor working. Since an ADS is a fast neutron system, there is no moderation and the spallation neutron spectrum is therefore a typical fast spectrum. For a sub-critical core with k{sub eff} = 0.95, a strong neutron source is needed, and in the roadmap an accelerator current higher than 10 mA is indicated as baseline parameter for the experimental ADS. The choice of the accelerator current and energy depends primarily on the number of neutrons that need to be generated, and that are used to drive the reactor. With the 590 MeV cyclotron delivering a continuous beam on target with a current up to 1.8 mA, SINQ was chosen for the MEGAPIE experiment as the most powerful spallation neutron source in the world, with a proton beam power on target that can reach 1 MW. Up to MEGAPIE all SINQ targets were based on a bundle of heavy material rods (full zircaloy, steel rods filled with Pb, zircaloy rods filled with Pb) cooled by a flow of heavy water. For the MEGAPIE target a loop of about 82 litres of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) circulates enclosed by a steel structure. The target is about 5 m long and the LBE is made circulating by means of a main electromagnetic pump. The neutronic performance was deduced from flux measurements done at different positions and distances from the spallation target, because the neutron yield (number of neutrons per incoming proton) cannot be directly measured. The presence of the heavy water moderator in the SINQ facility changes the spectrum, from a fast one to a prevalently thermal one, in most of the measurement points (with the exception of measurements performed near the centre of the target). The neutronic performance of a liquid target is compared to the standard solid targets used in SINQ. In the MEGAPIE experiment the neutron flux is measured in the close proximity of the spallation zone by means of innovative micro fission chambers which give a current proportional to the neutron yield. Coupled with very detailed Monte Carlo simulations, these integral measurements provide accurate data on the neutron generation. Spallation residues accumulation or temperature influence the neutron balance and the neutron energy spectrum. Overall, the results obtained with the 3 codes FLUKA 2006.3b, MCNPX 2.5.0 and SNT are consistent. The comparison was performed for the LBE, where the results compare well, and for the structure of the target for which the discrepancies are larger. The reason is related to the different origin of the activation: residual nuclei in LBE are mainly due to spallation reactions, while target structure activation is mainly due to low-energy neutron capture. The latter is sensitive to the simulated thermalization process and to the capture cross sections data used. By comparing measurements and calculations of the neutron flux, differences of 20% were found for thermal fluxes. For epithermal flux the 'background' of neutrons with E < 1 MeV is larger with the liquid metal target than for the solid ones. For fast neutron (E > 1 MeV) a disagreement of a factor 2-3 (depending on the chamber position) was found. It seems that the calculation of the fission rates is not correct due to the inherent difficulty of reproducing the mixed neutron spectrum, with strong thermal, epithermal and fast components at the detector locations. MEGAPIE has a neutronic performance higher than the solid targets of SINQ. The performance change between the two different solid targets and MEGAPIE has been correctly reproduced. To achieve a good accuracy in the calculation of the neutronic performance of an ADS system, an accurate definition of the geometrical model taking into account the influence of structural materials is of primary importance. The results depend also on the beam profile used in the simulations, at least for the flux calculations close to the target interaction point. Radioactive nuclides produced in liquid metal targets are transported into hot cells, pumps or close to electronics with radiation sensitive components. Besides the considerable amount of decay {gamma} activity in the irradiated liquid metal, a significant amount of the Delayed Neutron (DN) precursor activity accumulates in the target fluid. The transit time of a liquid metal target being as short as a few seconds, DNs may contribute significantly to the activation and dose rates. The importance of the DN issues in liquid metal targets is confirmed. Another problem is the gas production and release in an ADS target, the proton beam generating a large amount of gas by spallation reactions. A large amount of Po isotopes, volatile at relatively high temperatures, are produced in the LBE. The gas production was measured by {gamma} spectroscopy. The release rates of noble gases in MEGAPIE are at the % level after 1-2 days of operation, while the release becomes almost complete weeks after the beginning of operation. Pressure increase in the cover gas could be reproduced with calculations within a factor of 2. The effect of the impurities in the radionuclide inventory of the LBE, using the actual chemical composition of the LBE used in MEGAPIE, is minimal.

  1. Global Health Diplomacy, Monitoring & Evaluation, and the Importance of Quality Assurance & Control: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043): A Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial of Community Mobilization, Mobile Testing, Same-Day Results, and Post-Test Support for HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Singh, Basant; Chingono, Alfred; Morin, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Provision and scale-up of high quality, evidence-based services is essential for successful international HIV prevention interventions in order to generate and maintain intervention uptake, study integrity and participant trust, from both health service delivery and diplomatic perspectives. Methods We developed quality assurance (QAC) procedures to evaluate staff fidelity to a cluster-randomized trial of the NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) assessing the effectiveness of a community-based voluntary counseling and testing strategy. The intervention was comprised of three components—Mobile Voluntary Counseling and Testing (MVCT), Community Mobilization (CM) and Post-Test Support Services (PTSS). QAC procedures were based on standardized criteria, and were designed to assess both provider skills and adherence to the intervention protocol. Supervisors observed a random sample of 5% to 10% of sessions each month and evaluated staff against multiple criteria on scales of 1–5. A score of 5 indicated 100% adherence, 4 indicated 95% adherence, and 3 indicated 90% adherence. Scores below 3 were considered unsatisfactory, and protocol deviations were discussed with the respective staff. Results During the first year of the intervention, the mean scores of MVCT and CM staff across the 5 study sites were 4 (95% adherence) or greater and continued to improve over time. Mean QAC scores for the PTSS component were lower and displayed greater fluctuations. Challenges to PTSS staff were identified as coping with the wide range of activities in the PTSS component and the novelty of the PTSS process. QAC fluctuations for PTSS were also associated with new staff hires or changes in staff responsibilities. Through constant staff monitoring and support, by Year 2, QAC scores for PTSS activities had reached those of MVCT and CM. Conclusions The implementation of a large-sale, evidence based HIV intervention requires extensive QAC to ensure implementation effectiveness

  2. Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Belief Development about Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapan, Seyit Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate pre-service English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' beliefs about grammar instruction in a foreign language (FL) context through their initial teaching practices. Analyses of semi-structured interviews and classroom observations apart from pre-and post-test results of participants' responses to a belief…

  3. Attitude Towards Mandatory Pre-Marital HIV Testing Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Department of Health Promotion and Education, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of. Ibadan, Ibadan ... ABSTRACT. This study assessed the attitude of unmarried youths towards Mandatory Premarital HIV Testing (MPHT) in Ibadan ..... HIV testing was a waste of time and resources. However, more ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-07-01

    The research and development effort of a new kind of compressor and engine is presented. The superior performance of these two products arises from the superior performance of rotating supersonic shock-wave compression. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A High Risk Technology review was conducted and evaluated by a team of 20 senior engineers and scientists representing various branches of the federal government. The conceptual design of a compression test rig, test rotors, and test cell adaptor was completed. The work conducted lays the foundation for the completed design and testing of the compression test rig, and the design of a supersonic shock-wave compressor matched to a conventional combustor and turbine.

  5. Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers' Views about the Teaching Knowledge Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldag, Adem

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine pre-service social studies teachers' views about the Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT). The study was conducted within the framework of case-study which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study-group consists of 13 pre-service teachers. Two semi-structured interview forms were used to collect data.…

  6. A Comparison of Pre-Service towards Testing: The Spanish Baccalaureate General Test and the American OPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Bejarano, Luis G.; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Litzler, Mary Frances; Megias Rosa, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: One of the most frequently neglected aspects of testing is teachers' attitudes. Overall, in-service teachers may have a preconception of what testing means and what its implications are both in high and low stakes testing. However, very few studies have addressed the realities or opinions of pre-service teachers. Methods: Two…

  7. The Effect of Creative Drama on Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Achievement in Art Education Course and Interest in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul; Sahin, Ali E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the creative drama method on pre-service elementary teachers' achievement in art education courses and interest in art. The study made use of the experimental pattern with pre- and post-test control groups. Data were collected, analyzed, and interpreted according to the mixed method…

  8. Pre-Test Analysis of Major Scenarios for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euh, Dong-Jin; Choi, Ki-Yong; Park, Hyun-Sik; Kwon, Tae-Soon

    2007-02-15

    A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS was constructed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ATLAS is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288 volume scaled test facility based on the design features of the APR1400. The simulation capability of the ATLAS for major design basis accidents (DBAs), including a large-break loss-of-coolant (LBLOCA), DVI line break and main steam line break (MSLB) accidents, is evaluated by the best-estimate system code, MARS, with the same control logics, transient scenarios and nodalization scheme. The validity of the applied scaling law and the thermal-hydraulic similarity between the ATLAS and the APR1400 for the major design basis accidents are assessed. It is confirmed that the ATLAS has a capability of maintaining an overall similarity with the reference plant APR1400 for the major design basis accidents considered in the present study. However, depending on the accident scenarios, there are some inconsistencies in certain thermal hydraulic parameters. It is found that the inconsistencies are mainly due to the reduced power effect and the increased stored energy in the structure. The present similarity analysis was successful in obtaining a greater insight into the unique design features of the ATLAS and would be used for developing the optimized experimental procedures and control logics.

  9. Pre-Test Analysis of Major Scenarios for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euh, Dong-Jin; Choi, Ki-Yong; Park, Hyun-Sik; Kwon, Tae-Soon

    2007-02-01

    A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS was constructed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ATLAS is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288 volume scaled test facility based on the design features of the APR1400. The simulation capability of the ATLAS for major design basis accidents (DBAs), including a large-break loss-of-coolant (LBLOCA), DVI line break and main steam line break (MSLB) accidents, is evaluated by the best-estimate system code, MARS, with the same control logics, transient scenarios and nodalization scheme. The validity of the applied scaling law and the thermal-hydraulic similarity between the ATLAS and the APR1400 for the major design basis accidents are assessed. It is confirmed that the ATLAS has a capability of maintaining an overall similarity with the reference plant APR1400 for the major design basis accidents considered in the present study. However, depending on the accident scenarios, there are some inconsistencies in certain thermal hydraulic parameters. It is found that the inconsistencies are mainly due to the reduced power effect and the increased stored energy in the structure. The present similarity analysis was successful in obtaining a greater insight into the unique design features of the ATLAS and would be used for developing the optimized experimental procedures and control logics

  10. Improving sexual health for HIV patients by providing a combination of integrated public health and hospital care services; a one-group pre- and post test intervention comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukers-Muijrers Nicole HTM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital HIV care and public sexual health care (a Sexual Health Care Centre services were integrated to provide sexual health counselling and sexually transmitted infections (STIs testing and treatment (sexual health care to larger numbers of HIV patients. Services, need and usage were assessed using a patient perspective, which is a key factor for the success of service integration. Methods The study design was a one-group pre-test and post-test comparison of 447 HIV-infected heterosexual individuals and men who have sex with men (MSM attending a hospital-based HIV centre serving the southern region of the Netherlands. The intervention offered comprehensive sexual health care using an integrated care approach. The main outcomes were intervention uptake, patients’ pre-test care needs (n=254, and quality rating. Results Pre intervention, 43% of the patients wanted to discuss sexual health (51% MSM; 30% heterosexuals. Of these patients, 12% to 35% reported regular coverage, and up to 25% never discussed sexual health topics at their HIV care visits. Of the patients, 24% used our intervention. Usage was higher among patients who previously expressed a need to discuss sexual health. Most patients who used the integrated services were new users of public health services. STIs were detected in 13% of MSM and in none of the heterosexuals. The quality of care was rated good. Conclusions The HIV patients in our study generally considered sexual health important, but the regular counselling and testing at the HIV care visit was insufficient. The integration of public health and hospital services benefited both care sectors and their patients by addressing sexual health questions, detecting STIs, and conducting partner notification. Successful sexual health care uptake requires increased awareness among patients about their care options as well as a cultural shift among care providers.

  11. Assurance of Learning, "Closing the Loop": Utilizing a Pre and Post Test for Principles of Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegin, Frank; Letterman, Denise; Racic, Stanko; Schimmel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Since there is no standard national Pre and Post Test for Principles of Finance, akin to the one for Economics, by authors created one by selecting questions from previously administered examinations. The Cronbach's Alpha of 0.851, exceeding the minimum of 0.70 for reliable pen and paper test, indicates that our Test can detect differences in…

  12. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance Tests used Pre- and Post-Spaceflight: Test-Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Amonette, William E.

    2009-01-01

    To assess changes in muscular strength and endurance after microgravity exposure, NASA measures isokinetic strength and endurance across multiple sessions before and after long-duration space flight. Accurate interpretation of pre- and post-flight measures depends upon the reliability of each measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) isokinetic protocol. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 M/12 F, 32.0 +/- 5.6 years) volunteered to participate. Isokinetic knee, ankle, and trunk flexion and extension strength as well as endurance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using a Cybex NORM isokinetic dynamometer. The first weekly session was considered a familiarization session. Data were collected and analyzed for weeks 2-4. Repeated measures analysis of variance (alpha=0.05) was used to identify weekly differences in isokinetic measures. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1). No significant differences were found between weeks in any of the strength measures and the reliability of the strength measures were all considered excellent (ICC greater than 0.9), except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion (ICC=0.67). Although a significant difference was noted in weekly endurance measures of knee extension (p less than 0.01), the reliability of endurance measure by week were considered excellent for knee flexion (ICC=0.97) and knee extension (ICC=0.96). Except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion, the isokinetic strength and endurance measures are highly reliable when following the NASA ISS protocol. This protocol should allow accurate interpretation isokinetic data even with a small number of crew members.

  13. Pre test parametric studies on single compartment vented enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a proper design fire scenario is a challenging task and essential component for conducting fire safety design of buildings. A design fire scenario is a qualitative description of a fire with time identifying key events that characterize the fire (ignition, growth, flashover, fully-developed, and decay stages of fire). Proper fire safety design requires the appropriate selection of design fires against which the performance of the building is evaluated. The selection of the design fires directly impacts all aspects of fire safety performance, including the structural fire resistance, compartmentation against fire spread, egress systems, manual or automatic detection systems, suppression systems, and smoke control. The parameters affecting design fires include, the type, amount and arrangement of combustible materials, the ventilation conditions (air supply conditions, door/window open), and size of the compartment of fire origin. A design fire is a quantitative description of the characteristics of a fire, such as heat release rate (HRR), size of fire and its rate of spread, yield of products of combustion, and hot gas temperatures. Design fires are based on fire scenarios that replicate real fires. Six Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effect of fire load on fire dynamics in a) iso corner fire configuration b) IIT Delhi single compartment of a size of 5.0 m long, 5.0 m wide and 5.0 m high with doorway opening of 1m x 3m with centre fire of size 0.5 m x 0.5m. These types of simulation are carried out for deciding about the instrumentation scheme, safety aspect, and optimization of proposed experiments for National Fire Test Facility as pretest calculations. The simulations results are summarized in various identified applied parameter which are useful in terms of understanding the complex fire dynamics, validating the numerical tolls against experiments and using them (in form of values

  14. An Effort to Improve Teacher Perceptions and Knowledge of Cyberbullying: A Pre-Post Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesshengel-Hopp, Marleny T.

    2017-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing concern, confounded by the limited training resources available for teachers. The problem undertaken in this study was determining the most effective way to teach teachers about cyberbullying given the limited 1-hour time constraint of a typical school in-service activity. Using a pre-test, post-test experimental…

  15. Promoting Pre-Service Elementary Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium through Discussions in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…

  16. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  17. Posttest examination of the VVER-1000 fuel rod bundle CORA-W2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepold, L.

    1995-06-01

    The bundle meltdown experiment CORA-W2, representing the behavior of a Russian type VVER-1000 fuel element, with one B 4 C/stainless steel absorber rod was selected by the OECD/CSNI as International Standard Problem (ISP-36). The experimental results of CORA-W2 serve as data base for comparison with analytical predictions of the high-temperature material behavior by various code systems. The first part of the experimental results is described in KfK 5363 (1994), the second part is documented in this report which contains the destructive post-test examination results. The metallographical and analytical (SEM/EDX) post-test examinations were performed in Germany and Russia and are summarized in five individual contributions. The upper half of the bundle is completely oxidized, the lower half has kept the fuel rods relatively intact. The post-test examination results show the strong impact of the B 4 C absorber rod and the stainless steel grid spacers on the ''low-temperature'' bundle damage initiation and progression. The B 4 C absorber rod completely disappeared in the upper half of the bundle. The multicomponent melts relocated and formed coolant channel blockages on solidification with a maximum extent of about 30% in the lower part of the bundle. At temperatures above the melting point of the ZrNb1 cladding extensive fuel dissolution occurred. (orig.) [de

  18. Pre-Gas Drilling Drinking Water Testing--An Educational Opportunity for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swistock, Brian; Clark, James

    2015-01-01

    The increase in shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania has resulted in thousands of landowners receiving predrilling testing of their drinking water. Landowners often have difficulty understanding test reports resulting in low awareness of pre-existing problems. Extension and several partners developed a program to improve understanding of…

  19. Prediction of pre-eclampsia: a protocol for systematic reviews of test accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Khalid S

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia, a syndrome of hypertension and proteinuria, is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accurate prediction of pre-eclampsia is important, since high risk women could benefit from intensive monitoring and preventive treatment. However, decision making is currently hampered due to lack of precise and up to date comprehensive evidence summaries on estimates of risk of developing pre-eclampsia. Methods/Design A series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be undertaken to determine, among women in early pregnancy, the accuracy of various tests (history, examinations and investigations for predicting pre-eclampsia. We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDION, citation lists of review articles and eligible primary articles and will contact experts in the field. Reviewers working independently will select studies, extract data, and assess study validity according to established criteria. Language restrictions will not be applied. Bivariate meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity will be considered for tests whose studies allow generation of 2 × 2 tables. Discussion The results of the test accuracy reviews will be integrated with results of effectiveness reviews of preventive interventions to assess the impact of test-intervention combinations for prevention of pre-eclampsia.

  20. The effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving student nurses' knowledge and performance during patient deterioration: A pre and post test design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg Sapiano, Alexis; Sammut, Roberta; Trapani, Josef

    2018-03-01

    Preparing nursing students to perform competently in complex emergency situations, such as during rapid patient deterioration, is challenging. Students' active engagement in such scenarios cannot be ensured, due to the unexpected nature of such infrequent events. Many students may consequently not experience and integrate the management of patient deterioration into their knowledge and practical competency by the end of their studies, making them unprepared to manage such situations as practicing nurses. This study investigated the effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving performance during rapid patient deterioration. To investigate the effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving student nurses' knowledge and performance during rapid patient deterioration. A pre- and post-test design was used. Nursing students at a university in Malta were invited to participate in a virtual simulation program named FIRST 2 ACTWeb™, using their own computer devices. A total of 166 (response rate=50%) second and third year diploma and degree nursing students participated in the study. The simulation included three scenarios (Cardiac-Shock-Respiratory) portraying deteriorating patients. Performance feedback was provided at the end of each scenario. Students completed pre- and post-scenario knowledge tests and performance during each scenario was recorded automatically on a database. Findings showed a significant improvement in the students' post-scenario knowledge (z=-6.506, psimulation as an effective learning tool for pre-registration nursing students in different programs. Simulation improves both knowledge about and performance during patient deterioration. Virtual simulation of rare events should be a key component of undergraduate nurse education, to prepare students to manage complex situations as practicing nurses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Web Based Framework for Pre-release Testing of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abeer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming an integral part of daily life and of business’s marketing plan. They are helpful in promoting for the business, attracting and retaining customers. Software testing is vital to ensure the delivery of high quality mobile applications that could be accessed across different platforms and meet business and technical requirements. This paper proposes a web based tool, namely Pons, for the distribution of pre-release mobile applications for the purpose of manual testing. Pons facilities building, running, and manually testing Android applications directly in the browser. It gets the developers and end users engaged in testing the applications in one place, alleviates the tester’s burden of installing and maintaining testing environments, and provides a platform for developers to rapidly iterate on the software and integrate changes over time. Thus, it speeds up the pre-release testing process, reduces its cost and increases customer satisfaction.

  2. The Effectiveness of Computer Supported versus Real Laboratory Inquiry Learning Environments on the Understanding of Direct Current Electricity among Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa; Durmus, Soner

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in conceptual understanding of Direct Current Electricity (DCE) in virtual (VLE) and real laboratory environment (RLE) among pre-service elementary school teachers. A pre- and post-test experimental design was used with two different groups. One of the groups was randomly assigned to VLE (n =…

  3. Pre-Test CFD for the Design and Execution of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Axdahl, Erik L.; Cabell, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing costs of physics experiments and simultaneous increase in availability and maturity of computational tools it is not surprising that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is playing an increasingly important role, not only in post-test investigations, but also in the early stages of experimental planning. This paper describes a CFD-based effort executed in close collaboration between computational fluid dynamicists and experimentalists to develop a virtual experiment during the early planning stages of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing project at NASA Langley Research Center. This projects aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The purpose of the virtual experiment was to provide flow field data to aid in the design of the experimental apparatus and the in-stream rake probes, to verify the nonintrusive measurements based on NO-PLIF, and to perform pre-test analysis of quantities obtainable from the experiment and CFD. The approach also allowed for the joint team to develop common data processing and analysis tools, and to test research ideas. The virtual experiment consisted of a series of Reynolds-averaged simulations (RAS). These simulations included the facility nozzle, the experimental apparatus with a baseline strut injector, and the test cabin. Pure helium and helium-air mixtures were used to determine the efficacy of different inert gases to model hydrogen injection. The results of the simulations were analyzed by computing mixing efficiency, total pressure recovery, and stream thrust potential. As the experimental effort progresses, the simulation results will be compared with the experimental data to calibrate the modeling constants present in the CFD and validate simulation fidelity. CFD will also be used to

  4. Measurable Changes in Pre-Post Test Scores in Iraqi 4-H Leader’s Knowledge of Animal Science Production Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen O. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 4-H volunteer program is a new concept to the people of Iraq, for decades the country has been closed to western ideas. Iraqi culture and the Arabic customs have not embraced the volunteer concept and even more the concept of scientific animal production technologies designed to increase profitability for producers. In 2011 the USAID-Inma Agribusiness program teamed with the Iraq 4-H program to create youth and community entrepreneurship opportunities for widowed families. Iraq 4-H provided the youth members and adult volunteers and Inma provided the financial capital (livestock and the animal science training program for the volunteers. The purpose of this study was to measure the knowledge level gained through intensive animal science training for Iraqi 4-H volunteers. Researchers designed and implemented a pre and post test to measure the knowledge of fifteen volunteers who participated in the three day course. The pretest exposed a general lack of animal science knowledge of all volunteers; over 80% of the participants incorrectly answered the questions. However, the post-test indicated positive change in the participants understanding of animal science production principles.

  5. Using Pretest-Posttest Research Designs to Enhance Jury Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Goodman-Delahunty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When lay jurors are unfamiliar with key evidentiary issues, expert evidence, judicial instructions and group deliberation may enhance their understanding of this evidence. Systematic steps to assess the relationship between juror biases in cases of child sexual abuse are offered as an example to illustrate a programmatic research approach. Using pretest-posttest research designs, the effectiveness of three traditional legal procedural safeguards to reduce common jury misconceptions in the context of simulated trials were tested and compared. By measuring mock-juror knowledge before and after each intervention, knowledge gains attributable to these interventions were distinguished from practice effects. Unexpected increases in acquittals following deliberation underscored the importance of adding adequate control groups and of testing deliberation effects in jury simulation studies. Benefits of this research paradigm to assist courts, legal counsel and policy makers in devising effective methods to enhance jury decisions in complex criminal cases are discussed. Cuando los miembros del jurado popular no están familiarizados con los temas probatorios clave, las pruebas periciales, las instrucciones judiciales y la deliberación de grupo pueden mejorar su comprensión de las evidencias. Se ofrecen pasos sistemáticos para evaluar la relación entre sesgos del jurado en casos de abusos a menores como un ejemplo para ilustrar un enfoque de investigación programática. Se probó y comparó la efectividad de tres garantías procesales jurídicas tradicionales para reducir los malentendidos comunes de los jurados en el contexto de juicios simulados, usando patrones de investigación pre y post análisis. Al medir el conocimiento de jurados en juicios simulados antes y después de cada intervención, se distinguían los conocimientos adquiridos atribuibles a estas intervenciones. Un aumento inesperado de absoluciones después de la deliberación pon

  6. An accelerated step test to assess dancer pre-season aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Rakov, Sara

    2014-03-01

    As the technical performance demands of dance increase, professional companies and pre-professional schools are implementing pre-season screenings that require an efficient, cost effective way to measure dancer aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to assess an accelerated 3-minute step test (112 beats·min(-1)) by comparing it to the well-studied YMCA step test (96 beats·min(-1)) and a benchmark standard, an incremental treadmill test, using heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) as variables. Twenty-six professional and pre- professional dancers (age 20 ± 2.02 years) were fitted with a telemetric gas analysis system and HR monitor. They were tested in the following order: 96 step, 112 step, and treadmill test, with rest to return to baseline heart rate between each test. The step and treadmill tests were compared using Intra-class Correlation Coefficients [ICC (3, k)] calculated with analysis of variance (p dancers representing a diverse range of genres and training levels is needed.

  7. Pre-Analytical Conditions in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing of Cell-Free Fetal RHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Jakobsen, Tanja Roien; Rieneck, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    D positive fetus. Prophylaxis reduces the risk of immunization that may lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn. The reliability of predicting the fetal RhD type depends on pre-analytical factors and assay sensitivity. We evaluated the testing setup in the Capital Region of Denmark, based...

  8. Achievement of course outcome in vector calculus pre-test questions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Keywords: pre-test; course outcome; bloom taxanomy; Rasch measurement model; vector calculus. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  9. Testing protocol for predicting driven pile behavior within pre-bored soil : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this project is to compile the state-of-the-art and best practice : results available on the subject of pre-bored piles and develop a research and : instrumentation testing plan for fi eld data collection and select multiple pile : d...

  10. Targeting as the basis for pre-test market of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniaristanto, Zakaria, R.; Saputri, V. H. L.; Sutopo, W.; Kadir, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses about market segmentation and targeting as a first step in pre-test market of a new technology. The benefits of targeting towards pre-test market are pre-test market can be conducted to focus on selected target markets so there is no bias during the pre-test market. In determining the target market then do some surveys to identify the state of market in the future, so that the marketing process is not misplaced. Lithium ion battery which is commercialized through start-up companies is the case study. This start-up companies must be able to respond the changes and bring in customers as well as maintain them so that companies can survive and evolve to achieve its objectives. The research aims to determine market segments and target market effectively. Marketing strategy (segmentation and targeting) is used to make questionnaire and cluster analysis in data processing. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling and have obtained data as many as 80 samples. As the results study, there are three segments for lithium ion battery with their own distinguished characteristics and there are two segments that can be used as the target market for the company.

  11. Free Fall Misconceptions: Results of a Graph Based Pre-Test of Sophomore Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free…

  12. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  13. The utility of pre-operative haemoglobin testing in adult day-case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pre-operative haemoglobin concentrations. It is therefore suggested that preoperative haemoglobin tests should only be ordered when specifically indicated by a thorough history and physical examination. Keywords: preoperative haemoglobin, day-case surgery, cost containment. The Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ...

  14. Problem-Solving Test: Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Pre-mRNA Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: transcription, pre-mRNA, RNA processing, RNA transport, RNA polymerase II, direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining, cell fractionation by centrifugation, oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography, washing and elution of the column, ribonuclease, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,…

  15. Assessment of the utilization of pre-marital HIV testing services and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the utilization and determinants of pre-marital HIV testing in civil marriages taking place at the Addis Ababa City Hall Marriage Licensing Center. Methods: A cross-sectional study was made on men and women at their civil marriage ceremonies. Interviews were conducted on a one-to-one basis, and a ...

  16. Pre-testing nutrition education materials for elderly care-givers in Boipatong

    OpenAIRE

    Gaede, Rolf J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The paper deals with issues and concerns relating to the process of pre-testing visual illustrations used in educational material in a community communication setting. The first part of the paper discusses how selected aspects of nutrition education materials meant for elderly care givers in Boipatong were pre‐tested using questionnaires (n=55) and focus group discussions in order to establish the target group’s views and opinions about different types of visual illustration appro...

  17. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared......-treatments. Glyphosate and eco-labelled soil were used as references. Inhibition of germination of seeds exposed to the glyphosate and sludge was registered and thus germination was successfully applied for sludge ecotoxicity assessment, and using the root elongation as the end-point was both faster and more precise...... than the sprout elongation. In comparison of pre-treated raw samples and pre-treaded and subsequently digested sludge the effects of the pre-treatments were limited and hence, the anaerobic digestion in it-self gave the foremost detoxification....

  18. Pre-service proof pressure and leak rate tests for the Qinshan CANDU project reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrunik, K.J.; Khan, A.; Ricciuti, R.; Ivanov, A.; Chen, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Qinshan CANDU Project Reactor Buildings (Units 1 and 2) have been successfully tested for the Pre-Service Proof Pressure and Integrated Leak Rate Tests. The Unit 1 tests took place from May 3 to May 9, 2002 and from May 22 to May 25, 2002, and the Unit 2 tests took place from January 21 to January 27, 2003. This paper discusses the significant steps taken at minimum cost on the Qinshan CANDU Project, which has resulted in a) very good leak rate (0.21%) for Unit 1 and excellent leak rate (0.130%) for Unit 2; b) continuous monitoring of the structural behaviour during the Proof Pressure Test, thus eliminating any repeat of the structural test due to lack of data; and c) significant schedule reduction achieved for these tests in Unit 2. (author)

  19. Tests for predicting complications of pre-eclampsia: A protocol for systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Shaughn

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia is associated with several complications. Early prediction of complications and timely management is needed for clinical care of these patients to avert fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. There is a need to identify best testing strategies in pre eclampsia to identify the women at increased risk of complications. We aim to determine the accuracy of various tests to predict complications of pre-eclampsia by systematic quantitative reviews. Method We performed extensive search in MEDLINE (1951–2004, EMBASE (1974–2004 and also will also include manual searches of bibliographies of primary and review articles. An initial search has revealed 19500 citations. Two reviewers will independently select studies and extract data on study characteristics, quality and accuracy. Accuracy data will be used to construct 2 × 2 tables. Data synthesis will involve assessment for heterogeneity and appropriately pooling of results to produce summary Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve and summary likelihood ratios. Discussion This review will generate predictive information and integrate that with therapeutic effectiveness to determine the absolute benefit and harm of available therapy in reducing complications in women with pre-eclampsia.

  20. Installation and function test temperature control in pre-heater unit zircon sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isti Dian Rachmawati; Triyono; Sudaryadi

    2016-01-01

    Installation and function test have been done for the temperature control in pre-heater unit zircon sand. Activities include: identification of the load, wiring design, installation and function test. Load identification to know the voltage, current, power and the number of phases. Making the wiring on the temperature control system aims to facilitate the implementation of the installation. Function test temperature control to determine the performance of post-installation with preheater unit load. Pre-heater unit using Furnace Heraus 2 phases with a total of 13 kW power at a voltage of 380 Volt AC with a current of 30 Amperes. Installation and function test results showed that the electrical energy generated pre-heater unit reached 7.58 kWh for S phase and 7.42 kWh for T phase. The highest heat rate of 7.08 °C/min. Temperature control can work on the load well and safely with a temperature of 50 - 600 °C setting automatically within 81 minutes. (author)

  1. Pre-Test Analysis Predictions for the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Checkout Tests - TA01 and TA02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the pre-test analysis predictions for the SBKF-P2-CYL-TA01 and SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 shell buckling tests conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment. The test article (TA) is an 8-foot-diameter aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) orthogrid cylindrical shell with similar design features as that of the proposed Ares-I and Ares-V barrel structures. In support of the testing effort, detailed structural analyses were conducted and the results were used to monitor the behavior of the TA during the testing. A summary of predicted results for each of the five load sequences is presented herein.

  2. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 3: Primary Circuit. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 3, Primary Circuit, available separately as CE 031 211. Focus of the posttests is setting the primary ignition circuit. One multiple choice posttest is provided, covering the eight performance objectives contained in the unit. (No answer key is…

  3. CONSTOR registered V/TC drop tests. Pre-test analysis by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelzer, W.; Koenig, S.; Klein, K.; Tso, C.F.; Owen, S.; Monk, C.

    2004-01-01

    The CONSTOR registered family of steel-concrete-steel sandwich cask designs have been developed to fulfil both the internationally valid IAEA criteria for transportation and the requirements for long-term intermediate storage in the US and various European countries. A comprehensive drop testing programme using a full-scale prototype test cask (CONSTOR registered V/TC) has been developed as part of the application for a transport license in both Germany and the US. The drop tests using the full-scale cask will be performed by BAM at test facilities in Horstwalde. The tests will include five different 9m drops onto flat unyielding targets and seven different 1m drops onto a punch. The first drop test, a 9m side drop, will be performed during PATRAM 2004. The other drop tests will take place during the following year. The development of the cask design and the formulation of the drop test programme has been supported by an extensive series of finite element analyses. The objectives of the finite element analyses were; to provide an intermediate step in demonstrating the performance of the CONSTOR registered in fulfilling the requirements of 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA transport regulations. To justify the selection of drop tests. To predict the performance of V/TC during the drop tests. To estimate the strain and acceleration time histories at measuring points on the test cask and to aid in the setting up of the test instrumentation. To develop an analysis model that can be used in future safety analyses for transport and storage license applications and which can confidently be used to demonstrate the performance of the package. This paper presents an overview of the analyses performed, including a summary of all the different drop orientations that were considered. The major assumptions employed during the analyses are also discussed, as are the specifics of the modelling techniques that were employed. At the end of the paper, the key results obtained from the analyses

  4. Pre-flight physical simulation test of HIMES reentry test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Yonemoto, Koichi; Hosokawa, Shigeru

    ISAS is now developing a small reentry test vehicle, which is 2m long with a 1.5m wing span and weighs about 170 kg, for the purpose of exploring high angle-of-attack aerodynamic attitude control issue in supersonic and hypersonic speed. The flight test, employing 'Rockoon' launch system, is planned as a preliminary design verification for a fully reusable winged rocket named HIMES (Highly Maneuverable Experimental Space) vehicle. This paper describes the results of preflight ground test using a motion table system. This ground system test is called 'physical simulation' aimed at: (1) functional verification of side-jet system, aerodynamic surface actuators, battery and onboard avionics; and (2) guidance and control law evaluation, in total hardware-in-the-loop system. The pressure of side-jet nozzles was measured to provide exact thrust characteristics of reaction control. The dynamics of vehicle motion was calculated in real-time by the ground simulation computer.

  5. Data for a pre-performance test of self-developed electronic tongue sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Isabell Immohr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data, which can be applied for a pre-performance test of self-developed electronic tongue sensors. Contained data is related to the research article “Impact of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in oral liquids on E-Tongue Measurements” (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.10.045; (L.I. Immohr, R. Turner, M. Pein-Hackelbusch, 2016 [1]. Sensor responses were obtained from 10 subsequent measurements and four different concentrations of quinine hydrochloride by electronic tongue (TS-5000Z, Insent Inc., Atsugi-Shi, Japan measurements. Based on the data for the pre-performance testing, which were calculated based on the fluctuation range of the sensor responses around the median, stability criteria and required preconditions cycles were defined.

  6. Diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting He

    Full Text Available A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase was performed in January 2015 to examine the available literature on validated diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease and to describe the characteristics of the models. Studies that were designed to develop and validate diagnostic models of pre-test probability for stable coronary artery disease were included. Data regarding baseline patient characteristics, procedural characteristics, modeling methods, metrics of model performance, risk of bias, and clinical usefulness were extracted. Ten studies involving the development of 12 models and two studies focusing on external validation were identified. Seven models were validated internally, and seven models were validated externally. Discrimination varied between studies that were validated internally (C statistic 0.66-0.81 and externally (0.49-0.87. Only one study presented reclassification indices. The majority of better performing models included sex, age, symptoms, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia as variables. Only two diagnostic models evaluated the effects on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes. Most diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease have had modest success, and very few present data regarding the effects of these models on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes.

  7. Short term tests on fiberglass unidirectional composite for ITER pre-compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, C.; Bettinali, L.

    2007-01-01

    As one of the candidate materials for ITER pre-compression rings has been proposed the unidirectional fiberglass composite. In the frame of ITER pre-compression rings manufacturing and testing, material samples have been produced and tested. In 2003 a first batch has been produced, giving results interesting, but presenting only a lower bound of the mechanical characteristics of the material. Therefore a grip system has been developed and tested, finding the need to have longer samples (650 mm) in order to obtain reproducible and standard-conform results. This development lead to a grip system using 45 fiberglass for grips and INCONEL compression rings in order to keep in place the grips. In 2006 the fifth batch gave results in short term tests, resulting in an ultimate tensile strength of about 2200 MPa (room temperature) and a very limited dispersion of results. Tests at 77 K temperature gave a mean value greater than 2750 MPa with a similar dispersion. From the above results an allowable stress value of 900 MPa can be envisaged at operating temperature. Stress relaxation tests are presently in progress. (orig.)

  8. Validation of pre-coated ELISA tests to detect antibodies against T. congolense and T. vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumba, W.

    2000-01-01

    The anti-trypanosomal antibody detecting enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was first described in 1977 and was further developed for use in large scale surveys in Zimbabwe. More recently, the IAEA initiated a programme to improve the robustness and standardisation of the assay. The IAEA supplied plates pre-coated with either a crude T. congolense or T. vivax antigen and the reagents necessary for analysing samples. Parasitologically positive and negative sera were used to validate and determine the cut-off values of the two tests. The samples were tested and results analysed using a variety of cut-off values. The tests provided similar information although the T. congolense pre-coated plates gave significantly higher optical density values than the plates coated with T. vivax. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated using the different cut-off points. Results indicate that the test using T. congolense antigen had the highest specificity and sensitivity for a given cut-off value. Although the test could distinguish positive from negative sera, it was quite difficult to provide a suitable cut-off value, but the value should be dictated by the use of the test. (author)

  9. The Effects of Dynamic Geometry Software and Physical Manipulatives on Pre-Service Primary Teachers’ Van Hiele Levels and Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Karakuş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of dynamic geometry software activities and influence of the physical manipulatives and drawing activities on the spatial ability and van Hiele levels of pre-service primary school teachers in a geometry course. A quasi-experimental statistical design was used in the study. The participants were 61 pre-service primary teachers in the second year of their undergraduate program in the Department of Elementary Education at Afyon Kocatepe University. A total of 32 pre-service teachers (computer group were trained in the dynamic geometry based activities and 29 pre-service teachers (physical-drawing group were trained in the physical manipulative and drawing based activities. In order to determine the two groups of the pre-service teachers’ geometric thinking levels, the van Hiele Geometry Test and in order to determine the two groups of the pre-service teachers’ spatial ability, The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was used as the pre-test and post-test. The results of the study showed that there was no difference on the post-test of the two groups related to the van Hiele levels and spatial abilities. Moreover, both groups have significantly higher achievement on the post-test compared to the pre-test.

  10. Posttest analysis of a 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Hessheimer, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, co-sponsored a Cooperative Containment Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. As part of the program, a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model was subjected to a series of overpressurization tests at SNL beginning in July 2000 and culminating in a functional failure mode or Limit State Test (LST) in September 2000 and a Structural Failure Mode Test (SFMT) in November 2001. The PCCV model, uniformly scaled at 1:4, is representative of the containment structure of an actual Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant (OHI-3) in Japan. The objectives of the pressurization tests were to obtain measurement of the structural response to pressure loading beyond design basis accident in order to validate analytical modeling, to find pressure capacity of the model, and to observe its failure mechanisms. This paper compares results of pretest analytical studies of the PCCV model to the PCCV high pressure test measurements and describes results of post-test analytical studies. These analyses have been performed by ANATECH Corp. under contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The post-test analysis represents the third phase of a comprehensive PCCV analysis effort. The first phase consisted of preliminary analyses to determine what finite element models would be necessary for the pretest prediction analyses, and the second phase consisted of the pretest prediction analyses. The principal objectives of the post-test analyses were: (1) to provide insights to improve the analytical methods for predicting the structural response and failure modes of a prestressed concrete containment, and (2) to evaluate by analysis any phenomena or failure mode observed during the test that had not been explicitly predicted by analysis. In addition to summarizing comparisons between measured

  11. A test-based method for the assessment of pre-crash warning and braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, András; Fagerlind, Helen; Kullgren, Anders

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a test-based assessment method for pre-crash warning and braking systems is presented where the effectiveness of a system is measured by its ability to reduce the number of injuries of a given type or severity in car-to-car rear-end collisions. Injuries with whiplash symptoms lasting longer than 1 month and MAIS2+ injuries in both vehicles involved in the crash are considered in the assessment. The injury reduction resulting from the impact speed reduction due to a pre-crash system is estimated using a method which has its roots in the dose-response model. Human-machine interaction is also taken into account in the assessment. The results reflect the self-protection as well as the partner-protection performance of a pre-crash system in the striking vehicle in rear-end collisions and enable a comparison between two or more systems. It is also shown how the method may be used to assess the importance of warning as part of a pre-crash system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-operational proof and leakage rate testing requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This Standard provides the requirements for pre-operational proof tests and leakage rate tests of concrete containment structures of a containment system designed as Class Containment components. 1 fig

  13. Progress report on pre-test calculations for the large block test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is investigating the suitability of the Topopah Spring tuff in the thick vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a host rock for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As part of the YMP, a group of field tests, referred to as the Large Block Test (LBT), will be conducted on a large electrically heated block of Topopah Spring tuff, isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. The block, which will be 3 x 3 m in horizontal dimensions and 4.5 m in height, will be heated by electrical heaters. The goals of the LBT axe to gain information on the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes active in the near-field environment of a repository; to provide field data for testing and calibrating models; and to help the development of measurement systems and techniques. This progress report presents results of on-going numerical modeling calculations carried out in support of the LBT design. An equivalent continuum model with an upper boundary temperature of 60 degrees C was used to simulate the hydrothermal response of the block to heating over a one-year period. The total heating power was started at 1500 W and later reduced to maintain an approximately uniform temperature of 138-140 degrees C. For a homogeneous bulk permeability case, the results show the formation of a distinct dry-out zone in and around the heater plane, and well-developed condensation zones above and below the heater plane. For a heterogeneous permeability distribution, the condensation zone above the heater plane was not well developed. This difference in results suggests that water saturation changes might be sensitive to changes in bulk permeability distribution. Rock temperatures were almost unaffected by permeability distribution. Heat flow was dominated by conduction. No liquid flow through the top of the block was predicted

  14. The benefit of pre- and post-challenge urine heavy metal testing: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2009-06-01

    Measuring heavy metal levels in the urine is an accepted method for assessing the presence of a heavy metal burden in an individual. Random samples (without a flushing agent) are excellent for showing current exposures, as they reflect the level of heavy metals in the bloodstream during the hours immediately before bladder voiding. Samples taken after using a heavy metal mobilizing agent are a reflection of total body burden. Part 1 reviewed the benefits of doing pre-flush (baseline) testing utilizing the published Centers for Disease Control (CDC) heavy metal normal ranges for interpretation that allow the clinician to identify current exposures to lead and mercury and to identify cadmium toxicity. In part 2 the benefits of doing both pre- and post-challenge testing are reviewed. Information gleaned from performing both tests is unparalleled in allowing the clinician to identify which chelating agent will be most effective for the patient. If oral agents are employed, then possible absorption problems can be identified. Since none of these benefits are realized with only post-flush testing, it is recommended that clinicians do heavy metal testing both before and after a challenge with an effective and proven heavy metal mobilizing agent. The pitfalls of oral chelation in the case of malabsorption syndromes, such as gluten intolerance, are also discussed.

  15. Safety Evaluation Test on Human for Radiation Pre vulcanised Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairu Ibrahim; Wan Manshol Wan Zain; Chai, Chee Keong; Sofian Ibrahim; Saadiah Sulaiman; Sharifah Ismail

    2010-01-01

    This paper discussed about clinical test conducted to determine safety evaluations on human for latex examination gloves and latex films made from Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL). Two types of test were being adopted which are i) Modified Draize-95 test and ii) Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals. Modified Draize-95 test was conducted on 200 non-sensitized human subjects and Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals was conducted on 25 individuals who are allergic to the defined major chemical sensitizer presents in natural rubber product. It was found that Modified Draize-95 test has prove that there is no clinical evidence on the presence of residual chemical additives at the level that may induce Type IV allergy in the un sensitized general user population in the RVNRL gloves. Meanwhile Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals has proved that the patch test conducted using the test article on 25 individuals who are allergic to the defined major chemical sensitizers present in natural rubber products, thiuram, carbamates or thiazoles produced a negative response, meeting the pre requirement for the claim of reduced reaction-inducing potential. (author)

  16. The Flipped Classroom Model and Academic Achievement: A Pre and Posttest Comparison Groups Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Heather Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Student academic achievement is of prime concern in the American education system because academic success (i.e. achievement) has been shown to be a predictor of success in later life and is crystallized in the United States Department of Education's mission statement "...to promote student achievement and preparation for global…

  17. Second progress report on pre-test calculations for the large block test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is investigating the suitability of the Topopah Spring tuff in the thick vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a host rock for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As part of the YMP, a group of field tests, called the Large Block Test (LBT), will be conducted on a large electrically heated block of Topopah Spring tuff. The block will be heated by electrical heaters. The goals of the LBT are to gain information on the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes that will be active in the near-field environment of a repository; to provide field data for testing and calibrating models; and to help in the development of measurement systems and techniques. In this second progress report, we present results of the final set of numerical modeling calculations performed in support of the LBT design. The results include block temperatures and heat fluxes across the surfaces. The results are applied primarily to the design of guard heaters to enforce adiabatic conditions along the block walls. Conduction-only runs are adequate to estimate the thermal behavior of the system, because earlier calculations showed that heat transfer in the block is expected to be dominated by conduction. In addition, conduction-only runs can be made at substantially shorter execution times than full hydrothermal runs. We also run a two-dimensional, hydrothermal, discrete fracture model, with 200-μm vertical fractures parallel to the heaters and occurring at a uniform spacing of 30 cm. The results show the development of distinct dryout and recondensation zones. The dryout zones are thickest at the fractures and thinnest in the matrix midway between the fractures

  18. HIV test counselling at a tertiary hospital | Louw | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-four per cent stated that they felt that pre-test counselling was always necessary and 57% that post-test counselling was always necessary. The most frequently stated reasons for not counselling patients were language barriers, time constraints, feelings of incompetence on the part of the intern and the fact that the ...

  19. Effectiveness of Sand-Therapy on the Attenuation of Separation anxiety Signs in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Shariat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The present research was conducted with the aim of determining effect of Sand-therapy on the attenuation of separation anxiety signs among pre-school children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: The statistical society consists of all pre-school children who had separation anxiety disorder and Among100 children, 30 persons were selected using available sampling. The method of this research is quasi-experimental with one group and pre-test and post-test plan. After performing pre-test of separation anxiety disorder scale, the experimental group were trained under sand-therapy training in 10 sessions of 60 minutes for a period of two months and after that, post-test of separation anxiety disorder scale was performed. The research tool consists of the questionnaire CSI-4 of child’s morbid signs. Wilcoxon method was used to analysis the results. Results: The research findings showed that there was a meaningful different (P=0.008 between pre- test & post-test scores of anxiety signs for study group.Conclusion: As a practical message, we can mention that sand therapy is as an interesting and practical playing for the children and it is a meaningful therapy related to attenuation of separation anxious signs. Keywords: Sand therapy, separation anxiety, pre-school-children

  20. TOPFLOW-PTS experiments. pre-test calculations with NEPTUNE{sub C}FD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A., E-mail: alain-cc.martin@edf.fr [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Heib, C.; Dubois, F., E-mail: caroline.heib@irsn.fr, E-mail: franck.dubois@irsn.fr [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Raynaud, C.; Peturaud, P., E-mail: christelle.raynaud@edf.fr, E-mail: pierre.peturaud@edf.fr [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Huvelin, F.; Barbier, A., E-mail: fabien.huvelin@areva.com, E-mail: anthony.barbier@areva.com [AREVA-NP, Paris la Defense (France)

    2011-07-01

    Hypothetical Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident is identified as one of the most severe transients leading to a potential huge Pressurized Thermal Shock on the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This may result in two-phase flow configurations in the cold legs, according to the operating conditions, and to reliably assess the RPV wall integrity, advanced two-phase flow simulations are required. Related needs in development and/or validation of these advanced models are important, and the on-going TOPFLOW-PTS experimental program was designed to provide a well documented data base to meet these needs. This paper focuses on pre-test NEPTUNE{sub C}FD simulations of TOPFLOW-PTS experiments; these simulations were performed to (i) help in the definition of the test matrix and test procedure, and (ii) check the presence of the different key physical phenomena at the mock-up scale. (author)

  1. Coaching in self-efficacy improves care responses, health and well-being in dementia carers: a pre/post-test/follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Lynn; Stein-Parbury, Jane; White, Danielle; McNeill, Georgene; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Zaratan, Beverley

    2016-05-04

    Maintaining the health and well-being of family carers of people with dementia is vital, given their potential for experiencing burden associated with the role. The study aimed to help dementia carers develop self-efficacy, be less hassled by the caring role and improve their health and well-being with goal-directed behaviour, by participating in an eight module carer coaching program. The study used mixed methods in a pre/post-test/follow-up design over 24 months, with assignment of consented dementia carers to either individualised (n = 16) or group coaching (n = 32), or usual carer support services (n = 43), depending on preference. Care-giving self-efficacy and hassles, carer health, well-being and goal-directed behaviours were assessed over time. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare changes over time and the effects of coaching on carer self-efficacy, hassles and health, using the Univariate General Linear Model (GLM). All carers were hassled by many aspects of caring at baseline. Participants receiving coaching reported non-significant improvements in most areas of self-efficacy for caring, hassles associated with caring and self-reported health at post-test and follow-up, than did carers receiving usual carer support. Group coaching had greater success in helping carers to achieve their goals and to seek help from informal and formal support networks and services. The study outcomes were generally positive, but need to be interpreted cautiously, given some methodological limitations. It has been shown, however, that health staff can assist dementia carers to develop self-efficacy in better managing their family member's limitations and behaviour, seek help from others and attend to their health. Teaching carers to use goal-directed behaviour may help them achieve these outcomes.

  2. Counseling Customers: Emerging Roles for Genetic Counselors in the Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, A.; Kelly, S.; Wyatt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals now have access to an increasing number of internet resources offering personal genomics services. As the direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) industry expands, critics have called for pre- and post-test genetic counseling to be included with the product. Several genetic testing

  3. Assessing Progress in an Extensive Reading Program Using a Cloze Test

    OpenAIRE

    Pederson, Stan; ピダーソン, スタンリ クレランス; Pederson, Stanley Clarence

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated the suitability of a pre-test post-test cloze procedure as a measure of reading progress in an extensive reading class at a high-level Japanese high school. Results showed the test to be reliable, consistent with a construct of reading fluency and sensitive to improvement in reading proficiency.

  4. Pre-test CFD Calculations for a Bypass Flow Standard Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Johnson

    2011-11-01

    The bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is the flow that occurs between adjacent graphite blocks. Gaps exist between blocks due to variances in their manufacture and installation and because of the expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. Although the temperature of fuel compacts and graphite is sensitive to the presence of bypass flow, there is great uncertainty in the level and effects of the bypass flow. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program at the Idaho National Laboratory has undertaken to produce experimental data of isothermal bypass flow between three adjacent graphite blocks. These data are intended to provide validation for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of the bypass flow. Such validation data sets are called Standard Problems in the nuclear safety analysis field. Details of the experimental apparatus as well as several pre-test calculations of the bypass flow are provided. Pre-test calculations are useful in examining the nature of the flow and to see if there are any problems associated with the flow and its measurement. The apparatus is designed to be able to provide three different gap widths in the vertical direction (the direction of the normal coolant flow) and two gap widths in the horizontal direction. It is expected that the vertical bypass flow will range from laminar to transitional to turbulent flow for the different gap widths that will be available.

  5. A Cryogenic Test Set-Up for the Qualification of Pre-Series Test Cells for the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line

    CERN Document Server

    Livran, J; Parente, C; Riddone, G; Rybkowski, D; Veillet, N

    2000-01-01

    Three pre-series Test Cells of the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) [1], manufactured by three European industrial companies, will be tested in the year 2000 to qualify the design chosen and verify the thermal and mechanical performances. A dedicated test stand (170 m x 13 m) has been built for extensive testing and performance assessment of the pre-series units in parallel. They will be fed with saturated liquid helium at 4.2 K supplied by a mobile helium dewar. In addition, LN2 cooled helium will be used for cool-down and thermal shielding. For each of the three pre-series units, a set of end boxes has been designed and manufactured at CERN. This paper presents the layout of the cryogenic system for the pre-series units, the calorimetric methods as well as the results of the thermal calculation of the end box test.

  6. Theoretical value of pre-trade testing for Salmonella in Swedish cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2018-05-01

    The Swedish Salmonella control programme includes mandatory action if Salmonella is detected in a herd. The aim of this study was to assess the relative value of different strategies for pre-movement testing of cattle. Three fictitious herds were included: dairy, beef and specialised calf-fattening. The yearly risks of introducing Salmonella with and without individual serological or bulk milk testing were assessed as well as the effects of sourcing animals from low-prevalence areas or reducing the number of source herds. The initial risk was highest for the calf-fattening herd and lowest for the beef herd. For the beef and dairy herds, the yearly risk of Salmonella introduction was reduced by about 75% with individual testing. Sourcing animals from low-prevalence areas reduced the risk by >99%. For the calf-fattening herd, the yearly risk was reduced by almost 50% by individual testing or sourcing animals from a maximum of five herds. The method was useful for illustrating effects of risk mitigation when introducing animals into a herd. Sourcing animals from low-risk areas (or herds) is more effective than single testing of individual animals or bulk milk. A comprehensive approach to reduce the risk of introducing Salmonella from source herds is justified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Training on First-Year Nursing Department Students' Attitudes on Death and Caring for Dying Patients: A Single-Group Pretest-Posttest Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Birgül

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the influence of training on first-year nursing department students' attitudes on death and caring for dying patients. Utilizing the experimental model, the study sample consisted of 81 first-year students attending the nursing department of a university. Death Attitude Profile-Revised and Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis included means, standard deviation, and t test for related samples. Student attitudes toward death were measured as 146.43 (16.741) and 152.75 (15.132) for pre- and posttraining, respectively. Student attitudes toward caring for dying patients were established to be 103.02 (7.655) during pretraining period and 111.02 (10.359) at posttraining period. The difference between pre- and posttests for mean attitudes toward death and caring for the dying patient was statistically significant. Study results determined that training was effective in forming positive student attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients.

  8. Pre-X Experimental Re-Entry Lifting Body: Design of Flight Test Experiments for Critical Aerothermal Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    PRE-X EXPERIMENTAL RE-ENTRY LIFTING BODY: DESIGN OF FLIGHT TEST EXPERIMENTS FOR CRITICAL AEROTHERMAL PHENOMENA Paolo Baiocco * * CNES...ACRONYMS ACS Attitude Control System AEDB Aero Dynamic Data Base AoA Angle of Attack ARD Atmospheric Re-entry Demonstrator ATD Aero Termo ...1 Baiocco, P. (2007) Pre-X Experimental Re-entry Lifting Body: Design of Flight Test Experiments for Critical Aerothermal Phenomena. In Flight

  9. Pre-clinical evaluation of ceramic femoral head resurfacing prostheses using computational models and mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, A S; Browne, M; Wilson, K C; Leffers, J R T; Taylor, A C

    2011-09-01

    Ceramic-on-ceramic hip resurfacing can potentially offer the bone-conserving advantages of resurfacing while eliminating metal ion release. Thin-walled ceramic resurfacing heads are conceivable following developments in the strength and reliability of ceramic materials, but verification of new designs is required. The present study aimed to develop a mechanical pre-clinical analysis verification process for ceramic resurfacing heads, using the DeltaSurf prosthesis design as a case study. Finite element analysis of a range of in vivo scenarios was used to design a series of physiologically representative mechanical tests, which were conducted to verify the strength of the prosthesis. Tests were designed to simulate ideal and worst-case in vivo loading and support, or to allow comparison with a clinically successful metallic device. In tests simulating ideal loading and support, the prosthesis sustained a minimum load of 39 kN before fracture, and survived 10 000 000 fatigue cycles of 0.534 kN to 5.34 kN. In worst-case tests representing a complete lack of superior femoral head bone support or pure cantilever loading of the prosthesis stem, the design demonstrated strength comparable to that of the equivalent metal device. The developed mechanical verification test programme represents an improvement in the state of the art where international test standards refer largely to total hip replacement prostheses. The case study's novel prosthesis design performed with considerable safety margins compared with extreme in vivo loads, providing evidence that the proposed ceramic resurfacing heads should have sufficient strength to perform safely in vivo. Similar verification tests should be designed and conducted for novel ceramic prosthesis designs in the future, leading the way to clinical evaluation.

  10. Pre-hospital triage performance after standardized trauma courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, Maria; Junker, Johan; Berggren, Peter; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Vikström, Tore

    2017-05-19

    The pre-hospital triage process aims at identifying and prioritizing patients in the need of prompt intervention and/or evacuation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate triage decision skills in a Mass Casualty Incident drill. The study compares two groups of participants in Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support courses. A questionnaire was used to deal with three components of triage of victims in a Mass Casualty Incident: decision-making; prioritization of 15 hypothetical casualties involved in a bus crash; and prioritization for evacuation. Swedish Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants filled in the same triage skills questionnaire just before and after their respective course. One hundred fifty-three advanced Trauma Life Support course participants were compared to 175 Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants. The response rates were 90% and 95%, respectively. A significant improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for the Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support group in regards to decision-making. This difference was only noticeable among the participants who had previously participated in Mass Casualty Incident drills or had experience of a real event (pre-test mean ± standard deviation 2.4 ± 0.68, post-test mean ± standard deviation 2.60 ± 0.59, P = 0.04). No improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for either group regarding prioritization of the bus crash casualties or the correct identification of the most injured patients for immediate evacuation. Neither Advanced Trauma Life Support nor Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants showed general improvement in their tested triage skills. However, participation in Mass Casualty Incident drills or experience of real events prior to the test performed here, were shown to be advantageous for Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants. These courses should be

  11. Accepting adoption's uncertainty: the limited ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    An increasing number of children are adopted in the United States from countries where both medical care and environmental conditions are extremely poor. In response to worries about the accuracy of medical histories, prospective adoptive parents increasingly request genetic testing of children prior to adoption. Though a general consensus on the ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing (PAGT) argues against permitting genetic testing on children available for adoption that is not also permitted for children in general, a view gaining traction argues for expanding the tests permitted. The reasoning behind this view is that the State has a duty to provide a child with parents who are the best "match," and thus all information that advances this end should be obtained. While the matching argument aims to promote the best interests of children, I show how it rests on the claim that what is in the best interests of children available for adoption is for prospective adoptive parents to have their genetic preferences satisfied such that the "genetics" of the children they end up adopting accurately reflects those preferences. Instead of protecting a vulnerable population, I conclude, PAGT contributes to the risks of harm such children face as it encourages people with strong genetic preferences to adopt children whose genetic backgrounds will always be uncertain.

  12. Operation and control strategies in pre-series testing of cold circulating pumps for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Vaghela, H.; Sarkar, B.; Srinivas, M.; Choukekar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cryo-distribution system of ITER is responsible for the distribution and control of forced-flow supercritical helium for cooling of the superconducting magnets and the cryo-pumps. The requirements of cold circulating pumps (CCP) for mass flow rates and performance are much higher than presently existing and commercially available one used at 4.0 K helium. Design up-scaling with pre-series test of CCP has been proposed including test infrastructure. Operation and control strategies for the test distribution box (TDB) of test infrastructure have been developed and analyzed using steady state and dynamic process simulation to cope with the functional requirements of CCPs. Off-normal scenario with CCP inlet pressure variation is an important concern, dynamic process responses during such scenario have been evaluated to verify the operability of CCP. The paper describes process simulation to cope with the functional requirements of CCPs along with evaluation of off-normal scenario to verify the operability of CCP. (author)

  13. High rates of metal allergy amongst Nuss procedure patients dictate broader pre-operative testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhairav; Cohee, Amy; Deyerle, Ashley; Kelly, Cynthia S; Frantz, Frazier; Kelly, Robert E; Kuhn, Marcia A; Lombardo, Michele; Obermeyer, Robert; Goretsky, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    A previous study from our group estimated that as few as 2.2% of pectus excavatum patients suffered from allergy to the implanted metal bar. We sought to assess recent changes in incidence of metal allergy and identify the benefit of metal allergy testing prior to surgery. A retrospective review was performed of all consenting patients undergoing pectus repair during the six years between 9/2004 and 12/2010 at our institution. Incidence was based on clinical symptoms and/or T.R.U.E.® patch testing. Demographic data, history of atopy and history of metal allergy were collected. Type and number of bars used, suture site infection, skin rash and wound infection rates were reviewed. Forty one of 639 patients (6.4%) had clinical or patch test evidence of metal allergy. Family history of metal allergy and pre-operative history of metal sensitivity were found to be statistically significant correlates. The rate of metal allergy in the pectus excavatum population may be higher than previously reported. Patient or family history of metal allergy or metal sensitization may indicate increased risk. Metal allergy testing should be performed before Nuss procedure. © 2014.

  14. Appraising Pre-service EFL Teachers' Assessment in Language Testing Course Using Revised Bloom's Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The teachers need to be conceived as a “change agent” and not as a mere transmitter of knowledge and culture. In developing countries like Iran, one of the most significant concerns in the field of teachers’ education is efficiency of pre-service programs. To this aim, the current descriptive-evaluative study intended to describe the state of pre-service teachers' assessment in the field of language testing by (a examining the exam questions to find out whether they are aligned with curriculum objectives and syllabus (content validity, (b exploring whether they take care of higher order cognitive processes and (c finding what combinations of cognitive process levels and knowledge types in Revised Bloom's Taxonomy are prevalent in the questions. The results exhibited an unbalanced coverage of content in exams. Also the questions were found to be inadequate in terms of measuring complex cognitive skills (Analyze and Evaluate; Remember and Understand domains take up 91.6 % of all questions and no item was found for Create. Three combinations of cognitive process level and knowledge type was dominant in the data set: (1 Remember Factual Knowledge, (2 Understand Conceptual Knowledge, and (3 Apply Procedural Knowledge. These associations confirm the Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001 proposition.

  15. Pre-series and testing route for the serial fabrication of W7-X target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.; Greuner, H.; Friedrich, T.; Traxler, H.; Mendelevitch, B.; Boeswirth, B.; Schlosser, J.; Smirnow, M.; Stadler, R.

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of the actively cooled high-heat flux divertor of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X stellarator (W7-X) requires the delivery of 890 target elements, which are designed to withstand a stationary heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . The organization of the manufacturing and testing route for the serial fabrication is the result of the pre-series activities. Flat CFC Sepcarb NB31 tiles are bonded to CuCrZr copper alloy cooling structure in consecutive steps. A copper layer is active metal cast to CFC tiles, and then an OF-copper layer is added by hot isostatic pressing to produce bi-layer tiles. These tiles are bonded by electron beam welding onto the cooling structure, which was manufactured independently. The introduction of the bi-layer technology proved to be a significant improvement of the bond reliability under thermal cycling loading. This result is also the consequence of the improved bond inspections throughout the manufacturing route performed in the ARGUS pulsed thermography facility of PLANSEE. The repairing process by electron beam welding of the bonding was also qualified. The extended pre-series activities related to the qualification of fabrication processes with the relevant non-destructive examinations aim to minimize the risks for the serial manufacturing and to guarantee the steady-state operation of the W7-X divertor.

  16. Social Psychological Consequences of Interpersonal Relations: A Confirmatory Approach to Testing Deutsch's Theory of Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quahwu

    This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…

  17. Measuring Student Learning in Social Statistics: A Pretest-Posttest Study of Knowledge Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study used a pretest-posttest design to measure student learning in undergraduate statistics. Data were derived from 185 students enrolled in six different sections of a social statistics course taught over a seven-year period by the same sociology instructor. The pretest-posttest instrument reveals statistically significant gains in…

  18. Intermanual transfer effect in young children after training in a complex skill: mechanistic, pseudorandomized, pretest-posttest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2015-05-01

    Intermanual transfer implies that motor skills learned on one side of the body transfer to the untrained side. This effect was previously noted in adults practicing with a prosthesis simulator. The study objective was to determine whether intermanual transfer is present in children practicing prosthetic handling. A mechanistic, pseudorandomized, pretest-posttest design was used. The study was conducted in a primary school in the Netherlands. The participants were children who were able-bodied (N=48; 25 boys, 23 girls; mean age=5.1 years) and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group performed 5 training sessions using a prosthesis simulator on the training arm. Before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 6 days after (retention test) the training program, their ability to handle the prosthesis with the contralateral (test) arm was measured. The control group only performed the tests. Half of the children performed the tests with the dominant hand, and the other half performed the tests with the nondominant hand. During the tests, movement time and control of force were measured. An interaction effect of group by test was found for movement time. Post hoc tests revealed significant improvement in the experimental group between the posttest and the retention test. No force control effect was found. Only children who were able-bodied were included. Measurements should have been masked and obtained without tester interference. The fact that 4 children whose results were slower than the mean result discontinued training may have biased the findings. The intermanual transfer effect was present in 5-year-old children undergoing training in prosthetic handling. After training of one hand, children's movement times for the other, untrained hand improved. This finding may be helpful for training children who are novice users of a prosthesis. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  19. Synthesis of evidence of diagnostic tests and preventive programs identifying pre-diabetes type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Tučková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D has become the main type of diabetes in children and it is expected that in countries with high income diabetes it is projected to be one of the leading causes of death by 2030. Another fact is that programs and tests diagnosing pre-diabetes type 2 (T2P-DMC are missing. Methods: The aim of the paper is to present the steps for the synthesis of the evidence within the brand new type of the systematic review (SR: SR of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA. Using the acronym PIRD it was developed a review question, search strategy and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The initial search was done in two databases (MedLine and Cinahl with 2 025 results. The second search after the improvement of the sensitivity and the specificity was done in 15 databases with 3 681 results. Conclusion: This methodological paper introduces how to conduct the systematic review protocols of diagnostic test accuracy on the example of T2P-DMC.

  20. Pre-test analysis for identification of natural circulation instabilities in TALL-3D facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kööp, Kaspar; Jeltsov, Marti; Grishchenko, Dmitry; Kudinov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.

  1. Pre-test analysis for identification of natural circulation instabilities in TALL-3D facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar@safety.sci.kth.se; Jeltsov, Marti, E-mail: marti@safety.sci.kth.se; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.

  2. An Online Drug Abuse Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls: Posttest and 1-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Hopkins, Jessica; Keller, Bryan; Liu, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    Early adolescent girls' rates of drug use have matched, and in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Though girls and boys share risk factors for drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Tailored interventions to prevent girls' drug use are warranted. This study developed and tested a web-based, drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. The nationwide sample of 13- and 14-year-old girls (N = 788) was recruited via Facebook ads. Enrolled girls were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. All girls completed pretest measures online. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with the 9-session, gender-specific prevention program online. The program aimed to reduce girls' drug use and associated risk factors by improving their cognitive and behavioral skills around such areas as coping with stress, managing mood, maintaining a healthy body image, and refusing drug use offers. Girls in both conditions again completed measures at posttest and 1-year follow-up. At posttest, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention smoked fewer cigarettes and reported higher self-esteem, goal setting, media literacy, and self-efficacy. At 1-year follow-up, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention reported engaging in less binge drinking and cigarette smoking; girls assigned to the intervention condition also had higher alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana refusal skills, coping skills, and media literacy and lower rates of peer drug use. This study's findings support the use of tailored, online drug abuse prevention programming for early adolescent girls.

  3. Development of enhancing agglutination reaction using gold nanoparticle for pre-transfusion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choktaweesak, N; Krasathong, P; Ammaranond, P

    2016-10-01

    To explore an alternative way for antibody detection testing, the examination of gold nanoparticle solution for enhancing unexpected antibodies for pre-transfusion testing was investigated. Exposure of foreign antigens on red blood cells from transfusion can trigger the immune system to produce unexpected antibodies. This immunological response may cause the complication to future transfusion. For detection of unexpected antibodies, the antibody screening test is performed approximately 30-60 min. To reduce turnaround time, enhancing reagent, low-ionic strength solution (LISS), is widely used. However, cost of enhancing reagent is an issue which has concerned in resource limited countries. Gold nanoparticle solution can increase red blood cells agglutination reaction. To solve this issue, study of gold nanoparticle solution was investigated. Samples were performed comparing between LISS and gold nanoparticle solution at antiglobulin phase. After reading the agglutination reaction, supernatants were collected and measured at the optical density at 760 nm by spectrophotometer. The optical density in the tube of gold nanoparticle solution was higher than in the tube of 2-5% cell suspension and monoclonal antibody. It has been observed that gold nanoparticle solution enhanced the reaction of agglutination 98% while LISS enhanced the agglutination only 60·8%. Employing a commercially available enhancing reagent, parallel samples confirmed results providing validation of the assay. It approximately costs $1 US dollars compared to $30 for a commercially available reagent. The low cost and yet effective time-consuming test for antibody screening is a practical and viable solution alternative way for performing in antibody screening test in resource limited countries. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  4. In-pile thermocycling testing and post-test analysis of beryllium divertor mockups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniatulin, R.; Mazul, I. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Melder, R.; Pokrovsky, A.; Sandakov, V.; Shiuchkin, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main damaging factors which impact the ITER divertor components are neutron irradiation, cyclic surface heat loads and hydrogen environment. One of the important questions in divertor mockups development is the reliability of beryllium/copper joints and the beryllium resistance under neutron irradiation and thermal cycling. This work presents the experiment, where neutron irradiation and thermocyclic heat loads were applied simultaneously for two beryllium/copper divertor mockups in a nuclear reactor channel to simulate divertor operational conditions. Two mockups with different beryllium grades were mounted facing each other with the tantalum heater placed between them. This device was installed in the active zone of the nuclear reactor SM-2 (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) and the tantalum block was heated by neutron irradiation up to a high temperature. The main part of the heat flux from the tantalum surface was transported to the beryllium surface through hydrogen, as a result the heat flux loaded two mockups simultaneously. The mockups were cooled by reactor water. The device was lowered to the active zone so as to obtain the heating regime and to provide cooling lifted. This experiment was performed under the following conditions: tantalum heater temperature - 1950degC; hydrogen environment -1000 Pa; surface heat flux density -3.2 MW/m{sup 2}; number of thermal cycles (lowering and lifting) -101; load time in each cycle - 200-5000 s; dwell time (no heat flux, no neutrons) - 300-2000 s; cooling water parameters: v - 1 m/s, Tin - 50degC, Pin - 5 MPa; neutron fluence -2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} ({approx}8 years of ITER divertor operation from the start up). The metallographic analysis was performed after experiment to investigate the beryllium and beryllium/copper joint structures, the results are presented in the paper. (author)

  5. Communication with patients during the prenatal testing procedure: an explorative qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, Myra; Willems, Dick; Knegt, Lia; Leschot, Nico

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While generally two phases of prenatal genetic counseling are distinguished, i.e. pre- and post-test counseling, we revealed a third form of communication during the testing procedure. The content of this intermediate communication was explored. METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed

  6. Testing a Model of Teaching for Anxiety and Success for English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, Evrim; Ergenç, Iclal

    2013-01-01

    Much research has shown that there is a negative relationship between high levels of anxiety and success for English language teaching. This paper aimed to test a model of teaching for anxiety and success in English language teaching to affect anxiety and success levels at the same time in a control-experiment group with pre- and post-test study…

  7. Occlusal geometrical considerations in all-ceramic pre-molar crown failure testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornsuwan, Tanapon; Ellakwa, Ayman; Swain, Michael V

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of occlusal geometry of all-ceramic pre-molars, namely cusp angle and associated notch radius, on the scatter of load to failure tests. Forty-five all-ceramic upper pre-molar crowns with three zirconia core thicknesses (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm) were broken on dental implant abutments oriented in three angulations (0°, 15°, and 30°). The crowns were loaded using a 4 mm diameter steel cylindrical bar placed along the midline fissure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm min(-1). The scatter of the failure load was evaluated using Weibull analysis. The cusp angle of each crown was critically evaluated to determine the cusp angle and effective radius of the fissure notch root. The relationship between failure load and cusp angle was compared with that between failure load and effective radius as well as notch induced stress concentration by considering R(2) values of fitted trend lines with these relationships. The fracture load differences either between abutment angulations or zirconia thicknesses were not clearly revealed in this study. Except for the group of 30° abutment angulation, the crowns present high scatter of failure loads with low Weibull modulus. However, a simple dependence between fracture load and effective cusp angle was observed. Occlusal geometry is an important issue that affects the degree of stress concentration and should be understood by both technician and clinician for appropriate design and material selection of all-ceramic crowns. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melissa A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001. In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33. Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients

  9. Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; Gee, Erin M; Clark, Melissa A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Seage, George R; DeGruttola, Victor G

    2007-01-01

    Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001). In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33). Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients to receive no pre-test

  10. A genetic test of sexual size dimorphism in pre-emergent chinook salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosh W Mizzau

    Full Text Available Sex differences in early development may play an important role in the expression of sexual size dimorphism at the adult stage. To test whether sexual size dimorphism is present in pre-emergent chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, alevins were reared at two temperatures (10 °C and 15 °C and sexed using the OtY1 marker on the Y-chromosome. Linear mixed models were used to test for sex differences in alevin size within families while controlling for the random effects of sire and dam nested within sire. Males and females did not differ in weight at 10 °C but males were heavier than females at 15 °C. Sex accounted for 2% of the within-family variance in weight. In addition, at 15°C, the relationship between weight and sex was greater in families with larger eggs. Whereas male-biased sexual size dimorphism was present at the juvenile stage, female-biased sexual size dimorphism was present at sexual maturity. Males were also younger than females at sexual maturity. A head start on growth by males may underlie their earlier maturation at a smaller size, thus leading to female-biased SSD at the adult stage.

  11. Educational intervention for parents of adolescents with chronic illness: a pre-post test pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Christina; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Berchtold, André; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2015-08-01

    This pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and intended effect of an educational intervention for parents to help them assist their adolescent child with chronic illness (CI) in becoming autonomous. A two-phase pre-post pilot intervention study targeting parents of adolescents with CI was conducted. Parents were allocated to group 1 and 2 and received the four-module intervention consecutively. Intended effect was measured through online questionnaires for parents and adolescents before, at 2 months after, and at 4-6 months after the intervention. Feasibility was assessed through an evaluation questionnaire for parents. The most useful considered modules concerned the future of the adolescent and parents and social life. The most valued aspect was to exchange with other parents going through similar problems and receiving a new outlook on their relationship with their child. For parents, improvement trends appeared for shared management, parent protection, and self-efficacy, and worsening trends appeared for coping skills, parental perception of child vulnerability, and parental stress. For adolescents, improvement trends appeared for self-efficacy and parental bonding and worsening trends appeared for shared management and coping skills. Parents could benefit from peer-to-peer support and education as they support the needed autonomy development of their child. Future studies should test an online platform for parents to find peer support at all times and places.

  12. Pre-shipment test of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaglia, Marco; Busoni, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Puglisi, Alfio; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of the laboratory characterization of the ARGOS LGS wavefront sensor (LGSW) and dichroic units. ARGOS is the laser guide star adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). It implements a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) correction for LUCI, an infrared imager and multi-object spectrograph (MOS), using 3 pulsed Rayleigh beacons focused at 12km altitude. The LGSW is a Shack-Hartman sensor having 15 × 15 subaspertures over the telescope pupil. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and gated to reduce spot elongation. The 3 LGS pupils are stabilized to compensate mechanical flexure and are arranged on a single detector. Two units of LGSW have been produced and tested at Arcetri Observatory. We report on the results obtained in the pre-shipment laboratory test: internal active flexure compensation loop performance, optomechanical stability under different gravity conditions, thermal cycling, Pockels cells performance. We also update on the upcoming installation and commissioning campaign at LBT.

  13. Is the urine spot protein/creatinine ratio a valid diagnostic test for pre-eclampsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuram, R; Kiran, T S Usha; Weerakkody, A N A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of the spot protein/creatinine ratio as the diagnostic test for pre-eclampsia by correlating it to the 24 h urine protein. For the spot test, this study uses the cut-off value recognised by the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP). Ours was a correlational study made in the setting of the antenatal assessment unit/antenatal ward in a District General Hospital. Patients at >24 weeks' gestation with hypertension and >1+ proteinuria (n = 32) were included in the study. A 10 ml sample of urine was collected for the spot protein/creatinine ratio (PCR) before the 24 h collection was started. Spot PCR samples were stored at -18°C until the end of the study period. The results of the spot PCR were correlated to 24 h results using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Main outcome measures were correlation coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Correlation was significant (r(2) = 0.82). Sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 92%; positive likelihood ratio, 10.3; negative likelihood ratio, 0.18. The spot PCR correlates well to the 24 h urine protein. The new cut-off values recognised by the ISSHP are producing consistent results. The evidence in favour of the spot PCR needs to be reassessed by larger studies.

  14. Six years of vision screening tests in pre-school children in kindergartens of Wroclaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigiel, Marta; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Ireneusz

    2017-09-01

    Detection of vision defects of a child without professional knowledge is not easy. Very often, the parents of a small child does not know that their child sees incorrect. Also the youngster, not knowing any other way of seeing, does not know that it is not the best. While the vision of a small child is not yet fully formed, it is worth checking them very early. Defects detected early gives opportunity for the correction of anomalies, which might give the effect of the normal development of vision. According to the indications, the American Optometric Association (AOA) control eye examination should be performed between the ages of 6 months to 3 years, before going to school and then every two years. Members of SPIE Student Chapter, in cooperation with the Visual Optics Group working on the Department of Optics and Photonics (Faculty of Fundamental Problems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology) for 6 years offer selected kindergartens of Wroclaw participation in project "Screening vision tests in pre-school children". Depending on the number of involved members of the student chapter and willing to cooperate students of Ophthalmology and Optometry, vision screening test was carried out in up to eight kindergartens every year. The basic purpose of screening vision test is to detect visual defects to start the correction so early in life as possible, while increasing the efficiency of the child's visual potential. The surrounding community is in fact more than enough examples of late diagnose vision problems, which resulted in lack of opportunity or treatment failure

  15. Validation of a new phytotoxicity test (phytotoxkit) against an established four-week growing test with pre-grown plant plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Aguilera, M.; Os, van E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to correlate results of a fast extract-based toxicity test with results of an established growing test with mostly pre-grown plants. A standard white peat was contaminated with four levels of TCA (trichloroacetic acid), a known toxic substance. A range was composed of five

  16. Pre-Flight Testing and Performance of a Ka-Band Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Joseph A.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a space-qualified, reprogrammable, Ka-band Software Defined Radio (SDR) to be utilized as part of an on-orbit, reconfigurable testbed. The testbed will operate on the truss of the International Space Station beginning in late 2012. Three unique SDRs comprise the testbed, and each radio is compliant to the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. The testbed provides NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop communications, navigation, and networking applications in the laboratory and space environment, while at the same time advancing SDR technology, reducing risk, and enabling future mission capability. Designed and built by Harris Corporation, the Ka-band SDR is NASA's first space-qualified Ka-band SDR transceiver. The Harris SDR will also mark the first NASA user of the Ka-band capabilities of the Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) for on-orbit operations. This paper describes the testbed's Ka-band System, including the SDR, travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA), and antenna system. The reconfigurable aspects of the system enabled by SDR technology are discussed and the Ka-band system performance is presented as measured during extensive pre-flight testing.

  17. Effect of differing PowerPoint slide design on multiple-choice test scores for assessment of knowledge and retention in a theriogenology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2014-01-01

    Third-year veterinary students in a required theriogenology diagnostics course were allowed to self-select attendance at a lecture in either the evening or the next morning. One group was presented with PowerPoint slides in a traditional format (T group), and the other group was presented with PowerPoint slides in the assertion-evidence format (A-E group), which uses a single sentence and a highly relevant graphic on each slide to ensure attention is drawn to the most important points in the presentation. Students took a multiple-choice pre-test, attended lecture, and then completed a take-home assignment. All students then completed an online multiple-choice post-test and, one month later, a different online multiple-choice test to evaluate retention. Groups did not differ on pre-test, assignment, or post-test scores, and both groups showed significant gains from pre-test to post-test and from pre-test to retention test. However, the T group showed significant decline from post-test to retention test, while the A-E group did not. Short-term differences between slide designs were most likely unaffected due to required coursework immediately after lecture, but retention of material was superior with the assertion-evidence slide design.

  18. Fifteen-minute music intervention reduces pre-radiotherapy anxiety in oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee-Chen; Wang, Tze-Fang; Shih, Yi-Nuo; Wu, Le-Jung

    2013-08-01

    Oncology patients may respond to radiation treatment with anxiety expressed as stress, fear, depression, and frustration. This study aimed to investigate effects of music intervention on reducing pre-radiotherapy anxiety in oncology patients. Quasi-experimental study with purposeful sampling was conducted in the Department of Radiation Oncology, at Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Subjects were assigned into a music group (n = 100) receiving 15 min of music therapy prior to radiation and a control group (n = 100) receiving 15 min rest prior to radiation. Both groups were evaluated for pre- and post-test anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physiological indicators of anxiety were measured pre- and post-test. Baseline State/Trait scores and vital signs were comparable between groups (P > 0.05). Mean change in pre- and post-test State/Trait scores showed significant decreases from baseline to post-test in both groups (all P music therapy and control groups in mean change of State anxiety scores (mean decreases 7.19 and 1.04, respectively; P music and control groups (-5.69 ± 0.41 mmHg vs. -0.67 ± 1.29 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.009). Music therapy decreased State anxiety levels, Trait anxiety levels and systolic blood pressure in oncology patients who received the intervention prior to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-analytical conditions in non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal RHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Banch Clausen

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal plasma can predict the fetal RhD type in D negative pregnant women. In Denmark, routine antenatal screening for the fetal RhD gene (RHD directs the administration of antenatal anti-D prophylaxis only to women who carry an RhD positive fetus. Prophylaxis reduces the risk of immunization that may lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn. The reliability of predicting the fetal RhD type depends on pre-analytical factors and assay sensitivity. We evaluated the testing setup in the Capital Region of Denmark, based on data from routine antenatal RHD screening.Blood samples were drawn at gestational age 25 weeks. DNA extracted from 1 mL of plasma was analyzed for fetal RHD using a duplex method for exon 7/10. We investigated the effect of blood sample transportation time (n = 110 and ambient outdoor temperatures (n = 1539 on the levels of cffDNA and total DNA. We compared two different quantification methods, the delta Ct method and a universal standard curve. PCR pipetting was compared on two systems (n = 104.The cffDNA level was unaffected by blood sample transportation for up to 9 days and by ambient outdoor temperatures ranging from -10 °C to 28 °C during transport. The universal standard curve was applicable for cffDNA quantification. Identical levels of cffDNA were observed using the two automated PCR pipetting systems. We detected a mean of 100 fetal DNA copies/mL at a median gestational age of 25 weeks (range 10-39, n = 1317.The setup for real-time PCR-based, non-invasive prenatal testing of cffDNA in the Capital Region of Denmark is very robust. Our findings regarding the transportation of blood samples demonstrate the high stability of cffDNA. The applicability of a universal standard curve facilitates easy cffDNA quantification.

  20. Analysis of Phenix end-of-life natural convection test with the MARS-LMR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, K. L.; Chang, W. P.; Kim, Y. I.

    2012-01-01

    The end-of-life test of Phenix reactor performed by the CEA provided an opportunity to have reliable and valuable test data for the validation and verification of a SFR system analysis code. KAERI joined this international program for the analysis of Phenix end-of-life natural circulation test coordinated by the IAEA from 2008. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of existing SFR system analysis code MARS-LMR and to identify any limitation of the code. The analysis was performed in three stages: pre-test analysis, blind posttest analysis, and final post-test analysis. In the pre-test analysis, the design conditions provided by the CEA were used to obtain a prediction of the test. The blind post-test analysis was based on the test conditions measured during the tests but the test results were not provided from the CEA. The final post-test analysis was performed to predict the test results as accurate as possible by improving the previous modeling of the test. Based on the pre-test analysis and blind test analysis, the modeling for heat structures in the hot pool and cold pool, steel structures in the core, heat loss from roof and vessel, and the flow path at core outlet were reinforced in the final analysis. The results of the final post-test analysis could be characterized into three different phases. In the early phase, the MARS-LMR simulated the heat-up process correctly due to the enhanced heat structure modeling. In the mid phase before the opening of SG casing, the code reproduced the decrease of core outlet temperature successfully. Finally, in the later phase the increase of heat removal by the opening of the SG opening was well predicted with the MARS-LMR code. (authors)

  1. Pre-installation empirical testing of room shielding for high dose rate remote afterloaders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, E.E.; Grigsby, P.W.; Williamson, J.F.; Meigooni, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many facilities are acquiring high dose rate remote afterloading units. It is economical that these units be placed in existing shielded teletherapy rooms. Scatter-radiation barriers marginally protect uncontrolled areas from a high dose rate source especially in a room that houses a non-dynamic Cobalt-60 unit. In addition the exact thickness and material composition of the barriers are unknown and therefore, a calculation technique may give misleading results. Also, it would be impossible to evaluate an entire wall barrier by taking isolated core samples in order to assist in the calculations. A quick and inexpensive measurement of dose equivalent using a rented high activity 192Ir source evaluates the barriers and locates shielding deficiencies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed transmission calculations for primary and scattered radiation based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports 49 and 51, respectively. We then rented a high activity 21.7 Ci (8.03 x 10(11) Bq) Ir-192 source to assess our existing teletherapy room shielding for adequacy and voids. This source was placed at the proposed location for clinical high dose rate treatment and measurements were performed. RESULTS: No deficiencies were found in controlled areas surrounding the room, but large differences were found between the calculated and measured values. Our survey located a region in the uncontrolled area above the room requiring augmented shielding which was not predicted by the calculations. A canopy shield was designed to potentially augment the shielding in the ceiling direction. CONCLUSION: Pre-installation testing by measurement is an invaluable method for locating shielding deficiencies and avoiding unnecessary enhancement of shielding particularly when there is lack of information of the inherent shielding

  2. Pre-transplant Screening for Non-HLA Antibodies: Who should be Tested?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philogene, Mary Carmelle; Zhou, Sheng; Lonze, Bonnie E; Bagnasco, Serena; Alasfar, Sami; Montgomery, Robert A; Kraus, Edward; Jackson, Annette M; Leffell, Mary S; Zachary, Andrea A

    2018-04-01

    Retrospective studies of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (AT1R-Ab) and anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) have linked these antibodies to allograft injury. Because rising healthcare costs dictate judicious use of laboratory testing, we sought to define characteristics of kidney transplant recipients who may benefit from screening for non-HLA antibodies. Kidney recipients transplanted between 2011 and 2016 at Johns Hopkins, were evaluated for AT1R-Ab and AECA. Pre-transplant antibody levels were compared to clinical and biopsy indications of graft dysfunction. Biopsies were graded using the Banff' 2009-2013 criteria. AT1R-Ab and AECA were detected using ELISA and endothelial cell crossmatches, respectively. AT1R-Ab levels were higher in patients who were positive for AECAs. Re-transplanted patients (p < 0.0001), males (p = 0.008) and those with FSGS (p = 0.04) and younger (p = 0.04) at time of transplantation were more likely to be positive for AT1R-Ab prior to transplantation. Recipients who were positive for AT1R-Ab prior to transplantation had increases in serum creatinine within 3 months post-transplantation (p < 0.0001) and developed abnormal biopsies earlier than did AT1R-Ab negative patients (126 days versus 368 days respectively; p = 0.02). Defining a clinical protocol to identify and preemptively treat patients at risk for acute rejection with detectable non-HLA antibodies is an important objective for the transplant community. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Does pre-ordering tests enhance the value of the periodic examination? Study Design - Process implementation with retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroebel Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the value of a pre-ordering process for the pro-active scheduling and completion of appropriate preventive and chronic disease monitoring tests prior to a periodic health examination (PHE. Methods A standardized template was developed and used by our nursing staff to identify and schedule appropriate tests prior to the patients PHE. Chart reviews were completed on all 602 PHE visits for a 3-month interval in a primary care setting. A patient satisfaction survey was administered to a convenience sample of the PHE patients. Results Of all the patients with tests pre-ordered, 87.8% completed the tests. All providers in the division used the process, but some evolved from one template to another over time. Most patients (61% preferred to get their tests done prior to their PHE appointment. Many of our patients had abnormal test results. With this process, patients were able to benefit from face-to-face discussion of these results directly with their provider. Conclusions A pre-order process was successfully implemented to improve the value of the PHE visit in an internal medicine primary care practice using a standardized approach that allowed for provider autonomy. The process was accepted by patients and providers and resulted in improved office efficiency through reduced message handling. Completion of routine tests before the PHE office visit can help facilitate face-to-face discussions about abnormal results and subsequent management that otherwise may only occur by telephone.

  4. 78 FR 22895 - Test To Allow Customs Brokers To Pre-Certify Importers for Participation in the Importer Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... multiplier'' for CBP in facilitating and expediting legitimate trade, increasing the pool of trusted traders... customs brokers. Under this test, CBP will select no more than nine (9) licensed customs broker sole... brokerages and licensed customs broker sole proprietorships seeking to participate as ISA pre-certifiers in...

  5. Predicting Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's Educational Sciences Test Scores Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Metin

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the number of correct answers given by pre-service classroom teachers in Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's (CSRE) educational sciences test based on their high school grade point averages, university entrance scores, and grades (mid-term and final exams) from their undergraduate educational courses. This study was…

  6. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.

  7. Washington Pre-College Test. Registration Booklet, 1979 Edition. Counselor's Guide and Technical Summary, 1979-80. Student Guide, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Pre-College Testing Program, Seattle.

    Three sections describing the Washington Pre-College Test (WPC) are presented. The first, Registration Booklet, is intended for high school students who may take the WPC. It describes the program; provides detailed instructions on completing the answer folder; lists colleges in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho which accept WPC results; and includes…

  8. An assessment of basic pain knowledge and impact of pain education on Indian Anaesthesiologists - a pre and post questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra G Bakshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Under-treatment of pain is a global phenomenon and the basic knowledge of pain amongst health care providers continues to be deficient. The aim of this study was to determine the basic prevalent knowledge of pain among Indian anaesthesiologists and the impact of a pain educational programme on their existing knowledge. Methods: A nine lectures pain continuing medical education (CME program was conducted for 114 young anaesthesiologists. All delegates were given 21-item questionnaire in a pre and post-test design. The 69 paired responses were compared for individual questions using McNemar test and the overall improvement in knowledge was analysed using paired t-test. Results: The pre-test score for correct answers was 61.9%. The post-test score was 69.8% and this improvement was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. A significant improvement in perception was detected that ′opioids usage was less likely to cause addiction′ (correct responses increased from 4.2 to 77.4%, P = 0.001. Conclusion: The questionnaire study found that the current basic knowledge about pain amongst young anaesthesiologists is deficient. The physician′s major concerns were opioid addiction and respiratory depression with opioid usage. The results of pre and post-test questionnaire survey have shown that pain education can help in improving knowledge of pain management.

  9. A systematic review of the effect of pre-test rest duration on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of toe and ankle blood pressure is commonly used to evaluate peripheral vascular status, yet the pre-test rest period is inconsistent in published studies and among practitioners, and could affect results. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate all research that has investigated the effect of different periods of pre-test rest on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure. Methods The following databases were searched up to April 2012: Medline (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1947), CINAHL (from 1937), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (from 1800). No language or publication restrictions were applied. Eighty-eight content experts and researchers in the field were contacted by email to assist in the identification of published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. Studies evaluating the effect of two or more pre-test rest durations on toe or ankle systolic blood pressure were eligible for inclusion. No restrictions were placed on participant characteristics or the method of blood pressure measurement. Outcomes included toe or ankle systolic blood pressure and adverse effects. Abstracts identified from the search terms were independently assessed by two reviewers for potential inclusion. Results 1658 abstracts were identified by electronic searching. Of the 88 content experts and researchers in the field contacted by email a total of 33 replied and identified five potentially relevant studies. No studies were eligible for inclusion. Conclusions There is no evidence of the effect of different periods of pre-test rest duration on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure measurements. Rigorous trials evaluating the effect of different durations of pre-test rest are required to direct clinical practice and research. PMID:24708870

  10. An Empirical Test of Mnemonic Devices to Improve Learning in Elementary Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Gregory Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The author empirically examined the use of mnemonic devices to enhance learning in first-year accounting at university. The experiment was conducted on three groups using learning strategy application as between participant's factors. The means of the scores from pre- and posttests were analyzed using the student "t" test. No significant…

  11. Final Test Results of Quality Assurance Classes Using the Instructional Concepts Program (ICP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mike; Bailey, Jerry

    As part of the Quality Assurance procedures, a final test was administered to a sample of the classes participating in the 1970-71 Instructional Concepts Program (ICP). The posttest was designed to measure end-of-program performance on each of the six program outcomes: Color, Shape, Size, Position, Amount, and Pre-Mathematics. This report…

  12. Experimental data report for test TS-3 Reactivity Initiated Accident test in the NSRR with pre-irradiated BWR fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Fujishiro, Toshio; Kobayashi, Shinsho; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sukegawa, Tomohide; Kikuchi, Teruo; Sobajima, Makoto.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents experimental data for Test TS-3 which was the third test in a series of Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) tests using pre-irradiated BWR fuel rods, performed in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in September, 1990. Test fuel rod used in the Test TS-3 was a short-sized BWR (7 x 7) type rod which was re-fabricated from a commercial rod irradiated in the Tsuruga Unit 1 power reactor of Japan Atomic Power Co. The fuel had an initial enrichment of 2.79 % and a burnup of 26 Gwd/tU. A pulse irradiation of the test fuel rod was performed under a cooling condition of stagnant water at atmospheric pressure and at ambient temperature which simulated a BWR's cold start-up RIA event. The energy deposition of the fuel rod in this test was evaluated to be 94 ± 4 cal/g · fuel (88 ± 4 cal/g · fuel in peak fuel enthalpy) and no fuel failure was observed. Descriptions on test conditions, test procedures, transient behavior of the test rod during the pulse irradiation, and results of pre-pulse and post-pulse irradiation examinations are described in this report. (author)

  13. Using cognitive pre-testing methods in the development of a new evidenced-based pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S; Nixon, J; Keen, J; Muir, D; Wilson, L; McGinnis, E; Stubbs, N; Dealey, C; Nelson, E A

    2016-11-16

    Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056). This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the methods used may have wider instrument development application

  14. Using cognitive pre-testing methods in the development of a new evidenced-based pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coleman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056. This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. Methods A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Results Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. Conclusions The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the

  15. Interventions to decrease pain and anxiety in patients undergoing urodynamic testing: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ellen R; Ridgeway, Beri

    2016-11-01

    To determine if music (at 60 beats/min) or watching a pre-procedure educational video decreases pain and anxiety in women undergoing multichannel urodynamic testing compared to usual care. Women undergoing multichannel urodynamic testing at a tertiary care center were randomized to one of three groups: usual care (UC), music (M), in which music was played throughout the urodynamic test, or video (V), in which subjects watched an informational video on the procedure prior to undergoing the test. Visual analog scales (VAS) were used to measure patient's pain and anxiety before and after the test. Demographic information was obtained and five-item Likert questionnaires were given to assess information seeking behavior, preparedness, embarrassment, and privacy. 98 subjects were included in this analysis. In the overall group, mean perceived pain on the pre-test VAS was significantly higher than the post-test VAS with pre-test mean (SD) 47(±30) and post-test mean (SD) 26(±23), P = 0.0001. Overall the anxiety pre-test VAS was significantly greater than post-test VAS with pre-test mean (SD) 46.9(±29) and post-test mean 17.9(±18), P = 0.0001. There were no differences in pain and anxiety scores between the two intervention groups and usual care. Patients who were randomized to usual care or the video arm felt more prepared for the test compared to patients who were randomized to the music arm, with (mean ± SD): usual care (42 ± 8), video (43 ± 9), music (37 ± 11), P = 0.002. Music and an educational video do not decrease pain or anxiety in subjects undergoing multichannel urodynamics compared to usual care. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:975-979, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Post-test calculation of CORA-9 SFD experiments with the RELAP5/SCDAP computer code. Second technical report on BMFT-sponsored research project 1500 831 7: Comparative assessment of different computer codes for severe accident analysis, contribution to the ATHLET/CD code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Brockmeier, U.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with a CORA-9 post-test-calculation with the computer-code RELAP5/SCDAP Mod.2.5 Ver.3f. It is the second technical report concerning the BMFT founded project ''Comparative Assessment of Different Computer Codes for Severe Accident Analysis. Contribution to the ATHLET/SA-Code Development'', which is performed at the ''Department of Nuclear and New Energy Systems (NES)'' at the Ruhr-University of Bochum. Three main phases during the temperature transient in CORA-9, namely the heatup phase, the escalation phase and the cooldown phase are covered by the calculations. The computations confirm that the governing phenomena, heat up, oxidation with the onset of the temperature excursion due to Zircaloy/steam reaction, and the cooldown phase are modeled satisfactorily by RELAP5/SCDAP. Investigations indicate that code underpredictions of the cladding surface temperature during the heatup phase are probably due to condensation effects occuring in the thermal hydraulic volumes. (orig.) [de

  17. Posttest REALP4 analysis of LOFT experiment L1-3A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Holmstrom, H.L.O.

    1977-10-01

    This report presents selected results of posttest RELAP4 modeling of LOFT loss-of-coolant experiment L1-3A, a double-ended isothermal cold leg break with lower plenum emergency core coolant injection. Comparisons are presented between the pretest prediction, the posttest analysis, and the experimental data. It is concluded that pressurizer modeling is important for accurately predicting system behavior during the initial portion of saturated blowdown. Using measured initial conditions rather than nominal specified initial conditions did not influence the system model results significantly. Using finer nodalization in the reactor vessel improved the prediction of the system pressure history by minimizing steam condensation effects. Unequal steam condensation between the downcomer and core volumes appear to cause the manometer oscillations observed in both the pretest and posttest RELAP4 analysis

  18. The Effects of Vocabulary Pre-teaching and Pre-questioning on Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehenstion Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Mousavian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering comprehension is a main skill in English learning. It is critical to use pre-reading methods in reading instruction to assist students increase their comprehension. This study investigated the effectiveness of pre-questioning and vocabulary pre-teaching on EFL pupil reading comprehension ability. Sixty students participated in the study. An experimental plan was utilized. Twenty pupils were elected for the first experimental group that received vocabulary pre-teaching method, the second experimental group, also consisted of 20 students, received pre-questioning strategy and 20 students in control group gave the conventional method. Students in the groups on both pre-test and post-test were asked to consider a reading text, and after that reply reading comprehension queries. Findings revealed that there were statistically significant variation among the groups. The experimental groups outperformed the control group. Moreover, results indicated that the vocabulary pre-teaching one performance was better than the pre-questioning group.

  19. Pre-test CFD simulations of a GIDROPRESS mixing facility experiment using ANSYS CFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, T.; Rohde, U.; Melideo, D.; Moretti, F.; D'Auria, F.; Shishov, A.; Lisenkov, E.

    2007-01-01

    inhomogeneous, in fact high velocity values occur beside the loop positions, and not below the inlet nozzles, which indicates the presence of recirculation areas or stagnant zones. Regarding the flow field and mixing at the core inlet, it has been shown that the mass flow rate distribution is more or less homogenous over the core diameter due to the lower plenum internals, the perturbed sector covers more or less one fourth of the core; a sharp sector formation like in western 4-loop reactors appears, weak mixing zones appear (around 99.7% of the unperturbed concentration). In most cases, the sensitivity analyses performed did not show any appreciable dependence of the results with respect to the addressed parameters. A three loop operation was chosen to show the differences of the flow and mixing behavior compared to the four loop operation. An extensive experimental program is now running, aimed at studying different flow conditions in the reactor mock up, such as the start-up of the 1st coolant pump or natural circulation conditions with density differences of the primary coolant. Pre and post test CFD simulations are being carried out for code validation and for a deeper understanding of the flow and mixing behavior in the WWER-1000 reactor also in the future of the project (Authors)

  20. FMECA about pre-treatment system for purge gas of test blanket module in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The pre-treatment system for purge gas of TBM will be installed in Port Cell for installing TBM in ITER, the function of which includes filtering purge gas, removing HTO, cooling, and adjusting flow rate, etc. The purge gas treated will be conveyed into TES (Tritium Extraction System). The technological process and system components in pre-treatment system were introduced. Tritium releasing risk was regarded as failure criterion; failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) were carried out and several weaknesses or failure mode in the system were found. Besides, risk priority number (RPN) and failure mode criticality were calculated. Finally, some design improvement measures and usage compensation measures were given. At last, four important potential failure modes were found out. The analysis will provide the design basis for reducing risk of excessive tritium releasing, which is also a useful assist for safety analysis about other tritium system. (authors)

  1. The prediction and probability for successful completion in medical study based on tests and pre-admission grades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štuka, Č.; Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára, Karel; Zvárová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2012), s. 138-152 ISSN 1732-6729 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : education * admission criteria * pre-admission grades * admission test * medical study Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.149, year: 2012 http://www.educationalrev.us.edu.pl/volume28.htm

  2. Pre-assembly test of 3 HF wedges at a time

    CERN Multimedia

    Tiziano Camporesi

    2002-01-01

    To check the geometry of the individual HF wedges a special jig has been developed which allows mounting 3 HF wedges at a time. The jig simulates the exact geometry of the final shield where 9 wedges will be assembled forming the 'D' shaped half HF. Such pre-mounting has allowed to verify the accuracy of the construction of the individual wedges and made sure that the final assembly will not meet any structural problem.

  3. Pre-Meal Affective State and Laboratory Test Meal Intake in Adolescent Girls with Loss of Control Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 85th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post- meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  4. Comparison of different coupling CFD–STH approaches for pre-test analysis of a TALL-3D experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papukchiev, Angel, E-mail: angel.papukchiev@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany); Jeltsov, Marti; Kööp, Kaspar; Kudinov, Pavel [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lerchl, Georg [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Thermal-hydraulic system codes and CFD tools are coupled. • Pre-test calculations for the TALL-3D facility are performed. • Complex flow and heat transfer phenomena are modeled. • Comparative analyses have been performed. - Abstract: The system thermal-hydraulic (STH) code ATHLET was coupled with the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package ANSYS CFX to improve ATHLET simulation capabilities for flows with pronounced 3D phenomena such as flow mixing and thermal stratification. Within the FP7 European project THINS (Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems), validation activities for coupled thermal-hydraulic codes are being carried out. The TALL-3D experimental facility, operated by KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, is designed for thermal-hydraulic experiments with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant at natural and forced circulation conditions. GRS carried out pre-test simulations with ATHLET–ANSYS CFX for the TALL-3D experiment T01, while KTH scientists perform these analyses with the coupled code RELAP5/STAR CCM+. In the experiment T01 the main circulation pump is stopped, which leads to interesting thermal-hydraulic transient with local 3D phenomena. In this paper, the TALL-3D behavior during T01 is analyzed and the results of the coupled pre-test calculations, performed by GRS (ATHLET–ANSYS CFX) and KTH (RELAP5/STAR CCM+) are directly compared.

  5. Facilitating knowledge of mental health nurses to undertake physical health interventions: a pre-test/post-test evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Steve; Clifton, Andrew; Stephenson, John; Edward, Karen-Leigh

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this project was to develop and deliver an evidence-based educational package with a physical and mental health focus to clinicians and other health care workers in mental health settings. For individuals who experience mental disorders, pharmacotherapy is often considered as a first line of treatment. However, owing to adverse drug reactions and pre-existing physical conditions, outcomes for clients/service users may be compromised. Mortality and morbidity rates of people diagnosed with a serious mental illness caused by physical health conditions do not compare favourably with the general population. This paper reports on a physical skills project that was developed in collaboration between the University of Huddersfield and South West Yorkshire Partnership Foundation Trust. Pre-post study design: five workshops were conducted in the fields of intramuscular injections, diabetes, health improvement, oral health and wound care. A total of 180 pairs of questionnaires to assess practitioner and student skills and knowledge were administered to participants before and after workshops. All workshops resulted in a statistically significant improvement in subject skills and knowledge scores (P Mental health nurses are the largest group of registered practitioners working in the mental health setting and thus need to be harnessed to make a positive contribution to the improvement of the physical health status of service users with a serious mental illness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The effects of reasoning, use of models, sex type, and their interactions on posttest achievement in chemical bonding after constant instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Halsted, Douglas A.

    The purpose of the authors in this study was to determine the effects of reasoning, use of models during testing, and sex type on posttest achievement in chemical bonding under controlled instruction. Eighty-four high school students taking chemistry were randomly assigned within their classes to models and no models groups for the posttest. Reasoning capabilities were assessed by the Piagetian Logical Operations Test (PLOT) (Staver & Gabel, JRST, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1979), prior to instruction. All students then received the same instruction on chemical bonding which included teacher demonstrations of concepts with three-dimensional molecular models, interspersed teacher questions during the introduction and development of concepts, student manipulation of three-dimensional molecular models during laboratory experiments, and text reading assignments on concepts prior to their instruction in class. The posttest on molecular geometry and shape contained three sections requiring memory and application (Bloom, Taxonomy of educational objective, handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay, 1956). Data were analyzed by regression (Nie et al., Statistical package for the social sciences, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975). Results indicate that reasoning accounted for a significant portion (p sex type did not account for a significant (p > 0.05) portion of the variance on total scores or any section of posttest. The three-way interaction of reasoning, model usage, and sex type accounted for a significant portion (p < 0.05) of the variance in total scores, and in the memory and application sections of the posttest. Discussion focused on the results, conclusions, and implications for science teaching.

  7. Anxiolytic-like effect of oxytocin in the simulated public speaking test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Danielle C G; Zuardi, Antonio W; Graeff, Frederico G; Queiroz, Regina H C; Crippa, José A S

    2012-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is known to be involved in anxiety, as well as cardiovascular and hormonal regulation. The objective of this study was to assess the acute effect of intranasally administered OT on subjective states, as well as cardiovascular and endocrine parameters, in healthy volunteers (n = 14) performing a simulated public speaking test. OT or placebo was administered intranasally 50 min before the test. Assessments were made across time during the experimental session: (1) baseline (-30 min); (2) pre-test (-15 min); (3) anticipation of the speech (50 min); (4) during the speech (1:03 h), post-test time 1 (1:26 h), and post-test time 2 (1:46 h). Subjective states were evaluated by self-assessment scales. Cortisol serum and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Additionally, heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance, and the number of spontaneous fluctuations in skin conductance were measured. Compared with placebo, OT reduced the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety index during the pre-test phase only, while increasing sedation at the pre-test, anticipation, and speech phases. OT also lowered the skin conductance level at the pre-test, anticipation, speech, and post-test 2 phases. Other parameters evaluated were not significantly affected by OT. The present results show that OT reduces anticipatory anxiety, but does not affect public speaking fear, suggesting that this hormone has anxiolytic properties.

  8. Impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills. For this purpose, eight laboratory activities related to chemical kinetic, chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, acids-bases, and electrochemistry were developed. Those activities were performed in virtual laboratory environment by the pre-service teachers in the experimental group and in the real laboratory environment by c the preservice teachers in the control group during eight weeks. Scientific process skills test developed by Burns, Okey and Wise [3], and translated into Turkish by Ateş and Bahar [2] was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to results, while there was no significant difference between pre-test mean scores (U=133.500, p>0.05, significant difference between post-test mean scores was found in favour of experimental group (U=76.000, p<0.05. In addition, while no significant difference between pre-test mean scores for each sub-dimension was found, significant difference between post-test mean scores for designing investigation and formulating hypothesis skills was found in favour of experimental group.

  9. Empirical Likelihood-Based Estimation of the Treatment Effect in a Pretest–Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Qin, Jing; Follmann, Dean A.

    2013-01-01

    The pretest–posttest study design is commonly used in medical and social science research to assess the effect of a treatment or an intervention. Recently, interest has been rising in developing inference procedures that improve efficiency while relaxing assumptions used in the pretest–posttest data analysis, especially when the posttest measurement might be missing. In this article we propose a semiparametric estimation procedure based on empirical likelihood (EL) that incorporates the common baseline covariate information to improve efficiency. The proposed method also yields an asymptotically unbiased estimate of the response distribution. Thus functions of the response distribution, such as the median, can be estimated straightforwardly, and the EL method can provide a more appealing estimate of the treatment effect for skewed data. We show that, compared with existing methods, the proposed EL estimator has appealing theoretical properties, especially when the working model for the underlying relationship between the pretest and posttest measurements is misspecified. A series of simulation studies demonstrates that the EL-based estimator outperforms its competitors when the working model is misspecified and the data are missing at random. We illustrate the methods by analyzing data from an AIDS clinical trial (ACTG 175). PMID:23729942

  10. Empirical Likelihood-Based Estimation of the Treatment Effect in a Pretest-Posttest Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Qin, Jing; Follmann, Dean A

    2008-09-01

    The pretest-posttest study design is commonly used in medical and social science research to assess the effect of a treatment or an intervention. Recently, interest has been rising in developing inference procedures that improve efficiency while relaxing assumptions used in the pretest-posttest data analysis, especially when the posttest measurement might be missing. In this article we propose a semiparametric estimation procedure based on empirical likelihood (EL) that incorporates the common baseline covariate information to improve efficiency. The proposed method also yields an asymptotically unbiased estimate of the response distribution. Thus functions of the response distribution, such as the median, can be estimated straightforwardly, and the EL method can provide a more appealing estimate of the treatment effect for skewed data. We show that, compared with existing methods, the proposed EL estimator has appealing theoretical properties, especially when the working model for the underlying relationship between the pretest and posttest measurements is misspecified. A series of simulation studies demonstrates that the EL-based estimator outperforms its competitors when the working model is misspecified and the data are missing at random. We illustrate the methods by analyzing data from an AIDS clinical trial (ACTG 175).

  11. The Instructional Effects of Matching or Mismatching Lesson and Posttest Screen Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation considers the instructional effects of color as an over-arching context variable when learning from computer displays. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the posttest retrieval effects of color as a local, extra-item non-verbal lesson context variable for constructed-response versus multiple-choice posttest…

  12. Estimation of Post-Test Probabilities by Residents: Bayesian Reasoning versus Heuristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stacey; Phang, Sen Han; Schaefer, Jeffrey P.; Ghali, William; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Although the process of diagnosing invariably begins with a heuristic, we encourage our learners to support their diagnoses by analytical cognitive processes, such as Bayesian reasoning, in an attempt to mitigate the effects of heuristics on diagnosing. There are, however, limited data on the use ± impact of Bayesian reasoning on the accuracy of…

  13. Instructional Technology and the Post-Test Results of College Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan-Melendez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    The problem in the present quasi-experimental research design was the poor English communication skills of college students enrolled in first-year English as a second language (ESL) courses in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare learning outcomes between a first-year English as a second class taught with the…

  14. GE post-test analysis of SLSF experiment W-1 through LOPI-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, K.E.; Atcheson, D.B.; Knight, D.D.

    1981-07-01

    SLSF experiment W-1 was designed to investigate fuel pin-to-coolant heat transfer during various LMFBR flow-coastdown events in the burnup interval from 0.0 atom percent to 0.5 atom percent. In the study reported here, data from in-fuel thermocouples and coolant (wire-wrap) thermocouples were evaluated during steady-state and transient operation from the beginning of the experiment through LOPI-4 (Loss-of-Piping-Integrity Transient Number 4). The objective of the data evaluation was to determine how maximum coolant temperatures during successive LOPI transients were affected by burnup. A second objective was to identify the mechanisms responsible for this burnup effect

  15. The Effect of Plyometric Training on Trunk Muscle Pre-activation in Active Females with Trunk Neuromuscular Control Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hadadnezhad

    2014-02-01

    Results: the results of independent sample T-test indicated that there are significant differences between post-test of control and experimental groups in regard to Gluteus Medius (p=0.021, Quadratus Lumborum (p=0.011, Transverse Abdominis/Internal oblique (p=0.006, External Oblique (p=0.023 muscles activations which reveals effectiveness of plyometric training on pre-activation of muscles. Conclusion: Based on the study results, plyometric training affects the activation of muscles and thus improving the pre-activation can prevent mechanisms related to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Therefore, plyometric training can reduce incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  16. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme regarding sleep hygiene and sleep disorders on knowledge of students in a selected pre-university college at Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Isaque Manik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep plays an important role in maintaining good physical and mental health throughout the life. Timely and adequate sleep will improve quality of life, protect mental and physical health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme regarding sleep hygiene and sleep disorders on knowledge of pre-university students in a selected college at Bengaluru. Methodology: A pre-experimental research was conducted with 60 pre-university students; samples were selected using simple random sampling technique, and the data was collected using structured socio-demographic proforma and knowledge questionnaire on sleep hygiene and sleep disorders. Structured teaching programme on sleep hygiene and sleep disorders was given on the same day. Posttest was conducted after seven days. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in pre- and post-test knowledge scores (t=26.71, p<0.001 of pre-university students with respect to sleep hygiene and sleep disorders. Association between socio-demographic variables and pre-test knowledge scores showed that there was significant association between religion and pre-test knowledge scores. Conclusion: Findings conclude that structured teaching programme regarding sleep hygiene and sleep disorders was effective in increasing knowledge score among pre-university students.

  17. Influence of pre/in-service inspections and tests on the reliability of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellein, R.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the following actions on the probability of brittle failure of the reactor pressure vessels will be estimated by probabilistic fracture mechanics: ultrasonic inspection of the welds; hydro-test of the vessel; and crack growth by normal, upset and test conditions. Taking into account that the in-service inspections and tests are done at short intervals the reliability can be shown to be extremely high. (orig.)

  18. Towards nondestructive testing of pre-crash systems in a HIL setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Hendriks, F.M.; Schouten, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the developments in the field of ADA systems shifted from comfort oriented systems to safety oriented systems. Consequently, the complexity of testing those systems increased. This leads to a demand for reproducible, efficient and safe testing methods for ADA systems in general, and

  19. Combined use of clinical pre-test probability and D-dimer test in the diagnosis of preoperative deep venous thrombosis in colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Mogens Tornby; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Hagedorn Nielsen, Tina Sandie

    2008-01-01

    preoperative DVT in colorectal cancer patients admitted for surgery. Preoperative D-dimer test and compression ultrasonography for DVT were performed in 193 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer. Diagnostic accuracy indices of the D-dimer test were assessed according to the PTP score......The preoperative prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients with colorectal cancer may be as high as 8%. In order to minimize the risk of pulmonary embolism, it is important to rule out preoperative DVT. A large study has confirmed that a negative D-dimer test in combination with a low...... clinical pre-test probability (PTP) can be safely used to rule out the tentative diagnosis of DVT in cancer patients. However, the accuracy in colorectal cancer patients is uncertain. This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a quantitative D-dimer assay in combination with the PTP score in ruling out...

  20. Dynamic Toughness Testing of Pre-Cracked Charpy V-Notch Specimens. Convention ELECTRABEL - SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, E.

    1999-04-01

    This document describes the experimental and analytical procedures which have been adopted at the laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for performing dynamic toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy-V specimens. Such procedures were chosen on the basis of the existing literature on the subject, with several updates in the data analysis stages which reflect more recent developments in fracture toughness testing. Qualification tests have been carried out on PCCv specimens of JRQ steel, in order to assess the reliability of the results obtained; straightforward comparisons with reference data have been performed, as well as more advanced analyses using the Master Curve approach. Aspects related to machine compliance and dynamic tup calibration have also been addressed

  1. Dynamic Toughness Testing of Pre-Cracked Charpy V-Notch Specimens. Convention ELECTRABEL - SCK-CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E

    1999-04-01

    This document describes the experimental and analytical procedures which have been adopted at the laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for performing dynamic toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy-V specimens. Such procedures were chosen on the basis of the existing literature on the subject, with several updates in the data analysis stages which reflect more recent developments in fracture toughness testing. Qualification tests have been carried out on PCCv specimens of JRQ steel, in order to assess the reliability of the results obtained; straightforward comparisons with reference data have been performed, as well as more advanced analyses using the Master Curve approach. Aspects related to machine compliance and dynamic tup calibration have also been addressed.

  2. An Investigation of School Violence and Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaleb, Karen Nykorchuk; Andersen, Amy; Hueston, Harry

    2008-01-01

    All educators need to be aware of issues regarding school violence. Recent years have shown that violence can happen in a variety of school settings. This study conducted a one-group, pretest-posttest, pre-experimental design to explore pre-service teachers' perceptions regarding school violence. First, pre-service educators were asked to complete…

  3. Proceedings of a C.S.N.I. specialist meeting on instrumented pre-cracked Charpy testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wullaert, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the status of the testing and data analysis procedures for the instrumented pre-cracked Charpy test with emphasis on the application of the test technique to the nuclear industry. The report (Proceedings) consist of invited technical papers by specialists in the field and a synopsis of the comments, conclusions, and recommendations reached in a workshop session. The CSNl-sponsored and EPRI-hosted meeting confirmed both the popularity of the test technique in the nuclear industry and the problems associated with the test technique due to the lack of a national or international consensus standard. Major emphasis in the meeting was devoted to evaluating the existing industry testing procedure (EPRI procedure) and proposed national standards (ASTM, ASK). The EPRI procedures were considered adequate by specialists concerned with engineering applications, but too restrictive by specialists concerned with research applications. As a result of the conference, a compilation of state-of-the-art papers is now available to code and standard committees. Specific comments concerning test and data analysis procedures, applications in the nuclear industry, and future research areas are also contained in the proceedings

  4. Comparison of pre-test analyses with the Sizewell-B 1:10 scale prestressed concrete containment test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Parks, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes pretest analyses of a one-tenth scale model of the 'Sizewell-B' prestressed concrete containment building. The work was performed by ANATECH Research Corp. under contract with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Hydraulic testing of the model was conducted in the United Kingdom by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB). In order to further their understanding of containment behavior, the USNRC, through an agreement with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), also participated in the test program with SNL serving as their technical agent. The analyses that were conducted included two global axisymmetric models with 'bonded' and 'unbonded' analytical treatment of meridional tendons, a 3D quarter model of the structure, an axisymmetric representation of the equipment hatch region, and local plane stress and r-θ models of a buttress. Results of these analyses are described and compared with the results of the test. A global hoop failure at midheight of the cylinder and a shear/bending type failure at the base of the cylinder wall were both found to have roughly equal probability of occurrence; however, the shear failure mode had higher uncertainty associated with it. Consequently, significant effort was dedicated to improving the modeling capability for concrete shear behavior. This work is also described briefly. (author)

  5. Comparison of pre-test analyses with the Sizewell-B 1:10 scale prestressed concrete containment test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Parks, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes pretest analyses of a one-tenth scale model of the Sizewell-B prestressed concrete containment building. The work was performed by ANATECH Research Corp. under contract with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Hydraulic testing of the model was conducted in the United Kingdom by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB). In order to further their understanding of containment behavior, the USNRC, through an agreement with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), also participated in the test program with SNL serving as their technical agent. The analyses that were conducted included two global axisymmetric models with ''bonded'' and ''unbonded'' analytical treatment of meridional tendons, a 3D quarter model of the structure, an axisymmetric representation of the equipment hatch region, and local plan stress and r-θ models of a buttress. Results of these analyses are described and compared with the results of the test. A global hoop failure at midheight of the cylinder and a shear/bending type failure at the base of the cylinder wall were both found to have roughly equal probability of occurrence; however, the shear failure mode had higher uncertainty associated with it. Consequently, significant effort was dedicated to improving the modeling capability for concrete shear behavior. This work is also described briefly. 5 refs., 7 figs

  6. [Effectiveness and difficulty of education on nosocomial infection control for pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for students in the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    2009-03-01

    It has been planned to give pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for fifth-grade students in the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, to give them the clinical training needed to perform dental practice and clinical practicum for comprehensive patient care, namely inclusive clinical practice phase II. This study analyzed the educative efficiency of the class on nosocomial infection control (NIC) by comparing achievements pre- and post-test, and discussed appropriate education planning on the NIC for dental students. Sixty-two fifth-grade students in the 2007 academic year sat the pre- and post-tests; the mean score and standard deviation of these tests were 5.30 +/- 1.26 (n = 56) and 8.59 +/- 1.18 (n = 59), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between them (paired t-test, p < 0.01). Another finding was that students with high scores in the post-test did not necessarily achieve high ratings in the pre-test. It is suggested that the introduction of pre- and post-tests and the clarification of main points in the class as a theme of NIC could be a useful tool for increasing the comprehension of students on the theme. Since students at lower grades will attend clinical practice in the university hospital, it is thought that students should be given NIC training early in the clinical course, and the current curriculum should be improved to increase the opportunity for students to study this important issue.

  7. Manufacturing and testing of a ITER First Wall Semi-Prototype for EUDA pre-qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banetta, S., E-mail: stefano.banetta@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion For Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral, B3, Carrer Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Bellin, B.; Lorenzetto, P.; Zacchia, F. [Fusion For Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral, B3, Carrer Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boireau, B.; Bobin, I.; Boiffard, P.; Cottin, A.; Nogue, P. [AREVA NP PTCMI-F, Centre Technique, Fusion, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Mitteau, R.; Eaton, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bürger, A.; Du, J.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Weber, T. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Three ITER First Wall Small Scale Mock-ups were manufactured passing factory acceptance tests. • One of the Small Scale Mock-ups passed the thermal fatigue tests (15,000 cycles at 2 MW/m{sup 2}). • The ITER First Wall Semi-Prototype was manufactured and is being High Heat Flux tested. • Preliminary results upto 2 MW/m{sup 2} show an overall compliance with the acceptance criteria. • Next step for EU Domestic Agency qualification is the fabrication and testing of a Full-Scale Prototype. - Abstract: This paper describes the main activities carried out in the frame of EU-DA prequalification for the supply of Normal Heat Flux (NHF) First Wall (FW) panels to ITER. A key part of these activities is the manufacturing development, the fabrication and the factory acceptance tests of a reduced scale FW prototype (Semi-Prototype (SP)) of the NHF design. The SP has a dimension of 221 mm × 665 mm, corresponding to about 1/6 of a full-scale panel, with six full-scale “fingers” and bearing a total of 84 beryllium tiles. It has been manufactured by the AREVA Company in France. The manufacturing process has made extensive use of Hot Isostatic Pressing, which was developed over more than a decade during the ITER Engineering Design Activity phase. The main manufacturing steps for the Semi-Prototype are recalled, with a summary of the lessons learned and the implications with regard to the design and manufacturing of the full-scale prototype and of the series fabrication of the EU-DA share of the ITER first wall (215 NHF panels). The fabricated SP is then tested under High Heat Flux (HHF) in the dedicated test facility of JUDITH-II in Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. The objective of the HHF testing is the demonstration of achieving the requested performance under thermal fatigue. The test protocol and facility qualification are presented and the behaviour of the fingers under the 7500 cycles at 2 MW/m{sup 2} is described in detail.

  8. The chicken enucleated eye test (CEET): a practical (pre)screen for the assessment of eye irritation/corrosion potential of test materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsen, M K

    1996-03-01

    The enucleated eye test with chicken eyes (CEET) obtained from an abattoir proved to be a valuable and practical alternative for the 'traditional' enucleated eye test with eyes of laboratory rabbits. Since 1992, the CEET has been incorporated in standard contract toxicity testing at the Toxicology Division of the TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute as a (pre)screen for the Draize eye test with rabbits. The results of the first 44 compounds tested showed excellent correlation with the in vivo results. The CEET identified non-irritating or severely irritating compounds, and predicted (slightly to moderately) irritating compounds. Statistical analysis of the CEET and the rabbit in vivo scores showed high linear correlations between the critical values of both tests and confirmed the relevance of this assay with respect to ocular effects. In general, tiered in vitro/in vivo testing was considered a meaningful approach for further validation of alternative methods and for reducing the use of suffering of laboratory animals to a minimum. Tiered testing of compounds in cases of eye irritation hazard assessment should be incorporated in the legislation of the European Community.

  9. Formal testing and utilization of streaming media to improve flight crew safety knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, Marc A; Rankin, Peter M; Quisling, Jason; Gangnon, Ronald; Kohrs, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Increased concerns over the safety of air medical transport have prompted development of novel ways to increase safety. The objective of our study was to determine if an Internet streaming media safety video increased crew safety knowledge. 23 out of 40 crew members took an online safety pre-test, watched a safety video specific to our program and completed immediate and long-term post-testing 6 months later. Mean pre-test, post-test and 6 month follow up test scores were 84.9%, 92.3% and 88.4% respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in all scores (p Streaming media proved to be an accessible and effective supplement to safety training in our study.

  10. Sensitivity testing practice on pre-processing parameters in hard and soft coupled modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to the problem of practical applicability of coupled modeling with the use of hard and soft models types and necessity of adapted to that models data base possession. The data base tests results for cylindrical 30 mm diameter casting made of AlSi7Mg alloy were presented. In simulation tests that were applied the Calcosoft system with CAFE (Cellular Automaton Finite Element module. This module which belongs to „multiphysics” models enables structure prediction of complete casting with division of columnar and equiaxed crystals zones of -phase. Sensitivity tests of coupled model on the particular values parameters changing were made. On these basis it was determined the relations of CET (columnar-to-equaiaxed transition zone position influence. The example of virtual structure validation based on real structure with CET zone location and grain size was shown.

  11. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. JPSS-1 VIIRS Pre-Launch Response Versus Scan Angle Testing and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS instruments on-board both the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP and the first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1 spacecraft, with launch dates of October 2011 and December 2016 respectively, are cross-track scanners with an angular swath of ±56.06°. A four-mirror Rotating Telescope Assembly (RTA is used for scanning combined with a Half Angle Mirror (HAM that directs light exiting from the RTA into the aft-optics. It has 14 Reflective Solar Bands (RSBs, seven Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs and a panchromatic Day Night Band (DNB. There are three internal calibration targets, the Solar Diffuser, the BlackBody and the Space View, that have fixed scan angles within the internal cavity of VIIRS. VIIRS has calibration requirements of 2% on RSB reflectance and as tight as 0.4% on TEB radiance that requires the sensor’s gain change across the scan or Response Versus Scan angle (RVS to be well quantified. A flow down of the top level calibration requirements put constraints on the characterization of the RVS to 0.2%–0.3% but there are no specified limitations on the magnitude of response change across scan. The RVS change across scan angle can vary significantly between bands with the RSBs having smaller changes of ~2% and some TEBs having ~10% variation. Within a band, the RVS has both detector and HAM side dependencies that vary across scan. Errors in the RVS characterization will contribute to image banding and striping artifacts if their magnitudes are above the noise level of the detectors. The RVS was characterized pre-launch for both S-NPP and JPSS-1 VIIRS and a comparison of the RVS curves between these two sensors will be discussed.

  13. Reliability and Factorial Validity of Non-Specific and Tennis-Specific Pre-Planned Agility Tests; Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Peric, Mia; Spasic, Miodrag; Kondric, Miran

    2017-01-01

    Agility is an important quality in tennis, yet there is an evident lack of studies focussing on the applicability of tennis-specific agility performances and comparing them to equivalent non-specific agility performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and factorial validity of three tests of pre-planned agility, performed in specific (with a tennis racquet) and non-specific (without a tennis racquet) conditions. The sample consisted of 33 tennis players (13 males and 20 females; age: 18.3 ± 1.1 years and 18.6 ± 1.3 years; body height: 185.4 ± 51 cm and 169.3 ± 4.2 cm, 74.0 ± 4.4 kg and 61.2 ± 3.1 kg, respectively). The variables comprised three agility tests: a 20-yard test, a T-test and the Illinois test, all performed in both specific and non-specific conditions. Between-subject and within-subject reliability were found to be high (Cronbach Alpha: 0.93 to 0.98; Coefficient of Variation: 3 to 8%), with better within-subject reliability and stability of the measurement for specific tests. Pearson's product moment correlations between the non-specific and specific agility performances were high (r ≥0.84), while factor analysis extracted only one significant latent dimension on the basis of the Guttman-Kaiser criterion. The results of the 20-yard test were better when the test was conducted in the specific conditions (t-test = 2.66; p agility, we suggest using tests of short duration (less than 10 s) and sport-specific types of locomotion.

  14. Teste de um modelo teórico sobre o valor percebido do preço de um produto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonir de Toni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No estudo relatado neste artigo, o objetivo foi testar um modelo teórico proposto por De Toni e Mazzon visando à mensuração do valor percebido do preço de um produto ou serviço. Com base em um framework conceitual, avaliou-se o impacto das dimensões antecedentes funcional, emocional positiva e negativa, de justiça, axiomática, simbólica e social sobre o valor percebido do preço e consequente intenção de compra. Para tanto, propuseram-se escalas para mensuração desses construtos, tendo-se efetuado a purificação dessas escalas com base em testes e análises estatísticas aplicadas a dois estudos piloto. Em seguida foram analisados indicadores da aplicação de análise fatorial confirmatória, com o propósito de aferir a confiabilidade e a validade das escalas propostas, tomando-se por base uma amostra de 337 casos válidos. Pôde-se verificar, tanto em relação aos indicadores de ajuste do modelo teórico quanto no teste das hipóteses propostas, que os resultados obtidos se mostraram válidos e confiáveis para a situação analisada. Como contribuição teórica do estudo, apresentam-se a operacionalização do framework integrativo proposto e as respectivas escalas com a medida do impacto relativo que cada construto tem no valor percebido do preço e na intenção de compra de um bem ou serviço.

  15. Exercise testing of pre-school children using the Bruce treadmill protocol: new reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.M. van der Cammen-van Zijp (Monique); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); T. Takken (Tim); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); D. Tibboel (Dick); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Bruce treadmill protocol is an often-used exercise test for children and adults. Few and mainly old normative data are available for young children. In this cross-sectional observational study we determined new reference values for the original Bruce protocol in children aged 4 and 5

  16. Opportunity to Learn: Investigating Possible Predictors for Pre-Course "Test Of Astronomy STandards" TOAST Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Katie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2017-01-01

    As discipline-based astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in undergraduate introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the…

  17. Developing Effective Physical Fitness Testing Standards for Pre Service Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kory; Thornburg, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators are often held to a higher standard of physical fitness. The ability to effectively convey the importance of physical fitness may depend upon the ability to appear physically fit. The ability to perform at a minimal level of proficiency on fitness tests was deemed important by the faculty of one physical education teacher…

  18. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention of basic life support in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhou, Rong-hua; Liu, Jin; Lin, Jing; Ma, Er-Li; Liang, Peng; Shi, Ting-wei; Fang, Li-qun; Xiao, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Pre-training evaluation and feedback have been shown to improve medical students' skills acquisition of basic life support (BLS) immediately following training. The impact of such training on BLS skills retention is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate effects of pre-training evaluation and feedback on BLS skills retention in medical students. Three hundred and thirty 3rd year medical students were randomized to two groups, the control group (C group) and pre-training evaluation and feedback group (EF group). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the time of retention-test (at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-month following the initial training). After a 45-min BLS lecture, BLS skills were assessed (pre-training evaluation) in both groups before training. Following this, the C group received 45 min training. 15 min of group feedback corresponding to students' performance in pre-training evaluation was given only in the EF group that was followed by 30 min of BLS training. BLS skills were assessed immediately after training (post-test) and at follow up (retention-test). No skills difference was observed between the two groups in pre-training evaluation. Better skills acquisition was observed in the EF group (85.3 ± 7.3 vs. 68.1 ± 12.2 in C group) at post-test (p<0.001). In all retention-test, better skills retention was observed in each EF subgroup, compared with its paired C subgroup. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention in the EF group for 12 months after the initial training, compared with the control group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Empirical tests of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution models with eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Feiden, Gregory A.; Torres, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    We examine the performance of standard pre-main-sequence (PMS) stellar evolution models against the accurately measured properties of a benchmark sample of 26 PMS stars in 13 eclipsing binary (EB) systems having masses 0.04-4.0 M⊙ and nominal ages ≈1-20 Myr. We provide a definitive compilation of all fundamental properties for the EBs, with a careful and consistent reassessment of observational uncertainties. We also provide a definitive compilation of the various PMS model sets, including physical ingredients and limits of applicability. No set of model isochrones is able to successfully reproduce all of the measured properties of all of the EBs. In the H-R diagram, the masses inferred for the individual stars by the models are accurate to better than 10% at ≳1 M⊙, but below 1 M⊙ they are discrepant by 50-100%. Adjusting the observed radii and temperatures using empirical relations for the effects of magnetic activity helps to resolve the discrepancies in a few cases, but fails as a general solution. We find evidence that the failure of the models to match the data is linked to the triples in the EB sample; at least half of the EBs possess tertiary companions. Excluding the triples, the models reproduce the stellar masses to better than ∼10% in the H-R diagram, down to 0.5 M⊙, below which the current sample is fully contaminated by tertiaries. We consider several mechanisms by which a tertiary might cause changes in the EB properties and thus corrupt the agreement with stellar model predictions. We show that the energies of the tertiary orbits are comparable to that needed to potentially explain the scatter in the EB properties through injection of heat, perhaps involving tidal interaction. It seems from the evidence at hand that this mechanism, however it operates in detail, has more influence on the surface properties of the stars than on their internal structure, as the lithium abundances are broadly in good agreement with model predictions. The

  20. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation High Overall Pressure Ratio Compressor Research Pre-Test CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestina, Mark L.; Fabian, John C.; Kulkarni, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative and cost-shared approach to reducing fuel burn under the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. NASA and General Electric (GE) Aviation are working together aa an integrated team to obtain compressor aerodynamic data that is mutually beneficial to both NASA and GE Aviation. The objective of the High OPR Compressor Task is to test a single stage then two stages of an advanced GE core compressor using state-of-the-art research instrumentation to investigate the loss mechanisms and interaction effects of embedded transonic highly-loaded compressor stages. This paper presents preliminary results from NASA's in-house multistage computational code, APNASA, in preparation for this advanced transonic compressor rig test.

  1. Cognitive interviewing methods for questionnaire pre-testing in homeless persons with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Carol E; Holland, Anna C; Patterson, Michelle L; Mason, Kate S; Goering, Paula N; Hwang, Stephen W

    2012-02-01

    In this study, cognitive interviewing methods were used to test targeted questionnaire items from a battery of quantitative instruments selected for a large multisite trial of supported housing interventions for homeless individuals with mental disorders. Most of the instruments had no published psychometrics in this population. Participants were 30 homeless adults with mental disorders (including substance use disorders) recruited from service agencies in Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Toronto, Canada. Six interviewers, trained in cognitive interviewing methods and using standard interview schedules, conducted the interviews. Questions and, in some cases, instructions, for testing were selected from existing instruments according to a priori criteria. Items on physical and mental health status, housing quality and living situation, substance use, health and justice system service use, and community integration were tested. The focus of testing was on relevance, comprehension, and recall, and on sensitivity/acceptability for this population. Findings were collated across items by site and conclusions validated by interviewers. There was both variation and similarity of responses for identified topics of interest. With respect to relevance, many items on the questionnaires were not applicable to homeless people. Comprehension varied considerably; thus, both checks on understanding and methods to assist comprehension and recall are recommended, particularly for participants with acute symptoms of mental illness and those with cognitive impairment. The acceptability of items ranged widely across the sample, but findings were consistent with previous literature, which indicates that "how you ask" is as important as "what you ask." Cognitive interviewing methods worked well and elicited information crucial to effective measurement in this unique population. Pretesting study instruments, including standard instruments, for use in special populations such as homeless

  2. Pre-test analysis of protected loss of primary pump transients in CIRCE-HERO facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcisi, V.; Giannetti, F.; Del Nevo, A.; Tarantino, M.; Caruso, G.

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of LEADER project (Lead-cooled European Advanced Demonstration Reactor), a new configuration of the steam generator for ALFRED (Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator) was proposed. The new concept is a super-heated steam generator, double wall bayonet tube type with leakage monitoring [1]. In order to support the new steam generator concept, in the framework of Horizon 2020 SESAME project (thermal hydraulics Simulations and Experiments for the Safety Assessment of MEtal cooled reactors), the ENEA CIRCE pool facility will be refurbished to host the HERO (Heavy liquid mEtal pRessurized water cOoled tubes) test section to investigate a bundle of seven full scale bayonet tubes in ALFRED-like thermal hydraulics conditions. The aim of this work is to verify thermo-fluid dynamic performance of HERO during the transition from nominal to natural circulation condition. The simulations have been performed with RELAP5-3D© by using the validated geometrical model of the previous CIRCE-ICE test section [2], in which the preceding heat exchanger has been replaced by the new bayonet bundle model. Several calculations have been carried out to identify thermal hydraulics performance in different steady state conditions. The previous calculations represent the starting points of transient tests aimed at investigating the operation in natural circulation. The transient tests consist of the protected loss of primary pump, obtained by reducing feed-water mass flow to simulate the activation of DHR (Decay Heat Removal) system, and of the loss of DHR function in hot conditions, where feed-water mass flow rate is absent. According to simulations, in nominal conditions, HERO bayonet bundle offers excellent thermal hydraulic behavior and, moreover, it allows the operation in natural circulation.

  3. Responsiveness of the Countermovement Jump and Handgrip Strength to an Incremental Running Test in Endurance Athletes: Influence of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2018-03-01

    The present study analyzed the acute effects of an incremental running test on countermovement jump (CMJ) and handgrip strength performance in endurance athletes, considering the effect of post-exercise recovery time and sex. Thirty-three recreationally trained long-distance runners, 20 men and 13 women, participated voluntarily in this study. The participants performed the Léger test, moreover, the CMJ and handgrip strength tests were carried out before and after the running test and during different stages of recovery (at the 1st min of recovery (posttest1), 5th min of recovery (posttest2), and 10th min of recovery (posttest3)). Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement in the CMJ (pre-posttest1, p = 0.001) and handgrip strength (pre-posttest2, p = 0.017) during recovery time. The Pearson's Chi-2 test showed no significant relationship ( p ≥ 0.05) between sex and post-activation potentiation (PAP). A linear regression analysis pointed to heart rate recovery as a predictive factor of CMJ improvement (PAP). In conclusion, despite significant fatigue reached during the Léger test, the long-distance runners did not experience an impaired CMJ and handgrip strength performance, either men or women, achieving an improvement (PAP) in posttest conditions. The results obtained showed no significant relationship between sex and PAP. Moreover, significant effect of recovery after running at high intensity on CMJ performance and handgrip strength was found. Finally, the data suggest that PAP condition can be predicted by heart rate recovery in endurance runners.

  4. Diagnostic performance of placental alpha-microglobulin-1 test in women with prolonged pre-labour rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, George Uchenna; Ezugwu, Euzebus Chinonye; Eke, Ahizechukwu Chigoziem; Eleje, Lydia Ijeoma; Ikechebelu, Joseph Ifeanyichukwu; Afiadigwe, Evaristus Anthony; Ezugwu, Frank O; Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Okafor, Charles I; Ezeama, Chukwuemeka Okwudili

    2016-01-01

    To determine diagnostic performance of placental alpha-microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) test compared to conventional clinical assessment (CCA) in women with prolonged pre-labour rupture of membranes (PROM). A double-blind study of women with symptoms and signs of PROM in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, in south-east Nigeria using CCA for PROM and PAMG-1 test was done. Women were included if their symptoms, signs or complaints suggestive of PROM was more than 24 h duration. PROM was diagnosed if two out of three methods from CCA (pooling, positive nitrazine test or ferning) were present. Confirmation of PROM was done after delivery using any two of these clinical criteria: delivery in 48 h to 7 days, evidence of chorioamnionitis, membranes obviously ruptured at delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes strongly correlated with prolonged PROM. Accuracy, specificity and sensitivity value for CCA were 72.5, 36.8 and 86.0% lower than for PAMG-1 test which were 95.7, 94.1 and 96.2%. In equivocal cases, PAMG-1 was significantly more accurate than CCA (92.3% versus 38.5%; p < 0.001). This study in women with prolonged PROM, confirms that PAMG-1 test has high diagnostic accuracy irrespective of the duration of PROM before clinical evaluation.

  5. Digital I and C system pre-tests using plant specific simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, B.; Probst, H.; Wischert, W.

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on strategic aspects of the implementation of modern digital instrumentation and control system (I and C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) training simulators and points out the way to identify the most appropriate implementation method of the digital I and C system in the simulator development environment which fulfils the requirement imposed by the nuclear power plants. This regards mainly training aspects, simulator as a test bed for design verification and validation (V and V), and software maintenance aspects with respect to future evolutions of the digital I and C system. (author)

  6. ORNL Pre-test Analyses of A Large-scale Experiment in STYLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Paul T.; Yin, Shengjun; Klasky, Hilda B.; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2011-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting a series of numerical analyses to simulate a large scale mock-up experiment planned within the European Network for Structural Integrity for Lifetime Management non-RPV Components (STYLE). STYLE is a European cooperative effort to assess the structural integrity of (non-reactor pressure vessel) reactor coolant pressure boundary components relevant to ageing and life-time management and to integrate the knowledge created in the project into mainstream nuclear industry assessment codes. ORNL contributes work-in-kind support to STYLE Work Package 2 (Numerical Analysis/Advanced Tools) and Work Package 3 (Engineering Assessment Methods/LBB Analyses). This paper summarizes the current status of ORNL analyses of the STYLE Mock-Up3 large-scale experiment to simulate and evaluate crack growth in a cladded ferritic pipe. The analyses are being performed in two parts. In the first part, advanced fracture mechanics models are being developed and performed to evaluate several experiment designs taking into account the capabilities of the test facility while satisfying the test objectives. Then these advanced fracture mechanics models will be utilized to simulate the crack growth in the large scale mock-up test. For the second part, the recently developed ORNL SIAM-PFM open-source, cross-platform, probabilistic computational tool will be used to generate an alternative assessment for comparison with the advanced fracture mechanics model results. The SIAM-PFM probabilistic analysis of the Mock-Up3 experiment will utilize fracture modules that are installed into a general probabilistic framework. The probabilistic results of the Mock-Up3 experiment obtained from SIAM-PFM will be compared to those results generated using the deterministic 3D nonlinear finite-element modeling approach. The objective of the probabilistic analysis is to provide uncertainty bounds that will assist in assessing the more detailed 3D finite

  7. Reservoir characterization and final pre-test analysis in support of the compressed-air-energy-storage Pittsfield aquifer field test in Pike County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The work reported is part of a field experimental program to demonstrate and evaluate compressed air energy storage in a porous media aquifer reservoir near Pittsfield, Illinois. The reservoir is described. Numerical modeling of the reservoir was performed concurrently with site development. The numerical models were applied to predict the thermohydraulic performance of the porous media reservoir. This reservoir characterization and pre-test analysis made use of evaluation of bubble development, water coning, thermal development, and near-wellbore desaturation. The work was undertaken to define the time required to develop an air storage bubble of adequate size, to assess the specification of instrumentation and above-ground equipment, and to develop and evaluate operational strategies for air cycling. A parametric analysis was performed for the field test reservoir. (LEW)

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE MACH 2 RAMGEN ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2001-09-01

    The research and development effort of a new kind of combustion engine is presented. The engine is designed to convert the thrust from ramjet modules into shaft torque, which in turn can be used for electrical power generation or mechanical drive applications. An aggressive test program was undertaken that included evaluation of the existing engine, as well as incorporation of novel improvements to the thrust modules and supporting systems. Fuel mixing studies with Vortex Generators and bluff body flame holders illuminated the importance of increasing the shear-layer area and spreading angle to augment flame volume. Evaluation of flame-holding configurations (with variable fuel injection methods) concluded that the heat release zone, and therefore combustion efficiency, could be manipulated by judicious selection of bluff body geometry, and is less influenced by fuel injection distribution. Air film cooling studies demonstrated that acceptable combustor life could be achieved with optimized air film distribution patterns and thermal barrier coatings.

  9. Noninvasive regional cerebral blood flow measurements at pre- and post-acetazolamide test using 99mTc-ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Nakano, Seigo; Tanaka, Masaaki.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for serial noninvasive cerebral blood flow measurements at pre- and post-acetazolamide (Diamox) test was newly developed using 99m Tc-ECD without blood sampling. Baseline mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was measured from graphical analysis of time activity curves for brain and aortic arch obtained from radionuclide angiography by injection of 370-555 MBq 99m Tc-ECD. The first SPECT study was performed immediately after intravenous administration of 1 g of Diamox, then baseline regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was calculated using Lassen's correction algorithm. Immediately after the stop of the first SPECT study, additional 555-740 MBq of 99m Tc-ECD was administered, thereafter the second SPECT study was started. Post-Diamox SPECT images were obtained by subtraction of the first baseline images from the second images. Using Lassen's algorithm, post-Diamox mCBF was estimated from the baseline mCBF, the baseline mean SPECT counts, and post-Diamox mean SPECT counts corrected for administered dose and imaging time. Post-Diamox rCBF was obtained from the post-Diamox mCBF and the post-Diamox mean SPECT counts using Lassen's algorithm. Coefficient variation was shown 2.7% and 3.5%: mCBF and rCBF, respectively in test-retest results in six patients without Diamox administration. Nine demented patients without vascular disorders showed significant mCBF increase of 35.7% on the average by post-Diamox. In conclusion, this simplified method is practically useful for measuring CBF at pre- and post-Diamox test within short period of time without any blood sample. (author)

  10. Exercise testing of pre-school children using the Bruce treadmill protocol: new reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H M; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; Takken, Tim; Willemsen, Sten P; Tibboel, Dick; Stam, Henk J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2010-01-01

    The Bruce treadmill protocol is an often-used exercise test for children and adults. Few and mainly old normative data are available for young children. In this cross-sectional observational study we determined new reference values for the original Bruce protocol in children aged 4 and 5 years. Furthermore, we compared the original protocol with the so-called 'half Bruce' protocol. In the Netherlands this half-Bruce protocol is often used for young children because of the rather large increments in workload in the original protocol. Seventy-eight healthy Dutch children participated. The maximal endurance time was the criterion of exercise capacity. The new reference values for the original Bruce protocol are presented as reference centiles. The mean (SD) endurance time using the original protocol was 10.2 (SD 1.5) min.; this was 9.4 (1.3) min. for the half-Bruce protocol. The mean difference was 50 seconds (95% CI: 29-71 s, P Bruce protocol are different and should not be considered interchangeable. Our new reference values can be used as reference values for the original Bruce protocol.

  11. Pre-Clinical Tests of an Integrated CMOS Biomolecular Sensor for Cardiac Diseases Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Kuang; Wang, I-Shun; Huang, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Fan; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2017-11-26

    Coronary artery disease and its related complications pose great threats to human health. In this work, we aim to clinically evaluate a CMOS field-effect biomolecular sensor for cardiac biomarkers, cardiac-specific troponin-I (cTnI), N -terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The CMOS biosensor is implemented via a standard commercialized 0.35 μm CMOS process. To validate the sensing characteristics, in buffer conditions, the developed CMOS biosensor has identified the detection limits of IL-6, cTnI, and NT-proBNP as being 45 pM, 32 pM, and 32 pM, respectively. In clinical serum conditions, furthermore, the developed CMOS biosensor performs a good correlation with an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) obtained from a hospital central laboratory. Based on this work, the CMOS field-effect biosensor poses good potential for accomplishing the needs of a point-of-care testing (POCT) system for heart disease diagnosis.

  12. Development and validation of a multilateration test bench for particle accelerator pre-alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamugasa, Solomon William; Rothacher, Markus; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Mainaud Durand, Helene

    2018-03-01

    The development and validation of a portable coordinate measurement solution for fiducialization of compact linear collider (CLIC) components is presented. This new solution addresses two limitations of high-accuracy state-of-the-art coordinate measuring machines, i.e. lack of portability and limited measurement volume. The solution is based on frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) distances and the multilateration coordinate measurement technique. The developments include a reference sphere for localizing the FSI optical fiber tip and a kinematic mount for repositioning the reference sphere with sub-micrometric repeatability. This design enables absolute distance measurements in different directions from the same point, which is essential for multilateration. A multilateration test bench built using these prototypes has been used to fiducialize a CLIC cavity beam position monitor and 420 mm-long main beam quadrupole magnet. The combined fiducialization uncertainty achieved is 3.5 μm (k  =  1), which is better than the CLIC 5 μm (k  =  1) uncertainty specification.

  13. Major structural controls on the distribution of pre-Tertiary rocks, Nevada Test Site vicinity, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.C.

    1998-10-23

    The lateral and vertical distributions of Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Nevada are the combined products of original stratigraphic relationships and post-depositional faults and folds. This map compilation shows the distribution of the pre-Tertiary rocks in the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. It is based on considerable new evidence from detailed geologic mapping, biostratigraphic control, sedimentological analysis, and a review of regional map relationships. Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks of the region record paleogeographic transitions between continental shelf depositional environments on the east and deeper-water slope-facies depositional environments on the west. Middle Devonian and Mississippian sequences, in particular, show strong lateral facies variations caused by contemporaneous changes in the western margin of North America during the Antler orogeny. Sections of rock that were originally deposited in widely separated facies localities presently lie in close proximity. These spatial relationships chiefly result from major east- and southeast-directed thrusts that deformed the region in Permian or later time. Somewhat younger contractional structures are identified within two irregular zones that traverse the region. These folds and thrusts typically verge toward the west and northwest and overprint the relatively simple pattern of the older contractional terranes. Local structural complications are significant near these younger structures due to the opposing vergence and due to irregularities in the previously folded and faulted crustal section. Structural and stratigraphic discontinuities are identified on opposing sides of two north-trending fault zones in the central part of the compilation region north of Yucca Flat. The origin and significance of these zones are enigmatic because they are largely covered b Tertiary and younger deposits. These faults most likely results from significant lateral

  14. Completion of an Online Library Module Improves Engineering Student Performance on Information Literacy Skills Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Scott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Zhang, Q., Goodman, M., & Xie, S. (2015. Integrating library instruction into the Course Management System for a first-year engineering class: An evidence-based study measuring the effectiveness of blended learning on students’ information literacy levels. College & Research Libraries, 76(7, 934-958. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.934 Objective – To assess the efficacy of an online library module and of blended learning methods on students’ information literacy skills. Design – Multi-modal, pre- and posttests, survey questionnaire, and focus groups. Setting – Public research university in London, Ontario, Canada. Subjects – First-year engineering students. Methods – Of 413 students enrolled in Engineering Science (ES 1050, 252 volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were asked to complete the online module, a pretest, a posttest, an online follow-up survey, and to take part in a focus group. Researchers generated a pretest and a posttest, each comprised of 15 questions:; multiple choice, true or false, and matching questions which tested students’ general and engineering-specific information literacy skills. The pretest and posttest had different, but similarly challenging, questions to ensure that students involved in the study would not have an advantage over those who had opted out. While all components of the study were voluntary, the posttest was a graded course assignment. In-person tutorials were offered on 4 occasions, with only 15 students participating. Both tutorial and module content were designed to cover all questions and competencies tested in the pretest and the posttest, including Boolean operators, peer review, identifying plagiarism, engineering standards, engineering handbooks, search strategies, patents, article citations, identifying reliable sources, and how to read journal articles. The posttest survey was delivered in the CMS immediately after the posttest was completed. It

  15. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods

  16. Collaborative learning in pre-clinical dental hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Joseph, Laura J; Nappo-Dattoma, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    Dental hygiene education continues to move beyond mastery of content material and skill development to learning concepts that promote critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of collaborative learning and determine the growth in intellectual development of 54 first-year dental hygiene students. The control group used traditional pre-clinical teaching and the experimental group used collaborative pedagogy for instrument introduction. All students were subjected to a post-test evaluating their ability to apply the principles of instrumentation. Intellectual development was determined using pre- and post-tests based on the Perry Scheme of Intellectual Development. Student attitudes were assessed using daily Classroom Assessment Activities and an end-of-semester departmental course evaluation. Findings indicated no significant difference between collaborative learning and traditional learning in achieving pre-clinical competence as evidenced by the students' ability to apply the principles of instrumentation. Advancement in intellectual development did not differ significantly between groups. Value added benefits of a collaborative learning environment as identified by the evaluation of student attitudes included decreased student reliance on authority, recognition of peers as legitimate sources of learning and increased self-confidence. A significant difference in student responses to daily classroom assessments was evident on the 5 days a collaborative learning environment was employed. Dental hygiene students involved in a pre-clinical collaborative learning environment are more responsible for their own learning and tend to have a more positive attitude toward the subject matter. Future studies evaluating collaborative learning in clinical dental hygiene education need to investigate the cost/benefit ratio of the value added outcomes of collaborative learning.

  17. Designing Studies to Test Causal Questions About Early Math: The Development of Making Pre-K Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, Shira K; Morris, Pamela A; Jacob, Robin; Maier, Michelle; Rojas, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    A growing literature has demonstrated that early math skills are associated with later outcomes for children. This research has generated interest in improving children's early math competencies as a pathway to improved outcomes for children in elementary school. The Making Pre-K Count study was designed to test the effects of an early math intervention for preschoolers. Its design was unique in that, in addition to causally testing the effects of early math skills, it also allowed for the examination of a number of additional questions about scale-up, the influence of contextual factors and the counterfactual environment, the mechanism of long-term fade-out, and the role of measurement in early childhood intervention findings. This chapter outlines some of the design considerations and decisions put in place to create a rigorous test of the causal effects of early math skills that is also able to answer these questions in early childhood mathematics and intervention. The study serves as a potential model for how to advance science in the fields of preschool intervention and early mathematics. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased CSF transferrin in sCJD: a potential pre-mortem diagnostic test for prion disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease (sCJD is a fatal neurodegenerative condition that escapes detection until autopsy. Recently, brain iron dyshomeostasis accompanied by increased transferrin (Tf was reported in sCJD cases. The consequence of this abnormality on cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF levels of Tf is uncertain. We evaluated the accuracy of CSF Tf, a 'new' biomarker, as a pre-mortem diagnostic test for sCJD when used alone or in combination with the 'current' biomarker total-tau (T-tau. Levels of total-Tf (T-Tf, isoforms of Tf (Tf-1 and Tf-β2, and iron saturation of Tf were quantified in CSF collected 0.3-36 months before death (duration from 99 autopsy confirmed sCJD (CJD+ and 75 confirmed cases of dementia of non-CJD origin (CJD-. Diagnostic accuracy was estimated by non-parametric tests, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Area under the ROC curve (AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PV, and likelihood ratios (LR of each biomarker and biomarker combination were calculated. We report that relative to CJD-, CJD+ cases had lower median CSF T-Tf (125,7093 vs. 217,7893 and higher T-tau (11530 vs. 1266 values. AUC was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.85-0.94 for T-Tf, and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.97 for T-Tf combined with T-tau. With cut-offs defined to achieve a sensitivity of ∼85%, T-Tf identified CJD+ cases with a specificity of 71.6% (95% CI, 59.1-81.7, positive LR of 3.0 (95% CI, 2.1-4.5, negative LR of 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.3, and accuracy of 80.1%. The effect of patient age and duration was insignificant. T-Tf combined with T-tau identified CJD+ with improved specificity of 87.5% (95%CI, 76.3-94.1, positive LR of 6.8 (95% CI, 3.5-13.1, negative LR of 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.3, positive-PV of 91.0%, negative-PV of 80.0%, and accuracy of 86.2%. Thus, CSF T-Tf, a new biomarker, when combined with the current biomarker T-tau, is a reliable pre-mortem diagnostic test for sCJD.

  19. Corona pre-ionized gas switches with an increased lifetime for Marx generator of the lightning test complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Yu A.; Krastelev, E. G.

    2017-05-01

    A new design of triggered spark gas switches with an increased operation life and stable dynamic performances for 2.4 MV, 4 MJ Marx generator of the lightning test complex is developed. An operation mode of switches in the test complex is the following: the total voltage - up to 80 kV, the discharge current - up to 50 kA, the charge flowing - up to 3.5 C/pulse, the working gas - dry air at an atmospheric pressure. An increased operating life is achieved by using the torus-shaped electrodes with an increased working area and by the application of a thick disk with a hole, as a trigger electrode, installed between the two torus-shaped electrodes. A short breakdown time delay and a high stability of the breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas pre-ionization in the spark gap by UV-radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region of the switch.

  20. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction molecular testing of cytology specimens: Pre-analytic and analytic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Julia A

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of molecular testing into cytopathology laboratory practice has expanded the types of samples considered feasible for identifying genetic alterations that play an essential role in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a sensitive and specific technical approach for amplifying a defined segment of RNA after it has been reverse-transcribed into its DNA complement, is commonly used in clinical practice for the identification of recurrent or tumor-specific fusion gene events. Real-time RT-PCR (quantitative RT-PCR), a technical variation, also permits the quantitation of products generated during each cycle of the polymerase chain reaction process. This review addresses qualitative and quantitative pre-analytic and analytic considerations of RT-PCR as they relate to various cytologic specimens. An understanding of these aspects of genetic testing is central to attaining optimal results in the face of the challenges that cytology specimens may present. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:11-19. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. The Development and Validation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring Pre-Service Elementary Education and Secondary Science Teachers' Understanding of the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows…

  2. THE EFFECT OF STORYTELLING IN A PLAY THERAPY ON ANXIETY LEVEL IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN DURING HOSPITALIZATION IN THE GENERAL HOSPITAL OF BUTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Yati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is one of the psychical stresses experienced by children during hospitalization. A storytelling in a play therapy is considered effective in reducing anxiety. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety level in pre-school children during hospitalization in the general hospital of Buton. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design. There were 30 pre-school children selected in this study using accidental sampling, with 15 assigned in each group. The Pre School - Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS was used to measure anxiety in pre-school children. Wilcoxon matched paired test was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings showed that the mean of anxiety level in the intervention group in pretest was 42 and in posttest was 31.53. Wilcoxon matched paired test showed p-value 0.003 (<0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant effect of storytelling on the level of anxiety in pre-school children. Conclusions: There is a significant influence of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety levels in pre school children during hospitalization. It is suggested that this intervention could be applied as a nursing intervention to reduce anxiety in children.

  3. Logging of post-test and CCH record core samples for the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, R.; Qualheim, B.

    1985-02-01

    Over 1300 ft of core obtained from 50 boreholes are described, with emphasis on the nature and orientations of geologic discontinuities in the Climax Stock. Although most of the core was not oriented with respect to global coordinates, approximate orientations of planar features, such as joints, veins, and sheer fractures, were obtained by taking core measurements relative to a set of low-angle joints found throughout the rock mass. The method for determining the approximate core orientation is described in detail, and the associated uncertainty is discussed. A graphic fracture log for each hole is provided, along with the computer code used to generate it

  4. Logging of post-test and CCH record core samples for the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, R.; Qualheim, B.

    1985-02-01

    Over 1300 ft of core obtained from 50 boreholes are described, with emphasis on the nature and orientations of geologic discontinuities in the Climax Stock. Although most of the core was not oriented with respect to global coordinates, approximate orientations of planar features, such as joints, veins, and sheer fractures, were obtained by taking core measurements relative to a set of low-angle joints found throughout the rock mass. The method for determining the approximate core orientation is described in detail, and the associated uncertainty is discussed. A graphic fracture log for each hole is provided, along with the computer code used to generate it.

  5. Learning to Work with Databases in Astronomy: Quantitative Analysis of Science Educators' and Students' Pre-/Post-Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; Burrows, Andrea C.; Myers, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is increasingly moving towards working with large databases, from the state-of-the-art Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10, to the historical Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard. Non-astronomy fields as well tend to work with large datasets, be it in the form of warehouse inventory, health trends, or the stock market. However very few fields explicitly teach students the necessary skills to analyze such data. The authors studied a matched set of 37 participants working with 200-entry databases in astronomy using Google Spreadsheets, with limited information about a random set of quasars drawn from SDSS DR5. Here the authors present the quantitative results from an eight question pre-/post-test, with questions designed to span Bloom's taxonomy, on both the topics of the skills of using spreadsheets, and the content of quasars. Participants included both Astro 101 summer students and professionals including in-service K-12 teachers and science communicators. All groups showed statistically significant gains (as per Hake, 1998), with the greatest difference between women's gains of 0.196 and men's of 0.480.

  6. Bentonite buffer pre-test. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PP264...267 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2010-12-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four drillholes for bentonite buffer pre-test in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in July 2010. The identification numbers of the holes are ONK-PP264..267, and the lengths of the drillholes are approximately 4.30 metres each. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in a niche at access tunnel chainage 1475. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used for the work. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. In addition to drilling, the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock type in the drillholes is pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in the drill cores is 4.0 pcs / m and the average RQD value 94.2 %. (orig.)

  7. Masters in nursing degrees: an evaluation of management and leadership outcomes using a retrospective pre-test design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the leadership and management abilities of graduates who had completed a master's degree in nursing. A number of reports have recommended that leadership competencies be integrated into education programmes for nurses at a master's level. In spite of the growth in the number of graduates from higher degrees in nursing, there is a paucity of evidence on the management and leadership outcomes that develop as a result of undertaking a master's degree. A cross-sectional survey using a retrospective pre-test design was used to measure self-reported leadership and management outcomes from the graduates' educational programmes. Results found that graduates had gained significantly on their ability to change practice, communicate and work as part of a team and to problem solve as an outcome of completing a master's degree in nursing. Graduates make substantial gains in leadership and management capabilities as a consequence of their higher degree. These capabilities are necessary as nurses take the lead in many areas of healthcare. The masters in nursing degree now has a pivotal role in providing effective continuing education to the nursing profession; especially for those who occupy or intend to occupy senior positions within clinical, management or education branches of the profession. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Pre-Test pan Work Plan sebagai Strategi Pembelajaran Efektif pada Praktikum Bahan Teknik Lanjut Jurusan Pendidikan Teknik Mesin FT UNY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdjito Nurdjito

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To find the most effective learning strategy for the practicum in the laboratory of materials of the department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Faculty of Engineering, Yogyakarta State University (YSU, a study that aims to determine the effect of applying pre-test and work plan on the learning activities and the achievement of students in the laboratory was conducted. This action research used the purposive random sampling technique. Pre-test and work plan were conducted as the treatment. The data of study was collected through a test to analyse the students’ achievement scores, then they were analyzed using t-test with SPSS. The results of this study indicated that the application of pre-test and work plan in addition to the standard module was proven to be more effective than the  normative learning using the module with t = 3.055 p = 0.003 <0.05. The implementation of the pre-test and work plan in addition to the use of standard modules is able to  improve the students’ motivation, independence and readiness to learn as well as the cooperation among the students, therefore the achievement is also improved. The mastery of competencies increased significantly proved by the increasing values of mode 66 to 85 (the experiment, and mean 73.12 into 79.32 (experiment.

  9. Cardiac arrhythmias during exercise testing in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, E. F.; Owen, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Clinically healthy male executives who participate in a long-term physical conditioning program have demonstrated cardiac arrhythmia during and after periodic ergometric testing at submaximal and maximal levels. In 1,385 tests on 248 subjects, it was found that 34% of subjects demonstrated an arrhythmia at some time and 13% of subjects developed arrhythmia on more than one test. Premature systoles of ventricular origin were most common, but premature systoles of atrial origin, premature systoles of junctional origin, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular block, wandering pacemaker, and pre-excitation were also seen. Careful post-test monitoring and pulse rate regulated training sessions are suggested for such programs.

  10. Intermanual transfer in training with an upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis simulator: a mechanistic, randomized, pretest-posttest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2013-01-01

    Intermanual transfer may improve prosthetic handling and acceptance if used in training soon after an amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intermanual transfer effects can be detected after training with a myoelectric upper-limb prosthesis simulator. A mechanistic, randomized, pretest-posttest design was used. A total of 48 right-handed participants (25 women, 23 men) who were able-bodied were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group performed a training program of 5 days' duration using the prosthesis simulator. To determine the improvement in skill, a test was administered before, immediately after, and 6 days after training. The control group only performed the tests. Training was performed with the unaffected arm, and tests were performed with the affected arm (the affected arm simulating an amputated limb). Half of the participants were tested with the dominant arm and half with the nondominant arm. Initiation time was defined as the time from starting signal until start of the movement, movement time was defined as the time from the beginning of the movement until completion of the task, and force control was defined as the maximal applied force on a deformable object. The movement time decreased significantly more in the experimental group (F₂,₉₂=7.42, P=.001, η²(G)=.028) when compared with the control group. This finding is indicative of faster handling of the prosthesis. No statistically significant differences were found between groups with regard to initiation time and force control. We did not find a difference in intermanual transfer between the dominant and nondominant arms. The training utilized participants who were able-bodied in a laboratory setting and focused only on transradial amputations. Intermanual transfer was present in the affected arm after training the unaffected arm with a myoelectric prosthesis simulator, and this effect did not depend on laterality. This

  11. The Reliability of 1- and 3Rm Tests of Unilateral Strength in Trained and Untrained Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Kevin; Langford, George A; Cline, Adam L; Doscher, Micheal; Hoff, Russ

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the 1- and 3RM tests for the modified unilateral squat. Thirty untrained (22 women, 8 men) and 22 trained (12 women, 10 men) subjects participated in the study. The trained group had a minimum of 1 year lower-body training experience but had not participated in unilateral training prior to the study. After practicing proper technique with light loads, the subjects used the barbell squat to complete a 1- and 3RM pretest and posttest. In each group half of the subjects completed the 1RM tests prior to the 3RM tests while half of the subjects completed the 3RM tests first. A rest period of 48 hours was allowed between each test. Twenty subjects, randomly selected from the two groups, completed a third session of the 1RM test 3 days after the 1RM posttest. Intraclass correlation coefficients were recorded. Differences between pre- and posttest measures were determined by the paired-sample t-test. The 1- and 3RM tests were found to be significantly reliable for trained men, r = 0.98 and r = 0.97, untrained men, r = 0.99 and r = 0.97, trained women r = 0.99 and r = 0.94, and untrained women, r = 0.97 and r = 0.87, respectively. Posttest scores for the 1- and 3RM tests significantly improved above baseline levels in each group (p squat can be measured with high reliability using the 1- and 3RM tests. The improved posttest scores indicate that a pretest session should take place before recording baseline measurements. Key PointsThe modified unilateral squat is a reliable test for trained and untrained men and women.The 1RM and 3RM tests are reliable and safe for trained and untrained subjects.A practice session and pretest should be conducted prior to baseline testing.

  12. An eye movement pre-training fosters the comprehension of processes and functions in technical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuballa, Irene T.; Fortunski, Caroline; Renkl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The main research goal of the present study was to investigate in how far pre-training eye movements can facilitate knowledge acquisition in multimedia (pre-training principle). We combined considerations from research on eye movement modeling and pre-training to design and test a non-verbal eye movement-based pre-training. Participants in the experimental condition watched an animated circle moving in close spatial resemblance to a static visualization of a solar plant accompanied by a narration in a subsequently presented learning environment. This training was expected to foster top-down processes as reflected in gaze behavior during the learning process and enhance knowledge acquisition. We compared two groups (N = 45): participants in the experimental condition received pre-training in a first step and processed the learning material in a second step, whereas the control group underwent the second step without any pre-training. The pre-training group outperformed the control group in their learning outcomes, particularly in knowledge about processes and functions of the solar plant. However, the superior learning outcomes in the pre-training group could not be explained by eye-movement patterns. Furthermore, the pre-training moderated the relationship between experienced stress and learning outcomes. In the control group, high stress levels hindered learning, which was not found for the pre-training group. On a delayed posttest participants were requested to draw a picture of the learning content. Despite a non-significant effect of training on the quality of drawings, the pre-training showed associations between learning outcomes at the first testing time and process-related aspects in the quality of their drawings. Overall, non-verbal pre-training is a successful instructional intervention to promote learning processes in novices although these processes did not directly reflect in learners' eye movement behavior during learning. PMID:26029138

  13. Effect of VAPE about mother and infant health on knowledge among primary caregivers of patients with postpartum psychiatric illness:- A pre-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Thomas, Linsu; Desai, Geetha

    2017-08-01

    Post partum psychiatric illnesses are quiet common nowadays, which can interfere with postnatal care of both mother and infant. The present study was a one group pre-test - post-test design, adopted with an aim to enhance the knowledge on mother infant health among primary caregivers of mothers with postpartum psychiatric illnesses conducted in the mother-baby unit, NIMHANS, Bengaluru. Twenty five subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited through convenience sampling. After the pilot study, data was collected with a researcher developed tool. The Video Assisted Psycho-Education [VAPE] consisted of three sessions lasting for thirty minutes, taken over three consecutive days following the pre-test. Post-test was done immediately after the last session. Effectiveness of the intervention was established by McNemar test, Paired t-test and Wilcoxon Sign Ranks test. Analysis revealed statistically significant (pVAPE sessions. There was no statistically significant association between the pre-intervention knowledge score and the socio-demographic variables of the study subjects. The study findings revealed that the VAPE programme was effective in increasing the knowledge of the primary caregivers on mother infant health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Presymptomatic ALS genetic counseling and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislaw, Christine; Reyes, Eliana; Hussain, Sumaira; Cooley, Anne; Fernandez, Maria Catalina; Dauphin, Danielle D.; Michon, Sara-Claude; Andersen, Peter M.; Wuu, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable advances in our understanding of the genetic contributions to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have sparked discussion and debate about whether clinical genetic testing should routinely be offered to patients with ALS. A related, but distinct, question is whether presymptomatic genetic testing should be offered to family members who may be at risk for developing ALS. Existing guidelines for presymptomatic counseling and testing are mostly based on small number of individuals, clinical judgment, and experience from other neurodegenerative disorders. Over the course of the last 8 years, we have provided testing and 317 genetic counseling sessions (including predecision, pretest, posttest, and ad hoc counseling) to 161 first-degree family members participating in the Pre-Symptomatic Familial ALS Study (Pre-fALS), as well as testing and 75 posttest counseling sessions to 63 individuals with familial ALS. Based on this experience, and the real-world challenges we have had to overcome in the process, we recommend an updated set of guidelines for providing presymptomatic genetic counseling and testing to people at high genetic risk for developing ALS. These recommendations are especially timely and relevant given the growing interest in studying presymptomatic ALS. PMID:27194384

  15. THE RELIABILITY OF 1- AND 3RM TESTS OF UNILATERAL STRENGTH IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Hoff

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the 1- and 3RM tests for the modified unilateral squat. Thirty untrained (22 women, 8 men and 22 trained (12 women, 10 men subjects participated in the study. The trained group had a minimum of 1 year lower-body training experience but had not participated in unilateral training prior to the study. After practicing proper technique with light loads, the subjects used the barbell squat to complete a 1- and 3RM pretest and posttest. In each group half of the subjects completed the 1RM tests prior to the 3RM tests while half of the subjects completed the 3RM tests first. A rest period of 48 hours was allowed between each test. Twenty subjects, randomly selected from the two groups, completed a third session of the 1RM test 3 days after the 1RM posttest. Intraclass correlation coefficients were recorded. Differences between pre- and posttest measures were determined by the paired-sample t-test. The 1- and 3RM tests were found to be significantly reliable for trained men, r = 0.98 and r = 0.97, untrained men, r = 0.99 and r = 0.97, trained women r = 0.99 and r = 0.94, and untrained women, r = 0.97 and r = 0.87, respectively. Posttest scores for the 1- and 3RM tests significantly improved above baseline levels in each group (p < 0.05. Strength scores did not significantly increase during the third 1RM test (p = 0.22. The data indicate that the modified unilateral squat can be measured with high reliability using the 1- and 3RM tests. The improved posttest scores indicate that a pretest session should take place before recording baseline measurements

  16. Reliability and Validity Study for the Coloured Progressive Matrices Test between the Ages of 3-9 for Determining Gifted Children in the Pre-School Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildiren, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the Coloured Progressive Matrices Test with regard to reliability and validity for the 3-9 age sample group because of the lack of diagnostic tools for the pre-school period. The sample group of the study was comprised of a total of 925 children with 433 girls (46.8%) and 492 boys (53.2%). Coloured…

  17. C-reactive protein point-of-care testing and associated antibiotic prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaard, Margaretha C; van de Pol, Alma C; Hopstaken, Rogier M; van Delft, Sanne; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Verheij, Theo J M; de Wit, Niek J

    2016-08-01

    In clinical trials, the potential of point-of-care (POC) C-reactive protein (CRP) tests was demonstrated in decreasing antibiotic prescribing in adults with acute cough in general practice, but effects of implementation are unknown. To determine the overall effect of POC CRP testing on antibiotic prescribing rate in general practice. In an observational study, GPs were instructed to use POC CRP in adults with acute cough following current guidelines. After routine history taking and physical examination, they reported whether they intended to prescribe antibiotics ('pre-test decision'). They reported their revised decision after receiving the POC CRP test result ('post-test decision'). Primary outcome was the percentage of patients in whom the GP changed his or her decision to prescribe antibiotics. Secondary outcome was the difference between 'pre-test' and 'post-test' antibiotic prescribing % at group level. A total of 40 GPs enrolled 939 patients, 78% of whom were tested for CRP. GPs changed their decision after POC CRP testing in 200 patients (27%). Antibiotic prescribing before and after CRP testing did not differ ('pre-test' 31%, 'post-test' 28%; 95% confidence interval of difference -7 to 1). In 41% of the tested patients, the indication for testing was in accordance with the guidelines. POC CRP influenced GPs to change their decision about antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute cough. POC CRP testing does not reduce overall antibiotic prescribing by GPs who already have a low antibiotic prescribing rate. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Reducing child abuse amongst adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: A pre-post trial in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska; Yakubovich, Alexa; Doubt, Jenny; Redfern, Alice; Ward, Catherine; Salah, Nasteha; De Stone, Sachin; Petersen, Tshiamo; Mpimpilashe, Phelisa; Romero, Rocio Herrero; Ncobo, Lulu; Lachman, Jamie; Tsoanyane, Sibongile; Shenderovich, Yulia; Loening, Heidi; Byrne, Jasmina; Sherr, Lorraine; Kaplan, Lauren; Gardner, Frances

    2016-07-13

    No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations. Two hundred thirty participants (adolescents and their primary caregivers) were recruited from schools, welfare services and community-sampling in rural, high-poverty South Africa (no exclusion criteria). All participated in a 12-week parenting programme, implemented by local NGO childcare workers to ensure real-world external validity. Standardised pre-post measures with adolescents and caregivers were used, and paired t-tests were conducted for primary outcomes: abuse (physical, emotional abuse and neglect), adolescent behaviour problems and parenting (positive and involved parenting, poor monitoring and inconsistent discipline), and secondary outcomes: mental health, social support and substance use. Participants reported high levels of socio-economic deprivation, e.g. 60 % of adolescents had either an HIV-positive caregiver or were orphaned by AIDS, and 50 % of caregivers experienced intimate partner violence. i) indicative effects: Primary outcomes comparing pre-test and post-test assessments showed reductions reported by adolescents and caregivers in child abuse (adolescent report 63.0 % pre-test to 29.5 % post-test, caregiver report 75.5 % pre-test to 36.5 % post-test, both p child abuse and improved caregiver and adolescent outcomes. It showed high acceptability and unexpected community-level diffusion. Findings indicate needs for adaptations, and

  19. Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

  20. PENGARUH AROMATERAPI LAVENDER TERHADAP PENURUNAN KECEMASAN IBU PRE OPERASI SECTIO CAESAREA DIRUMAH SAKIT BERSALIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ratna Dila

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to determine the influence of aerobic exercisethe incidence of lavender aromatherapy to reduction mother’s anxiety pre operation sectio caesarea.. This study was quasi experimental method with pre and post test without control design. The sample in this study were 20 people is mother first caesarea surgery with a purposive sampling technique. The result of this study was wilcoxon signed rank test there are difference in pretest value of pre mother’s anxiety pre operation sectio caesarea as 20 (100% respondent and posttest value of mother’s anxiety pre operation sectio caesarea as 16 (80% respondent, indicated that the p value of 0,000 (< 0.05. The conclusion of this study there was the influence was influence of lavender aromatherapy to reduction mother’s anxiety pre operation sectio caesarea. in Paradise Maternity Hospital Kecamatan Simpang Empat Batulicin 2017. It is recommended that giving aromatherapy lavender can be used as an alternative to lower anxiety levels in patients before surgery sectio caesarea and for subsequent researchers to continue and develop existing research.

  1. Community health worker interventions are key to optimal infant immunization coverage, evidence from a pretest-posttest experiment in Mwingi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzioki, Japheth Mativo; Ouma, James; Ombaka, James Hebert; Onyango, Rosebella Ongutu

    2017-01-01

    Immunization is a powerful and cost-effective health intervention which averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year. Kenya has a high infant and under five mortality and morbidity rates. Increasing routine child immunization coverage is one way of reducing child morbidity and mortality rates in Kenya. Community Health Workers (CHWs) have emerged as critical human resources for health in developing countries. The Community Strategy (CS) is one of the CHW led interventions promoting Maternal and Child Health (MCH) in Kenya. This study sought to establish the effect of CS on infant vaccination Coverage (IVC) in Mwingi west sub-county; Kenya. This was a pretest - posttest experimental study design with 1 pretest and 2 post-test surveys conducted in intervention and control sites. Mwingi west and Mwingi north sub-counties where intervention and control sites respectively. Sample size in each survey was 422 households. Women with a child aged 9-12 months were main respondents. Intervention site end-term evaluation indicated that; the CS increased IVC by 10.1% (Z =6.0241, P health outcomes through immunization coverage, Kenya needs to fast-track nationwide implementation of the CS intervention.

  2. Microbiota around teeth and dental implants in periodontally healthy, partially edentulous patients : is pre-implant microbiological testing relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijndert, Leo; van der Reijden, Wil A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Vissink, Arjan

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of seven periodontal marker pathogens, before implant placement and 1 yr after loading, in periodontally healthy individuals and to assess the long-term effectiveness of pre-implant reduction of pathogens to below threshold levels. In 93 individuals needing

  3. Microbiota around teeth and dental implants in periodontally healthy, partially edentulous patients: is pre-implant microbiological testing relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijndert, L.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Meijer, H.J.A.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of seven periodontal marker pathogens, before implant placement and 1 yr after loading, in periodontally healthy individuals and to assess the long-term effectiveness of pre-implant reduction of pathogens to below threshold levels. In 93 individuals needing

  4. Quantifying the visual perception skills of pre-school testees using a novel tangible electronic test instrument

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available an assessment instrument that directly measures pre-school children’s visual perception skills that form part of literacy skills, as defined in the Persona Object Model in order to provide information that could contribute to the design of appropriate game...

  5. Effects of Phonological Input as a Pre-Listening Activity on Vocabulary Learning and L2 Listening Comprehension Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre­-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-­year students at a Japanese university. There were two…

  6. A Peptide-Based Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Assay To Test for Serum Antibody Responses to Pre-Erythrocyte Malaria Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostense, Stefan; Mommaas, Bregje; Hendriks, Jenny; Verhoeven, Mariëlle; ter Haak, Mariska; Tirion, Felicia; Wiesken, Edison; Pau, Maria Grazia; Radosevic, Katarina; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Various pre-erythrocyte malaria vaccines are currently in clinical development, and among these is the adenovirus serotype 35-based circumsporozoite (CS) vaccine produced on PER.C6 cells. Although the immunological correlate of protection against malaria remains to be established, the CS antibody

  7. Test results of pre-production prototype distributed ion pump design for the PEP-II Asymmetric B-Factory collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdener, F.R.; Behne, D.; Hathaway, D. [and others

    1995-04-24

    We have built and tested a plate-type pre-production distributed Ion Pump (DIP) for the PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring (HER). The design has been an earlier design to use less materials and to costs. Penning cell hole sizes of 15, 18, and 21 mm have been tested in a uniform magnetic field of 0.18 T to optimize pumping speed. The resulting final DIP design consisting of a 7-plate, 15 mm basic cell size anode was magnetic field of the HER dipole. A description of the final optimized DIP design will be presented along with the test results of the pumping speed measurements.

  8. Strategies facilitant les tests en pre-certification pour la robustesse a l'egard des radiations =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souari, Anis

    . permettant d’evaluer d’une facon realiste la sensibilite des circuits integres face. aux effets des radiations afin d’eviter d’envoyer des circuits non robustes a la phase tres. couteuse de la certification. Les circuits cibles par nos travaux sont les circuits integres. programmables par l’usager (FPGA) a base de memoire SRAM et le type de pannes ciblees, causees par les radiations, est les SEU (single event upset) consistant a un basculement de. l’etat logique d’un element de memoire a son complementaire. En effet, les FPGA a base de. memoire SRAM sont de plus en plus demandes par la communaute de l’aerospatial grace a. leurs caracteristiques de prototypage rapide et de reconfiguration sur site mais ils sont. vulnerables face aux radiations ou les SEU sont les pannes les plus frequentes dans les. elements de memoire de type SRAM. Nous proposons une nouvelle approche d’injection de. pannes par emulation permettant de mimer les effets des radiations sur la memoire de. configuration des FPGA et de generer des resultats les plus fideles possibles des resultats des. tests de certification. Cette approche est basee sur la consideration de la difference de. sensibilite des elements de memoire de configuration lorsqu’ils sont a l’etat '1' et a l’etat '0', observee sous des tests acceleres sous faisceaux de protons au renomme laboratoire. TRIUMF, dans la procedure de generation des sequences de test dans le but de mimer la. distribution des pannes dans la memoire de configuration. Les resultats des experimentations. de validation montrent que la strategie proposee est efficace et genere des resultats realistes. Ces resultats revelent que ne pas considerer la difference de sensibilite peut mener a une. sous-estimation de la sensibilite des circuits face aux radiations. Dans la meme optique d’optimisation de la procedure d’injection des pannes par emulation, a. savoir le test de pre-certification, nous proposons

  9. cDNA-library testing identifies transforming genes cooperating with c-myc in mouse pre-B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Inge; Bouquet, Corinne; Melchers, Fritz

    2016-11-01

    While c-myc often contributes to the generation of B cell transformation, its transgenic overexpression alone does not lead to full transformation of B-lineage cells. Synergistically acting second genes must cooperate. Here, we constructed doxycycline-inducible cDNA-libraries from pre-B cell mRNA. These libraries were retrovirally transduced as single copies into single cells and overexpressed in fetal-liver-derived c-myc-overexpressing pre-B cell lines. We scored transformation by survival and/or expansion of differentiating B-lineage cells in vitro and in vivo. Only one double c-myc/cDNA-library-expressing cell line was found in less than 5 × 10 6 library-transduced pre-B cells surviving and expressing a cDNA-library-derived transcript in vitro. This transcript was identified as a shortened form of the Exosc1 gene, encoding the RNA exosome complex component CSL4. Transplantations of double c-myc/Exosc1 short-form- or c-myc/Exosc1 full-length-transgenic cells into Rag1 -/- mice resulted in survival, differentiation to CD19 + CD93 - sIgM + CD5 low/- CD11b + mature B1 cells and, surprisingly, also vigorous expansion in vivo. Strikingly, after transplantations of c-myc/cDNA-library pre-BI cells the frequencies of double-transgenic pre-B cells and their differentiated progeny, expanding in vivo to heterogeneous phenotypes, was at least tenfold higher than in vitro. In a first analysis Ptprcap, Cacybp, Ndufs7, Rpl18a, and Rpl35a were identified. This suggests a strong influence of the host on B-cell transformation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

  11. A multi-centre phase IIa clinical study of predictive testing for pre-eclampsia. IMproved PRegnancy Outcomes Via Early Detection (IMPROVED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Louise

    2013-04-01

    1 in 20 first time pregnancies is complicated by pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in Europe. No clinically useful early pregnancy screening test exists, consequentially clinicians are unable to offer targeted surveillance or preventative strategies. IMPROVED Consortium members have pioneered a personalised medicine approach in identifying blood-borne biomarkers through recent technological advancements, involving mapping of the blood metabolome and proteome. The Consortium recently received funding under the auspices of the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union under the call: HEALTH- 2012-INNOVATION-1.2-1 (Grant Agreement no. Health-F5-2012-305169). The objective is to develop a sensitive, specific, high-throughput and economically viable early pregnancy screening test for pre-eclampsia. We report the design of a multicentre, phase IIa clinical study to assess and refine innovative prototype tests based on emerging metabolomic and proteomic technologies. Participation involves serial maternal phlebotomy, collection of clinical data, and pregnancy outcome data. Participants will attend essential visits at 15 and 20 weeks' gestation, with optional 11 and 34 weeks' gestation. Blood samples will undergo a combination of proteomic and metabolomic tests, and diagnostic performance will be assessed in accord with a pre-approved statistical analysis plan which will report Receiver Operating Curves, and Positive Predictive Values. The study is expected to refine proteomic and metabolomic panels, combined with clinical parameters, and evaluate clinical applicability as an early pregnancy predictive test for pre-eclampsia. If 'at risk' patients can be identified, this will allow stratified care with personalised fetal and maternal surveillance, early diagnosis, timely intervention, and significant health economic savings. The IMPROVED biobank will be accessible to the European scientific community for high quality research into the cause and

  12. Cancer-Related Genetic Testing and Personalized Medicine for Adolescents: A Narrative Review of Impact and Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetsch, Janine; Wakefield, Claire E; Warby, Meera; Tucker, Katherine; Patterson, Pandora; McGill, Brittany C; Metcalfe, Alison; Cohn, Richard J; Fardell, Joanna E

    2018-01-16

    Genetic testing is becoming increasingly available for adolescents who are undergoing cancer treatment or at risk of cancer predisposition syndromes. With this narrative review, we aimed to synthesize the evidence on psychosocial outcomes and adolescents' understanding of genetic testing-thus far, an underresearched topic. Both psychological benefits and harms of predictive testing were reported in adolescents from high-risk families. Harms were mainly related to cancer-specific distress and increased worries. Findings on genetic understanding were sparse. Future studies should focus on psychosocial outcomes and adolescents' understanding undergoing genetic testing and enabling access to genetic counseling pre-testing and post-testing.

  13. Willingness to access peer-delivered HIV testing and counseling among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lianping; Hayashi, Kanna; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Peer-based models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing have been implemented to increase access to testing in various settings. However, little is known about the acceptability of peer-delivered testing and counseling among people who inject drugs (IDU). During July and October 2011, data derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project were used to construct three multivariate logistic regression models identifying factors associated with willingness to receive peer-delivered pre-test counseling, rapid HIV testing, and post-test counseling. Among a total of 348 IDU, 44, 38, and 36 % were willing to receive peer-delivered pre-test counseling, rapid HIV testing, and post-test counseling, respectively. In multivariate analyses, factors associated with willingness to access peer-delivered pre-test counseling included: male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.48), higher than secondary education (AOR = 1.91), and binge drug use (AOR = 2.29) (all p education (AOR = 2.06), binge drug use (AOR = 2.23), incarceration (AOR = 2.68), avoiding HIV testing (AOR = 0.24), and having been to the Mitsampan Harm Reduction Center (AOR = 1.63) (all p < 0.05). Lastly, binge drug use (AOR = 2.40), incarceration (AOR = 1.94), and avoiding HIV testing (AOR = 0.23) (all p < 0.05) were significantly associated with willingness to access peer-delivered post-test counseling. We found that a substantial proportion of Thai IDU were willing to receive peer-delivered HIV testing and counseling. These findings highlight the potential of peer-delivered testing to complement existing HIV testing programs that serve IDU.

  14. AP1000 passive core cooling system pre-operational tests procedure definition and simulation by means of Relap5 Mod. 3.3 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lioce, D., E-mail: donato.lioce@aen.ansaldo.it [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso F. M. Perrone 25, 16161, Genova (Italy); Asztalos, M., E-mail: asztalmj@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Twp, PA 16066 (United States); Alemberti, A., E-mail: alessandro.alemberti@aen.ansaldo.it [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso F. M. Perrone 25, 16161, Genova (Italy); Barucca, L. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso F. M. Perrone 25, 16161, Genova (Italy); Frogheri, M., E-mail: monicalinda.frogheri@aen.ansaldo.it [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso F. M. Perrone 25, 16161, Genova (Italy); Saiu, G., E-mail: gianfranco.saiu@aen.ansaldo.it [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso F. M. Perrone 25, 16161, Genova (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two AP1000 Core Make-up Tanks pre-operational tests procedures have been defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two tests have been simulated by means of the Relap5 computer code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show the tests can be successfully performed with the selected procedures. - Abstract: The AP1000{sup Registered-Sign} plant is an advanced Pressurized Water Reactor designed and developed by Westinghouse Electric Company which relies on passive safety systems for core cooling, containment isolation and containment cooling, and maintenance of main control room emergency habitability. The AP1000 design obtained the Design Certification by NRC in January 2006, as Appendix D of 10 CFR Part 52, and it is being built in two locations in China. The AP1000 plant will be the first commercial nuclear power plant to rely on completely passive safety systems for core cooling and its licensing process requires the proper operation of these systems to be demonstrated through some pre-operational tests to be conducted on the real plant. The overall objective of the test program is to demonstrate that the plant has been constructed as designed, that the systems perform consistently with the plant design, and that activities culminating in operation at full licensed power including initial fuel load, initial criticality, and power increase to full load are performed in a controlled and safe manner. Within this framework, Westinghouse Electric Company and its partner Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. have strictly collaborated, being Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. in charge of the simulation of some pre-operational tests and supporting Westinghouse in the definition of tests procedures. This paper summarizes the work performed at Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. in collaboration with Westinghouse Electric Company for the Core Makeup Tank (CMT) tests, i.e. the CMTs hot recirculation test and the CMTs draindown test. The test procedure for the two

  15. Use of HbA(1C) testing to diagnose pre-diabetes in high risk African American children: a comparison with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushma; Fleming, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the discriminating power of HbA(1C) with other pre-diabetes diagnostic tests specifically in high-risk African American children. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 172 children (70 boys and 102 girls) aged 9-11 years with BMI's above the 85th percentile. Fasting glucose, insulin and HbA(1C) were analyzed from the plasma samples. Of the 172 participants included in this analysis, 21 (12.2%) had HbA(1C) concentrations above the cutoff of 5.7 used to identify pre-diabetes. None (0%) of these 21 participants, however, were observed to have a glucose concentration above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 110 mg/dl, and only 13 of 21 participants had HOMA-IR above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 2.5. When compared to the previously identified glucose cutoff of 110 mg/dl and HOMA-IR cutoff of 2.5 for pre-diabetes, HbA(1C) showed high specificity (88 and 93%, respectively) but very low sensitivity (0 and 21%, respectively). Glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly interrelated, but HbA(1C) was not significantly correlated with these biochemical prediabetes assessment variables, nor with anthropometric (BMIz, WC) risk factors. Our results suggest that HbA(1C) had poor discrimination power to identify prediabetes in overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old African American children. Future studies are recommended to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and predictive power of different screening tests currently recommended to avoid inadequacy when screening for prediabetes and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Single-Blind randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of extended counseling on uptake of pre-antiretroviral care in eastern uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrone Gaetano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many newly screened people living with HIV (PLHIV in Sub-Saharan Africa do not understand the importance of regular pre-antiretroviral (ARV care because most of them have been counseled by staff who lack basic counseling skills. This results in low uptake of pre-ARV care and late treatment initiation in resource-poor settings. The effect of providing post-test counseling by staff equipped with basic counseling skills, combined with home visits by community support agents on uptake of pre-ARV care for newly diagnosed PLHIV was evaluated through a randomized intervention trial in Uganda. Methods An intervention trial was performed consisting of post-test counseling by trained counselors, combined with monthly home visits by community support agents for continued counseling to newly screened PLHIV in Iganga district, Uganda between July 2009 and June 2010, Participants (N = 400 from three public recruitment centres were randomized to receive either the intervention, or the standard care (the existing post-test counseling by ARV clinic staff who lack basic training in counseling skills, the control arm. The outcome measure was the proportion of newly screened and counseled PLHIV in either arm who had been to their nearest health center for clinical check-up in the subsequent three months +2 months. Treatment was randomly assigned using computer-generated random numbers. The statistical significance of differences between the two study arms was assessed using chi-square and t-tests for categorical and quantitative data respectively. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of the intervention. Results Participants in the intervention arm were 80% more likely to accept (take up pre-ARV care compared to those in the control arm (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.1. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions Provision of post-test counseling by staff trained in basic counseling skills, combined with home visits by

  17. Fostering Pre-service Teachers' Self-Determined Environmental Motivation Through Green Chemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The global environmental crisis intensifies particularly in developing nations. Environmental educators have begun to understand that changing the environmental impact requires not only changes in pro-environmental knowledge and attitudes but also in associated, self-determined motivation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a green chemistry curriculum changes Malaysian pre-service teachers' environmental motivation. Two comparable groups of pre-service teachers participated in this study. The students in the experimental group ( N = 140) did green chemistry experiments whereas the control group ( N = 123) did equivalent experiments in a traditional manner. Posttest results indicate that there is significant difference between both the groups for intrinsic motivation, integration, identification, and introjections scales and no differences for external regulation and amotivation scales. The qualitative analysis of interview data suggests that the changes are predominantly due to the personal satisfaction that participants derived from engaging in pro-environmental behavior.

  18. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde

    2015-01-01

    and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet....... Racing time in Vasaloppet correlated negatively with average work output (W/kg) at the pre ski-ergometer test (Figure 3A) (n = 24; r = -0.79; P ski performance was positively associated with ergometer performance. Likewise, a similar correlation was obtained after the 16 week training...... period between average post-test work output in the ski-ergometer and performance in Vasaloppet (n = 24; r = -0.76; P ski-ergometer tests. Pre-field-test time performance on rollerskies as measured...

  19. The Effects of Using Podcast on Listening Comprehension among Iranian Pre-intermediate EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam NamazianDost

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of using podcast on listening comprehension among Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners. To fulfill the objectives of the study a Homogeneity test (Oxford Quick Placement Test was administered among 90 students at the pre-intermediate level of Poyesh language Institute and finally 60 participants were selected. Then, they were non-randomly divided into two sub­groups, namely control and experimental groups.  Before starting the treatment, a validated teacher-made listening comprehension test was administered to students as pre-test to assess the participants' listening comprehension at the beginning of the course. Then, the experimental group received the treatment, which was teaching listening comprehension through using podcasts while the control group was taught using traditional methods of teaching listening with no multimedia source. After 20 sessions of treatment, the two groups were administered the same teacher-made listening test as post-test. Data were analyzed by Paired and Independent Samples t-­test. The findings showed that the experimental group significantly performed better than the control group. Generally, the experimental groups outperformed the control groups. The results suggest that podcasts can be used in English classes to develop listening ability among Iranian EFL learners.

  20. Long-term impact of pre-operative physical rehabilitation protocol on the 6-min walk test of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L. dos Santos Alves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitored physical activities in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS have been shown to improve physical performance, endurance and cardiopulmonary function and may be assessed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT. We aimed to evaluate the long-term results of the 6MWT after a rehabilitation protocol employed before surgical correction for AIS. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial studied the impact of a 4-month pre-operative physical rehabilitation protocol on post-operative cardiopulmonary function and physical endurance, by using the 6MWT, in patients with AIS submitted to surgical correction, comparing them to matched controls without physical rehabilitation. Studied variables were heart and respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral blood oxygen saturation, Borg score, and distance walked. Patients were assessed at baseline, after 4 months of rehabilitation, and 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Results: A total of 50 patients with AIS were included in the study and allocated blindly, by simple randomization, into either one of the two groups, with 25 patients each: study group (pre-operative physical rehabilitation and control group. The physical rehabilitation protocol promoted significant progressive improvement in heart and respiratory rate, peripheral blood oxygen saturation, distance walked, and level of effort assessed by the Borg scale after surgery. Conclusions: Post-surgical recovery, evaluated by 6MWT, was significantly better in patients who underwent a 4-month pre-operative physical rehabilitation protocol. Keywords: Scoliosis, Exercise, Exercise movement techniques, Exercise therapy, Exercise test

  1. Coping with stressful events: A pre-post-test of a psycho-educational intervention for undergraduate nursing and midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bridie; Trace, Anna; O'Donovan, Moira; O'Regan, Patricia; Brady-Nevin, Caroline; O'Shea, Maria; Martin, Ann-Marie; Murphy, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge of coping mechanisms is important for nursing and midwifery students to cope with stressful events during undergraduate education. To evaluate the impact of a psycho-educational intervention "Coping with Stressful Events" with first year undergraduate nursing and midwifery students. A quasi-experimental, one-group pre-post-test. One school of nursing/midwifery in one university in Ireland. A convenience sample of all first year undergraduate nursing and midwifery students (n=197). Of these 166 completed the pretest and 138 students completed the post test. Using the COPE Inventory questionnaire (Carver et al., 1989) data was collected pre and post-delivery of the psycho-educational intervention "Coping with Stressful Events" by two research assistants. Data were analysed using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (NY, USA). Results demonstrated improved coping skills by students. There were statistically significant differences between pre and post intervention for some coping subscales. For example, the mean subscale scores were lower post-intervention for restraint and mental disengagement, and higher for use of emotional and instrumental social support indicating improved coping strategies. This intervention has the potential to influence undergraduate nursing and midwifery students coping skills during their first year of an undergraduate programme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function sport and recreation subscale scores predict groin injury in Gaelic football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Fitzpatrick, Helen; Blake, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To determine if pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale scores can identify Gaelic football players at risk of developing groin injury. Prospective study. Senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Fifty-five male elite Gaelic football players (age = 24.0 ± 2.8 years, body mass = 84.48 ± 7.67 kg, height = 1.85 ± 0.06 m, BMI = 24.70 ± 1.77 kg/m 2 ) from a single senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Occurrence of groin injury during the season. Ten time-loss groin injuries were registered representing 13% of all injuries. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season adductor squeeze test score was below 225 mmHg, was 7.78. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale score was football players at risk of developing groin injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating whether children's transition from pre-operational stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pretest-posttest quasiexperimental design with random assignment of children to experimental and control groups were employed to examine possible ... There was no difference between the male and female children at the pre-operational stage in their characteristic way of thinking before the intervention strategy.

  4. A pre-crisis vs. crisis analysis of peripheral EU stock markets by means of wavelet transform and a nonlinear causality test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Martínez, J. M.; Fernández-Macho, J.; Neumann, M. B.; Faria, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of EU peripheral (so-called PIIGS) stock market indices and the S&P Europe 350 index (SPEURO), as a European benchmark market, over the pre-crisis (2004-2007) and crisis (2008-2011) periods. We computed a rolling-window wavelet correlation for the market returns and applied a non-linear Granger causality test to the wavelet decomposition coefficients of these stock market returns. Our results show that the correlation is stronger for the crisis than for the pre-crisis period. The stock market indices from Portugal, Italy and Spain were more interconnected among themselves during the crisis than with the SPEURO. The stock market from Portugal is the most sensitive and vulnerable PIIGS member, whereas the stock market from Greece tends to move away from the European benchmark market since the 2008 financial crisis till 2011. The non-linear causality test indicates that in the first three wavelet scales (intraweek, weekly and fortnightly) the number of uni-directional and bi-directional causalities is greater during the crisis than in the pre-crisis period, because of financial contagion. Furthermore, the causality analysis shows that the direction of the Granger cause-effect for the pre-crisis and crisis periods is not invariant in the considered time-scales, and that the causality directions among the studied stock markets do not seem to have a preferential direction. These results are relevant to better understand the behaviour of vulnerable stock markets, especially for investors and policymakers.

  5. Developing test for experimental study: the effectiveness of hedwig strategy in english education department universitas brawijaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinta Puspita Ratri

    2017-04-01

    Having a big number of students in content subject of a language class is a challenge for teacher since it is quite difficult to accommodate students’ critical thinking and active participation at the same time. Therefore, Hedwig strategy is aimed to give room for students to explore themselves and get involved in the materials delivered in the class. Furthermore, by having group and regroup to deliver message in Hedwig strategy, students are forced to be active participated in classroom activities. The idea of Hedwig strategy is inspired by Jigsaw and Think-Pair-Share which have existed before. To know whether Hedwig strategy is effectively applied in content subject in large language class, it is proposed to do quasi experimental study with one class as an experimental group and one class as a control group. The experimental group is treated by using Hedwig strategy. Prior to the experimental study, it is performed research and development to develop the test for pre-test and post-test. For that reason, the research problem is what test is valid and reliable for an experimental study on the effectiveness of Hedwig strategy for the 4th semester students in Language Teaching Methodology class in English Education Department Universitas Brawijaya. This research reports half of the whole plan where the researchers developed test for pre-test and posttest to measure students’ improvement in understanding Language Teaching Methodology. In short, the test developed in this study will be used to carry out experimental study as pre-test and post-test

  6. Initial experience of evaluation of coronary artery with 320-slice row CT system in high pre-test probability population without heart rate (rhythm) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gang; Li Guoying; Li Min; Ding Juan; Li Shenghui; Li Li; Zhu Shifang; Lin Changling; Zou Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy of 320-slice row CT system for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in high pre-test probability population without heart rate/rhythm control. Methods: Thirty patients with a high pre-test probability of CAD underwent 320-slice row CT without preceding heart rate/rhythm control. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) served as the standard reference. Data sets were evaluated by 2 observers in consensus with respect to stenoses ≥50% decreased diameter. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Youden index were analyzed; the impact of heart rate and calcification on image quality as well as diagnostic accuracy were also analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Mean heart rate during scanning was 73.7±15.4 beats per min(bpm), and median(QR) of Agatston score of segment was 45.6 (181). On a per-segment analysis, overall sensitivity was 96.1% (74/77, 95% CI:89.03%-99.19%), specificity was 98.3% (337/343, 95% CI:96.23%-99.36%), PPV was 92.5% (74/80, 95% CI:84.39%-97.20%), NPV of 99.1% (337/340, 95% CI: 97.44%-99.82%) and the Youden index was 0.94. In both heart-rate subgroups (242 in heart rate < 70 bpm group, 169 in heart rate ≥70 bpm group), diagnostic accuracy for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis was similar (P<0.05). The accuracy and the quality score of the subgroup Agatston score ≥100 were lower than that of the subgroup Agatston score <100; however, the difference of results between 320-slice row CT and ICA was not significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: 320-detector row CT can reliably detect coronary artery stenoses in a high pre-test probability population without heart rate/rhythm control. (authors)

  7. The chicken enucleated eye test (CEET) : a practical (pre)screen for the assessment of eye irritation/corrosion potential of test materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    The enucleated eye test with chicken eyes (CEET) obtained from an abattoir proved to be a valuable and practical alternative for the 'traditional' enucleated eye test with eyes of laboratory rabbits. Since 1992, the CEET has been incorporated in standard contract toxicity testing at the Toxicology

  8. Post-test analysis of PIPER-ONE PO-IC-2 experiment by RELAP5/MOD3 codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovalini, R.; D`Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions.

  9. RELAP5/MOD2 post-test calculation of the OECD LOFT experiment LP-SB-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents the analysis of the OECD LOFT LP-SB-2 Experiment performed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear of Spain working group making use of RELAP5/MOD2 in the frame of the Spanish LOFT Project. LB-SB-2 experiment studies the effect of a delayed pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3-inch equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR

  10. Post-test analysis of PIPER-ONE PO-IC-2 experiment by RELAP5/MOD3 codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovalini, R.; D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M.

    1996-11-01

    RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions

  11. Development and Application of a Four-Tier Test to Assess Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Misconceptions about Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltakci-Gurel, Derya; Eryilmaz, Ali; McDermott, Lillian Christie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Correct identification of misconceptions is an important first step in order to gain an understanding of student learning. More recently, four-tier multiple choice tests have been found to be effective in assessing misconceptions. Purpose: The purposes of this study are (1) to develop and validate a four-tier misconception test to…

  12. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 2Q97.

  13. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 1Q97.

  14. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercialization demonstration. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue.

  15. What is the impact of an electronic test result acknowledgement system on Emergency Department physicians' work processes? A mixed-method pre-post observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; McCaughey, Euan J; Tariq, Amina; Walter, Scott R; Li, Julie; Callen, Joanne; Paoloni, Richard; Runciman, William B; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2017-03-01

    To examine the impact of an electronic Results Acknowledgement (eRA) system on emergency physicians' test result management work processes and the time taken to acknowledge microbiology and radiology test results for patients discharged from an Emergency Department (ED). The impact of the eRA system was assessed in an Australian ED using: a) semi-structured interviews with senior emergency physicians; and b) a time and motion direct observational study of senior emergency physicians completing test acknowledgment pre and post the implementation of the eRA system. The eRA system led to changes in the way results and actions were collated, stored, documented and communicated. Although there was a non-significant increase in the average time taken to acknowledge results in the post period, most types of acknowledgements (other than simple acknowledgements) took less time to complete. The number of acknowledgements where physicians sought additional information from the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) rose from 12% pre to 20% post implementation of eRA. Given that the type of results are unlikely to have changed significantly across the pre and post implementation periods, the increase in the time physicians spent accessing additional clinical information in the post period likely reflects the greater access to clinical information provided by the integrated electronic system. Easier access to clinical information may improve clinical decision making and enhance the quality of patient care. For instance, in situations where a senior clinician, not initially involved in the care process, is required to deal with the follow-up of non-normal results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy of multidetector spiral computed tomography in detecting significant coronary stenosis in patient populations with differing pre-test probabilities of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontone, G.; Andreini, D.; Quaglia, C.; Ballerini, G.; Nobili, E.; Pepi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the clinical impact of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with a low versus a high pre-test likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods: A cohort of 120 patients with suspected CAD, scheduled for conventional coronary angiography, underwent MDCT. Using the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) guidelines, the population was divided into two groups: patients with a low (group 1) and a high (group 2) likelihood of CAD. Results: Analysis of all segments showed a high feasibility (92%), and a patient based-model showed excellent sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV; both 100%) and acceptable specificity and positive predictive values (PPV; 86 and 90%, respectively), with an accuracy of 94%. Using MDCT in patients with lower pre-test likelihoods of CAD, according to the ACC/AHA guidelines, the accuracy remained high (93%); conversely, in patient groups with a high prevalence of CAD, a non-significant reduction in accuracy (85%) occurred using MDCT. Particularly, MDCT can be used effectively to exclude a diagnosis of CAD because of its high sensitivity and NPV (100%), but shows a significant reduction in specificity (58%). This reduction was due to an increase in the false-positive:true-negative ratio because of the higher percentage of calcified plaque (a relative but non-significant increase in false positives), and the high prevalence of CAD (significant reduction in true negatives). No differences were found between MDCT and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) concerning the number of vessels narrowed. Conclusion: Because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity in patients with a low pre-test likelihood of CAD, MDCT could be helpful in clinical decision-making in this population

  17. Anxiety Sensitivity and Pre-Cessation Smoking Processes: Testing the Independent and Combined Mediating Effects of Negative Affect–Reduction Expectancies and Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety sensitivity appears to be relevant in understanding the nature of emotional symptoms and disorders associated with smoking. Negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives are implicated as core regulatory processes that may explain, in part, the anxiety sensitivity–smoking interrelations; however, these pathways have received little empirical attention. Method: Participants (N = 471) were adult treatment-seeking daily smokers assessed for a smoking-cessation trial who provided baseline data; 157 participants provided within-treatment (pre-cessation) data. Anxiety sensitivity was examined as a cross-sectional predictor of several baseline smoking processes (nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to cessation, severity of prior withdrawal-related quit problems) and pre-cessation processes including nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges (assessed during 3 weeks before the quit day). Baseline negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives were tested as simultaneous mediators via parallel multiple mediator models. Results: Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to smoking cessation, more severe withdrawal-related problems during prior quit attempts, and greater average withdrawal before the quit day; effects were indirectly explained by the combination of both mediators. Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were not directly related to pre-cessation smoking urges but were indirectly related through the independent and combined effects of the mediators. Conclusions: These empirical findings bolster theoretical models of anxiety sensitivity and smoking and identify targets for nicotine dependence etiology research and cessation interventions. PMID:25785807

  18. The Influences of Pre-testing Reviews and Delays on Differentialassociative Processing versus A Condition in which Students chose their Learning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies show that a new strategy called differential-associative processing is effective for learning related concepts. However our knowledge about differential-associative processing is still limited. Therefore the goals of the present study are to assess the duration of knowledge that is acquired from using differential-associative processing, to determine whether the efficacy of differential-associative processing changes with the addition of a 10-minute pre-testing review, and to compare differential-associate processing to two conditions in which students select their own learning strategy. The results revealed that differential-associative processing was a better strategy for learning related concepts than were either of the two comparison conditions. They also revealed that a 10-minute pre-testing review had a positive additive influence on differential-associative processing. Finally, although the knowledge acquired from using differential-associative processing declined with an increase in delay between learning and testing, this decline was equivalent to the decline observed in both comparison conditions.

  19. Replicative phenotyping adds value to genotypic resistance testing in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected individuals - the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinetti Gladys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicative phenotypic HIV resistance testing (rPRT uses recombinant infectious virus to measure viral replication in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. Due to its high sensitivity of detection of viral minorities and its dissecting power for complex viral resistance patterns and mixed virus populations rPRT might help to improve HIV resistance diagnostics, particularly for patients with multiple drug failures. The aim was to investigate whether the addition of rPRT to genotypic resistance testing (GRT compared to GRT alone is beneficial for obtaining a virological response in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected patients. Methods Patients with resistance tests between 2002 and 2006 were followed within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS. We assessed patients' virological success after their antiretroviral therapy was switched following resistance testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with SHCS centre as a random effect were used to investigate the association between the type of resistance test and virological response (HIV-1 RNA Results Of 1158 individuals with resistance tests 221 with GRT+rPRT and 937 with GRT were eligible for analysis. Overall virological response rates were 85.1% for GRT+rPRT and 81.4% for GRT. In the subgroup of patients with >2 previous failures, the odds ratio (OR for virological response of GRT+rPRT compared to GRT was 1.45 (95% CI 1.00-2.09. Multivariate analyses indicate a significant improvement with GRT+rPRT compared to GRT alone (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31-2.15. Conclusions In heavily pre-treated patients rPRT-based resistance information adds benefit, contributing to a higher rate of treatment success.

  20. Structural analysis of closure cap barriers: A pre-test study for the Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chung; Pelfrey, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration Project (BMDP) is a field demonstration study to determine the construction/installation requirements, permeability, and subsidence performance characteristics of a composite barrier. The composite barrier will consist of on-site sandy-clay blanketed by a bentonite mat and a flexible High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner (also called flexible membrane liner). Construction of one control test pad and three bentonite test pads are planned. The control test pad will be used to establish baseline data. Underneath the composite clay cap is a four feet thick loose sand layer in which cavities will be created by evacuation of sand. The present work provides a mathematical model for the BMDP. The mathematical model will be used to simulate the mechanical and structural responses of the composite clay cap during the testing processes. Based upon engineering experience and technical references, a set of nominal soil parameters have been selected

  1. Determining Risk of Falls in Community Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Using Posttest Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Michelle M; Fritz, Stacy; Middleton, Addie; Allison, Leslie; Wingood, Mariana; Phillips, Emma; Criss, Michelle; Verma, Sangita; Osborne, Jackie; Chui, Kevin K

    Falls and their consequences are significant concerns for older adults, caregivers, and health care providers. Identification of fall risk is crucial for appropriate referral to preventive interventions. Falls are multifactorial; no single measure is an accurate diagnostic tool. There is limited information on which history question, self-report measure, or performance-based measure, or combination of measures, best predicts future falls. First, to evaluate the predictive ability of history questions, self-report measures, and performance-based measures for assessing fall risk of community-dwelling older adults by calculating and comparing posttest probability (PoTP) values for individual test/measures. Second, to evaluate usefulness of cumulative PoTP for measures in combination. To be included, a study must have used fall status as an outcome or classification variable, have a sample size of at least 30 ambulatory community-living older adults (≥65 years), and track falls occurrence for a minimum of 6 months. Studies in acute or long-term care settings, as well as those including participants with significant cognitive or neuromuscular conditions related to increased fall risk, were excluded. Searches of Medline/PubMED and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) from January 1990 through September 2013 identified 2294 abstracts concerned with fall risk assessment in community-dwelling older adults. Because the number of prospective studies of fall risk assessment was limited, retrospective studies that classified participants (faller/nonfallers) were also included. Ninety-five full-text articles met inclusion criteria; 59 contained necessary data for calculation of PoTP. The Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) was used to assess each study's methodological quality. Study design and QUADAS score determined the level of evidence. Data for calculation of sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), likelihood ratios (LR), and Po

  2. Determining Risk of Falls in Community Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Using Posttest Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stacy; Middleton, Addie; Allison, Leslie; Wingood, Mariana; Phillips, Emma; Criss, Michelle; Verma, Sangita; Osborne, Jackie; Chui, Kevin K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Falls and their consequences are significant concerns for older adults, caregivers, and health care providers. Identification of fall risk is crucial for appropriate referral to preventive interventions. Falls are multifactorial; no single measure is an accurate diagnostic tool. There is limited information on which history question, self-report measure, or performance-based measure, or combination of measures, best predicts future falls. Purpose: First, to evaluate the predictive ability of history questions, self-report measures, and performance-based measures for assessing fall risk of community-dwelling older adults by calculating and comparing posttest probability (PoTP) values for individual test/measures. Second, to evaluate usefulness of cumulative PoTP for measures in combination. Data Sources: To be included, a study must have used fall status as an outcome or classification variable, have a sample size of at least 30 ambulatory community-living older adults (≥65 years), and track falls occurrence for a minimum of 6 months. Studies in acute or long-term care settings, as well as those including participants with significant cognitive or neuromuscular conditions related to increased fall risk, were excluded. Searches of Medline/PubMED and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) from January 1990 through September 2013 identified 2294 abstracts concerned with fall risk assessment in community-dwelling older adults. Study Selection: Because the number of prospective studies of fall risk assessment was limited, retrospective studies that classified participants (faller/nonfallers) were also included. Ninety-five full-text articles met inclusion criteria; 59 contained necessary data for calculation of PoTP. The Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) was used to assess each study's methodological quality. Data Extraction: Study design and QUADAS score determined the level of evidence. Data for calculation

  3. Free leptin index and PAPP-A: a first trimester maternal serum screening test for pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Placing, Sophie; Wøjdemann, Karen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis with low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) if introduced in first trimester. The performance of first trimester maternal serum screening for PE using free leptin index (fLI) and PAPP-A, where fLI = leptin/leptin soluble receptor was studied. METHODS: F......: First trimester serum samples from 126 PE pregnancies and 289 control pregnancies were studied. fLI and PAPP-A were converted into gestational age and maternal weight independent log MoM values of PAPP-A and fLI. The screening performance of markers was studied by receiver......-operator-characteristics curves. The performance of population screening was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: fLI was significantly (p controls [mean log MoM -0.0368 (SD: 0.3132)] and PAPP-A was significantly (p ....0133 (SD: 0.2661)] compared to controls [mean log MoM 0.0474 (SD: 0.2521)] in PE pregnancies. There was no correlation between fLI and PAPP-A in control or PE pregnancies. Combined fLI and PAPP-A screening for PE had estimated population detection rates of 22% and 35% for false positives rates of 6% and 12...

  4. PHARMACOLOGICAL IN VITRO MODELS IN PRE-CLINICAL DRUG TESTING - EXAMPLE OF hSERT TRANSFECTED HUMAN EMBRYONIC KIDNEY CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Jakovljević

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical drug testing should be considered an important stage during examinations of its efficiency and safety in any likely indication observed. Purpose of the process is acquisition of substantial amount of particular drug-related data before approaching clinical trials in humans. Historical preclinical testing relied on available testing in microbe cultures and animal models. During recent decades laboratory techniques of human cell lines cultivation have been developed and improved. These provide unique possibility of drug acting mechanism testing in a simplified environment lacking basic homeostatic mechanisms. Some examples of these are measuring drug impact to biochemical transport, signaling or anabolic processes. Humane cell lines of embrional kidney 293 are an example of easy-to-grow and disseminate and quite endurable cell line. This methodological article notices some of the details of HEK293 cells cultivation and breading. We took transfection as an example of in vitro model creation for drug testing. Transfection refers to gene introduction into HEK293 cellular genome in order to achieve membrane expression of coded protein. In our case it would be human serotonin transporter. Article contains description of one particular methodological approach in measuring human serotonin transporter expression. The role and importance of serotonin pump in affective disorders genesis was already widely recognized. Aim of the paper was to emphasize feasibility of cell cultivation and its advantages in comparison with alternative traditional methods.

  5. Careful Conversations and Careful Sex: HIV Posttesting Experiences Among African American Men in Rural Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aholou, Tiffiany M; Sutton, Madeline Y; Brown, Emma E J

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, black/African American (black) men bear the greatest burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for 42% of new HIV infections in 2012 despite being 6% of the population. In Florida, heterosexual HIV transmission has increased among black men. Few studies have examined HIV testing experiences for black heterosexual men (BHM) in the rural South. This study describes the post-HIV-testing trial experiences of BHM in rural Florida. We conducted 12 focus groups (4-7 participants per group) in 3 rural Florida counties with BHM who participated in a larger randomized HIV testing trial. Interviews were professionally transcribed and data were analyzed using NVivo 10. The qualitative analysis was informed by the strengths perspective (ie, emphasis on abilities rather than risks) and used a thematic analytical approach. Sixty-seven men participated (median age 41.5 years); 39 (58%) earned a monthly income of less than $500, 38 (57%) attained education through high school or higher, 37 (55%) were unmarried, and 40 (60%) reported practicing monogamy; all who tested for HIV were negative for HIV. We identified 3 main themes based on self-reported actions: (1) risk reduction (eg, more consistent condom use, fewer sex partners), (2) sexual health communications with sex partners (eg, negotiating HIV testing with sex partners, getting to know partners better), and (3) health communications with peers and family (eg, disclosing test results, encouraging others to get tested). Among BHM, being in this HIV testing study facilitated increased protective behaviors and communications for HIV prevention. Interventions for BHM in rural areas warrant incorporating these strategies to encourage routine HIV testing. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  6. Enhancing pre-service physics teachers' creative thinking skills through HOT lab design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Adam; Setiawan, Agus; Suhandi, Andi; Permanasari, Anna

    2017-08-01

    A research on the implementation of HOT (Higher Order Thinking) Laboratory has been carried out. This research is aimed to compare increasing of creative thinking skills of pre-service physics teachers who receive physics lesson with HOT Lab and with verification lab for the topic of electric circuit. This research used a quasi-experiment methods with control group pretest-posttest design. The subject of the research is 40 Physics Education pre-service physics teachers of UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. Research samples were selected by class random sampling technique. Data on pre-service physics teachers' creative thinking skills were collected using test of creative thinking skills in the form of essay. The results of the research reveal that average of N-gain of creative thinking skills are for pre-service physics teachers who received lesson with HOT Lab design and for pre-service physics teachers who received lesson with verification lab, respectively. Therefore, we conclude that application of HOT Lab design is more effective to increase creative thinking skills in the lesson of electric circuit.

  7. A novel Online-to-Offline (O2O) model for pre-exposure prophylaxis and HIV testing scale up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, Tarandeep; Nitpolprasert, Chattiya; Trachunthong, Deondara; Kerr, Stephen J.; Janyam, Surang; Linjongrat, Danai; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2017-01-01

    PrEP awareness and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) in Thailand remains low. Finding ways to increase HIV testing and PrEP uptake among high-risk groups is a critical priority. This study evaluates the effect of a novel Adam's Love Online-to-Offline (O2O) model

  8. Testing the Impact of a Pre-Instructional Digital Game on Middle-Grade Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Katherine McMillan; Martin, Wendy; Clements, Margaret; Lewis Presser, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous studies of the impact of digital games on student learning remain relatively rare, as do studies of games as supports for learning difficult, core curricular concepts in the context of normal classroom practices. This study uses a blocked, cluster randomized controlled trial design to test the impact of a digital game, played as homework…

  9. Impact of pre-equilibration and diffusion limited release kinetics on effluent concentration in column leaching tests: Insights from numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Michael; Grathwohl, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Column leaching tests have become a standard method for assessing leaching of pollutants from materials used, e.g., for road and railway constructions and in landscaping measures. Column tests showed to be practical in laboratories yielding robust and reproducible results. However, considerable uncertainty still exists related particularly to the degree of equilibration of the pore water with the solids during preparation (pre-equilibration) and percolation of the column. We analyse equilibration time scales and sensitivity of concentrations in column leachate with respect to initial conditions in a series of numerical experiments covering a broad spectrum of material and solute properties. Slow release of pollutants from solid materials is described by a spherical diffusion model of kinetic sorption accounting for multiple grain size fractions and sorption capacities. Results show that the cumulative concentrations are rather independent of the pre-equilibration level for a broad spectrum of parameter settings, e.g. if intra-particle porosity is high, grain size is small, or if the sorption coefficient is large. Sensitivity increases with decreasing liquid solid ratios and contact time during percolation. Significant variations with initial column conditions are to be expected for material and compound properties leading to slow release kinetics. In these cases, sensitivity to initial conditions may have to be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Graded Cycling Test Combined With the Talk Test Is Responsive in Cardiac Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Grøn; Vinther, Anders

    2016-01-01

    changes in watts (W) were compared with the standard error of measurement (SEM95) for groups and the smallest real difference (SRD) for individuals. Minimal clinically important difference was assessed by comparing patient perceived changes in physical fitness with the test changes. RESULTS......PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical assessment outcome of cardiac rehabilitation, a simple and reliable submaximal exercise test, not based on heart rate, is warranted. The Talk Test (TT) has been found to correlate well with the ventilatory threshold, and excellent reliability was observed for TT...... combined with the Graded Cycling Test (GCT-TT) in cardiac patients. The purpose was to investigate responsiveness of GCT-TT in cardiac rehabilitation patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 93) referred to 8 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation were included. Pre- and posttests were performed using GCT-TT. Mean test...

  11. The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Ramsey

    Chemistry is a complex knowledge domain. Specifically, research notes that Chemical Equilibrium presents greater cognitive challenges than other topics in chemistry. Cognitive Load Theory describes the impact a subject, and the learning environment, have on working memory. Intrinsic load is the facet of Cognitive Load Theory that explains the complexity innate to complex subjects. The purpose of this study was to build on the limited research into intrinsic cognitive load, by examining the effects of using multimedia screencasts as a pre-training technique to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students. A convenience sample of 62 fourth-year high school students enrolled in an advanced chemistry course from a co-ed high school in urban San Francisco were given a chemical equilibrium concept pre-test. Upon conclusion of the pre-test, students were randomly assigned to two groups: pre-training and no pre-training. The pre-training group received a 10 minute and 52 second pre-training screencast that provided definitions, concepts and an overview of chemical equilibrium. After pre-training both group received the same 50-minute instructional lecture. After instruction, all students were given a chemical equilibrium concept post-test. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine differences in performance and intrinsic load. No significant differences in performance or intrinsic load, as measured by ratings of mental effort, were observed on the pre-test. Significant differences in performance, t(60)=3.70, p=.0005, and intrinsic load, t(60)=5.34, p=.0001, were observed on the post-test. A significant correlation between total performance scores and total mental effort ratings was also observed, r(60)=-0.44, p=.0003. Because no significant differences in prior knowledge were observed, it can be concluded that pre-training was successful at reducing intrinsic load. Moreover, a significant

  12. A Special Pre-Service-Inspection Using Radiographic Testing(RT) for Brazing Fitting used in Aircraft Hydraulic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyu Ho

    2010-01-01

    Brazing fitting which is one of the aircraft hydraulic power system components is widely used for saving weight and achieving higher reliability. Any inherent defects or damage of fitting can cause system failure and/or physical damage of human body due to highly pressurized fluid. Radiographic testing(RT) technique and additional micro-structure investigation on cut-away surfaces have been accomplished to find out some defect-like-inhomogeneity in the fittings. The radiography results showed that some defect-like-inhomogeneity existed inside body. Additional micro-structure investigation on cut-away surface reveals that the inhomogeneity is due to internal voids. In this study, it can be is said that RT technique can be a useful tool for field acceptance test of hydraulic brazing fitting in short time

  13. Residency training: the King-Devick test and sleep deprivation: study in pre- and post-call neurology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma C; Henderson, Sam; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L

    2012-04-24

    The current study investigates the effect of sleep deprivation on the speed and accuracy of eye movements as measured by the King-Devick (K-D) test, a sleep obtained (r(s) = -0.50, p = 0.002) and subjective evaluation of level of alertness (r(s) = 0.33, p = 0.05) but had no correlation to time since last caffeine consumption (r(s) = -0.13, p = 0.52). For those residents on their actual call night, the duration of sleep obtained did not correlate with change in K-D scores from baseline (r(s) = 0.13, p = 0.54). The K-D test is sensitive to the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functioning, including rapid eye movements, concentration, and language function. As with other measures of sleep deprivation, K-D performance demonstrated significant interindividual variability in vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Severe fatigue appears to reduce the degree of improvement typically observed in K-D testing.

  14. Feasibility of a pre-implantation fitting test for an implantable hearing aid using a VR (virtual reality) software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammann, F.; Bode, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schwaderer, E.; Schaich, M.; Seemann, M.; Claussen, C.D.; Maassen, M.; Zenner, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To prove the feasibility of a preoperative fitting test for an implantable hearing aid using a VR environment. Methods: A high-resolution spiral CT was performed after mastoidectomy in 10 temporal bone specimens. The bony structures were segmented and merged with the computer-aided design (CAD) data of the hearing aid in a VR environment. For each specimen a three-dimensional fitting test was carried out by three examiners determining the implantability of the hearing aid. The implantation simulation was compared with the real implantation procedure performed by an experienced ENT surgeon. Results: The used VR system enabled real-time 3D-visualisation and manipulation of CT- and CAD-data. All objects could be independently moved in all three dimensions. The VR fitting test corresponded closely with the real implantation. The implantability of the hearing aid was properly predicted by all three examiners. Conclusion: Merging CT and CAD data in a virtual reality environment bears high potential for the presurgical determination of the fit and mountability of medical implants in complex anatomical regions. (orig.) [de

  15. Non-destructive vacuum decay method for pre-filled syringe closure integrity testing compared with dye ingress testing and high-voltage leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Andrea; Amari, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to the limitations of the traditional sterility test methods, in 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued the guidance "Container and Closure System Integrity Testing in Lieu of Sterility Testing as a Component of the Stability Protocol for Sterile Products" encouraging sterile drug manufacturers to use properly validated physical methods, apart from conventional microbial challenge testing, to confirm container closure integrity as part of the stability protocol. The case study presented in this article investigated the capability of four container closure integrity testing methods to detect simulated defects of different sizes and types on glass syringes, prefilled both with drug product intended for parenteral administration and sterile water. The drug product was a flu vaccine (Agrippal, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Vacuum decay, pharmacopoeial dye ingress test, Novartis specific dye ingress test, and high-voltage leak detection were, in succession, the methods involved in the comparative studies. The case study execution was preceded by the preparation of two independent sets of reference prefilled syringes, classified, respectively, as examples of conforming to closure integrity requirements (negative controls) and as defective (positive controls). Positive controls were, in turn, split in six groups, three of with holes laser-drilled through the prefilled syringe glass barrel, while the other three with capillary tubes embedded in the prefilled syringe plunger. These reference populations were then investigated by means of validated equipment used for container closure integrity testing of prefilled syringe commercial production; data were collected and analyzed to determine the detection rate and the percentage of false results. Results showed that the vacuum decay method had the highest performance in terms of detection sensitivity and also ensured the best reliability and repeatability of measurements. An innovative technical

  16. Pre- and Post-Transfusion Alloimmunization in Dogs Characterized by 2 Antiglobulin-Enhanced Cross-match Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy-Thollot, I; Giger, U; Boisvineau, C; Perrin, R; Guidetti, M; Chaprier, B; Barthélemy, A; Pouzot-Nevoret, C; Canard, B

    2017-09-01

    When dogs are transfused, blood compatibility testing varies widely but may include dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 typing and rarely cross-matching. Prospective study to examine naturally occurring alloantibodies against red blood cells (RBCs) and alloimmunization by transfusion using 2 antiglobulin-enhanced cross-match tests. Eighty client-owned anemic, 72 donor, and 7 control dogs. All dogs were typed for DEA 1 and some also for DEA 4 and DEA 7. Major cross-match tests with canine antiglobulin-enhanced immunochromatographic strip and gel columns were performed 26-129 days post-transfusion (median, 39 days); some dogs had an additional early evaluation 11-22 days post-transfusion (median, 16 days). Plasma from alloimmunized recipients was cross-matched against RBCs from 34 donor and control dogs. The 2 cross-match methods gave entirely concordant results. All 126 pretransfusion cross-match results for the 80 anemic recipients were compatible, but 54 dogs died or were lost to follow up. Among the 26 recipients with follow-up, 1 dog accidently received DEA 1-mismatched blood and became cross-match-incompatible post-transfusion. Eleven of the 25 DEA 1-matched recipients (44%) became incompatible against other RBC antigens. No naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 alloantibodies were detected in DEA 7- dogs. The antiglobulin-enhanced immunochromatographic strip cross-match and laboratory gel column techniques identified no naturally occurring alloantibodies against RBC antigens, but a high degree of post-transfusion alloimmunization in dogs. Cross-matching is warranted in any dog that has been previously transfused independent of initial DEA 1 typing and cross-matching results before the first transfusion event. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site. All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre-Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting. This new interpretation has implications

  18. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Harris, Anita G.; Wahl, Ronald R.

    1997-01-01

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site.All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre- Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting.This new interpretation has implications

  19. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site. All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre-Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting. This new interpretation has implications

  20. Presymptomatic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2: how distressing are the pre-test weeks? Rotterdam/Leiden Genetics Working Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N. Lodder; P. Devilee (Peter); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); C.J. Cornelisse (Cees); P.G. Frets; R.W. Trijsburg (Wim); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); A. Tibben (Arend); A. Wagner (Anja); C.A. van der Meer

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPresymptomatic DNA testing for autosomal dominant hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) became an option after the identification of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 1994-1995. Healthy female mutation carriers have a high lifetime risk for breast cancer

  1. A novel Online-to-Offline (O2O) model for pre-exposure prophylaxis and HIV testing scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tarandeep; Nitpolprasert, Chattiya; Trachunthong, Deondara; Kerr, Stephen J; Janyam, Surang; Linjongrat, Danai; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2017-03-13

    PrEP awareness and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) in Thailand remains low. Finding ways to increase HIV testing and PrEP uptake among high-risk groups is a critical priority. This study evaluates the effect of a novel Adam's Love Online-to-Offline (O2O) model on PrEP and HIV testing uptake among Thai MSM and TG and identifies factors associated with PrEP uptake. The O2O model was piloted by Adam's Love (www.adamslove.org) HIV educational and counselling website. MSM and TG reached online by PrEP promotions and interested in free PrEP and/or HIV testing services contacted Adam's Love online staff, received real-time PrEP eCounseling, and completed online bookings for receiving services at one of the four sites in Bangkok based on their preference. Auto-generated site- and service-specific e-tickets and Quick Response (QR) codes were sent to their mobile devices enabling monitoring and check-in by offline site staff. Service uptake and participant's socio-demographic and risk behaviour characteristics were analyzed. Factors associated with PrEP uptake were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Between January 10th and April 11th, 2016, Adam's Love reached 272,568 people online via the PrEP O2O promotions. 425 MSM and TG received eCounseling and e-tickets. There were 325 (76.5%) MSM and TG who checked-in at clinics and received HIV testing. Nine (2.8%) were diagnosed with HIV infection. Median (IQR) time between receiving the e-ticket and checking-in was 3 (0-7) days. Of 316 HIV-negative MSM and TG, 168 (53.2%) started PrEP. In a multivariate model, higher education (OR 2.30, 95%CI 1.14-4.66; p  = 0.02), seeking sex partners online (OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.19-3.54; p  = 0.009), being aware of sexual partners' HIV status (OR 2.37, 95%CI 1.29-4.35; p  = 0.008), ever previously using post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) (OR 2.46, 95%CI 1.19-5.09; p  = 0.01), and enrolment at Adam's Love clinic compared to the other three sites

  2. Citizen Science: The Small World Initiative Improved Lecture Grades and California Critical Thinking Skills Test Scores of Nonscience Major Students at Florida Atlantic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Paul Caruso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested “The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery” to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of nonscience majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution in academic year 2014–15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students.

  3. Pre-test analysis of an integral effect test facility for thermal-hydraulic similarities of 6 inches coldleg break and DVI injection line break using MARS-1D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Soon; Choi, Ki Yong; Park, Hyun Sik; Euh, Dong Jin; Baek, Won Pil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    A pre-test analysis of a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA, DVI Line break) has been performed for the integral effect test loop of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL), the construction of which will be started soon. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL is a full-height and 1/310 volume-scaled test facility based on the design features of the APR1400 (Korean Next Generation Reactor). This paper briefly introduces the basic design features of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL and presents the results of pre-test analysis for a postulated cold leg SBLOCA and DVI line break. Based on the same control logics and accident scenarios, the similarity between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL and the prototype plant, APR1400, is evaluated by using the MARS code, which is a multi-dimensional best-estimate thermal hydraulic code being developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. It is found that the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL and APR 1400 have similar thermal hydraulic responses against the analyzed SBLOCA and DVI Line break scenario. It is also verified that the volume scaling law, applied to the design of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL, gives a reasonable results to keep a similarity with APR1400. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  4. An evaluation of a structured learning programme as a component of the clinical practicum in final year bachelor of nursing programme: a pre-post-test analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Elizabeth; Murphy, Maria; Pascoe, Elizabeth; Scanlon, Andrew; Gan, Sharon

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of a structured learning programme as a component of the clinical practicum in final year bachelor of nursing course on the student's report of their anxiety and self-efficacy pre-post programme participation. Student anxiety and low levels of self-efficacy are known to affect the quality of clinical learning. A three-day structured learning programme at the commencement of an acute care clinical placement was designed to reduce student anxiety and enhance self-efficacy. A pre-post test design. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (The HAD) and the general self-efficacy scale (GSES-12) were administered prior to the commencement of the structured learning programme (time one) and at the end of the programme (time two). One hundred and twenty final year students undertaking an acute care clinical placement participated in the programme in three cohorts and completed the questionnaires at time one and 118 at time two. Students levels of anxiety >8 with The HAD pre-post programme 53 vs. 30% (p learning programme resulted in a statistically significant reduction in student anxiety and increase in self-efficacy across the three cohort groups. This effect can be achieved with the development of a relatively low cost/low technology structured learning programme that is part of an acute care clinical placement. Nurse educators should not assume that students are less anxious about their acute care clinical placements as the semester proceeds. There is a typical correlation between increased anxiety and decreased self-efficacy which is likely to impact on student learning in the clinical setting. Significant results can be achieved with a relatively low cost and a low technology enabling intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end...... (M3) of the school year. Data from individual heart rate curves of the Yo-Yo IE1 were analysed in order to detect the inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in heart rate values and a second phase in which the rise of the heart rate values is much smaller. The distance covered...

  6. Statistical testing and estimation of uncertainty in pre-post case control experimental designs: are the error bars of physics too large?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, K.; Henning, S.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-12-01

    We encountered the question of how to do statistical inference and uncertainty estimation for the aerosol particle hygroscopicity (κ) measured up- and downstream of a hilltop in two conditions: during full-cloud events (FCE) where a cap cloud was present on the hilltop, and under cloud-free conditions (non-cloud events, NCE). The aim was to show with statistical testing that particle hygroscopicity is altered by cloud processing. This type of statistical experimental design known as a 'pre-post case control study', 'between-within design' or 'mixed design' is common in medicine and biostatistics but it may not be familiar to all researchers in the atmospheric sciences. Therefore we review the statistical testing methods that can be applied to solve these kind of problems. The key point is that these methods use the pre-measurement as a covariate to the post-measurement, which accounts for the daily variation and reduces variance in the analysis. All the three tests, Change score analysis, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and multi-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) gave similar results and suggested a statistically significant change in κ between FCE and NCE. Quantification of the uncertainty in hygroscopicities derived from cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements implies an uncertainty interval estimation in a nonlinear expression where the uncertainty of one parameter is Gaussian with known mean and variance. We concluded that the commonly used way of estimating and showing the uncertainty intervals in hygroscopicity studies may make the error bars appear too large. Using simple Monte Carlo sampling and plotting the resulting nonlinear distribution and its quantiles may better represent the probability mass in the uncertainty distribution.

  7. The effects of celery leaf (apium graveolens L.) treatment on blood glucose and insulin levels in elderly pre-diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusni, Yusni; Zufry, Hendra; Meutia, Firdalena; Sucipto, Krishna W

    2018-02-01

    To analyze the effect of celery leaf extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in elderly pre-diabetics. Methods: This study was conducted between March and November 2014 at the Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with a control group was conducted with elderly pre-diabetic volunteers. The subjects included 16 elderly pre-diabetics older than 60 (6 males and 10 females). The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: a control group (placebo-treated) and a treatment group (celery-treated). The treatment consisted of celery leaf extract capsules at the dose of 250 mg, 3 times per day (morning, afternoon and evening), 30 minutes before a meal, for 12 days. Data analysis was performed using the t-test (p less than 0.05). Results: There was a significant decrease in pre-prandial plasma glucose levels (p=0.01) and post-prandial plasma glucose levels (p=0.00), but no significant increase in plasma insulin levels (p=0.15) after celery leaf treatment in elderly pre-diabetics. Conclusion: Celery was effective at reducing blood glucose levels, but there was a lack of association between blood glucose levels and plasma insulin levels in elderly pre-diabetics.

  8. Pre-Processing of Brands Versus Attentional: A Test of the Differences in the Registry of Stimulus by Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais Pasquotto Andreoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited capacity of cognitive resources and to the saturation context of stimuli, becomes probably that a lot of available stimulus in the ambient don´t be actively processed, in a conscious manner, but yes unconsciously, at the preattentive level. Despite of the importance of preattentive processing, are few the studies that address and discuss its implications and function on stimuli reception. In the light of the above, the study has with aim to compare the preattentive and attentive processing in terms of advertiser brand registry, testing, for that, the implicit and explicit memory of individuals and their brand valuation. Methodologically, the study proceeded, initially, to the bibliographic survey, focusing on the follow conceptual bases: the attention process under a complex perspective, subdivided into preattention and attention, and the information registry in light of the processing level. Supported by the bibliographic survey, the study adopted the hypothetical-deduvito method, with the development of a experiment 2 (preattention x attention x 2 (magazine show in slide x impress.As contribution, the study support the traced hypotheses: large incidence of explicit memory of advertiser brands in attentive processing; implicit memory found in both processing; brand valuation effects higher when the preattentive processing happened, instead of when did attentive processing. The results find reinforce the theory about the registry differences according with the attention used on processing, highlighting, yet, the superiority of impress media and preattentive processing in the individual influence capacity.      

  9. A Test of the Serial Discontinuity Concept Using Pre- and Post-Impoundment Data: do Ecosystems Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, H.; Jackson, L.; Culp, J.

    2005-05-01

    Many rivers are influenced by human-made impoundments that alter natural habitat. Changes in habitat hold potential consequences for biotic community structure and ecosystem function. The serial discontinuity concept (SDC), however, predicts that riverine process and function will recover downstream from an impoundment via tributary inputs. Unfortunately, rivers rarely exist in the context assumed by the SDC. Often, watersheds include multiple impoundments and other flow-altering structures. We present preliminary data and future research goals to investigate the changes in riverine habitat and benthic community structure before and after impoundment over 400 km of the Oldman River, southern Alberta, Canada. Habitat characteristics and benthic invertebrate abundance and community structure prior to dam construction were tested against post-impoundment data. Results indicate that 15 years after impoundment, flow and sediment regimes have not recovered. There is a significant decline in discharge during high flow periods below the dam and a pattern of decreased sediment transport and increased retention below the dam. Initial results have serious implications to benthic invertebrates, many of which require cobble substrates for colonization. The preliminary results on habitat alteration below the Oldman Dam do not support the predictions of the SDC.

  10. Online evaluation in Mathematics courses with iTest: assessment of students learning from pre-school through college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Joglar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available iTest es una herramienta de evaluación online diseñada y desarrollada por el grupo de investigación HEOL (Herramientas de Evaluación On Line compuesto por profesores de la Escuela en Ingeniería Técnica en Informática de Sistemas del CES Felipe II de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y por profesores de la Facultad de Informática de la citada universidad. En este artículo, se describen y analizan los resultados de las pruebas más relevantes preparadas y llevadas a cabo por miembros de este grupo en diversas aulas de matemáticas.  Las pruebas no solamente se han realizado con estudiantes universitarios, también han participado alumnos y profesores de distintas escuelas de educación infantil y primaria, así como de institutos de educación secundaria de la localidad de Aranjuez (Madrid.  Para poder realizar este proyecto con éxito, se han impartido seminarios de formación de profesores a través del Centro de Formación de Profesores de Aranjuez.

  11. Analysis of the forced vibration test of the Hualien large scale soil-structure interaction model using a flexible volume substructuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Nakamura, N.

    1995-01-01

    A 1/4-scale cylindrical reactor containment model was constructed in Hualien, Taiwan for foil-structure interaction (SSI) effect evaluation and SSI analysis procedure verification. Forced vibration tests were executed before backfill (FVT-1) and after backfill (FVT-2) to characterize soil-structure system characteristics under low excitations. A number of organizations participated in the pre-test blind prediction and post-test correlation analyses of the forced vibration test using various industry familiar methods. In the current study, correlation analyses were performed using a three-dimensional flexible volume substructuring method. The results are reported and soil property sensitivities are evaluated in the paper. (J.P.N.)

  12. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  13. PRE-EXÁMENES COMO UNA ESTRATEGIA DIDÁCTICA EN LOS CURSOS DE FÍSICA (SAMPLE TEST AS A TEACHING STRATEGY IN PHYSICS COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ríos Herbert

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Se describe la experiencia del uso de pre-exámenes o exámenes de prueba como una estrategia didáctica para el mejoramiento en el rendimiento y en el desempeño estudiantil en los cursos propios de la carrera de física. El objetivo principal de la experiencia era determinar, a priori, las deficiencias, tanto matemáticas como físicas, que tiene el estudiantado, corregirlas antes de administrarle el examen definitivo y establecer una evaluación formativa en el curso. En particular, el tema evaluado era el de oscilaciones lineales del curso de Mecánica Teórica. Se detalla en qué consiste dicha estrategia, la motivación de su implementación y los roles tanto docente como estudiantil. Se analizan los resultados de la experiencia para concluir con las bondades, limitaciones y proyecciones futuras del uso de los pre-exámenes, con el fin de mostrarlos como una herramienta más dentro de la labor docente universitaria.Abstract:We discuss our experience of using sample tests as a teaching strategy that allows us to improve the student grades in courses that belong to the College Physics Program. The main purpose of our experience was to find out the common mistakes both in mathematics and in physics made by the students and to correct them before the actual test, so that we could accomplish a formative evaluation. In particular, the evaluated subject was linear oscillations in the Classical Mechanics course. We describe what the strategy consists of, our motivation for using it and both the professor and the student roles. We analyze our results obtained in its implementation to conclude with the pros and cons of this teaching strategy and also with its future applications as a useful tool for improving college teaching.

  14. Patient perspectives with abbreviated versus standard pre-test HIV counseling in the prenatal setting: a randomized-controlled, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Deborah; Gomez, Elvira; Greenberg, Mara; Washington, Sierra; Charlebois, Edwin D

    2009-01-01

    In the US, an unacceptably high percentage of pregnant women do not undergo prenatal HIV testing. Previous studies have found increased uptake of prenatal HIV testing with abbreviated pre-test counseling, however little is known about patient decision making, testing satisfaction and knowledge in this setting. A randomized-controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted from October 2006 through February 2008 at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH), the public teaching hospital of the City and County of San Francisco. A total of 278 English- and Spanish-speaking pregnant women were randomized to receive either abbreviated or standard nurse-performed HIV test counseling at the initial prenatal visit. Patient decision making experience was compared between abbreviated versus standard HIV counseling strategies among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnically diverse prenatal patients. The primary outcome was the decisional conflict score (DCS) using O'Connor low-literacy scale and secondary outcomes included satisfaction with test decision, basic HIV knowledge and HIV testing uptake. We conducted an intention-to-treat analysis of 278 women--134 (48.2%) in the abbreviated arm (AA) and 144 (51.8%) in the standard arm (SA). There was no significant difference in the proportion of women with low decisional conflict (71.6% in AA vs. 76.4% in SA, p = .37), and the observed mean difference between the groups of 3.88 (95% CI: -0.65, 8.41) did not exceed the non-inferiority margin. HIV testing uptake was very high (97. 8%) and did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (99.3% in AA vs. 96.5% in SA, p = .12). Likewise, there was no difference in satisfaction with testing decision (97.8% in AA vs. 99.3% in SA, p = .36). However, women in AA had significantly lower mean HIV knowledge scores (78.4%) compared to women in SA (83.7%, pprocess, while associated with slightly lower knowledge, does not compromise patient decision making or satisfaction regarding HIV testing

  15. Influence of Inter-Training Intervals on Intermanual Transfer Effects in Upper-Limb Prosthesis Training : A Randomized Pre-Posttest Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in prosthetic training using intermanual transfer (the transfer of motor skills from the trained, "unaffected" hand to the untrained, "affected" hand) has been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of the inter-training interval on the magnitude

  16. Influence of the type of training task on intermanual transfer effects in upper-limb prosthesis training : A randomized pre-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2017-01-01

    Intermanual transfer, the transfer of motor skills from the trained hand to the untrained hand, can be used to train upper limb prosthesis skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effect and the type of training task. The used

  17. Genetic Testing in Pediatric Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ishwar Chander; Paliwal, Preeti; Singh, Kanika

    2018-03-01

    The authors review the utility of genetic testing in ophthalmic disorders - precise diagnosis, accurate prognosis, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, and entry into gene-specific therapeutic trials. The prerequisites for a successful outcome of a genetic test are an accurate clinical diagnosis, a careful family history that guides which genes to study, and genetic counseling (both pre-test and post-test). The common eye disorders for which genetic testing is commonly requested are briefly discussed - anophthalmia, microphthalmia, coloboma, anterior segment dysgenesis, corneal dystrophies, cataracts, optic atrophy, congenital glaucoma, congenital amaurosis, retinitis pigmentosa, color blindness, juvenile retinoshisis, retinoblastoma etc. A protocol for genetic testing is presented. If specific mutations in a gene are common, they should form the first tier test, as the mutations in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. If mutations in one gene are likely, sequencing of that gene should be carried out, e.g. GALT gene in galactosemia, RS1 gene in retinoshisis. Disorders with genetic heterogeneity require multi-gene panel tests, and if these show no abnormality, then deletion / duplication or microarray studies are recommended, followed in sequence by clinical exome (5000 to 6000 genes), full exome (about 20,000 genes or whole genome studies (includes all introns). It is fortunate that most genetic tests in ophthalmology are available in India, including gene panel and whole exome/genome sequencing tests.

  18. THE EFFECT OF A STRETCH-SHORTENING CYCLE FATIGUE TEST ON THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LOWER LIMBS IN ADULT MEN AND PRE-PUBESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ftikas C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study focused on the acute effect differences between children and adults after a stretch shortening cycle fatigue test on drop jump performance.Method: Eleven pre-pubescent boys (10,2 ± 0,7 y old and eleven adult men (24,3 ± 3,3 y old performed a stretch shortening cycle fatigue test (SSFT,10 sets /10 repetitions, with 30 sec interval between sets. Before and after fatigue test, maximal isometric torque, drop jump (DJ, contact time and ground reaction forces (GRF wereevaluated. Fatigue perceives and feel of pain were evaluated immediately after fatigue as well.Results: After fatigue MVC and DJ significantly decreased in both groups but this decrease was higher in adults.Contact time and GRF were increased in both groups but in a higher extend in adults. Fatigue perception and the feeling of pain were also higher in adults.Conclusion: In this research, the SSFT resulted in acute reduction of the performance of both age groups butmore in adults. The higher performance reduction in adults could be attributed possibly both in neuromuscular, metabolic and inflammatory factors

  19. A round robin test for pre-standardization of a saddle-shaped pickup coil method to measure AC losses in Bi-2223 Ag-sheathed tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, K. [Research Institute of Superconductor Science and Systems, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)], E-mail: funaki@sc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Iwakuma, M.; Sueyoshi, T. [Research Institute of Superconductor Science and Systems, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fujikami, J.; Ayai, N.; Ishida, T. [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., 1-1-3, Shimaya, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0024 (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [International Superconductivity Technology Center, 5-34-3 Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0004 (Japan); Osamura, K. [Research Institute for Applied Sciences, 49 Tanaka Ohicho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8202 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    We performed a round robin test to measure AC losses in Bi-2223 Ag-sheathed tapes with saddle-shaped pickup coils in an alternating perpendicular magnetic field at liquid nitrogen temperature. Two laboratories participated in the round robin test with each system of the pickup coil and the measurement circuit. Short specimens of a Bi-2223 tape and a copper magnet to generate the alternating magnetic field were used for common conditions in the test. The saddle-shaped pickup coils were made under recommended conditions for the structure and the sizes that give a calibration coefficient around unity. The signals of the magnetic moment from the pickup coils were calibrated by using a standard hairpin copper tape. AC losses of the common specimen of the Bi-2223 tape were measured in the round robin test in the ranges of frequency up to 60 Hz and the amplitude up to 0.2 T of perpendicular magnetic field. While we had only two participants in the test, we obtained the following results in a pre-standardization process of the AC loss measurement with the saddle-shaped pickup coil (i) it was suggested from the calibration procedure using hairpin copper tape that the deviations from numerical simulation for an ideal pickup coil and a sufficiently long specimen is within 3% on an average, (ii) the values of COV for the AC losses measured at 1 Hz and 10 Hz are less than about 3% in the range of the field amplitude between 0.02 T and 0.2 T.

  20. Code accuracy evaluation of ISP 35 calculations based on NUPEC M-7-1 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auria, F.D.; Oriolo, F.; Leonardi, M.; Paci, S.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of code uncertainties is a necessary step in the code assessment process, above all if best-estimate codes are utilised for licensing purposes. Aiming at quantifying the code accuracy, an integral methodology based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) has been developed at the University of Pisa (DCMN) and has been already applied to several calculations related to primary system test analyses. This paper deals with the first application of the FFT based methodology to containment code calculations based on a hydrogen mixing and distribution test performed in the NUPEC (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation) facility. It is referred to pre-test and post-test calculations submitted for the International Standard Problem (ISP) n. 35. This is a blind exercise, simulating the effects of steam injection and spray behaviour on gas distribution and mixing. The result of the application of this methodology to nineteen selected variables calculated by ten participants are here summarized, and the comparison (where possible) of the accuracy evaluated for the pre-test and for the post-test calculations of a same user is also presented. (author)

  1. Design, Development and Pre-Flight Testing of the Communications, Navigation, and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (Connect) to Investigate Software Defined Radio Architecture on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Ann P.; Barrett, Michael J.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    The Communication Navigation and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) is a NASA-sponsored mission, which will investigate the usage of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) as a multi-function communication system for space missions. A softwaredefined radio system is a communication system in which typical components of the system (e.g., modulators) are incorporated into software. The software-defined capability allows flexibility and experimentation in different modulation, coding and other parameters to understand their effects on performance. This flexibility builds inherent redundancy and flexibility into the system for improved operational efficiency, real-time changes to space missions and enhanced reliability/redundancy. The CoNNeCT Project is a collaboration between industrial radio providers and NASA. The industrial radio providers are providing the SDRs and NASA is designing, building and testing the entire flight system. The flight system will be integrated on the Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the International Space Station (ISS) after launch on the H-IIB Transfer Vehicle in 2012. This paper provides an overview of the technology research objectives, payload description, design challenges and pre-flight testing results.

  2. Results from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test: 3 Years at MiraCosta College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbaugh French, Rica

    2007-12-01

    The Astronomy Diagnostic Test 2.0 (ADT) was administered to 26 sections of ASTR 101 at MiraCosta College (MCC) from fall 2004 through summer 2007. MiraCosta is a two-year community college located in Oceanside, CA, USA (roughly 40 miles north of San Diego) with an enrollment of approximately 11,000 students. ASTR 101 is MiraCosta's introductory astronomy survey course for non-science majors and has no math prerequisite. Class sizes ranged from 10 to 38 students. Comparison with the ADT National Project results indicates similar pre- and post-course averages: 31.8% (MCC) vs. 32.4% (National) for pre-course tests and 49.3% (MCC) vs. 47.3% (National) for post-course tests. The sample sizes are 709 and 530 students for the pre- and post-tests, respectively. The normalized gain for the entire data set is 0.256 and the effect size (ES) is 1.04, meaning that approximately 85% of the post-test scores are above the average of the pre-test scores. Previous studies have shown the ADT to be a reliable indicator of pre-course misconceptions while post-course scores are useful for comparing modes of instruction and assessing student learning on a limited number of concepts. Additional analyses of the MCC data probe for trends with variables such as gender, class size, and implementation of materials designed for a more "learner-centered” approach (such as Lecture Tutorials, Ranking Tasks, and Think-Pair-Share questions), as well as gains for a particular subset of concepts.

  3. Measuring student learning using initial and final concept test in an STEM course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Autar; Yalcin, Ali

    2012-06-01

    Effective assessment is a cornerstone in measuring student learning in higher education. For a course in Numerical Methods, a concept test was used as an assessment tool to measure student learning and its improvement during the course. The concept test comprised 16 multiple choice questions and was given in the beginning and end of the class for three semesters. Hake's gain index, a measure of learning gains from pre- to post-tests, of 0.36 to 0.41 were recorded. The validity and reliability of the concept test was checked via standard measures such as Cronbach's alpha, content and criterion-related validity, item characteristic curves and difficulty and discrimination indices. The performance of various subgroups such as pre-requisite grades, transfer students, gender and age were also studied.

  4. Usability testing of Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting (ADAPT) decision support for integrating care-based counseling of pre-diabetes in an electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrimes, Dillon; Kitos, Nicole R; Kushniruk, Andre; Mann, Devin M

    2014-09-01

    Usability testing can be used to evaluate human-computer interaction (HCI) and communication in shared decision making (SDM) for patient-provider behavioral change and behavioral contracting. Traditional evaluations of usability using scripted or mock patient scenarios with think-aloud protocol analysis provide a way to identify HCI issues. In this paper we describe the application of these methods in the evaluation of the Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting (ADAPT) tool, and test the usability of the tool to support the ADAPT framework for integrated care counseling of pre-diabetes. The think-aloud protocol analysis typically does not provide an assessment of how patient-provider interactions are effected in "live" clinical workflow or whether a tool is successful. Therefore, "Near-live" clinical simulations involving applied simulation methods were used to compliment the think-aloud results. This complementary usability technique was used to test the end-user HCI and tool performance by more closely mimicking the clinical workflow and capturing interaction sequences along with assessing the functionality of computer module prototypes on clinician workflow. We expected this method to further complement and provide different usability findings as compared to think-aloud analysis. Together, this mixed method evaluation provided comprehensive and realistic feedback for iterative refinement of the ADAPT system prior to implementation. The study employed two phases of testing of a new interactive ADAPT tool that embedded an evidence-based shared goal setting component into primary care workflow for dealing with pre-diabetes counseling within a commercial physician office electronic health record (EHR). Phase I applied usability testing that involved "think-aloud" protocol analysis of eight primary care providers interacting with several scripted clinical scenarios. Phase II used "near-live" clinical simulations of five providers interacting with standardized

  5. SMILE: experimental results of the WP4 PTS large scale test performed on a component in terms of cracked cylinder involving warm pre-stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, K.; Bezdikian, G.; Moinereau, D.; Dahl, A; Wadier, Y.; Gilles, P.; Keim, E.; Chapuliot, S.; Taylor, N.; Lidbury, D.; Sharples, J.; Budden, P.; Siegele, D.; Nagel, G.; Bass, R.; Emond, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is an essential component, which is liable to limit the lifetime duration of PWR plants. The assessment of defects in RPV subjected to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transients made at an European level generally does not necessarily consider the beneficial effect of the load history (Warm Pre-stress, WPS). The SMILE project - Structural Margin Improvements in aged embrittled RPV with Load history Effects-aims to give sufficient elements to demonstrate, to model and to validate the beneficial WPS effect. It also aims to harmonize the different approaches in the national codes and standards regarding the inclusion of the WPS effect in a RPV structural integrity assessment. The project includes significant experimental work on WPS type experiments with C(T) specimens and a PTS type transient experiment on a large component. This paper deals with the results of the PTS type transient experiment on a component-like specimen subjected to WPS- loading, the so called Validation Test, carried out within the framework of work package WP4. The test specimen consists of a cylindrical thick walled specimen with a thickness of 40 mm and an outer diameter of 160 mm, provided with an internal fully circumferential crack with a depth of about 15 mm. The specified load path type is Load-Cool-Unload-Fracture (LCUF). No crack initiation occurred during cooling (thermal shock loading) although the loading path crossed the fracture toughness curve in the transition region. The benefit of the WPS-effect by final re-loading up to fracture in the lower shelf region, was shown clearly. The corresponding fracture load during reloading in the lower shelf region was significantly higher than the crack initiation values of the original material in the lower shelf region. The post test fractographic evaluation showed that the fracture mode was predominantly cleavage fracture also with some secondary cracks emanating from major crack. (authors)

  6. Testing the influence of vertical, pre-existing joints on normal faulting using analogue and 3D discrete element models (DEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettermann, Michael; von Hagke, Christoph; Virgo, Simon; Urai, Janos L.

    2015-04-01

    Brittle rocks are often affected by different generations of fractures that influence each other. We study pre-existing vertical joints followed by a faulting event. Understanding the effect of these interactions on fracture/fault geometries as well as the development of dilatancy and the formation of cavities as potential fluid pathways is crucial for reservoir quality prediction and production. Our approach combines scaled analogue and numerical modeling. Using cohesive hemihydrate powder allows us to create open fractures prior to faulting. The physical models are reproduced using the ESyS-Particle discrete element Modeling Software (DEM), and different parameters are investigated. Analogue models were carried out in a manually driven deformation box (30x28x20 cm) with a 60° dipping pre-defined basement fault and 4.5 cm of displacement. To produce open joints prior to faulting, sheets of paper were mounted in the box to a depth of 5 cm at a spacing of 2.5 cm. Powder was then sieved into the box, embedding the paper almost entirely (column height of 19 cm), and the paper was removed. We tested the influence of different angles between the strike of the basement fault and the joint set (0°, 4°, 8°, 12°, 16°, 20°, and 25°). During deformation we captured structural information by time-lapse photography that allows particle imaging velocimetry analyses (PIV) to detect localized deformation at every increment of displacement. Post-mortem photogrammetry preserves the final 3-dimensional structure of the fault zone. We observe that no faults or fractures occur parallel to basement-fault strike. Secondary fractures are mostly oriented normal to primary joints. At the final stage of the experiments we analyzed semi-quantitatively the number of connected joints, number of secondary fractures, degree of segmentation (i.e. number of joints accommodating strain), damage zone width, and the map-view area fraction of open gaps. Whereas the area fraction does not change

  7. Turmeric improves post-prandial working memory in pre-diabetes independent of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fang, Wen-Hui; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Kuan, Jen-Chun; Liu, Hsiao-Yu; Lu, Ting-Mei; Xiu, Lili; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Andrews, Zane B; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment develops with pre-diabetes and dementia is a complication of diabetes. Natural products like turmeric and cinnamon may ameliorate the underlying pathogenesis. People ≥ 60 years (n=48) with newly-recognised untreated pre-diabetes were randomised to a double-blind metabolic study of placebo, turmeric (1 g), cinnamon (2 g) or both (1 g & 2 g respectively), ingested at a white bread (119 g) breakfast. Observations were made over 6 hours for pre- and post-working memory (WM), glycaemic and insulin responses and biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD)(0, 2, 4 and 6 hours): amyloid precursor protein (APP), γ-secretase subunits presenilin-1 (PS1), presenilin-2 (PS2), and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β). Differences between natural product users and non-users were determined by Students t and chi square tests; and between pre-test and post-test WM by Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Interaction between turmeric and cinnamon was tested by 2-way ANOVA. Multivariable linear regression (MLR) took account of BMI, glycaemia, insulin and AD biomarkers in the WM responses to turmeric and cinnamon. No interaction between turmeric and cinnamon was detected. WM increased from 2.6 to 2.9 out of 3.0 (p=0.05) with turmeric, but was unchanged with cinnamon. WM improvement was inversely associated with insulin resistance (r=-0.418, pturmeric were best predicted with an R2 of 34.5%; and with significant turmeric, BMI and insulin/glucose AUC beta-coefficients. Co-ingestion of turmeric with white bread increases working memory independent of body fatness, glycaemia, insulin, or AD biomarkers.

  8. Impact of Genetic Counseling and Testing on Altruistic Motivations to Test: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rahul; Vogelgesang, Joseph; Kelly, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of altruism in an individual’s participation in genetic counseling and testing, little research has explored the change in altruistic motivations to test over time. This study analyzed altruistic motivations to test and change in altruistic motivations after genetic counseling and testing among individuals (N=120) at elevated risk for BRCA1/2 mutations. The perceived benefits of genetic testing were assessed and utilized in a mixed-methods, repeated measures design at three time points: pre-counseling, counseling and post-genetic testing, along with transcripts of genetic counseling sessions. Qualitative analysis using an immersion/crystallization method resulted in six common perceived benefits of testing: cancer prevention, awareness, family’s survival, relief from anxiety, for science, and future planning. Perceived benefits were then coded into three categories according to Hamilton’s kin selection theory: altruistic motivation, personal motivation, and motivation for mutual benefit. At pre-counseling, those with a personal cancer history (p=0.003) and those with one or more children (p=.013), were significantly more likely to cite altruistic motivations to test. Altruistic motivations significantly increased post-counseling (p=0.01) but declined post-testing (pGenetic counseling may have increased altruistic motivations to help family and may be a prime opportunity to discuss other forms of altruism. PMID:26578231

  9. Kid-Short Marfan Score (Kid-SMS) Is a Useful Diagnostic Tool for Stratifying the Pre-Test Probability of Marfan Syndrome in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Veronika C; Arndt, Florian; Harring, Gesa; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Kozlik-Feldmann, Rainer; Mueller, Goetz C; Steiner, Kristoffer J; Mir, Thomas S

    2015-03-12

    Due to age dependent organ manifestation, diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a challenge, especially in childhood. It is important to identify children at risk of MFS as soon as possible to direct those to appropriate treatment but also to avoid stigmatization due to false diagnosis. We published the Kid-Short Marfan Score (Kid-SMS) in 2012 to stratify the pre-test probability of MFS in childhood. Hence we now evaluate the predictive performance of Kid-SMS in a new cohort of children. We prospectively investigated 106 patients who were suspected of having MFS. At baseline, children were examined according to Kid-SMS. At baseline and follow-up visit, diagnosis of MFS was established or rejected using standard current diagnostic criteria according to the revised Ghent Criteria (Ghent-2). At baseline 43 patients were identified with a risk of MFS according to Kid-SMS whereas 21 patients had Ghent-2 diagnosis of MFS. Sensitivity was 100%, specificity 77%, negative predictive value 100% and Likelihood ratio of Kid-SMS 4.3. During follow-up period, three other patients with a stratified risk for MFS were diagnosed according to Ghent-2. We confirm very good predictive performance of Kid-SMS with excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value but restricted specificity. Kid-SMS avoids stigmatization due to diagnosis of MFS and thus restriction to quality of life. Especially outpatient pediatricians and pediatric cardiologists can use it for primary assessment.

  10. A harmful-intrusion detection method based on background reconstruction and two-dimensional K-S test in an optical fiber pre-warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fukun; Zheng, Tong; Qu, Hongquan; Pang, Liping

    2016-06-01

    The key technology and main difficulty for optical fiber intrusion pre-warning systems (OFIPS) is the extraction of harmful-intrusion signals. After being processed by a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR), vibration signals can be preliminarily extracted. Generally, these include noises and intrusions. Here, intrusions can be divided into harmful and harmless intrusions. With respect to the close study of signal characteristics, an effective extraction method of harmful intrusion is proposed in the paper. Firstly, in the part of the background reconstruction, all intrusion signals are first detected by a constant false alarm rate (CFAR). We then reconstruct the backgrounds by extracting two-part information of alarm points, time and amplitude. This ensures that the detection background consists of intrusion signals. Secondly, in the part of the two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, in order to extract harmful ones from all extracted intrusions, we design a separation method. It is based on the signal characteristics of harmful intrusion, which are shorter time interval and higher amplitude. In the actual OFIPS, the detection method is used in some typical scenes, which includes a lot of harmless intrusions, for example construction sites and busy roads. Results show that we can effectively extract harmful intrusions.

  11. Pre-test probability risk scores and their use in contemporary management of patients with chest pain: One year stress echo cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Daniela Cassar; Papachristidis, Alexandros; Roper, Damian; Tsironis, Ioannis; Byrne, Jonathan; Monaghan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare how patients with chest pain would be investigated, based on the two guidelines available for UK cardiologists, on the management of patients with stable chest pain. The UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline which was published in 2010 and the European society of cardiology (ESC) guideline published in 2013. Both guidelines utilise pre-test probability risk scores, to guide the choice of investigation. Design We undertook a large retrospective study to investigate the outcomes of stress echocardiography. Setting A large tertiary centre in the UK in a contemporary clinical practice. Participants Two thirds of the patients in the cohort were referred from our rapid access chest pain clinics. Results We found that the NICE risk score overestimates risk by 20% compared to the ESC Risk score. We also found that based on the NICE guidelines, 44% of the patients presenting with chest pain, in this cohort, would have been investigated invasively, with diagnostic coronary angiography. Using the ESC guidelines, only 0.3% of the patients would be investigated invasively. Conclusion The large discrepancy between the two guidelines can be easily reduced if NICE adopted the ESC risk score. PMID:26673458

  12. Drop Testing Representative Multi-Canister Overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Spencer D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Morton, Dana K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the work reported herein was to determine the ability of the Multi- Canister Overpack (MCO) canister design to maintain its containment boundary after an accidental drop event. Two test MCO canisters were assembled at Hanford, prepared for testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), drop tested at Sandia National Laboratories, and evaluated back at the INEEL. In addition to the actual testing efforts, finite element plastic analysis techniques were used to make both pre-test and post-test predictions of the test MCOs structural deformations. The completed effort has demonstrated that the canister design is capable of maintaining a 50 psig pressure boundary after drop testing. Based on helium leak testing methods, one test MCO was determined to have a leakage rate not greater than 1x10-5 std cc/sec (prior internal helium presence prevented a more rigorous test) and the remaining test MCO had a measured leakage rate less than 1x10-7 std cc/sec (i.e., a leaktight containment) after the drop test. The effort has also demonstrated the capability of finite element methods using plastic analysis techniques to accurately predict the structural deformations of canisters subjected to an accidental drop event.

  13. Patient satisfaction is biased by renovations to the interior of a primary care office: a pretest-posttest assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tièche, Raphaël; da Costa, Bruno R; Streit, Sven

    2016-08-11

    Measuring quality of care is essential to improve primary care. Quality of primary care for patients is usually assessed by patient satisfaction questionnaires. However, patients may not be able to judge quality of care without also reflecting their perception of the environment. We determined the effect that redesigning a primary care office had on patient satisfaction. We hypothesized that renovating the interior would make patients more satisfied with the quality of medical care. We performed a Pretest-Posttest analysis in a recently renovated single-practice primary care office in Grenchen, Switzerland. Before and after renovation, we distributed a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction in four domains. We chose a Likert scale (1 = very poor to 6 = very good), and 12 quality indicators, and included two consecutive samples of patients presenting at the primary care office before (n = 153) and after (n = 153) interior design renovation. Response rate was high (overall 85 %). The sample was similar to the enlisted patient collective, but the sample population was older (60 years) than the collective (52 years). Patient satisfaction was higher for all domains after the office was renovated (p patient satisfaction, including satisfaction in domains otherwise unchanged. Physician skills and patient satisfaction sometimes depend on surrounding factors that may bias the ability of patients to assess the quality of medical care. These biases should be taken into account when quality assessment instruments are designed for patients.

  14. Impact of HIV counseling and testing among child-bearing women in Kinshasa, Zaïre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, W L; Batter, V L; Malulu, M; Mbuyi, N; Mbu, L; St Louis, M E; Kamenga, M; Ryder, R W

    1993-12-01

    To determine the impact of HIV counseling and testing among child-bearing women. Mama Yemo Hospital in Kinshasa, Zaïre. After informed consent, 187 HIV-seropositive and 177 HIV-seronegative child-bearing women received pre- and post-test counseling for HIV infection. Participant knowledge of HIV/AIDS and plans for notifying partners of serologic status and contraceptive use at the time of counseling, and actual partner involvement and contraception use 12 months later. During pre-test counseling, participant knowledge of HIV infection was high, although 30% of women were unaware of perinatal HIV transmission, and 50% did not know that HIV infection could be asymptomatic. At post-test counseling, 70% of mothers (47% of HIV-seropositive, 94% of HIV-seronegative) intended to notify their partners and have joint counseling and testing, although after 12 months, only 2.2% of all women and 7.9% of those who desired assistance to notify their partner returned with their partners for joint counseling and testing. Similarly, 86% planned to use birth control (61% condoms), with HIV-seropositive women more likely to prefer condoms than HIV-seronegative women (71 versus 53%; P heterosexual and perinatal HIV transmission in families with an HIV-infected woman, counseling should also include their male partners.

  15. Thermal and Fluid Modeling of the CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed (CRYOTE) Ground Test Article (GTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryk, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Walls, Laurie; Stopnitzky, Benny; Rhys, Noah; Wollen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor thermal and fluid system models to data acquired from a ground test article (GTA) for the CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed - CRYOTE. To accomplish this analysis, it was broken into four primary tasks. These included model development, pre-test predictions, testing support at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC} and post-test correlations. Information from MSFC facilitated the task of refining and correlating the initial models. The primary goal of the modeling/testing/correlating efforts was to characterize heat loads throughout the ground test article. Significant factors impacting the heat loads included radiative environments, multi-layer insulation (MLI) performance, tank fill levels, tank pressures, and even contact conductance coefficients. This paper demonstrates how analytical thermal/fluid networks were established, and it includes supporting rationale for specific thermal responses seen during testing.

  16. The Psychological Challenges of Replacing Conventional Karyotyping with Genomic SNP Array Analysis in Prenatal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Riedijk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant couples tend to prefer a maximum of information about the health of their fetus. Therefore, we implemented whole genome microarray instead of conventional karyotyping (CK for all indications for prenatal diagnosis (PND. The array detects more clinically relevant anomalies, including early onset disorders, not related to the indication and more genetic anomalies of yet unquantifiable risk, so-called susceptibility loci (SL for mainly neurodevelopmental disorders. This manuscript highlights the psychological challenges in prenatal genetic counselling when using the array and provides counselling suggestions. First, we suggest that pre-test decision counselling should emphasize deliberation about what pregnant couples wish to learn about the future health of their fetus more than information about possible outcomes. Second, pregnant couples need support in dealing with SL. Therefore, in order to consider the SL in a proportionate perspective, the presence of phenotypes associated with SL in the family, the incidence of a particular SL in control populations and in postnatally ascertained patients needs highlighting during post-test genetic counselling. Finally, the decision that couples need to make about the course of their pregnancy is more complicated when the expected phenotype is variable and not quantifiable. Therefore, during post-test psychological counseling, couples should concretize the options of continuing and ending their pregnancy; all underlying feelings and thoughts should be made explicit, as well as the couple’s resources, in order to attain adequate decision-making. As such, pre- and post-test counselling aids pregnant couples in handling the uncertainties that may accompany offering a broader scope of genetic PND using the array.

  17. Beliefs about family-school relationships. Changes in pre-service teachers after receiving specific training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vázquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ beliefs about family-school relationship vary in a continuum according to the role that parents and teachers have, and the power that they hold. Pre-service teachers also have beliefs about this relationship and their own competence to develop it. Two groups of pre-service teachers (second year students participated in this study. One group received specific training on family-school relationship and its improvement (116 students attending a degree in Early Childhood Education, who constituted the experimental group, EG. The other group was not trained (92 students attending a degree in Primary Education, who made up the control group, CG. The Beliefs about family-school Questionnaire (CCR was developed and applied before and after the EG was trained. Results show that students in the EG increased their beliefs about family-school collaboration in the post-test and decreased their beliefs about parental subordination to teachers’ authority and parents’ carelessness. Students in the CG kept their beliefs unchanged, which were significantly more prone to support teachers’ authority and parental subordination and parents’ carelessness compared to the EG.. Perceived competence for family-school relationship did not change significantly in either group. However, significant correlations between beliefs and perceived competence were found, pointing out the importance of working pre-service teachers’ beliefs about family-school collaboration.

  18. Enhancing student retention of prerequisite knowledge through pre-class activities and in-class reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T S; Olofson, Eric L; Novak, Walter R P

    2017-03-04

    To foster the connection between biochemistry and the supporting prerequisite concepts, a collection of activities that explicitly link general and organic chemistry concepts to biochemistry ideas was written and either assigned as pre-class work or as recitation activities. We assessed student learning gains after using these activities alone, or in combination with regularly-integrated clicker and discussion questions. Learning gains were determined from student performance on pre- and post-tests covering key prerequisite concepts, biochemistry course exams, and student self-evaluation. Long-term retention of the material was assessed using a comprehensive exam given to a subset of the students. Our results show that using the pre-class exercises in combination with integrative questions was effective at improving student performance in both the short and long term. Similar results were obtained at both a large research institution with large class enrollments and at a private liberal arts college with moderate enrollments. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):97-104, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Enhancing Communication Skills of Pre-service Physics Teacher through HOT Lab Related to Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Setiawan, A.; Suhandi, A.; Permanasari, A.; Dirgantara, Y.; Yuniarti, H.; Sapriadil, S.; Hermita, N.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the improvement to pre-service teacher’s communication skills through Higher Order Thinking Laboratory (HOT Lab) on electric circuit topic. This research used the quasi-experiment method with pretest-posttest control group design. Research subjects were 60 students of Physics Education in UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. The sample was chosen by random sampling technique. Students’ communication skill data collected using a communication skills test instruments-essays form and observations sheets. The results showed that pre-service teacher communication skills using HOT Lab were higher than verification lab. Student’s communication skills in groups using HOT Lab were not influenced by gender. Communication skills could increase due to HOT Lab based on problems solving that can develop communication through hands-on activities. Therefore, the conclusion of this research shows the application of HOT Lab is more effective than the verification lab to improve communication skills of pre-service teachers in electric circuit topic and gender is not related to a person’s communication skills.

  20. Evaluating a Pre-Session Homework Exercise in a Standalone Information Literacy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Joseph E.; Barber, Catherine R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, researchers evaluate a homework exercise assigned before a standalone information literacy session. Students in a Master of Education program completed a worksheet using the ERIC database thesaurus. The researchers conducted pre- and posttests within a single library session to assess student learning, using a control group for…

  1. Development of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Awareness of Sustainable Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Cemile; Filik Iscen, Cansu

    2015-01-01

    Water is a vital resource for sustainable development. The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate pre-service science teachers' awareness of sustainable water usage. This research was based on a mixed method. The qualitative part of the research was based on a single group pretest-posttest experimental design, and the qualitative data…

  2. Reducing child abuse amongst adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: A pre-post trial in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cluver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. ‘Parenting for Lifelong Health’ ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii to identify potential adaptations. Methods Two hundred thirty participants (adolescents and their primary caregivers were recruited from schools, welfare services and community-sampling in rural, high-poverty South Africa (no exclusion criteria. All participated in a 12-week parenting programme, implemented by local NGO childcare workers to ensure real-world external validity. Standardised pre-post measures with adolescents and caregivers were used, and paired t-tests were conducted for primary outcomes: abuse (physical, emotional abuse and neglect, adolescent behaviour problems and parenting (positive and involved parenting, poor monitoring and inconsistent discipline, and secondary outcomes: mental health, social support and substance use. Results Participants reported high levels of socio-economic deprivation, e.g. 60 % of adolescents had either an HIV-positive caregiver or were orphaned by AIDS, and 50 % of caregivers experienced intimate partner violence. i indicative effects: Primary outcomes comparing pre-test and post-test assessments showed reductions reported by adolescents and caregivers in child abuse (adolescent report 63.0 % pre-test to 29.5 % post-test, caregiver report 75.5 % pre-test to 36.5 % post-test, both p < 0.001 poor monitoring/inconsistent discipline (p < .001, adolescent delinquency/aggressive behaviour (both p < .001, and

  3. The Efficacy of Group Play Therapy on the Social Skills of Pre-School Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Movallali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate of the efficacy of group play therapy on the social skills of pre-school hearing-impaired children. Materials & Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test design and control group. The participants were 30 male hearing-impaired children from pre-schools centers in Varamin and Gharchak provinces using an available method. Subjects were randomly divided into experimental and control groups, each group consisting of 15 children. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group play therapy and the control group did not. The instruments were done using the Raven coloure progressive matrices test and social skills rating scale. The data were recorded and statistically analyzed using MANCOVA. Results: The results of MANCOVA showed that group play therapy had a significant effect on the social skills of hearing-impaired children (P<0.001. The results also revealed that group play therapy had a positive and significant effect on all subscales of social skills in these children: cooperation, self-assertiveness and self-control (P<0.001. Conclusion: Group play therapy can improve the social skills of hearing-impaired children. It is recommended that planning play therapy for hearing-impaired children receives serious attention .

  4. Can A Complex Online Intervention Improve Cancer Nurses' Pain Screening and Assessment Practices? Results from a Multicenter, Pre-post Test Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jane L; Heneka, Nicole; Hickman, Louise; Lam, Lawrence; Shaw, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Unrelieved cancer pain has an adverse impact on quality of life. While routine screening and assessment forms the basis of effective cancer pain management, it is often poorly done, thus contributing to the burden of unrelieved cancer pain. The aim of this study was to test the impact of an online, complex, evidence-based educational intervention on cancer nurses' pain assessment capabilities and adherence to cancer pain screening and assessment guidelines. Specialist inpatient cancer nurses in five Australian acute care settings participated in an intervention combining an online spaced learning cancer pain assessment module with audit and feedback of pain assessment practices. Participants' self-perceived pain assessment competencies were measured at three time points. Prospective, consecutive chart audits were undertaken to appraise nurses' adherence with pain screening and assessment guidelines. The differences in documented pre-post pain assessment practices were benchmarked and fed back to all sites post intervention. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Participants who completed the intervention (n = 44) increased their pain assessment knowledge, assessment tool knowledge, and confidence undertaking a pain assessment (p nurses' pain assessment capabilities translated into a significant increasing linear trend in the proportion of documented pain assessments in patients' charts at the three time points (χ 2 trend = 18.28, df = 1, p pain assessment audit and feedback data, improves inpatient cancer nurses' self-perceived pain screening and assessment capabilities and strengthens cancer pain guideline adherence. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Smokers' responses to television advertisements about the serious harms of tobacco use: pre-testing results from 10 low- to middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Bayly, Megan; Durkin, Sarah; Cotter, Trish; Mullin, Sandra; Warne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    While television advertisements (ads) that communicate the serious harms of smoking are effective in prompting quitting-related thoughts and actions, little research has been conducted among smokers in low- to middle-income countries to guide public education efforts. 2399 smokers aged 18-34 years in 10 low- to middle-income countries (Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Turkey and Vietnam) viewed and individually rated the same five anti-smoking ads on a standard questionnaire and then engaged in a structured group discussion about each ad. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, with robust SEs to account for the same individual rating multiple ads, was performed to compare outcomes (message acceptance, perceived personalised effectiveness, feel uncomfortable, likelihood of discussing the ad) across ads and countries, adjusting for covariates. Ads by country interactions were examined to assess consistency of ratings across countries. Three ads with graphic imagery performed consistently highly across all countries. Two of these ads showed diseased human tissue or body parts, and a third used a disgust-provoking metaphor to demonstrate tar accumulation in smokers' lungs. A personal testimonial ad performed more variably, as many smokers did not appreciate that the featured woman's lung cancer was due to smoking or that her altered physical appearance was due to chemotherapy. An ad using a visual metaphor for lung disease was also more variable, mostly due to lack of understanding of the term 'emphysema'. Television ads that graphically communicate the serious harms of tobacco use are likely to be effective with smokers in low- to middle-income countries and can be readily translated and adapted for local use. Ads with complex medical terms or metaphors, or those that feature personal testimonials, are more variable and at least require more careful pre-testing and adaptation to maximise their potential.

  6. Avaliação da segurança do teste de caminhada dos 6 minutos em pacientes no pré-transplante cardíaco Evaluación de la seguridad de la test de marcha de 6 minutos en pacientes en el pre-transplante cardiaco Analysis of 6-minute walk test safety in pre-heart transplantation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Cipriano Jr

    2009-04-01

    ínico y el pronóstico cardiovascular. La seguridad y el impacto metabólico son poco descritos en la literatura, principalmente en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca severa e indicación clínica para transplante cardiovascular Objetivo: Evaluar la ocurrencia de arritmias y alteraciones cardiovasculares durante el TM6m. Correlacionar el desempeño en el TM6m con el estadiamiento clínico y el pronóstico cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Un total de 12 pacientes, 10 varones, con edad de 52 ± 8 años, fueron sometidos a evaluación inicial. Realizaron el TM6m con monitoreo electrocardiográfico por telemetría, señales vitales y lactato. Se siguieron a los individuos por 12 meses. RESULTADOS: Los pacientes recorrieron 399,4 ± 122,5 (D, m, alcanzando un esfuerzo percibido (EP de 14,3 ± 1,5 y variación del 34% en la frecuencia cardiaca basal. Dos pacientes presentaron arritmia de mayor severidad pre-TM6m y no mostraron empeoramiento ante el esfuerzo; cuatro tuvieron elevación significativa en los niveles de lactato sanguíneo (>5 mmol/dl, y tres interrumpieron el examen. La distancia recorrida evidenció correlación con la fracción de eyección (% y la clasificación funcional (NYHA. Tras 12 meses de seguimiento, tres pacientes murieron, y siete se reinternaron por descompensación cardiaca. La relación (D/EP y frecuencia cardiaca de recuperación en el segundo minuto (FCR2, lpm fueron inferiores en el grupo óbito. CONCLUSIÓN: El comportamiento clínico y electrocardiográfico sugiere que el método es seguro, pero se puede considerarlo de alta intensidad para algunos pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca severa. Variables relacionadas al desempeño en el TM6m pueden estar asociadas con la mortalidad en el seguimiento de un año.BACKGROUND: The 6-minute walk test (6WT has been used as a means of assessment of the functional capacity, clinical staging and cardiovascular prognosis. Its safety and metabolic impact have not been frequently described in the literature

  7. Effects of a job crafting intervention program on work engagement among Japanese employees: a pretest-posttest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Shimazu, Akihito; Imamura, Kotaro; Namba, Katsuyuki; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-10-24

    Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees' well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome), as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes), using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. Participants were managers of a private company and a private psychiatric hospital in Japan. The job crafting intervention program consisted of two 120-min sessions with a two-week interval between them. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (Time 1), post-intervention (Time 2), and a one-month follow-up (Time 3). The mixed growth model analyses were conducted using time (Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3) as an indicator of intervention effect. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. The program showed a significant positive effect on work engagement (t = 2.20, p = 0.03) in the mixed growth model analyses, but with only small effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.33 at Time 2 and 0.26 at Time 3). The program also significantly improved job crafting (t = 2.36, p = 0.02: Cohen's d = 0.36 at Time 2 and 0.47 at Time 3) and reduced psychological distress (t = -2.06, p = 0.04: Cohen's d = -0.15 at Time 2 and -0.31 at Time 3). The study indicated that the newly developed job crafting intervention program was effective in increasing work engagement, as well as in improving job crafting and decreasing psychological distress, among Japanese managers. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000024062 . Retrospectively registered 15 September 2016.

  8. Análise de padrões de comportamento de preços com fins de projeção de receita: testes estatísticos em uma série temporal de preços da commodity cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Athayde Matias

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Em análise de fluxos de caixa de projetos de investimento, notadamente quando o principal produto é uma commodity, a definição da receita futura como uma função do comportamento de preços, é uma questão que vem sendo debatida nos meios acadêmico e financeiro. Diante deste fato, neste artigo, são realizadas avaliações econométricas em uma série histórica de preços da commodity cobre, buscando verificar se o comportamento destes preços segue algum padrão específico já identificado pela literatura, notadamente entre os padrões de "Tendência de Reversão à Média" e "Movimento Browniano Geométrico". Foram realizados testes para estacionaridade, autocorrelação, normalidade e linearidade. Os resultados indicam que os preços da commodity cobre não seguiram, durante o período analisado, nenhum padrão de comportamento, sugerindo que os modelos utilizados convencionalmente em projeções financeiras apresentam baixo poder de predição de preços futuros.

  9. Panel manipulation in social stress testing: The Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation

  10. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Ariel E.; Mulleady Bishop, Pauline; Dad, Luqman; Singh, Deeptej; Slanetz, Priscilla J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p ≤ 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology

  11. Awareness and willingness towards pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection among individuals seeking voluntary counselling and testing for HIV in Taiwan: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Lin, Kuan-Yin; Chang, Lan-Hsin; Liu, Wen-Chun; Wu, Cheng-Hsin; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2017-10-16

    We aimed to investigate the awareness and willingness towards pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among individuals seeking voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV in Taiwan, where PrEP is currently not reimbursed by the insurance. Between April and October 2016, a questionnaire interview was conducted among VCT clients to inquire about the attitudes towards PrEP against HIV infection. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the associated factors with willingness to initiate PrEP. During the 6-month period, 1173 VCT clients (99.8%) completed the interviews, with 67.4% being homosexual or bisexual male. While 67.2% of the clients knew of postexposure prophylaxis, 40.2% heard of PrEP. Overall, 546 clients (46.5%) were willing to initiate PrEP and 89.5% of them would choose event-driven PrEP. In multivariate analysis, male gender (OR 1.796; 95% CI 1.165 to 2.768), full-time job (OR 1.354; 95% CI 1.052 to 1.742), one-night stand (OR 1.374; 95% CI 1.043 to 1.810), having casual sex partners within 3 months (OR 1.329; 95% CI 1.031 to 1.714), condomless anal sex (OR 1.405; 95% CI 1.122 to 1.878) and ever having chemsex or attending a drug party in the past 1 year (OR 2.571; 95% CI 1.541 to 4.287), regular screening for HIV infection (OR 1.321; 95% CI 1.021 to 1.711) and knowledge of PrEP (OR 1.504; 95% CI, 1.159 to 1.953) were associated with willingness to initiate PrEP. Understanding the willingness to initiate PrEP against HIV among the VCT clients in Taiwan, which was associated with male gender, risky sexual behaviours and awareness of PrEP, will help inform the implementation of PrEP programme. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The Potential of Outing Class Acitivities to Enhance Environmental Awareness for Elementary School Pre-Services Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Patonah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental damage in various places requires concrete steps to be resolved. The purpose of this research is to make environmental awareness work for Elementary School Pre-services Teacher through outing class activities. Post-test only group design is used as a method of this research. The instruments used are environmental awareness questionnaire where adapted. There are 71 elementary pre-service teacher  (60 male and 11 female who fill in questioner. Students devide into 2 groups: experiment group and control group. Data analysis is an independent sample test using SPSS vol. 22. Experiment group, learning is done by outing class while the control group is done in the classroom. Obtained significance of 0.029 < 0.05, indicating that there is a difference between the experimental group and the control group. Outing class has an effect on environmental awareness to elementary school pre service teacher. An in-depth study is required to modify outing class activities in enhancing environmental awareness.

  13. Background reduction of the KATRIN spectrometers. Transmission function of the pre-spectrometer and systematic tests of the main-spectrometer wire electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prall, Matthias

    2011-07-04

    precision). These measurements, together with the results of various quality assurance tests are stored in a database allowing to reconstruct the properties and history of each single electrode module. The UHV-compatible, fail-save, non-magnetic high voltage distribution, routing 46 voltages to the electrode modules inside the MS, was designed, tested systematically and its installation was started. The pre-spectrometer (PS), which has the same working principle as the MS is placed in front of it in the KATRIN experiment. It is foreseen to operate the MS at a potential of about 18.57 keV and the PS at about 18.3 keV reducing the rate of {beta}-decay electrons entering the MS to about 10{sup 3} s{sup -1}. This measure reduces the electron scattering probability in the MS and thus the background rate. Like this, however, electrons are confined longitudinally between the spectrometer potentials and radially by the strong magnetic field of a solenoid, placed between them. The electrons trapped in this Penning trap can also produce background. This work investigates the possibility to diminish this background source by reducing the PS potential by several keV worsening the trapping conditions. In this configuration, however, the PS transmission probability could be reduced as an adiabaticity requirement guaranteeing that electrons follow the magnetic field lines through the PS and are transmitted, is potentially violated. This phenomenon would introduce an additional systematic uncertainty for KATRIN. Therefore, the pre-spectrometer transmission at several magnetic fields settings. These investigations show that there are no non-adiabatic transmission losses for magnetic fields larger, or equal to 2.25 T (50% KATRIN design value).

  14. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia: Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Corine M.; van Pampus, Maria G.; Groen, Henk; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van den Berg, Paul P.; Mol, Ben W. J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed

  15. Accuracy of serum uric acid as a predictive test for maternal complications in pre-eclampsia : Bivariate meta-analysis and decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; van Pampus, Maria; Groen, H.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; van den Berg, P.P.; Mol, B.W.J.

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy and clinical value of serum uric acid in predicting maternal complications in women with pre-eclampsia. An existing meta-analysis on the subject was updated. The accuracy of serum uric acid for the prediction of maternal complications was assessed

  16. Investigation of Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Cognitive Structures about Some Key Concepts in Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Course through Word Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to map the cognitive structure of pre-service English language (EL) teachers about three key concepts related to approaches and methods in language teaching so as to discover their learning process and misconceptions. The study involves both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher administrated a Word Association Test…

  17. Guidelines for conducting impact tests on shipping packages for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, G.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Lu, S.C.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    Federal regulation (10 CFR Part 71) specifies a number of impact conditions (free-drop, penetration, and puncture), under which a package for the transport of radioactive materials must be tested or evaluated to demonstrate compliance with the regulation. This report is a comprehensive guide to the planning and execution of these impact tests. The report identifies the required considerations for both the design, pre-, and post-test inspections of the test model and the measurement, recording, analysis, and reporting of the test data. The report also presents reasons for the requirements, identifies the major difficulties in meeting these requirements, and suggests possible methods to overcome the difficulties. Discussed in substantial detail is the use of scale models and instrumented measurements

  18. Plan on test to failure of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takumi, K.; Nonaka, A.; Umeki, K.; Nagata, K.; Soejima, M.; Yamaura, Y.; Costello, J.F.; Riesemann, W.A. von.; Parks, M.B.; Horschel, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of the plans to test a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model to failure is provided in this paper. The test will be conducted as a part of a joint research program between the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The containment model will be a scaled representation of a PCCV for a pressurized water reactor (PWR). During the test, the model will be slowly pressurized internally until failure of the containment pressure boundary occurs. The objectives of the test are to measure the failure pressure, to observe the mode of failure, and to record the containment structural response up to failure. Pre- and posttest analyses will be conducted to forecast and evaluate the test results. Based on these results, a validated method for evaluating the structural behavior of an actual PWR PCCV will be developed. The concepts to design the PCCV model are also described in the paper

  19. Assessment of Pre-Service Teachers’ Misconceptions in Geometrical Optics via a Three-Tier Misconception Test (Öğretmen Adaylarının Geometrik Optik Konusundaki ...) Doi: 10.14686/BUEFAD.2015111057

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞLIDERE, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Erdal; ERYILMAZ, Doç. Dr. Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to describe pre-service elementary teachers’ misconceptions about various aspects of light, shadow and mirror images before they learn the geometrical optics at the university level. The participants of the study were 317 junior and sophomore level students studying at the departments of science and computer education. Students’ misconceptions were assessed via a revised three-tier geometrical optics misconception test. Its’ validity and reliability evidences were re...

  20. Discriminant Analysis of Essay, Mathematics/Science Type of Essay, College Scholastic Ability Test, and Grade Point Average as Predictors of Acceptance to a Pre-med Course at a Korean Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Geum-Hee Jeong

    2008-01-01

    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of ea...

  1. Medidas de rede e apoio social no Estudo Pró-Saúde: pré-testes e estudo piloto Social network and social support measures from the Pró-Saúde Study: pre-tests and pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Chor

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, relatamos a metodologia de seleção de perguntas sobre rede e apoio social, incluídas em um estudo de coorte de 4.030 funcionários de uma universidade pública no Rio de Janeiro. Em primeiro lugar, a adequação de conceitos foi explorada em discussões de grupos de voluntários. Em seguida, o questionário do Medical Outcomes Study foi submetido a procedimentos padronizados de tradução e versão. As perguntas foram a seguir avaliadas em cinco etapas de pré-testes e estudo piloto. Nenhuma pergunta apresentou proporção de não-resposta acima de 5%. Os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson entre os itens foram distantes de zero e da unidade; a correlação entre cada item e o escore de sua dimensão foi superior a 0,80 em quase todos os casos. Finalmente, os coeficientes Alpha de Cronbach foram superiores a 0,70 em todas as dimensões. Os resultados sugerem que aspectos de rede e apoio social serão mensurados adequadamente, permitindo a investigação de suas associações com desenlaces relacionados à saúde em um grupo populacional no Brasil.We describe methodological steps in the selection of questions on social networks and support for a cohort study of 4,030 employees from a public university in Rio de Janeiro. First, group discussions with volunteers were conducted to explore the adequacy of related concepts. Next, questions in the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire were submitted to standard "forward-" and "back-translation" procedures. The questions were subsequently evaluated through five stages of pre-tests and a pilot study. No question had a proportion of non-response greater than 5%. Pearson correlation coefficients between questions were distant from both zero and unity; correlation between all items and their dimension score was higher than 0.80 in most cases. Finally, Cronbach Alpha coefficients were above 0.70 within each dimension. Results suggest that social networks and support will be adequately

  2. Performance of a sample of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, Alzheimer's Disease (AD and healthy elderly on a lexical decision test (LDT as a measure of pre-morbid intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Trunkl Serrao

    Full Text Available Objective:The objective of this study was to describe the performance of healthy elderly patients with aging-related pathologies (MCI and patients with AD on a lexical decision test.Methods:The study included 38 healthy elderly subjects, 61 MCI and 26 AD patients from the Neurology Department of the Hospital das Clinicas, Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology Group. The neuropsychological instruments included the episodic memory test (RAVLT, subtests from the WAIS-III (Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary to determine estimated IQ, the Boston naming test (BNT and Lexical Decision Test (LDT.Results:All groups differed on the MMSE, as expected according to their pathologies, memory tests, naming and estimated IQ. For the vocabulary and the LDT - measures of crystalized intelligence no differences were found.Conclusion:The LDT demonstrated that lexical decision can be used as a measure of pre-morbid IQ among the individuals assessed in a Brazilian sample.

  3. Evaluation of a kindergarten-based nutrition education intervention for pre-school children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanlai; Ye, Dongqing; Li, Yingchun; Huang, Yongling; Li, Li; Gao, Yongqing; Wang, Sufang

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of nutrition education in kindergartens and to promote healthy dietary habits in children. Prospective cohort study. Four kindergartens with 1252 children were randomized to the intervention group and three with 850 children to the control group. The personal nutritional knowledge, attitudes and dietary behaviours of the parents were also investigated. Each month, children and parents in the intervention group participated in nutrition education activities. The main outcome measures were anthropometrics and diet-related behaviours of the children and the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of the parents at baseline, 6 months (mid-term) and 1 year (post-test). Baseline demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also collected. Seven kindergartens from Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, eastern China. Two thousand one hundred and two 4- to 6-year-old pre-schoolers from seven kindergartens participated. The prevalence of children's unhealthy diet-related behaviours decreased significantly and good lifestyle behaviours increased in the group receiving nutrition education compared with controls. Parental eating habits and attitudes to planning their children's diets also changed appreciably in the intervention group compared with the control group (P education improves pre-schoolers' lifestyle behaviours and brings about beneficial changes in parents' attitudes to planning their children's diets and their own personal eating habits.

  4. Physical and chemical changes to rock near electrically heated boreholes at Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Durham, W.B.; Ryerson, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sections of Climax Stock quartz monzonite taken from the vicinity of two electrically heated boreholes at Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy for signs of changes in crack structure and in mineralogy resulting from operations at SFT-C. The crack structure, as measured by density of cracks and average crack lengths was found not to have changed as a result of heating, regardless of distance from the heater hole. However, rock near the heater borehole sampled in the north heater drift was found to be more cracked than rock near the borehole sampled in the south heater drift. Mineralogically, the post-test samples are identical to the pre-test samples. No new phases have been formed as a result of the test. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Experential Learning Approach For Training Pre-Service Teachers In Environmental Science Using Mobile Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, D. C.; Nair, U. S.

    2015-12-01

    In the context of complex environmental problems facing societies, environmental education is becoming an integral part of curriculum all levels of education, including teacher education. Traditional teaching methodology is often criticized for being reductionist and empirical and thus not optimal for training next generation of students who are expected to formulate solutions to complex, interdisciplinary environmental issues. This study will report on the use of mobile application, based on the Open Data Kit (ODK), along with the Google Earth Engine (GEE) to implement a better approach, namely experiential learning, for teacher education in Kerala, India. The specific topic considered is land use and land cover change due to human activity. The experiential learning approach implemented will involve students using Android mobile application to collect a sample of geo-locations for different land cover types. This data will be used to classify satellite imagery within Google Earth Engine and used to understand how their neighborhoods have changed over the years. Rather than being passive information recipients, the students will develop understanding based on their own analysis of how urban regions grow, crop lands shrink and forests disappear. This study will report on the implementation of experiential learning approach through the use of ODK and GEE, and on the ongoing evaluation of effectiveness of experiential learning approach for environmental education. A Pretest-Posttest study design will be used for evaluation. Change in environmental consciousness, as characterized by a well-designed and validated Environmental Consciousness Scale will be determined for a study group of 300 Pre-service teachers of Kerala, India. The significance between the mean scores of the data collected during pretest and posttest will be analyzed using paired t tests. Qualitative feedback about the Mobile Application through focus group interviews will also collected and analyzed.

  6. Study of Pre-disposing Factors of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Antibiotic Prescribing Pattern with Reference to Antibiotic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R; Shrestha, B; Shakya Shrestha, S; Pant, A; Prajapati, B; Karmacharya, B M

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects about 329 million people worldwide, which is nearly 5% of the entire global population. In the context of Nepal, COPD accounts for 43% of the non-communicable disease burden and 2.56% of hospitalizations. Various pre-disposing factors like bacterial, viral, fungal, smoking, occupational exposures and genetic factors have been proposed to precipitate COPD and its exacerbation though, the definitive pre-disposing factors and factors related to acute exacerbation have not been determined in the context of Nepal. Objective To find out the pre-disposing factors and the related causative agents for COPD. Method A cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Patients of all age group who were diagnosed as COPD and admitted in the hospital were included in this study. Patients were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The sociodemographic data including personal and medical history were recorded from those participants. In addition, sputum from those patients was sent for culture to investigate the possible responsible pathogens as well as its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Result A total of 150 patients having Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AECOPD) who have admitted from either emergency or out-patient department of the hospital were included in this study. Among the total number of patients, more than half of them were female (n=82). In addition, analysis of occupations shows that most of them were either farmer (36.0%) or housewife (30.7%). In total studied patients (n=150), most of them were using traditional firewood (83%) for cooking purpose and majority of patients (91%) were smokers. Most of the sputum samples show growth of gram-positive cocci (26.7%) and gram negative bacilli (27.5%). Considering the overall sensitivity pattern, the higher sensitivity was recorded for Co-trimoxazole and Ciprofloxacin while higher rate of resistance was noted

  7. The introduction of a choice to learn pre-symptomatic DNA test results for BRCA or Lynch syndrome either face-to-face or by letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorwinden, J. S.; Jaspers, J. P. C.; ter Beest, J. G.; Kievit, Y.; Sijmons, R. H.; Oosterwijk, J. C.

    In predictive DNA testing for hereditary cancer, test results should traditionally be disclosed face-to-face. Increasingly, however, counselees ask to receive their test result at home by letter. To compare the quality of genetic counselling in the traditional way to a procedure in which counselees

  8. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  9. Assessment of full power turbine trip start-up test for C. Trillo 1 with RELAP5/MOD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, M.F.; Moreno, P.; de la Cal, C.; Larrea, E.; Lopez, A.; Santamaria, J.G.; Lopez, E.; Novo, M.

    1993-07-01

    C. Trillo I has developed a model of the plant with RELAP5/MOD2/36.04. This model will be validated against a selected set of start-up tests. One of the transients selected to that aim is the turbine trip, which presents very specific characteristics that make it significantly different from the same transient in other PWRs of different design, the main difference being that the reactor is not tripped: a reduction in primary power is carried out instead. Pre-test calculations were done of the Turbine Trip Test and compared against the actual test. Minor problems in the first model, specially in the Control and Limitation Systems, were identified and post-test calculations had been carried out. The results show a good agreement with data for all the compared variables

  10. WHITE-COLLAR CRIME’S FORECASTING AND REDUCTION BY MEANS OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT TESTING IN THE PENAL POLITICS OF THE STATE: EMPIRICAL FINDINGS FOR MOLDOVA AND ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to elaborate a valid method of forecasting of the potential offender during the hiring process by means of pre-employment tests as an integral part of the process of prevention and counteracting of the phenomenon of white-collar criminality in the realm of Penal Politics of the Republic of Moldova and the State of Israel. Namely, the „personality coefficient” of the potential offender, which, in the author’s opinion, will define better the likelihood of success in perpetrating a white-collar crime. As a result, a new methodology and tactics for the earlier reducing of white-collar criminality at workplace a new and original scale of pre-employment test valid for hiring process which will be justifiable not only from economical and sociological standpoint, but also from criminological point of view in the process of white-collar criminality reducing.Prognozarea şi reducerea criminalităţii gulerelor albe prin metoda testărilor pre-angajatoare în politica penală a statului: rezultatele empirice pentru Moldova şi IsraelScopul propus în acest articol constă în elaborarea unei metode valide pentru identificarea criminalilor potenţiali în procesul de angajare prin teste de pre-selecţie privite ca parte integrantă a procesului de prevenire şi combatere a fenomenului criminalităţii gulerelor albe în cadrul politicii penale a Republicii Moldova şi a Statului Israel. În special, este propus spre utilizare „coeficientul personalităţii” potenţialului infractor care, în opinia autorului, va defini mai precis probabilitatea săvârşirii crimei gulerelor albe. Prin urmare, este propusă şi argumentată o nouă metodologie şi tactică de reducere a criminalităţii gulerelor albe la locul de muncă, precum şi un model original de testare pre-angajare oportun din perspectivă economică, sociologică şi criminologică.

  11. Blind pre-analysis of the main building complex WWER-440/213 Paks for comparison of analytical and experimental results obtained by explosive testing (task 7a of workplan 95/96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Within the research programme on Benchmark studies of seismic analysis of WWER type reactors the blind pre-analysis must be prepared for the main building complex of Paks NPP, based on given excitations derived from explosion tests. The aim of the investigation was to validate different idealization concepts (mathematical models for the idealization of the structures and the soil) as well as investigation procedures (time domain and frequency domain analysis) and finally the software tools by comparing dynamic properties (eigenfrequencies, eigenmodes, modal values) and structural response results (time histories and response spectra). This report contains results of the blind pre-analysis performed by using three dimensional idealization of the main building complex (reactor building, turbine house, galleries) by means of time and frequency domian calculation procedures

  12. A pre-post test evaluation of the impact of the PELICAN MDT-TME Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cath; Sippitt, Joanna M; Collins, Gary; McManus, Chris; Richardson, Alison; Dawson, Jeremy; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2010-06-29

    The PELICAN Multidisciplinary Team Total Mesorectal Excision (MDT-TME) Development Programme aimed to improve clinical outcomes for rectal cancer by educating colorectal cancer teams in precision surgery and related aspects of multidisciplinary care. The Programme reached almost all colorectal cancer teams across England. We took the opportunity to assess the impact of participating in this novel team-based Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members. The impact of participating in the programme on team members' self-reported job stress, job satisfaction and team performance was assessed in a pre-post course study. 333/568 (59%) team members, from the 75 multidisciplinary teams who attended the final year of the Programme, completed questionnaires pre-course, and 6-8 weeks post-course. Across all team members, the main sources of job satisfaction related to working in multidisciplinary teams; whilst feeling overloaded was the main source of job stress. Surgeons and clinical nurse specialists reported higher levels of job satisfaction than team members who do not provide direct patient care, whilst MDT coordinators reported the lowest levels of job satisfaction and job stress. Both job stress and satisfaction decreased after participating in the Programme for all team members. There was a small improvement in team performance. Participation in the Development Programme had a mixed impact on the working lives of team members in the immediate aftermath of attending. The decrease in team members' job stress may reflect the improved knowledge and skills conferred by the Programme. The decrease in job satisfaction may be the consequence of being unable to apply these skills immediately in clinical practice because of a lack of required infrastructure and/or equipment. In addition, whilst the Programme raised awareness of the challenges of teamworking, a greater focus on tackling these issues may have improved working lives further.

  13. Impact of point-of-care pre-procedure creatinine and eGFR testing in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI: The pilot STATCREAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamasis, Grigoris V; Hampton-Till, James; Al-Janabi, Firas; Mohdnazri, Shah; Parker, Michael; Ioannou, Adam; Jagathesan, Rohan; Kabir, Alagmir; Sayer, Jeremy W; Robinson, Nicholas M; Aggarwal, Rajesh K; Clesham, Gerald J; Gamma, Reto A; Kelly, Paul A; Tang, Kare H; Davies, John R; Keeble, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a recognised complication during primary PCI that affects short and long term prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of point-of-care (POC) pre-PPCI creatinine and eGFR testing in STEMI patients. 160 STEMI patients (STATCREAT group) with pre-procedure POC testing of Cr and eGFR were compared with 294 consecutive retrospective STEMI patients (control group). Patients were further divided into subjects with or without pre-existing CKD. The incidence of CI-AKI in the whole population was 14.5% and not different between the two overall groups. For patients with pre-procedure CKD, contrast dose was significantly reduced in the STATCREAT group (124.6ml vs. 152.3ml, p=0.015). The incidence of CI-AKI was 5.9% (n=2) in the STATCREAT group compared with 17.9% (n=10) in the control group (p=0.12). There was no difference in the number of lesions treated (1.118 vs. 1.196, p=0.643) or stents used (1.176 vs. 1.250, p=0.78). For non-CKD patients, there was no significant difference in contrast dose (172.4ml vs. 158.4ml, p=0.067), CI-AKI incidence (16.7% vs. 13.4%, p=0.4), treated lesions (1.167 vs. 1.164, p=1.0) or stents used (1.214 vs. 1.168, p=0.611) between the two groups. Pre-PPCI point-of-care renal function testing did not reduce the incidence of CI-AKI in the overall group of STEMI patients. In patients with CKD, contrast dose was significantly reduced, but a numerical reduction in CI-AKI was not found to be statistically significant. No significant differences were found in the non-CKD group. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-validation of an in vitro skin irritation test for medical devices using the reconstructed human tissue model EpiDerm™.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandarova, Helena; Willoughby, Jamin A; De Jong, Wim H; Letasiova, Silvia; Milasova, Tatiana; Bachelor, Michael A; Breyfogle, Bridget; Handa, Yuki; De la Fonteyne, Liset; Coleman, Kelly P

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of dermal irritation is an essential component of the safety evaluation of medical devices. Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have replaced rabbit skin irritation testing for neat chemicals and their mixtures (OECD Test Guideline 439). However, this guideline cannot be directly

  15. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  16. Does Instruction Affect the Underlying Dimensionality of a Kinesiology Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruczko, Nikolaus; Frank, Eva; Perkins, Kyle

    Does effective instruction, which changes students' knowledge and possibly alters their cognitive functions, also affect the dimensionality of an achievement test? This question was examined by the parameterization of kinesiology test items (n = 42) with a Rasch dichotomous model, followed by an investigation of dimensionality in a pre- and post-test quasi-experimental study design. College students (n = 108) provided responses to kinesiology achievement test items. Then the stability of item difficulties, gender differences, and the interaction of item content categories with dimensionality were examined. In addition, a PCA/t-test protocol was implemented to examine dimensionality threats from the item residuals. Internal construct validity was investigated by regressing item content components on calibrated item difficulties. Measurement model item residuals were also investigated with statistical decomposition methods. In general, the results showed significant student achievement between pre and post testing, and dimensionality disturbances were relatively minor. The amount of unexpected item "shift" in an un-equated measurement dimension between pre and post testing was less than ten percent of the total items and largely concentrated among several unrelated items. An unexpected finding was a residual cluster consisting of several items testing related technical content. Complicating interpretation, these items tended to appear near the end of the test, which implicates test position as a threat to measurement equivalence. In general, the results across several methods did not tend to identify common threats and instead pointed to multiple sources of threats with varying degree of prominence. These results suggest conventional approaches to measurement equivalence that emphasize expedient overall procedures such as DIF, IRT, and factor analysis are probably capturing isolated sources of variability. Their implementation probably improves measurement

  17. Interactions in Zircaloy/UO2 fuel rod bundles with Inconel spacers at temperatures above 1200deg C (posttest results of severe fuel damage experiments CORA-2 and CORA-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Schanz, G.; Sepold, L.

    1990-09-01

    In the CORA experiments test bundles of usually 16 electrically heated fuel rod simulators and nine unheated rods are subjected to temperature transients of a slow heatup rate in a steam environment. Thus, an accident sequence is simulated, which may develop from a small-break loss-of-coolant accident of an LWR. An aim of CORA-2, as a first test of its kind, was also to gain experience in the test conduct and posttest handling of UO 2 specimens. CORA-3 was performed as a high-temperature test. The transient phases of CORA-2 and CORA-3 were initiated with a temperature ramp rate of 1 K/s. The temperature escalation due to the exothermal zircaloy(Zry)-steam reaction started at about 1000deg C, leading the bundles to maximum temperatures of 2000deg C and 2400deg C for tests CORA-2 and CORA-3, respectively. The test bundles resulted in severe oxidation and partial melting of the cladding, fuel dissolution by Zry/UO 2 interaction, complete Inconel spacer destruction, and relocation of melts and fragments to lower elevations in the bundle, where extended blockages have formed. In both tests the fuel rod destruction set in together with the formation of initial melts from the Inconel/Zry interaction. The lower Zry spacer acted as a catcher for relocated material. In test CORA-2 the UO 2 pellets partially disintegrated into fine particles. This powdering occurred during cooldown. There was no physical disintegration of fuel in test CORA-3. (orig./MM) [de

  18. The impact of a pre-loaded multi-ingredient performance supplement on muscle soreness and performance following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Ward, Emery G; Bach, Christopher W; Arciero, Paul J; McKune, Andrew J; Panton, Lynn B

    2015-01-01

    The effects of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) on perceived soreness, strength, flexibility and vertical jump performance following eccentric exercise are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MIPS (NO-Shotgun®) pre-loaded 4 weeks prior to a single bout of downhill running (DHR) on muscle soreness and performance. Trained male runners (n = 20) were stratified by VO2max, strength, and lean mass into two groups; MIPS (n = 10) ingested one serving daily of NO-Shotgun® for 28 days and 30 min prior to all post-testing visits, Control (CON; n = 10) consumed an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo in an identical manner as MIPS. Perceived soreness and performance measurements (strength, flexibility, and jump height) were tested on 6 occasions; 28 days prior to DHR, immediately before DHR (PRE), immediately post (POST) DHR, 24, 48, and 72 hr post-DHR. Perceived soreness significantly increased (p soreness, muscle damage, strength, flexibility, or jump performance compared to an isocaloric placebo in trained male runners following a single bout of DHR.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1337-96 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) dark environment until analysis can be performed). For petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel... to the weighing chamber for post-test conditioning. (27) The CVS and the engine may be turned off, if...

  20. Art Instruction and the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test in Fifth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carolyn J.; Velicer, Wayne F.

    1977-01-01

    The experiment assessed the effect of ordinary school art instruction in human figure drawing on scores of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test. Subjects consisted of 44 fifth-grade students. No differences were found in the control group between pretest and posttests. The treatment group showed significant gains on both posttests. (Author)

  1. Blind pre-analysis of the main building complex WWER-1000 Kozloduy. Comparison of analytical and experimental results obtained by explosive testing (task 8a of workplan 96/97)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzik, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with the 96/97 workplan of the Research Programme on 'Benchmark Studies for Seismic Analysis and Testing of WWER-Type Nuclear Power Plants', blind pre analyses were prepared for the main building complex of the WWER-1000 based on given excitations derived from explosive tests. The investigations were performed by several institutions based on various mathematical models and procedures for consideration of soil-structure interaction effects, but on the same explosive test input data recently obtained. The methods of calculation and software tools used will also be different. The aim of this investigation is to validate different idealization concepts (mathematical models for the idealization of the structures and the soil) as well as investigation procedures (time domain and frequency domain analysis) and finally the software tools by comparing structural response results (time histories and response spectra). This report contains the results of the blind pre analysis performed by Siemens using an equivalent beam model of the main building of the WWER 1000. The calculations were performed by means of a frequency domain calculation

  2. Post-test simulation and analysis of the second full scale CHAN 28-element experiment (validations of CHAN-II (MOD 6) against experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayoumi, M.H.; Muir, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental program, the CHAN Thermal Chemical Experimental Program, has been setup at WNRE under COG/CANDEV to assess and verify the physical and mathematical models of the CHAN codes. The program has been progressing from studying separate effects in single-element experiments to a full integrated mode in a CANDU 28-element bundle geometry. The CHAN-II series codes are used in the licensing analysis of CANDU reactors. The basic code provides an efficient tool to predict the thermal response of a fuel channel during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) with and without a loss of emergency coolant injection (LOECI) in which the transport of heat by convection is greatly reduced. The code models the progression of the event including fuel channel geometry deformation due to severe overheating. It is the main objective of this paper to discuss further verification of the CHAN-II (MOD 6) computer code against the second full scale 28-element experiment performed at WNRE under COG/CANDEV, designed to represent a Pickering type bundle geometry. The main models and assumptions used in the code will be briefly described. The objective of the experiments is to provide data for the assessment of the physical and mathematical models of the CHAN codes and produce data for code verification under integrated conditions with significant hydrogen production and flow rates similar to the LOCA/LOECI scenario. The issue of whether the Zr/steam reaction is sustainable in a full bundle geometry at elevated temperatures is also examined. A comparison between the predictions of CHAN-II (MOD 6) and the experimental results is discussed. (author).12 refs., 17 figs

  3. Experimental study on the properties of drum-packed, cement solidified waste package of pre and after sea dumping test of sea depth 30m and 100m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Yasuro; Abe, Hirotoshi; Hattori, Seiichi

    1976-01-01

    Japan Marine Science and Technology Center has been tackling with the development of the monitoring system to confirm the soundness of drum-packed, cement-solidified low level radioactive waste (the package) during falling and after reaching at sea bed when it is dumped into sea. The test was carried out at Sagami Bay of 30 m and 100 m sea depth using non-radioactive packages. The observation of the falling behaviour of packages in sea was carried out by taking photographs of the motion of packages with an underwater 16 mm movie camera and an underwater industrial TV (ITV), and the observation of the soundness and the area of packages scattered on sea bed was carried out with an underwater ITV and an underwater 70 mm snap camera which were set up on the frame. The proportion of cement-solidified waste was decided so that the uni-axial compressive strength of the cement-solidified waste satisfies the condition of ''The tentative guideline''. Prior to tests at sea, hydrostatic pressure test of packages are carried out on land. After that, core specimens were sampled to obtain the uniaxial compressive strength from packages and were tested. After sea dumping tests, 6 packages were recovered from sea bed, and the soundness were tested. As the results, the deformation and damage of drums and cement solidified waste packages did not occur at all. (Kako, I.)

  4. Ultrasonic testing of pre-turned contours for large components made of ductile iron; Ultraschallpruefung an Vordrehkonturen fuer grosse Bauteile aus Gusseisen mit Kugelgraphit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitte, Till; Chichkov, Nikolai; Nemitz, Oliver; Orth, Thomas [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Hocks, Heinrich Jr.; Rusche, Sascha; Opalla, Dirk; Frank, Joerg [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the ultrasonic testing of large, thick-walled components made of ductile iron partial acoustic paths of several meters are needed. Considered here are cylindrical components such as the body of CASTOR containers with diameters 2-3 m, a height of up to 6 m and a wall thickness of 500 mm. So far, an automated technique for this is not available, therefore such components are checked in a complex and lengthy process by manual ultrasonic testing. The development and design of the testing by means of simulations and the realization as a mobile testing device are topics of this paper. Measurements on a reference body with test reflectors in different depths are presented and discussed. [German] Bei der Ultraschall-Pruefung von grossen, dickwandigen Bauteilen aus Gusseisen mit Kugelgraphit werden teilweise Schallwege von mehreren Metern noetig. Betrachtet werden hier zylinderfoermige Bauteile, wie die Koerper von CASTOR-Behaeltern, mit Durchmessern zwischen 2 und 3 m, einer Hoehe von bis zu 6 m und Wanddicken von ca. 500 mm. Bisher ist eine automatisierte Technik hierfuer nicht verfuegbar, daher werden derartige Bauteile in einem aufwaendigen und langwierigen Prozess mittels manueller Schallung geprueft. Zur Erhoehung der Nachweissicherheit und zur Steigerung der Effizienz im Pruefablauf sollen nun senkrecht zur Achse des zylinderfoermigen Bauteils liegende unzulaessige Anzeigen im gesamten Mantelvolumen durch eine teilautomatisierte Pruefung ausgeschlossen werden. Die Entwicklung und Auslegung der Prueftechnik mittels Simulationen und die Realisierung als mobile Pruefvorrichtung sind Themen dieses Beitrags. Messungen an einem Referenzkoerper mit Testreflektoren in verschiedenen Tiefen werden vorgestellt und diskutiert.

  5. Non-clinical and Pre-clinical Testing to Demonstrate Safety of the Barostim Neo Electrode for Activation of Carotid Baroreceptors in Chronic Human Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Seth J; Hara, Seth A; Ross, Erika K; Nicolai, Evan N; Pignato, Paul A; Cates, Adam W; Ludwig, Kip A

    2017-01-01

    The Barostim neo™ electrode was developed by CVRx, Inc.to deliver baroreflex activation therapy (BAT)™ to treat hypertension and heart failure. The neo electrode concept was designed to deliver electrical stimulation to the baroreceptors within the carotid sinus bulb, while minimizing invasiveness of the implant procedure. This device is currently CE marked in Europe, and in a Pivotal (akin to Phase III) Trial in the United States. Here we present the in vitro and in vivo safety testing that was completed in order to obtain necessary regulatory approval prior to conducting human studies in Europe, as well as an FDA Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) to conduct a Pivotal Trial in the United States. Stimulated electrodes (10 mA, 500 μs, 100 Hz) were compared to unstimulated electrodes using optical microscopy and several electrochemical techniques over the course of 27 weeks. Electrode dissolution was evaluated by analyzing trace metal content of solutions in which electrodes were stimulated. Lastly, safety testing under Good Laboratory Practice guidelines was conducted in an ovine animal model over a 12 and 24 week time period, with results processed and evaluated by an independent histopathologist. Long-term stimulation testing indicated that the neo electrode with a sputtered iridium oxide coating can be stimulated at maximal levels for the lifetime of the implant without clinically significant dissolution of platinum or iridium, and without increasing the potential at the electrode interface to cause hydrolysis or significant tissue damage. Histological examination of tissue that was adjacent to the neo electrodes indicated no clinically significant signs of increased inflammation and no arterial stenosis as a result of 6 months of continuous stimulation. The work presented here involved rigorous characterization and evaluation testing of the neo electrode, which was used to support its safety for chronic implantation. The testing strategies discussed

  6. EURISOL-DS METEX: Post-processing of the experimental data: Test matrix, Pre-calculations, Data Recording and Mining, Statistical and Advance Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    R. Milenkovic and S. DemetjevsE. Manfrin, F. Barbagallo, S. Joray, J. Patorski, F. Groeschel

    At its first stage, the hydraulic and structural test of the EURISOL target mock-up, named METEX1 (MErcury Target EXperiment 1), accompanied by extended thermal-hydraulic and structural computational studies, have been carefully planned and prepared at PSI (PaulScherrer Institut). The experiment will be performed by PSI on the adopted IPUL-loop in June, 2008 at IPUL, Riga, Latvia.The main objective of this document is to give a brief overview of the following: the test matrixaccompanied by computational results, the procedures and methods, which are to be used fordata acquisition, signal post-processing and validation of the computational methods.

  7. Pre-selection tests on geophysical and geochemical exploration methods for in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposit in Erlian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shouben; Tan Chenglong; Jiang Yongyi; Wu Duanyang

    1997-01-01

    The authors introduce the application tests and their results on the Nuheting deposit using non-conventional geophysical and geochemical methods. Through effective analysis on the screened methods, a method combination for the exploration of the in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposit in Erlian Basin has been presented

  8. Attitudes and compliance of clinical management after genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer among high-risk Southern Chinese females with breast cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Ava; Chu, Annie Tsz-Wai; Wu, Christine Teen-Sum; Tse, Desiree Man-Sik

    2014-09-01

    Western studies have shown that the uptake rates of surveillance and prophylaxis may vary among BRCA mutation carriers between ethnicities. The present study is the first to investigate the behavioural impact and subjective attitudes in Southern Chinese high-risk families who had undergone BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing up to 2.5 years post-testing. Individuals who had such genetic testing and have consented to participate in the prospective database of Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry were recruited and surveyed by a face-to-face or telephone interview. Sociodemographic information, genetic test results, pre- and post-testing surveillance, medical regimes, and attitudes towards the choice of clinical management were obtained by interviews and retrieval of medical records using this prospective database. 69 females with breast cancer history were recruited into the study. Twenty-nine female carriers (15 BRCA1 mutated gene-carriers and 14 BRCA2 mutated gene-carriers) and 40 non-carriers of a BRCA 1/2 mutations were interviewed. The uptake rate of high risk breast screening i.e. clinical breast examination, mammography, and breast MRI is significantly higher among female carriers (48.3 %) after knowing genetic testing results than before (p resort and would use traditional Chinese medicine in cancer risk management.

  9. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study applied a reading comprehension pre-test and post-test design, as well as three-minute reading speed preand post-tests. Using SPSS statistical analysis, three paired-samples t-tests were administered and the progress from the reading speed pre-test to the post-test was found to be significant. Study results ...

  10. Evaluation of a multiple-encounter in situ simulation for orientation of staff to a new paediatric emergency service: a single-group pretest/post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Michelle; Kinnear, Frances B; Fulbrook, Paul

    2017-10-01

    To assess the utility of a multiple-encounter in-situ (MEIS) simulation as an orientation tool for multidisciplinary staff prior to opening a new paediatric emergency service. A single-group pretest/post-test study was conducted. During the MEIS simulation, multidisciplinary staff with participant or observer roles managed eight children (mannequins) who attended triage with their parent/guardians (clinical facilitators) for a range of emergency presentations (structured scenarios designed to represent the expected range of presentations plus test various clinical pathways/systems). Participants were debriefed to explore clinical, systems and crisis-resource management issues. Participants also completed a pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaire comprising statements about role confidence and orientation adequacy. Pre-test and post-test results were analysed using t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Eighty-nine staff participated in the MEIS simulation, with the majority completing the pre-simulation and post-simulation questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in post-intervention versus pre-intervention Likert scores for role confidence and orientation adequacy (p=0.001 and simulation was of utility in orientation of staff, at least with respect to self-reported role confidence and orientation adequacy. Its effectiveness in practice or compared with other orientation techniques was not assessed, but it did identify several flaws in planned systems allowing remediation prior to opening.

  11. Geology of drill hole UE25p No. 1: A test hole into pre-Tertiary rocks near Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.D.; Waddell, S.J.; Vick, G.S.; Stock, J.M.; Monsen, S.A.; Harris, A.G.; Cork, B.W.; Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been proposed as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level nuclear waste. An exploratory drill hole designated UE25p No. 1 was drilled 3 km east of the proposed repository site to investigate the geology and hydrology of the rocks that underlie the Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rock sequence forming Yucca Mountain. Silurian dolomite assigned to the Roberts Mountain and Lone Mountain Formations was intersected below the Tertiary section between a depth of approximately 1244 m (4080 ft) and the bottom of the drill hole at 1807 m (5923 ft). These formations are part of an important regional carbonate aquifer in the deep ground-water system. Tertiary units deeper than 1139 m (3733 ft) in drill hole UE25p No. 1 are stratigraphically older than any units previously penetrated by drill holes at Yucca Mountain. These units are, in ascending order, the tuff of Yucca Flat, an unnamed calcified ash-flow tuff, and a sequence of clastic deposits. The upper part of the Tertiary sequence in drill hole UE25p No. 1 is similar to that found in other drill holes at Yucca Mountain. The Tertiary sequence is in fault contact with the Silurian rocks. This fault between Tertiary and Paleozoic rocks may correlate with the Fran Ridge fault, a steeply westward-dipping fault exposed approximately 0.5 km east of the drill hole. Another fault intersects UE25p No. 1 at 873 m (2863 ft), but its surface trace is concealed beneath the valley west of the Fran Ridge fault. The Paintbrush Canyon fault, the trace of which passes less than 100 m (330 ft) east of the drilling site, intersects drill hole UE25p No. 1 at a depth of approximately 78 m (255 ft). The drill hole apparently intersected the west flank of a structural high of pre-Tertiary rocks, near the eastern edge of the Crater Flat structural depression

  12. Validation of a Micrometric remotely controlled pre-alignment system for the CLIC Linear Collider using a test setup (Mock-Up) with 5 degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, H; Griffet, S; Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R; Sosin, M

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC main beam quadrupoles need to be prealigned within 17 um rms with respect to a straight reference line along a sliding window of 200 m. A readjustment system based on eccentric cam movers, which will provide stiffness to the support assembly, is being studied. The cam movers were qualified on a 1 degree of freedom (DOF) test setup, where a repeatability of adjustment below 1um was measured along their whole range. This paper presents the 5 DOF mock-up, built for the validation of the eccentric cam movers, as well as the first results of tests carried out: resolution of displacement along the whole range, measurements of the support eigenfrequencies.

  13. Test characteristics of high frequency ultrasound in the pre-operative assessment of margins of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambusaria-Pahlajani, Anokhi; Schmults, Chrysalyne D.; Miller, Christopher J.; Shin, Daniel; Williams, Jennifer; Kurd, Shanu K; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-invasive techniques to assess subclinical spread of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) may improve surgical precision. High frequency ultrasound (HIFU) has shown promise to evaluate the extent of NMSC. Objective To determine the accuracy of HIFU to assess the margins of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) prior to Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Methods We enrolled 100 patients with invasive SCC or BCC. Prior to the first stage of MMS, a Mohs surgeon delineated the intended surgical margin. Subsequently, a trained ultrasound technologist independently evaluated disease extent using the EPISCAN I-200 to evaluate tumor extent beyond this margin. The accuracy of HIFU was subsequently tested by comparison to pathology from frozen sections. Results The test characteristics of the ultrasound were sensitivity= 32%, specificity= 88%, positive predictive value= 47%, and negative predictive value=79%. Subgroup analyses demonstrated improved test characteristics for tumors larger than the median (area >1.74 cm2). Qualitative analyses showed that HIFU was less likely to identify extension from tumors with subtle areas of extension, such as small foci of dermal invasion from infiltrative SCC and micronodular BCC. Conclusions HIFU requires additional refinements to improve the preoperative determination of tumor extent prior to surgical treatment of NMSC. PMID:19018815

  14. Gentilly-2 NPP - Concrete aging effects on long term pre-stress losses and propagation of concrete cracking due to pressure testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocevski, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study intended to evaluate the post-tension long term losses and propagation of cracks in the envelope of Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant reactor building. The numerical simulation of concrete, that takes into account elastic as well as inelastic strains due to loading, shrinkage strains due to drying or cooling and inelastic strains from alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) related swelling, is explained. The simultaneous contribution of AAR, shrinkage and creep, are simulated using an enhanced elastic-plastic constitutive relation. The nonlinear relations are validated by comparing the numerically calculated strains with strain measurements from the extensometers placed in the concrete during the construction of the envelope. The post-tension losses/gains are evaluated for the vertical as well as horizontal cables. Also included is the result of pull-out test conducted on sample beam cast at the time of the reactor building construction with the same concrete mix, post-tension cable and force. Structural behaviour of the beam is simulated over the same period of time as the reactor building envelope. The test results are used also to calibrate the numerical model. The paper also includes discussion of the results obtained from the simulation of a standard internal high pressure test (145 kPa). The behavior of the reactor building envelope, prior to applied pressure, during the test and for the period of several months after the testing was simulated using an advanced numerical model and the results (strains) were compared with measured values. It was found that this method may be used as an approximate procedure for evaluation of post-tension losses/gains and assessment of propagation of cracking visible on the outside surfaces of the confinement building. In addition, a discussion of the negative effect of high post-tension on the air tightness of the confinement building of Gentilly-2. The comparison is made between the post

  15. 'Pre-endoscopy point of care test (Simtomax- IgA/IgG-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide) for coeliac disease in iron deficiency anaemia: diagnostic accuracy and a cost saving economic model'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michelle Shui Yee; Mooney, Peter; White, William; Appleby, Victoria; Moreea, Sulleman; Haythem, Ismail; Elias, Joshua; Bundhoo, Kiran; Corbett, Gareth; Wong, Liam; Tsai, Her Hsin; Cross, Simon; Hebden, John; Hoque, Sami; Sanders, David

    2016-09-15

    International guidelines recommend coeliac serology in iron deficiency anaemia, and duodenal biopsy for those tested positive to detect coeliac disease. However, pre-endoscopy serology is often unavailable, thus committing endoscopists to take routine duodenal biopsies. Some endoscopists consider duodenal biopsy mandatory in anaemia to exclude other pathologies. We hypothesise that using a point of care test at endoscopy could fill this gap, by providing rapid results to target anaemic patients who require biopsies, and save costs by biopsy avoidance. We therefore assessed three key aspects to this hypothesis: 1) the availability of pre-endoscopy serology in anaemia; 2) the sensitivities and cost effectiveness of pre-endoscopy coeliac screening with Simtomax in anaemia; 3) whether other anaemia-related pathologies could be missed by this targeted-biopsy approach. Group 1: pre-endoscopy serology availability was retrospectively analysed in a multicentre cohort of 934 anaemic patients at 4 UK hospitals. Group 2: the sensitivities of Simtomax, endomysial and tissue-transglutaminase antibodies were compared in 133 prospectively recruited patients with iron deficiency anaemia attending for a gastroscopy. The sensitivities were measured against duodenal histology as the reference standard in all patients. The cost effectiveness of Simtomax was calculated based on the number of biopsies that could have been avoided compared to an all-biopsy approach. Group 3: the duodenal histology of 153 patients presenting to a separate iron deficiency anaemia clinic were retrospectively reviewed. In group 1, serology was available in 361 (33.8 %) patients. In group 2, the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) were 100 % and 100 % for Simtomax, 96.2 % and 98.9 % for IgA-TTG, and 84.6 % and 96.4 % for EMA respectively. In group 3, the duodenal histology found no causes for anaemia other than coeliac disease. Simtomax had excellent diagnostic accuracy in iron deficiency

  16. DISCOVERY LEARNING APPROACH IN IMPROVING ARABIC ABILITY OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS IN RELIGIOUS TRAINING CENTRE OF MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrariah Amin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Discovery Learning can be defined as the learning that takes place when the student is not presented with subject matter in the final form, rather he/she is required to find out the concepts by him/her self. This research aims to describe and analyze discovery learning method to strategically improve the comprehension and reasoning ability of Arabic pre-service teachers, which can motivate and enhance their creativity in order to enrich their insight about Arabic teaching as well, especially those who are in training centre. This research was undertaken in two classes of Makassar Religious Training Centre during June-August 2016. The design of this research is experiment with discovery learning approach with randomized pretest-posttest control group design. It was done randomly when to choosing the participants to be experiment and control group. Based on hypothesis testing, discovery learning has positive effects on the pre-service teachers’ Arabic ability in training centre to understand and analyze Arabic. Therefore, based on two-variance analysis; control and experiment group, there is difference on teachers’ comprehension and reasoning ability in learning Arabic between experiment and control group by using discovery learning and conventional method.

  17. Impact of a personal CYP2D6 testing workshop on physician assistant student attitudes toward pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Travis J; LeLacheur, Susan; Ward, Caitlin; Lee, Norman H; Callier, Shawneequa; Harralson, Arthur F

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the impact of personal CYP2D6 testing on physician assistant student competency in, and attitudes toward, pharmacogenetics (PGx). Buccal samples were genotyped for CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Results were discussed during a 3-h PGx workshop. PGx knowledge was assessed by pre- and post-tests. Focus groups assessed the impact of the workshop on attitudes toward the clinical utility of PGx. Both student knowledge of PGx, and its perceived clinical utility, increased immediately following the workshop. However, exposure to PGx on clinical rotations following the workshop seemed to influence student attitudes toward PGx utility. Personal CYP2D6 testing improves both knowledge and comfort with PGx. Continued exposure to PGx concepts is important for transfer of learning.

  18. The 10x5 metre shuttle run test may be a good predictor of aerobic performance in pre-pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christina; Petersen, Mette; Froberg, Karsten

    as a predictor of aerobic performance, expressed as VO2max, is still to be fully determined. Even though the association between the SSRT and the AT is highly significant, the AT test is only an indirect measure of aerobic performance. This might affect the strength of the validity between the performance...... in the SSRT and the true expression of aerobic performance. However the association between the running distance in the AT and VO2max measured on the treadmill has previously shown a correlation of r=0.68 for children aged 9.9-11.0 years old (4). The SSRT remains to be validated against anaerobic measurements...... from “The Childhood Health Activity and Motor Performance School Study”, a 3-year controlled intervention study in public schools in the municipality of Svendborg, Denmark. Ten Schools with in all 1080 primary school children participated in this study, 515 males and 565 females, 8.4 years of age (±1...

  19. Are morphometrics sufficient for estimating age of pre-fledging birds in the field? A test using common terns (Sterna hirundo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy N Wails

    Full Text Available Age is a key component of fitness, affecting survival and reproductive capacities. Where it is not possible to study known individuals from birth, morphometrics (predominantly patterns of plumage development for birds are most often used to estimate age. Although criteria for age estimations exist for many species, the degree to which these criteria improve the precision of estimates remains to be tested, restricting their widespread acceptance. We develop a photographic tool for estimating ages of Common Tern (Sterna hirundo chicks and test it using 100 human observers of varying prior experience across four breeding colonies (three North American sites and one European site and under controlled laboratory conditions. We followed the design approach of other morphometric tools, expanding it to create a user-friendly guide (divided into six age groupings. The majority (86% of observers improved in chick-aging accuracy when using the tool by an average of 20.1% (±1.4 SE and correctly estimated 60.3% (±1.4 of chick ages. This was similar to the intrinsic aging ability of our best field observer (63.3%. Observers with limited experience showed the greatest increases in chick-aging accuracy over experienced observers who likely had established a method for estimating chick ages prior to using the tool. Even the best observers only correctly estimated ages of chicks 62.9% (±2.8 of the time in the field and 84.0% (±2.9 of the time in the lab when using the tool and typically underestimated ages. This indicates that developmental variation between individual chicks can prevent completely reliable age estimates and corroborates the few existing data that suggest that morphometric criteria fail to achieve robust levels of accuracy and may introduce error into studies that rely on them. We conclude that novel approaches for estimating age, not only morphometric criteria, must be pursued.

  20. Flow regime mapping: outcome, or pre-requisite of tracer tests? (from the standpoint of deep-georeservoir characterization, development, operation, and monitoring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Tracer tests in deep-subsurface flow usually yield fluid residence time distributions (RTD) for a sparse selection of fluid spiking and fluid sampling points. Such RTD can be explained more or less adequately assuming certain flow and transport boundary conditions, and a fractured-porous void-space structure in which advective-dispersive transport and possibly partitioning/reactions at interfaces take place. Yet RTD do not by themselves enable to tell 'where' a flow process is taking place. So to say, "to trace is not to track", and 'tracking' would require some complementary kind of mapping, imaging, or monitoring - additionally to the metering of tracer fluxes at the few accessible 'places' in the georeservoir (i. e., deep boreholes) at which fluids can be sampled. We do not feel the need for such 'tracking' capability, when tracer-based RTD are used to predict the thermal lifetime of, say, a geothermal well doublet. However, the ability to 'locate' flow and transport processes (in both space and time) may become critical when facing environmental impacts of deep-georeservoir operation, and liabilities associated with these. On the other hand, it can also be a primary task in reservoir diagnostics and engineering, for instance when facing the question of whether and where to re-frac (in unconventional reservoir development). The poster describes three paradigm settings where a complementary, non-fluid-borne mapping of flow regimes (or at least of flow regime contrasts) appears as a very sensible, if not indispensable counterpart to tracer-based RTD for predicting (or accounting for) deep-georeservoir behavior. These are illustrated with (a) inter-well tracings of geothermally exploited Malm aquifers beneath the Munich metropolitan area, in analogy to past work conducted by Seiler et al. (1989) in the Franconian Alb; (b) single-well spikings of petrothermal or aquifer-based EGS in the N-German sedimentary basin, with two major issues left unresolved by Ghergut et

  1. Lentivector Iterations and Pre-Clinical Scale-Up/Toxicity Testing: Targeting Mobilized CD34+ Cells for Correction of Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju; Khan, Aneal; Au, Bryan C; Barber, Dwayne L; López-Vásquez, Lucía; Prokopishyn, Nicole L; Boutin, Michel; Rothe, Michael; Rip, Jack W; Abaoui, Mona; Nagree, Murtaza S; Dworski, Shaalee; Schambach, Axel; Keating, Armand; West, Michael L; Klassen, John; Turner, Patricia V; Sirrs, Sandra; Rupar, C Anthony; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Foley, Ronan; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-16

    Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder (LSD). We designed multiple recombinant lentivirus vectors (LVs) and tested their ability to engineer expression of human α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) in transduced Fabry patient CD34 + hematopoietic cells. We further investigated the safety and efficacy of a clinically directed vector, LV/AGA, in both ex vivo cell culture studies and animal models. Fabry mice transplanted with LV/AGA-transduced hematopoietic cells demonstrated α-gal A activity increases and lipid reductions in multiple tissues at 6 months after transplantation. Next we found that LV/AGA-transduced Fabry patient CD34 + hematopoietic cells produced even higher levels of α-gal A activity than normal CD34 + hematopoietic cells. We successfully transduced Fabry patient CD34 + hematopoietic cells with "near-clinical grade" LV/AGA in small-scale cultures and then validated a clinically directed scale-up transduction process in a GMP-compliant cell processing facility. LV-transduced Fabry patient CD34 + hematopoietic cells were subsequently infused into NOD/SCID/Fabry (NSF) mice; α-gal A activity corrections and lipid reductions were observed in several tissues 12 weeks after the xenotransplantation. Additional toxicology studies employing NSF mice xenotransplanted with the therapeutic cell product demonstrated minimal untoward effects. These data supported our successful clinical trial application (CTA) to Health Canada and opening of a "first-in-the-world" gene therapy trial for Fabry disease.

  2. [Psychometric quality of the "Eating Attitudes Test" (German version EAT-26D) for measuring disordered eating in pre-adolescents and proposal for a 13-item short version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Uwe; Hentrich, Isabel; Wick, Katharina; Bormann, Bianca; Brix, Christina; Sowa, Melanie; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauß, Bernhard

    2012-06-01

    To detect risky eating behavior questionnaires should be economic but at the same time they should fulfill the psychometric quality criteria. Available instruments are too long for the target group (e. g. EDE-Q, 28 items), restricted on primary symptoms (short version of EDI, 23 items) and with minor reliability (e. g. SCOFF and WC-Scale, 5 items each). Using the German version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26D, which comprises 26 items) in a community sample of 1 331 11-13 year old girls and 906 boys from Thuringia, Germany, we measured a internal consistency of Cronbachs' Alpha=0.85 for girls and 0.78 for boys. In a principal factor analysis, we could replicate the 6-factorial structure of previous studies. A confirmatory factor analysis verified the suitability of the EAT-26D for both, girls and boys. Reducing the EAT-26D on the 3 core-factors leads to an economic 13 item short version with an internal consistency of 0.87 for girls and 0.80 for boys. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D' ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

  4. Understanding interrelationships among HIV-related stigma, concern about HIV infection, and intent to disclose HIV serostatus: a pretest-posttest study in a rural area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Hu, Zhi; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Naar-King, Sylvie; Yang, Hongmei

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the interrelationships among HIV-related public and felt stigma, worry of HIV infection, HIV/AIDS knowledge and intention to disclose HIV testing results in a rural area of China, where HIV spread among former commercial blood donors. A one-group pretest-posttest study was conducted among 605 marriage license applicants. The following relationships showed statistical significance in path analysis: (1) HIV/AIDS knowledge --> worry [beta (Standardized coefficient) = -0.39]; (2) worry --> public stigma (beta = 0.27); (3) public stigma --> felt stigma (beta = 0.22); and (4) felt stigma --> intention to disclosure (beta = -0.20). Separate path analyses for males and females generated similar association patterns. HIV counseling reduced perceived worry but exerted little impact on HIV-related stigma and the intention. The pathway from a lack of HIV/AIDS knowledge to increased stigma and to decreased intention to disclose one's serostatus is particularly policy relevant as decreased intention to disclosure may be related to continuing practice of HIV risk behaviors. The findings demonstrate interventions aiming at the reduction of stigma should be targeted at both the individual and community levels.

  5. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  6. Lentivector Iterations and Pre-Clinical Scale-Up/Toxicity Testing: Targeting Mobilized CD34+ Cells for Correction of Fabry Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder (LSD. We designed multiple recombinant lentivirus vectors (LVs and tested their ability to engineer expression of human α-galactosidase A (α-gal A in transduced Fabry patient CD34+ hematopoietic cells. We further investigated the safety and efficacy of a clinically directed vector, LV/AGA, in both ex vivo cell culture studies and animal models. Fabry mice transplanted with LV/AGA-transduced hematopoietic cells demonstrated α-gal A activity increases and lipid reductions in multiple tissues at 6 months after transplantation. Next we found that LV/AGA-transduced Fabry patient CD34+ hematopoietic cells produced even higher levels of α-gal A activity than normal CD34+ hematopoietic cells. We successfully transduced Fabry patient CD34+ hematopoietic cells with “near-clinical grade” LV/AGA in small-scale cultures and then validated a clinically directed scale-up transduction process in a GMP-compliant cell processing facility. LV-transduced Fabry patient CD34+ hematopoietic cells were subsequently infused into NOD/SCID/Fabry (NSF mice; α-gal A activity corrections and lipid reductions were observed in several tissues 12 weeks after the xenotransplantation. Additional toxicology studies employing NSF mice xenotransplanted with the therapeutic cell product demonstrated minimal untoward effects. These data supported our successful clinical trial application (CTA to Health Canada and opening of a “first-in-the-world” gene therapy trial for Fabry disease.

  7. Pre-analytical effects of pneumatic tube system transport on routine haematology and coagulation tests, global coagulation assays and platelet function assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quellec, Sandra; Paris, Mickaël; Nougier, Christophe; Sobas, Frédéric; Rugeri, Lucia; Girard, Sandrine; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Négrier, Claude; Dargaud, Yesim

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube system (PTS) in hospitals is commonly used for the transport of blood samples to clinical laboratories, as it is rapid and cost-effective. The aim was to compare the effects on haematology samples of a newly acquired ~2km-long PTS that links 2 hospitals with usual transport (non-pneumatic tube system, NPTS). Complete blood cell count, routine coagulation assays, platelet function tests (PFT) with light-transmission aggregometry and global coagulation assays including ROTEM® and thrombin generation assay (TGA) were performed on blood samples from 30 healthy volunteers and 9 healthy volunteers who agreed to take aspirin prior to blood sampling. The turnaround time was reduced by 31% (p<0.001) with the use of PTS. No statistically significant difference was observed for most routine haematology assays including PFT, and ROTEM® analysis. A statistically significant, but not clinically relevant, shortening of the APTT after sample transport by PTS was found (mean±SD: 30s±1.8 vs. 29.5s±2.1 for NPTS). D-dimer levels were 7.4% higher after transport through PTS but were not discordant. A statistically significant increase of thrombin generation was found in both platelet poor- and platelet rich- plasma samples after PTS transport compared to NPTS transport. PTS is suitable for the transport of samples prior to routine haematology assays including PFT, but should not be used for samples intended for thrombin generation measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validated stability indicating liquid chromatographic determination of ebastine in pharmaceuticals after pre column derivatization: Application to tablets and content uniformity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid Manal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An accurate, simple, sensitive and selective reversed phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of ebastine in its pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method depends on the complexation ability of the studied drug with Zn2+ ions. Reversed phase chromatography was conducted using an ODS C18 (150 × 4.6 mm id stainless steel column at ambient temperature with UV-detection at 260 nm. A mobile phase containing 0.025%w/v Zn2+ in a mixture of (acetonitril/methanol; 1/4 and Britton Robinson buffer (65:35, v/v adjusted to pH 4.2, has been used for the determination of ebastine at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The calibration curve was rectilinear over the concentration range of 0.3 - 6.0 μg/ml with a detection limit (LOD of 0.13 μg/ml, and quantification limit (LOQ of 0.26 μg/ml. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of ebastine in its dosage forms, the obtained results were favorably compared with those obtained by a comparison method. Furthermore, content uniformity testing of the studied pharmaceutical formulations was also conducted. The composition of the complex as well as its stability constant was also investigated. Moreover, the proposed method was found to be a stability indicating one and was utilized to investigate the kinetics of alkaline and ultraviolet induced degradation of the drug. The first-order rate constant and half life of the degradation products were calculated.

  9. Evaluating a Pre-session Exercise in a Standalone Information Literacy Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Goetz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers evaluate a homework exercise assigned before a standalone information literacy session. Students in a Master of Education program completed a worksheet using the ERIC database thesaurus. The researchers conducted pre- and posttests within a single library session to assess student learning, using a control group for comparison. The treatment group did not demonstrate better thesaurus skills than students who had regular library instruction alone, but results pointed the way to targeted improvements of pre-session learning materials. This approach could inform other information literacy homework applications such as flipping the classroom.

  10. Dish/Stirling Hybrid-Receiver Sub-Scale Tests and Full-Scale Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andraka, Charles; Bohn, Mark S.; Corey, John; Mehos, Mark; Moreno, James; Rawlinson, Scott

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and tested a prototype dish/Stirling hybrid-receiver combustion system. The system consists of a pre-mixed natural-gas burner heating a pin-finned sodium heat pipe. The design emphasizes simplicity, low cost, and ruggedness. Our test was on a 1/6 th -scale device, with a nominal firing rate of 18kWt, a power throughput of 13kWt, and a sodium vapor temperature of 750 ampersand deg;C. The air/fuel mixture was electrically preheated to 640 ampersand deg;C to simulate recuperation. The test rig was instrumented for temperatures, pressures, flow rates, overall leak rate, and exhaust emissions. The data verify our burner and heat-transfer models. Performance and post-test examinations validate our choice of materials and fabrication methods. Based on the 1/6 th -scale results, we are designing a till-scale hybrid receiver. This is a fully-integrated system, including burner, pin-fin primary heat exchanger, recuperator (in place of the electrical pre-heater used in the prototype system), solar absorber, and sodium heat pipe. The major challenges of the design are to avoid pre-ignition, achieve robust heat-pipe performance, and attain long life of the burner matrix, recuperator, and flue-gas seals. We have used computational fluid dynamics extensively in designing to avoid pre-ignition and for designing the heat-pipe wick, and we have used individual component tests and results of the 1/6 th -scale test to optimize for long life. In this paper, we present our design philosophy and basic details of our design. We describe the sub-scale test rig and compare test results with predictions. Finally, we outline the evolution of our full-scale design, and present its current status